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Sample records for exhibits ppargamma ligand

  1. Revealing a steroid receptor ligand as a unique PPAR[gamma] agonist

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Shengchen; Han, Ying; Shi, Yuzhe

    2012-06-28

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) regulates metabolic homeostasis and is a molecular target for anti-diabetic drugs. We report here the identification of a steroid receptor ligand, RU-486, as an unexpected PPAR{gamma} agonist, thereby uncovering a novel signaling route for this steroid drug. Similar to rosiglitazone, RU-486 modulates the expression of key PPAR{gamma} target genes and promotes adipocyte differentiation, but with a lower adipogenic activity. Structural and functional studies of receptor-ligand interactions reveal the molecular basis for a unique binding mode for RU-486 in the PPAR{gamma} ligand-binding pocket with distinctive properties and epitopes, providing the molecular mechanisms for the discrimination ofmore » RU-486 from thiazolidinediones (TZDs) drugs. Our findings together indicate that steroid compounds may represent an alternative approach for designing non-TZD PPAR{gamma} ligands in the treatment of insulin resistance.« less

  2. PPAR{gamma} ligands induce growth inhibition and apoptosis through p63 and p73 in human ovarian cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soyeon; Innovative Research Institute for Cell Therapy, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Seoul; Lee, Jae-Jung

    2011-03-18

    Research highlights: {yields} PPAR{gamma} ligands increased the rate of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation in ovarian cancer cells. {yields} PPAR{gamma} ligands induced p63 and p73 expression, but not p53. {yields} p63 and p73 leads to an increase in p21 expression and apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells with treatment PPAR{gamma} ligands. {yields} These findings suggest that PPAR{gamma} ligands suppressed growth of ovarian cancer cells through upregulation of p63 and p73. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) agonists, including thiazolidinediones (TZDs), can induce anti-proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in various cancer cell types. This study investigated the mechanism of the anticancer effectmore » of TZDs on human ovarian cancer. Six human ovarian cancer cell lines (NIH:OVCAR3, SKOV3, SNU-251, SNU-8, SNU-840, and 2774) were treated with the TZD, which induced dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth. Additionally, these cell lines exhibited various expression levels of PPAR{gamma} protein as revealed by Western blotting. Flow cytometry showed that the cell cycle was arrested at the G1 phase, as demonstrated by the appearance of a sub-G1 peak. This observation was corroborated by the finding of increased levels of Bax, p21, PARP, and cleaved caspase 3 in TGZ-treated cells. Interestingly, when we determined the effect of p53-induced growth inhibition in these three human ovarian cancer cells, we found that they either lacked p53 or contained a mutant form of p53. Furthermore, TGZ induced the expression of endogenous or exogenous p63 and p73 proteins and p63- or p73-directed short hairpin (si) RNAs inhibited the ability of TGZ to regulate expression of p21 in these cells. Thus, our results suggest that PPAR{gamma} ligands can induce growth suppression of ovarian cancer cells and mediate p63 and p73 expression, leading to enhanced growth inhibition and apoptosis. The tumor suppressive effects of PPAR{gamma

  3. Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma) in canine nasal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Paciello, O; Borzacchiello, G; Varricchio, E; Papparella, S

    2007-10-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma) is a ligand-activated transcriptional factor belonging to the steroid receptor superfamily. PPAR-gamma is expressed in multiple normal and neoplastic tissues, such as the breast, colon, lung, ovary and placenta. In addition to adipogenic and anti-inflammatory effects, PPAR-gamma activation has been shown to be anti-proliferative by its differentiation-promoting effect, suggesting that activation of PPAR-gamma may be useful in slowing or arresting the proliferation of de-differentiated tumour cells. In this study, we investigated the expression of PPAR-gamma in normal and neoplastic canine nasal epithelium. Twenty-five samples composed of five normal nasal epithelia and 20 canine nasal carcinomas, were immunohistochemically stained for PPAR-gamma. The specificity of the antibody was verified by Western Blot analysis. Confocal laser scanning microscopical investigation was also performed. In normal epithelium, the staining pattern was cytoplasmic and polarized at the cellular free edge. In carcinomas, the neoplastic cells showed mainly strong cytoplasmatic PPAR-gamma expression; moreover, perinuclear immunoreactivity was also detected and few neoplastic cells exhibited a nuclear positivity. Our results demonstrate different patterns of PPAR-gamma expression in normal canine nasal epithelium when compared with canine nasal carcinoma. The importance of this transcription factor in the pathophysiology of several different tumours has stimulated much research in this field and has opened new opportunities for the treatment of the tumours.

  4. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma is highly expressed in normal human pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Bogazzi, F; Russo, D; Locci, M T; Chifenti, B; Ultimieri, F; Raggi, F; Viacava, P; Cecchetti, D; Cosci, C; Sardella, C; Acerbi, G; Gasperi, M; Martino, E

    2005-11-01

    Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma in normal pituitary seems to be restricted to ACTH-secreting cells. The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of PPARgamma in normal human pituitary tissue and to study its localization in the pituitary secreting cells. Normal pituitary tissue samples were obtained form 11 patients with non-secreting adenoma who underwent surgical excision of the tumor. Expression of PPARgamma was evaluated by immunostaining and western blotting; localization of PPARgamma in each pituitary secreting cell lineage was evaluated by double immunofluorescence using confocal microscopy. Pituitary non-functioning adenomas served as Controls. PPARgamma was highly expressed in all pituitary samples with a (mean +/- SD) 81 +/- 6.5% of stained cells; expression of PPARgamma was confirmed by western blotting. Non-functioning pituitary adenomas had 74 +/- 11% PPARgamma positive cells. Expression of PPARy was either in cytoplasm or nuclei. In addition, treatment of GH3 cells, with a PPARgamma ligand was associated with traslocation of the receptor from cytoplasm into the nucleus. Double immunostaining revealed that every pituitary secreting cell (GH, TSH, LH, FSH, PRL and ACTH) had PPARgamma expressed. The present study demonstrated that PPARgamma is highly expressed in every normal pituitary secreting cell lineage. It can translocate into the nucleus by ligand binding; however, its role in pituitary hormone regulation remains to be elucidated.

  5. PPARgamma agonists inhibit TGF-beta-PKA signaling in glomerulosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zou, Rong; Xu, Gang; Liu, Xiao-cheng; Han, Min; Jiang, Jing-jing; Huang, Qian; He, Yong; Yao, Ying

    2010-01-01

    To study the probable mechanisms of the anti-glomerulosclerosis effects induced by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) agonists in rat intraglomerular mesangial cells (MCs). Cells were transfected with the pTAL-PPRE-tk-Luc(+) plasmid and then treated with different concentrations of PPARgamma agonist, either troglitazone or telmisartan, for the indicated times. Promega luciferase assays were subsequently used for the detection of PPARgamma activation. Protein expression levels were assessed by Western blot, and PepTag assays were used for the non-radioactive detection of protein kinase A (PKA) activity. The deposition of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and p-cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein (pCREB) were analyzed by confocal laser scanning. Both troglitazone and telmisartan remarkably inhibit the PKA activation and pCREB expression that is stimulated by TGF-beta. The PPARgamma agonists also inhibited alpha-SMA and collagen IV protein expression by blocking PKA activation. PPARgamma ligands effectively suppress the activation of MCs and the accumulation of collagen IV stimulated by TGF-beta in vitro. The renal protection provided by PPARgamma agonists is partly mediated via their blockade of TGF-beta/PKA signaling.

  6. The PPAR{gamma} coding region and its role in visceral obesity

    SciTech Connect

    Boon Yin, Khoo; Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine; Najimudin, Nazalan

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) is a ligand activated transcription factor, plays many essential roles of biological function in higher organisms. The PPAR{gamma} is mainly expressed in adipose tissue. It regulates the transcriptional activity of genes by binding with other transcription factor. The PPAR{gamma} coding region has been found to be closest to that of monkey in ours and other research groups. Thus, monkey is a more suitable animal model for future PPAR{gamma} studying, although mice and rat are frequently being used. The PPAR{gamma} is involved in regulating alterations of adipose tissue masses result from changes in mature adipocyte sizemore » and/or number through a complex interplay process called adipogenesis. However, the role of PPAR{gamma} in negatively regulating the process of adipogenesis remains unclear. This review may help we investigate the differential expression of key transcription factor in adipose tissue in response to visceral obesity-induced diet in vivo. The study may also provide valuable information to define a more appropriate physiological condition in adipogenesis which may help to prevent diseases cause by negative regulation of the transcription factors in adipose tissue.« less

  7. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma expression in human vascular smooth muscle cells: inhibition of growth, migration, and c-fos expression by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma activator troglitazone.

    PubMed

    Benson, S; Wu, J; Padmanabhan, S; Kurtz, T W; Pershadsingh, H A

    2000-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether cultured human coronary artery and aorta vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells express the nuclear transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma); whether the thiazolidinedione troglitazone, a ligand for PPARgamma, would inhibit c-fos expression by these cells; and whether troglitazone would inhibit proliferation and migration induced in these cells by mitogenic growth factors. Using immunoblotting and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques, we show that both human aorta and coronary artery VSM cell lines expressed PPARgamma protein and mRNA for both PPARgamma isoforms, PPARgamma1 and PPARgamma2. Immunocytochemical staining localized the PPARgamma protein primarily within the nucleus. Troglitazone inhibited basic fibroblast growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor-BB induced DNA synthesis in a dose-dependent manner and downregulated the growth-factor-induced expression of c-fos. Troglitazone also inhibited the migration of coronary artery VSM cells along a platelet-derived growth factor-BB concentration gradient. These findings demonstrate for the first time the expression and nuclear localization of PPARgamma in human coronary artery and aorta VSM cells. The data also suggest that the downregulation of c-fos expression, growth-factor-induced proliferation, and migration by VSM may, in part, be mediated by activation of the PPARgamma receptor.

  8. The orphan nuclear receptor DAX-1 acts as a novel transcriptional corepressor of PPAR{gamma}

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Gwang Sik; Lee, Gha Young; Nedumaran, Balachandar

    2008-05-30

    DAX-1 is an atypical nuclear receptor (NR) which functions primarily as a transcriptional corepressor of other NRs via heterodimerization. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) {gamma} is a ligand-dependent NR which performs a key function in adipogenesis. In this study, we evaluated a novel cross-talk mechanism between DAX-1 and PPAR{gamma}. Transient transfection assays demonstrated that DAX-1 inhibits the transactivity of PPAR{gamma} in a dose-dependent manner. DAX-1 directly competed with the PPAR{gamma} coactivator (PGC)-1{alpha} for binding to PPAR{gamma}. Endogenous levels of DAX-1 were significantly lower in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes as compared to preadipocytes. Using a retroviral expression system, we demonstrated that DAX-1 overexpressionmore » downregulates the expression of PPAR{gamma} target genes, resulting in an attenuation of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that DAX-1 acts as a corepressor of PPAR{gamma} and performs a potential function in the regulation of PPAR{gamma}-mediated cellular differentiation.« less

  9. A PPARgamma mutant serves as a dominant negative inhibitor of PPAR signaling and is localized in the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Berger, J; Patel, H V; Woods, J; Hayes, N S; Parent, S A; Clemas, J; Leibowitz, M D; Elbrecht, A; Rachubinski, R A; Capone, J P; Moller, D E

    2000-04-25

    The peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily that act as ligand-activated transcription factors. PPARgamma plays a critical role in regulating adipocyte differentiation and lipid metabolism. Recently, thiazolidinedione (TZD) and select non-TZD antidiabetic agents have been identified as PPARgamma agonists. To further characterize this receptor subclass, a mutant hPPARgamma lacking five carboxyl-terminal amino acids was produced (hPPARgamma2Delta500). In COS-1 cells transfected with PPAR-responsive reporter constructs, the mutant receptor could not be activated by a potent PPARgamma agonist. When cotransfected with hPPARgamma2 or hPPARalpha, hPPARgamma2Delta500 abrogated wild-type receptor activity in a dose-responsive manner. hPPARgamma2Delta500 was also impaired with respect to binding of a high-affinity radioligand. In addition, its conformation was unaffected by normally saturating concentrations of PPARgamma agonist as determined by protease protection experiments. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that hPPARgamma2Delta500 and hPPARgamma2 both formed heterodimeric complexes with human retinoidxreceptor alpha (hRXRalpha) and could bind a peroxisome proliferator-responsive element (PPRE) with similar affinity. Therefore, hPPARgamma2Delta500 appears to repress PPAR activity by competing with wild type receptor to dimerize with RXR and bind the PPRE. In addition, the mutant receptor may titrate out factors required for PPAR-regulated transcriptional activation. Both hPPARgamma2 and hPPARgamma2Delta500 localized to the nucleus of transiently transfected COS-1 cells as determined by immunofluorescence using a PPARgamma-specific antibody. Thus, nuclear localization of PPARgamma occurs independently of its activation state. The dominant negative mutant, hPPARgamma2Delta500, may prove useful in further studies to characterize PPAR functions both in vitro and in vivo

  10. Metabolic actions of estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) are mediated by a negative cross-talk with PPARgamma.

    PubMed

    Foryst-Ludwig, Anna; Clemenz, Markus; Hohmann, Stephan; Hartge, Martin; Sprang, Christiane; Frost, Nikolaj; Krikov, Maxim; Bhanot, Sanjay; Barros, Rodrigo; Morani, Andrea; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Unger, Thomas; Kintscher, Ulrich

    2008-06-27

    Estrogen receptors (ER) are important regulators of metabolic diseases such as obesity and insulin resistance (IR). While ERalpha seems to have a protective role in such diseases, the function of ERbeta is not clear. To characterize the metabolic function of ERbeta, we investigated its molecular interaction with a master regulator of insulin signaling/glucose metabolism, the PPARgamma, in vitro and in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed ERbeta -/- mice (betaERKO) mice. Our in vitro experiments showed that ERbeta inhibits ligand-mediated PPARgamma-transcriptional activity. That resulted in a blockade of PPARgamma-induced adipocytic gene expression and in decreased adipogenesis. Overexpression of nuclear coactivators such as SRC1 and TIF2 prevented the ERbeta-mediated inhibition of PPARgamma activity. Consistent with the in vitro data, we observed increased PPARgamma activity in gonadal fat from HFD-fed betaERKO mice. In consonance with enhanced PPARgamma activation, HFD-fed betaERKO mice showed increased body weight gain and fat mass in the presence of improved insulin sensitivity. To directly demonstrate the role of PPARgamma in HFD-fed betaERKO mice, PPARgamma signaling was disrupted by PPARgamma antisense oligonucleotide (ASO). Blockade of adipose PPARgamma by ASO reversed the phenotype of betaERKO mice with an impairment of insulin sensitization and glucose tolerance. Finally, binding of SRC1 and TIF2 to the PPARgamma-regulated adiponectin promoter was enhanced in gonadal fat from betaERKO mice indicating that the absence of ERbeta in adipose tissue results in exaggerated coactivator binding to a PPARgamma target promoter. Collectively, our data provide the first evidence that ERbeta-deficiency protects against diet-induced IR and glucose intolerance which involves an augmented PPARgamma signaling in adipose tissue. Moreover, our data suggest that the coactivators SRC1 and TIF2 are involved in this interaction. Impairment of insulin and glucose metabolism by ERbeta may have

  11. Pharmacological correction of a defect in PPAR-gamma signaling ameliorates disease severity in Cftr-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Gregory S; Dumlao, Darren S; Ng, Damian T; Barrett, Kim E; Dennis, Edward A; Dong, Hui; Glass, Christopher K

    2010-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (encoded by Cftr) that impair its role as an apical chloride channel that supports bicarbonate transport. Individuals with cystic fibrosis show retained, thickened mucus that plugs airways and obstructs luminal organs as well as numerous other abnormalities that include inflammation of affected organs, alterations in lipid metabolism and insulin resistance. Here we show that colonic epithelial cells and whole lung tissue from Cftr-deficient mice show a defect in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma, encoded by Pparg) function that contributes to a pathological program of gene expression. Lipidomic analysis of colonic epithelial cells suggests that this defect results in part from reduced amounts of the endogenous PPAR-gamma ligand 15-keto-prostaglandin E(2) (15-keto-PGE(2)). Treatment of Cftr-deficient mice with the synthetic PPAR-gamma ligand rosiglitazone partially normalizes the altered gene expression pattern associated with Cftr deficiency and reduces disease severity. Rosiglitazone has no effect on chloride secretion in the colon, but it increases expression of the genes encoding carbonic anhydrases 4 and 2 (Car4 and Car2), increases bicarbonate secretion and reduces mucus retention. These studies reveal a reversible defect in PPAR-gamma signaling in Cftr-deficient cells that can be pharmacologically corrected to ameliorate the severity of the cystic fibrosis phenotype in mice.

  12. Selective binding of the fluorescent dye 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma allows ligand identification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Zorrilla, Silvia; Garzón, Beatriz; Pérez-Sala, Dolores

    2010-04-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily involved in insulin sensitization, atherosclerosis, inflammation, and carcinogenesis. PPARgamma transcriptional activity is modulated by specific ligands that promote conformational changes allowing interaction with coactivators. Here we show that the fluorophore 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid (ANS) binds to PPARgamma-LBD (ligand binding domain), displaying negligible interaction with other nuclear receptors such as PPARalpha and retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha). ANS binding is competed by PPARgamma agonists such as rosiglitazone, 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)), and 9,10-dihydro-15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (CAY10410). Moreover, the affinity of PPARgamma for these ligands, determined through ANS competition titrations, is within the range of that reported previously, thereby suggesting that ANS competition could be useful in the screening and characterization of novel PPARgamma agonists. In contrast, gel-based competition assays showed limited performance with noncovalently bound ligands. We applied the ANS binding assay to characterize a biotinylated analog of 15d-PGJ(2) that does not activate PPAR in cells. We found that although this compound bound to PPARgamma with low affinity, it failed to promote PPARgamma interaction with a fluorescent SRC-1 peptide, indicating a lack of receptor activation. Therefore, combined approaches using ANS and fluorescent coactivator peptides to monitor PPARgamma binding and interactions may provide valuable strategies to fully understand the role of PPARgamma ligands. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Regulation of PPAR{gamma} function by TNF-{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Jianping

    2008-09-26

    The nuclear receptor PPAR{gamma} is a lipid sensor that regulates lipid metabolism through gene transcription. Inhibition of PPAR{gamma} activity by TNF-{alpha} is involved in pathogenesis of insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, inflammation, and cancer cachexia. PPAR{gamma} activity is regulated by TNF-{alpha} at pre-translational and post-translational levels. Activation of serine kinases including IKK, ERK, JNK, and p38 may be involved in the TNF-regulation of PPAR{gamma}. Of the four kinases, IKK is a dominant signaling molecule in the TNF-regulation of PPAR{gamma}. IKK acts through at least two mechanisms: inhibition of PPAR{gamma} expression and activation of PPAR{gamma} corepressor. In this review article, literature is reviewedmore » with a focus on the mechanisms of PPAR{gamma} inhibition by TNF-{alpha}.« less

  14. Ligand and coactivator identity determines the requirement of the charge clamp for coactivation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yifei; Chin, William W; Wang, Yong; Burris, Thomas P

    2003-03-07

    The activation function 2 (AF-2)-dependent recruitment of coactivator is essential for gene activation by nuclear receptors. We show that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) (NR1C3) coactivator-1 (PGC-1) requires both the intact AF-2 domain of PPARgamma and the LXXLL domain of PGC-1 for ligand-dependent and ligand-independent interaction and coactivation. Although the AF-2 domain of PPARgamma is absolutely required for PGC-1-mediated coactivation, this coactivator displayed a unique lack of requirement for the charge clamp of the ligand-binding domain of the receptor that is thought to be essential for LXXLL motif recognition. The mutation of a single serine residue adjacent to the core LXXLL motif of PGC-1 led to restoration of the typical charge clamp requirement. Thus, the unique structural features of the PGC-1 LXXLL motif appear to mediate an atypical mode of interaction with PPARgamma. Unexpectedly, we discovered that various ligands display variability in terms of their requirement for the charge clamp of PPARgamma for coactivation by PGC-1. This ligand-selective variable requirement for the charge clamp was coactivator-specific. Thus, distinct structural determinants, which may be unique for a particular ligand, are utilized by the receptor to recognize the coactivator. Our data suggest that even subtle differences in ligand structure are perceived by the receptor and translated into a unique display of the coactivator-binding surface of the ligand-binding domain, allowing for differential recognition of coactivators that may underlie distinct pharmacological profiles observed for ligands of a particular nuclear receptor.

  15. O-GlcNAc modification of PPAR{gamma} reduces its transcriptional activity

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Suena; Park, Sang Yoon; Roth, Juergen

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found that PPAR{gamma} is modified by O-GlcNAc in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Thr54 of PPAR{gamma}1 is the major O-GlcNAc site. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transcriptional activity of PPAR{gamma}1 was decreased on treatment with the OGA inhibitor. -- Abstract: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is a key regulator of adipogenesis and is important for the homeostasis of the adipose tissue. The {beta}-O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification, a posttranslational modification on various nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins, is involved in the regulation of protein function. Here, we report that PPAR{gamma} is modified by O-GlcNAc in 3T3-L1more » adipocytes. Mass spectrometric analysis and mutant studies revealed that the threonine 54 of the N-terminal AF-1 domain of PPAR{gamma} is the major O-GlcNAc site. Transcriptional activity of wild type PPAR{gamma} was decreased 30% by treatment with the specific O-GlcNAcase (OGA) inhibitor, but the T54A mutant of PPAR{gamma} did not respond to inhibitor treatment. In 3T3-L1 cells, an increase in O-GlcNAc modification by OGA inhibitor reduced PPAR{gamma} transcriptional activity and terminal adipocyte differentiation. Our results suggest that the O-GlcNAc state of PPAR{gamma} influences its transcriptional activity and is involved in adipocyte differentiation.« less

  16. PPAR-{gamma} agonist protects against intestinal injury during necrotizing enterocolitis

    SciTech Connect

    Baregamian, Naira; Mourot, Joshua M.; Ballard, Amie R.

    2009-02-06

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains a lethal condition for many premature infants. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR-{gamma}), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family, has been shown to play a protective role in cellular inflammatory responses; however, its role in NEC is not clearly defined. We sought to examine the expression of PPAR-{gamma} in the intestine using an ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) model of NEC, and to assess whether PPAR-{gamma} agonist treatment would ameliorate I/R-induced gut injury. Swiss-Webster mice were randomized to receive sham (control) or I/R injury to the gut induced by transient occlusion of superior mesenteric artery for 45 min withmore » variable periods of reperfusion. I/R injury resulted in early induction of PPAR-{gamma} expression and activation of NF-{kappa}B in small intestine. Pretreatment with PPAR-{gamma} agonist, 15d-PGJ{sub 2}, attenuated intestinal NF-{kappa}B response and I/R-induced gut injury. Activation of PPAR-{gamma} demonstrated a protective effect on small bowel during I/R-induced gut injury.« less

  17. Unlike PPAR{gamma}, PPAR{alpha} or PPAR{beta}/{delta} activation does not promote human monocyte differentiation toward alternative macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Bouhlel, Mohamed Amine; Inserm U545, F-59000 Lille; UDSL, F-59000 Lille

    2009-08-28

    Macrophages adapt their response to micro-environmental signals. While Th1 cytokines promote pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages, Th2 cytokines promote an 'alternative' anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage phenotype. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors expressed in macrophages where they control the inflammatory response. It has been shown that PPAR{gamma} promotes the differentiation of monocytes into anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages in humans and mice, while a role for PPAR{beta}/{delta} in this process has been reported only in mice and no data are available for PPAR{alpha}. Here, we show that in contrast to PPAR{gamma}, expression of PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{beta}/{delta} overall does not correlate with the expressionmore » of M2 markers in human atherosclerotic lesions, whereas a positive correlation with genes of lipid metabolism exists. Moreover, unlike PPAR{gamma}, PPAR{alpha} or PPAR{beta}/{delta} activation does not influence human monocyte differentiation into M2 macrophages in vitro. Thus, PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{beta}/{delta} do not appear to modulate the alternative differentiation of human macrophages.« less

  18. Cell death is induced by ciglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) agonist, independently of PPAR{gamma} in human glioma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Myoung Woo; Kim, Dae Seong; Kim, Hye Ryung

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Greater than 30 {mu}M ciglitazone induces cell death in glioma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell death by ciglitazone is independent of PPAR{gamma} in glioma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CGZ induces cell death by the loss of MMP via decreased Akt. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) regulates multiple signaling pathways, and its agonists induce apoptosis in various cancer cells. However, their role in cell death is unclear. In this study, the relationship between ciglitazone (CGZ) and PPAR{gamma} in CGZ-induced cell death was examined. At concentrations of greater than 30 {mu}M, CGZ, a synthetic PPAR{gamma} agonist, activated caspase-3 and induced apoptosis inmore » T98G cells. Treatment of T98G cells with less than 30 {mu}M CGZ effectively induced cell death after pretreatment with 30 {mu}M of the PPAR{gamma} antagonist GW9662, although GW9662 alone did not induce cell death. This cell death was also observed when cells were co-treated with CGZ and GW9662, but was not observed when cells were treated with CGZ prior to GW9662. In cells in which PPAR{gamma} was down-regulated cells by siRNA, lower concentrations of CGZ (<30 {mu}M) were sufficient to induce cell death, although higher concentrations of CGZ ( Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 30 {mu}M) were required to induce cell death in control T98G cells, indicating that CGZ effectively induces cell death in T98G cells independently of PPAR{gamma}. Treatment with GW9662 followed by CGZ resulted in a down-regulation of Akt activity and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), which was accompanied by a decrease in Bcl-2 expression and an increase in Bid cleavage. These data suggest that CGZ is capable of inducing apoptotic cell death independently of PPAR{gamma} in glioma cells, by down-regulating Akt activity and inducing MMP collapse.« less

  19. Thiazolidinedione, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligand, modulates the E-cadherin/beta-catenin system in a human pancreatic cancer cell line, BxPC-3.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Tetsuo; Elnemr, Ayman; Yamamoto, Miyuki; Ninomiya, Itasu; Fushida, Sachio; Nishimura, Gen-Ichi; Fujimura, Takashi; Kitagawa, Hirohisa; Kayahara, Masato; Shimizu, Koichi; Yi, Shuangqin; Miwa, Koichi

    2002-07-01

    Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma induces terminal differentiation and growth inhibition associated with G1 cell cycle arrest in some cancer cells. The multifunctional molecule beta-catenin performs important roles in intercellular adhesion and signal transduction. However, no report has focused on actions of PPAR-gamma in regulating the E-cadherin/beta-catenin system. We examined whether thiazolidinedione (TZD), a potent PPAR-gamma ligand, could modulate the E-cadherin/beta-catenin system in a human pancreatic cancer cell line, BxPC-3, that has been found to express PPAR-gamma. According to Western blotting, TZD markedly increased differentiation markers including E-cadherin and carcinoembryonic antigen, while beta-catenin did not change significantly. In untreated cells, fluorescence immunostaining demonstrated beta-catenin predominantly in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus; in TZD-treated cells, beta-catenin localization had dramatically shifted to the plasma membrane, in association with increased E-cadherin at this site. Thus, a PPAR-gamma ligand appears to participate not only in induction of differentiation in pancreatic cancer cells, but also in the regulation of the E-cadherin/beta-catenin system. Such ligands may prove clinically useful as cytostatic anticancer agents.

  20. Conjugated linoleic acid ameliorates inflammation-induced colorectal cancer in mice through activation of PPARgamma.

    PubMed

    Evans, Nicholas P; Misyak, Sarah A; Schmelz, Eva M; Guri, Amir J; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2010-03-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) exerts a protective effect on experimental inflammatory bowel disease and shows promise as a chemopreventive agent against colorectal cancer (CRC) in mice, although the mechanisms by which it exerts its beneficial effects against malignancies in the gut are not completely understood. Mice lacking PPARgamma in immune and epithelial cells and PPARgamma-expressing littermates were fed either control or CLA-supplemented (1 g CLA/100 g) diets to determine the role of PPARgamma in inflammation-induced CRC. To induce tumor formation and colitis, mice were treated with azoxymethane and then challenged with 2% dextran sodium sulfate, respectively. Dietary CLA ameliorated disease activity, decreased colitis, and prevented adenocarcinoma formation in the PPARgamma-expressing floxed mice but not in the tissue-specific PPARgamma-null mice. Dietary CLA supplementation significantly decreased the percentages of macrophages in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) regardless of the genotype and increased regulatory T cell numbers in MLN of PPARgamma-expressing, but not in the tissue-specific, PPARgamma-null mice. Colonic tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA expression was significantly suppressed in CLA-fed, PPARgamma-expressing mice. This study suggests CLA ameliorates colitis and prevents tumor formation in part through a PPARgamma-dependent mechanism.

  1. The PPARgamma agonist FMOC-L-leucine protects both mature and immature brain.

    PubMed

    Maurois, Pierre; Rocchi, Stéphane; Pages, Nicole; Bac, Pierre; Stables, James P; Gressens, Pierre; Vamecq, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    (N-[9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl]-)-L-leucine (FMOC-L-leucine) and rosiglitazone, two ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), were evaluated in mature (adult mice) and immature (pups) brain injury models. In adult magnesium-deficient mice, a model responsive to both neuroprotective and anti-seizure compounds, FMOC-L-leucine, but not rosiglitazone, protected against audiogenic seizures. The protection afforded by FMOC-L-leucine was alleviated by the PPARgamma antagonist GW9662 (1-2 mg/kg) and was induced in 50% animals by 4.8+/-1.2 mg/kg. At this dose, FMOC-L-leucine modified audiogenic seizure phase durations in convulsing mice differently than prototype antiepileptic drugs did. FMOC-L-leucine (up to 100 mg/kg) was inactive in the 6 Hz seizure test, an adult animal model largely responsive to anti-seizure drugs. In a model of neonatal brain injury, FMOC-L-leucine (4 microg/kg) was neuroprotective against cerebral ibotenate toxicity. It reduced significantly the size of lesions in grey but not in white matter, while rosiglitazone (10 microg/kg) was inactive. Taken as a whole, the present data support neuroprotective potentialities of FMOC-L-leucine towards both mature and immature brain. The PPAR-based protection of immature brain is more important as it is known that classic adult brain protectants (GABA(A) activators, N-methyl-D-aspartate and sodium channel blockers) may be toxic for immature brain. The PPARgamma agonist FMOC-L-leucine is likely to be devoid of these classic protective mechanisms because of its inactivity in the 6 Hz seizure test, its activity in the audiogenic test being explained by neuroprotective rather than intrinsic anti-seizure mechanisms. Targeting PPARs might be thus a promising way to protect immature brain.

  2. PPARgamma is not a critical mediator of primary monocyte differentiation or foam cell formation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Lisa; Charlton, Steven J; Marshall, Ian C; Moore, Gary B T; Coxon, Phil; Moores, Kitty; Clapham, John C; Newman, Suzanna J; Smith, Stephen A; Macphee, Colin H

    2002-01-18

    In the present report we clarify the role of PPARgamma in differentiation and function of human-derived monocyte/macrophages in vitro. Rosiglitazone, a selective PPARgamma activator, had no effect on the kinetics of appearance of monocyte/macrophage differentiation markers or on cell size or granularity. Depletion of PPARgamma by more than 90% using antisense oligonucleotides did not influence accumulation of oxidized LDL or prevent the upregulation of CD36 that normally accompanies oxLDL treatment. In contrast, PPARgamma depletion reduced the expression of ABCA1 and LXRalpha mRNAs. Metalloproteinase-9 expression, a marker of atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability, was suppressed by rosiglitazone. We conclude that activation of PPARgamma does not affect monocyte/macrophage differentiation. In addition, PPARgamma is not absolutely required for oxLDL-driven lipid accumulation, but is required for full expression of ABCA1 and LXRalpha. Our data support a role for rosiglitazone as a potential directly acting antiatherosclerotic agent.

  3. The synthetic ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ciglitazone affects human glioblastoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Strakova, Nicol; Ehrmann, Jiri; Dzubak, Petr; Bouchal, Jan; Kolar, Zdenek

    2004-06-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults, and it is among the most lethal of all cancers. Recent studies have shown that ligand activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma can induce differentiation and inhibit proliferation of several cancer cells. In this study, we have investigated whether one PPARgamma ligand in particular, ciglitazone, inhibits cell viability and, additionally, whether it affects the cell cycle and apoptosis of human glioblastoma cell lines T98G, U-87 MG, A172, and U-118 MG. All glioblastoma cell lines were found to express PPARgamma protein, and following treatment with ciglitazone, localization was unchanged. Ciglitazone inhibited viability in a dose-dependent manner in all four tested glioblastoma cells after 24 h of treatment. Analysis of the cell cycle showed arrest in the G(1) phase and partial block in G(2)/M phase of the cell cycle. Cyclin D1 and cyclin B expression was decreased. Phosphorylation of Rb protein dropped as well. We found that ciglitazone was followed by increased expression of p27(Kip1) and p21(Waf1/Cip1). It also led to apoptosis induction: bax expression in T98G was elevated. Expression of the antiapoptotic protein bcl-2 was reduced in U-118 MG and U-87 MG and showed a slight decrease in A172 cells. Flow cytometry confirmed the induction of apoptosis. Moreover, PPARgamma ligand decreased telomerase activity in U-87 MG and U-118 MG cell lines. Our results demonstrate that ciglitazone inhibits the viability of human glioblastoma cell lines via induction of apoptosis; as a result, this ligand may offer potential new therapy for the treatment of central nervous system neoplasms.

  4. Telmisartan prevented cognitive decline partly due to PPAR-{gamma} activation

    SciTech Connect

    Mogi, Masaki; Li Jianmei; Tsukuda, Kana

    Telmisartan is a unique angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) and partial agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{gamma}. Here, we investigated the preventive effect of telmisartan on cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease. In ddY mice, intracerebroventricular injection of A{beta} 1-40 significantly attenuated their cognitive function evaluated by shuttle avoidance test. Pretreatment with a non-hypotensive dose of telmisartan significantly inhibited such cognitive decline. Interestingly, co-treatment with GW9662, a PPAR-{gamma} antagonist, partially inhibited this improvement of cognitive decline. Another ARB, losartan, which has less PPAR-{gamma} agonistic effect, also inhibited A{beta}-injection-induced cognitive decline; however the effect was smaller than that of telmisartan and was notmore » affected by GW9662. Immunohistochemical staining for A{beta} showed the reduced A{beta} deposition in telmisartan-treated mice. However, this reduction was not observed in mice co-administered GW9662. These findings suggest that ARB has a preventive effect on cognitive impairment in Alzheimer disease, and telmisartan, with PPAR-{gamma} activation, could exert a stronger effect.« less

  5. Identification and characterization of novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) transcriptional variants in pig and human.

    PubMed

    Omi, T; Brenig, B; Spilar Kramer, S; Iwamoto, S; Stranzinger, G; Neuenschwander, S

    2005-04-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) is a member of the steroid/thyroid/retinoid receptor superfamily, and is primarily expressed in fat tissue. To date, two major PPAR-gamma isoforms have been identified in pig, PPAR-gamma1 and PPAR-gamma2. Porcine PPAR-gamma1a consists of two leader exons, designated A1 and A2, followed by six exons containing the open reading frame. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of three novel PPAR-gamma1 transcripts. PPAR-gamma1b is derived from exon A1, with exon A2 spliced out. PPAR-gamma1c and PPAR-gamma1d are derived from the new exon, A', containing exon A2 (gamma1c) or without exon A2 (gamma1d). Based on PCR analysis of PAC clones that included sequences from the 5'-untranslated region of the PPAR-gamma gene, the new A' exon is located between the known exons A1 and A2. We also isolated the human homologue to exon A', as well as the two new PPAR-gamma1c and -gamma1d splice variants, from human adipose tissue. Studies of the expression of porcine PPAR-gamma by real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis show that transcripts derived from exon A1 were not expressed at significantly different levels in visceral fat (lamina subserosa) or subcutaneous fat (back fat, inner and outer layer). In contrast, exon A'-derived transcripts were expressed at progressively higher levels in the inner and outer layers of subcutaneous fat than in visceral fat. The same expression pattern was also observed for PPAR-gamma2. We hypothesize that there are three promoters, which differentially regulate PPAR-gamma1 and PPAR-gamma2 gene expression, depending on the specific localization of the fat tissue.

  6. Chronic allograft nephropathy: expression and localization of PAI-1 and PPAR-gamma.

    PubMed

    Revelo, Monica P; Federspiel, Charles; Helderman, Harold; Fogo, Agnes B

    2005-12-01

    Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) is a major cause of loss of renal allografts. Mechanisms postulated to be involved include sequelae of rejection, warm ischaemia time, drug toxicity, ongoing hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is implicated not only in thrombosis, but also in fibrosis, by inhibiting matrix degradation, and is expressed in renal parenchymal cells as well as in macrophages. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) is a member of the steroid receptor superfamily, and plays a major beneficial role in lipid regulation, insulin sensitivity and macrophage function, factors that may play a role in CAN. We therefore studied the expression of these molecules in CAN. All renal biopsy/nephrectomy files from Vanderbilt and Nashville VAMC from a 6 year period were reviewed to identify all renal transplant biopsies or nephrectomies more than 6 months after transplant with CAN. CAN was defined as fibrosis in the graft, vascular, interstitial or glomerular. All cases were scored for severity of fibrosis in vasculature (0-3 scale), glomeruli (% affected with either segmental and/or global sclerosis) and interstitial fibrosis (% of sample affected). PAI-1 and PPAR-gamma immunostaining was assessed on a 0-3 scale in glomeruli, vessels and tubules. Eighty-two patients with a total of 106 samples met entry criteria. The population consisted of 59 Caucasians and 23 African-Americans; 49 males, 33 females with average age 37.9+/-1.7 years. Average time after transplant at time of biopsy was 60.5+/-4.9 months (range 7-229). Glomerulosclerosis extent in CAN was on average 26.5+/-2.4% compared with 3.6+/-1.2% in normal control kidneys from native kidney cancer nephrectomies and 0% in transplanted kidney biopsies from patients obtained > or =6 months after transplantation without CAN. Native control kidneys showed mild interstitial fibrosis (8.0+/-1.2%), whereas transplant controls showed very minimal fibrosis (2

  7. The Differential Interactions of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor [gamma] Ligands with Tyr473 Is a Physical Basis for Their Unique Biological Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Einstein, Monica; Akiyama, Taro E.; Castriota, Gino A.

    2008-08-01

    Despite their proven antidiabetic efficacy, widespread use of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR){gamma} agonists has been limited by adverse cardiovascular effects. To overcome this shortcoming, selective PPAR{gamma} modulators (SPPAR{gamma}Ms) have been identified that have antidiabetic efficacy comparable with full agonists with improved tolerability in preclinical species. The results of structural studies support the proposition that SPPAR{gamma}Ms interact with PPAR{gamma} differently from full agonists, thereby providing a physical basis for their novel activities. Herein, we describe a novel PPAR{gamma} ligand, SPPAR{gamma}M2. This compound was a partial agonist in a cell-based transcriptional activity assay, with diminished adipogenic activity and an attenuated gene signaturemore » in cultured human adipocytes. X-ray cocrystallography studies demonstrated that, unlike rosiglitazone, SPPAR{gamma}M2 did not interact with the Tyr473 residue located within helix 12 of the ligand binding domain (LBD). Instead, SPPAR{gamma}M2 was found to bind to and activate human PPAR{gamma} in which the Tyr473 residue had been mutated to alanine (hPPAR{gamma}Y473A), with potencies similar to those observed with the wild-type receptor (hPPAR{gamma}WT). In additional studies, we found that the intrinsic binding and functional potencies of structurally distinct SPPAR{gamma}Ms were not diminished by the Y473A mutation, whereas those of various thiazolidinedione (TZD) and non-TZD PPAR{gamma} full agonists were reduced in a correlative manner. These results directly demonstrate the important role of Tyr473 in mediating the interaction of full agonists but not SPPAR{gamma}Ms with the PPAR{gamma} LBD, thereby providing a precise molecular determinant for their differing pharmacologies.« less

  8. Separation, characterization and dose-effect relationship of the PPARgamma-activating bio-active constituents in the Chinese herb formulation 'San-Ao decoction'.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ling; Tang, Yu-Ping; Gao, Lu; Fan, Xin-Sheng; Liu, Chun-Mei; Wu, De-Kang

    2009-10-09

    San-ao decoction (SAD), comprising Herba Ephedrae, Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae and Seneb Armeniacae Amarum, is one of the most popular traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulae for asthma. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) areey regulators of lipid and glucose metabolism and have become important therapeutic targets for various deseases, PPARgamma activation might exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in different chronic inflammatory processes. The EtOAc fraction of SAD showed a significant effect on PPARgamma activation. A simple and rapid method has been established for separation and characterization of the main compounds in the PPARgamma-activating fraction of SAD by ultra-fast HPLC coupled with quadropole time-of-flight mass pectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS). A total of 10 compounds were identified in the activating fraction of SAD, including amygdalin (1), liquiritin (2), 6'-acetyliquiritin (3), liquiritigenin (4), isoliquiritigenin (5), formononetin (6), licoisoflavanone (7), glycycoumarin (8), glycyrol (9) and uercetin (10). The results also characterized formononetin as a predominant component in this fraction. The dose-effect relationship comparison study of formononetin and the EtOAc fraction of SAD by adding formononetin was performed, the results suggested that formononetin was the major component of the EtOAc fraction of SAD responsible for activating PPARgamma, and the method will possibly be applied to study the complex biological active constituents of other TCMs.

  9. 15-Deoxy-{delta}{sup 12,14}-prostaglandin J{sub 2} down-regulates CXCR4 on carcinoma cells through PPAR{gamma}- and NF{kappa}B-mediated pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, Cynthia Lee; Lowthers, Erica Lauren; Blay, Jonathan

    2007-10-01

    The chemokine receptor CXCR4 plays a key role in the metastasis of colorectal cancer and its growth at metastatic sites. Here, we have investigated the mechanisms by which CXCR4 on cancer cells might be regulated by eicosanoids present within the colorectal tumor microenvironment. We show that prostaglandins PGE{sub 2}, PGA{sub 2}, PGD{sub 2}, PGJ{sub 2} and 15dPGJ{sub 2} each down-regulates CXCR4 receptor expression on human colorectal carcinoma cells to differing degrees. The most potent of these were PGD{sub 2} and its metabolites PGJ{sub 2} and 15dPGJ{sub 2}. Down-regulation was most rapid with the end-product 15dPGJ{sub 2} and was accompanied bymore » a marked reduction in CXCR4 mRNA. 15dPGJ{sub 2} is known to be a ligand for the nuclear receptor PPAR{gamma}. Down-regulation of CXCR4 was also observed with the PPAR{gamma} agonist rosiglitazone, while 15dPGJ{sub 2}-induced CXCR4 down-regulation was substantially diminished by the PPAR{gamma} antagonists GW9662 and T0070907. These data support the involvement of PPAR{gamma}. However, the 15dPGJ{sub 2} analogue CAY10410, which can act on PPAR{gamma} but which lacks the intrinsic cyclopentenone structure found in 15dPGJ{sub 2}, down-regulated CXCR4 substantially less potently than 15dPGJ{sub 2}. The cyclopentenone grouping is known to inhibit the activity of NF{kappa}B. Consistent with an additional role for NF{kappa}B, we found that the cyclopentenone prostaglandin PGA{sub 2} and cyclopentenone itself could also down-regulate CXCR4. Immunolocalization studies showed that the cellular context was sufficient to trigger a focal nuclear pattern of NF{kappa}B p50 and that 15dPGJ{sub 2} interfered with this p50 nuclear localization. These data suggest that 15dPGJ{sub 2} can down-regulate CXCR4 on cancer cells through both PPAR{gamma} and NF{kappa}B. 15dPGJ{sub 2}, present within the tumor microenvironment, may act to down-regulate CXCR4 and impact upon the overall process of tumor expansion.« less

  10. Stabilization of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha by the ligand.

    PubMed

    Hirotani, M; Tsukamoto, T; Bourdeaux, J; Sadano, H; Osumi, T

    2001-10-19

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) constitutes a subfamily among a large group of ligand-activated transcription factors, the nuclear receptor superfamily. We studied the effects of ligand on the intracellular behaviors of PPARalpha. Although nuclear localization of PPARalpha was not affected by a selective ligand, Wy14643, we observed that exogenously expressed PPARalpha was rapidly degraded in HeLa cells, and the ligand significantly stabilized the protein. The stability of PPARalpha was also improved by coexpression of the heterodimer partner retinoid X receptor (RXR) alpha, and further stabilization was not observed with the ligand. These results indicate that PPARalpha is stabilized through heterodimerization with RXR, and the excess protein unpaired with RXR is rapidly turned over, if not bound by an appropriate ligand. These observations on PPARalpha are in sharp contrast to the ligand-stimulated degradation reported on PPARgamma. The ligand-dependent stabilization would have physiological significance when the synthesis of PPARalpha is elevated exceeding the available level of RXR. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  11. HCV core protein induces hepatic lipid accumulation by activating SREBP1 and PPAR{gamma}

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kook Hwan; Hong, Sung Pyo; Kim, KyeongJin

    2007-04-20

    Hepatic steatosis is a common feature in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. HCV core protein plays an important role in the development of hepatic steatosis in HCV infection. Because SREBP1 (sterol regulatory element binding protein 1) and PPAR{gamma} (peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor {gamma}) are involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism of hepatocyte, we sought to determine whether HCV core protein may impair the expression and activity of SREBP1 and PPAR{gamma}. In this study, it was demonstrated that HCV core protein increases the gene expression of SREBP1 not only in Chang liver, Huh7, and HepG2 cells transiently transfectedmore » with HCV core protein expression plasmid, but also in Chang liver-core stable cells. Furthermore, HCV core protein enhanced the transcriptional activity of SREBP1. In addition, HCV core protein elevated PPAR{gamma} transcriptional activity. However, HCV core protein had no effect on PPAR{gamma} gene expression. Finally, we showed that HCV core protein stimulates the genes expression of lipogenic enzyme and fatty acid uptake associated protein. Therefore, our finding provides a new insight into the mechanism of hepatic steatosis by HCV infection.« less

  12. Comparative gene expression profiles induced by PPAR{gamma} and PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} agonists in rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rogue, Alexandra; Universite de Rennes 1, 35065 Rennes Cedex; Biologie Servier, 45520 Gidy

    2011-07-01

    Species-differential toxic effects have been described with PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{gamma} agonists between rodent and human liver. PPAR{alpha} agonists (fibrates) are potent hypocholesterolemic agents in humans while they induce peroxisome proliferation and tumors in rodent liver. By contrast, PPAR{gamma} agonists (glitazones) and even dual PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} agonists (glitazars) have caused idiosyncratic hepatic and nonhepatic toxicities in human without evidence of any damage in rodent during preclinical studies. The mechanisms involved in such differences remain largely unknown. Several studies have identified the major target genes of PPAR{alpha} agonists in rodent liver while no comprehensive analysis has been performed on gene expression changes inducedmore » by PPAR{gamma} and dual PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} agonists. Here, we investigated transcriptomes of rat hepatocytes after 24 h treatment with two PPAR{gamma} (troglitazone and rosiglitazone) and two PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} (muraglitazar and tesaglitazar) agonists. Although, hierarchical clustering revealed a gene expression profile characteristic of each PPAR agonist class, only a limited number of genes was specifically deregulated by glitazars. Functional analyses showed that many genes known as PPAR{alpha} targets were also modulated by both PPAR{gamma} and PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} agonists and quantitative differences in gene expression profiles were observed between these two classes. Moreover, most major genes modulated in rat hepatocytes were also found to be deregulated in rat liver after tesaglitazar treatment. Taken altogether, these results support the conclusion that differential toxic effects of PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{gamma} agonists in rodent liver do not result from transcriptional deregulation of major PPAR target genes but rather from qualitative and/or quantitative differential responses of a small subset of genes.« less

  13. Hepatitis B virus X protein modulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma through protein-protein interaction.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youn-Hee; Kim, Ha-il; Seong, Je Kyung; Yu, Dae-Yeul; Cho, Hyeseong; Lee, Mi-Ock; Lee, Jae Myun; Ahn, Yong-ho; Kim, Se Jong; Park, Jeon Han

    2004-01-16

    Ligand activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) has been reported to induce growth inhibition and apoptosis in various cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the effect of hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) on PPARgamma activation has not been characterized in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated HCC. Herein, we demonstrated that HBx counteracted growth inhibition caused by PPARgamma ligand in HBx-associated HCC cells. We found that HBx bound to DNA binding domain of PPARgamma and HBx/PPARgamma interaction blocked nuclear localization and binding to recognition site of PPARgamma. HBx significantly suppressed a PPARgamma-mediated transactivation. These results suggest that HBx modulates PPARgamma function through protein-protein interaction.

  14. PPAR{gamma} activates ABCA1 gene transcription but reduces the level of ABCA1 protein in HepG2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mogilenko, Denis A., E-mail: denis@iem.sp.ru; Department of Embryology, St. Petersburg State University, 199034 St. Petersburg; Shavva, Vladimir S.

    Research highlights: {yields} PPAR{gamma} activates ABCA1 gene expression but decreases ABCA1 protein content in human hepatoma cell line HepG2. {yields} Treatment of HepG2 cells with PPAR{gamma} agonist GW1929 leads to dissociation of LXR{beta} from ABCA1-LXR{beta} complex. {yields} Inhibition of protein kinases MEK1/2 abolishes PPAR{gamma}-mediated dissociation of LXR{beta} from ABCA1/LXR{beta} complex. {yields} Activation of PPAR{gamma} leads to increasing of the level of LXR{beta} associated with LXRE within ABCA1 gene promoter. -- Abstract: Synthesis of ABCA1 protein in liver is necessary for high-density lipoproteins (HDL) formation in mammals. Nuclear receptor PPAR{gamma} is known as activator of ABCA1 expression, but details of PPAR{gamma}-mediatedmore » regulation of ABCA1 at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels in hepatocytes have not still been well elucidated. In this study we have shown, that PPAR{gamma} activates ABCA1 gene transcription in human hepatoma cells HepG2 through increasing of LXR{beta} binding with promoter region of ABCA1 gene. Treatment of HepG2 cells with PPAR{gamma} agonist GW1929 leads to dissociation of LXR{beta} from ABCA1/LXR{beta} complex and to nuclear translocation of this nuclear receptor resulting in reduction of ABCA1 protein level 24 h after treatment. Inhibition of protein kinases MEK1/2 abolishes PPAR{gamma}-mediated dissociation of LXR{beta} from ABCA1/LXR{beta} complex, but does not block PPAR{gamma}-dependent down-regulation of ABCA1 protein in HepG2 cells. These data suggest that PPAR{gamma} may be important for regulation of the level of hepatic ABCA1 protein and indicate the new interplays between PPAR{gamma}, LXR{beta} and MEK1/2 in regulation of ABCA1 mRNA and protein expression.« less

  15. Irbesartan increased PPAR{gamma} activity in vivo in white adipose tissue of atherosclerotic mice and improved adipose tissue dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Iwai, Masaru; Kanno, Harumi; Senba, Izumi

    2011-03-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice were treated with irbesartan. {yields} Irbesartan decreased white adipose tissue weight without affecting body weight. {yields} DNA-binding for PPAR{gamma} was increased in white adipose tissue in vivo by irbesartan. {yields} Irbesartan increased adipocyte number in white adipose tissue. {yields} Irbesatan increased the expression of adiponectin and leptin in white adipose tissue. -- Abstract: The effect of the PPAR{gamma} agonistic action of an AT{sub 1} receptor blocker, irbesartan, on adipose tissue dysfunction was explored using atherosclerotic model mice. Adult male apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice at 9 weeks of age were treated with amore » high-cholesterol diet (HCD) with or without irbesartan at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. The weight of epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue was decreased by irbesartan without changing food intake or body weight. Treatment with irbesartan increased the expression of PPAR{gamma} in white adipose tissue and the DNA-binding activity of PPAR{gamma} in nuclear extract prepared from adipose tissue. The expression of adiponectin, leptin and insulin receptor was also increased by irbesartan. These results suggest that irbesartan induced activation of PPAR{gamma} and improved adipose tissue dysfunction including insulin resistance.« less

  16. Transforming growth factor-{beta} inhibits CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein expression and PPAR{gamma} activity in unloaded bone marrow stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ahdjoudj, S.; Kaabeche, K.; Holy, X.

    2005-02-01

    The molecular mechanisms regulating the adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells in vivo remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of transforming growth factor beta-2 (TGF-{beta}2) on transcription factors involved in adipogenic differentiation induced by hind limb suspension in rat bone marrow stromal cells in vivo. Time course real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of gene expression showed that skeletal unloading progressively increases the expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP){alpha} and C/EBP{beta} {alpha} at 5 days in bone marrow stromal cells resulting in increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}2) transcripts at 7 days. TGF-{beta}2more » administration in unloaded rats corrected the rise in C/EBP{alpha} and C/EBP{beta} transcripts induced by unloading in bone marrow stromal cells. This resulted in inhibition of PPAR{gamma}2 expression that was associated with increased Runx2 expression. Additionally, the inhibition of C/EBP{alpha} and C/EBP{beta} expression by TGF-{beta}2 was associated with increased PPAR{gamma} serine phosphorylation in bone marrow stromal cells, a mechanism that inhibits PPAR{gamma} transactivating activity. The sequential inhibitory effect of TGF-{beta}2 on C/EBP{alpha}, C/EBP{beta}, and PPAR{gamma}2 resulted in reduced LPL expression and abolition of bone marrow stromal cell adipogenic differentiation, which contributed to prevent bone loss induced by skeletal unloading. We conclude that TGF-{beta}2 inhibits the excessive adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells induced by skeletal unloading by inhibiting C/EBP{alpha}, C/EBP{beta}, and PPAR{gamma} expression and activity, which provides a sequential mechanism by which TGF-{beta}2 regulates adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells in vivo.« less

  17. Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARS) in human astrocytic cells: PPARgamma agonists as inducers of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, N; Singh, D P; Heese, O; Godbole, M M; Sinohara, T; Black, P M; Brown, E M

    2000-07-01

    We report the isolation by RT-PCR of partial cDNAs encoding the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isoforms PPARbeta and -gamma in human primary astrocytes (HPA) as well as in the human malignant astrocytoma cell line T98G. In contrast, we failed to detect PPARalpha mRNA in either of these two cell types. Because PPARbeta is ubiquitously expressed but has, as yet, no known function, we pursued our functional studies of these cells with regard to PPARgamma. To that end, we showed that PPARgamma protein is abundantly expressed in both cell types, having a molecular weight of approximately 50 kDa. Immunocytochemistry revealed a predominantly nuclear localization of this receptor. Moreover, incubation of the two cell types with 1-12 mcM 15-deoxy PGJ(2) or 1-12 mcM ciglitazone, both of which are agonists of PPARgamma, induced loss of cellular viability as assessed by the MTT assay after a 4 hr incubation. Reduced cellular viability as a consequence of exposure to PGJ(2) or ciglitazone resulted from induction of apoptosis, as assessed by DNA fragmentation and Hoechst staining, and involves activation of the CPP32 (caspase-3) protease. These data show that modulation of the process of apoptosis is one function of PPARgamma in cells derived from the human astrocytic lineage. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. In vitro screening of 200 pesticides for agonistic activity via mouse peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR){alpha} and PPAR{gamma} and quantitative analysis of in vivo induction pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, Shinji; Matsuda, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Satoshi

    2006-12-15

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-dependent transcription factors and key regulators of lipid metabolism and cell differentiation. However, there have been few studies reporting on a variety of environmental chemicals, which may interact with these receptors. In the present study, we characterized mouse PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{gamma} agonistic activities of 200 pesticides (29 organochlorines, 11 diphenyl ethers, 56 organophosphorus pesticides, 12 pyrethroids, 22 carbamates, 11 acid amides, 7 triazines, 8 ureas and 44 others) by in vitro reporter gene assays using CV-1 monkey kidney cells. Three of the 200 pesticides, diclofop-methyl, pyrethrins and imazalil, which have different chemical structures, showed PPAR{alpha}-mediatedmore » transcriptional activities in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, none of the 200 pesticides showed PPAR{gamma} agonistic activity at concentrations {<=} 10{sup -5} M. To investigate the in vivo effects of diclofop-methyl, pyrethrins and imazalil, we examined the gene expression of PPAR{alpha}-inducible cytochrome P450 4As (CYP4As) in the liver of female mice intraperitoneally injected with these compounds ({<=} 300 mg/kg). RT-PCR revealed significantly high induction levels of CYP4A10 and CYP4A14 mRNAs in diclofop-methyl- and pyrethrins-treated mice, whereas imazalil induced almost no gene expressions of CYP4As. In particular, diclofop-methyl induced as high levels of CYP4A mRNAs as WY-14643, a potent PPAR{alpha} agonist. Thus, most of the 200 pesticides tested do not activate PPAR{alpha} or PPAR{gamma} in in vitro assays, but only diclofop-methyl and pyrethrins induce PPAR{alpha} agonistic activity in vivo as well as in vitro.« less

  19. PPARgamma agonist curcumin reduces the amyloid-beta-stimulated inflammatory responses in primary astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Mei; Zhao, Yan-Xin; Zhang, Shi; Liu, Gui-Dong; Kang, Wen-Yan; Tang, Hui-Dong; Ding, Jian-Qing; Chen, Sheng-Di

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder. Accumulating data indicate that astrocytes play an important role in the neuroinflammation related to the pathogenesis of AD. It has been shown that microglia and astrocytes are activated in AD brain and amyloid-beta (Abeta) can increase the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), interleukin-1, and interleukin-6. Suppressing the inflammatory response caused by activated astrocytes may help to inhibit the development of AD. Curcumin is a major constituent of the yellow curry spice turmeric and proved to be a potential anti-inflammatory drug in arthritis and colitis. There is a low age-adjusted prevalence of AD in India, a country where turmeric powder is commonly used as a culinary compound. Curcumin has been shown to suppress activated astroglia in amyloid-beta protein precursor transgenic mice. The real mechanism by which curcumin inhibits activated astroglia is poorly understood. Here we report that the expression of COX-2 and glial fibrillary acidic protein were enhanced and that of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) was decreased in Abeta(25-35)-treated astrocytes. In line with these results, nuclear factor-kappaB translocation was increased in the presence of Abeta. All these can be reversed by the pretreatment of curcumin. Furthermore, GW9662, a PPARgamma antagonist, can abolish the anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin. These results show that curcumin might act as a PPARgamma agonist to inhibit the inflammation in Abeta-treated astrocytes.

  20. PPARgamma gene polymorphism is associated with exercise-mediated changes of insulin resistance in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Kahara, Toshio; Takamura, Toshinari; Hayakawa, Tetsuo; Nagai, Yukihiro; Yamaguchi, Hiromi; Katsuki, Tatsuo; Katsuki, Ken-Ichi; Katsuki, Michio; Kobayashi, Ken-Ichi

    2003-02-01

    Exercise training improves insulin sensitivity, but individual responses vary greatly. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) is a regulator of adipose cell differentiation and plays an important role in systemic insulin action. We investigated whether PPARgamma gene polymorphism affects insulin resistance in response to exercise in Japanese healthy men. The exercise program at an individual intensity of 50% of the maximal heart rate was performed for 20 to 60 min/d, and 2 to 3 days per week to attain a level of physical activity of 700 kcal/wk. The program was conducted for 3 months without any dietary intervention, and the clinical and metabolic characteristics were examined before and after the exercise program. Body mass index (BMI) did not change significantly after the exercise program, whereas percentage of body fat (% body fat), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and serum leptin levels decreased significantly. Pro12Ala polymorphism in PPARgamma gene was performed on genomic DNA isolated from human leukocytes and examined with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequent restriction enzyme analysis using BstU-I. In this study, the Ala allele did not correlate with fasting immunoreactive insulin (IRI) and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-R) at baseline, but did so with the changes in IRI and HOMA-R after exercise (DeltaIRI, Pro/Pro 0.55 +/- 3.49 microU/mL v Pro/Ala -2.83 +/- 1.47 microU/mL, P <.05; DeltaHOMA-R, Pro/Pro 0.09 +/- 0.86 v Pro/Ala -0.61 +/- 0.32, P <.05). This result suggests that the Ala allele is associated with improvement in insulin resistance after exercise. We conclude that PPARgamma gene polymorphism may be a reliable indicator of whether exercise will have a beneficial effect as part of the treatment of insulin resistance syndrome. Copyright 2003, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  1. Oxidized LDL binding to LOX-1 upregulates VEGF expression in cultured bovine chondrocytes through activation of PPAR-{gamma}

    SciTech Connect

    Kanata, Sohya; Akagi, Masao; Nishimura, Shunji

    It has been reported that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors play an important role in the destruction of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis through increased production of matrix metalloproteinases. We investigated whether the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) binding to lectin-like ox-LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) upregulates VEGF expression in cultured bovine articular chondrocytes (BACs). Ox-LDL markedly increased VEGF mRNA expression and protein release in time- and dose-dependent manners, which was significantly suppressed by anti-LOX-1 antibody pretreatment. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{gamma} was evident in BACs with ox-LDL addition and was attenuated by anti-LOX-1 antibody. The specific PPAR-{gamma} inhibitor GW9662more » suppressed ox-LDL-induced VEGF expression. These results suggest that the ox-LDL/LOX-1 system upregulates VEGF expression in articular cartilage, at least in part, through activation of PPAR-{gamma} and supports the hypothesis that ox-LDL is involved in cartilage degradation via LOX-1.« less

  2. Neuroprotective effect of the new thiadiazolidinone NP00111 against oxygen-glucose deprivation in rat hippocampal slices: implication of ERK1/2 and PPARgamma receptors.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Angelo O; Egea, Javier; Martínez, Ana; García, Antonio G; López, Manuela G

    2008-07-01

    Thiadiazolidinones (TDZDs) are small molecules that inhibit glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta (GSK3-beta) activity in a non competitive manner to ATP. NP00111, a new TDZD, besides causing inhibition of GSK-3beta, has also shown to be an agonist of PPARgamma . Since phosphorylation and consequent inhibition of GSK-3beta by PI-3K/Akt and agonism of PPARgamma have shown to afford neuroprotection in several in vitro and in vivo models, we have studied the potential neuroprotective effect of NP00111 in an "in vitro" model of ischemia-reperfusion. NP00111, at the concentration of 10 microM, significantly protected adult rat hippocampal slices subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) for 1 h followed by 3 h re-oxygenation, measured as lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) released to the extracellular media. The protective effects of NP00111 were more pronounced during the re-oxygenation period in comparison to the OGD period. Other GSK-3beta inhibitors like lithium or AR-A014418 did not afford protection in this model. However, the PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone was protective at 3 microM. Protection afforded by NP00111 and rosiglitazone were prevented by the PPARgamma antagonist GW9662, suggesting that both NP00111 and rosiglitazone were preventing cell death caused by oxygen-glucose deprivation via activation of PPARgamma. NP00111 increased by two fold phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and its protective effects were lost when the hippocampal slices were co-incubated with the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor PD98059. In conclusion, the novel TDZD NP00111 was protective against OGD in rat hippocampal slices by a mechanism related to phosphorylation of ERK1/2 via activation of PPARgamma.

  3. Nobiletin enhances differentiation and lipolysis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Takeshi; Abe, Daigo; Sekiya, Keizo

    2007-06-01

    Nobiletin is a polymethoxylated flavone found in certain citrus fruits. Here we demonstrate that nobiletin enhance differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Nobiletin dose-dependently increased accumulation of lipid droplets in adipocytes. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses indicated that nobiletin increased the expression of genes critical for acquisition of the adipocyte phenotype. Some of them were known peroxisome proliferator activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) targets and PPAR{gamma} itself, however, nobiletin did not exhibit PPAR{gamma} ligand activity. We observed the expression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein {beta} (C/EBP{beta}), a transcription factor for PPAR{gamma}, was increased by nobiletin. The activation of cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and extracellular signal-regulatedmore » kinase (ERK), which play important roles in C/EBP{beta} expression were also potentiated by nobiletin. Furthermore, nobiletin stimulated lipolysis in differentiated adipocytes, which is known to be stimulated by cAMP pathway. These results suggested that nobiletin enhanced both differentiation and lipolysis of adipocyte through activation of signaling cascades mediated by cAMP/CREB.« less

  4. 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 inhibits INF-gamma-induced JAK/STAT1 signalling pathway activation and IP-10/CXCL10 expression in mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Panzer, Ulf; Zahner, Gunther; Wienberg, Ulrike; Steinmetz, Oliver M; Peters, Anett; Turner, Jan-Eric; Paust, Hans-Joachim; Wolf, Gunter; Stahl, Rolf A K; Schneider, André

    2008-12-01

    Activators of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), originally found to be implicated in lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis, have been shown to modulate inflammatory responses through interference with cytokine and chemokine production. Given the central role of mesangial cell-derived chemokines in glomerular leukocyte recruitment in human and experimental glomerulonephritis, we studied the influence of natural and synthetic PPARgamma activators on INF-gamma-induced expression of the T cell-attracting chemokines IP-10/CXCL10, Mig/CXCL9 and I-TAC/CXCL11 in mouse mesangial cells. INF-gamma-treated mesangial cells were cultured in the presence or absence of either the naturally occurring PPARgamma ligand 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) or synthetic PPARgamma activators of the glitazone group. Chemokine mRNA and protein expression and activation of the JAK/STAT signalling pathway were analysed. The 15d-PGJ(2), but not synthetic PPARgamma ligands, dose-dependently inhibited INF-gamma-induced chemokine gene (mRNA and protein) expression. Combined results from EMSA and western blot analysis revealed the inhibitory ability of 15d-PGJ(2), but not of synthetic PPARgamma ligands, on IFN-gamma-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK1, JAK2, STAT1 and nuclear STAT1 translocation and DNA binding. Our results demonstrate that 15d-PGJ(2) inhibits INF-gamma-induced chemokine expression in mesangial cells by targeting the JAK/STAT signalling pathway. This effect is independent of an interference with PPARgamma.

  5. Proteomic profiling of human plasma exosomes identifies PPAR{gamma} as an exosome-associated protein

    SciTech Connect

    Looze, Christopher; Yui, David; Leung, Lester

    Exosomes are nanovesicles that are released from cells as a mechanism of cell-free intercellular communication. Only a limited number of proteins have been identified from the plasma exosome proteome. Here, we developed a multi-step fractionation scheme incorporating gel exclusion chromatography, rate zonal centrifugation through continuous sucrose gradients, and high-speed centrifugation to purify exosomes from human plasma. Exosome-associated proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and 66 proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS, which included both cellular and extracellular proteins. Furthermore, we identified and characterized peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}), a nuclear receptor that regulates adipocyte differentiation and proliferation, as well as immune and inflammatorymore » cell functions, as a novel component of plasma-derived exosomes. Given the important role of exosomes as intercellular messengers, the discovery of PPAR{gamma} as a component of human plasma exosomes identifies a potential new pathway for the paracrine transfer of nuclear receptors.« less

  6. Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} agonists inhibit the release of proinflammatory cytokines from RSV-infected epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Ralf; Koenig, Wolfgang

    2006-03-15

    The epithelial cells of the airways are the target cells for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection and the site of the majority of the inflammation associated with the disease. Recently, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, we investigated the role of PPAR{gamma} agonists (15d-PGJ{sub 2}, ciglitazone and troglitazone) on the synthesis of RSV-induced cytokine release from RSV-infected human lung epithelial cells (A549). We observed that all PPAR{gamma} ligands inhibited dose-dependently the release of TNF-{alpha}, GM-CSF, IL-1{alpha}, IL-6 and the chemokines CXCL8 (IL-8) and CCL5 (RANTES) frommore » RSV-infected A549 cells. Concomitantly, the PPAR{gamma} ligands diminished the cellular amount of mRNA encoding for IL-6, CXCL8 and CCL5 and the RSV-induced binding activity of the transcription factors NF-{kappa}B (p65/p50) and AP-1 (c-fos), respectively. Our data presented herein suggest a potential application of PPAR{gamma} ligands in the anti-inflammatory treatment of RSV infection.« less

  7. Polymeric particles conjugated with a ligand to VCAM-1 exhibit selective, avid, and focal adhesion to sites of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Deosarkar, Sudhir P; Malgor, Ramiro; Fu, Jie; Kohn, Leonard D; Hanes, Justin; Goetz, Douglas J

    2008-10-01

    The increased expression of VCAM-1 on endothelial segments within plaque regions could be used as a target to deliver polymeric drug carriers selectively to sites of atherosclerosis. We probed the hypothesis that polymeric particles conjugated with a ligand for VCAM-1 exhibit selective and avid adhesion to sites of atherosclerosis. Particles made from polystyrene or the biodegradable polymer poly(sebacic acid)-block-polyethylene glycol (PSA-PEG) were conjugated with an antibody to VCAM-1 (alpha-VCAM-1) or IgG (negative control). The particles were injected into the jugular vein of ApoE(-/-) (a murine model of atherosclerosis) or wild type mice and their adhesion to the aorta determined. alpha-VCAM-1 particles exhibited significantly greater adhesion to ApoE(-/-) mouse aorta [32 +/- 5 (mean +/- SEM) particles/mm(2) for polystyrene particles and 31 +/- 7 particles/mm(2) for PSA-PEG particles] compared to the level of adhesion to wild type mouse aorta (18 +/- 1 particles/mm(2) for polystyrene particles and 6 +/- 1 particles/mm(2) for PSA-PEG particles). Within ApoE(-/-) mice, the alpha-VCAM-1 particles exhibited significantly greater adhesion to the aorta (32 +/- 5 particles/mm(2) for polystyrene particles and 31 +/- 7 particles/mm(2) for PSA-PEG particles) compared to the adhesion of IgG particles (1 +/- 1 particles/mm(2) for polystyrene particles and 2 +/- 1 particles/mm(2) for PSA-PEG particles). Detailed analysis of the adhesion revealed that alpha-VCAM-1 particles exhibited focal adhesion to plaque regions, in particular the periphery of the plaques, within the ApoE(-/-) mouse aorta. Combined the data demonstrate that polymeric particles conjugated with a ligand to VCAM-1 exhibit selective, avid and focal adhesion to sites of atherosclerosis providing strong evidence that VCAM-1 ligand bearing polymeric particles could be used for targeting drugs selectively to atherosclerotic tissue.

  8. PPAR{alpha} deficiency augments a ketogenic diet-induced circadian PAI-1 expression possibly through PPAR{gamma} activation in the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Oishi, Katsutaka, E-mail: k-ooishi@aist.go.jp; Uchida, Daisuke; Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki

    Research highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} deficiency augments a ketogenic diet-induced circadian PAI-1 expression. {yields} Hepatic expressions of PPAR{gamma} and PCG-1{alpha} are induced by a ketogenic diet. {yields} PPAR{gamma} antagonist attenuates a ketogenic diet-induced PAI-1 expression. {yields} Ketogenic diet advances the phase of circadian clock in a PPAR{alpha}-independent manner. -- Abstract: An increased level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and PAI-1 gene expression is under the control of molecular circadian clocks in mammals. We recently showed that PAI-1 expression is augmented in a phase-advanced circadian manner in mice fed with a ketogenic diet (KD).more » To determine whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) is involved in hypofibrinolytic status induced by a KD, we examined the expression profiles of PAI-1 and circadian clock genes in PPAR{alpha}-null KD mice. Chronic administration of bezafibrate induced the PAI-1 gene expression in a PPAR{alpha}-dependent manner. Feeding with a KD augmented the circadian expression of PAI-1 mRNA in the hearts and livers of wild-type (WT) mice as previously described. The KD-induced mRNA expression of typical PPAR{alpha} target genes such as Cyp4A10 and FGF21 was damped in PPAR{alpha}-null mice. However, plasma PAI-1 concentrations were significantly more elevated in PPAR{alpha}-null KD mice in accordance with hepatic mRNA levels. These observations suggest that PPAR{alpha} activation is dispensable for KD-induced PAI-1 expression. We also found that hyperlipidemia, fatty liver, and the hepatic expressions of PPAR{gamma} and its coactivator PCG-1{alpha} were more effectively induced in PPAR{alpha}-null, than in WT mice on a KD. Furthermore, KD-induced hepatic PAI-1 expression was significantly suppressed by supplementation with bisphenol A diglycidyl ether, a PPAR{gamma} antagonist, in both WT and PPAR

  9. Analysis of PGC-1{alpha} variants Gly482Ser and Thr612Met concerning their PPAR{gamma}2-coactivation function

    SciTech Connect

    Nitz, Inke; Ewert, Agnes; Klapper, Maja

    2007-02-09

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} coactivator-1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}) is a cofactor involved in adaptive thermogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, and gluconeogenesis. Dysfunctions of this protein are likely to contribute to the development of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. This is in part but not definitely confirmed by results of population studies. The aim of this study was to investigate if common genetic variants rs8192678 (Gly482Ser) and rs3736265 (Thr612Met) in the PGC-1{alpha} gene lead to a functional consequence in cofactor activity using peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} 2 (PPAR{gamma}2) as interacting transcription factor. Reporter gene assays in HepG2 cells with wildtype and mutant proteins of both PGC1{alpha}more » and PPAR{gamma}2 (Pro12Ala, rs1801282) using the acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) promoter showed no difference in coactivator activity. This is First study implicating that the Gly482Ser and Thr612Met polymorphisms in PGC-1{alpha} and Pro12Ala polymorphism in PPAR{gamma}2 do not affect the functional integrity of these proteins.« less

  10. Vitamin E tocotrienols improve insulin sensitivity through activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Kang, Zhanfang; Wong, Chiwai

    2010-03-01

    Vitamin E is comprised of two classes of compounds: tocopherols and tocotrienols. Tocotrienol-enriched palm oil has been shown to help reduce blood glucose levels in patients and preclinical animal models. However, the mechanistic basis for tocotrienol action is not well established. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha, gamma, and delta (PPARalpha, PPARgamma, and PPARdelta) are ligand-regulated transcription factors that play essential roles in energy metabolism. Importantly, synthetic PPARalpha and PPARgamma ligands are currently used for treating hyperlipidemia and diabetes. In this study, we present data that tocotrienols within palm oil functioned as PPAR modulators. Specifically, both alpha- and gamma-tocotrienol activated PPARalpha, while delta-tocotrienol activated PPARalpha, PPARgamma, and PPARdelta in reporter-based assays. Tocotrienols enhanced the interaction between the purified ligand-binding domain of PPARalpha with the receptor-interacting motif of coactivator PPARgamma coactivator-1alpha. In addition, the tocotrienol-rich fraction of palm oil improved whole body glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity of diabetic Db/Db mice by selectively regulating PPAR target genes. These lines of evidence collectively suggested that PPARs represent a set of molecular targets of tocotrienols.

  11. SciTech Connect

    Alimirah, Fatouma; Peng, Xinjian; Yuan, Liang

    Heterodimerization and cross-talk between nuclear hormone receptors often occurs. For example, estrogen receptor alpha (ER{alpha}) physically binds to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) and inhibits its transcriptional activity. The interaction between PPAR{gamma} and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) however, is unknown. Here, we elucidate the molecular mechanisms linking PPAR{gamma} and VDR signaling, and for the first time we show that PPAR{gamma} physically associates with VDR in human breast cancer cells. We found that overexpression of PPAR{gamma} decreased 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (1,25D{sub 3}) mediated transcriptional activity of the vitamin D target gene, CYP24A1, by 49% and the activity of VDRE-luc, amore » vitamin D responsive reporter, by 75% in T47D human breast cancer cells. Deletion mutation experiments illustrated that helices 1 and 4 of PPAR{gamma}'s hinge and ligand binding domains, respectively, governed this suppressive function. Additionally, abrogation of PPAR{gamma}'s AF2 domain attenuated its repressive action on 1,25D{sub 3} transactivation, indicating that this domain is integral in inhibiting VDR signaling. PPAR{gamma} was also found to compete with VDR for their binding partner retinoid X receptor alpha (RXR{alpha}). Overexpression of RXR{alpha} blocked PPAR{gamma}'s suppressive effect on 1,25D{sub 3} action, enhancing VDR signaling. In conclusion, these observations uncover molecular mechanisms connecting the PPAR{gamma} and VDR pathways. -- Highlights: PPAR{gamma}'s role on 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} transcriptional activity is examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PPAR{gamma} physically binds to VDR and inhibits 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} action. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PPAR{gamma}'s hinge and ligand binding domains are important for this inhibitory effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PPAR{gamma} competes with VDR for the availability of their binding partner, RXR{alpha}.« less

  12. Lipid-binding proteins modulate ligand-dependent trans-activation by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and localize to the nucleus as well as the cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Helledie, T; Antonius, M; Sorensen, R V; Hertzel, A V; Bernlohr, D A; Kølvraa, S; Kristiansen, K; Mandrup, S

    2000-11-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are activated by a variety of fatty acids, eicosanoids, and hypolipidemic and insulin-sensitizing drugs. Many of these compounds bind avidly to members of a family of small lipid-binding proteins, the fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs). Fatty acids are activated to CoA esters, which bind with high affinity to the acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP). Thus, the availability of known and potential PPAR ligands may be regulated by lipid-binding proteins. In this report we show by transient transfection of CV-1 cells that coexpression of ACBP and adipocyte lipid-binding protein (ALBP) exerts a ligand- and PPAR subtype-specific attenuation of PPAR-mediated trans-activation, suggesting that lipid-binding proteins, when expressed at high levels, may function as negative regulators of PPAR activation by certain ligands. Expression of ACBP, ALBP, and keratinocyte lipid-binding protein (KLBP) is induced during adipocyte differentiation, a process during which PPARgamma plays a prominent role. We present evidence that endogenous ACBP, ALBP, and KLBP not only localize to the cytoplasm but also exhibit a prominent nuclear localization in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, forced expression of ACBP, ALBP, and KLBP in CV-1 cells resulted in a substantial accumulation of all three proteins in the nucleus. These results suggest that lipid-binding proteins, contrary to the general assumption, may exert their action in the nucleus as well as in the cytoplasm.

  13. Downregulation of microRNA-29 by antisense inhibitors and a PPAR-gamma agonist protects against myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yumei; Hu, Zhaoyong; Lin, Yu; Zhang, Congfang; Perez-Polo, Jose R

    2010-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate various cardiac processes including cell proliferation and apoptosis. Pioglitazone (PIO), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma agonist, protects against myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. We assessed the effects of PPAR-gamma activation on myocardial miRNA levels and the role of miRNAs in IR injury. We evaluated the expression changes of miRNAs in the rat heart after PIO administration using miRNA arrays and then confirmed the result by northern blot. miR-29a and c levels decreased remarkably after 7-day treatment with PIO. In H9c2 cells, the effects of PIO and rosiglitazone on miR-29 expression levels were blocked by a selective PPAR-gamma inhibitor GW9662. Downregulation of miR-29 by antisense inhibitor or by PIO protected H9c2 cells from simulated IR injury, indicated as increased cell survival and decreased caspase-3 activity. In contrast, overexpressing miR-29 promoted apoptosis and completely blocked the protective effect of PIO. Antagomirs against miR-29a or -29c significantly reduced myocardial infarct size and apoptosis in hearts subjected to IR injury. Western blot analyses demonstrated that Mcl-2, an anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member, was increased by miR-29 inhibition. Downregulation of miR-29 protected hearts against IR injury. The modulation of miRNAs can be achieved by pharmacological intervention. These findings provide a rationale for the development of miRNA-based strategies for the attenuation of IR injury.

  14. Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) in human prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Segawa, Yoshihiro; Yoshimura, Rikio; Hase, Taro; Nakatani, Tatsuya; Wada, Seiji; Kawahito, Yutaka; Kishimoto, Taketoshi; Sano, Hajime

    2002-05-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that peroxisome proliferator activator-receptors (PPAR)-gamma is expressed in some cancer cells such as breast, lung, and gastric cancer, and its ligand induces growth arrest of these cancer cells through apoptosis. However, the expression and localization of PPARs in prostate have not been examined. In this study, PPARs expression was investigated in human prostate cancer (PC), prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and normal prostate (NP) tissues. Tumor specimens were obtained from 156 patients with PC, 15 with PIN, 20 with BPH, and 12 patients with NP tissues. The expressions were investigated by RT-PCR and immunohistochemical methods. Immunoreactive PPAR-alpha and -beta were significantly apparent in PC tissues. Marked expressions of PPAR-alpha and -beta were also detected in PIN, BPH, and NP groups. However, very weak or no expression of immunoreactive PPAR-gamma was found in BPH and NP cases. In contrast, we found significant expression of immunoreactive PPAR-gamma in cancer cells in PC group and in PIN group. Our results demonstrated that PPAR-gamma is induced in PC, and suggest that PPAR-gamma ligands may mediate its own potent antiproliferative effect against PC cells through differentiation. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Novel time-dependent vascular actions of {delta}{sup 9}-tetrahydrocannabinol mediated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, Saoirse E.; Tarling, Elizabeth J.; Bennett, Andrew J.

    Cannabinoids have widespread effects on the cardiovascular system, only some of which are mediated via G-protein-coupled cell surface receptors. The active ingredient of cannabis, {delta}{sup 9}-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), causes acute vasorelaxation in various arteries. Here we show for the first time that THC also causes slowly developing vasorelaxation through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma (PPAR{gamma}). In vitro, THC (10 {mu}M) caused time-dependent vasorelaxation of rat isolated arteries. Time-dependent vasorelaxation to THC was similar to that produced by the PPAR{gamma} agonist rosiglitazone and was inhibited by the PPAR{gamma} antagonist GW9662 (1 {mu}M), but not the cannabinoid CB{sub 1} receptor antagonist AM251more » (1 {mu}M). Time-dependent vasorelaxation to THC requires an intact endothelium, nitric oxide, production of hydrogen peroxide, and de novo protein synthesis. In transactivation assays in cultured HEK293 cells, THC-activated PPAR{gamma}, transiently expressed in combination with retinoid X receptor {alpha} and a luciferase reporter gene, in a concentration-dependent manner (100 nM-10 {mu}M). In vitro incubation with THC (1 or 10 {mu}M, 8 days) stimulated adipocyte differentiation in cultured 3T3L1 cells, a well-accepted property of PPAR{gamma} ligands. The present results provide strong evidence that THC is a PPAR{gamma} ligand, stimulation of which causes time-dependent vasorelaxation, implying some of the pleiotropic effects of cannabis may be mediated by nuclear receptors.« less

  16. Azelaic acid modulates the inflammatory response in normal human keratinocytes through PPARgamma activation.

    PubMed

    Mastrofrancesco, Arianna; Ottaviani, Monica; Aspite, Nicaela; Cardinali, Giorgia; Izzo, Enzo; Graupe, Klaus; Zouboulis, Christos C; Camera, Emanuela; Picardo, Mauro

    2010-09-01

    Azelaic acid (AzA), a nine-carbon dicarboxylic acid, is an agent for the topical treatment of acne. It has also been shown to be effective in rosacea; however, the mechanism of action has not been clarified. Because inflammation is a common feature of both conditions, we investigated the effects of azelaic acid on the inflammatory response of normal human keratinocytes to ultraviolet B light, which is a photosensitizer agent in rosacea. AzA, at 20 mM, a concentration achievable following topical application of a 15% gel, suppresses ultraviolet B light-induced interleukins-1beta, -6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA expression and protein secretion. Mechanistically, azelaic acid significantly reduced the ultraviolet B light-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kB p65 subunit and the phosphorylation of the p38 mitogen and stress-activated protein kinase. Moreover, as peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma, (PPARgamma) which has a crucial role in the control of inflammation, is activated by fatty acids and products of lipid peroxidation, we further investigated the effect of azelaic acid on the expression of this nuclear receptor. AzA induced peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-gamma mRNA and its transcriptional activity. The PPARgamma antagonist GW9662 abrogated the inhibitory effects of AzA on the UVB-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines release and on the cell proliferation. Our study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms of the activity of azelaic acid and lands additional evidences for its therapeutic effects on inflammatory skin diseases, such as rosacea.

  17. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activators affect the maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Gosset, P; Charbonnier, A S; Delerive, P; Fontaine, J; Staels, B; Pestel, J; Tonnel, A B; Trottein, F

    2001-10-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma ), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, has recently been described as a modulator of macrophage functions and as an inhibitor of T cell proliferation. Here, we investigated the role of PPARgamma in dendritic cells (DC), the most potent antigen-presenting cells. We showed that PPARgamma is highly expressed in immature human monocyte-derived DC (MDDC) and that it may affect the immunostimulatory function of MDDC stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or via CD40 ligand (CD40L). We found that the synthetic PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone (as well as pioglitazone and troglitazone) significantly increases on LPS- and CD40L-activated MDDC, the surface expression of CD36 (by 184% and 104%, respectively) and CD86 (by 54% and 48%), whereas it reduces the synthesis of CD80 (by 42% and 42%). Moreover, activation of PPARgamma resulted in a dramatic decreased secretion of the Th1-promoting factor IL-12 in LPS- and CD40L-stimulated cells (by 47% and 62%), while the production of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 was unaffected. Finally, PPARgamma ligands down-modulate the synthesis of IFN-gamma -inducible protein-10 (recently termed as CXCL10) and RANTES (CCL5), both chemokines involved in the recruitment of Th1 lymphocytes (by 49% and 30%), but not the levels of the Th2 cell-attracting chemokines,macrophage-derived chemokine (CCL22) and thymus and activation regulated chemokine (CCL17), in mature MDDC. Taken together, our data suggest that activation of PPARgamma in human DC may have an impact in the orientation of primary and secondary immune responses by favoring type 2 responses.

  18. Evaluation of glucose metabolism and reproductive hormones in polycystic ovary syndrome on the basis of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma2 Pro12Ala genotype.

    PubMed

    Tok, E C; Aktas, A; Ertunc, D; Erdal, E M; Dilek, S

    2005-06-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma2 Pro12Ala polymorphism has been suggested as a protective factor for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In this study, we aimed to investigate metabolic features and reproductive hormones in women with PCOS and compare these features with control women on the basis of Pro12Ala genotype. This study involved 60 randomly selected women with PCOS and 60 controls. Main outcome measures were anthropometric measures, variables of glucose metabolism and reproductive hormones. All the patients were genotyped for Pro12Ala variant of PPAR-gamma2 gene. Patients with Pro12Ala polymorphism were more obese in both groups. Furthermore, they had lower fasting insulin levels, were less insulin-resistant and were less glucose-intolerant as demonstrated by 2 h glucose concentrations. However, there was no difference in reproductive hormone levels on the basis of Pro12Ala genotype. Both control women and women with PCOS had significant differences in glucose metabolism on the basis of PPAR-gamma2 Pro12Ala polymorphism. Pro12Ala variant may break the process that leads to PCOS in susceptible women, instead of being a direct causal relationship between Pro12Ala polymorphism and PCOS.

  19. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) induces cell death through MAPK-dependent mechanism in osteoblastic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sung Hun; Yoo, Chong Il; Medical Research Institute, College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Pusan, 602-739

    2006-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) subfamilies in cell death induced by PPAR{gamma} agonists in osteoblastic cells. Ciglitazone and troglitazone, PPAR{gamma} agonists, resulted in a concentration- and time-dependent cell death, which was largely attributed to apoptosis. But a PPAR{alpha} agonist ciprofibrate did not affect the cell death. Ciglitazone caused reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and ciglitazone-induced cell death was prevented by antioxidants, suggesting an important role of ROS generation in the ciglitazone-induced cell death. ROS generation and cell death induced by ciglitazone were inhibited by the PPAR{gamma} antagonist GW9662. Ciglitazone treatmentmore » caused activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38. Activation of ERK was dependent on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and that of p38 was independent. Ciglitazone-induced cell death was significantly prevented by PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK upstream kinase MEK1/2, and SB203580, a p38 inhibitor. Ciglitazone treatment increased Bax expression and caused a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and its effect was prevented by N-acetylcysteine, PD98059, and SB203580. Ciglitazone induced caspase activation, which was prevented by PD98059 and SB203580. The general caspase inhibitor z-DEVD-FMK and the specific inhibitor of caspases-3 DEVD-CHO exerted the protective effect against the ciglitazone-induced cell death. The EGFR inhibitors AG1478 and suramin protected against the ciglitazone-induced cell death. Taken together, these findings suggest that the MAPK signaling pathways play an active role in mediating the ciglitazone-induced cell death of osteoblasts and function upstream of a mitochondria-dependent mechanism. These data may provide a novel insight into potential therapeutic strategies for treatment of osteoporosis.« less

  20. Constitutive Smad signaling and Smad-dependent collagen gene expression in mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma}

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Asish K; Wei, Jun; Wu, Minghua

    2008-09-19

    Transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}), a potent inducer of collagen synthesis, is implicated in pathological fibrosis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR-{gamma}) is a nuclear hormone receptor that regulates adipogenesis and numerous other biological processes. Here, we demonstrate that collagen gene expression was markedly elevated in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking PPAR-{gamma} compared to heterozygous control MEFs. Treatment with the PPAR-{gamma} ligand 15d-PGJ{sub 2} failed to down-regulate collagen gene expression in PPAR-{gamma} null MEFs, whereas reconstitution of these cells with ectopic PPAR-{gamma} resulted in their normalization. Compared to control MEFs, PPAR-{gamma} null MEFs displayed elevated levels of the Type I TGF-{beta} receptor (T{beta}RI),more » and secreted more TGF-{beta}1 into the media. Furthermore, PPAR-{gamma} null MEFs showed constitutive phosphorylation of cellular Smad2 and Smad3, even in the absence of exogenous TGF-{beta}, which was abrogated by the ALK5 inhibitor SB431542. Constitutive Smad2/3 phosphorylation in PPAR-{gamma} null MEFs was associated with Smad3 binding to its cognate DNA recognition sequences, and interaction with coactivator p300 previously implicated in TGF-{beta} responses. Taken together, these results indicate that loss of PPAR-{gamma} in MEFs is associated with upregulation of collagen synthesis, and activation of intracellular Smad signal transduction, due, at least in part, to autocrine TGF-{beta} stimulation.« less

  1. Structural and Biochemical Basis for the Binding Selectivity of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor [gamma] to PGC-1[alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yong; Kovach, Amanda; Suino-Powell, Kelly

    2008-07-23

    The functional interaction between the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) and its coactivator PGC-1{alpha} is crucial for the normal physiology of PPAR{gamma} and its pharmacological response to antidiabetic treatment with rosiglitazone. Here we report the crystal structure of the PPAR{gamma} ligand-binding domain bound to rosiglitazone and to a large PGC-1{alpha} fragment that contains two LXXLL-related motifs. The structure reveals critical contacts mediated through the first LXXLL motif of PGC-1{alpha} and the PPAR{gamma} coactivator binding site. Through a combination of biochemical and structural studies, we demonstrate that the first LXXLL motif is the most potent among all nuclear receptor coactivator motifsmore » tested, and only this motif of the two LXXLL-related motifs in PGC-1{alpha} is capable of binding to PPAR{gamma}. Our studies reveal that the strong interaction of PGC-1{alpha} and PPAR{gamma} is mediated through both hydrophobic and specific polar interactions. Mutations within the context of the full-length PGC-1{alpha} indicate that the first PGC-1{alpha} motif is necessary and sufficient for PGC-1{alpha} to coactivate PPAR{gamma} in the presence or absence of rosiglitazone. These results provide a molecular basis for specific recruitment and functional interplay between PPAR{gamma} and PGC-1{alpha} in glucose homeostasis and adipocyte differentiation.« less

  2. Synthesis and pharmacological characterization of novel xanthine carboxylate amides as A2A adenosine receptor ligands exhibiting bronchospasmolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Rakesh; Bansal, Ranju; Rohilla, Suman; Kachler, Sonja; Klotz, Karl-Norbert

    2016-04-01

    The carboxylate amides of 8-phenyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine described herein represent a new series of selective ligands of the adenosine A2A receptors exhibiting bronchospasmolytic activity. The effects of location of 8-phenyl substitutions on the adenosine receptor (AR) binding affinities of the newly synthesized xanthines have also been studied. The compounds displayed moderate to potent binding affinities toward various adenosine receptor subtypes when evaluated through radioligand binding studies. However, most of the compounds showed the maximum affinity for the A2A subtype, some with high selectivity versus all other subtypes. Xanthine carboxylate amide 13b with a diethylaminoethylamino moiety at the para-position of the 8-phenylxanthine scaffold was identified as the most potent A2A adenosine receptor ligand with Ki=0.06μM. Similarly potent and highly A2A-selective are the isovanillin derivatives 16a and 16d. In addition, the newly synthesized xanthine derivatives showed good in vivo bronchospasmolytic activity when tested in guinea pigs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Decreased expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma in cftr-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Ollero, Mario; Junaidi, Omer; Zaman, Munir M; Tzameli, Iphigenia; Ferrando, Adolfo A; Andersson, Charlotte; Blanco, Paola G; Bialecki, Eldad; Freedman, Steven D

    2004-08-01

    Some of the pathological manifestations of cystic fibrosis are in accordance with an impaired expression and/or activity of PPARgamma. We hypothesized that PPARgamma expression is altered in tissues lacking the normal cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator protein (CFTR). PPARgamma mRNA levels were measured in colonic mucosa, ileal mucosa, adipose tissue, lung, and liver from wild-type and cftr-/- mice by quantitative RT-PCR. PPARgamma expression was decreased twofold in CFTR-regulated tissues (colon, ileum, and lung) from cftr-/- mice compared to wild-type littermates. In contrast, no differences were found in fat and liver. Immunohistochemical analysis of PPARgamma in ileum and colon revealed a predominantly nuclear localization in wild-type mucosal epithelial cells while tissues from cftr-/- mice showed a more diffuse, lower intensity labeling. A significant decrease in PPARgamma expression was confirmed in nuclear extracts of colon mucosa by Western blot analysis. In addition, binding of the PPARgamma/RXR heterodimer to an oligonucletotide containing a peroxisome proliferator responsive element (PPRE) was also decreased in colonic mucosa extracts from cftr-/- mice. Treatment of cftr-/- mice with the PPARgamma ligand rosiglitazone restored both the nuclear localization and binding to DNA, but did not increase RNA levels. We conclude that PPARgamma expression in cftr-/- mice is downregulated at the RNA and protein levels and its function diminished. These changes may be related to the loss of function of CFTR and may be relevant to the pathogenesis of metabolic abnormalities associated with cystic fibrosis in humans. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Citrus auraptene acts as an agonist for PPARs and enhances adiponectin production and MCP-1 reduction in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kuroyanagi, Kayo; Kang, Min-Sook; Goto, Tsuyoshi

    Citrus fruit compounds have many health-enhancing effects. In this study, using a luciferase ligand assay system, we showed that citrus auraptene activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{alpha} and PPAR{gamma}. Auraptene induced up-regulation of adiponectin expression and increased the ratio of the amount of high-molecular-weight multimers of adiponectin to the total adiponectin. In contrast, auraptene suppressed monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Experiments using PPAR{gamma} antagonist demonstrated that these effects on regulation of adiponectin and MCP-1 expression were caused by PPAR{gamma} activations. The results indicate that auraptene activates PPAR{gamma} in adipocytes to control adipocytekines such as adiponectin and MCP-1 andmore » suggest that the consumption of citrus fruits, which contain auraptene can lead to a partial prevention of lipid and glucose metabolism abnormalities.« less

  5. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist troglitazone induces colon tumors in normal C57BL/6J mice and enhances colonic carcinogenesis in Apc1638 N/+ Mlh1+/- double mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kan; Fan, Kun-Hua; Lamprecht, Sergio A; Edelmann, Winfried; Kopelovich, Levy; Kucherlapati, Raju; Lipkin, Martin

    2005-09-10

    The role of the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) in colon tumorigenesis remains controversial. Notwithstanding evidence that PPAR-gamma ligands impede murine colorectal carcinogenesis, PPAR-gamma agonists have been shown to enhance in vivo tumor formation in mouse models of human colon cancer. Our study was designed to determine whether troglitazone (TGZ) induces colonic tumor formation in normal C57BL/6J mice and enhances colorectal carcinogenesis in double mutant Apc1638N/+ Mlh1+/- mice fed a standard AIN-76A diet. We report herein that not only does TGZ enhance carcinogenesis in the large intestine of mutant mice predisposed to intestinal carcinogenesis but TGZ also induces colonic tumors in normal mice without gene targeting or carcinogen administration. This observation indicates that preexisting mutational events are not necessary for induction of colonic tumors by activated PPAR-gamma in vivo. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} is expressed in hippocampal neurons and its activation prevents {beta}-amyloid neurodegeneration: role of Wnt signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.; Godoy, Juan A.; MIFAB, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago

    2005-03-10

    The molecular pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves the participation of the amyloid-{beta}-peptide (A{beta}), which plays a critical role in the neurodegeneration that triggers the disease. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors, which are members of the nuclear receptor family. We report here that (1) PPAR{gamma} is present in rat hippocampal neurons in culture. (2) Activation of PPAR{gamma} by troglitazone and rosiglitazone protects rat hippocampal neurons against A{beta}-induced neurodegeneration, as shown by the 3-[4,5 -2yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay, immunofluorescence using an anti-heavy neurofilament antibody, and quantitative electron microscopy. (3) Hippocampal neurons treated with several PPAR{gamma} agonists, includingmore » troglitazone, rosiglitazone, and ciglitazone, prevent the excitotoxic A{beta}-induced rise in bulk-free Ca{sup 2+}. (4) PPAR{gamma} activation results in the modulation of Wnt signaling components, including the inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) and an increase of the cytoplasmic and nuclear {beta}-catenin levels. We conclude that the activation of PPAR{gamma} prevents A{beta}-induced neurodegeneration by a mechanism that may involve a cross talk between neuronal PPAR{gamma} and the Wnt signaling pathway. More important, the fact that the activation of PPAR{gamma} attenuated A{beta}-dependent neurodegeneration opens the possibility to fight AD from a new therapeutic perspective.« less

  7. Identification of bioactive compounds from flowers of black elder (Sambucus nigra L.) that activate the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Kathrine B; Petersen, Rasmus K; Kristiansen, Karsten; Christensen, Lars P

    2010-06-01

    Obesity is one of the predisposing factors for the development of overt Type 2 diabetes (T2D). T2D is caused by a combination of insulin resistance and beta-cell failure and can be treated with insulin sensitizing drugs that target the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma. Extracts of elderflowers (Sambucus nigra) have been found to activate PPARgamma and to stimulate insulin-dependent glucose uptake suggesting that they have a potential use in the prevention and/or treatment of insulin resistance. Bioassay-guided chromatographic fractionation of a methanol extract of elderflowers resulted in the identification of two well-known PPARgamma agonists; alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid as well as the flavanone naringenin. Naringenin was found to activate PPARgamma without stimulating adipocyte differentiation. However, the bioactivities of these three metabolites were not able to fully account for the observed PPARgamma activation of the crude elderflower extracts and further studies are needed to determine whether this is due synergistic effects and/or other ligand-independent mechanisms. Elderflower metabolites such as quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside, and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid were unable to activate PPARgamma. These findings suggest that flavonoid glycosides cannot activate PPARgamma, whereas some of their aglycones are potential agonists of PPARgamma.

  8. SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Fujita, Megumi; Koma, Hiromi

    Highlights: {yields} A topoisomerase-I inhibitor, camptothecin, exhibited synergistically toxicity with 15d-PGJ{sub 2}. {yields} The combination of 15d-PGJ{sub 2} and a topoisomerase-II inhibitor, doxorubicine, did not cause synergistic cell growth inhibition. {yields} A PPAR{gamma} antagonist did not prevent Caki-2 from undergoing 15d-PGJ{sub 2}-induced cytotoxicity. {yields} The treatment of camptothecin combined with 15d-PGJ{sub 2} activated caspase-3 more than the separate treatment. -- Abstract: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is chemoresistant cancer. Although several clinical trials were conducted to explore effective medications, the chemoresistance of RCC has not yet been conquered. An endogenous ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}), 15-deoxy-{Delta}{sup 12,14}-prostaglandin J{sub 2} (15d-PGJ{submore » 2}), induces apoptosis in RCC. Here, we examined synergistic effects of several carcinostatics on the anti-tumor activity of 15d-PGJ{sub 2} in Caki-2 cell line by MTT assay. A topoisomerase-I inhibitor, camptothecin (CPT), exhibited synergistically toxicity with 15d-PGJ{sub 2}, but neither 5-fluorouracil nor cisplatin did. The combination of 15d-PGJ{sub 2} and a topoisomerase-II inhibitor, doxorubicine, did not cause synergistic cell growth inhibition. The synergistic effect of topoisomerase-I and II inhibitors was not also detected. A PPAR{gamma} antagonist, GW9662, did not prevent Caki-2 from undergoing 15d-PGJ{sub 2}-induced cytotoxicity. The treatment of CPT combined with 15d-PGJ{sub 2} activated caspase-3 more than the separate treatment. These results suggest that 15d-PGJ{sub 2} exhibited the anti-tumor activity synergistically with CPT independent of topoisomerase-II and PPAR{gamma}.« less

  9. Sibling-based association study of the PPARgamma2 Pro12Ala polymorphism and metabolic variables in Chinese and Japanese hypertension families: a SAPPHIRe study. Stanford Asian-Pacific Program in Hypertension and Insulin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Chuang, L M; Hsiung, C A; Chen, Y D; Ho, L T; Sheu, W H; Pei, D; Nakatsuka, C H; Cox, D; Pratt, R E; Lei, H H; Tai, T Y

    2001-11-01

    The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) gamma2 is a transcription factor that has been shown to be involved in adipocyte differentiation, adipogenesis, and insulin sensitivity. To address the role of PPARgamma2 in glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, among many other objectives, we conducted a sibling-controlled association study in a multicenter program - the Stanford Asian-Pacific Program in Hypertension and Insulin Resistance (SAPPHIRe). Approximately 2525 subjects in 734 Chinese and Japanese families have been recruited from six field centers for SAPPHIRe. In total, 1702 subjects including parents and siblings from 449 families have been genotyped for PPARgamma2, of which 328 families were Chinese and 121 Japanese. Only 88 subjects of the 1525 siblings screened for the P12A polymorphism were found to be carriers of the A variant, the most common variant of the PPARgamma2 gene. A variant frequencies of the siblings were 4.27% in Chinese and 2.72% in Japanese. A sibling-controlled association study was performed through genetically discordant sibships (i.e., P/P genotype vs. P/A + A/A genotypes). Specifically, we examined whether there were differences in metabolic variables between the discordant siblings within families. In total, 88 subjects carrying either 1 or 2 A alleles had at least one sibling who was discordant for the P12A polymorphism, yielding a total of 180 individuals from 47 families for analyses, among which 92 siblings were homozygous for wild-type P allele. Siblings with the A variant tended to have lower levels of fasting plasma glucose (OG-10), and lower glucose levels at 60 min following oral glucose loading after adjusting for age, gender, and body mass index. Using a mixed model treating family as a random effect, we found that P12A polymorphism of the PPARgamma2 gene contributes significantly to the variance in fasting plasma glucose, glucose level at 60 min, and insulin-resistance homeostasis model assessment. Our

  10. Repressive effect of the phytoestrogen genistein on estradiol-induced uterine leiomyoma cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Asako; Takeda, Takashi; Isobe, Aki; Wakabayashi, Atsuko; Nishimoto, Fumihito; Morishige, Ken-Ichirou; Sakata, Masahiro; Kimura, Tadashi

    2009-06-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are the most common gynecological benign tumor and greatly affect reproductive health and well-being. They are the predominant indication for hysterectomy in premenopausal women. Current epidemiological study reported that soy products intake is inversely associated with diseases leading to hysterectomy. Genistein is a soy-derived phytoestrogen and its inhibitory effect on leiomyoma cell proliferation is reported. In this study, we investigated the siginificant inhibitory effect of genistein on estradiol (E(2))-induced leiomyoma cells proliferation. The Eker rat-derived uterine leiomyoma cell line ELT-3 cells were used. Cell proliferation was assessed by counting the number of cells. The expression of estrogen receptors and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) was evaluated by Western blot analysis. PPARgamma was expressed in ELT-3 cells and genistein acted as PPARgamma ligand. This inhibitory effect of genistein was attenuated by the treatment of cells with PPARgamma antagonist bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) or GW9662. These experimental findings in vitro show that the repressive effect of genistein on E(2)-induced ELT-3 cell proliferation is through the activation of PPARgamma. Genistein may be useful as an alternative therapy for leiomyoma.

  11. Strong Ligand-Protein Interactions Derived from Diffuse Ligand Interactions with Loose Binding Sites.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Many systems in biology rely on binding of ligands to target proteins in a single high-affinity conformation with a favorable ΔG. Alternatively, interactions of ligands with protein regions that allow diffuse binding, distributed over multiple sites and conformations, can exhibit favorable ΔG because of their higher entropy. Diffuse binding may be biologically important for multidrug transporters and carrier proteins. A fine-grained computational method for numerical integration of total binding ΔG arising from diffuse regional interaction of a ligand in multiple conformations using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach is presented. This method yields a metric that quantifies the influence on overall ligand affinity of ligand binding to multiple, distinct sites within a protein binding region. This metric is essentially a measure of dispersion in equilibrium ligand binding and depends on both the number of potential sites of interaction and the distribution of their individual predicted affinities. Analysis of test cases indicates that, for some ligand/protein pairs involving transporters and carrier proteins, diffuse binding contributes greatly to total affinity, whereas in other cases the influence is modest. This approach may be useful for studying situations where "nonspecific" interactions contribute to biological function.

  12. Changes in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activity in children with septic shock.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Jennifer M; Denenberg, Alvin; Monaco, Marie; Nowell, Marchele; Wong, Hector; Zingarelli, Basilia

    2010-01-01

    To assess changes in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from critically ill children with sepsis. Additionally, to investigate the effects of sepsis on the endogenous activator of PPARgamma, 15-deoxy-(12,14)-PGJ(2) (15d-PGJ(2)), and the downstream targets of PPARgamma activity, adiponectin and resistin. Single-center, prospective case-control study in critically ill children with systemic inflammatory response syndrome, sepsis or septic shock. PPARgamma nuclear protein expression was decreased but PPARgamma activity was increased in PBMC from children with septic shock compared with controls. PPARgamma activity on day 1 was significantly higher in patients with higher pediatric risk of mortality (PRISM) score compared with controls [mean 0.22 optical density (OD) +/- standard error of the mean (SEM) 0.03 versus 0.12 OD +/- 0.02; p < 0.001]. Patients with resolved sepsis had increased levels of the endogenous PPARgamma ligand, 15d-PGJ(2), compared with patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and septic shock (77.7 +/- 21.7 versus 58 +/- 16.5 pg/ml; p = 0.03). Plasma high-molecular-weight adiponectin (HMWA) and resistin levels were increased in patients with septic shock on day 1 and were significantly higher in patients with higher PRISM scores. Nonsurvivors from sepsis had higher resistin levels on the first day of hospitalization compared with survivors from septic shock [660 ng/ml, interquartile range (IQR) 585-833 ng/ml versus 143 ng/ml, IQR 66-342 ng/ml; p < 0.05]. Sepsis is associated with altered PPARgamma expression and activity in PBMC. Plasma adipokines correlate with risk of mortality scores in sepsis and may be useful biomarkers. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms underlying changes in PPARgamma in sepsis.

  13. A selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma modulator, telmisartan, binds to the receptor in a different fashion from thiazolidinediones.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Moriyama, Kenji; Sawai, Kuniko; Usui, Takeshi; Shimatsu, Akira; Naruse, Mitsuhide

    2009-02-01

    Angiotensin type 1 receptor blockers are widely used for the treatment of hypertension, and one angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker, telmisartan, specifically activates the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma. We studied the impact of PPARgamma mutants on transcriptional control and interaction with cofactors to elucidate differences in the molecular mechanism between telmisartan and other PPARgamma agonists, thiazolidinediones (TZDs). We created several amino acid substitutions in the ligand binding domain of PPARgamma that, based on molecular modeling, may affect the binding of these agents. In transient expression experiments, wild-type PPARgamma-mediated transcription stimulated by telmisartan was more than one third of that stimulated by TZDs. The activation stimulated by TZDs was impaired, whereas activation stimulated by telmisartan was retained, in the H323Y, S342A, and H449A mutants. In the Y473A mutant, the TZD-induced activation was further impaired and lower than that of telmisartan-induced activation. Coexpression of coactivators enhanced the activation by both telmisartan and TZDs, but activation by telmisartan always exceeded that of TZDs in the Y473A mutant. Based on a mammalian two-hybrid assay, the interaction with corepressors was retained in Y473A. Telmisartan and TZDs, but not 9cis retinoic acid, dissociated corepressors from the wild-type PPARgamma. Telmisartan most effectively dissociated corepressors from Y473A. The interaction with coactivators was enhanced by TZD activation of wild-type PPARgamma and both telmisartan and TZD activation of Y473A. Thus, the Y473A mutant is selectively stimulated by telmisartan but not TZDs, suggesting that telmisartan and TZDs have differential effects on the transcriptional control. In conclusion, these PPARgamma mutants could be powerful tools for developing novel therapeutic agents that retain the metabolic efficacy of PPARgamma activation with fewer adverse effects, such as the

  14. In vitro glucose uptake activity of Aegles marmelos and Syzygium cumini by activation of Glut-4, PI3 kinase and PPARgamma in L6 myotubes.

    PubMed

    Anandharajan, R; Jaiganesh, S; Shankernarayanan, N P; Viswakarma, R A; Balakrishnan, A

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of methanolic extracts of Aegles marmelos and Syzygium cumini on a battery of targets glucose transporter (Glut-4), peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase (PI3 kinase) involved in glucose transport. A. marmelos and S. cumini are anti-diabetic medicinal plants being used in Indian traditional medicine. Different solvent extracts extracted sequentially were analysed for glucose uptake activity at each step and methanol extracts were found to be significantly active at 100ng/ml dose comparable with insulin and rosiglitazone. Elevation of Glut-4, PPARgamma and PI3 kinase by A. marmelos and S. cumini in association with glucose transport supported the up-regulation of glucose uptake. The inhibitory effect of cycloheximide on A. marmelos- and S. cumini-mediated glucose uptake suggested that new protein synthesis is required for the elevated glucose transport. Current observation concludes that methanolic extracts of A. marmelos and S. cumini activate glucose transport in a PI3 kinase-dependent fashion.

  15. Conformational diversity of flexible ligand in metal-organic frameworks controlled by size-matching mixed ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Xiu-Ni; Qin, Lan; Yan, Xiao-Zhi; Yu, Lei; Xie, Yi-Xin; Han, Lei

    2015-12-01

    Hydrothermal reactions of N-auxiliary flexible exo-bidentate ligand 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane (bpp) and carboxylates ligands naphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (2,6-H2ndc) or 4,4‧-(hydroxymethylene)dibenzoic acid (H2hmdb), in the presence of cadmium(II) salts have given rise to two novel metal-organic frameworks based on flexible ligands (FL-MOFs), namely, [Cd2(2,6-ndc)2(bpp)(DMF)]·2DMF (1) and [Cd3(hmdb)3(bpp)]·2DMF·2EtOH (2) (DMF=N,N-Dimethylformamide). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that compound 1 exhibits a three-dimensional self-penetrating 6-connected framework based on dinuclear cluster second building unit. Compound 2 displays an infinite three-dimensional 'Lucky Clover' shape (2,10)-connected network based on the trinuclear cluster and V-shaped organic linkers. The flexible bpp ligand displays different conformations in 1 and 2, which are successfully controlled by size-matching mixed ligands during the self-assembly process.

  16. Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma in key neuronal subsets regulating glucose metabolism and energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Sarruf, David A; Yu, Fang; Nguyen, Hong T; Williams, Diana L; Printz, Richard L; Niswender, Kevin D; Schwartz, Michael W

    2009-02-01

    In addition to increasing insulin sensitivity and adipogenesis, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma agonists cause weight gain and hyperphagia. Given the central role of the brain in the control of energy homeostasis, we sought to determine whether PPARgamma is expressed in key brain areas involved in metabolic regulation. Using immunohistochemistry, PPARgamma distribution and its colocalization with neuron-specific protein markers were investigated in rat and mouse brain sections spanning the hypothalamus, the ventral tegmental area, and the nucleus tractus solitarius. In several brain areas, nuclear PPARgamma immunoreactivity was detected in cells that costained for neuronal nuclei, a neuronal marker. In the hypothalamus, PPARgamma immunoreactivity was observed in a majority of neurons in the arcuate (including both agouti related protein and alpha-MSH containing cells) and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei and was also present in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, the lateral hypothalamic area, and tyrosine hydroxylase-containing neurons in the ventral tegmental area but was not expressed in the nucleus tractus solitarius. To validate and extend these histochemical findings, we generated mice with neuron-specific PPARgamma deletion using nestin cre-LoxP technology. Compared with littermate controls, neuron-specific PPARgamma knockout mice exhibited dramatic reductions of both hypothalamic PPARgamma mRNA levels and PPARgamma immunoreactivity but showed no differences in food intake or body weight over a 4-wk study period. We conclude that: 1) PPARgamma mRNA and protein are expressed in the hypothalamus, 2) neurons are the predominant source of PPARgamma in the central nervous system, although it is likely expressed by nonneuronal cell types as well, and 3) arcuate nucleus neurons that control energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism are among those in which PPARgamma is expressed.

  17. SciTech Connect

    Baker, Anna D.; Malur, Anagha; Barna, Barbara P.

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR{gamma}) is a nuclear transcription factor involved in lipid metabolism that is constitutively expressed in the alveolar macrophages of healthy individuals. PPAR{gamma} has recently been implicated in the catabolism of surfactant by alveolar macrophages, specifically the cholesterol component of surfactant while the mechanism remains unclear. Studies from other tissue macrophages have shown that PPAR{gamma} regulates cholesterol influx, efflux, and metabolism. PPAR{gamma} promotes cholesterol efflux through the liver X receptor-alpha (LXR{alpha}) and ATP-binding cassette G1 (ABCG1). We have recently shown that macrophage-specific PPAR{gamma} knockout (PPAR{gamma} KO) mice accumulate cholesterol-laden alveolar macrophages that exhibit decreased expression of LXR{alpha} andmore » ABCG1 and reduced cholesterol efflux. We hypothesized that in addition to the dysregulation of these cholesterol efflux genes, the expression of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and influx was also dysregulated and that replacement of PPAR{gamma} would restore regulation of these genes. To investigate this hypothesis, we have utilized a Lentivirus expression system (Lenti-PPAR{gamma}) to restore PPAR{gamma} expression in the alveolar macrophages of PPAR{gamma} KO mice. Our results show that the alveolar macrophages of PPAR{gamma} KO mice have decreased expression of key cholesterol synthesis genes and increased expression of cholesterol receptors CD36 and scavenger receptor A-I (SRA-I). The replacement of PPAR{gamma} (1) induced transcription of LXR{alpha} and ABCG1; (2) corrected suppressed expression of cholesterol synthesis genes; and (3) enhanced the expression of scavenger receptors CD36. These results suggest that PPAR{gamma} regulates cholesterol metabolism in alveolar macrophages.« less

  18. Sigma Receptor (σR) Ligands with Antiproliferative and Anticancer Activity.

    PubMed

    Georgiadis, Markos-Orestis; Karoutzou, Olga; Foscolos, Angeliki-Sofia; Papanastasiou, Ioannis

    2017-08-25

    Sigma receptor (σR) ligands have proven to be useful as cancer diagnostics and anticancer therapeutics and their ligands have been developed as molecular probes in oncology. Moreover, various σR ligands generate cancer cell death in vitro and in vivo. These σR ligands have exhibited promising results against numerous human and rodent cancers and are investigated under preclinical and clinical study trials, indicating a new category of drugs in cancer therapy.

  19. A peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligand MCC-555 imparts anti-proliferative response in pancreatic cancer cells by PPARgamma-independent up-regulation of KLF4

    SciTech Connect

    Min, Kyung-Won; Zhang, Xiaobo; College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100

    2012-09-01

    MCC-555 is a novel PPARα/γ dual ligand of the thiazolidinedione class and was recently developed as an anti-diabetic drug with unique properties. MCC-555 also has anti-proliferative activity through growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in several cancer cell types. Our group has shown that MCC-555 targets several proteins in colorectal tumorigenesis including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-activated gene (NAG-1) which plays an important role in chemoprevention responsible for chemopreventive compounds. NAG-1 is a member of the TGF-β superfamily and is involved in tumor progression and development; however, NAG-1's roles in pancreatic cancer have not been studied. In this report, we found thatmore » MCC-555 alters not only NAG-1 expression, but also p21 and cyclin D1 expression. NAG-1 and p21 expression was not blocked by PPARγ-specific antagonist GW9662, suggesting that MCC-555-induced NAG-1 and p21 expression is independent of PPARγ activation. However, decreasing cyclin D1 by MCC-555 seems to be affected by PPARγ activation. Further, we found that the GC box located in the NAG-1 promoter play an important role in NAG-1 transactivation by MCC-555. Subsequently, we screened several transcription factors that may bind to the GC box region in the NAG-1 promoter and found that KLF4 potentially binds to this region. Expression of KLF4 precedes NAG-1 and p21 expression in the presence of MCC-555, whereas blocking KLF4 expression using specific KLF4 siRNA showed that both NAG-1 and p21 expression by MCC-555 was blocked. In conclusion, MCC-555's actions on anti-proliferation involve both PPARγ-dependent and -independent pathways, thereby enhancing anti-tumorigenesis in pancreatic cancer cells. -- Highlights: ► PPARα/γ ligand MCC-555 exhibits anti-proliferative activity in pancreatic cancer cells. ► MCC-555 affects KLF4 expression following by NAG-1 and p21 expression in a PPARγ independent manner. ► MCC-555 also affects cyclin D1 down

  20. Fatty acids and hypolipidemic drugs regulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha - and gamma-mediated gene expression via liver fatty acid binding protein: a signaling path to the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Wolfrum, C; Borrmann, C M; Borchers, T; Spener, F

    2001-02-27

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is a key regulator of lipid homeostasis in hepatocytes and target for fatty acids and hypolipidemic drugs. How these signaling molecules reach the nuclear receptor is not known; however, similarities in ligand specificity suggest the liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) as a possible candidate. In localization studies using laser-scanning microscopy, we show that L-FABP and PPARalpha colocalize in the nucleus of mouse primary hepatocytes. Furthermore, we demonstrate by pull-down assay and immunocoprecipitation that L-FABP interacts directly with PPARalpha. In a cell biological approach with the aid of a mammalian two-hybrid system, we provide evidence that L-FABP interacts with PPARalpha and PPARgamma but not with PPARbeta and retinoid X receptor-alpha by protein-protein contacts. In addition, we demonstrate that the observed interaction of both proteins is independent of ligand binding. Final and quantitative proof for L-FABP mediation was obtained in transactivation assays upon incubation of transiently and stably transfected HepG2 cells with saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as with hypolipidemic drugs. With all ligands applied, we observed strict correlation of PPARalpha and PPARgamma transactivation with intracellular concentrations of L-FABP. This correlation constitutes a nucleus-directed signaling by fatty acids and hypolipidemic drugs where L-FABP acts as a cytosolic gateway for these PPARalpha and PPARgamma agonists. Thus, L-FABP and the respective PPARs could serve as targets for nutrients and drugs to affect expression of PPAR-sensitive genes.

  1. Effects of the PPAR{gamma} agonist troglitazone on endothelial cells in vivo and in vitro: Differences between human and mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Kakiuchi-Kiyota, Satoko; Vetro, Joseph A.; Suzuki, Shugo

    2009-05-15

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) agonists and PPAR{gamma}/{alpha} dual agonists have been or are being developed for clinical use in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemias. A common tumor finding in rodent carcinogenicity studies for these agonists is hemangioma/hemangiosarcoma in mice but not in rats. We hypothesized that increased endothelial cell proliferation may be involved in the mechanism of PPAR agonist-induced vascular tumors in mice, and we investigated the effects on endothelial cells utilizing troglitazone, the first clinically used PPAR{gamma} agonist, in vivo and in vitro. Troglitazone (400 and 800 mg/kg/day) induced hemangiosarcomas in mice in amore » 2-year bioassay. We showed that troglitazone increased endothelial cell proliferation in brown and white adipose tissue and liver in mice at sarcomagenic doses after 4 weeks of treatment. Troglitazone was cytotoxic both to human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC1) and mouse mammary fat pad microvascular endothelial cells (MFP MVEC) at high concentrations. However, MFP MVEC were more resistant to the cytotoxic effects of troglitazone based on the much lower LC{sub 50} in HMEC1 (17.4 {mu}M) compared to MFP MVEC (92.2 {mu}M). Troglitazone increased the proliferation and survival of MFP MVEC but not HMEC1 in growth factor reduced conditions. Our data demonstrate that troglitazone may induce hemangiosarcomas in mice, at least in part, through enhancement of survival and proliferation of microvascular endothelial cells. Such an effect does not occur with human cells, suggesting that human may react differently to exposure to PPAR agonists compared with mice.« less

  2. Autocrine signal transmission with extracellular ligand degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muratov, C B; Posta, F; Shvartsman, S Y

    2009-03-01

    Traveling waves of cell signaling in epithelial layers orchestrate a number of important processes in developing and adult tissues. These waves can be mediated by positive feedback autocrine loops, a mode of cell signaling where binding of a diffusible extracellular ligand to a cell surface receptor can lead to further ligand release. We formulate and analyze a biophysical model that accounts for ligand-induced ligand release, extracellular ligand diffusion and ligand-receptor interaction. We focus on the case when the main mode for ligand degradation is extracellular and analyze the problem with the sharp threshold positive feedback nonlinearity. We derive expressions that link the speed of propagation and other characteristics of traveling waves to the parameters of the biophysical processes, such as diffusion rates, receptor expression level, etc. Analyzing the derived expressions we found that traveling waves in such systems can exhibit a number of unusual properties, e.g. non-monotonic dependence of the speed of propagation on ligand diffusivity. Our results for the fully developed traveling fronts can be used to analyze wave initiation from localized perturbations, a scenario that frequently arises in the in vitro models of epithelial wound healing, and guide future modeling studies of cell communication in epithelial layers.

  3. CD8+ recent thymic emigrants exhibit increased responses to low affinity ligands and improved access to peripheral sites of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Berkley, Amy M.; Fink, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    To explore the TCR sensitivity of recent thymic emigrants (RTEs), we triggered T cells with altered peptide ligands (APLs). Upon peptide stimulation in vitro, RTEs exhibited increased TCR signal transduction, and following infection in vivo with APL-expressing bacteria, CD8 RTEs expanded to a greater extent in response to low affinity antigens than their mature T cell counterparts. RTEs skewed to short-lived effector cells in response to all APLs but were also characterized by diminished cytokine production. RTEs responding to infection expressed increased levels of VLA-4, with consequent improved entry into inflamed tissue and pathogen clearance. These positive outcomes were offset by the capacity of RTEs to elicit autoimmunity. Overall, salient features of CD8 RTE biology should inform strategies to improve neonatal vaccination and therapies for cancer and HIV, as RTEs make up a large proportion of the T cells in lymphodepleted environments. PMID:25172492

  4. Regulation of expression of the ligand for CD40 on T helper lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Castle, B E; Kishimoto, K; Stearns, C; Brown, M L; Kehry, M R

    1993-08-15

    Activated Th cells deliver contact-dependent signals to resting B lymphocytes that initiate and drive B cell proliferation. Recently, a ligand for the B lymphocyte membrane protein, CD40, has been identified that delivers contact-dependent Th cell signals to B cells. A dimeric soluble form of CD40 was produced and used to further characterize the regulation of expression of the CD40 ligand. Expression of the CD40 ligand was rapidly induced after Th lymphocyte activation, and its stability depended upon whether Th cells were activated with soluble or plastic-bound stimuli. Th cells activated with soluble stimuli rapidly turned over cell-surface CD40 ligand whereas Th cells activated with plastic-bound stimuli exhibited more stable CD40 ligand expression for up to 48 h. Removal of activated Th cells from the plastic-bound stimulus resulted in a rapid turnover of CD40 ligand, suggesting that continuous stimulation could maintain CD40 ligand expression. Ligation by soluble CD40 could also stabilize expression of CD40 ligand on the Th cell surface. Both CD40 ligand and IL-2 were transiently synthesized from 1 to 12 h after Th cell activation and had similar kinetics of synthesis. In Con A-activated Th cells newly synthesized CD40 ligand exhibited an initial high turnover (1.5 h t1/2) and after 5 h of Th cell activation became more stable (10-h t1/2). In Th cells activated with plastic-bound anti-CD3, CD40 ligand exhibited a similar biphasic turnover except that the rapid turnover phase began significantly later. This delay could allow more time for newly synthesized CD40 ligand to assemble or associate with other molecules and thus become stabilized on the cell surface. Newly synthesized CD40 ligand in Con A-activated Th cells appeared to not be efficient in delivering Th cell-dependent contact signals to resting B cells, implying the need for assembly or accessory proteins. Regulation of CD40 ligand expression was consistent with all the characteristics of Th cell

  5. Downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in nasal polyposis.

    PubMed

    Cardell, Lars-Olaf; Hägge, Magnus; Uddman, Rolf; Adner, Mikael

    2005-11-07

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha, betadelta and gamma are nuclear receptors activated by fatty acid metabolites. An anti-inflammatory role for these receptors in airway inflammation has been suggested. Nasal biopsies were obtained from 10 healthy volunteers and 10 patients with symptomatic allergic rhinitis. Nasal polyps were obtained from 22 patients, before and after 4 weeks of local steroid treatment (fluticasone). Real-time RT-PCR was used for mRNA quantification and immunohistochemistry for protein localization and quantification. mRNA expression of PPARalpha, PPARbetadelta, PPARgamma was found in all specimens. No differences in the expression of PPARs were obtained in nasal biopsies from patients with allergic rhinitis and healthy volunteers. Nasal polyps exhibited lower levels of PPARalpha and PPARgamma than normal nasal mucosa and these levels were, for PPARgamma, further reduced following steroid treatment. PPARgamma immunoreactivity was detected in the epithelium, but also found in smooth muscle of blood vessels, glandular acini and inflammatory cells. Quantitative evaluation of the epithelial immunostaining revealed no differences between nasal biopsies from patients with allergic rhinitis and healthy volunteers. In polyps, the PPARgamma immunoreactivity was lower than in nasal mucosa and further decreased after steroid treatment. The down-regulation of PPARgamma, in nasal polyposis but not in turbinates during symptomatic seasonal rhinitis, suggests that PPARgamma might be of importance in long standing inflammations.

  6. Chelating ligands for nanocrystals' surface functionalization.

    PubMed

    Querner, Claudia; Reiss, Peter; Bleuse, Joël; Pron, Adam

    2004-09-22

    A new family of ligands for the surface functionalization of CdSe nanocrystals is proposed, namely alkyl or aryl derivatives of carbodithioic acids (R-C(S)SH). The main advantages of these new ligands are as follows: they nearly quantitatively exchange the initial surface ligands (TOPO) in very mild conditions; they significantly improve the resistance of nanocrystals against photooxidation because of their ability of strong chelate-type binding to metal atoms; their relatively simple preparation via Grignard intermediates facilitates the development of new bifunctional ligands containing, in addition to the anchoring carbodithioate group, a second function, which enables the grafting of molecules or macromolecules of interest on the nanocrystal surface. To give an example of this approach, we report, for the first time, the grafting of an electroactive oligomer from the polyaniline family-aniline tetramer-on CdSe nanocrystals after their functionalization with 4-formyldithiobenzoic acid. The grafting proceeds via a condensation reaction between the aldehyde group of the ligand and the terminal primary amine group of the tetramer. The resulting organic/inorganic hybrid exhibits complete extinction of the fluorescence of its constituents, indicating efficient charge or energy transfer between the organic and the inorganic semiconductors.

  7. Discovery of a Series of Imidazo[4,5-b]pyridines with Dual Activity at Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-[gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Casimiro-Garcia, Agustin; Filzen, Gary F.; Flynn, Declan

    2013-03-07

    Mining of an in-house collection of angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists to identify compounds with activity at the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) revealed a new series of imidazo[4,5-b]pyridines 2 possessing activity at these two receptors. Early availability of the crystal structure of the lead compound 2a bound to the ligand binding domain of human PPAR{gamma} confirmed the mode of interaction of this scaffold to the nuclear receptor and assisted in the optimization of PPAR{gamma} activity. Among the new compounds, (S)-3-(5-(2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-yl)-2-ethyl-5-isobutyl-7-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (2l) was identified as a potent angiotensin II type I receptor blocker (IC{sub 50} = 1.6 nM) with partialmore » PPAR{gamma} agonism (EC{sub 50} = 212 nM, 31% max) and oral bioavailability in rat. The dual pharmacology of 2l was demonstrated in animal models of hypertension (SHR) and insulin resistance (ZDF rat). In the SHR, 2l was highly efficacious in lowering blood pressure, while robust lowering of glucose and triglycerides was observed in the male ZDF rat.« less

  8. Role of ligands in permanganate oxidation of organics.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jin; Pang, Su-Yan; Ma, Jun

    2010-06-01

    We previously demonstrated that several ligands such as phosphate, pyrophosphate, EDTA, and humic acid could significantly enhance permanganate oxidation of triclosan (one phenolic biocide), which was explained by the contribution of ligand-stabilized reactive manganese intermediates in situ formed upon permanganate reduction. To further understand the underlying mechanism, we comparatively investigated the influence of ligands on permanganate oxidation of bisphenol A (BPA, one phenolic endocrine-disrupting chemical), carbamazepine (CBZ, a pharmaceutical containing the olefinic group), and methyl p-tolyl sulfoxide (TMSO, a typical oxygen-atom acceptor). Selected ligands exerted oxidation enhancement for BPA but had negligible influence for CBZ and TMSO. This was mainly attributed to the effects of identified Mn(III) complexes, which would otherwise disproportionate spontaneously in the absence of ligands. The one-electron oxidant Mn(III) species exhibited no reactivity toward CBZ and TMSO for which the two-electron oxygen donation may be the primary oxidation mechanism but readily oxidized BPA. The latter case was a function of pH, the complexing ligand, and the molar [Mn(III)]:[ligand] ratio, generally consistent with the patterns of ligand-affected permanganate oxidation. Moreover, the combination of the one-electron reduction of Mn(III) (Mn(III) + e(-) -->Mn(II)) and the Mn(VII)/Mn(II) reaction in excess ligands (Mn(VII) + 4Mn(II) ----> (ligands) 5Mn(III)) suggested a catalytic role of the Mn(III)/Mn(II) pair in permanganate oxidation of some phenolics in the presence of ligands.

  9. Birth weight and blood lipid levels in Spanish adolescents: influence of selected APOE, APOC3 and PPARgamma2 gene polymorphisms. The AVENA Study.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Jonatan R; Labayen, Idoia; Ortega, Francisco B; Moreno, Luis A; González-Lamuño, Domingo; Martí, Amelia; Nova, Esther; Fuentes, Miguel García; Redondo-Figuero, Carlos; Martínez, J Alfredo; Sjöström, Michael; Castillo, Manuel J

    2008-11-10

    There is increasing evidence indicating that genes involved in certain metabolic processes of cardiovascular diseases may be of particular influence in people with low body weight at birth. We examined whether the apolipoprotein (APO) E, APOC3 and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma-2 (PPARgamma2) polymorphisms influence the association between low birth weight and blood lipid levels in healthy adolescents aged 13-18.5 years. A cross-sectional study of 502 Spanish adolescents born at term was conducted. Total (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), triglycerides (TG), apolipoprotein (apo) A and B, and lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] were measured. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), TC-HDLc, TC/HDLc and apoB/apoA were calculated. Low birth weight was associated with higher levels of TC, LDLc, apoB, Lp(a), TC-HDLc, TC/HDLc and apoB/apoA in males with the APOE epsilon3epsilon4 genotype, whereas in females, it was associated with lower HDLc and higher TG levels. In males with the APOC3 S1/S2 genotype, low birth weight was associated with lower apoA and higher Lp(a), yet this association was not observed in females. There were no associations between low birth weight and blood lipids in any of the PPARgamma2 genotypes. The results indicate that low birth weight has a deleterious influence on lipid profile particularly in adolescents with the APOE epsilon3/epsilon4 genotype. These findings suggest that intrauterine environment interact with the genetic background affecting the lipid profile in later life.

  10. PPAR{gamma} agonist pioglitazone reduces matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and neuronal damage after focal cerebral ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seong-Ryong; Chronic Disease Research Center and Institute for Medical Science, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Taegu; Kim, Hahn-Young

    2009-02-27

    Pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) agonist, has shown protective effects against ischemic insult in various tissues. Pioglitazone is also reported to reduce matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. MMPs can remodel extracellular matrix components in many pathological conditions. The current study was designed to investigate whether the neuroprotection of pioglitazone is related to its MMP inhibition in focal cerebral ischemia. Mice were subjected to 90 min focal ischemia and reperfusion. In gel zymography, pioglitazone reduced the upregulation of active form of MMP-9 after ischemia. In in situ zymograms, pioglitazone also reduced the gelatinase activity induced by ischemia. After co-incubation withmore » pioglitazone, in situ gelatinase activity was directly reduced. Pioglitazone reduced the infarct volume significantly compared with controls. These results demonstrate that pioglitazone may reduce MMP-9 activity and neuronal damage following focal ischemia. The reduction of MMP-9 activity may have a possible therapeutic effect for the management of brain injury after focal ischemia.« less

  11. SciTech Connect

    Wakui, Yuta; Inoue, Jun; Ueno, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: yueno@mail.tains.tohoku.ac.jp

    Although chronic infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is currently managed with nucleot(s)ide analogues or interferon-{alpha}, the control of HBV infection still remains a clinical challenge. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor, that plays a role in glucose and lipid metabolism, immune reactions, and inflammation. In this study, the suppressive effect of PPAR ligands on HBV replication was examined in vitro using a PPAR{alpha} ligand, bezafibrate, and a PPAR{gamma} ligand, rosiglitazone. The effects were examined in HepG2 cells transfected with a plasmid containing 1.3-fold HBV genome. Whereas bezafibrate showed no effect against HBV replication, rosiglitazone reduced themore » amount of HBV DNA, hepatitis B surface antigen, and hepatitis B e antigen in the culture supernatant. Southern blot analysis showed that the replicative intermediates of HBV in the cells were also inhibited. It was confirmed that GW9662, an antagonist of PPAR{gamma}, reduced the suppressive effect of rosiglitazone on HBV. Moreover, rosiglitazone showed a synergistic effect on HBV replication with lamivudine or interferon-{alpha}-2b. In conclusion, this study showed that rosiglitazone inhibited the replication of HBV in vitro, and suggested that the combination therapy of rosiglitazone and nucleot(s)ide analogues or interferon could be a therapeutic option for chronic HBV infection.« less

  12. Cell-specific targeting by heterobivalent ligands.

    PubMed

    Josan, Jatinder S; Handl, Heather L; Sankaranarayanan, Rajesh; Xu, Liping; Lynch, Ronald M; Vagner, Josef; Mash, Eugene A; Hruby, Victor J; Gillies, Robert J

    2011-07-20

    Current cancer therapies exploit either differential metabolism or targeting to specific individual gene products that are overexpressed in aberrant cells. The work described herein proposes an alternative approach--to specifically target combinations of cell-surface receptors using heteromultivalent ligands ("receptor combination approach"). As a proof-of-concept that functionally unrelated receptors can be noncovalently cross-linked with high avidity and specificity, a series of heterobivalent ligands (htBVLs) were constructed from analogues of the melanocortin peptide ligand ([Nle(4), dPhe(7)]-α-MSH) and the cholecystokinin peptide ligand (CCK-8). Binding of these ligands to cells expressing the human Melanocortin-4 receptor and the Cholecystokinin-2 receptor was analyzed. The MSH(7) and CCK(6) were tethered with linkers of varying rigidity and length, constructed from natural and/or synthetic building blocks. Modeling data suggest that a linker length of 20-50 Å is needed to simultaneously bind these two different G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). These ligands exhibited up to 24-fold enhancement in binding affinity to cells that expressed both (bivalent binding), compared to cells with only one (monovalent binding) of the cognate receptors. The htBVLs had up to 50-fold higher affinity than that of a monomeric CCK ligand, i.e., Ac-CCK(6)-NH(2). Cell-surface targeting of these two cell types with labeled heteromultivalent ligand demonstrated high avidity and specificity, thereby validating the receptor combination approach. This ability to noncovalently cross-link heterologous receptors and target individual cells using a receptor combination approach opens up new possibilities for specific cell targeting in vivo for therapy or imaging.

  13. Cell-Specific Targeting by Heterobivalent Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Josan, Jatinder S.; Handl, Heather L.; Sankaranarayanan, Rajesh; Xu, Liping; Lynch, Ronald M.; Vagner, Josef; Mash, Eugene A.; Hruby, Victor J.; Gillies, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Current cancer therapies exploit either differential metabolism or targeting to specific individual gene products that are overexpressed in aberrant cells. The work described herein proposes an alternative approach—to specifically target combinations of cell-surface receptors using heteromultivalent ligands (“receptor combination approach”). As a proof-of-concept that functionally unrelated receptors can be noncovalently cross-linked with high avidity and specificity, a series of heterobivalent ligands (htBVLs) were constructed from analogues of the melanocortin peptide ligand ([Nle4, DPhe7]-α-MSH) and the cholecystokinin peptide ligand (CCK-8). Binding of these ligands to cells expressing the human Melanocortin-4 receptor and the Cholecystokinin-2 receptor was analyzed. The MSH(7) and CCK(6) were tethered with linkers of varying rigidity and length, constructed from natural and/or synthetic building blocks. Modeling data suggest that a linker length of 20–50 Å is needed to simultaneously bind these two different G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). These ligands exhibited up to 24-fold enhancement in binding affinity to cells that expressed both (bivalent binding), compared to cells with only one (monovalent binding) of the cognate receptors. The htBVLs had up to 50-fold higher affinity than that of a monomeric CCK ligand, i.e., Ac-CCK(6)-NH2. Cell-surface targeting of these two cell types with labeled heteromultivalent ligand demonstrated high avidity and specificity, thereby validating the receptor combination approach. This ability to noncovalently cross-link heterologous receptors and target individual cells using a receptor combination approach opens up new possibilities for specific cell targeting in vivo for therapy or imaging. PMID:21639139

  14. Rational Ligand Design for U(VI) and Pu(IV)

    SciTech Connect

    Szigethy, Geza

    2009-08-12

    Nuclear power is an attractive alternative to hydrocarbon-based energy production at a time when moving away from carbon-producing processes is widely accepted as a significant developmental need. Hence, the radioactive actinide power sources for this industry are necessarily becoming more widespread, which is accompanied by the increased risk of exposure to both biological and environmental systems. This, in turn, requires the development of technology designed to remove such radioactive threats efficiently and selectively from contaminated material, whether that be contained nuclear waste streams or the human body. Raymond and coworkers (University of California, Berkeley) have for decades investigated the interactionmore » of biologically-inspired, hard Lewis-base ligands with high-valent, early-actinide cations. It has been established that such ligands bind strongly to the hard Lewis-acidic early actinides, and many poly-bidentate ligands have been developed and shown to be effective chelators of actinide contaminants in vivo. Work reported herein explores the effect of ligand geometry on the linear U(IV) dioxo dication (uranyl, UO 2 2+). The goal is to utilize rational ligand design to develop ligands that exhibit shape selectivity towards linear dioxo cations and provides thermodynamically favorable binding interactions. The uranyl complexes with a series of tetradentate 3-hydroxy-pyridin-2-one (3,2-HOPO) ligands were studied in both the crystalline state as well as in solution. Despite significant geometric differences, the uranyl affinities of these ligands vary only slightly but are better than DTPA, the only FDA-approved chelation therapy for actinide contamination. The terepthalamide (TAM) moiety was combined into tris-beidentate ligands with 1,2- and 3,2-HOPO moieties were combined into hexadentate ligands whose structural preferences and solution thermodynamics were measured with the uranyl cation. In addition to achieving coordinative saturation

  15. Toxoplasma gondii peptide ligands open the gate of the HLA class I binding groove

    PubMed Central

    McMurtrey, Curtis; Trolle, Thomas; Sansom, Tiffany; Remesh, Soumya G; Kaever, Thomas; Bardet, Wilfried; Jackson, Kenneth; McLeod, Rima; Sette, Alessandro; Nielsen, Morten; Zajonc, Dirk M; Blader, Ira J; Peters, Bjoern; Hildebrand, William

    2016-01-01

    HLA class I presentation of pathogen-derived peptide ligands is essential for CD8+ T-cell recognition of Toxoplasma gondii infected cells. Currently, little data exist pertaining to peptides that are presented after T. gondii infection. Herein we purify HLA-A*02:01 complexes from T. gondii infected cells and characterize the peptide ligands using LCMS. We identify 195 T. gondii encoded ligands originating from both secreted and cytoplasmic proteins. Surprisingly, T. gondii ligands are significantly longer than uninfected host ligands, and these longer pathogen-derived peptides maintain a canonical N-terminal binding core yet exhibit a C-terminal extension of 1–30 amino acids. Structural analysis demonstrates that binding of extended peptides opens the HLA class I F’ pocket, allowing the C-terminal extension to protrude through one end of the binding groove. In summary, we demonstrate that unrealized structural flexibility makes MHC class I receptive to parasite-derived ligands that exhibit unique C-terminal peptide extensions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12556.001 PMID:26824387

  16. Mixed-ligand Pt(II) dithione-dithiolato complexes: influence of the dicyanobenzodithiolato ligand on the second-order NLO properties.

    PubMed

    Espa, Davide; Pilia, Luca; Marchiò, Luciano; Artizzu, Flavia; Serpe, Angela; Mercuri, Maria Laura; Simão, Dulce; Almeida, Manuel; Pizzotti, Maddalena; Tessore, Francesca; Deplano, Paola

    2012-03-28

    The mixed-ligand dithiolene complex [Pt(Bz(2)pipdt)(dcbdt)] (1) bearing the two ligands Bz(2)pipdt = 1,4-dibenzyl-piperazine-3,2-dithione and dcbdt = dicyanobenzodithiolato, has been synthesized, characterized and studied to evaluate its second-order optical nonlinearity. The dithione/dithiolato character of the two ligands gives rise to an asymmetric distribution of the charge in the molecule. This is reflected by structural data showing that in the C(2)S(2)PtS(2)C(2) dithiolene core the four sulfur atoms define a square-planar coordination environment of the metal where the Pt-S bond distances involving the two ligands are similar, while the C-S bond distances in the C(2)S(2) units exhibit a significant difference in Bz(2)pipdt (dithione) and dcbdt (dithiolato). 1 shows a moderately strong absorption peak in the visible region, which can be related to a HOMO-LUMO transition, where the dcbdt ligand (dithiolato) contributes mostly to the HOMO, and the Bz(2)pipdt one (dithione) mostly to the LUMO. Thus this transition has ligand-to-ligand charge transfer (CT) character with some contribution of the metal and undergoes negative solvatochromism and molecular quadratic optical nonlinearity (μβ(0) = -1296 × 10(-48) esu), which was determined by the EFISH (electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation) technique and compared with the values of similar complexes on varying the dithiolato ligand (mnt = maleonitriledithiolato, dmit = 2-thioxo-1,3-dithiole-4,5-dithiolato). Theoretical calculations help to elucidate the role of the dithiolato ligands in affecting the molecular quadratic optical nonlinearity of these complexes.

  17. Pioglitazone inhibits LOX-1 expression in human coronary artery endothelial cells by reducing intracellular superoxide radical generation.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Jawahar L; Hu, Bo; Chen, Jiawei; Li, Dayuan

    2003-12-01

    LOX-1, a novel lectin-like receptor for oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), is expressed in response to ox-LDL, angiotensin II (Ang II), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and other stress stimuli. It is highly expressed in atherosclerotic tissues. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma ligands, such as pioglitazone, exert antiatherosclerotic effects. This study examined the regulation of LOX-1 expression in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) by pioglitazone. Fourth generation HCAECs were treated with ox-LDL, Ang II, or TNF-alpha with or without pioglitazone pretreatment. All 3 stimuli upregulated LOX-1 expression (mRNA and protein). Pioglitazone, in a concentration-dependent manner, reduced LOX-1 expression (P<0.01 versus ox-LDL, Ang II, or TNF-alpha alone). Ox-LDL, Ang II, and TNF-alpha each enhanced intracellular superoxide radical generation, and pioglitazone pretreatment reduced superoxide generation (P<0.01 versus ox-LDL, Ang II, or TNF-alpha). Furthermore, all 3 stimuli upregulated the expression of the transcription factors nuclear factor-kappaB and activator protein-1 (determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay), and pioglitazone pretreatment reduced this expression (P<0.01 versus ox-LDL, Ang II, or TNF-alpha). To determine the biological significance of pioglitazone-mediated downregulation of LOX-1, we studied monocyte adhesion to ox-LDL-treated HCAECs. Pioglitazone reduced the adhesion of monocytes to activated HCAECs in a fashion similar to that produced by antisense to LOX-1 mRNA. These observations suggest that the PPAR-gamma ligand pioglitazone reduces intracellular superoxide radical generation and subsequently reduces the expression of transcription factors, expression of the LOX-1 gene, and monocyte adhesion to activated endothelium. The salutary effect of PPAR-gamma ligands in atherogenesis may involve the inhibition of LOX-1 and the adhesion of monocytes to endothelium.

  18. IGFBP-3, hypoxia and TNF-{alpha} inhibit adiponectin transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Zappala, Giovanna, E-mail: zappalag@mail.nih.gov; Rechler, Matthew M.; Clinical Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD

    2009-05-15

    The thiazolidinedione rosiglitazone, an agonist ligand for the nuclear receptor PPAR-{gamma}, improves insulin sensitivity in part by stimulating transcription of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin. It activates PPAR-{gamma}-RXR-{alpha} heterodimers bound to PPAR-{gamma} response elements in the adiponectin promoter. Rosiglitazone-stimulated adiponectin protein synthesis in 3T3-L1 mouse adipocytes has been shown to be inhibited by IGFBP-3, which can be induced by hypoxia and the proinflammatory cytokine, TNF-{alpha}, two inhibitors of adiponectin transcription. The present study demonstrates that IGFBP-3, the hypoxia-mimetic agent cobalt chloride, and TNF-{alpha} inhibit rosiglitazone-induced adiponectin transcription in mouse embryo fibroblasts that stably express PPAR-{gamma}2. Native IGFBP-3 can bind RXR-{alpha} andmore » inhibited rosiglitazone stimulated promoter activity, whereas an IGFBP-3 mutant that does not bind RXR-{alpha} did not. These results suggest that IGFBP-3 may mediate the inhibition of adiponectin transcription by hypoxia and TNF-{alpha}, and that IGFBP-3 binding to RXR-{alpha} may be required for the observed inhibition.« less

  19. Secondary ligand-directed assembly of Co(II) coordination polymers based on a pyridine carboxylate ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Ke-Li; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Cai, Yi-Ni

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the influence of hydrogen bonds and secondary ligands on the structures and properties of the resulting frameworks, five new Co(II) compounds have been synthesized by the reactions of Co(II) salts and 3,5-bis(pyridin-4-ylmethoxy)benzoic acid (HL) with four rationally selected dicarboxylic acid ligands. Without secondary ligand, we got one compound [CoL{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n}·2nH{sub 2}O (1), which possesses a 1D chain structure. In the presence of ancillary ligands, namely, 1,3-adamantanedicarboxylic acid (H{sub 2}adbc), terephthalic acid (H{sub 2}tpa), thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (H{sub 2}tdc) and 1,4-benzenedithioacetic acid (H{sub 2}bdtc), four 3D structures [Co{sub 2}L{sub 2}(adbc)]{sub n}·nH{sub 2}O (2), [Co{sub 2}L{sub 2}(tpa)]{sub n}more » (3), [Co{sub 2}L{sub 2}(tdc)]{sub n} (4), [Co{sub 2}L{sub 2}(bdtc)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (5) were obtained, respectively. It can be observed from the architectures of 1–5 that hydrogen bonds and secondary ligands both have great effects on the spatial connective fashions, resulting in the formation of various dimensional compounds. The XRPD, TGA data of title polymers and the magnetic properties for 2 and 5 have also been investigated. - Graphical abstract: The structural differences show that the ancillary ligands have great effects on the spatial connective fashions, resulting in the formation of various dimensional compounds. - Highlights: • Five new Co(II) coordination polymers have been synthesized by solvothermal reactions based on 3,5-bis(pyridin-4-ylmethoxy)benzoic acid (HL). • The long-flexible ligand (HL) is a good candidate to produce interpenetrating architectures. • The secondary dicarboxylic acid ligands play important roles in the spatial connective fashions and the formation of various dimensional compounds. • The magnetism studies show that both 2 and 5 exhibit antiferromagnetic interactions.« less

  20. LigandRNA: computational predictor of RNA–ligand interactions

    PubMed Central

    Philips, Anna; Milanowska, Kaja; Łach, Grzegorz; Bujnicki, Janusz M.

    2013-01-01

    RNA molecules have recently become attractive as potential drug targets due to the increased awareness of their importance in key biological processes. The increase of the number of experimentally determined RNA 3D structures enabled structure-based searches for small molecules that can specifically bind to defined sites in RNA molecules, thereby blocking or otherwise modulating their function. However, as of yet, computational methods for structure-based docking of small molecule ligands to RNA molecules are not as well established as analogous methods for protein-ligand docking. This motivated us to create LigandRNA, a scoring function for the prediction of RNA–small molecule interactions. Our method employs a grid-based algorithm and a knowledge-based potential derived from ligand-binding sites in the experimentally solved RNA–ligand complexes. As an input, LigandRNA takes an RNA receptor file and a file with ligand poses. As an output, it returns a ranking of the poses according to their score. The predictive power of LigandRNA favorably compares to five other publicly available methods. We found that the combination of LigandRNA and Dock6 into a “meta-predictor” leads to further improvement in the identification of near-native ligand poses. The LigandRNA program is available free of charge as a web server at http://ligandrna.genesilico.pl. PMID:24145824

  1. Cutting edge: CD8+ recent thymic emigrants exhibit increased responses to low-affinity ligands and improved access to peripheral sites of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Berkley, Amy M; Fink, Pamela J

    2014-10-01

    To explore the TCR sensitivity of recent thymic emigrants (RTEs), we triggered T cells with altered peptide ligands (APLs). Upon peptide stimulation in vitro, RTEs exhibited increased TCR signal transduction, and following infection in vivo with APL-expressing bacteria, CD8 RTEs expanded to a greater extent in response to low-affinity Ags than did their mature T cell counterparts. RTEs skewed to short-lived effector cells in response to all APLs but also were characterized by diminished cytokine production. RTEs responding to infection expressed increased levels of VLA-4, with consequent improved entry into inflamed tissue and pathogen clearance. These positive outcomes were offset by the capacity of RTEs to elicit autoimmunity. Overall, salient features of CD8 RTE biology should inform strategies to improve neonatal vaccination and therapies for cancer and HIV, because RTEs make up a large proportion of the T cells in lymphodepleted environments. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  2. A mixed valence zinc dithiolene system with spectator metal and reactor ligands.

    PubMed

    Ratvasky, Stephen C; Mogesa, Benjamin; van Stipdonk, Michael J; Basu, Partha

    2016-08-16

    Neutral complexes of zinc with N,N'-diisopropylpiperazine-2,3-dithione ( i Pr 2 Dt 0 ) and N,N'-dimethylpiperazine-2,3-dithione (Me 2 Dt 0 ) with chloride or maleonitriledithiolate (mnt 2- ) as coligands have been synthesized and characterized. The molecular structures of these zinc complexes have been determined using single crystal X-ray diffractometry. Complexes recrystallize in monoclinic P type systems with zinc adopting a distorted tetrahedral geometry. Two zinc complexes with mixed-valent dithiolene ligands exhibit ligand-to-ligand charge transfer bands. Optimized geometries, molecular vibrations and electronic structures of charge-transfer complexes were calculated using density functional theory (B3LYP/6-311G+(d,p) level). Redox orbitals are shown to be almost exclusively ligand in nature, with a HOMO based heavily on the electron-rich maleonitriledithiolate ligand, and a LUMO comprised mostly of the electron-deficient dithione ligand. Charge transfer is thus believed to proceed from dithiolate HOMO to dithione LUMO, showing ligand-to-ligand redox interplay across a d 10 metal.

  3. Analysis of macromolecules, ligands and macromolecule-ligand complexes

    DOEpatents

    Von Dreele, Robert B [Los Alamos, NM

    2008-12-23

    A method for determining atomic level structures of macromolecule-ligand complexes through high-resolution powder diffraction analysis and a method for providing suitable microcrystalline powder for diffraction analysis are provided. In one embodiment, powder diffraction data is collected from samples of polycrystalline macromolecule and macromolecule-ligand complex and the refined structure of the macromolecule is used as an approximate model for a combined Rietveld and stereochemical restraint refinement of the macromolecule-ligand complex. A difference Fourier map is calculated and the ligand position and points of interaction between the atoms of the macromolecule and the atoms of the ligand can be deduced and visualized. A suitable polycrystalline sample of macromolecule-ligand complex can be produced by physically agitating a mixture of lyophilized macromolecule, ligand and a solvent.

  4. Nanoparticle Superlattices: The Roles of Soft Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Si, Kae Jye; Chen, Yi; Shi, Qianqian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Nanoparticle superlattices are periodic arrays of nanoscale inorganic building blocks including metal nanoparticles, quantum dots and magnetic nanoparticles. Such assemblies can exhibit exciting new collective properties different from those of individual nanoparticle or corresponding bulk materials. However, fabrication of nanoparticle superlattices is nontrivial because nanoparticles are notoriously difficult to manipulate due to complex nanoscale forces among them. An effective way to manipulate these nanoscale forces is to use soft ligands, which can prevent nanoparticles from disordered aggregation, fine‐tune the interparticle potential as well as program lattice structures and interparticle distances – the two key parameters governing superlattice properties. This article aims to review the up‐to‐date advances of superlattices from the viewpoint of soft ligands. We first describe the theories and design principles of soft‐ligand‐based approach and then thoroughly cover experimental techniques developed from soft ligands such as molecules, polymer and DNA. Finally, we discuss the remaining challenges and future perspectives in nanoparticle superlattices. PMID:29375958

  5. A novel antipyretic action of 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Mouihate, Abdeslam; Boissé, Lysa; Pittman, Quentin J

    2004-02-11

    Fever is an important part of the host defense response, yet fever can be detrimental if it is uncontrolled. We provide the first evidence that 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), an endogenous ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), can attenuate the febrile response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats via an action on the brain. Furthermore, we show that PPARgamma is expressed in the hypothalamus, an important locus in the brain for fever generation. In addition, 15d-PGJ2 and its synthesizing enzyme (PGD2 synthase) were present in rat cerebrospinal fluid, and their levels were enhanced in response to systemic injection of LPS. The antipyretic effect of 15d-PGJ2 was associated with reduction in LPS-stimulated cyclooxygenase-2 expression in the hypothalamus but not in p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation or in the expression of the PPARgamma. Thus it is likely that there is a parallel induction of an endogenous prostanoid pathway in the brain capable of limiting deleterious actions of the proinflammatory prostaglandin E2-dependent pathway.

  6. PDB-Ligand: a ligand database based on PDB for the automated and customized classification of ligand-binding structures.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jae-Min; Cho, Doo-Ho

    2005-01-01

    PDB-Ligand (http://www.idrtech.com/PDB-Ligand/) is a three-dimensional structure database of small molecular ligands that are bound to larger biomolecules deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). It is also a database tool that allows one to browse, classify, superimpose and visualize these structures. As of May 2004, there are about 4870 types of small molecular ligands, experimentally determined as a complex with protein or DNA in the PDB. The proteins that a given ligand binds are often homologous and present the same binding structure to the ligand. However, there are also many instances wherein a given ligand binds to two or more unrelated proteins, or to the same or homologous protein in different binding environments. PDB-Ligand serves as an interactive structural analysis and clustering tool for all the ligand-binding structures in the PDB. PDB-Ligand also provides an easier way to obtain a number of different structure alignments of many related ligand-binding structures based on a simple and flexible ligand clustering method. PDB-Ligand will be a good resource for both a better interpretation of ligand-binding structures and the development of better scoring functions to be used in many drug discovery applications.

  7. Synthesis, spectroscopic, coordination and biological activities of some organometallic complexes derived from thio-Schiff base ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou-Hussein, Azza A.; Linert, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Two series of mono- and binuclear complexes cyclic or acyclic thio-ferocine Schiff base ligands, derived from the condensation of 2-aminobenzenthiol (L) with monoacetyl ferrocene in the molar ratio 1:1 or in the molar ratio 1:2 for diacetyl ferocine have been prepared. The condensation reactions yield the corresponding Schiff Base ligands, HLa-Maf and H2Lb-Daf. The chelation of the ligands to metal ions occurs through the sulfur of the thiol group as well as the nitrogen atoms of the azomethine group of the ligands. HLa-Maf acts as monobasic bidentate or dibasic tetradentate, while H2Lb-Daf behaves as twice negatively cargend tetradentate ligand. The structures of these ligands were elucidated by elemental analysis, infrared, ultraviolet-visible spectra, as well as 1H NMR spectra. Reactions of the Schiff bases ligands with ruthenium(III), oxovanadium(IV) and dioxouranium(VI) afforded the corresponding transition metal complexes. The properties of the newly prepared complexes were analyse by elemental analyses, infrared, electronic spectra, 1H NMR as well as the magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurement. The metal complexes exhibits different geometrical arrangements such as octahedral and square pyramidal coordination. Schiff base ligands and their metal complexes were tested against two pathogenic bacteria as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as one kind of fungi to study their biological activity. All the complexes exhibit antibacterial and antifungal activities against these organisms.

  8. Small potent ligands to the insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP)/AT(4) receptor.

    PubMed

    Axén, Andreas; Andersson, Hanna; Lindeberg, Gunnar; Rönnholm, Harriet; Kortesmaa, Jarkko; Demaegdt, Heidi; Vauquelin, Georges; Karlén, Anders; Hallberg, Mathias

    2007-07-01

    Angiotensin IV analogs encompassing aromatic scaffolds replacing parts of the backbone of angiotensin IV have been synthesized and evaluated in biological assays. Several of the ligands displayed high affinities to the insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP)/AT(4) receptor. Displacement of the C-terminal of angiotensin IV with an o-substituted aryl acetic acid derivative delivered the ligand 4, which exhibited the highest binding affinity (K(i) = 1.9 nM). The high affinity of this ligand provides support to the hypothesis that angiotensin IV adopts a gamma-turn in the C-terminal of its bioactive conformation. Ligand (4) inhibits both human IRAP and aminopeptidase N-activity and induces proliferation of adult neural stem cells at low concentrations. Furthermore, ligand 4 is degraded considerably more slowly in membrane preparations than angiotensin IV. Hence, it might constitute a suitable research tool for biological studies of the (IRAP)/AT(4) receptor.

  9. Synthesis, spectral and electrochemical studies of binuclear Ru(III) complexes containing dithiosemicarbazone ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanchana Devi, A.; Ramesh, R.

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis of several new octahedral binuclear ruthenium(III) complexes of the general composition [(EPh3)2(X)Ru-L-Ru(X)(EPh3)2] containing benzene dithiosemicarbazone ligands (where E = P or As; X = Cl or Br; L = binucleating ligands) is presented. All the complexes have been fully characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-vis and EPR spectroscopy together with magnetic susceptibility measurements. IR study shows that the dithiosemicarbazone ligands behave as dianionic tridentate ligands coordinating through the oxygen atom of the deprotonated phenolic group, nitrogen atom of the azomethine group and thiolate sulphur. In DMF solution, all the complexes exhibit intense d-d transition and ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) transition in the visible region. The magnetic moment values of the complexes are in the range 1.78-1.82 BM, which reveals the presence of one unpaired electron on each metal ion. The EPR spectra of the liquid samples at LNT show the presence of three different 'g' values (gx ≠ gy ≠ gz) indicate a rhombic distortion around the ruthenium ion. All the complexes exhibit two quasi-reversible one electron oxidation responses (RuIII-RuIII/RuIII-RuIV; RuIII-RuIV/RuIV-RuIV) within the E1/2 range of 0.61-0.74 V and 0.93-0.98 V respectively, versus Ag/AgCl.

  10. Ligand placement based on prior structures: the guided ligand-replacement method

    SciTech Connect

    Klei, Herbert E.; Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543-4000; Moriarty, Nigel W., E-mail: nwmoriarty@lbl.gov

    2014-01-01

    A new module, Guided Ligand Replacement (GLR), has been developed in Phenix to increase the ease and success rate of ligand placement when prior protein-ligand complexes are available. The process of iterative structure-based drug design involves the X-ray crystal structure determination of upwards of 100 ligands with the same general scaffold (i.e. chemotype) complexed with very similar, if not identical, protein targets. In conjunction with insights from computational models and assays, this collection of crystal structures is analyzed to improve potency, to achieve better selectivity and to reduce liabilities such as absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicology. Current methods formore » modeling ligands into electron-density maps typically do not utilize information on how similar ligands bound in related structures. Even if the electron density is of sufficient quality and resolution to allow de novo placement, the process can take considerable time as the size, complexity and torsional degrees of freedom of the ligands increase. A new module, Guided Ligand Replacement (GLR), was developed in Phenix to increase the ease and success rate of ligand placement when prior protein–ligand complexes are available. At the heart of GLR is an algorithm based on graph theory that associates atoms in the target ligand with analogous atoms in the reference ligand. Based on this correspondence, a set of coordinates is generated for the target ligand. GLR is especially useful in two situations: (i) modeling a series of large, flexible, complicated or macrocyclic ligands in successive structures and (ii) modeling ligands as part of a refinement pipeline that can automatically select a reference structure. Even in those cases for which no reference structure is available, if there are multiple copies of the bound ligand per asymmetric unit GLR offers an efficient way to complete the model after the first ligand has been placed. In all of these applications

  11. Zn and Fe complexes containing a redox active macrocyclic biquinazoline ligand.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Priyabrata; Company, Anna; Weyhermüller, Thomas; Bill, Eckhard; Hess, Corinna R

    2009-04-06

    A series of iron and zinc complexes has been synthesized, coordinated by the macrocyclic biquinazoline ligand, 2-4:6-8-bis(3,3,4,4-tetramethyldihydropyrrolo)-10-15-(2,2'-biquinazolino)-[15]-1,3,5,8,10,14-hexaene-1,3,7,9,11,14-N(6) (Mabiq). The Mabiq ligand consists of a bipyrimidine moiety and two dihydropyrrole units. The electronic structures of the metal-Mabiq complexes have been characterized using spectroscopic and density-functional theory (DFT) computational methods. The parent zinc complex exhibits a ligand-centered reduction to generate the metal-coordinated Mabiq radical dianion, establishing the redox non-innocence of this ligand. Iron-Mabiq complexes have been isolated in three oxidation states. This redox series includes low-spin ferric and low-spin ferrous species, as well as an intermediate-spin Fe(II) compound. In the latter complex, the iron ion is antiferromagnetically coupled to a Mabiq-centered pi-radical. The results demonstrate the rich redox chemistry and electronic properties of metal complexes coordinated by the Mabiq ligand.

  12. The adenosine deaminases of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum exhibit surprising differences in ligand specificity

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Andrei A.; Matsumura, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum cause malaria, so proteins essential for their survival in vivo are potential anti-malarial drug targets. Adenosine deaminases (ADA) catalyze the irreversible conversion of adenosine into inosine, and play a critical role in the purine salvage pathways of Plasmodia and their mammalian hosts. Currently, the number of selective inhibitors of Plasmodium ADAs is limited. One potent and widely used inhibitor of the human ADA (hADA), erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonly)adenine (EHNA), is a very weak inhibitor (Ki = 120uM) of P. falciparum ADA (pfADA). EHNA-like compounds are thus excluded from consideration as potential inhibitors of Plasmodium ADA in general. However, EHNA activity in P. vivax ADA (pvADA) has not been reported. Here we applied computational molecular modeling to identify the mechanisms of the ligand recognition unique for P. vivax and P. falciparum ADA. Based on the computational studies, we performed molecular biology experiments to show that EHNA is at least 60-fold more potent against pvADA (Ki = 1.9uM) than against pfADA. The D172A pvADA mutant is bound even more tightly (Ki = 0.9uM). These results improve our understanding of the mechanisms of ADA ligand recognition and species-selectivity, and facilitate the rational design of novel EHNA-based ADA inhibitors as anti-malarial drugs. To demonstrate a practical application of our findings we have computationally predicted a novel potential inhibitor of pvADA selective versus the human ADA. PMID:22481078

  13. A web server for analysis, comparison and prediction of protein ligand binding sites.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harinder; Srivastava, Hemant Kumar; Raghava, Gajendra P S

    2016-03-25

    One of the major challenges in the field of system biology is to understand the interaction between a wide range of proteins and ligands. In the past, methods have been developed for predicting binding sites in a protein for a limited number of ligands. In order to address this problem, we developed a web server named 'LPIcom' to facilitate users in understanding protein-ligand interaction. Analysis, comparison and prediction modules are available in the "LPIcom' server to predict protein-ligand interacting residues for 824 ligands. Each ligand must have at least 30 protein binding sites in PDB. Analysis module of the server can identify residues preferred in interaction and binding motif for a given ligand; for example residues glycine, lysine and arginine are preferred in ATP binding sites. Comparison module of the server allows comparing protein-binding sites of multiple ligands to understand the similarity between ligands based on their binding site. This module indicates that ATP, ADP and GTP ligands are in the same cluster and thus their binding sites or interacting residues exhibit a high level of similarity. Propensity-based prediction module has been developed for predicting ligand-interacting residues in a protein for more than 800 ligands. In addition, a number of web-based tools have been integrated to facilitate users in creating web logo and two-sample between ligand interacting and non-interacting residues. In summary, this manuscript presents a web-server for analysis of ligand interacting residue. This server is available for public use from URL http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/lpicom .

  14. Divalent Naphthalene Diimide Ligands Display High Selectivity for the Human Telomeric G‐quadruplex in K+ Buffer

    PubMed Central

    Street, Steven T. G.; Chin, Donovan N.; Hollingworth, Gregory J.; Berry, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Selective G‐quadruplex ligands offer great promise for the development of anti‐cancer therapies. A novel series of divalent cationic naphthalene diimide ligands that selectively bind to the hybrid form of the human telomeric G‐quadruplex in K+ buffer are described herein. We demonstrate that an imidazolium‐bearing mannoside‐conjugate is the most selective ligand to date for this quadruplex against several other quadruplex and duplex structures. We also show that a similarly selective methylpiperazine‐bearing ligand was more toxic to HeLa cancer cells than doxorubicin, whilst exhibiting three times less toxicity towards fetal lung fibroblasts WI‐38. PMID:28257554

  15. Structural determinants for the inhibitory ligands of orotidine-5′-monophosphate decarboxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Meza-Avina, Maria Elena; Wei, Lianhu; Liu, Yan

    2010-06-14

    In recent years, orotidine-5{prime}-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODCase) has gained renewed attention as a drug target. As a part of continuing efforts to design novel inhibitors of ODCase, we undertook a comprehensive study of potent, structurally diverse ligands of ODCase and analyzed their structural interactions in the active site of ODCase. These ligands comprise of pyrazole or pyrimidine nucleotides including the mononucleotide derivatives of pyrazofurin, barbiturate ribonucleoside, and 5-cyanouridine, as well as, in a computational approach, 1,4-dihydropyridine-based non-nucleoside inhibitors such as nifedipine and nimodipine. All these ligands bind in the active site of ODCase exhibiting distinct interactions paving the way to designmore » novel inhibitors against this interesting enzyme. We propose an empirical model for the ligand structure for rational modifications in new drug design and potentially new lead structures.« less

  16. Ligand-bridged dinuclear cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes: from metallamacrocycles to discrete dimers.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli; Hajra, Tanima; Bera, Jitendra K; Rahaman, S M Wahidur; Satumtira, Nisa; Elbjeirami, Oussama; Omary, Mohammad A

    2012-02-06

    Metallamacrocycles 1, 2, and 3 of the general formula [{Ir(ppy)(2)}(2)(μ-BL)(2)](OTf)(2) (ppyH = 2-phenyl pyridine; BL = 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane (bpa) (1), 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane (bpp) (2), and trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene (bpe) (3)) have been synthesized by the reaction of [{(ppy)(2)Ir}(2)(μ-Cl)(2)], first with AgOTf to effect dechlorination and later with various bridging ligands. Open-frame dimers [{Ir(ppy)(2)}(2)(μ-BL)](OTf)(2) were obtained in a similar manner by utilizing N,N'-bis(2-pyridyl)methylene-hydrazine (abp) and N,N'-(bis(2-pyridyl)formylidene)ethane-1,2-diamine (bpfd) (for compounds 4 and 5, respectively) as bridging ligands. Molecular structures of 1, 3, 4, and 5 were established by X-ray crystallography. Cyclic voltammetry experiments reveal weakly interacting "Ir(ppy)(2)" units bridged by ethylene-linked bpe ligand in 3; on the contrary the metal centers are electronically isolated in 1 and 2 where the bridging ligands are based on ethane and propane linkers. The dimer 4 exhibits two accessible reversible reduction couples separated by 570 mV indicating the stability of the one-electron reduced species located on the diimine-based bridge abp. The "Ir(ppy)(2)" units in compound 5 are noninteracting as the electronic conduit is truncated by the ethane spacer in the bpfd bridge. The dinuclear compounds 1-5 show ligand centered (LC) transitions involving ppy ligands and mixed metal to ligand/ligand to ligand charge transfer (MLCT/LLCT) transitions involving both the cyclometalating ppy and bridging ligands (BL) in the UV-vis spectra. For the conjugated bridge bpe in compound 3 and abp in compound 4, the lowest-energy charge-transfer absorptions are red-shifted with enhanced intensity. In accordance with their similar electronic structures, compounds 1 and 2 exhibit identical emissions. The presence of vibronic structures in these compounds indicates a predominantly (3)LC excited states. On the contrary, broad and unstructured

  17. DNA binding, anti-inflammatory and analgesic evaluation of metal complexes of N/S/O donor ligands; Synthesis, spectral characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar Naik, K. H.; Ashok, B.; Naik, Nagaraja; Mulla, Jameel Ahmed S.; Prakasha, Avinash

    2015-04-01

    Transition metal complexes containing tri-dentate NSN donor ligands i.e., 5-((1(aminomethyl)cyclohexyl)methyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-amine (AMTA) (2) and 5-(2-aminophenyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-amine (ATA) (4i-ii) have been synthesized. The newly synthesized ligands and their respective complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance measurement and various spectral studies [infrared (IR), electronic, and NMR (for ligands only)]. Metal complexes are like [M(AMTA)2], [M(ATA)2] type, where M = Mn(II), Co(II) and Cu(II). The proposed geometries of the complexes are octahedral in nature. The synthesized ligands and their complexes were exhibits effective anti-inflammatory, analgesic and DNA binding activities. All the tested compounds exhibited significant analgesic activity, whereas the compound 4i, 4(ia) and 4(iib) is equipotent with Diclofenac sodium.

  18. Two rare indium-based porous metal-metalloporphyrin frameworks exhibiting interesting CO 2 uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Wen-Yang; Zhang, Zhuxiu; Cash, Lindsay

    2014-01-13

    Two rare indium-based porous metal–metalloporphyrin frameworks (MMPFs), MMPF-7 and MMPF-8, were constructed by self-assembly of In(III) and two custom-designed porphyrin–tetracarboxylate ligands. MMPF-7 and MMPF-8 possess the pts topology and exhibit interesting CO 2 adsorption properties.

  19. Multivalent Ion Transport in Polymers via Metal-Ligand Coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanoja, Gabriel; Schauser, Nicole; Evans, Christopher; Majumdar, Shubhaditya; Segalman, Rachel

    Elucidating design rules for multivalent ion conducting polymers is critical for developing novel high-performance materials for electrochemical devices. Herein, we molecularly engineer multivalent ion conducting polymers based on metal-ligand interactions and illustrate that both segmental dynamics and ion coordination kinetics are essential for ion transport through polymers. We present a novel statistical copolymer, poly(ethylene oxide-stat-imidazole glycidyl ether) (i.e., PEO-stat-PIGE), that synergistically combines the structural hierarchy of PEO with the Lewis basicity of tethered imidazole ligands (xIGE = 0.17) required to coordinate a series of transition metal salts containing bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anions. Complexes of PEO-stat-PIGE with salts exhibit a nanostructure in which ion-enriched regions alternate with ion-deficient regions, and an ionic conductivity above 10-5 S/cm. Novel normalization schemes that account for ion solvation kinetics are presented to attain a universal scaling relationship for multivalent ion transport in polymers via metal-ligand coordination. AFOSR MURI program under FA9550-12-1.

  20. Two novel mixed-ligand complexes containing organosulfonate ligands.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingtian; Huang, Jun; Zhou, Xuan; Fang, Hua; Ding, Liyun

    2008-07-01

    The structures reported herein, viz. bis(4-aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonato-kappaO)bis(4,5-diazafluoren-9-one-kappa(2)N,N')copper(II), [Cu(C(10)H(8)NO(3)S)(2)(C(11)H(6)N(2)O)(2)], (I), and poly[[[diaquacadmium(II)]-bis(mu-4-aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonato)-kappa(2)O:N;kappa(2)N:O] dihydrate], {[Cd(C(10)H(8)NO(3)S)(2)(H(2)O)(2)].2H(2)O}(n), (II), are rare examples of sulfonate-containing complexes where the anion does not fulfill a passive charge-balancing role, but takes an active part in coordination as a monodentate and/or bridging ligand. Monomeric complex (I) possesses a crystallographic inversion center at the Cu(II) atom, and the asymmetric unit contains one-half of a Cu atom, one complete 4-aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonate (ans) ligand and one 4,5-diazafluoren-9-one (DAFO) ligand. The Cu(II) atom has an elongated distorted octahedral coordination geometry formed by two O atoms from two monodentate ans ligands and by four N atoms from two DAFO molecules. Complex (II) is polymeric and its crystal structure is built up by one-dimensional chains and solvent water molecules. Here also the cation (a Cd(II) atom) lies on a crystallographic inversion center and adopts a slightly distorted octahedral geometry. Each ans anion serves as a bridging ligand linking two Cd(II) atoms into one-dimensional infinite chains along the [010] direction, with each Cd(II) center coordinated by four ans ligands via O and N atoms and by two aqua ligands. In both structures, there are significant pi-pi stacking interactions between adjacent ligands and hydrogen bonds contribute to the formation of two- and three-dimensional networks.

  1. Impairment of Fas-ligand-caveolin-1 interaction inhibits Fas-ligand translocation to rafts and Fas-ligand-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Glukhova, Xenia A; Trizna, Julia A; Proussakova, Olga V; Gogvadze, Vladimir; Beletsky, Igor P

    2018-01-22

    Fas-ligand/CD178 belongs to the TNF family proteins and can induce apoptosis through death receptor Fas/CD95. The important requirement for Fas-ligand-dependent cell death induction is its localization to rafts, cholesterol- and sphingolipid-enriched micro-domains of membrane, involved in regulation of different signaling complexes. Here, we demonstrate that Fas-ligand physically associates with caveolin-1, the main protein component of rafts. Experiments with cells overexpressing Fas-ligand revealed a FasL N-terminal pre-prolin-rich region, which is essential for the association with caveolin-1. We found that the N-terminal domain of Fas-ligand bears two caveolin-binding sites. The first caveolin-binding site binds the N-terminal domain of caveolin-1, whereas the second one appears to interact with the C-terminal domain of caveolin-1. The deletion of both caveolin-binding sites in Fas-ligand impairs its distribution between cellular membranes, and attenuates a Fas-ligand-induced cytotoxicity. These results demonstrate that the interaction of Fas-ligand and caveolin-1 represents a molecular basis for Fas-ligand translocation to rafts, and the subsequent induction of Fas-ligand-dependent cell death. A possibility of a similar association between other TNF family members and caveolin-1 is discussed.

  2. Development of Novel Nonagonist PPAR-Gamma Ligands for Lung Cancer Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    Affymetrix gene expression profiling. To get the purest representation of this gene set, we generated fibroblasts from the brown adipose tissue of mice... tissues . It has been shown that p53 plays an important role in metabolism and adipose tissue function, and this may be modulated by PPARγ expression as...presentations. Poster Presentation: Melin J. Khandekar, Alex S. Banks , Dina Laznik- Bogoslavski, James P. White, Jang H. Choi, Kwok-kin Wong, Ted

  3. Highly stable biocompatible inorganic nanoparticles by self-assembly of triblock-copolymer ligands.

    PubMed

    Pöselt, Elmar; Fischer, Steffen; Foerster, Stephan; Weller, Horst

    2009-12-15

    A novel type of ligand for biofunctionalization of nanoparticles is presented that comprises tailor-made triblock-copolymers consisting of a polyethylene imine binding block, a hydrophobic polycaprolactone and a terminal functionalized polyethelene oxide block. Phase transfer to water occurs simply by ligand and water addition and removal of the organic solvents. It is shown that the intermediate polycaprolacton block favors the attachment to the particle surface and shields the binding groups effectively from the solution. As a consequence, the particles exhibit an outstanding stability in various aqueous media for biological studies and give easy access to specific coupling reactions at the terminal end groups of the polyethylene oxide block. Controlling the ligand exchange parameters leads to self-assembly to either individual encapsulated nanoparticles or to multifunctional nanobeads.

  4. AutoSite: an automated approach for pseudo-ligands prediction—from ligand-binding sites identification to predicting key ligand atoms

    PubMed Central

    Ravindranath, Pradeep Anand; Sanner, Michel F.

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: The identification of ligand-binding sites from a protein structure facilitates computational drug design and optimization, and protein function assignment. We introduce AutoSite: an efficient software tool for identifying ligand-binding sites and predicting pseudo ligand corresponding to each binding site identified. Binding sites are reported as clusters of 3D points called fills in which every point is labelled as hydrophobic or as hydrogen bond donor or acceptor. From these fills AutoSite derives feature points: a set of putative positions of hydrophobic-, and hydrogen-bond forming ligand atoms. Results: We show that AutoSite identifies ligand-binding sites with higher accuracy than other leading methods, and produces fills that better matches the ligand shape and properties, than the fills obtained with a software program with similar capabilities, AutoLigand. In addition, we demonstrate that for the Astex Diverse Set, the feature points identify 79% of hydrophobic ligand atoms, and 81% and 62% of the hydrogen acceptor and donor hydrogen ligand atoms interacting with the receptor, and predict 81.2% of water molecules mediating interactions between ligand and receptor. Finally, we illustrate potential uses of the predicted feature points in the context of lead optimization in drug discovery projects. Availability and Implementation: http://adfr.scripps.edu/AutoDockFR/autosite.html Contact: sanner@scripps.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27354702

  5. Multidentate oligomeric ligands to enhance the biocompatibility of iron oxide and other metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wentao; Palui, Goutam; Ji, Xin; Aldeek, Fadi; Mattoussi, Hedi

    2014-03-01

    We prepared a set of multi-coordinating and reactive amphiphilic polymer ligands and used them for surface-functionalizing magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. The amphiphilic oligomers were prepared by coupling (via one step nucleophilic addition) several dopamine anchoring groups, polyethylene glycol moieties and reactive groups onto a poly(isobutylene-alt-maleic anhydride) chain. The availability of several anchoring groups in the same ligand greatly enhances the ligand affinity to the nanoparticle surfaces, via multiplecoordination, while the hydrophilic and reactive groups promote colloidal stability in buffer media and allow subsequent conjugation to target biomolecules. The hydrophilic nanoparticles capped with these polymers maintain compact size and exhibit great long term colloidal stability.

  6. Fully Flexible Docking of Medium Sized Ligand Libraries with RosettaLigand

    PubMed Central

    DeLuca, Samuel; Khar, Karen; Meiler, Jens

    2015-01-01

    RosettaLigand has been successfully used to predict binding poses in protein-small molecule complexes. However, the RosettaLigand docking protocol is comparatively slow in identifying an initial starting pose for the small molecule (ligand) making it unfeasible for use in virtual High Throughput Screening (vHTS). To overcome this limitation, we developed a new sampling approach for placing the ligand in the protein binding site during the initial ‘low-resolution’ docking step. It combines the translational and rotational adjustments to the ligand pose in a single transformation step. The new algorithm is both more accurate and more time-efficient. The docking success rate is improved by 10–15% in a benchmark set of 43 protein/ligand complexes, reducing the number of models that typically need to be generated from 1000 to 150. The average time to generate a model is reduced from 50 seconds to 10 seconds. As a result we observe an effective 30-fold speed increase, making RosettaLigand appropriate for docking medium sized ligand libraries. We demonstrate that this improved initial placement of the ligand is critical for successful prediction of an accurate binding position in the ‘high-resolution’ full atom refinement step. PMID:26207742

  7. Bioactive ruthenium(II)-arene complexes containing modified 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid ligands.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yaqiong; Chen, Feng; Su, Zhi; Qian, Yong; Wang, Fang-Xin; Wang, Xiuxiu; Zhao, Jing; Mao, Zong-Wan; Liu, Hong-Ke

    2018-05-01

    Metal-arene complexes containing bioactive natural-product derived ligands can have new and unusual properties. We report the synthesis, characterization and antiproliferative activity of two new Ru(II) arene complexes with imidazole (dichlorido complex 1) or bipyridyl (chlorido complex 2) ligands conjugated to 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, an active triterpenoid metabolite of Glycyrrhiza glabra. In general, the conjugated ligands and complexes showed only moderate activity against HeLa (cervical), MCF-7 (breast) and A2780 (ovarian) cancer cells, although the activity of complex 2 in the former two cell lines approached that of the drug cisplatin. Complex 2 (in contrast to complex 1) also exhibited significant activity towards both Gram-positive S. aureus and Gram-negative E. coil bacteria. Complex 2 can induce condensation of DNA and enhances the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The conjugation of natural products to ligands in organometallic half-sandwich complexes provides a strategy to enhance their biological activities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Exciton in a spherical core/shell nanostructure: Influence of surface ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anitha, B.; Nithiananthi, P.

    2018-04-01

    Studies on exciton in an inverted type I spherical GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As core/shell nanostructure (CSN) are made using variational method. Dielectric constant and effective mass mismatches of the core and shell materials are considered. The effect of core and the shell dimensions on the exciton binding energy (BE) are analyzed for different shell (Rs) and core radii (Rc). It is observed that with the core and the shell inducement, significant change in BE can be achieved. In addition, the influence of ligand enclosureon the BE as a function of shell thickness (ST) is reviewed. The result exhibits that the presence of ligand considerably affects the BE. Further the transmission probability of exciton for various Rc and Rs are reported. The notable changes are compared and examined with and without ligand inclusion.

  9. Ligand Depot: a data warehouse for ligands bound to macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zukang; Chen, Li; Maddula, Himabindu; Akcan, Ozgur; Oughtred, Rose; Berman, Helen M; Westbrook, John

    2004-09-01

    Ligand Depot is an integrated data resource for finding information about small molecules bound to proteins and nucleic acids. The initial release (version 1.0, November, 2003) focuses on providing chemical and structural information for small molecules found as part of the structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank. Ligand Depot accepts keyword-based queries and also provides a graphical interface for performing chemical substructure searches. A wide variety of web resources that contain information on small molecules may also be accessed through Ligand Depot. Ligand Depot is available at http://ligand-depot.rutgers.edu/. Version 1.0 supports multiple operating systems including Windows, Unix, Linux and the Macintosh operating system. The current drawing tool works in Internet Explorer, Netscape and Mozilla on Windows, Unix and Linux.

  10. Barley as a green factory for the production of functional Flt3 ligand.

    PubMed

    Erlendsson, Lýdur S; Muench, Marcus O; Hellman, Ulf; Hrafnkelsdóttir, Soffía M; Jonsson, Anders; Balmer, Yves; Mäntylä, Einar; Orvar, Björn L

    2010-02-01

    Biologically active recombinant human Flt3 ligand was expressed and isolated from transgenic barley seeds. Its expression is controlled by a tissue specific promoter that confines accumulation of the recombinant protein to the endosperm tissue of the seed. The recombinant Flt3 ligand variant expressed in the seeds contains an HQ-tag for affinity purification on immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) resin. The tagged protein was purified from seed extracts to near homogeneity using sequential chromatography on IMAC affinity resin and cation exchange resin. We also show that the recombinant Flt3 ligand protein undergoes posttranslational modifications: it is a glycoprotein containing alpha-1,3-fucose and alpha-1,2-xylose. The HQ-tagged Flt3 ligand variant exhibits comparable biological activity to commercial Flt3 ligand. This is the first report showing expression and accumulation of recombinant human growth factor in barley seeds with a yield of active protein similar to a bacterial expression system. The present results demonstrate that plant molecular farming is a viable approach for the bioproduction of human-derived growth factors.

  11. A Search for CD36 Ligands from Flavor Volatiles in Foods with an Aldehyde Moiety: Identification of Saturated Aliphatic Aldehydes with 9-16 Carbon Atoms as Potential Ligands of the Receptor.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, Satoshi; Amitsuka, Takahiko; Okahashi, Tatsuya; Kimoto, Yusaku; Inoue, Kazuo

    2017-08-09

    Volatile compounds with an aldehyde moiety such as (Z)-9-octadecenal are potential ligands for cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), a transmembrane receptor that has recently been shown to play a role in mammalian olfaction. In this study, by performing an assay using a peptide mimic of human CD36, we aimed to discover additional ligands for the receptor from volatiles containing a single aldehyde group commonly found in human foods. Straight-chain, saturated aliphatic aldehydes with 9-16 carbons exhibited CD36 ligand activities, albeit to varying degrees. Notably, the activities of tridecanal and tetradecanal were higher than that of oleic acid, the most potent ligand among the fatty acids tested. Among the aldehydes other than aliphatic aldehydes, only phenylacetaldehyde showed a weak activity. These findings make a contribution to our knowledge of recognition mechanisms for flavor volatiles in foods with an aldehyde group.

  12. Iron chelating ligand for iron overload diseases.

    PubMed

    Ozbolat, G; Tuli, A

    2018-01-01

    Iron overloads are a serious clinical condition in the health of humans and are therefore a key target in drug development. In this study, iron(III) complex of 8-hydroxyquinoline-5 sulphonic acid was synthesized and structurally characterized in its solid state and solution state by FT-IR, UV-Vis, elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility and 1H-NMR. The catalase activities of complex were investigated. It was showed that the complex has the catalase activity. It is suggested that this type of complex may constitute a new and interesting basis for the future search for new and more potential drugs. The electrochemical behaviour patterns of the ligand and complex were examined as supporting electrolyte and platinum electrode for cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemistry studies showed that the reductions in free ligand and complex take place differently.The cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay. The complex exhibited a very high cytotoxic activity and showed a cytotoxic effect that was much better than that of the ligand.The observed cytotoxicity could be pursued to obtain a potential drug. These results indicate that using the 8-hydroxyquinoline-5 sulphonic acid for this aim in further studies is appropriate (Tab. 1, Fig. 4, Ref. 18). Text in PDF www.elis.sk.

  13. Impact of protein and ligand impurities on ITC-derived protein-ligand thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Grüner, Stefan; Neeb, Manuel; Barandun, Luzi Jakob; Sielaff, Frank; Hohn, Christoph; Kojima, Shun; Steinmetzer, Torsten; Diederich, François; Klebe, Gerhard

    2014-09-01

    The thermodynamic characterization of protein-ligand interactions by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a powerful tool in drug design, giving valuable insight into the interaction driving forces. ITC is thought to require protein and ligand solutions of high quality, meaning both the absence of contaminants as well as accurately determined concentrations. Ligands synthesized to deviating purity and protein of different pureness were titrated by ITC. Data curation was attempted also considering information from analytical techniques to correct stoichiometry. We used trypsin and tRNA-guanine transglycosylase (TGT), together with high affinity ligands to investigate the effect of errors in protein concentration as well as the impact of ligand impurities on the apparent thermodynamics. We found that errors in protein concentration did not change the thermodynamic properties obtained significantly. However, most ligand impurities led to pronounced changes in binding enthalpy. If protein binding of the respective impurity is not expected, the actual ligand concentration was corrected for and the thus revised data compared to thermodynamic properties obtained with the respective pure ligand. Even in these cases, we observed differences in binding enthalpy of about 4kJ⋅mol(-1), which is considered significant. Our results indicate that ligand purity is the critical parameter to monitor if accurate thermodynamic data of a protein-ligand complex are to be recorded. Furthermore, artificially changing fitting parameters to obtain a sound interaction stoichiometry in the presence of uncharacterized ligand impurities may lead to thermodynamic parameters significantly deviating from the accurate thermodynamic signature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. PPARγ ligand production is tightly linked to clonal expansion during initiation of adipocyte differentiation[S

    PubMed Central

    Hallenborg, Philip; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed; Feddersen, Søren; Sundekilde, Ulrik; Hansen, Jacob B.; Blagoev, Blagoy; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Adipocyte differentiation is orchestrated by the ligand-activated nuclear receptor PPARγ. Endogenous ligands comprise oxidized derivatives of arachidonic acid and structurally similar PUFAs. Although expression of PPARγ peaks in mature adipocytes, ligands are produced primarily at the onset of differentiation. Concomitant with agonist production, murine fibroblasts undergo two rounds of mitosis referred to as mitotic clonal expansion. Here we show that mouse embryonic fibroblasts deficient in either of two cell cycle inhibitors, the transcription factor p53 or its target gene encoding the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21, exhibit increased adipogenic potential. The antiadipogenic effect of p53 relied on its transcriptional activity and p21 expression but was circumvented by administration of an exogenous PPARγ agonist suggesting a linkage between cell cycling and PPARγ ligand production. Indeed, cell cycle inhibitory compounds decreased PPARγ ligand production in differentiating 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Furthermore, these inhibitors abolished the release of arachidonic acid induced by the hormonal cocktail initiating adipogenesis. Collectively, our results suggest that murine fibroblasts require clonal expansion for PPARγ ligand production at the onset of adipocyte differentiation. PMID:25312885

  15. Group Additivity in Ligand Binding Affinity: An Alternative Approach to Ligand Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Charles H; Reynolds, Ryan C

    2017-12-26

    Group additivity is a concept that has been successfully applied to a variety of thermochemical and kinetic properties. This includes drug discovery, where functional group additivity is often assumed in ligand binding. Ligand efficiency can be recast as a special case of group additivity where ΔG/HA is the group equivalent (HA is the number of non-hydrogen atoms in a ligand). Analysis of a large data set of protein-ligand binding affinities (K i ) for diverse targets shows that in general ligand binding is distinctly nonlinear. It is possible to create a group equivalent scheme for ligand binding, but only in the context of closely related proteins, at least with regard to size. This finding has broad implications for drug design from both experimental and computational points of view. It also offers a path forward for a more general scheme to assess the efficiency of ligand binding.

  16. CO 2 Hydrogenation Catalysts with Deprotonated Picolinamide Ligands

    DOE PAGES

    Kanega, Ryoichi; Onishi, Naoya; Szalda, David J.; ...

    2017-08-21

    In an effort to design concepts for highly active catalysts for the hydrogenation of CO 2 to formate in basic water, we have prepared in this paper several catalysts with picolinic acid, picolinamide, and its derivatives, and we investigated their catalytic activity. The CO 2 hydrogenation catalyst having a 4-hydroxy-N-methylpicolinamidate ligand exhibited excellent activity even under ambient conditions (0.1 MPa, 25 °C) in basic water, exhibiting a TON of 14700, a TOF of 167 h –1, and producing a 0.64 M formate concentration. Finally, its high catalytic activity originates from strong electron donation by the anionic amide moiety in additionmore » to the phenolic O – functionality.« less

  17. New multifunctional ligands for potential use in the design therapeutic or diagnostic radiopharmaceutical imaging agents

    DOEpatents

    Katti, Kattesh V.; Volkert, Wynn A.; Ketring, Alan R.; Singh, Prahlad R.

    1997-01-01

    A class of diagnostic and therapeutic compounds derived from phosphinimines that include ligands containing either a single phosphinimine functionality or both a phosphinimine group and a phosphine or arsine group, or an aminato group, or a second phosphinimine moiety. These phosphinimine ligands are complexed to early transition metal radionuclides (e.g. .sup.99m Tc or .sup.186 Re/.sup.188 Re) or late transition metals (e.g., .sup.105 Rh or .sup.109 Pd). The complexes with these metals .sup.186 Re/.sup.188 Re, .sup.99m Tc and .sup.109 Pd exhibit a high in vitro and high in vivo stability. The complexes are formed in high yields and can be neutral or charged. These ligands can also be used to form stable compounds with paramagnetic transition metals (e.g. Fe and Mn) for potential use as MRI contrast agents. Applications for the use of ligands and making the ligands are also disclosed.

  18. New multifunctional ligands for potential use in the design therapeutic or diagnostic radiopharmaceutical imaging agents

    DOEpatents

    Katti, K.V.; Volkert, W.A.; Ketring, A.R.; Singh, P.R.

    1997-02-11

    A class of diagnostic and therapeutic compounds are derived from phosphinimines that include ligands containing either a single phosphinimine functionality or both a phosphinimine group and a phosphine or arsine group, or an aminato group, or a second phosphinimine moiety. These phosphinimine ligands are complexed to early transition metal radionuclides (e.g., {sup 99m}Tc or {sup 186}Re/{sup 188}Re) or late transition metals (e.g., {sup 105}Rh or {sup 109}Pd). The complexes with these metals {sup 186}Re/{sup 188}Re, {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 109}Pd exhibit a high in vitro and high in vivo stability. The complexes are formed in high yields and can be neutral or charged. These ligands can also be used to form stable compounds with paramagnetic transition metals (e.g., Fe and Mn) for potential use as MRI contrast agents. Applications for the use of ligands and making the ligands are also disclosed.

  19. Control of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2 stability and activity by SUMOylation.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Z Elizabeth; Stephens, Jacqueline M

    2004-06-01

    To determine whether small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO)ylation of lysine 107 plays a role in regulating the activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma). Transient expression of wild-type and K107R-PPARgamma2 in the NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell line was carried out in conjunction with half-life studies, luciferase activity assays, and indirect immunofluorescence localization studies. Additional in vitro analysis was carried out using recombinant SUMOylation pathway proteins along with in vitro transcribed and translated wild-type or K107R-PPARgamma2 to examine the SUMO-1 modification state of wild-type and SUMO-deficient K107R-PPARgamma2. While examining PPARgamma2 for potential ubiquitylation sites, we identified a strong consensus site for SUMO modification that contains lysine 107. In vitro, SUMOylation studies showed that lysine 107 of PPARgamma2 is a major SUMOylation site and that at least one other SUMOylation site is present in PPARgamma. In addition, our results demonstrated that SUMO-1 affects PPARgamma stability and transcriptional activity but not the nuclear localization of PPARgamma. These results indicated that SUMOylation plays a role in regulating PPARgamma, both indirectly and directly by modification of lysine 107. Because PPARgamma is regulated in numerous animal models of obesity, understanding the covalent modifications of PPARgamma may enhance our understanding of the metabolic syndrome.

  20. Aptamer-based multifunctional ligand-modified UCNPs for targeted PDT and bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Hou, Weijia; Liu, Yuan; Jiang, Ying; Wu, Yuan; Cui, Cheng; Wang, Yanyue; Zhang, Liqin; Teng, I-Ting; Tan, Weihong

    2018-06-14

    We designed an aptamer-based multifunctional ligand which, upon conjugation to the surface of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), could realize phase transfer, covalent photosensitizer (PS) loading, and cancer cell targeting in one simple step. The as-built PDT nanodrug is selectively internalized into cancer cells and it exhibits highly efficient and selective cytotoxicity.

  1. Reversible ion transportation switch by a ligand-gated synthetic supramolecular ion channel.

    PubMed

    Muraoka, Takahiro; Endo, Takahiro; Tabata, Kazuhito V; Noji, Hiroyuki; Nagatoishi, Satoru; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Li, Rui; Kinbara, Kazushi

    2014-11-05

    Inspired by the regulation of cellular activities found in the ion channel proteins, here we developed membrane-embedded synthetic chiral receptors 1 and 2 with different terminal structures, where receptor 1 has hydrophobic triisopropylsilyl (TIPS) groups and receptor 2 has hydrophilic hydroxy groups. The receptors have ligand-binding units that interact with cationic amphiphiles such as 2-phenethylamine (PA). Conductance study revealed that the receptors hardly show ion transportation at the ligand-free state. After ligand binding involving a conformational change, receptor 1 bearing TIPS termini displays a significant current enhancement due to ion transportation. The current substantially diminishes upon addition of β-cyclodextrin (βCD) that scavenges the ligand from the receptor. Importantly, the receptor again turns into the conductive state by the second addition of PA, and the activation/deactivation of the ion transportation can be repeated. In contrast, receptor 2 bearing the hydroxy terminal groups hardly exhibits ion transportation, suggesting the importance of terminal TIPS groups of 1 that likely anchor the receptor in the membrane.

  2. Use of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma ligand troglitazone as treatment for refractory breast cancer: a phase II study.

    PubMed

    Burstein, Harold J; Demetri, George D; Mueller, Elisabetta; Sarraf, Pasha; Spiegelman, Bruce M; Winer, Eric P

    2003-06-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effects of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma activating ligand, troglitazone, in patients with refractory metastatic breast cancer. Patients with advanced breast cancer refractory to at least one chemotherapy regimen (ER negative tumors) or two hormonal regimens (ER positive tumors) were treated with troglitazone at 800 mg p.o. QD until disease progression, to determine the percentage of patients free of progression at 6 months. Tumor response, toxicity, and changes in serum tumor markers (CEA, CA27.29) that might reflect alteration in tumor differentiation, were also examined. Twenty-two patients were enrolled before suspension of protocol accrual and treatment when troglitazone was withdrawn from commercial availability following FDA warnings on hepatic toxicity. No objective responses (CR or PR) were observed; only three patients had SD at 8 weeks. Patients came off study for PD (16), DLT (1), FDA withdrawal (2), or other (3) reasons. No patients took troglitazone for more than 20 weeks; all had experienced disease progression or began other systemic therapy within 6 months. All patients with elevated serum tumor markers (CEA and CA27.29) at baseline had rising tumor markers within 8 weeks. While clinical trials among different patient populations might uncover subtle effects on tumor differentiation, PPARgamma activation by troglitazone has little apparent clinical value among patients with treatment-refractory metastatic breast cancer.

  3. Targeting B lymphoma with nanoparticles bearing glycan ligands of CD22.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weihsu C; Sigal, Darren S; Saven, Alan; Paulson, James C

    2012-02-01

    CD22 is a member of the siglec (sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin) family expressed on B cells that recognizes glycans of glycoproteins as ligands. Because siglecs exhibit restricted expression on one or a few leukocyte cell types, they have gained attention as attractive targets for cell-directed therapies. Several antibody-based therapies targeting CD22 (Siglec-2) are currently in clinical trials for the treatment of hairy cell leukemia and other B cell lymphomas. As an alternative to antibodies we have developed liposomal nanoparticles decorated with glycan ligands of CD22 that selectively target B cells. Because CD22 is an endocytic receptor, ligand-decorated liposomes are bound by CD22 and rapidly internalized by the cell. When loaded with a toxic cargo such as doxorubicin, they are efficacious in prolonging life in a Daudi B cell lymphoma model. These B cell targeted nanoparticles have been demonstrated to bind and kill malignant B cells from patients with hairy cell leukemia, marginal zone lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The results demonstrate the potential of using CD22 ligand-targeted liposomal nanoparticles as an alternative approach for the treatment of B cell malignancies.

  4. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma overexpression suppresses proliferation of human colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukahara, Tamotsu, E-mail: ttamotsu@shinshu-u.ac.jp; Haniu, Hisao

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined the correlation between PPAR{gamma} expression and cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PPAR{gamma} overexpression reduces cell viability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show the synergistic effect of cell growth inhibition by a PPAR{gamma} agonist. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) plays an important role in the differentiation of intestinal cells and tissues. Our previous reports indicate that PPAR{gamma} is expressed at considerable levels in human colon cancer cells. This suggests that PPAR{gamma} expression may be an important factor for cell growth regulation in colon cancer. In this study, we investigated PPAR{gamma} expression in 4 human colon cancer cell lines, HT-29, LOVO,more » DLD-1, and Caco-2. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot analysis revealed that the relative levels of PPAR{gamma} mRNA and protein in these cells were in the order HT-29 > LOVO > Caco-2 > DLD-1. We also found that PPAR{gamma} overexpression promoted cell growth inhibition in PPAR{gamma} lower-expressing cell lines (Caco-2 and DLD-1), but not in higher-expressing cells (HT-29 and LOVO). We observed a correlation between the level of PPAR{gamma} expression and the cells' sensitivity for proliferation.« less

  5. Small Molecule Inhibition of Ligand-Stimulated RAGE-DIAPH1 Signal Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Manigrasso, Michaele B.; Pan, Jinhong; Rai, Vivek; Zhang, Jinghua; Reverdatto, Sergey; Quadri, Nosirudeen; DeVita, Robert J.; Ramasamy, Ravichandran; Shekhtman, Alexander; Schmidt, Ann Marie

    2016-01-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) binds diverse ligands linked to chronic inflammation and disease. NMR spectroscopy and x-ray crystallization studies of the extracellular domains of RAGE indicate that RAGE ligands bind by distinct charge- and hydrophobicity-dependent mechanisms. The cytoplasmic tail (ct) of RAGE is essential for RAGE ligand-mediated signal transduction and consequent modulation of gene expression and cellular properties. RAGE signaling requires interaction of ctRAGE with the intracellular effector, mammalian diaphanous 1 or DIAPH1. We screened a library of 58,000 small molecules and identified 13 small molecule competitive inhibitors of ctRAGE interaction with DIAPH1. These compounds, which exhibit in vitro and in vivo inhibition of RAGE-dependent molecular processes, present attractive molecular scaffolds for the development of therapeutics against RAGE-mediated diseases, such as those linked to diabetic complications, Alzheimer’s disease, and chronic inflammation, and provide support for the feasibility of inhibition of protein-protein interaction (PPI). PMID:26936329

  6. Insights into an original pocket-ligand pair classification: a promising tool for ligand profile prediction.

    PubMed

    Pérot, Stéphanie; Regad, Leslie; Reynès, Christelle; Spérandio, Olivier; Miteva, Maria A; Villoutreix, Bruno O; Camproux, Anne-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Pockets are today at the cornerstones of modern drug discovery projects and at the crossroad of several research fields, from structural biology to mathematical modeling. Being able to predict if a small molecule could bind to one or more protein targets or if a protein could bind to some given ligands is very useful for drug discovery endeavors, anticipation of binding to off- and anti-targets. To date, several studies explore such questions from chemogenomic approach to reverse docking methods. Most of these studies have been performed either from the viewpoint of ligands or targets. However it seems valuable to use information from both ligands and target binding pockets. Hence, we present a multivariate approach relating ligand properties with protein pocket properties from the analysis of known ligand-protein interactions. We explored and optimized the pocket-ligand pair space by combining pocket and ligand descriptors using Principal Component Analysis and developed a classification engine on this paired space, revealing five main clusters of pocket-ligand pairs sharing specific and similar structural or physico-chemical properties. These pocket-ligand pair clusters highlight correspondences between pocket and ligand topological and physico-chemical properties and capture relevant information with respect to protein-ligand interactions. Based on these pocket-ligand correspondences, a protocol of prediction of clusters sharing similarity in terms of recognition characteristics is developed for a given pocket-ligand complex and gives high performances. It is then extended to cluster prediction for a given pocket in order to acquire knowledge about its expected ligand profile or to cluster prediction for a given ligand in order to acquire knowledge about its expected pocket profile. This prediction approach shows promising results and could contribute to predict some ligand properties critical for binding to a given pocket, and conversely, some key pocket

  7. Insights into an Original Pocket-Ligand Pair Classification: A Promising Tool for Ligand Profile Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Reynès, Christelle; Spérandio, Olivier; Miteva, Maria A.; Villoutreix, Bruno O.; Camproux, Anne-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Pockets are today at the cornerstones of modern drug discovery projects and at the crossroad of several research fields, from structural biology to mathematical modeling. Being able to predict if a small molecule could bind to one or more protein targets or if a protein could bind to some given ligands is very useful for drug discovery endeavors, anticipation of binding to off- and anti-targets. To date, several studies explore such questions from chemogenomic approach to reverse docking methods. Most of these studies have been performed either from the viewpoint of ligands or targets. However it seems valuable to use information from both ligands and target binding pockets. Hence, we present a multivariate approach relating ligand properties with protein pocket properties from the analysis of known ligand-protein interactions. We explored and optimized the pocket-ligand pair space by combining pocket and ligand descriptors using Principal Component Analysis and developed a classification engine on this paired space, revealing five main clusters of pocket-ligand pairs sharing specific and similar structural or physico-chemical properties. These pocket-ligand pair clusters highlight correspondences between pocket and ligand topological and physico-chemical properties and capture relevant information with respect to protein-ligand interactions. Based on these pocket-ligand correspondences, a protocol of prediction of clusters sharing similarity in terms of recognition characteristics is developed for a given pocket-ligand complex and gives high performances. It is then extended to cluster prediction for a given pocket in order to acquire knowledge about its expected ligand profile or to cluster prediction for a given ligand in order to acquire knowledge about its expected pocket profile. This prediction approach shows promising results and could contribute to predict some ligand properties critical for binding to a given pocket, and conversely, some key pocket

  8. PPAR{gamma} activation abolishes LDL-induced proliferation of human aortic smooth muscle cells via SOD-mediated down-regulation of superoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Heo, Kyung-Sun; Department of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Yuseong, Daejeon; Kim, Dong-Uk

    Native LDL would be a mitogenic and chemotactic stimulus of VSMC proliferation and differentiation in the atherosclerotic lesion where endothelial disruption occurred. In previous studies, our group investigated the molecular mechanisms by which LDL induces IL-8 production and by which PPAR{alpha} activation abolishes LDL effects in human aortic SMCs (hAoSMCs). Herein is the first report of PPAR{gamma} activation by troglitazone (TG) exerting its inhibitory effects on LDL-induced cell proliferation via generation not of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, but of O2?-, and the subsequent activation of Erk1/2 in hAoSMCs. Moreover, in this study TG abolished the LDL-accelerated G{sub 1}-S progression to controlmore » levels via down-regulation of active cyclinD1/CDK4 and cyclinE/CDK2 complexes and up-regulation of p21{sup Cip1} expression. TG exerted its anti-proliferative effects through the up-regulation of basal superoxide dismutase (SOD) expression. This data suggests that the regulation of O2?- is located at the crossroads between LDL signaling and cell proliferation.« less

  9. Role of ligand-ligand vs. core-core interactions in gold nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Milowska, Karolina Z; Stolarczyk, Jacek K

    2016-05-14

    The controlled assembly of ligand-coated gold nanoclusters (NCs) into larger structures paves the way for new applications ranging from electronics to nanomedicine. Here, we demonstrate through rigorous density functional theory (DFT) calculations employing novel functionals accounting for van der Waals forces that the ligand-ligand interactions determine whether stable assemblies can be formed. The study of NCs with different core sizes, symmetry forms, ligand lengths, mutual crystal orientations, and in the presence of a solvent suggests that core-to-core van der Waals interactions play a lesser role in the assembly. The dominant interactions originate from combination of steric effects, augmented by ligand bundling on NC facets, and related to them changes in electronic properties induced by neighbouring NCs. We also show that, in contrast to standard colloidal theory approach, DFT correctly reproduces the surprising experimental trends in the strength of the inter-particle interaction observed when varying the length of the ligands. The results underpin the importance of understanding NC interactions in designing gold NCs for a specific function.

  10. Development of Protein Degradation Inducers of Androgen Receptor by Conjugation of Androgen Receptor Ligands and Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein Ligands.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Norihito; Nagai, Katsunori; Morita, Yoko; Ujikawa, Osamu; Ohoka, Nobumichi; Hattori, Takayuki; Koyama, Ryokichi; Sano, Osamu; Imaeda, Yasuhiro; Nara, Hiroshi; Cho, Nobuo; Naito, Mikihiko

    2018-01-25

    Targeted protein degradation using small molecules is a novel strategy for drug development. We have developed hybrid molecules named specific and nongenetic inhibitor of apoptosis protein [IAP]-dependent protein erasers (SNIPERs) that recruit IAP ubiquitin ligases to degrade target proteins. Here, we show novel SNIPERs capable of inducing proteasomal degradation of the androgen receptor (AR). Through derivatization of the SNIPER(AR) molecule at the AR ligand and IAP ligand and linker, we developed 42a (SNIPER(AR)-51), which shows effective protein knockdown activity against AR. Consistent with the degradation of the AR protein, 42a inhibits AR-mediated gene expression and proliferation of androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells. In addition, 42a efficiently induces caspase activation and apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, which was not observed in the cells treated with AR antagonists. These results suggest that SNIPER(AR)s could be leads for an anticancer drug against prostate cancers that exhibit AR-dependent proliferation.

  11. Ligand solvation in molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Shoichet, B K; Leach, A R; Kuntz, I D

    1999-01-01

    Solvation plays an important role in ligand-protein association and has a strong impact on comparisons of binding energies for dissimilar molecules. When databases of such molecules are screened for complementarity to receptors of known structure, as often occurs in structure-based inhibitor discovery, failure to consider ligand solvation often leads to putative ligands that are too highly charged or too large. To correct for the different charge states and sizes of the ligands, we calculated electrostatic and non-polar solvation free energies for molecules in a widely used molecular database, the Available Chemicals Directory (ACD). A modified Born equation treatment was used to calculate the electrostatic component of ligand solvation. The non-polar component of ligand solvation was calculated based on the surface area of the ligand and parameters derived from the hydration energies of apolar ligands. These solvation energies were subtracted from the ligand-receptor interaction energies. We tested the usefulness of these corrections by screening the ACD for molecules that complemented three proteins of known structure, using a molecular docking program. Correcting for ligand solvation improved the rankings of known ligands and discriminated against molecules with inappropriate charge states and sizes.

  12. Screening the efficient biological prospects of triazole allied mixed ligand metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utthra, Ponnukalai Ponya; Kumaravel, Ganesan; Raman, Natarajan

    2017-12-01

    Triazole appended mixed ligand complexes (1-8) of the general formula [ML (bpy/phen)2]Cl2, where M = Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II), L = triazole appended Schiff base (E)sbnd N-(4-nitrobenzylidene)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-amine and bpy/phen = 2,2‧-bipyridine/1,10-phenanthroline, have been synthesized. The design and synthesis of this elaborate ligand has been performed with the aim of increasing stability and conjugation of 1,2,4 triazole, whose Schiff base derivatives are known as biologically active compounds thereby exploring their DNA binding affinity and other biological applications. The compounds have been comprehensively characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopic methods (IR, UV-Vis, EPR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy), ESI mass spectrometry and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The complexes were found to exhibit octahedral geometry. The complexes 1-8 were subjected to DNA binding techniques evaluated using UV-Vis absorption, CV, CD, Fluorescence spectroscopy and hydrodynamic measurements. Complex 5 showed a Kb value of 3.9 × 105 M-1. The DNA damaging efficacy for the complexes was observed to be high compared to the ligand. The antimicrobial screening of the compounds against bacterial and fungal strains indicates that the complexes possess excellent antimicrobial activity than the ligand. The overall biological activity of the complexes with phen as a co-ligand possessed superior potential than the ligand.

  13. Synthesis and antimalarial activity of metal complexes of cross-bridged tetraazamacrocyclic ligands.

    PubMed

    Hubin, Timothy J; Amoyaw, Prince N-A; Roewe, Kimberly D; Simpson, Natalie C; Maples, Randall D; Carder Freeman, TaRynn N; Cain, Amy N; Le, Justin G; Archibald, Stephen J; Khan, Shabana I; Tekwani, Babu L; Khan, M O Faruk

    2014-07-01

    Using transition metals such as manganese(II), iron(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), and zinc(II), several new metal complexes of cross-bridged tetraazamacrocyclic chelators namely, cyclen- and cyclam-analogs with benzyl groups, were synthesized and screened for in vitro antimalarial activity against chloroquine-resistant (W2) and chloroquine-sensitive (D6) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. The metal-free chelators tested showed little or no antimalarial activity. All the metal complexes of the dibenzyl cross-bridged cyclam ligand exhibited potent antimalarial activity. The Mn(2+) complex of this ligand was the most potent with IC50s of 0.127 and 0.157μM against the chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and chloroquine-resistant (W2) P. falciparum strains, respectively. In general, the dibenzyl hydrophobic ligands showed better anti-malarial activity compared to the activity of monobenzyl ligands, potentially because of their higher lipophilicity and thus better cell penetration ability. The higher antimalarial activity displayed by the manganese complex for the cyclam ligand in comparison to that of the cyclen, correlates with the larger pocket of cyclam compared to that of cyclen which produces a more stable complex with the Mn(2+). Few of the Cu(2+) and Fe(2+) complexes also showed improvement in activity but Ni(2+), Co(2+) and Zn(2+) complexes did not show any improvement in activity upon the metal-free ligands for anti-malarial development. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Early/Late Heterobimetallic Tantalum/Rhodium Species Assembled Through a Novel Bifunctional NHC-OH Ligand.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ravi; Moneuse, Raphaël; Petit, Julien; Pavard, Paul-Alexis; Dardun, Vincent; Rivat, Madleen; Schiltz, Pauline; Solari, Marius; Jeanneau, Erwann; Veyre, Laurent; Thieuleux, Chloé; Quadrelli, Elsje Alessandra; Camp, Clément

    2018-03-20

    The straightforward synthesis of a new unsymmetrical hydroxy-tethered N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand, HL, is presented. The free ligand exhibits an unusual OH-carbene hydrogen-bonding interaction. This OH-carbene motif was used to yield 1) the first tantalum complex displaying both a Fischer- and Schrock-type carbene ligand and 2) a unique NHC-based early/late heterobimetallic complex. More specifically, the protonolysis chemistry between the ligand's hydroxy group and imido-alkyl or alkylidene-alkyl tantalum precursor complexes yielded the rare monometallic tantalum-NHC complexes [Ta(XtBu)(L)(CH 2 tBu) 2 ] (X=N, CH), in which the alkoxy-carbene ligand acts as a chelate. In contrast, HL only binds to rhodium through the NHC unit in [Rh(HL)(cod)Cl] (cod=cycloocta-1,5-diene), the hydroxy pendant arm remaining unbound. This bifunctional ligand scaffold successfully promoted the assembly of rhodium/tantalum heterobimetallic complexes upon either 1) the insertion of [Rh(cod)Cl] 2 into the Ta-NHC bond in [Ta(NtBu)(L)(CH 2 tBu) 2 ] or 2) protonolysis between the free hydroxy group in [Rh(HL)(cod)Cl] and one alkyl group in [Ta(NtBu)(CH 2 tBu) 3 ]. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Ligand interaction scan: a general method for engineering ligand-sensitive protein alleles.

    PubMed

    Erster, Oran; Eisenstein, Miriam; Liscovitch, Mordechai

    2007-05-01

    The ligand interaction scan (LIScan) method is a general procedure for engineering small molecule ligand-regulated forms of a protein that is complementary to other 'reverse' genetic and chemical-genetic methods for drug-target validation. It involves insertional mutagenesis by a chemical-genetic 'switch', comprising a genetically encoded peptide module that binds with high affinity to a small-molecule ligand. We demonstrated the method with TEM-1 beta-lactamase, using a tetracysteine hexapeptide insert and a biarsenical fluorescein ligand (FlAsH).

  16. Breaking tolerance to self, circulating natural killer cells expressing inhibitory KIR for non-self HLA exhibit effector function after T cell-depleted allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Junli; Venstrom, Jeffrey M; Liu, Xiao-Rong; Pring, James; Hasan, Reenat S; O'Reilly, Richard J; Hsu, Katharine C

    2009-04-16

    Alloreactive natural killer (NK) cells are an important influence on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) outcome. In HLA-mismatched HSCT, alloreactivity occurs when licensed donor NK cells expressing inhibitory killer Ig-like receptors (KIR) for donor MHC class I ligands recognize the lack of the class I ligands in the mismatched recipient ("missing self"). Studies in HLA-matched HSCT, however, have also demonstrated improved outcome in patients lacking class I ligands for donor inhibitory KIR ("missing ligand"), indicating that classically nonlicensed donor NK cells expressing KIR for non-self MHC class I ligands may exhibit functional competence in HSCT. We examined NK function in 16 recipients of T cell-depleted allografts from HLA-identical or KIR-ligand matched donors after myeloablative therapy. After HSCT, nonlicensed NK cells expressing inhibitory KIR for non-self class I exhibit robust intracellular IFN-gamma and cytotoxic response to target cells lacking cognate ligand, gradually becoming tolerized to self by day 100. These findings could not be correlated with cytokine environment or phenotypic markers of NK development, nor could they be attributed to non-KIR receptors such as CD94/NKG2A. These findings confirm that NK alloreactivity can occur in HLA-matched HSCT, where tolerance to self is either acquired by the stem cell-derived NK cell after exiting the bone marrow or where tolerance to self can be temporarily overcome.

  17. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and transforming growth factor-beta pathways inhibit intestinal epithelial cell growth by regulating levels of TSC-22.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajnish A; Sarraf, Pasha; Brockman, Jeffrey A; Shappell, Scott B; Raftery, Laurel A; Willson, Timothy M; DuBois, Raymond N

    2003-02-28

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) are key regulators of epithelial cell biology. However, the molecular mechanisms by which either pathway induces growth inhibition and differentiation are incompletely understood. We have identified transforming growth factor-simulated clone-22 (TSC-22) as a target gene of both pathways in intestinal epithelial cells. TSC-22 is member of a family of leucine zipper containing transcription factors with repressor activity. Although little is known regarding its function in mammals, the Drosophila homolog of TSC-22, bunched, plays an essential role in fly development. The ability of PPARgamma to induce TSC-22 was not dependent on an intact TGF-beta1 signaling pathway and was specific for the gamma isoform. Localization studies revealed that TSC-22 mRNA is enriched in the postmitotic epithelial compartment of the normal human colon. Cells transfected with wild-type TSC-22 exhibited reduced growth rates and increased levels of p21 compared with vector-transfected cells. Furthermore, transfection with a dominant negative TSC-22 in which both repressor domains were deleted was able to reverse the p21 induction and growth inhibition caused by activation of either the PPARgamma or TGF-beta pathways. These results place TSC-22 as an important downstream component of PPARgamma and TGF-beta signaling during intestinal epithelial cell differentiation.

  18. Core 1-derived O-glycans are essential E-selectin ligands on neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Yago, Tadayuki; Fu, Jianxin; McDaniel, J Michael; Miner, Jonathan J; McEver, Rodger P; Xia, Lijun

    2010-05-18

    Neutrophils roll on E-selectin in inflamed venules through interactions with cell-surface glycoconjugates. The identification of physiologic E-selectin ligands on neutrophils has been elusive. Current evidence suggests that P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), E-selectin ligand-1 (ESL-1), and CD44 encompass all glycoprotein ligands for E-selectin; that ESL-1 and CD44 use N-glycans to bind to E-selectin; and that neutrophils lacking core 2 O-glycans have partially defective interactions with E-selectin. These data imply that N-glycans on ESL-1 and CD44 and O-glycans on PSGL-1 constitute all E-selectin ligands, with neither glycan subset having a dominant role. The enzyme T-synthase transfers Gal to GalNAcalpha1-Ser/Thr to form the core 1 structure Galbeta1-3GalNAcalpha1-Ser/Thr, a precursor for core 2 and extended core 1 O-glycans that might serve as selectin ligands. Here, using mice lacking T-synthase in endothelial and hematopoietic cells, we found that E-selectin bound to CD44 and ESL-1 in lysates of T-synthase-deficient neutrophils. However, the cells exhibited markedly impaired rolling on E-selectin in vitro and in vivo, failed to activate beta2 integrins while rolling, and did not emigrate into inflamed tissues. These defects were more severe than those of neutrophils lacking PSGL-1, CD44, and the mucin CD43. Our results demonstrate that core 1-derived O-glycans are essential E-selectin ligands; that some of these O-glycans are on protein(s) other than PSGL-1, CD44, and CD43; and that PSGL-1, CD44, and ESL-1 do not constitute all glycoprotein ligands for E-selectin.

  19. Redox chemistry of nickel(II) complexes supported by a series of noninnocent β-diketiminate ligands.

    PubMed

    Takaichi, June; Morimoto, Yuma; Ohkubo, Kei; Shimokawa, Chizu; Hojo, Takayuki; Mori, Seiji; Asahara, Haruyasu; Sugimoto, Hideki; Fujieda, Nobutaka; Nishiwaki, Nagatoshi; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Itoh, Shinobu

    2014-06-16

    Nickel complexes of a series of β-diketiminate ligands ((R)L(-), deprotonated form of 2-substituted N-[3-(phenylamino)allylidene]aniline derivatives (R)LH, R = Me, H, Br, CN, and NO2) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. One-electron oxidation of the neutral complexes [Ni(II)((R)L(-))2] by AgSbF6 or [Ru(III)(bpy)3](PF6)3 (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) gave the corresponding metastable cationic complexes, which exhibit an EPR spectrum due to a doublet species (S = 1/2) and a characteristic absorption band in near IR region ascribable to a ligand-to-ligand intervalence charge-transfer (LLIVCT) transition. DFT calculations have indicated that the divalent oxidation state of nickel ion (Ni(II)) is retained, whereas one of the β-diketiminate ligands is oxidized to give formally a mixed-valence complex, [Ni(II)((R)L(-))((R)L(•))](+). Thus, the doublet spin state of the oxidized cationic complex can be explained by taking account of the antiferromagnetic interaction between the high-spin nickel(II) ion (S = 1) and the organic radical (S = 1/2) of supporting ligand. A single-crystal structure of one of the cationic complexes (R = H) has been successfully determined to show that both ligands in the cationic complex are structurally equivalent. On the basis of theoretical analysis of the LLIVCT band and DFT calculations as well as the crystal structure, the mixed-valence complexes have been assigned to Robin-Day class III species, where the radical spin is equally delocalized between the two ligands to give the cationic complex, which is best described as [Ni(II)((R)L(0.5•-))2](+). One-electron reduction of the neutral complexes with decamethylcobaltocene gave the anionic complexes when the ligand has the electron-withdrawing substituent (R = CN, NO2, Br). The generated anionic complexes exhibited EPR spectra due to a doublet species (S = 1/2) but showed no LLIVCT band in the near-IR region. Thus, the reduced complexes are best described as the d(9) nickel

  20. Development of novel non agoinst PPAR-gamma ligands for lung cancer treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-08-01

    Melin Khandekar, M.D., Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION : Massachusetts General Hospital Boston, MA 02114 REPORT DATE: August 2017 TYPE OF REPORT...5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Massachusetts General Hospital 55 Fruit St. Boston, MA 02114 55 AND...ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) U.S

  1. Rhenium tetrazolato complexes coordinated to thioalkyl-functionalised phenanthroline ligands: synthesis, photophysical characterisation, and incubation in live HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Werrett, Melissa V; Wright, Phillip J; Simpson, Peter V; Raiteri, Paolo; Skelton, Brian W; Stagni, Stefano; Buckley, Alysia G; Rigby, Paul J; Massi, Massimiliano

    2015-12-21

    Three new complexes of formulation fac-[Re(CO)3(diim)L], where diim is either 1,10-phenanthroline or 1,10-phenanthroline functionalised at position 5 by a thioalkyl chain, and L is either a chloro or aryltetrazolato ancillary ligand, were synthesised and photophysically characterised. The complexes exhibit phosphorescent emission with maxima around 600 nm, originating from triplet metal-to-ligand charge transfer states with partially mixed ligand-to-ligand charge transfer character. The emission is relatively long-lived, within the 200-400 ns range, and with quantum yields of 2-4%. The complexes were trialed as cellular markers in live HeLa cells, along with two previously reported rhenium tetrazolato complexes bound to unsubstituted 1,10-phenanthroline. All five complexes exhibit good cellular uptake and non-specific perinuclear localisation. Upon excitation at 405 nm, the emission from the rhenium complexes could be clearly distinguished from autofluorescence, as demonstrated by spectral detection within the live cells. Four of the complexes did not appear to be toxic, however prolonged excitation could result in membrane blebbing. No major sign of photobleaching was detected upon multiple imaging on the same cell sample.

  2. Small Molecule Ligands of Methyl-Lysine Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Herold, J. Martin; Wigle, Tim J.; Norris, Jacqueline L.; Lam, Robert; Korboukh, Victoria K.; Gao, Cen; Ingerman, Lindsey A.; Kireev, Dmitri B.; Senisterra, Guillermo; Vedadi, Masoud; Tripathy, Ashutosh; Brown, Peter J.; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Jin, Jian; Janzen, William P.; Frye, Stephen V.

    2011-01-01

    Proteins which bind methylated lysines (“readers” of the histone code) are important components in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and can also modulate other proteins that contain methyl-lysine such as p53 and Rb. Recognition of methyl-lysine marks by MBT domains leads to compaction of chromatin and a repressed transcriptional state. Antagonists of MBT domains would serve as probes to interrogate the functional role of these proteins and initiate the chemical biology of methyl-lysine readers as a target class. Small molecule MBT antagonists were designed based on the structure of histone peptide-MBT complexes and their interaction with MBT domains determined using a chemiluminescent assay and ITC. The ligands discovered antagonize native histone peptide binding, exhibiting 5-fold stronger binding affinity to L3MBTL1 than its preferred histone peptide. The first co-crystal structure of a small molecule bound to L3MBTL1 was determined and provides new insights into binding requirements for further ligand design. PMID:21417280

  3. Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma in vascular smooth muscle cells is upregulated in cystic medial degeneration of annuloaortic ectasia in Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sakomura, Yasunari; Nagashima, Hirotaka; Aoka, Yoshikazu; Uto, Kenta; Sakuta, Akiko; Aomi, Shigeyuki; Kurosawa, Hiromi; Nishikawa, Toshio; Kasanuki, Hiroshi

    2002-09-24

    Cystic medial degeneration (CMD) is a histological abnormality that is common in annuloaortic ectasia (AAE) and aortic dissection with Marfan syndrome. Apoptosis and loss of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is one of the features of CMD, but little is known about its pathogenesis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma), a transcription factor of the nuclear receptor superfamily, has been reported to show antiproliferative effects on VSMCs as well as anti-inflammatory effects on macrophages. PPARgamma agonist has been recently reported to induce apoptosis of cultured VSMCs. We examined the histopathology of ascending aortas in AAE of Marfan patients (n=21) and control patients (n=6) at surgery. RT-PCR was performed to demonstrate expression of PPARgamma in CMD. Localization of PPARgamma was determined by double immunostaining using antibodies against PPARgamma and cell-specific markers (ie, SMCs, macrophages, and T lymphocytes). PPARgamma expression was upregulated in AAE samples but minimal in control samples by RT-PCR (P=0.07). Immunoreactivity against PPARgamma in numerous nuclei of VSMCs was observed in CMD lesions. Severity of CMD correlated with positive immunoreactivity of PPARgamma in medial VSMCs (P=0.03). No inflammatory cells (ie, macrophages or T lymphocytes) were detected in CMD lesions. PPARgamma expression is upregulated in SMCs of CMD without any inflammatory response. Activated PPARgamma in VSMCs might be involved in the pathogenesis of CMD in Marfan's aortas. Regulation of PPARgamma might lead to clinical implication in protection against progression of AAE.

  4. A Large-Surface-Area Boracite-Network-Topology Porous MOF Constructed from a Conjugated Ligand Exhibiting a High Hydrogen Uptake Capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xi-Sen; Ma, Shengqian; Yuan, Daqiang

    2009-01-01

    A new porous metal-organic framework, PCN-20 with a twisted boracite net topology, was constructed based on a highly conjugated planar tricarboxylate ligand; PCN-20 possesses a large Langmuir surface area of over 4200 m(2)/g as well as demonstrates a high hydrogen uptake capacity of 6.2 wt % at 77 K and 50 bar.

  5. 15-Deoxy-{delta}{sup 12,14}-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) mediates repression of TNF-{alpha} by decreasing levels of acetylated histone H3 and H4 at its promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Engdahl, Ryan; Monroy, M. Alexandra; Temple University School of Medicine, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, 3400 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140

    2007-07-20

    Prostaglandin metabolite 15-Deoxy-{delta}{sup 12,14}-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) is known to inhibit a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as being a ligand for nuclear receptor PPAR{gamma}. We investigated the ability of 15d-PGJ2 to inhibit TNF-{alpha} gene expression through mechanisms that involve histone modification. Pretreatment with 15d-PGJ2 (10 {mu}M) inhibited LPS-stimulated TNF-{alpha} mRNA in THP-1 monocytes or PMA-differentiated cells to nearly basal levels. A specific PPAR{gamma} ligand, GW1929, failed to inhibit LPS-induced TNF-{alpha} mRNA expression nor did a PPAR{gamma} antagonist, GW9662, alter the repression of TNF-{alpha} mRNA in LPS-stimulated cells pretreated with 15d-PGJ2 suggesting a PPAR{gamma}-independent inhibition of TNF-{alpha} mRNA in THP-1more » cells. Transfection studies with a reporter construct and subsequent treatment with 15d-PGJ2 demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibition of the TNF-{alpha} promoter. Additional studies demonstrated that inhibition of histone deacetylases with trichostatin A (TSA) or overexpression of histone acetyltransferase CBP could overcome 15d-PGJ2-mediated repression of the TNF-{alpha} promoter, suggesting that an important mechanism whereby 15d-PGJ2 suppresses a cytokine is through factors that regulate histone modifications. To examine the endogenous TNF-{alpha} promoter, chromatin immunoprecipitations (ChIP) were performed. ChIP assays demonstrated that LPS stimulation induced an increase in histone H3 and H4 acetylation at the TNF-{alpha} promoter, which was reduced in cells pretreated with 15d-PGJ2. These results highlight the ability of acetylation and deacetylation factors to affect the TNF-{alpha} promoter and demonstrate that an additional important mechanism whereby 15d-PGJ2 mediates TNF-{alpha} transcriptional repression by altering levels of acetylated histone H3 and H4 at its promoter.« less

  6. Gold Nanoparticle Monolayers from Sequential Interfacial Ligand Exchange and Migration in a Three-Phase System

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guang; Hallinan, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Using a three-phase system, centimeter-scale monolayer gold nanoparticle (Au NP) films have been prepared that have long-range order and hydrophobic ligands. The system contains an interface between an aqueous phase containing Au NPs and an oil phase containing one of various types of amine ligands, and a water/air interface. As the Au NPs diffuse to the water/oil interface, ligand exchange takes place which temporarily traps them at the water/oil interface. The ligand-exchanged particles then spontaneously migrate to the air/water interface, where they self-assemble, forming a monolayer under certain conditions. The spontaneous formation of the NP film at the air/water interface was due to the minimization of the system Helmholtz free energy. However, the extent of surface functionalization was dictated by kinetics. This decouples interfacial ligand exchange from interfacial self-assembly, while maintaining the simplicity of a single system. The interparticle center-to-center distance was dictated by the amine ligand length. The Au NP monolayers exhibit tunable surface plasma resonance and excellent spatial homogeneity, which is useful for surface-enhanced Raman scattering. The “air/water/oil” self-assembly method developed here not only benefits the fundamental understanding of NP ligand conformations, but is also applicable to the manufacture of plasmonic nanoparticle devices with precisely designed optical properties. PMID:27762394

  7. Ligand design for multidimensional magnetic materials: a metallosupramolecular perspective.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Emilio; Ruiz-García, Rafael; Cano, Joan; Ottenwaelder, Xavier; Lescouëzec, Rodrigue; Journaux, Yves; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel

    2008-06-07

    The aim and scope of this review is to show the general validity of the 'complex-as-ligand' approach for the rational design of metallosupramolecular assemblies of increasing structural and magnetic complexity. This is illustrated herein on the basis of our recent studies on oxamato complexes with transition metal ions looking for the limits of the research avenue opened by Kahn's pioneering research twenty years ago. The use as building blocks of mono-, di- and trinuclear metal complexes with a novel family of aromatic polyoxamato ligands allowed us to move further in the coordination chemistry-based approach to high-nuclearity coordination compounds and high-dimensionality coordination polymers. In order to do so, we have taken advantage of the new developments of metallosupramolecular chemistry and in particular, of the molecular-programmed self-assembly methods that exploit the coordination preferences of metal ions and specifically tailored ligands. The judicious choice of the oxamato metal building block (substitution pattern and steric requirements of the bridging ligand, as well as the electronic configuration and magnetic anisotropy of the metal ion) allowed us to control the overall structure and magnetic properties of the final multidimensional nD products (n = 0-3). These species exhibit interesting magnetic properties which are brand-new targets in the field of molecular magnetism, such as single-molecule or single-chain magnets, and the well-known class of molecule-based magnets. This unique family of molecule-based magnetic materials expands on the reported examples of nD species with cyanide and related oxalato and dithiooxalato analogues. Moreover, the development of new oxamato metal building blocks with potential photo or redox activity at the aromatic ligand counterpart will provide us with addressable, multifunctional molecular materials for future applications in molecular electronics and nanotechnology.

  8. A two-dimensional layered Cd(II) coordination polymer with a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture incorporating mixed multidentate N- and O-donor ligands.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiu-Ying; Su, Ming-Yang; Meng, Xiang-Ru

    2015-06-01

    The combination of N-heterocyclic and multicarboxylate ligands is a good choice for the construction of metal-organic frameworks. In the title coordination polymer, poly[bis{μ2-1-[(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)methyl]-1H-tetrazole-κ(2)N(3):N(4)}(μ4-butanedioato-κ(4)O(1):O(1'):O(4):O(4'))(μ2-butanedioato-κ(2)O(1):O(4))dicadmium], [Cd(C4H4O4)(C9H8N6)]n, each Cd(II) ion exhibits an irregular octahedral CdO4N2 coordination geometry and is coordinated by four O atoms from three carboxylate groups of three succinate (butanedioate) ligands and two N atoms from two 1-[(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)methyl]-1H-tetrazole (bimt) ligands. Cd(II) ions are connected by two kinds of crystallographically independent succinate ligands to generate a two-dimensional layered structure with bimt ligands located on each side of the layer. Adjacent layers are further connected by hydrogen bonding, leading to a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture in the solid state. Thermogravimetric analysis of the title polymer shows that it is stable up to 529 K and then loses weight from 529 to 918 K, corresponding to the decomposition of the bimt ligands and succinate groups. The polymer exhibits a strong fluorescence emission in the solid state at room temperature.

  9. Electrical and Plasmonic Properties of Ligand-Free Sn(4+) -Doped In2 O3 (ITO) Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Jagadeeswararao, Metikoti; Pal, Somnath; Nag, Angshuman; Sarma, D D

    2016-03-03

    Sn(4+) -doped In2 O3 (ITO) is a benchmark transparent conducting oxide material. We prepared ligand-free but colloidal ITO (8 nm, 10 % Sn(4+) ) nanocrystals (NCs) by using a post-synthesis surface-modification reaction. (CH3 )3 OBF4 removes the native oleylamine ligand from NC surfaces to give ligand-free, positively charged NCs that form a colloidal dispersion in polar solvents. Both oleylamine-capped and ligand-free ITO NCs exhibit intense absorption peaks, due to localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) at around λ=1950 nm. Compared with oleylamine-capped NCs, the electrical resistivity of ligand-free ITO NCs is lower by an order of magnitude (≈35 mΩ cm(-1) ). Resistivity over a wide range of temperatures can be consistently described as a composite of metallic ITO grains embedded in an insulating matrix by using a simple equivalent circuit, which provides an insight into the conduction mechanism in these systems. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Structural diversification and photocatalytic properties of three Cd(II) coordination polymers decorated with different auxiliary ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wen-Yu; Zhuang, Guo-Yong; Huang, Zuo-Long; Cheng, Hong-Jian; Zhou, Li; Ma, Man-Hong; Wang, Hao; Tang, Xiao-Yan; Ma, Yun-Sheng; Yuan, Rong-Xin

    2016-03-01

    Three cadmium coordination polymers, [Cd(bismip)]n (1), {[Cd(bismip)(phen)]·H2O}n (2) and {[Cd2(bismip)2(4,4‧-bipy)]·2H2O}n (3) (H2bismip=5-(1H-benzoimidazol-2-ylsulfanylmethyl)-isophthalic acid, phen=1,10-phenanthroline, 4,4‧-bipy=4,4‧-bipyridine) have been prepared under solvothermal conditions. In 1, the [Cd4(bismip)3] units are jointed by bismip ligands to afford a three-dimensional (3D) architecture. Complex 2 exhibits a 3D supramolecular framework based on the interconnection of 1D chains through hydrogen bonding interactions and π-π packing interactions. 3 is a two-fold interpenetrating 3D architecture with a (4·82)(42·84) Schläfli symbol in which 2D layers are interlinked by 4,4‧-bipy ligands. The diverse structures of compounds 1-3 indicate that the auxiliary ligands have significant effects on the final structures. The photoluminescent properties and photocatalytic properties of these coordination polymers in the solid state were also investigated. Remarkably, 3 shows the wide gap semiconductor nature and exhibit excellent photocatalytic performance.

  11. Propeptide cleavage conditions sortilin/neurotensin receptor-3 for ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Munck Petersen, C; Nielsen, M S; Jacobsen, C; Tauris, J; Jacobsen, L; Gliemann, J; Moestrup, S K; Madsen, P

    1999-02-01

    We recently reported the isolation and sequencing of sortilin, a new putative sorting receptor that binds receptor-associated protein (RAP). The luminal N-terminus of sortilin comprises a consensus sequence for cleavage by furin, R41WRR44, which precedes a truncation originally found in sortilin isolated from human brain. We now show that the truncation results from cellular processing. Sortilin is synthesized as a proform which, in late Golgi compartments, is converted to the mature receptor by furin-mediated cleavage of a 44 residue N-terminal propeptide. We further demonstrate that the propeptide exhibits pH-dependent high affinity binding to fully processed sortilin, that the binding is competed for by RAP and the newly discovered sortilin ligand neurotensin, and that prevention of propeptide cleavage essentially prevents binding of RAP and neurotensin. The findings evidence that the propeptide sterically hinders ligands from gaining access to overlapping binding sites in prosortilin, and that cleavage and release of the propeptide preconditions sortilin for full functional activity. Although proteolytic processing is involved in the maturation of several receptors, the described exposure of previously concealed ligand-binding sites after furin-mediated cleavage of propeptide represents a novel mechanism in receptor activation.

  12. Structural Sensitivity of a Prokaryotic Pentameric Ligand-gated Ion Channel to Its Membrane Environment*

    PubMed Central

    Labriola, Jonathan M.; Pandhare, Akash; Jansen, Michaela; Blanton, Michael P.; Corringer, Pierre-Jean; Baenziger, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Although the activity of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is exquisitely sensitive to its membrane environment, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. The homologous prokaryotic pentameric ligand-gated ion channel, Gloebacter ligand-gated ion channel (GLIC), represents an excellent model for probing the molecular basis of nAChR sensitivity because of its high structural homology, relative ease of expression, and amenability to crystallographic analysis. We show here that membrane-reconstituted GLIC exhibits structural and biophysical properties similar to those of the membrane-reconstituted nAChR, although GLIC is substantially more thermally stable. GLIC, however, does not possess the same exquisite lipid sensitivity. In particular, GLIC does not exhibit the same propensity to adopt an uncoupled conformation where agonist binding is uncoupled from channel gating. Structural comparisons provide insight into the chemical features that may predispose the nAChR to the formation of an uncoupled state. PMID:23463505

  13. Ligand-hole localization in oxides with unusual valence Fe

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Tin; Saito, Takashi; Hayashi, Naoaki; Takano, Mikio; Shimakawa, Yuichi

    2012-01-01

    Unusual high-valence states of iron are stabilized in a few oxides. A-site-ordered perovskite-structure oxides contain such iron cations and exhibit distinct electronic behaviors at low temperatures, e.g. charge disproportionation (4Fe4+ → 2Fe3+ + 2Fe5+) in CaCu3Fe4O12 and intersite charge transfer (3Cu2+ + 4Fe3.75+ → 3Cu3+ + 4Fe3+) in LaCu3Fe4O12. Here we report the synthesis of solid solutions of CaCu3Fe4O12 and LaCu3Fe4O12 and explain how the instabilities of their unusual valence states of iron are relieved. Although these behaviors look completely different from each other in simple ionic models, they can both be explained by the localization of ligand holes, which are produced by the strong hybridization of iron d and oxygen p orbitals in oxides. The localization behavior in the charge disproportionation of CaCu3Fe4O12 is regarded as charge ordering of the ligand holes, and that in the intersite charge transfer of LaCu3Fe4O12 is regarded as a Mott transition of the ligand holes. PMID:22690318

  14. Multiple ligand simultaneous docking: orchestrated dancing of ligands in binding sites of protein.

    PubMed

    Li, Huameng; Li, Chenglong

    2010-07-30

    Present docking methodologies simulate only one single ligand at a time during docking process. In reality, the molecular recognition process always involves multiple molecular species. Typical protein-ligand interactions are, for example, substrate and cofactor in catalytic cycle; metal ion coordination together with ligand(s); and ligand binding with water molecules. To simulate the real molecular binding processes, we propose a novel multiple ligand simultaneous docking (MLSD) strategy, which can deal with all the above processes, vastly improving docking sampling and binding free energy scoring. The work also compares two search strategies: Lamarckian genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization, which have respective advantages depending on the specific systems. The methodology proves robust through systematic testing against several diverse model systems: E. coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) complex with two substrates, SHP2NSH2 complex with two peptides and Bcl-xL complex with ABT-737 fragments. In all cases, the final correct docking poses and relative binding free energies were obtained. In PNP case, the simulations also capture the binding intermediates and reveal the binding dynamics during the recognition processes, which are consistent with the proposed enzymatic mechanism. In the other two cases, conventional single-ligand docking fails due to energetic and dynamic coupling among ligands, whereas MLSD results in the correct binding modes. These three cases also represent potential applications in the areas of exploring enzymatic mechanism, interpreting noisy X-ray crystallographic maps, and aiding fragment-based drug design, respectively. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Synthesis, crystal structures, and luminescent properties of Cd(II) coordination polymers assembled from semi-rigid multi-dentate N-containing ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Gang; Shao, Kui-Zhan; Chen, Lei

    2012-12-15

    Three new polymers, [Cd(L){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} (1), [Cd{sub 3}(L){sub 2}({mu}{sub 3}-OH){sub 2}({mu}{sub 2}-Cl){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} (2), {l_brace}[Cd{sub 2}(L){sub 2}(nic){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{center_dot}H{sub 2}O{r_brace}{sub n} (3) (HL=5-(4-((1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)methyl)phenyl)-1H-tetrazole, Hnic=nicotinic acid) have been prepared and structurally characterized. Compounds 1 and 2 display 2D monomolecular layers built by the inter-linking single helical chains and L{sup -} ligands connecting chain-like [Cd({mu}{sub 3}-OH)({mu}{sub 2}-Cl)]{sub n} secondary building units, respectively. Compound 3 is constructed from the mixed ligands and possesses a (3,4)-connected framework with (4{center_dot}8{sup 2})(4{center_dot}8{sup 2}{center_dot}10{sup 3}) topology. Moreover, the fluorescent properties of HL ligand and compounds 1-3 are also been investigated.more » - Graphical abstract: Three new coordination polymers based on the semi-rigid multidentate N-donor ligand have been successfully synthesized by hydrothermal reaction. Complexes 1 and 2 exhibit the 2D layers formed by inter-linking single helices and L{sup -} anions bridging 1D chain-like SBUs, respectively. Complex 3 is buit by L{sup -} and assistant nic{sup -} ligands connecting metal centers and possesses a (3,4)-connected framework with (4 Multiplication-Sign 8{sup 2})(4 Multiplication-Sign 8{sup 2} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3}) topology. Moreover, these complexes display fluorescent properties indicating that they may have potential applications as optical materials. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three Cd-compounds were prepared from semi-rigid HL ligand with different N-containing groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They exhibit diverse structures from 2D monomolecular layer to 3D covalent framework. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The HL ligands displayed various coordination modes under different reaction conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These compounds

  16. Multiscale study of mononuclear Co II SMMs based on curcuminoid ligands

    DOE PAGES

    Díaz-Torres, Raúl; Menelaou, Melita; Roubeau, Olivier; ...

    2016-01-07

    This work introduces a novel family of Co II species having a curcuminoid (CCMoid) ligand, 9Accm, attached, namely [Co(9Accm) 2 (py) 2 ] (1) and [Co(9Accm) 2(2,2'-bpy)] (2), achieved in high yields by the use of a microwave reactor, and exhibiting two different arrangements for the 9Accm ligands, described as "cis"(2) and "trans"(1). The study of the similarities/differences of the magnetic, luminescent and surface behaviors of the two new species, 1 and 2, is the main objective of the present work. The determined single-crystal structures of both compounds are the only Co II -CCMoid structures described in the literature somore » far. Both compounds exhibit large positive D values, that of 1 (D = +74 cm -1 ) being three times larger than that of 2 (D = +24 cm -1 ), and behave as mononuclear Single-Molecule Magnets (SMMs) in the presence of an external magnetic field. Their similar structures but different anisotropy and SMM characteristics provide, for the first time, deep insight on the spin-orbital effects thanks to the use of CASSCF/NEVPT2 calculations implementing such contributions. Further magnetic studies were performed in solution by means of paramagnetic 1H NMR, where both compounds (1 and 2) are stable in CDCl 3 and display high symmetry. Paramagnetic NMR appears to be a useful diagnostic tool for the identification of such molecules in solution, where the resonance values found for the methine group (-CH-) of 9Accm vary significantly depending on the cis or trans disposition of the ligands. Fluorescence studies show that both systems display chelation enhancement of quenching (CHEQ) with regard to the free ligand, while 1 and 2 display similar quantum yields. Deposition of 1-2 on HOPG and Si(100) surfaces using spin-coating was studied using AFM; UV photoemission experiments under the same conditions display 2 as the most robust system. The measured occupied density of states of 2 with UV photoemission is in excellent agreement with theoretical DFT

  17. Molecular ligand modulation of palladium nanocatalysts for highly efficient and robust heterogeneous oxidation of cyclohexenone to phenol

    DOE PAGES

    Xue, Teng; Lin, Zhaoyang; Chiu, Chin-Yi; ...

    2017-01-06

    Metallic nanoparticles are emerging as an exciting class of heterogeneous catalysts with the potential advantages of exceptional activity, stability, recyclability, and easier separation than homogeneous catalysts. The traditional colloid nanoparticle syntheses usually involve strong surface binding ligands that could passivate the surface active sites and result in poor catalytic activity. The subsequent removal of surface ligands could reactivate the surface but often leads to metal ion leaching and/or severe Ostwald ripening with diminished catalytic activity or poor stability. Molecular ligand engineering represents a powerful strategy for the design of homogeneous molecular catalysts but is insufficiently explored for nanoparticle catalysts tomore » date. We report a systematic investigation on molecular ligand modulation of palladium (Pd) nanoparticle catalysts. Our studies show that β-functional groups of butyric acid ligand on Pd nanoparticles can significantly modulate the catalytic reaction process to modify the catalytic activity and stability for important aerobic reactions. With a β-hydroxybutyric acid ligand, the Pd nanoparticle catalysts exhibit exceptional catalytic activity and stability with an unsaturated turnover number (TON) >3000 for dehydrogenative oxidation of cyclohexenone to phenol, greatly exceeding that of homogeneous Pd(II) catalysts (TON, ~30). This study presents a systematic investigation of molecular ligand modulation of nanoparticle catalysts and could open up a new pathway toward the design and construction of highly efficient and robust heterogeneous catalysts through molecular ligand engineering.« less

  18. Importance of ligand reorganization free energy in protein-ligand binding-affinity prediction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao-Yie; Sun, Haiying; Chen, Jianyong; Nikolovska-Coleska, Zaneta; Wang, Shaomeng

    2009-09-30

    Accurate prediction of the binding affinities of small-molecule ligands to their biological targets is fundamental for structure-based drug design but remains a very challenging task. In this paper, we have performed computational studies to predict the binding models of 31 small-molecule Smac (the second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase) mimetics to their target, the XIAP (X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis) protein, and their binding affinities. Our results showed that computational docking was able to reliably predict the binding models, as confirmed by experimentally determined crystal structures of some Smac mimetics complexed with XIAP. However, all the computational methods we have tested, including an empirical scoring function, two knowledge-based scoring functions, and MM-GBSA (molecular mechanics and generalized Born surface area), yield poor to modest prediction for binding affinities. The linear correlation coefficient (r(2)) value between the predicted affinities and the experimentally determined affinities was found to be between 0.21 and 0.36. Inclusion of ensemble protein-ligand conformations obtained from molecular dynamic simulations did not significantly improve the prediction. However, major improvement was achieved when the free-energy change for ligands between their free- and bound-states, or "ligand-reorganization free energy", was included in the MM-GBSA calculation, and the r(2) value increased from 0.36 to 0.66. The prediction was validated using 10 additional Smac mimetics designed and evaluated by an independent group. This study demonstrates that ligand reorganization free energy plays an important role in the overall binding free energy between Smac mimetics and XIAP. This term should be evaluated for other ligand-protein systems and included in the development of new scoring functions. To our best knowledge, this is the first computational study to demonstrate the importance of ligand reorganization free energy for the

  19. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor subtype-specific regulation of hepatic and peripheral gene expression in the Zucker diabetic fatty rat.

    PubMed

    Dana, S L; Hoener, P A; Bilakovics, J M; Crombie, D L; Ogilvie, K M; Kauffman, R F; Mukherjee, R; Paterniti, J R

    2001-08-01

    Fibrates and thiazolidinediones are used clinically to treat hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycemia, respectively. Fibrates bind to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha, and thiazolidinediones are ligands of PPAR-gamma. These intracellular receptors form heterodimers with retinoid X receptor to modulate gene transcription. To elucidate the target genes regulated by these compounds, we treated Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF) for 15 days with a PPAR-alpha-specific compound, fenofibrate, a PPAR-gamma-specific ligand, rosiglitazone, and a PPAR-alpha/-gamma coagonist, GW2331, and measured the levels of several messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in liver by real-time polymerase chain reaction. All 3 compounds decreased serum glucose and triglyceride levels. Fenofibrate and GW2331 induced expression of acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) oxidase and enoyl-CoA hydratase and reduced apolipoprotein C-III and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNAs. Rosiglitazone modestly increased apolipoprotein C-III mRNA and had no effect on expression of the other 2 genes in the liver but increased the expression of glucose transporter 4 and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in adipose tissue. We identified a novel target in liver, mitogen-activated phosphokinase phosphatase 1, whose down-regulation by PPAR-alpha agonists may improve insulin sensitivity in that tissue by prolonging insulin responses. The results of these studies suggest that activation of PPAR-alpha as well as PPAR-gamma in therapy for type 2 diabetes will enhance glucose and triglyceride control by combining actions in hepatic and peripheral tissues. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company

  20. An oxadiazole-functionalized ligand and its yellow-emitting Re(I) complex for organoelectronic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ge; Guo, Lei; Wei, Sheng; Zhang, Shuang

    2012-06-01

    A Re(I) complex of Re(CO)3(PTO)Br with 2-(pyridin-2-yl)-5-p-tolyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PTO) as the diamine ligand is synthesized, resulting in a phosphorescent emitter which contains oxadiazole functional moiety. Single crystal analysis confirms that oxadiazole moiety of PTO ligand participates in the coordination with Re center. Coordination ability difference between N atom from pyridine ring and that from oxadiazole moiety is found. Density functional theory calculation on the crystal suggests that the onset electronic transition owns a mixed character of metal-to-ligand-charge-transfer and ligand-to-ligand-charge-transfer. Upon photon excitation, Re(CO)3(PTO)Br exhibits a yellow emission peaking at 549 nm with a short excited state lifetime of 0.15 μs. Further measurements suggest that Re(CO)3(PTO)Br owns HOMO and LUMO energy levels of -5.79 V and -3.49 V and a high decomposition temperature of 322 °C. The optimal electroluminescence device using Re(CO)3(PTO)Br as the emitting dopant shows an orange light of 598 nm, with a maximum luminance of 4600 cd/m2 and a maximum current efficiency of 11.5 cd/A.

  1. GalaxyDock BP2 score: a hybrid scoring function for accurate protein-ligand docking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Minkyung; Shin, Woong-Hee; Chung, Hwan Won; Seok, Chaok

    2017-07-01

    Protein-ligand docking is a useful tool for providing atomic-level understanding of protein functions in nature and design principles for artificial ligands or proteins with desired properties. The ability to identify the true binding pose of a ligand to a target protein among numerous possible candidate poses is an essential requirement for successful protein-ligand docking. Many previously developed docking scoring functions were trained to reproduce experimental binding affinities and were also used for scoring binding poses. However, in this study, we developed a new docking scoring function, called GalaxyDock BP2 Score, by directly training the scoring power of binding poses. This function is a hybrid of physics-based, empirical, and knowledge-based score terms that are balanced to strengthen the advantages of each component. The performance of the new scoring function exhibits significant improvement over existing scoring functions in decoy pose discrimination tests. In addition, when the score is used with the GalaxyDock2 protein-ligand docking program, it outperformed other state-of-the-art docking programs in docking tests on the Astex diverse set, the Cross2009 benchmark set, and the Astex non-native set. GalaxyDock BP2 Score and GalaxyDock2 with this score are freely available at http://galaxy.seoklab.org/softwares/galaxydock.html.

  2. Telmisartan protects against diabetic vascular complications in a mouse model of obesity and type 2 diabetes, partially through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-{gamma}-dependent activity

    SciTech Connect

    Toyama, Kensuke; Nakamura, Taishi; Kataoka, Keiichiro

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} Telmisartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker, acts as a partial PPAR{gamma} agonist. {yields} The protective effects of telmisartan against diabetic vascular injury were associated with attenuation of vascular NF{kappa}B activation and TNF {alpha}. {yields} PPAR{gamma} activity of telmisartan was involved in the normalization of vascular PPAR{gamma} downregulation in diabetic mice. {yields} We provided the first evidence indicating that PPAR{gamma} activity of telmisartan contributed to the protective effects of telmisartan against diabetic vascular complication. -- Abstract: Experimental and clinical data support the notion that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) activation is associated with anti-atherosclerosis as well as anti-diabetic effect. Telmisartan,more » an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), acts as a partial PPAR{gamma} agonist. We hypothesized that telmisartan protects against diabetic vascular complications, through PPAR{gamma} activation. We compared the effects of telmisartan, telmisartan combined with GW9662 (a PPAR{gamma} antagonist), and losartan with no PPAR{gamma} activity on vascular injury in obese type 2 diabetic db/db mice. Compared to losartan, telmisartan significantly ameliorated vascular endothelial dysfunction, downregulation of phospho-eNOS, and coronary arterial remodeling in db/db mice. More vascular protective effects of telmisartan than losartan were associated with greater anti-inflammatory effects of telmisartan, as shown by attenuation of vascular nuclear factor kappa B (NF{kappa}B) activation and tumor necrosis factor {alpha}. Coadministration of GW9662 with telmisartan abolished the above mentioned greater protective effects of telmisartan against vascular injury than losartan in db/db mice. Thus, PPAR{gamma} activity appears to be involved in the vascular protective effects of telmisartan in db/db mice. Moreover, telmisartan, but not losartan, prevented the downregulation

  3. Enhanced Ligand Sampling for Relative Protein–Ligand Binding Free Energy Calculations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Free energy calculations are used to study how strongly potential drug molecules interact with their target receptors. The accuracy of these calculations depends on the accuracy of the molecular dynamics (MD) force field as well as proper sampling of the major conformations of each molecule. However, proper sampling of ligand conformations can be difficult when there are large barriers separating the major ligand conformations. An example of this is for ligands with an asymmetrically substituted phenyl ring, where the presence of protein loops hinders the proper sampling of the different ring conformations. These ring conformations become more difficult to sample when the size of the functional groups attached to the ring increases. The Adaptive Integration Method (AIM) has been developed, which adaptively changes the alchemical coupling parameter λ during the MD simulation so that conformations sampled at one λ can aid sampling at the other λ values. The Accelerated Adaptive Integration Method (AcclAIM) builds on AIM by lowering potential barriers for specific degrees of freedom at intermediate λ values. However, these methods may not work when there are very large barriers separating the major ligand conformations. In this work, we describe a modification to AIM that improves sampling of the different ring conformations, even when there is a very large barrier between them. This method combines AIM with conformational Monte Carlo sampling, giving improved convergence of ring populations and the resulting free energy. This method, called AIM/MC, is applied to study the relative binding free energy for a pair of ligands that bind to thrombin and a different pair of ligands that bind to aspartyl protease β-APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1). These protein–ligand binding free energy calculations illustrate the improvements in conformational sampling and the convergence of the free energy compared to both AIM and AcclAIM. PMID:25906170

  4. Iridium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Ketones with Accessible and Modular Ferrocene-Based Amino-phosphine Acid (f-Ampha) Ligands.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jianfei; Long, Jiao; Yang, Yuhong; Wu, Weilong; Xue, Peng; Chung, Lung Wa; Dong, Xiu-Qin; Zhang, Xumu

    2017-02-03

    A series of tridentate ferrocene-based amino-phosphine acid (f-Ampha) ligands have been successfully developed. The f-Ampha ligands are extremely air stable and exhibited excellent performance in the Ir-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of ketones (full conversions, up to >99% ee, and 500 000 TON). DFT calculations were performed to elucidate the reaction mechanism and the importance of the -COOH group. Control experiments also revealed that the -COOH group played a key role in this reaction.

  5. Cp*Co(III) catalysts with proton-responsive ligands for carbon dioxide hydrogenation in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Badiei, Yosra M; Wang, Wan-Hui; Hull, Jonathan F; Szalda, David J; Muckerman, James T; Himeda, Yuichiro; Fujita, Etsuko

    2013-11-04

    New water-soluble pentamethylcyclopentadienyl cobalt(III) complexes with proton-responsive 4,4'- and 6,6'-dihydroxy-2,2'-bipyridine (4DHBP and 6DHBP, respectively) ligands have been prepared and were characterized by X-ray crystallography, UV-vis and NMR spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. These cobalt(III) complexes with proton-responsive ligands predominantly exist in their deprotonated [Cp*Co(DHBP-2H(+))(OH2)] forms with stronger electron-donating properties in neutral and basic solutions, and are active catalysts for CO2 hydrogenation in aqueous bicarbonate media at moderate temperature under a total 4-5 MPa (CO2:H2 1:1) pressure. The cobalt complexes containing 4DHBP ligands ([1-OH2](2+) and [1-Cl](+), where 1 = Cp*Co(4DHBP)) display better thermal stability and exhibit notable catalytic activity for CO2 hydrogenation to formate in contrast to the catalytically inactive nonsubstituted bpy analogues [3-OH2](2+) (3 = Cp*Co(bpy)). While the catalyst Cp*Ir(6DHBP)(OH2)(2+) in which the pendent oxyanion lowers the barrier for H2 heterolysis via proton transfer through a hydrogen-bonding network involving a water molecule is remarkably effective (ACS Catal. 2013, 3, 856-860), cobalt complexes containing 6DHBP ligands ([2-OH2](2+) and [2-Cl](+), 2 = Cp*Co(6DHBP)) exhibit lower TOF and TON for CO2 hydrogenation than those with 4DHBP. The low activity is attributed to thermal instability during the hydrogenation of CO2 as corroborated by DFT calculations.

  6. Structure of myostatin·follistatin-like 3: N-terminal domains of follistatin-type molecules exhibit alternate modes of binding.

    PubMed

    Cash, Jennifer N; Angerman, Elizabeth B; Kattamuri, Chandramohan; Nolan, Kristof; Zhao, Huaying; Sidis, Yisrael; Keutmann, Henry T; Thompson, Thomas B

    2012-01-06

    TGF-β family ligands are involved in a variety of critical physiological processes. For instance, the TGF-β ligand myostatin is a staunch negative regulator of muscle growth and a therapeutic target for muscle-wasting disorders. Therefore, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms of TGF-β family regulation. One form of regulation is through inhibition by extracellular antagonists such as the follistatin (Fst)-type proteins. Myostatin is tightly controlled by Fst-like 3 (Fstl3), which is the only Fst-type molecule that has been identified in the serum bound to myostatin. Here, we present the crystal structure of myostatin in complex with Fstl3. The structure reveals that the N-terminal domain (ND) of Fstl3 interacts uniquely with myostatin as compared with activin A, because it utilizes different surfaces on the ligand. This results in conformational differences in the ND of Fstl3 that alter its position in the type I receptor-binding site of the ligand. We also show that single point mutations in the ND of Fstl3 are detrimental to ligand binding, whereas corresponding mutations in Fst have little effect. Overall, we have shown that the NDs of Fst-type molecules exhibit distinctive modes of ligand binding, which may affect overall affinity of ligand·Fst-type protein complexes.

  7. Effects of multiple organic ligands on size uniformity and optical properties of ZnSe quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Archana, J., E-mail: archana.jayaram@yahoo.com; Navaneethan, M.; Hayakawa, Y.

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: ► Highly monodispersed ZnSe quantum dots have been synthesized by wet chemical route. ► Strong quantum confinement effect have been observed in ∼ 4 nm ZnSe quantum dots. ► Enhanced ultraviolet near band emission have been obtained using long chain polymer. -- Abstract: The effects of multi-ligands on the formation and optical transitions of ZnSe quantum dots have been investigated. The dots are synthesized using 3-mercapto-1,2-propanediol and polyvinylpyrrolidone ligands, and have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–visible absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. TEM reveals high monodispersion with an average size ofmore » 4 nm. Polymer-stabilized, organic ligand-passivated ZnSe quantum dots exhibit strong UV emission at 326 nm and strong quantum confinement in the UV–visible absorption spectrum. Uniform size and suppressed surface trap emission are observed when the polymer ligand is used. The possible growth mechanism is discussed.« less

  8. Atypical Signaling and Functional Desensitization Response of MAS Receptor to Peptide Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Tirupula, Kalyan C.; Desnoyer, Russell; Speth, Robert C.; Karnik, Sadashiva S.

    2014-01-01

    MAS is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) implicated in multiple physiological processes. Several physiological peptide ligands such as angiotensin-(1–7), angiotensin fragments and neuropeptide FF (NPFF) are reported to act on MAS. Studies of conventional G protein signaling and receptor desensitization upon stimulation of MAS with the peptide ligands are limited so far. Therefore, we systematically analyzed G protein signals activated by the peptide ligands. MAS-selective non-peptide ligands that were previously shown to activate G proteins were used as controls for comparison on a common cell based assay platform. Activation of MAS by the non-peptide agonist (1) increased intracellular calcium and D-myo-inositol-1-phosphate (IP1) levels which are indicative of the activation of classical Gαq-phospholipase C signaling pathways, (2) decreased Gαi mediated cAMP levels and (3) stimulated Gα12-dependent expression of luciferase reporter. In all these assays, MAS exhibited strong constitutive activity that was inhibited by the non-peptide inverse agonist. Further, in the calcium response assay, MAS was resistant to stimulation by a second dose of the non-peptide agonist after the first activation has waned suggesting functional desensitization. In contrast, activation of MAS by the peptide ligand NPFF initiated a rapid rise in intracellular calcium with very weak IP1 accumulation which is unlike classical Gαq-phospholipase C signaling pathway. NPFF only weakly stimulated MAS-mediated activation of Gα12 and Gαi signaling pathways. Furthermore, unlike non-peptide agonist-activated MAS, NPFF-activated MAS could be readily re-stimulated the second time by the agonists. Functional assays with key ligand binding MAS mutants suggest that NPFF and non-peptide ligands bind to overlapping regions. Angiotensin-(1–7) and other angiotensin fragments weakly potentiated an NPFF-like calcium response at non-physiological concentrations (≥100 µM). Overall, our data

  9. Binding constant of cell adhesion receptors and substrate-immobilized ligands depends on the distribution of ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Long; Hu, Jinglei; Xu, Guangkui; Song, Fan

    2018-01-01

    Cell-cell adhesion and the adhesion of cells to tissues and extracellular matrix, which are pivotal for immune response, tissue development, and cell locomotion, depend sensitively on the binding constant of receptor and ligand molecules anchored on the apposing surfaces. An important question remains of whether the immobilization of ligands affects the affinity of binding with cell adhesion receptors. We have investigated the adhesion of multicomponent membranes to a flat substrate coated with immobile ligands using Monte Carlo simulations of a statistical mesoscopic model with biologically relevant parameters. We find that the binding of the adhesion receptors to ligands immobilized on the substrate is strongly affected by the ligand distribution. In the case of ligand clusters, the receptor-ligand binding constant can be significantly enhanced due to the less translational entropy loss of lipid-raft domains in the model cell membranes upon the formation of additional complexes. For ligands randomly or uniformly immobilized on the substrate, the binding constant is rather decreased since the receptors localized in lipid-raft domains have to pay an energetic penalty in order to bind ligands. Our findings help to understand why cell-substrate adhesion experiments for measuring the impact of lipid rafts on the receptor-ligand interactions led to contradictory results.

  10. EGF receptor ligands: recent advances.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhuminder; Carpenter, Graham; Coffey, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Seven ligands bind to and activate the mammalian epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR/ERBB1/HER1): EGF, transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFA), heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF), betacellulin (BTC), amphiregulin (AREG), epiregulin (EREG), and epigen (EPGN). Of these, EGF, TGFA, HBEGF, and BTC are thought to be high-affinity ligands, whereas AREG, EREG, and EPGN constitute low-affinity ligands. This focused review is meant to highlight recent studies related to actions of the individual EGFR ligands, the interesting biology that has been uncovered, and relevant advances related to ligand interactions with the EGFR.

  11. EGF receptor ligands: recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bhuminder; Carpenter, Graham; Coffey, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Seven ligands bind to and activate the mammalian epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR/ERBB1/HER1): EGF, transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFA), heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF), betacellulin (BTC), amphiregulin (AREG), epiregulin (EREG), and epigen (EPGN). Of these, EGF, TGFA, HBEGF, and BTC are thought to be high-affinity ligands, whereas AREG, EREG, and EPGN constitute low-affinity ligands. This focused review is meant to highlight recent studies related to actions of the individual EGFR ligands, the interesting biology that has been uncovered, and relevant advances related to ligand interactions with the EGFR. PMID:27635238

  12. Developing Ligands for Palladium(II)-Catalyzed C–H Functionalization: Intimate Dialogue between Ligand and Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Engle, Keary M.; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Homogeneous transition metal–catalyzed reactions are indispensable to all facets of modern chemical synthesis. It is thus difficult to imagine that for much of the early 20th century, the reactivity and selectivity of all known homogeneous metal catalysts paled in comparison to their heterogeneous and biological counterparts. In the intervening decades, advances in ligand design bridged this divide, such that today some of the most demanding bond-forming events are mediated by ligand-supported homogeneous metal species. While ligand design has propelled many areas of homogeneous catalysis, in the field of Pd(II)-catalyzed C–H functionalization, suitable ligand scaffolds are lacking, which has hampered the development of broadly practical transformations based on C–H functionalization logic. In this review, we offer an account of our research employing three ligand scaffolds, mono-N-protected amino acids, 2,6-disubstituted pyridines, and 2,2′-bipyridines, to address challenges posed by several synthetically versatile substrate classes. Drawing on this work, we discuss principles of ligand design, such as the need to match a ligand to a particular substrate class, and how ligand traits such as tunability and modularity can be advantageous in reaction discovery. PMID:23565982

  13. Analysis of the HIV-2 protease's adaptation to various ligands: characterization of backbone asymmetry using a structural alphabet.

    PubMed

    Triki, Dhoha; Cano Contreras, Mario Enrique; Flatters, Delphine; Visseaux, Benoit; Descamps, Diane; Camproux, Anne-Claude; Regad, Leslie

    2018-01-15

    The HIV-2 protease (PR2) is a homodimer of 99 residues with asymmetric assembly and binding various ligands. We propose an exhaustive study of the local structural asymmetry between the two monomers of all available PR2 structures complexed with various inhibitors using a structural alphabet approach. On average, PR2 exhibits asymmetry in 31% of its positions-i.e., exhibiting different backbone local conformations in the two monomers. This asymmetry was observed all along its structure, particularly in the elbow and flap regions. We first differentiated structural asymmetry conserved in most PR2 structures from the one specific to some PR2. Then, we explored the origin of the detected asymmetry in PR2. We localized asymmetry that could be induced by PR2's flexibility, allowing transition from the semi-open to closed conformations and the asymmetry potentially induced by ligand binding. This latter could be important for the PR2's adaptation to diverse ligands. Our results highlighted some differences between asymmetry of PR2 bound to darunavir and amprenavir that could explain their differences of affinity. This knowledge is critical for a better description of PR2's recognition and adaptation to various ligands and for a better understanding of the resistance of PR2 to most PR2 inhibitors, a major antiretroviral class.

  14. Why do receptor–ligand bonds in cell adhesion cluster into discrete focal-adhesion sites?

    DOE PAGES

    Gao, Zhiwen; Gao, Yanfei

    2016-05-14

    We report that cell adhesion often exhibits the clustering of the receptor–ligand bonds into discrete focal-adhesion sites near the contact edge, thus resembling a rosette shape or a contracting membrane anchored by a small number of peripheral forces. The ligands on the extracellular matrix are immobile, and the receptors in the cell plasma membrane consist of two types: high-affinity integrins (that bond to the substrate ligands and are immobile) and low-affinity integrins (that are mobile and not bonded to the ligands). Thus the adhesion energy density is proportional to the high-affinity integrin density. This paper provides a mechanistic explanation formore » the clustering/assembling of the receptor–ligand bonds from two main points: (1) the cellular contractile force leads to the density evolution of these two types of integrins, and results into a large high-affinity integrin density near the contact edge and (2) the front of a propagating crack into a decreasing toughness field will be unstable and wavy. From this fracture mechanics perspective, the chemomechanical equilibrium is reached when a small number of patches with large receptor–ligand bond density are anticipated to form at the cell periphery, as opposed to a uniform distribution of bonds on the entire interface. Finally, cohesive fracture simulations show that the de-adhesion force can be significantly enhanced by this nonuniform bond density field, but the de-adhesion force anisotropy due to the substrate elastic anisotropy is significantly reduced.« less

  15. Why do receptor–ligand bonds in cell adhesion cluster into discrete focal-adhesion sites?

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiwen; Gao, Yanfei

    We report that cell adhesion often exhibits the clustering of the receptor–ligand bonds into discrete focal-adhesion sites near the contact edge, thus resembling a rosette shape or a contracting membrane anchored by a small number of peripheral forces. The ligands on the extracellular matrix are immobile, and the receptors in the cell plasma membrane consist of two types: high-affinity integrins (that bond to the substrate ligands and are immobile) and low-affinity integrins (that are mobile and not bonded to the ligands). Thus the adhesion energy density is proportional to the high-affinity integrin density. This paper provides a mechanistic explanation formore » the clustering/assembling of the receptor–ligand bonds from two main points: (1) the cellular contractile force leads to the density evolution of these two types of integrins, and results into a large high-affinity integrin density near the contact edge and (2) the front of a propagating crack into a decreasing toughness field will be unstable and wavy. From this fracture mechanics perspective, the chemomechanical equilibrium is reached when a small number of patches with large receptor–ligand bond density are anticipated to form at the cell periphery, as opposed to a uniform distribution of bonds on the entire interface. Finally, cohesive fracture simulations show that the de-adhesion force can be significantly enhanced by this nonuniform bond density field, but the de-adhesion force anisotropy due to the substrate elastic anisotropy is significantly reduced.« less

  16. Homoleptic nickel(II) complexes of redox-tunable pincer-type ligands.

    PubMed

    Hewage, Jeewantha S; Wanniarachchi, Sarath; Morin, Tyler J; Liddle, Brendan J; Banaszynski, Megan; Lindeman, Sergey V; Bennett, Brian; Gardinier, James R

    2014-10-06

    Different synthetic methods have been developed to prepare eight new redox-active pincer-type ligands, H(X,Y), that have pyrazol-1-yl flanking donors attached to an ortho-position of each ring of a diarylamine anchor and that have different groups, X and Y, at the para-aryl positions. Together with four previously known H(X,Y) ligands, a series of 12 Ni(X,Y)2 complexes were prepared in high yields by a simple one-pot reaction. Six of the 12 derivatives were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, which showed tetragonally distorted hexacoordinate nickel(II) centers. The nickel(II) complexes exhibit two quasi-reversible one-electron oxidation waves in their cyclic voltammograms, with half-wave potentials that varied over a remarkable 700 mV range with the average of the Hammett σ(p) parameters of the para-aryl X, Y groups. The one- and two-electron oxidized derivatives [Ni(Me,Me)2](BF4)n (n = 1, 2) were prepared synthetically, were characterized by X-band EPR, electronic spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (for n = 2), and were studied computationally by DFT methods. The dioxidized complex, [Ni(Me,Me)2](BF4)2, is an S = 2 species, with nickel(II) bound to two ligand radicals. The mono-oxidized complex [Ni(Me,Me)2](BF4), prepared by comproportionation, is best described as nickel(II) with one ligand centered radical. Neither the mono- nor the dioxidized derivative shows any substantial electronic coupling between the metal and their bound ligand radicals because of the orthogonal nature of their magnetic orbitals. On the other hand, weak electronic communication occurs between ligands in the mono-oxidized complex as evident from the intervalence charge transfer (IVCT) transition found in the near-IR absorption spectrum. Band shape analysis of the IVCT transition allowed comparisons of the strength of the electronic interaction with that in the related, previously known, Robin-Day class II mixed valence complex, [Ga(Me,Me)2](2+).

  17. Coordination- and Redox-Noninnocent Behavior of Ambiphilic Ligands Containing Antimony.

    PubMed

    Jones, J Stuart; Gabbaï, François P

    2016-05-17

    Stimulated by applications in catalysis, the chemistry of ambiphilic ligands featuring both donor and acceptor functionalities has experienced substantial growth in the past several years. The unique opportunities in catalysis offered by ambiphilic ligands stem from the ability of their acceptor functionalities to play key roles via metal-ligand cooperation or modulation of the reactivity of the metal center. Ligands featuring group 13 centers, most notably boranes, as their acceptor functionalities have undoubtedly spearheaded these developments, with remarkable results having been achieved in catalytic hydrogenation and hydrosilylation. Motivated by these developments as well as by our fundamental interest in the chemistry of heavy group 15 elements, we became fascinated by the possibility of employing antimony centers as Lewis acids within ambiphilic ligands. The chemistry of antimony-based ligands, most often encountered as trivalent stibines, has historically been considered to mirror that of their lighter phosphorus-based congeners. There is growing evidence, however, that antimony-based ligands may display unique coordination behavior and reactivity. Additionally, despite the diverse Lewis acid and redox chemistry that antimony exhibits, there have been only limited efforts to explore this chemistry within the coordination sphere of a transition metal. By incorporation of antimony into the framework of polydentate ligands in order to enforce the main group metal-transition metal interaction, the effect of redox and coordination events at the antimony center on the structure, electronics, and reactivity of the metal complex may be investigated. This Account describes our group's continuing efforts to probe the coordination behavior, reactivity, and application of ambiphilic ligands incorporating antimony centers. Structural and theoretical studies have established that both Sb(III) and Sb(V) centers in polydentate ligands may act as Z-type ligands toward late

  18. Equatorial coordination of uranyl: Correlating ligand charge donation with the O yl-U-O yl asymmetric stretch frequency

    DOE PAGES

    Gibson, John K.; de Jong, Wibe A.; van Stipdonk, Michael J.; ...

    2017-10-14

    In uranyl coordination complexes, UO 2(L) n 2+, uranium in the formally dipositive [O=U=O] 2+ moiety is coordinated by n neutral organic electron donor ligands, L. The extent of ligand electron donation, which results in partial reduction of uranyl and weakening of the U=O bonds, is revealed by the magnitude of the red-shift of the uranyl asymmetric stretch frequency, ν 3 . This phenomenon appears in gas-phase complexes in which uranyl is coordinated by electron donor ligands: the ν 3 red-shift increases as the number of ligands and their proton affinity (PA) increases. Because PA is a measure of themore » enthalpy change associated with a proton-ligand interaction, which is much stronger and of a different nature than metal ion-ligand bonding, it is not necessarily expected that ligand PAs should reliably predict uranyl-ligand bonding and the resulting ν 3 red-shift. In this study, ν 3 was measured for uranyl coordinated by ligands with a relatively broad range of PAs, revealing a surprisingly good correlation between PA and ν 3 frequency. From computed ν 3 frequencies for bare UO 2 cations and neutrals, it is inferred that the effective charge of uranyl in UO 2(L) n 2+ complexes can be reduced to near zero upon ligation by sufficiently strong charge-donor ligands. The basis for the correlation between ν 3 and ligand PAs, as well as limitations and deviations from it, are considered. It is demonstrated that the correlation evidently extends to a ligand that exhibits polydentate metal ion coordination.« less

  19. Understanding ligand effects in gold clusters using mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Grant E.; Laskin, Julia

    This review summarizes recent research on the influence of phosphine ligands on the size, stability, and reactivity of gold clusters synthesized in solution. Sub-nanometer clusters exhibit size- and composition-dependent properties that are unique from those of larger nanoparticles. The highly tunable properties of clusters and their high surface-to-volume ratio make them promising candidates for a variety of technological applications. However, because “each-atom-counts” toward defining cluster properties it is critically important to develop robust synthesis methods to efficiently prepare clusters of predetermined size. For decades phosphines have been known to direct the size-selected synthesis of gold clusters. Despite the preparation ofmore » numerous species it is still not understood how different functional groups at phosphine centers affect the size and properties of gold clusters. Using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) it is possible to characterize the effect of ligand substitution on the distribution of clusters formed in solution at defined reaction conditions. In addition, ligand exchange reactions on preformed clusters may be monitored using ESI-MS. Collision induced dissociation (CID) may also be employed to obtain qualitative insight into the fragmentation of mixed ligand clusters and the relative binding energies of differently substituted phosphines. Quantitative ligand binding energies and cluster stability may be determined employing surface induced dissociation (SID) in a custom-built Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR-MS). Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) based modeling of the SID data allows dissociation energies and entropy values to be extracted that may be compared with the results of high-level theoretical calculations. The charge reduction and reactivity of atomically precise gold clusters, including partially ligated species generated in the gas-phase by in source CID, on

  20. Ligand-biased ensemble receptor docking (LigBEnD): a hybrid ligand/receptor structure-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Polo C.-H.; Abagyan, Ruben; Totrov, Maxim

    2018-01-01

    Ligand docking to flexible protein molecules can be efficiently carried out through ensemble docking to multiple protein conformations, either from experimental X-ray structures or from in silico simulations. The success of ensemble docking often requires the careful selection of complementary protein conformations, through docking and scoring of known co-crystallized ligands. False positives, in which a ligand in a wrong pose achieves a better docking score than that of native pose, arise as additional protein conformations are added. In the current study, we developed a new ligand-biased ensemble receptor docking method and composite scoring function which combine the use of ligand-based atomic property field (APF) method with receptor structure-based docking. This method helps us to correctly dock 30 out of 36 ligands presented by the D3R docking challenge. For the six mis-docked ligands, the cognate receptor structures prove to be too different from the 40 available experimental Pocketome conformations used for docking and could be identified only by receptor sampling beyond experimentally explored conformational subspace.

  1. Understanding the molecular differential recognition of muramyl peptide ligands by LRR domains of human NOD receptors.

    PubMed

    Vijayrajratnam, Sukhithasri; Pushkaran, Anju Choorakottayil; Balakrishnan, Aathira; Vasudevan, Anil Kumar; Biswas, Raja; Mohan, Chethampadi Gopi

    2017-07-27

    Human nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain proteins, hNOD1 and hNOD2, are host intracellular receptors with C-terminal leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains, which recognize specific bacterial peptidoglycan (PG) fragments as their ligands. The specificity of this recognition is dependent on the third amino acid of the stem peptide of the PG ligand, which is usually meso -diaminopimelic acid ( meso DAP) or l-lysine (l-Lys). Since the LRR domains of hNOD receptors had been experimentally shown to confer the PG ligand-sensing specificity, we developed three-dimensional structures of hNOD1-LRR and the hNOD2-LRR to understand the mechanism of differential recognition of muramyl peptide ligands by hNOD receptors. The hNOD1-LRR and hNOD2-LRR receptor models exhibited right-handed curved solenoid shape. The hot-spot residues experimentally proved to be critical for ligand recognition were located in the concavity of the NOD-LRR and formed the recognition site. Our molecular docking analyses and molecular electrostatic potential mapping studies explain the activation of hNOD-LRRs, in response to effective molecular interactions of PG ligands at the recognition site; and conversely, the inability of certain PG ligands to activate hNOD-LRRs, by deviations from the recognition site. Based on molecular docking studies using PG ligands, we propose few residues - G825, D826 and N850 in hNOD1-LRR and L904, G905, W931, L932 and S933 in hNOD2-LRR, evolutionarily conserved across different host species, which may play a major role in ligand recognition. Thus, our integrated experimental and computational approach elucidates the molecular basis underlying the differential recognition of PG ligands by hNOD receptors. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  2. Protease-Resistant Peptide Ligands from a Knottin Scaffold Library

    PubMed Central

    Getz, Jennifer A.; Rice, Jeffrey J.; Daugherty, Patrick S.

    2011-01-01

    Peptides within the knottin family have been shown to possess inherent stability, making them attractive scaffolds for the development of therapeutic and diagnostic agents. Given its remarkable stability to proteases, the cyclic peptide kalata B1 was employed as a scaffold to create a large knottin library displayed on the surface of E. coli. A library exceeding 109 variants was constructed by randomizing seven amino acids within a loop of the kalata B1 scaffold and screened using fluorescence-activated cell sorting to identify peptide ligands specific for the active site of human thrombin. Refolded thrombin binders exhibited high nanomolar affinities in solution, slow dissociation rates, and were able to inhibit thrombin’s enzymatic activity. Importantly, 80% of a knottin-based thrombin inhibitor remained intact after a two hour incubation both with trypsin and with chymotrypsin, demonstrating that modifying the kalata B1 sequence did not compromise its stability properties. In addition, the knottin variant mediated 20-fold enhanced affinity for thrombin, when compared to the same seven residue binding epitope constrained by a single disulfide bond. Our results indicate that peptide libraries derived from the kalata B1 scaffold can yield high affinity protein ligands that retain the remarkable protease resistance associated with the parent scaffold. More generally, this strategy may prove useful in the development of stable peptide ligands suitable for in vivo applications. PMID:21615106

  3. Self-assembling Gold Nanoparticle Monolayers in a Three-phase System - Overcoming Ligand Size Limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Nanda, Jagjit; Wang, Boya; Chen, Gang; Hallinan, Daniel T., Jr.

    An effective self-assembly technique was developed to prepare centimeter-scale monolayer gold nanoparticle (Au NP) films of long-range order with hydrophobic ligands. Aqueous Au NPs were entrapped in the organic/aqueous interface where the Au NP surface was in situ modified with different types of amine ligands, including amine-terminated polystyrene. The Au NPs then spontaneously relocated to the air/water interface to form an NP monolayer. The spontaneous formation of an Au NP film at the organic/water interface was due to the minimization of the system Helmholtz free energy. Self-assembled Au NP films has a hexagonal close packed structure. The interparticle spacing was dictated by the amine ligand length. Thus-assembled Au NP monolayers exhibit tunable surface plasma resonance and excellent spacial homogeneity of surface-enhanced Raman-scattering. The ``air/water/oil'' self-assembly method developed in this study not only benefits the fundamental understanding of NP ligand conformations, but is also promising to scale up the manufacture of plasmonic nanoparticle devices with precisely designed optical properties. This study was financially supported by start-up funding supplied by the Florida State University and the FAMU-FSU College of Engineering.

  4. Circularly Polarized Luminescence in Enantiopure Europium and Terbium Complexes with Modular, All-Oxygen Donor Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Seitz, Michael; Do, King; Ingram, Andrew J.; Moore, Evan G.; Muller, Gilles; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Circulaly polarized luminescence from terbium(III) complexed and excited by chiral antenna ligands gives strong emission The modular synthesis of three new octadentate, enantiopure ligands are reported - one with the bidentate chelating unit 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM) and two with 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (1,2-HOPO) units. A new design principle is introduced for the chiral, non-racemic hexamines which constitute the central backbones for the presented class of ligands. The terbium(III) complex of the IAM ligand, as well as the europium(III) complexes of the 1,2-HOPO ligands are synthesized and characterized by various techniques (NMR, UV, CD, luminescence spectroscopy). All species exhibit excellent stability and moderate to high luminescence efficiency (quantum yields ΦEu = 0.05–0.08 and ΦTb = 0.30–0.57) in aqueous solution at physiological pH. Special focus is put onto the properties of the complexes in regard to circularly polarized luminescence (CPL). The maximum luminescence dissymmetry factors (glum) in aqueous solution are high with |glum|max = 0.08 – 0.40. Together with the very favorable general properties (good stability, high quantum yields, long lifetimes), the presented lanthanide complexes can be considered as good candidates for analytical probes based on CPL in biologically relevant environments. PMID:19639983

  5. NiXantphos: a deprotonatable ligand for room-temperature palladium-catalyzed cross-couplings of aryl chlorides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiadi; Bellomo, Ana; Trongsiriwat, Nisalak; Jia, Tiezheng; Carroll, Patrick J; Dreher, Spencer D; Tudge, Matthew T; Yin, Haolin; Robinson, Jerome R; Schelter, Eric J; Walsh, Patrick J

    2014-04-30

    Although the past 15 years have witnessed the development of sterically bulky and electron-rich alkylphosphine ligands for palladium-catalyzed cross-couplings with aryl chlorides, examples of palladium catalysts based on either triarylphosphine or bidentate phosphine ligands for efficient room temperature cross-coupling reactions with unactivated aryl chlorides are rare. Herein we report a palladium catalyst based on NiXantphos, a deprotonatable chelating aryldiphosphine ligand, to oxidatively add unactivated aryl chlorides at room temperature. Surprisingly, comparison of an extensive array of ligands revealed that under the basic reaction conditions the resultant heterobimetallic Pd-NiXantphos catalyst system outperformed all the other mono- and bidentate ligands in a deprotonative cross-coupling process (DCCP) with aryl chlorides. The DCCP with aryl chlorides affords a variety of triarylmethane products, a class of compounds with various applications and interesting biological activity. Additionally, the DCCP exhibits remarkable chemoselectivity in the presence of aryl chloride substrates bearing heteroaryl groups and sensitive functional groups that are known to undergo 1,2-addition, aldol reaction, and O-, N-, enolate-α-, and C(sp(2))-H arylations. The advantages and importance of the Pd-NiXantphos catalyst system outlined herein make it a valuable contribution for applications in Pd-catalyzed arylation reactions with aryl chlorides.

  6. NiXantphos: A Deprotonatable Ligand for Room-Temperature Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Couplings of Aryl Chlorides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Although the past 15 years have witnessed the development of sterically bulky and electron-rich alkylphosphine ligands for palladium-catalyzed cross-couplings with aryl chlorides, examples of palladium catalysts based on either triarylphosphine or bidentate phosphine ligands for efficient room temperature cross-coupling reactions with unactivated aryl chlorides are rare. Herein we report a palladium catalyst based on NiXantphos, a deprotonatable chelating aryldiphosphine ligand, to oxidatively add unactivated aryl chlorides at room temperature. Surprisingly, comparison of an extensive array of ligands revealed that under the basic reaction conditions the resultant heterobimetallic Pd–NiXantphos catalyst system outperformed all the other mono- and bidentate ligands in a deprotonative cross-coupling process (DCCP) with aryl chlorides. The DCCP with aryl chlorides affords a variety of triarylmethane products, a class of compounds with various applications and interesting biological activity. Additionally, the DCCP exhibits remarkable chemoselectivity in the presence of aryl chloride substrates bearing heteroaryl groups and sensitive functional groups that are known to undergo 1,2-addition, aldol reaction, and O-, N-, enolate-α-, and C(sp2)–H arylations. The advantages and importance of the Pd–NiXantphos catalyst system outlined herein make it a valuable contribution for applications in Pd-catalyzed arylation reactions with aryl chlorides. PMID:24745758

  7. Propeptide cleavage conditions sortilin/neurotensin receptor-3 for ligand binding.

    PubMed Central

    Munck Petersen, C; Nielsen, M S; Jacobsen, C; Tauris, J; Jacobsen, L; Gliemann, J; Moestrup, S K; Madsen, P

    1999-01-01

    We recently reported the isolation and sequencing of sortilin, a new putative sorting receptor that binds receptor-associated protein (RAP). The luminal N-terminus of sortilin comprises a consensus sequence for cleavage by furin, R41WRR44, which precedes a truncation originally found in sortilin isolated from human brain. We now show that the truncation results from cellular processing. Sortilin is synthesized as a proform which, in late Golgi compartments, is converted to the mature receptor by furin-mediated cleavage of a 44 residue N-terminal propeptide. We further demonstrate that the propeptide exhibits pH-dependent high affinity binding to fully processed sortilin, that the binding is competed for by RAP and the newly discovered sortilin ligand neurotensin, and that prevention of propeptide cleavage essentially prevents binding of RAP and neurotensin. The findings evidence that the propeptide sterically hinders ligands from gaining access to overlapping binding sites in prosortilin, and that cleavage and release of the propeptide preconditions sortilin for full functional activity. Although proteolytic processing is involved in the maturation of several receptors, the described exposure of previously concealed ligand-binding sites after furin-mediated cleavage of propeptide represents a novel mechanism in receptor activation. PMID:9927419

  8. ProBiS-ligands: a web server for prediction of ligands by examination of protein binding sites.

    PubMed

    Konc, Janez; Janežič, Dušanka

    2014-07-01

    The ProBiS-ligands web server predicts binding of ligands to a protein structure. Starting with a protein structure or binding site, ProBiS-ligands first identifies template proteins in the Protein Data Bank that share similar binding sites. Based on the superimpositions of the query protein and the similar binding sites found, the server then transposes the ligand structures from those sites to the query protein. Such ligand prediction supports many activities, e.g. drug repurposing. The ProBiS-ligands web server, an extension of the ProBiS web server, is open and free to all users at http://probis.cmm.ki.si/ligands. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Slow ligand-induced conformational switch increases the catalytic rate in Plasmodium falciparum hypoxanthine guanine xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sourav; Karmakar, Tarak; Prahlada Rao, Vasudeva S; Nagappa, Lakshmeesha K; Balasubramanian, Sundaram; Balaram, Hemalatha

    2015-05-01

    P. falciparum (Pf) hypoxanthine guanine xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGXPRT) exhibits a unique mechanism of activation where the enzyme switches from a low activity (unactivated) to a high activity (activated) state upon pre-incubation with substrate/products. Xanthine phosphoribosylation by unactivated PfHGXPRT exhibits a lag phase, the duration of which reduces with an increase in concentration of the enzyme or substrate, PRPP·Mg(2+). Activated PfHGXPRT does not display the lag phase and exhibits a ten-fold drop in the Km value for PRPP·Mg(2+). These observations suggest the involvement of ligand-mediated oligomerization and conformational changes in the process of activation. The dipeptide Leu-Lys in the PPi binding site of human and T. gondii HG(X)PRT that facilitates PRPP·Mg(2+) binding by isomerization from trans to cis conformation is conserved in PfHGXPRT. Free energy calculations using the well-tempered metadynamics technique show the ligand-free enzyme to be more stable when this dipeptide is in the trans conformation than in the cis conformation. The high rotational energy barrier observed for the conformational change from experimental and computational studies permits delineation of the activation mechanism.

  10. Enhanced stability of Janus nanoparticles by covalent cross-linking of surface ligands.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang; Klivansky, Liana M; Liu, Yi; Chen, Shaowei

    2011-12-06

    A mercapto derivative of diacetylene was used as the hydrophilic ligand to prepare Janus nanoparticles by using hydrophobic hexanethiolate-protected gold (AuC6, diameter 5 nm) nanoparticles as the starting materials. The amphiphilic surface characters of the Janus nanoparticles were verified by contact angle measurements, as compared to those of the bulk-exchange counterparts where the two types of ligands were distributed rather homogeneously on the nanoparticle surface. Dynamic light scattering studies showed that the Janus nanoparticles formed stable superstructures in various solvent media that were significantly larger than those by the bulk-exchange counterparts. This was ascribed to the amphiphilic characters of the Janus nanoparticles that rendered the particles to behave analogously to conventional surfactant molecules. Notably, because of the close proximity of the diacetylene moieties on the Janus nanoparticle surface, exposure to UV irradiation led to effective covalent cross-linking between the diacetylene moieties of neighboring ligands, as manifested in UV-vis and fluorescence measurements where the emission characteristics of dimers and trimers of diacetylene were rather well-defined, in addition to the monomeric emission. In contrast, for bulk-exchange nanoparticles, no trimer emission could be identified, and the intensity of dimer emission was markedly lower (though the intensity increased with increasing diacetylene coverage on the particle surface) under the otherwise identical experimental conditions. This is largely because the diacetylene ligands were distributed on the entire particle surface, and it was difficult to find a large number of ligands situated closely so that the stringent topochemical principles for the polymerization of diacetylene derivatives could be met. Importantly, the cross-linked Janus nanoparticles were found to exhibit marked enhancement of the structural integrity, which was attributable to the impeded surface

  11. B61, a ligand for the Eck receptor protein-tyrosine kinase, exhibits neurotrophic activity in cultures of rat spinal cord neurons.

    PubMed

    Magal, E; Holash, J A; Toso, R J; Chang, D; Lindberg, R A; Pasquale, E B

    1996-03-15

    Although the Eph subfamily represents the largest group of receptor protein-tyrosine kinases, the biological roles of the Eph-related receptors and their ligands are not well understood. B61 has been identified recently by receptor affinity chromatography as a ligand for the Eph-related receptor Eck (Bartley et al.: Nature 368:558-560, 1994). Here we show that Eck immunoreactivity is localized in areas of the embryonic rat spinal cord that are rich in axons, suggesting that Eck plays a role in this region of the developing nervous system. To examine the biological function of Eck, monolayer cultures of dissociated cells from embryonic rat spinal cord were treated with soluble B61. With an ED50 of approximately 10 ng/ml, B61 treatment improved the survival of the overall neuronal population. Furthermore, in the presence of B61 neurites were longer and more elaborated. B61 similarly affected survival and neurite length in cultures enriched in motor neurons. These neurotrophic effects of B61 were not observed in the presence of anti-Eck antibodies, indicating that these effects are likely to be mediated by the Eck receptor.

  12. Slow magnetic relaxation in carbonato-bridged dinuclear lanthanide(III) complexes with 2,3-quinoxalinediolate ligands.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Julia; Cano, Joan; Castro, Isabel; Julve, Miguel; Lloret, Francesc; Fabelo, Oscar; Cañadillas-Delgado, Laura; Pardo, Emilio

    2012-08-11

    The coordination chemistry of the 2,3-quinoxalinediolate ligand with different lanthanide(III) ions in basic media in air affords a new family of carbonato-bridged M(2)(III) compounds (M = Pr, Gd and Dy), the Dy(2)(III) analogue exhibiting slow magnetic relaxation behaviour typical of single-molecule magnets.

  13. Mono- and Dinuclear Manganese Carbonyls Supported by 1,8-Disubstituted (L = Py, SMe, SH) Anthracene Ligand Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Manes, Taylor A; Rose, Michael J

    2016-06-06

    Presented herein is a synthetic scheme to generate symmetric and asymmetric ligands based on a 1,8-disubstituted anthracene scaffold. The metal-binding scaffolds were prepared by aryl chloride activation of 1,8-dichloroanthracene using Suzuki-type couplings facilitated by [Pd(dba)2] as a Pd source; the choice of cocatalyst (XPhos or SPhos) yielded symmetrically or asymmetrically substituted scaffolds (respectively): namely, Anth-SMe2 (3), Anth-N2 (4), and Anth-NSMe (6). The ligands exhibit a nonplanar geometry in the solid state (X-ray), owing to steric hindrance between the anthracene scaffold and the coupled aryl units. To determine the flexibility and binding characteristics of the anthracene-based ligands, the symmetric scaffolds were complexed with [Mn(CO)5Br] to afford the mononuclear species [(Anth-SMe2)Mn(CO)3Br] (8) and [(Anth-N2)Mn(CO)3Br] (9), in which the donor moieties chelate the Mn center in a cis fashion. The asymmetric ligand Anth-NSMe (6) binds preferentially through the py moieties, affording the bis-ligated complex [(Anth-NSMe)2Mn(CO)3Br] (10), wherein the thioether-S donors remain unbound. Alternatively, deprotection of the thioether in 6 affords the free thiol ligand Anth-NSH (7), which more readily binds the Mn center. Complexation of 7 ultimately affords the mixed-valence Mn(I)/Mn(II) dimer of formula [(Anth-NS)3Mn2(CO)3] (11), which exhibits a fac-{Mn(CO)3} unit supported by a triad of bridging thiolates, which are in turn ligated to a supporting Mn(II) center (EPR: |D| = 0.053 cm(-1), E/|D| = 0.3, Aiso = -150 MHz). All of the metal complexes have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy and NMR/EPR measurements-all of which demonstrate that the meta-linked, anthracene-based ligand scaffold is a viable approach for the coordination of metal carbonyls.

  14. Dissociation of Multisubunit Protein-Ligand Complexes in the Gas Phase. Evidence for Ligand Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yixuan; Deng, Lu; Kitova, Elena N.; Klassen, John S.

    2013-10-01

    The results of collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments performed on gaseous protonated and deprotonated ions of complexes of cholera toxin B subunit homopentamer (CTB5) with the pentasaccharide (β-D-Gal p-(1→3)-β-D-Gal pNAc-(1→4)[α-D-Neu5Ac-(2→3)]-β-D-Gal p-(1→4)-β-D-Glc p (GM1)) and corresponding glycosphingolipid (β-D-Gal p-(1→3)-β-D-Gal pNAc-(1→4)[α-D-Neu5Ac-(2→3)]-β-D-Gal p-(1→4)-β-D-Glc p-Cer (GM1-Cer)) ligands, and the homotetramer streptavidin (S4) with biotin (B) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl- sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-(biotinyl) (Btl), are reported. The protonated (CTB5 + 5GM1)n+ ions dissociated predominantly by the loss of a single subunit, with the concomitant migration of ligand to another subunit. The simultaneous loss of ligand and subunit was observed as a minor pathway. In contrast, the deprotonated (CTB5 + 5GM1)n- ions dissociated preferentially by the loss of deprotonated ligand; the loss of ligand-bound and ligand-free subunit were minor pathways. The presence of ceramide (Cer) promoted ligand migration and the loss of subunit. The main dissociation pathway for the protonated and deprotonated (S4 + 4B)n+/- ions, as well as for deprotonated (S4 + 4Btl)n- ions, was loss of the ligand. However, subunit loss from the (S4 + 4B)n+ ions was observed as a minor pathway. The (S4 + 4Btl)n+ ions dissociated predominantly by the loss of free and ligand-bound subunit. The charge state of the complex and the collision energy were found to have little effect on the relative contribution of the different dissociation channels. Thermally-driven ligand migration between subunits was captured in the results of molecular dynamics simulations performed on protonated (CTB5 + 5GM1)15+ ions (with a range of charge configurations) at 800 K. Notably, the migration pathway was found to be highly dependent on the charge configuration of the ion. The main conclusion of this study is that the dissociation pathways of multisubunit protein-ligand

  15. Ligand- and drug-binding studies of membrane proteins revealed through circular dichroism spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Siligardi, Giuliano; Hussain, Rohanah; Patching, Simon G; Phillips-Jones, Mary K

    2014-01-01

    A great number of membrane proteins have proven difficult to crystallise for use in X-ray crystallographic structural determination or too complex for NMR structural studies. Circular dichroism (CD) is a fast and relatively easy spectroscopic technique to study protein conformational behaviour. In this review examples of the applications of CD and synchrotron radiation CD (SRCD) to membrane protein ligand binding interaction studies are discussed. The availability of SRCD has been an important advancement in recent progress, most particularly because it can be used to extend the spectral region in the far-UV region (important for increasing the accuracy of secondary structure estimations) and for working with membrane proteins available in only small quantities for which SRCD has facilitated molecular recognition studies. Such studies have been accomplished by probing in the near-UV region the local tertiary structure of aromatic amino acid residues upon addition of chiral or non-chiral ligands using long pathlength cells of small volume capacity. In particular, this review describes the most recent use of the technique in the following areas: to obtain quantitative data on ligand binding (exemplified by the FsrC membrane sensor kinase receptor); to distinguish between functionally similar drugs that exhibit different mechanisms of action towards membrane proteins (exemplified by secretory phospholipase A2); and to identify suitable detergent conditions to observe membrane protein-ligand interactions using stabilised proteins (exemplified by the antiseptic transporter SugE). Finally, the importance of characterising in solution the conformational behaviour and ligand binding properties of proteins in both far- and near-UV regions is discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Structural and biophysical characterisation of membrane protein-ligand binding. © 2013.

  16. FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra of some heterobimetallic complexes with phenylcyclopentadienyl ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Chong-Shi; Guo, Jianhua; Qian, Changtao; Tan, Ying

    1996-11-01

    The FT-Raman and selected IR spectra of 14 heterobimetallic complexes of (CO) 3CrC 6H 5-C 5H 4M(CO) n(NO) mX (M = transition metal, X = other ligands) are reported. FT-Raman exhibits distinct strong characteristic bands of coordinated C 6H 5-C 5H 4 ligand ring deformation near 1540, 1490 and 1280 cm -1 and the coordinated phenyl ring deformation mode near 1000 cm -1, which are negligible in IR spectra. It is also easy to find the M-CO stretching and M-C-O bending as well as phenyl-M stretching bands in the FT-Raman spectra. The v(CO) IR absorptions in THF solution were reasonably assigned according to the local symmetry of the complexes.

  17. Ligand-induced Epitope Masking

    PubMed Central

    Mould, A. Paul; Askari, Janet A.; Byron, Adam; Takada, Yoshikazu; Jowitt, Thomas A.; Humphries, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-containing ligand-mimetic inhibitors of integrins are unable to dissociate pre-formed integrin-fibronectin complexes (IFCs). These observations suggested that amino acid residues involved in integrin-fibronectin binding become obscured in the ligand-occupied state. Because the epitopes of some function-blocking anti-integrin monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) lie near the ligand-binding pocket, it follows that the epitopes of these mAbs may become shielded in the ligand-occupied state. Here, we tested whether function-blocking mAbs directed against α5β1 can interact with the integrin after it forms a complex with an RGD-containing fragment of fibronectin. We showed that the anti-α5 subunit mAbs JBS5, SNAKA52, 16, and P1D6 failed to disrupt IFCs and hence appeared unable to bind to the ligand-occupied state. In contrast, the allosteric anti-β1 subunit mAbs 13, 4B4, and AIIB2 could dissociate IFCs and therefore were able to interact with the ligand-bound state. However, another class of function-blocking anti-β1 mAbs, exemplified by Lia1/2, could not disrupt IFCs. This second class of mAbs was also distinguished from 13, 4B4, and AIIB2 by their ability to induce homotypic cell aggregation. Although the epitope of Lia1/2 was closely overlapping with those of 13, 4B4, and AIIB2, it appeared to lie closer to the ligand-binding pocket. A new model of the α5β1-fibronectin complex supports our hypothesis that the epitopes of mAbs that fail to bind to the ligand-occupied state lie within, or very close to, the integrin-fibronectin interface. Importantly, our findings imply that the efficacy of some therapeutic anti-integrin mAbs could be limited by epitope masking. PMID:27484800

  18. Enhanced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G Y; Ahmed, N; Riley, C; Oliva, K; Barker, G; Quinn, M A; Rice, G E

    2005-01-17

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to a subclass of nuclear hormone receptor that executes important cellular transcriptional functions. Previous studies have demonstrated the expression of PPARgamma in several tumours including colon, breast, bladder, prostate, lung and stomach. This study demonstrates the relative expression of PPARgamma in normal ovaries and different pathological grades of ovarian tumours of serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell and mixed subtypes. A total of 56 ovarian specimens including 10 normal, eight benign, 10 borderline, seven grade 1, nine grade 2 and 12 grade 3 were analysed using immunohistochemistry. Immunoreactive PPARgamma was not expressed in normal ovaries. Out of eight benign and 10 borderline tumours, only one tumour in each group showed weak cytoplasmic PPARgamma expression. In contrast, 26 out of 28 carcinomas studied were positive for PPARgamma expression with staining confined to cytoplasmic and nuclear regions. An altered staining pattern of PPARgamma was observed in high-grade ovarian tumours with PPARgamma being mostly localized in the nuclei with little cytoplasmic immunoreactivity. On the other hand, predominant cytoplasmic staining was observed in lower-grade tumours. Significantly increased PPARgamma immunoreactivity was observed in malignant ovarian tumours (grade 1, 2 and 3) compared to benign and borderline tumours (chi2 = 48.80, P < 0.001). Western blot analyses showed significant elevation in the expression of immunoreactive PPARgamma in grade 3 ovarian tumours compared with that of normal ovaries and benign ovarian tumours (P < 0.01). These findings suggest an involvement of PPARgamma in the onset and development of ovarian carcinoma and provide an insight into the regulation of this molecule in the progression of the disease.

  19. PPARγ Expression Is Diminished in Macrophages of Recurrent Miscarriage Placentas.

    PubMed

    Kolben, Theresa Maria; Rogatsch, Elisabeth; Vattai, Aurelia; Hester, Anna; Kuhn, Christina; Schmoeckel, Elisa; Mahner, Sven; Jeschke, Udo; Kolben, Thomas

    2018-06-26

    PPAR&gamma; belongs to the group of nuclear receptors which is expressed in the trophoblast and together with other factors is responsible for the maintenance of pregnancy. Apart from that PPAR&gamma; is also a main factor for macrophage polarization. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined expression pattern and frequency of PPAR&gamma; under physiological circumstances and in spontaneous and recurrent miscarriages in the trophoblast and in maternal macrophages of the decidua. Human placental tissues of the first trimester (15 physiologic pregnancies, 15 spontaneous abortion and 16 recurrent miscarriage placentas) were analyzed for expression of the nuclear receptor PPAR&gamma;. Expression changes were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and real time PCR (RT-PCR) in trophoblast and in maternal macrophages of the decidua. Maternal macrophages were identified by double immunofluorescence using cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68) as marker for macrophages and further characterized regarding their M1/M2 polarization status. The intermediate villous trophoblast revealed a significantly lower PPAR&gamma; expression in spontaneous and recurrent abortion. Maternal macrophages express PPAR&gamma;. Their number is significantly enhanced in the decidua of spontaneous miscarriages whereas in recurrent miscarriages maternal macrophages seem to express PPAR&gamma; only in very few cases. PPAR&gamma; is associated with an M2 polarization state that is common for decidual macrophages. The lack of PPAR&gamma; in recurrent miscarriage decidual macrophages seems to be associated with a specific inflammatory response against the fetus.

  20. Quantum.Ligand.Dock: protein-ligand docking with quantum entanglement refinement on a GPU system.

    PubMed

    Kantardjiev, Alexander A

    2012-07-01

    Quantum.Ligand.Dock (protein-ligand docking with graphic processing unit (GPU) quantum entanglement refinement on a GPU system) is an original modern method for in silico prediction of protein-ligand interactions via high-performance docking code. The main flavour of our approach is a combination of fast search with a special account for overlooked physical interactions. On the one hand, we take care of self-consistency and proton equilibria mutual effects of docking partners. On the other hand, Quantum.Ligand.Dock is the the only docking server offering such a subtle supplement to protein docking algorithms as quantum entanglement contributions. The motivation for development and proposition of the method to the community hinges upon two arguments-the fundamental importance of quantum entanglement contribution in molecular interaction and the realistic possibility to implement it by the availability of supercomputing power. The implementation of sophisticated quantum methods is made possible by parallelization at several bottlenecks on a GPU supercomputer. The high-performance implementation will be of use for large-scale virtual screening projects, structural bioinformatics, systems biology and fundamental research in understanding protein-ligand recognition. The design of the interface is focused on feasibility and ease of use. Protein and ligand molecule structures are supposed to be submitted as atomic coordinate files in PDB format. A customization section is offered for addition of user-specified charges, extra ionogenic groups with intrinsic pK(a) values or fixed ions. Final predicted complexes are ranked according to obtained scores and provided in PDB format as well as interactive visualization in a molecular viewer. Quantum.Ligand.Dock server can be accessed at http://87.116.85.141/LigandDock.html.

  1. Antagonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} induces cerebellar amyloid-{beta} levels and motor dysfunction in APP/PS1 transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Jing; Sun, Bing; Chen, Kui

    2009-07-03

    Recent evidences show that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) is involved in the modulation of the amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}) cascade causing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and treatment with PPAR{gamma} agonists protects against AD pathology. However, the function of PPAR{gamma} steady-state activity in A{beta} cascade and AD pathology remains unclear. In this study, an antagonist of PPAR{gamma}, GW9662, was injected into the fourth ventricle of APP/PS1 transgenic mice to inhibit PPAR{gamma} activity in cerebellum. The results show that inhibition of PPAR{gamma} significantly induced A{beta} levels in cerebellum and caused cerebellar motor dysfunction in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Moreover, GW9662 treatment markedly decreased the cerebellarmore » levels of insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), which is responsible for the cellular degradation of A{beta}. Since cerebellum is spared from significant A{beta} accumulation and neurotoxicity in AD patients and animal models, these findings suggest a crucial role of PPAR{gamma} steady-state activity in protection of cerebellum against AD pathology.« less

  2. Hydrophilic 2,9-bis-triazolyl-1,10-phenanthroline ligands enable selective Am(iii) separation: a step further towards sustainable nuclear energy.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Alyn C; Mocilac, Pavle; Geist, Andreas; Harwood, Laurence M; Sharrad, Clint A; Burton, Neil A; Whitehead, Roger C; Denecke, Melissa A

    2017-05-02

    The first hydrophilic, 1,10-phenanthroline derived ligands consisting of only C, H, O and N atoms for the selective extraction of Am(iii) from spent nuclear fuel are reported herein. One of these 2,9-bis-triazolyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BTrzPhen) ligands combined with a non-selective extracting agent, was found to exhibit process-suitable selectivity for Am(iii) over Eu(iii) and Cm(iii), providing a clear step forward.

  3. A Study of the Structure-Activity Relationship of GABAA-Benzodiazepine Receptor Bivalent Ligands by Conformational Analysis with Low Temperature NMR and X-ray Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Dongmei; Försterling, F. Holger; Li, Xiaoyan; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Parrish, Damon; Cao, Hui; Rallapalli, Sundari; Clayton, Terry; Teng, Yun; Majumder, Samarpan; Sankar, Subramaniam; Roth, Bryan L.; Sieghart, Werner; Furtmuller, Roman; Rowlett, James; Weed, Mike R.; Cook, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The stable conformations of GABAA-benzodiazepine receptor bivalent ligands were determined by low temperature NMR spectroscopy and confirmed by single crystal X-ray analysis. The stable conformations in solution correlated well with those in the solid state. The linear conformation was important for these dimers to access the binding site and exhibit potent in vitro affinity and was illustrated for α5 subtype selective ligands. Bivalent ligands with an oxygen-containing linker folded back upon themselves both in solution and the solid state. Dimers which are folded do not bind to Bz receptors. PMID:18790643

  4. Synthesis, structural elucidation, biological, antioxidant and nuclease activities of some 5-Fluorouracil-amino acid mixed ligand complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shobana, Sutha; Subramaniam, Perumal; Mitu, Liviu; Dharmaraja, Jeyaprakash; Arvind Narayan, Sundaram

    2015-01-01

    Some biologically active mixed ligand complexes (1-9) have been synthesized from 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU; A) and amino acids (B) such as glycine (gly), L-alanine (ala) and L-valine (val) with Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions. The synthesized mixed ligand complexes (1-9) were characterized by various physico-chemical, spectral, thermal and morphological studies. 5-Fluorouracil and its mixed ligand complexes have been tested for their in vitro biological activities against some pathogenic bacterial and fungal species by the agar well diffusion method. The in vitro antioxidant activities of 5-Fluorouracil and its complexes have also been investigated by using the DPPH assay method. The results demonstrate that Cu(II) mixed ligand complexes (4-6) exhibit potent biological as well as antioxidant activities compared to 5-Fluorouracil and Ni(II) (1-3) and Zn(II) (7-9) mixed ligand complexes. Further, the cleaving activities of CT DNA under aerobic conditions show moderate activity with the synthesized Cu(II) and Ni(II) mixed ligand complexes (1-6) while no activity is seen with Zn(II) complexes (7-9). Binding studies of CT DNA with these complexes show a decrease in intensity of the charge transfer band to the extent of 5-15% along with a minor red shift. The free energy change values (Δ‡G) calculated from intrinsic binding constants indicate that the interaction between mixed ligand complex and DNA is spontaneous.

  5. Liposome-based glioma targeted drug delivery enabled by stable peptide ligands.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaoli; Gao, Jie; Zhan, Changyou; Xie, Cao; Chai, Zhilan; Ran, Danni; Ying, Man; Zheng, Ping; Lu, Weiyue

    2015-11-28

    The treatment of glioma is one of the most challenging tasks in clinic. As an intracranial tumor, glioma exhibits many distinctive characteristics from other tumors. In particular, various barriers including enzymatic barriers in the blood and brain capillary endothelial cells, blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-brain tumor barrier (BBTB) rigorously prevent drug and drug delivery systems from reaching the tumor site. To tackle this dilemma, we developed a liposomal formulation to circumvent multiple-barriers by modifying the liposome surface with proteolytically stable peptides, (D)CDX and c(RGDyK). (D)CDX is a D-peptide ligand of nicotine acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on the BBB, and c(RGDyK) is a ligand of integrin highly expressed on the BBTB and glioma cells. Lysosomal compartments of brain capillary endothelial cells are implicated in the transcytosis of those liposomes. However, both peptide ligands displayed exceptional stability in lysosomal homogenate, ensuring that intact ligands could exert subsequent exocytosis from brain capillary endothelial cells and glioma targeting. In the cellular uptake studies, dually labeled liposomes could target both brain capillary endothelial cells and tumor cells, effectively traversing the BBB and BBTB monolayers, overcoming enzymatic barrier and targeting three-dimensional tumor spheroids. Its targeting ability to intracranial glioma was further verified in vivo by ex vivo imaging and histological studies. As a result, doxorubicin liposomes modified with both (D)CDX and c(RGDyK) presented better anti-glioma effect with prolonged median survival of nude mice bearing glioma than did unmodified liposomes and liposomes modified with individual peptide ligand. In conclusion, the liposome suggested in the present study could effectively overcome multi-barriers and accomplish glioma targeted drug delivery, validating its potential value in improving the therapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin for glioma. Copyright © 2015

  6. Ligand combination strategy for the preparation of novel low-dimensional and open-framework metal cluster materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anokhina, Ekaterina V.

    Low-dimensional and open-framework materials containing transition metals have a wide range of applications in redox catalysis, solid-state batteries, and electronic and magnetic devices. This dissertation reports on research carried out with the goal to develop a strategy for the preparation of low-dimensional and open-framework materials using octahedral metal clusters as building blocks. Our approach takes its roots from crystal engineering principles where the desired framework topologies are achieved through building block design. The key idea of this work is to induce directional bonding preferences in the cluster units using a combination of ligands with a large difference in charge density. This investigation led to the preparation and characterization of a new family of niobium oxychloride cluster compounds with original structure types exhibiting 1ow-dimensional or open-framework character. Most of these materials have framework topologies unprecedented in compounds containing octahedral clusters. Comparative analysis of their structural features indicates that the novel cluster connectivity patterns in these systems are the result of complex interplay between the effects of anisotropic ligand arrangement in the cluster unit and optimization of ligand-counterion electrostatic interactions. The important role played by these factors sets niobium oxychloride systems apart from cluster compounds with one ligand type or statistical ligand distribution where the main structure-determining factor is the total number of ligands. These results provide a blueprint for expanding the ligand combination strategy to other transition metal cluster systems and for the future rational design of cluster-based materials.

  7. Investigation on biomolecular interactions of nickel(II) complexes with monoanionic bidentate ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayamani, Arumugam; Sethupathi, Murugan; Ojwach, Stephen O.; Sengottuvelan, Nallathambi

    2018-01-01

    Reactions of monoanionic bidentate ligands 5-methylsalicylaldehyde (5-msal), 5-bromosalicylaldehyde (5-brsal), 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde (5-nsal) and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde (2-hnap) with nickel perchlorate hexahydrate produced nickel(II) complexes 1-4, respectively. Single crystal X-ray analyses of complexes 1 and 2 confirmed bidentate mode of the ligands with O˄O coordination to give square planar geometry around nickel atoms. Complexes 1-4 showed one quasi-reversible redox peak at cathodic region (-0.67 to -0.80 V) and one redox peak at anodic region (+1.08 to +1.44 V) assignable to the Ni(II)/Ni(I) and Ni(II)/Ni(III) redox couples, respectively. The complexes exhibited good bovine serum albumin (BSA) binding abilities with a maximum binding constant of 1.96 × 105 M-1. The binding of complexes with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) showed that the binding affinity is consistent with an increase in steric bulk of the ligands. The nuclease activity of the complexes showed efficient oxidative cleavage in the presence of hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizing agent. The complexes showed higher zone of inhibition when screened for antimicrobial activity against bacteria and human pathogenic fungi.

  8. Disruption of transforming growth factor-beta signaling by curcumin induces gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma in rat hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shizhong; Chen, Anping

    2007-01-01

    Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC), the major effectors of hepatic fibrogenesis, is coupled with sequential alterations in gene expression, including an increase in receptors for transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and a dramatic reduction in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma). The relationship between them remains obscure. We previously demonstrated that curcumin induced gene expression of PPAR-gamma in activated HSC, leading to reducing cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis and suppressing expression of extracellular matrix genes. The underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. We recently observed that stimulation of PPAR-gamma activation suppressed gene expression of TGF-beta receptors in activated HSC, leading to the interruption of TGF-beta signaling. This observation supported our assumption of an antagonistic relationship between PPAR-gamma activation and TGF-beta signaling in HSC. In this study, we further hypothesize that TGF-beta signaling might negatively regulate gene expression of PPAR-gamma in activated HSC. The present report demonstrates that exogenous TGF-beta1 inhibits gene expression of PPAR-gamma in activated HSC, which is eliminated by the pretreatment with curcumin likely by interrupting TGF-beta signaling. Transfection assays further indicate that blocking TGF-beta signaling by dominant negative type II TGF-beta receptor increases the promoter activity of PPAR-gamma gene. Promoter deletion assays, site-directed mutageneses, and gel shift assays localize two Smad binding elements (SBEs) in the PPAR-gamma gene promoter, acting as curcumin response elements and negatively regulating the promoter activity in passaged HSC. The Smad3/4 protein complex specifically binds to the SBEs. Overexpression of Smad4 dose dependently eliminates the inhibitory effects of curcumin on the PPAR-gamma gene promoter and TGF-beta signaling. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the interruption of TGF

  9. Diarylethene-containing cyclometalated platinum(II) complexes: tunable photochromism via metal coordination and rational ligand design.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jacky Chi-Hung; Lam, Wai Han; Wong, Hok-Lai; Zhu, Nianyong; Wong, Wing-Tak; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2011-08-17

    The synthesis, characterization, electrochemistry, photophysics and photochromic behavior of a new class of cyclometalated platinum(II) complexes [Pt(C(∧)N)(O(∧)O)] (1a-5a and 1b-5b), where C(∧)N is a cyclometalating 2-(2'-thienyl)pyridyl (thpy) or 2-(2'-thienothienyl)pyridyl (tthpy) ligand containing the photochromic dithienylethene (DTE) unit and O(∧)O is a β-diketonato ligand of acetylacetonato (acac) or hexafluoroacetylacetonato (hfac), have been reported. The X-ray crystal structures of five of the complexes have also been determined. The electrochemical studies reveal that the first quasi-reversible reduction couple, and hence the nature of lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the complexes, is sensitive to the nature of the ancillary O(∧)O ligands. Upon photoexcitation, complexes 1a-3a and 1b-3b exhibit drastic color changes, ascribed to the reversible photochromic behavior, which is found to be sensitive to the substituents on the pyridyl ring and the extent of π-conjugation of the C(∧)N ligand as well as the nature of the ancillary ligand. The thermal bleaching kinetics of complex 1a has been studied in toluene at various temperatures, and the activation barrier for the thermal cycloreversion of the complex has been determined. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to provide an insight into the electrochemical, photophysical and photochromic properties.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and electrochemistry studies of iron(III) complex with curcumin ligand.

    PubMed

    Özbolat, Gülüzar; Yegani, Arash Alizadeh; Tuli, Abdullah

    2018-05-11

    Iron overload is a serious clinical condition for humans and is a key target in drug development. The aim of this study was to investigate the coordination of iron(III) ions with curcumin ligand that may be used in the treatment of iron overload. Iron(III) complex of curcumin was synthesized and structurally characterized in its solid and solution state by FT-IR, UV-Vis, elemental analysis, and magnetic susceptibility. Electrochemical behaviour of the ligand and the complexes were examined using cyclic voltammetry. The cytotoxic activities of the ligand and the iron(III) complex were evaluated by the MTT assay. Curcumin reacted with iron in high concentrations at physiological pH at room temperature. Subsequently, a brown-red complex was formed. Data regarding magnetic susceptibility showed that the complexes with a 1:2 (metal/ligand) mole ratio had octahedral geometry. The complex showed higher anti-oxidant effect towards the cell line ECV304 at IC 50 values of 4.83 compared to curcumin. The complex exhibited very high cytotoxic activity and showed a cytotoxic effect that was much better than that of the ligand. The potentials for redox were calculated as 0.180 V and 0.350 V, respectively. The electrochemistry studies showed that Fe 3+ /Fe 2+ couple redox process occurred at low potentials. This value was within the range of compounds that are expected to show superoxide dismutase activity. This finding indicates that the iron complex is capable of removing free radicals. The observed cytotoxicity could be pursued to obtain a potential drug. Further studies investigating the use of curcumin for this purpose are needed. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} agonists modulate Th1 and Th2 chemokine secretion in normal thyrocytes and Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Antonelli, Alessandro, E-mail: a.antonelli@med.unipi.it; Ferrari, Silvia Martina, E-mail: sm.ferrari@int.med.unipi.it; Frascerra, Silvia, E-mail: lafrasce@gmail.com

    2011-07-01

    Until now, no data are present about the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR){alpha} activation on the prototype Th1 [chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)10] (CXCL10) and Th2 [chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2] (CCL2) chemokines secretion in thyroid cells. The role of PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{gamma} activation on CXCL10 and CCL2 secretion was tested in Graves' disease (GD) and control primary thyrocytes stimulated with interferon (IFN){gamma} and tumor necrosis factor (TNF){alpha}. IFN{gamma} stimulated both CXCL10 and CCL2 secretion in primary GD and control thyrocytes. TNF{alpha} alone stimulated CCL2 secretion, while had no effect on CXCL10. The combination of IFN{gamma} and TNF{alpha} hadmore » a synergistic effect both on CXCL10 and CCL2 chemokines in GD thyrocytes at levels comparable to those of controls. PPAR{alpha} activators inhibited the secretion of both chemokines (stimulated with IFN{gamma} and TNF{alpha}) at a level higher (for CXCL10, about 60-72%) than PPAR{gamma} agonists (about 25-35%), which were confirmed to inhibit CXCL10, but not CCL2. Our data show that CCL2 is modulated by IFN{gamma} and TNF{alpha} in GD and normal thyrocytes. Furthermore we first show that PPAR{alpha} activators inhibit the secretion of CXCL10 and CCL2 in thyrocytes, suggesting that PPAR{alpha} may be involved in the modulation of the immune response in the thyroid.« less

  12. Efficient Cp*Ir Catalysts with Imidazoline Ligands for CO 2 Hydrogenation: Cp*Ir Catalysts with Imidazoline Ligands for CO 2 Hydrogenation

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, Shaoan; Onishi, Naoya; Tsurusaki, Akihiro; ...

    2015-11-09

    Here, we report newly developed iridium catalysts with electron-donating imidazoline moieties as ligands for the hydrogenation of CO 2 to formate in aqueous solution. Interestingly, these new complexes promote CO 2 hydrogenation much more effectively than their imidazole analogues and exhibit a turnover frequency (TOF) of 1290 h –1 for the bisimidazoline complex compared to that of 20 h –1 for the bisimidazole complex at 1 MPa and 50 °C. Additionally, the hydrogenation proceeds smoothly even under atmospheric pressure at room temperature. The TOF of 43 h –1 for the bisimidazoline complex is comparable to that of a dinuclear complexmore » (70 h –1, highest TOF reported) [Nat. Chem. 2012, 4, 383], which incorporates proton-responsive ligands with pendent-OH groups in the second coordination sphere. The catalytic activity of the complex with an N-methylated imidazoline moiety is much the same as that of the corresponding pyridylimidazoline analogue. Our result and the UV/Vis titrations of the imidazoline complexes indicate that the high activity is not attributable to the deprotonation of NH on the imidazoline under the reaction conditions.« less

  13. Synthesis, X-ray structure and cytotoxic effect of nickel(II) complexes with pyrazole ligands.

    PubMed

    Sobiesiak, Marta; Lorenz, Ingo-Peter; Mayer, Peter; Woźniczka, Magdalena; Kufelnicki, Aleksander; Krajewska, Urszula; Rozalski, Marek; Budzisz, Elzbieta

    2011-12-01

    Here we present the synthesis of the new Ni(II) complexes with chelating ligands 1-benzothiazol-2-yl-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole (a), 5-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-3-methyl-1-(2-pyridylo)-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (b) and 1-benzothiazol-2-yl-5-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-3-methyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (c). These ligands a-c create solid complexes with Ni(II). The crystal and molecular structures of two complexes were determined by X-ray diffraction method. Thermal stability of two complexes with ligand c by TG/DTG and DSC methods were also shown. Cytotoxic activity of all the complexes against three tumour cell lines and to normal endothelial cells (HUVEC) was also estimated. Complexes with ligand c exhibited relatively high cytotoxic activity towards HL-60 and NALM-6 leukaemia cells and WM-115 melanoma cells. Cytotoxic effectiveness of one of these complexes against melanoma WM-115 cells was two times higher than that of cisplatin. The protonation constant log K=9.63 of ligand b corresponding to the phenol 2-hydroxy group has been determined in 10% (v/v) DMSO/water solution (25°C). The coordination modes (formation of two monomeric species: NiL and NiL(2)) in the complexes with Ni(II) are discussed for b on the basis of the potentiometric and UV/Vis data. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Transcriptional activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} requires activation of both protein kinase A and Akt during adipocyte differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sang-pil; Ha, Jung Min; Yun, Sung Ji

    2010-08-13

    Research highlights: {yields} Elevated cAMP activates both PKA and Epac. {yields} PKA activates CREB transcriptional factor and Epac activates PI3K/Akt pathway via Rap1. {yields} Akt modulates PPAR-{gamma} transcriptional activity in concert with CREB. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR-{gamma}) is required for the conversion of pre-adipocytes. However, the mechanism underlying activation of PPAR-{gamma} is unclear. Here we showed that cAMP-induced activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and Akt is essential for the transcriptional activation of PPAR-{gamma}. Hormonal induction of adipogenesis was blocked by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002), by a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor (H89), and by amore » Rap1 inhibitor (GGTI-298). Transcriptional activity of PPAR-{gamma} was markedly enhanced by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), but not insulin and dexamethasone. In addition, IBMX-induced PPAR-{gamma} transcriptional activity was blocked by PI3K/Akt, PKA, or Rap1 inhibitors. 8-(4-Chlorophenylthio)-2'-O-methyl-cAMP (8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP) which is a specific agonist for exchanger protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) significantly induced the activation of Akt. Furthermore, knock-down of Akt1 markedly attenuated PPAR-{gamma} transcriptional activity. These results indicate that both PKA and Akt signaling pathways are required for transcriptional activation of PPAR-{gamma}, suggesting post-translational activation of PPAR-{gamma} might be critical step for adipogenic gene expression.« less

  15. Systematic Introduction of Aromatic Rings to Diphosphine Ligands for Emission Color Tuning of Dinuclear Copper(I) Iodide Complexes.

    PubMed

    Okano, Yuka; Ohara, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Yoshida, Masaki; Kato, Masako

    2016-06-06

    We have newly synthesized two solution-stable luminescent dinuclear copper(I) complexes, [Cu2(μ-I)2(dpppy)2] (Cu-py) and [Cu2(μ-I)2(dpppyz)2] (Cu-pyz), where dpppy = 2,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)pyridine and dpppyz = 2,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)pyrazine, using chelating diphosphine ligands composed of N-heteroaromatic rings. X-ray analysis clearly indicates that the molecular structures of Cu-py and Cu-pyz are almost identical with that of the parent complex, [Cu2(μ-I)2(dppb)2] [Cu-bz; dppb = 2,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)benzene]. Complexes Cu-py and Cu-pyz exhibit luminescence [emission quantum yield (Φem) = 0.48 and 0.02, respectively] in the solid state at 298 K. A wide emission color tuning, from 497 to 638 nm (energy = 0.55 eV, with an emission color ranging from green to reddish-orange), was achieved in the solid state by the introduction of pyridinic N atoms into the bridging phenyl group between the two diphenylphosphine groups. Density functional theory calculations suggest that the emission could originate from the effective combination of the metal-to-ligand charge-transfer excited state with the halide-to-ligand charge-transfer excited state. Thus, the emission color change is due to stabilization of the π* levels of the central aryl group in the diphosphine ligand. Furthermore, these copper(I) complexes exhibit thermally activated delayed fluorescence at 298 K because of the small singlet-triplet energy difference (ΔE = 523 and 564 cm(-1) for Cu-py and Cu-pyz, respectively). The stability of these complexes in chloroform, due to the rigid bonds between the diphosphine ligands and the Cu(I) ions, enables the preparation of emissive poly(methyl methacrylate) films by the solution-doping technique.

  16. Amino acid ionic liquids as chiral ligands in ligand-exchange chiral separations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Wu, Kangkang; Tang, Fei; Yao, Lihua; Yang, Fei; Nie, Zhou; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2009-09-28

    Recently, amino acid ionic liquids (AAILs) have attracted much research interest. In this paper, we present the first application of AAILs in chiral separation based on the chiral ligand exchange principle. By using 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium L-proline (L-Pro) as a chiral ligand coordinated with copper(II), four pairs of underivatized amino acid enantiomers-dl-phenylalanine (dl-Phe), dl-histidine (dl-His), dl-tryptophane (dl-Trp), and dl-tyrosine (dl-Tyr)-were successfully separated in two major chiral separation techniques, HPLC and capillary electrophoresis (CE), with higher enantioselectivity than conventionally used amino acid ligands (resolution (R(s))=3.26-10.81 for HPLC; R(s)=1.34-4.27 for CE). Interestingly, increasing the alkyl chain length of the AAIL cation remarkably enhanced the enantioselectivity. It was inferred that the alkylmethylimidazolium cations and L-Pro form ion pairs on the surface of the stationary phase or on the inner surface of the capillary. The ternary copper complexes with L-Pro are consequently attached to the support surface, thus inducing an ion-exchange type of retention for the dl-enantiomers. Therefore, the AAIL cation plays an essential role in the separation. This work demonstrates that AAILs are good alternatives to conventional amino acid ligands for ligand-exchange-based chiral separation. It also reveals the tremendous application potential of this new type of task-specific ILs.

  17. Up-regulation of peroxidase proliferator-activated receptor gamma in cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Soon Jae; Kang, Hee Joon; Song, Jae-Jun; Kang, Jae Seong; Woo, Jeong Soo; Chae, Sung Won; Lee, Heung-Man

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the localization and expression of peroxidase proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma in cholesteatoma epithelium. Experimental study. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed on cholesteatoma tissues from 10 adult patients undergoing tympanomastoid surgery for middle ear cholesteatoma and on 10 samples of normal external auditory canal skin tissue. The expression levels of PPARgamma to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase transcripts were semiquantified by densitometry. We also characterized the cellular localization of the PPARgamma protein immunohistochemically. Ki-67 was also localized to compare the proliferative activity of cells in cholesteatoma epithelium and in normal external auditory canal skin. PPARgamma mRNA and protein were detected in normal external auditory canal skin and in cholesteatoma epithelium. The expression level of PPARgamma mRNA in cholesteatoma was significantly increased compared with that in normal external auditory canal skin. PPARgamma protein was expressed in cells mainly in the granular and prickle cell layers. However, the intensity of its expression was generally decreased in the parabasal layer of the cholesteatoma epithelium. Ki-67 was expressed in the nuclei of cells in the basal and parabasal layers, and a greater number of cells were Ki-67 immunopositive in cholesteatoma epithelium. PPARgamma is up-regulated in the cholesteatoma epithelium compared with normal external auditory canal skin. These results suggest that PPARgamma may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma.

  18. Ligand-Enhanced Abiotic Iron Oxidation and the Effects of Chemical versus Biological Iron Cycling in Anoxic Environments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces a newly isolated, genetically tractable bacterium (Pseudogulbenkiania sp. strain MAI-1) and explores the extent to which its nitrate-dependent iron-oxidation activity is directly biologically catalyzed. Specifically, we focused on the role of iron chelating ligands in promoting chemical oxidation of Fe(II) by nitrite under anoxic conditions. Strong organic ligands such as nitrilotriacetate and citrate can substantially enhance chemical oxidation of Fe(II) by nitrite at circumneutral pH. We show that strain MAI-1 exhibits unambiguous biological Fe(II) oxidation despite a significant contribution (∼30–35%) from ligand-enhanced chemical oxidation. Our work with the model denitrifying strain Paracoccus denitrificans further shows that ligand-enhanced chemical oxidation of Fe(II) by microbially produced nitrite can be an important general side effect of biological denitrification. Our assessment of reaction rates derived from literature reports of anaerobic Fe(II) oxidation, both chemical and biological, highlights the potential competition and likely co-occurrence of chemical Fe(II) oxidation (mediated by microbial production of nitrite) and truly biological Fe(II) oxidation. PMID:23402562

  19. NMR studies of DNA oligomers and their interactions with minor groove binding ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Fagan, Patricia A.

    1996-05-01

    The cationic peptide ligands distamycin and netropsin bind noncovalently to the minor groove of DNA. The binding site, orientation, stoichiometry, and qualitative affinity of distamycin binding to several short DNA oligomers were investigated by NMR spectroscopy. The oligomers studied contain A,T-rich or I,C-rich binding sites, where I = 2-desaminodeoxyguanosine. I•C base pairs are functional analogs of A•T base pairs in the minor groove. The different behaviors exhibited by distamycin and netropsin binding to various DNA sequences suggested that these ligands are sensitive probes of DNA structure. For sites of five or more base pairs, distamycin can form 1:1 or 2:1more » ligand:DNA complexes. Cooperativity in distamycin binding is low in sites such as AAAAA which has narrow minor grooves, and is higher in sites with wider minor grooves such as ATATAT. The distamycin binding and base pair opening lifetimes of I,C-containing DNA oligomers suggest that the I,C minor groove is structurally different from the A,T minor groove. Molecules which direct chemistry to a specific DNA sequence could be used as antiviral compounds, diagnostic probes, or molecular biology tools. The author studied two ligands in which reactive groups were tethered to a distamycin to increase the sequence specificity of the reactive agent.« less

  20. Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels exhibit distinct transmembrane domain archetypes for folding/expression and function.

    PubMed

    Therien, J P Daniel; Baenziger, John E

    2017-03-27

    Although transmembrane helix-helix interactions must be strong enough to drive folding, they must still permit the inter-helix movements associated with conformational change. Interactions between the outermost M4 and adjacent M1 and M3 α-helices of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels have been implicated in folding and function. Here, we evaluate the role of different physical interactions at this interface in the function of two prokaryotic homologs, GLIC and ELIC. Strikingly, disruption of most interactions in GLIC lead to either a reduction or a complete loss of expression and/or function, while analogous disruptions in ELIC often lead to gains in function. Structural comparisons suggest that GLIC and ELIC represent distinct transmembrane domain archetypes. One archetype, exemplified by GLIC, the glycine and GABA receptors and the glutamate activated chloride channel, has extensive aromatic contacts that govern M4-M1/M3 interactions and that are essential for expression and function. The other archetype, exemplified by ELIC and both the nicotinic acetylcholine and serotonin receptors, has relatively few aromatic contacts that are detrimental to function. These archetypes likely have evolved different mechanisms to balance the need for strong M4 "binding" to M1/M3 to promote folding/expression, and the need for weaker interactions that allow for greater conformational flexibility.

  1. An alternate binding site for PPARγ ligands

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Travis S.; Giri, Pankaj Kumar; de Vera, Ian Mitchelle S.; Marciano, David P.; Kuruvilla, Dana S.; Shin, Youseung; Blayo, Anne-Laure; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Burris, Thomas P.; Griffin, Patrick R.; Kojetin, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    PPARγ is a target for insulin sensitizing drugs such as glitazones, which improve plasma glucose maintenance in patients with diabetes. Synthetic ligands have been designed to mimic endogenous ligand binding to a canonical ligand-binding pocket to hyperactivate PPARγ. Here we reveal that synthetic PPARγ ligands also bind to an alternate site, leading to unique receptor conformational changes that impact coregulator binding, transactivation and target gene expression. Using structure-function studies we show that alternate site binding occurs at pharmacologically relevant ligand concentrations, and is neither blocked by covalently bound synthetic antagonists nor by endogenous ligands indicating non-overlapping binding with the canonical pocket. Alternate site binding likely contributes to PPARγ hyperactivation in vivo, perhaps explaining why PPARγ full and partial or weak agonists display similar adverse effects. These findings expand our understanding of PPARγ activation by ligands and suggest that allosteric modulators could be designed to fine tune PPARγ activity without competing with endogenous ligands. PMID:24705063

  2. Near-infrared-emitting colloidal Ag2S quantum dots exhibiting upconversion luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Jiang, Danyu; Yang, Wei; Wang, Dandan; Zheng, Huiping; Du, Yuansheng; Li, Xi; Li, Qiang

    2017-02-01

    Ag2S quantum dots (QDs) coated with thioglycolic acid (Ag2S QDs-TGA) have been synthesized in an organic solvent via a stepwise addition of reagents. When excited by a 980 nm laser, the near-infrared-emitting colloidal Ag2S QDs-TGA exhibit upconversion luminescence (UCL). The observed photoluminescence (PL) was attributed to the presence of ligand-modified Ag2S on the QD surfaces. Hence, upon dilution of the solution, the PL intensity initially increased before subsequently decreasing, accompanied by a blue shift in the PL spectra. The PL phenomena can be attributed to the increase in the amount of ligand-modified Ag2S on the QD surfaces upon dilution, which in turn affected the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and re-emission of the surface energy level. The relations between the emission intensity of Ag2S QDs-TGA and the excitation power are investigated, and the results confirm that the UCL in Ag2S QDs-TGA can be ascribed to a two-photon-assisted absorption process via a real energy state.

  3. A single-ligand ultra-microporous MOF for precombustion CO2 capture and hydrogen purification.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Shyamapada; De Luna, Phil; Daff, Thomas D; Rother, Jens; Liu, Ming; Buchanan, William; Hawari, Ayman I; Woo, Tom K; Vaidhyanathan, Ramanathan

    2015-12-01

    Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) built from a single small ligand typically have high stability, are rigid, and have syntheses that are often simple and easily scalable. However, they are normally ultra-microporous and do not have large surface areas amenable to gas separation applications. We report an ultra-microporous (3.5 and 4.8 Å pores) Ni-(4-pyridylcarboxylate)2 with a cubic framework that exhibits exceptionally high CO2/H2 selectivities (285 for 20:80 and 230 for 40:60 mixtures at 10 bar, 40°C) and working capacities (3.95 mmol/g), making it suitable for hydrogen purification under typical precombustion CO2 capture conditions (1- to 10-bar pressure swing). It exhibits facile CO2 adsorption-desorption cycling and has CO2 self-diffusivities of ~3 × 10(-9) m(2)/s, which is two orders higher than that of zeolite 13X and comparable to other top-performing MOFs for this application. Simulations reveal a high density of binding sites that allow for favorable CO2-CO2 interactions and large cooperative binding energies. Ultra-micropores generated by a small ligand ensures hydrolytic, hydrostatic stabilities, shelf life, and stability toward humid gas streams.

  4. Au13(8e): A secondary block for describing a special group of liganded gold clusters containing icosahedral Au13 motifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wen Wu; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Gao, Yi

    2017-05-01

    A grand unified model (GUM) has been proposed recently to understand structure anatomy and evolution of liganded gold clusters. In this work, besides the two types of elementary blocks (triangular Au3(2e) and tetrahedral Au4(2e)), we introduce a secondary block, namely, the icosahedral Au13 with 8e valence electrons, noted as Au13(8e). Using this secondary block, structural anatomy and evolution of a special group of liganded gold nanoclusters containing icosahedral Au13 motifs can be conveniently analyzed. In addition, a new ligand-protected cluster Au49(PR3)10(SR)15Cl2 is predicted to exhibit high chemical and thermal stability, suggesting likelihood of its synthesis in the laboratory.

  5. A general ligand design for gold catalysis allowing ligand-directed anti-nucleophilic attack of alkynes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanzhao; Wang, Zhixun; Li, Yuxue; Wu, Gongde; Cao, Zheng; Zhang, Liming

    2014-04-07

    Most homogenous gold catalyses demand ≥ 0.5 mol% catalyst loading. Owing to the high cost of gold, these reactions are unlikely to be applicable in medium- or large-scale applications. Here we disclose a novel ligand design based on the privileged (1,1'-biphenyl)-2-ylphosphine framework that offers a potentially general approach to dramatically lowering catalyst loading. In this design, an amide group at the 3'-position of the ligand framework directs and promotes nucleophilic attack at the ligand gold complex-activated alkyne, which is unprecedented in homogenous gold catalysis considering the spatial challenge of using ligand to reach anti-approaching nucleophile in a linear P-Au-alkyne centroid structure. With such a ligand, the gold(I) complex becomes highly efficient in catalysing acid addition to alkynes, with a turnover number up to 99,000. Density functional theory calculations support the role of the amide moiety in directing the attack of carboxylic acid via hydrogen bonding.

  6. A General Ligand Design for Gold Catalysis allowing Ligand-Directed Anti Nucleophilic Attack of Alkynes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanzhao; Wang, Zhixun; Li, Yuxue; Wu, Gongde; Cao, Zheng; Zhang, Liming

    2014-01-01

    Most homogenous gold catalyses demand ≥0.5 mol % catalyst loading. Due to the high cost of gold, these reactions are unlikely to be applicable in medium or large scale applications. Here we disclose a novel ligand design based on the privileged biphenyl-2-phosphine framework that offers a potentially general approach to dramatically lowering catalyst loading. In this design, an amide group at the 3’ position of the ligand framework directs and promotes nucleophilic attack at the ligand gold complex-activated alkyne, which is unprecedented in homogeneous gold catalysis considering the spatial challenge of using ligand to reach antiapproaching nucleophile in a linear P-Au-alkyne centroid structure. With such a ligand, the gold(I) complex becomes highly efficient in catalyzing acid addition to alkynes, with a turnover number up to 99,000. Density functional theory calculations support the role of the amide moiety in directing the attack of carboxylic acid via hydrogen bonding. PMID:24704803

  7. Synthesis and spectral studies on metal complexes of s-triazine based ligand and non linear optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugakala, R.; Tharmaraj, P.; Sheela, C. D.

    2014-11-01

    A series of transition metal complexes of type [ML] and [ML2]Cl2 (where M = Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II) have synthesized from 2-phenylamino-4,6-dichloro-s-triazine and 3,5-dimethyl pyrazole; their characteristics have been investigated by means of elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance, IR, UV-Vis, Mass, NMR and ESR spectra. The electrochemical behavior of copper(II) complexes we have studied, by using cyclic voltammetry. The ESR spectra of copper(II) complexes are recorded at 300 K and 77 K and their salient features are appropriately reported. Spectral datas, we found, show that the ligand acts as a neutral tridentate, and coordinates through the triazine ring nitrogen and pyrazolyl ring nitrogen atoms to the metal ion. Evident from our findings, the metal(II) complexes of [ML] type exhibit square pyramidal geometry, and that of [ML2]Cl2 exhibit octahedral geometry. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of the ligand and its complexes are evaluated against Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Serratia marcescens, Shigella flexneri, Vibrio cholera, Vibris parahaemolyticus, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Penicillium oxalicum by well-diffusion method. The second harmonic generation efficiency of the ligand and its complexes are determined and compared with urea and KDP.

  8. Ligand cluster-based protein network and ePlatton, a multi-target ligand finder.

    PubMed

    Du, Yu; Shi, Tieliu

    2016-01-01

    Small molecules are information carriers that make cells aware of external changes and couple internal metabolic and signalling pathway systems with each other. In some specific physiological status, natural or artificial molecules are used to interact with selective biological targets to activate or inhibit their functions to achieve expected biological and physiological output. Millions of years of evolution have optimized biological processes and pathways and now the endocrine and immune system cannot work properly without some key small molecules. In the past thousands of years, the human race has managed to find many medicines against diseases by trail-and-error experience. In the recent decades, with the deepening understanding of life and the progress of molecular biology, researchers spare no effort to design molecules targeting one or two key enzymes and receptors related to corresponding diseases. But recent studies in pharmacogenomics have shown that polypharmacology may be necessary for the effects of drugs, which challenge the paradigm, 'one drug, one target, one disease'. Nowadays, cheminformatics and structural biology can help us reasonably take advantage of the polypharmacology to design next-generation promiscuous drugs and drug combination therapies. 234,591 protein-ligand interactions were extracted from ChEMBL. By the 2D structure similarity, 13,769 ligand emerged from 156,151 distinct ligands which were recognized by 1477 proteins. Ligand cluster- and sequence-based protein networks (LCBN, SBN) were constructed, compared and analysed. For assisting compound designing, exploring polypharmacology and finding possible drug combination, we integrated the pathway, disease, drug adverse reaction and the relationship of targets and ligand clusters into the web platform, ePlatton, which is available at http://www.megabionet.org/eplatton. Although there were some disagreements between the LCBN and SBN, communities in both networks were largely the same

  9. Targeting monoamine oxidases with multipotent ligands: an emerging strategy in the search of new drugs against neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Pisani, L; Catto, M; Leonetti, F; Nicolotti, O; Stefanachi, A; Campagna, F; Carotti, A

    2011-01-01

    The socioeconomic burden of multi-factorial pathologies, such as neurodegenerative diseases (NDs), is enormous worldwide. Unfortunately, no proven disease-modifying therapy is available yet and in most cases (e.g., Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease) the approved drugs exert only palliative and symptomatic effects. Nowadays, an emerging strategy for the discovery of disease-modifying drugs is based on the multi-target directed ligand (MTDL) design, an innovative shift from the traditional approach one-drug-one-target to the more ambitious one-drug-more-targets goal. Herein, we review the discovery strategy, the mechanism of action and the biopharmacological evaluation of multipotent ligands exhibiting monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition as the core activity with a potential for the treatment of NDs. In particular, MAO inhibitors exhibiting additional acetylcholinesterase (AChE) or nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition, or ion chelation/antioxidant-radical scavenging/anti-inflammatory/A2A receptor antagonist/APP processing modulating activities have been thoroughly examined.

  10. A Coordination Network with Ligand-Centered Redox Activity Based on facial-[CrIII (2-mercaptophenolato)3 ]3- Metalloligands.

    PubMed

    Wakizaka, Masanori; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Kato, Masako; Chang, Ho-Chol

    2017-07-21

    The design of redox-active metal-organic frameworks and coordination networks (CNs), which exhibit metal- and/or ligand-centered redox activity, has recently received increased attention. In this study, the redox-active metalloligand (RML) [Me 4 N] 3 fac-[Cr III (mp) 3 ] (1) (mp=2-mercaptophenolato) was synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, and its reversible ligand-centered one-electron oxidation was examined by cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemical measurements. Since complex 1 contains O/S coordination sites in three directions, complexation with K + ions led to the formation of the two-dimensional honeycomb sheet-structured [K 3 fac-{Cr III (mp) 3 }(H 2 O) 6 ] n (2⋅6 H 2 O), which is the first example of a redox-active CN constructed from a RML with o-disubstituted benzene ligands. Herein, we unambiguously demonstrate the ligand-centered redox activity of the RML within the CN 2⋅6 H 2 O in the solid state. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Chemistry of Marine Ligands and Siderophores

    PubMed Central

    Vraspir, Julia M.; Butler, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Marine microorganisms are presented with unique challenges to obtain essential metal ions required to survive and thrive in the ocean. The production of organic ligands to complex transition metal ions is one strategy to both facilitate uptake of specific metals, such as iron, and to mitigate the potential toxic effects of other metal ions, such as copper. A number of important trace metal ions are complexed by organic ligands in seawater, including iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, and cadmium, thus defining the speciation of these metal ions in the ocean. In the case of iron, siderophores have been identified and structurally characterized. Siderophores are low molecular weight iron-binding ligands produced by marine bacteria. Although progress has been made toward the identity of in situ iron-binding ligands, few compounds have been identified that coordinate the other trace metals. Deciphering the chemical structures and production stimuli of naturally produced organic ligands and the organisms they come from is fundamental to understanding metal speciation and bioavailability. The current evidence for marine ligands, with an emphasis on siderophores, and discussion of the importance and implications of metal-binding ligands in controlling metal speciation and cycling within the world’s oceans are presented. PMID:21141029

  12. Stable Toll-Like Receptor 10 Knockdown in THP-1 Cells Reduces TLR-Ligand-Induced Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression.

    PubMed

    Le, Hai Van; Kim, Jae Young

    2016-06-01

    Toll-like receptor 10 (TLR10) is the only orphan receptor whose natural ligand and function are unknown among the 10 human TLRs. In this study, to test whether TLR10 recognizes some known TLR ligands, we established a stable TLR10 knockdown human monocytic cell line THP-1 using TLR10 short hairpin RNA lentiviral particle and puromycin selection. Among 60 TLR10 knockdown clones that were derived from each single transduced cell, six clones were randomly selected, and then one of those clones, named E7, was chosen for the functional study. E7 exhibited approximately 50% inhibition of TLR10 mRNA and protein expression. Of all the TLRs, only the expression of TLR10 changed significantly in this cell line. Additionally, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced macrophage differentiation of TLR10 knockdown cells was not affected in the knockdown cells. When exposed to TLR ligands, such as synthetic diacylated lipoprotein (FSL-1), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and flagellin, significant induction of proinflammatory cytokine gene expression including Interleukin-8 (IL-8), Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 20 (CCL20) expression, was found in the control THP-1 cells, whereas the TLR10 knockdown cells exhibited a significant reduction in the expression of IL-8, IL-1β, and CCL20. TNF-α was the only cytokine for which the expression did not decrease in the TLR10 knockdown cells from that measured in the control cells. Analysis of putative binding sites for transcription factors using a binding-site-prediction program revealed that the TNF-α promoter does not have putative binding sites for AP-1 or c-Jun, comprising a major transcription factor along with NF-κB for TLR signaling. Our results suggest that TLR10 is involved in the recognition of FSL-1, LPS, and flagellin and TLR-ligand-induced expression of TNF-α does not depend on TLR10.

  13. ‘Partial’ competition of heterobivalent ligand binding may be mistaken for allosteric interactions: a comparison of different target interaction models

    PubMed Central

    Vauquelin, Georges; Hall, David; Charlton, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Non-competitive drugs that confer allosteric modulation of orthosteric ligand binding are of increasing interest as therapeutic agents. Sought-after advantages include a ceiling level to drug effect and greater receptor-subtype selectivity. It is thus important to determine the mode of interaction of newly identified receptor ligands early in the drug discovery process and binding studies with labelled orthosteric ligands constitute a traditional approach for this. According to the general allosteric ternary complex model, allosteric ligands that exhibit negative cooperativity may generate distinctive ‘competition’ curves: they will not reach baseline levels and their nadir will increase in par with the orthosteric ligand concentration. This behaviour is often considered a key hallmark of allosteric interactions. Experimental Approach The present study is based on differential equation-based simulations. Key Results The differential equation-based simulations revealed that the same ‘competition binding’ pattern was also obtained when a monovalent ligand binds to one of the target sites of a heterobivalent ligand, even if this process is exempt of allosteric interactions. This pattern was not strictly reciprocal when the binding of each of the ligands was recorded. The prominence of this phenomenon may vary from one heterobivalent ligand to another and we suggest that this phenomenon may take place with ligands that have been proposed to bind according to ‘two-domain’ and ‘charnière’ models. Conclusions and Implications The present findings indicate a familiar experimental situation where bivalency may give rise to observations that could inadvertently be interpreted as allosteric binding. Yet, both mechanisms could be differentiated based on alternative experiments and structural considerations. PMID:25537684

  14. Pulmonary Delivery of Anti-Tubercular Drugs Using Ligand Anchored pH Sensitive Liposomes for the Treatment of Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Ankur; Grobler, Anne; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit Kumar; Jain, Amit Kumar; Mehta, Abhinav

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. TB) remains the prime cause of bacterial mortality and morbidity world-wide. Therefore, effective delivery and targeting of drug to the cellular tropics is essentially required to generate significant results for tuberculosis treatment. The aim of the present study was to develop and characterize ligand anchored pH sensitive liposomes (TPSL) as dry powder inhaler for the targeted delivery of drugs in the target site i.e. lungs. Ligand anchored PSL (TPSL) was prepared by thin film hydration for the combined delivery of Isoniazid (INH) and Ciprofloxacin HCl (CIP HCl) using 4-aminophenyl-α-D mannopyranoside (Man) as surface functionalized ligand and characterized using different parameters. It was observed that size of the ligand anchored liposomes (TPSL) was slightly more than the non-ligand anchored liposomes (PSL). Drug release was studied at different pH for 24 hrs and it was observed that liposomes exhibited slow release at alkaline pH (58-64%) as compared to macrophage pH (81-87%) where it increased dramatically due to the destabilization of pH sensitive liposome (PSL). In vitro cellular uptake study showed that much higher concentration was achieved in the alveolar macrophage using ligand anchored liposomes as compared to its counterpart. In vivo study showed that maximum drug accumulation was achieved in the lung by delivering drug using ligand anchored PSL as compared to conventional PSL. It was concluded that ligand anchored pH sensitive liposome is one of the promising systems for the targeted drug therapy in pulmonary tuberculosis.

  15. Characterization of ligand binding to melanocortin 4 receptors using fluorescent peptides with improved kinetic properties.

    PubMed

    Link, Reet; Veiksina, Santa; Rinken, Ago; Kopanchuk, Sergei

    2017-03-15

    Melanocortin 4 (MC 4 ) receptors are important drug targets as they regulate energy homeostasis, eating behaviour and sexual functions. The ligand binding process to these G protein-coupled receptors is subject to considerable complexity. Different steps in the complex dynamic regulation can be characterized by ligand binding kinetics. Optimization of these kinetic parameters in terms of on-rate and residence time can increase the rapid onset of drug action and reduce off-target effects. Fluorescence anisotropy (FA) is one of the homogeneous fluorescence-based assays that enable continuous online monitoring of ligand binding kinetics. FA has been implemented for the kinetic study of melanocortin MC 4 receptors expressed on budded baculoviruses. However, the slow dissociation of the fluorescently labelled peptide NDP-α-MSH does not enable reaching equilibrium nor enable more in-depth study of the binding mechanisms. To overcome this problem, two novel red-shifted fluorescent ligands were designed. These cyclized heptapeptide derivatives (UTBC101 and UTBC102) exhibited nanomolar affinity toward melanocortin MC 4 receptors but had relatively different kinetic properties. The dissociation half-lives of UTBC101 (τ 1/2 =160min) and UTBC102 (τ 1/2 =7min) were shorter compared to that what was previously reported for Cy3B-NDP-α-MSH (τ 1/2 =224min). The significantly shorter dissociation half-life of UTBC102 enables equilibrium in screening assays, whereas the higher affinity of UTBC101 helps to resolve a wider range of competitor potencies. These two ligands are suitable for further kinetic screening of novel melanocortin MC 4 receptor specific ligands and could complement each other in these studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Perfluorinated Ligands in Organometallic Chemistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-12

    C49t00ooVER ,or C M’ AD"OV’~mDecember 12) 199IFinal 1/1/86 to 8/31/89C smuS. FUNOING NUMgIERS cJ Perfluorinated Ligands in Organometallic Chemistry 612...compounds, stabilized by tridentate perfluorinated ligands. Dinuclear rhodium complexes of OFCOT undergo a selective C-F bond activation reaction...hexafluorocyclooctatrieneyne ligand. Stereospecific cleavage of a fluorinated C-C bond,#-bond in perfluorocyclopropene by platinum and iridium complexes has been achieved

  17. Cloning of peroxisome proliferators activated receptors in the cobia (Rachycentron canadum) and their expression at different life-cycle stages under cage aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Mei-Ling; Chen, Houng-Yung; Tseng, Mei-Cheuh; Chang, Rey-Chang

    2008-12-01

    We present the cDNA sequences and tissue mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha, beta and gamma isotypes in the cobia (Rachycentron canadum), a warm water pelagic fish that is becoming a fish of choice for offshore cage farming. RT-PCR and real-time PCR showed that PPARalpha mRNA predominated in red muscle, heart and liver whereas PPARbeta was expressed mainly in liver and pyloric caeca. In contrast, PPARgamma transcripts were detected in all of the tissues examined, with the highest level occurring in visceral fat depot. Our 52-wk time-series investigation showed that while the mRNA expression of PPARgamma in the cobia was positively (P < 0.05) related to its body lipid deposition, a negative (P < 0.05) relationship was found between PPARalpha expression in the liver and body lipid deposition. There was a significant increase in body lipid deposition and hepatic PPARgamma expression as the fish grew. The hepatic PPARgamma expression could be a sufficient parameter describing the bodily expression of PPARgamma because of its positive correlation with PPARgamma expressions in all other tissues. These results showed that PPARgamma and alpha played a pivotal role in the control of lipid metabolic and storage functions in the liver, muscle and visceral fat depot of the cobia.

  18. A Synthetic MUC1 Anticancer Vaccine Containing Mannose Ligands for Targeting Macrophages and Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Glaffig, Markus; Stergiou, Natascha; Hartmann, Sebastian; Schmitt, Edgar; Kunz, Horst

    2018-01-08

    A MUC1 anticancer vaccine equipped with covalently linked divalent mannose ligands was found to improve the antigen uptake and presentation by targeting mannose-receptor-positive macrophages and dendritic cells. It induced much stronger specific IgG immune responses in mice than the non-mannosylated reference vaccine. Mannose coupling also led to increased numbers of macrophages, dendritic cells, and CD4 + T cells in the local lymph organs. Comparison of di- and tetravalent mannose ligands revealed an increased binding of the tetravalent version, suggesting that higher valency improves binding to the mannose receptor. The mannose-coupled vaccine and the non-mannosylated reference vaccine induced IgG antibodies that exhibited similar binding to human breast tumor cells. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Structural, spectral and biological studies of binuclear tetradentate metal complexes of N 3O Schiff base ligand synthesized from 4,6-diacetylresorcinol and diethylenetriamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emara, Adel A. A.

    2010-09-01

    The binuclear Schiff base, H 2L, ligand was synthesized by reaction of 4,6-diacetylresorcinol with diethylenetriamine in the molar ratio 1:2. The coordination behavior of the H 2L towards Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Zn(II), Fe(III), Cr(III), VO(IV) and UO 2(VI) ions has been investigated. The elemental analyses, magnetic moments, thermal studies and IR, electronic, 1H NMR, ESR and mass spectra were used to characterize the isolated ligand and its metal complexes. The ligand acts as dibasic with two N 3O-tetradentate sites and can coordinate with two metal ions to form binuclear complexes. The bonding sites are the nitrogen atoms of the azomethine and amine groups and the oxygen atoms of the phenolic groups. The metal complexes exhibit either square planar, tetrahedral, square pyramid or octahedral structures. The Schiff base ligand and its metal complexes were tested against four pathogenic bacteria ( Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes) as Gram-positive bacteria, and ( Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas phaseolicola) as Gram-negative bacteria and two pathogenic fungi ( Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus fumigatus) to assess their antimicrobial properties. Most of the complexes exhibit mild antibacterial and antifungal activities against these organisms.

  20. Structural Analysis of Chemokine Receptor–Ligand Interactions

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    This review focuses on the construction and application of structural chemokine receptor models for the elucidation of molecular determinants of chemokine receptor modulation and the structure-based discovery and design of chemokine receptor ligands. A comparative analysis of ligand binding pockets in chemokine receptors is presented, including a detailed description of the CXCR4, CCR2, CCR5, CCR9, and US28 X-ray structures, and their implication for modeling molecular interactions of chemokine receptors with small-molecule ligands, peptide ligands, and large antibodies and chemokines. These studies demonstrate how the integration of new structural information on chemokine receptors with extensive structure–activity relationship and site-directed mutagenesis data facilitates the prediction of the structure of chemokine receptor–ligand complexes that have not been crystallized. Finally, a review of structure-based ligand discovery and design studies based on chemokine receptor crystal structures and homology models illustrates the possibilities and challenges to find novel ligands for chemokine receptors. PMID:28165741

  1. Synthesis, spectroscopic, thermogravimetric and antimicrobial studies of mixed ligands complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Walaa H.; Mahmoud, Nessma F.; Mohamed, Gehad G.; El-Sonbati, Adel Z.; El-Bindary, Ashraf A.

    2015-09-01

    An interesting series of mixed ligand complexes have been synthesized by the reaction of metal chloride with guaifenesin (GFS) in the presence of 2-aminoacetic acid (HGly) (1:1:1 molar ratio). The elemental analysis, magnetic moments, molar conductance, spectral (UV-Vis, IR, 1H NMR and ESR) and thermal studies were used to characterize the isolated complexes. The molecular structure of GFS is optimized theoretically and the quantum chemical parameters are calculated. The IR showed that the ligand (GFS) acts as monobasic tridentate through the hydroxyl, phenoxy etheric and methoxy oxygen atoms and co-ligand (HGly) as monobasic bidentate through the deprotonated carboxylate oxygen atom and nitrogen atom of amino group. The molar conductivities showed that all the complexes are non-electrolytes except Cr(III) complex is electrolyte. Electronic and magnetic data proposed the octahedral structure for all complexes under investigation. ESR spectrum for Cu(II) revealed data which confirm the proposed structure. Antibacterial screening of the compounds were carried out in vitro on gram positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative (Escherichia coli and Neisseria gonorrhoeae) bacteria and for in vitro antifungal activity against Candida albicans organism. However, some complexes showed more chemotherapeutic efficiency than the parent GFS drug. The complexes were also screened for their in vitro anticancer activity against the breast cell line (MFC7) and the results obtained showed that they exhibit a considerable anticancer activity.

  2. Synthesis, crystal structure, fluorescence and electrochemical studies of a new tridentate Schiff base ligand and its nickel(II) and palladium(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafaatian, Bita; Soleymanpour, Ahmad; Kholghi Oskouei, Nasim; Notash, Behrouz; Rezvani, Seyyed Ahmad

    2014-07-01

    A new unsymmetrical tridentate Schiff base ligand was derived from the 1:1 M condensation of ortho-vanillin with 2-mercaptoethylamine. Nickel and palladium complexes were obtained by the reaction of the tridentate Schiff base ligand with nickel(II) acetate tetrahydrate and palladium(II) acetate in 2:1 M ratio. In nickel and palladium complexes the ligand was coordinated to metals via the imine N and enolic O atoms. The S groups of Schiff bases were not coordinated to the metals and S-S coupling was occured. The complexes have been found to possess 1:2 Metal:Ligand stoichiometry and the molar conductance data revealed that the metal complexes were non-electrolytes. The complexes exhibited octahedral coordination geometry. The emission spectra of the ligand and its complexes were studied in methanol. Electrochemical properties of the ligand and its metal complexes were investigated in the CH3CN solvent at the 100 mV s-1 scan rate. The ligand and metal complexes showed both reversible and quasi-reversible processes at this scan rate. The Schiff base and its complexes have been characterized by IR, 1H NMR, UV/Vis, elemental analyses and conductometry. The crystal structure of nickel complex has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction.

  3. Designing ligands to bind proteins

    PubMed Central

    Whitesides, George M.; Krishnamurthy, Vijay M.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to design drugs (so-called ‘rational drug design’) has been one of the long-term objectives of chemistry for 50 years. It is an exceptionally difficult problem, and many of its parts lie outside the expertise of chemistry. The much more limited problem – how to design tight-binding ligands (rational ligand design) – would seem to be one that chemistry could solve, but has also proved remarkably recalcitrant. The question is ‘Why is it so difficult?’ and the answer is ‘We still don't entirely know’. This perspective discusses some of the technical issues – potential functions, protein plasticity, enthalpy/entropy compensation, and others – that contribute, and suggests areas where fundamental understanding of protein–ligand interactions falls short of what is needed. It surveys recent technological developments (in particular, isothermal titration calorimetry) that will, hopefully, make now the time for serious progress in this area. It concludes with the calorimetric examination of the association of a series of systematically varied ligands with a model protein. The counterintuitive thermodynamic results observed serve to illustrate that, even in relatively simple systems, understanding protein–ligand association is challenging. PMID:16817982

  4. The coordination- and photochemistry of copper(i) complexes: variation of N^N ligands from imidazole to tetrazole.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Larissa; Braun, Carolin; Nieger, Martin; Bräse, Stefan

    2018-01-02

    The prediction of coordination modes is of high importance when structure-property relationships are discussed. Herein, the coordination chemistry of copper(i) with pyridine-amines with a varying number of coordinating N-atoms, namely pyridine-benzimidazole, -triazole and -tetrazole, or their deprotonated analogues, and different phosphines was systematically studied and the photoluminescence properties of all synthesized complexes examined and related to DFT data. Each complex was characterized by single-crystal X-ray analysis and elemental analysis, and a set of prediction rules derived for the coordination chemistry of copper(i) with these ligands. A mononuclear cationic coordination motif was found for PPh 3 or DPEPhos with all N^N ligands, which exhibits blue to green luminescence of MLCT character d(Cu) → π*(pyridine-amine ligand) with quantum yields up to 46%. With the deprotonated N^N ligands, mononuclear neutral complexes were only expected with DPEPhos. The emission's nature of this complex type is strongly dependent on the electronic effects of the N^N ligand and was characterized as (ML + IL)CT transition. In contrast to the high quantum yields up to 78% for the tetrazolate complexes (as reported before), the triazolate and imidazolate based complexes show much lower emission efficiencies below 10%. Besides the mononuclear copper(i) complexes, cluster-type complexes were obtained, which show moderate luminescence in the blue to green region of the visible spectrum (469-505 nm).

  5. Influence of bidentate ligand donor types on the formation and stability in 2 + 1 fac-[MI(CO)3]+ (M = Re, 99mTc) complexes.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Thomas R; Bottorff, Shalina C; Slocumb, Winston S; Barnes, Charles L; Clark, Aurora E; Benny, Paul D

    2017-01-24

    In the last two decades, a number of chelate strategies have been proposed for the fac-[M I (CO) 3 ] + (M = Re, 99m Tc) core in radiopharmaceutical applications. However, the development of new ligands/complexes with improved function and in vivo performance has been limited in recent years. Expanding on our previous studies using the 2 + 1 labeling strategy, a series of bidentate ligands (neutral vs. anionic) containing an aromatic amine in combination with monodentate pyridine analogs or imidazole were explored to determine the influence of the bidentate and monodentate ligands on the formation and stability of the respective complexes. The 2 + 1 complexes with Re and 99m Tc were synthesized in two steps and characterized by standard radio/chemical methods. X-ray characterization and density functional theory analysis of the Re 2 + 1 complexes with the complete bidentate series with 4-dimethylaminopyridine were conducted, indicating enhanced ligand binding energies of the neutral over anionic ligands. In the 99m Tc studies, anionic bidentate ligands had significantly higher formation yields of the 2 + 1 product, but neutral ligands appear to have increased stability in an amino acid challenge assay. Both bidentate series exhibited improved stability by increasing the basicity of the pyridine ligands.

  6. Influence of Bidentate Ligand Donor Types on the Formation and Stability in 2+1 fac-[MI(CO)3]+ (M = Re, 99mTc) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Thomas R.; Bottorff, Shalina C.; Slocumb, Winston S.; Barnes, Charles L.; Clark, Aurora E.; Benny, Paul D.

    2017-01-01

    In the last two decades, a number of chelate strategies have been proposed for the fac-[MI(CO)3]+ (M = Re, 99mTc) core in radiopharmaceutical applications. However, the development of new ligands/complexes with improved function and in vivo performance has been limited in recent years. Expanding on our previous studies using the 2+1 labeling strategy, a series of bidentate ligands (neutral vs. anionic) containing an aromatic amine in combination with monodentate pyridine analogs or imidazole were explored to determine the influence of the bidentate and monodentate ligands on the formation and stability of the respective complexes. The 2+1 complexes with Re and 99mTc were synthesized in two steps and characterized by standard radio/chemical methods. X-ray characterization and density functional theory analysis of the Re 2+1 complexes with the complete bidentate series with 4-dimethylaminopyridine were conducted, indicating enhanced ligand binding energies of the neutral over anionic ligands. In the 99mTc studies, anionic bidentate ligands had significantly higher formation yields of the 2+1 product, but neutral ligands appear to have increased stability in an amino acid challenge assay. Both bidentate series exhibited improved stability by increasing the basicity of the pyridine ligands. PMID:28045466

  7. Crystallization of bi-functional ligand protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Antoni, Claudia; Vera, Laura; Devel, Laurent; Catalani, Maria Pia; Czarny, Bertrand; Cassar-Lajeunesse, Evelyn; Nuti, Elisa; Rossello, Armando; Dive, Vincent; Stura, Enrico Adriano

    2013-06-01

    Homodimerization is important in signal transduction and can play a crucial role in many other biological systems. To obtaining structural information for the design of molecules able to control the signalization pathways, the proteins involved will have to be crystallized in complex with ligands that induce dimerization. Bi-functional drugs have been generated by linking two ligands together chemically and the relative crystallizability of complexes with mono-functional and bi-functional ligands has been evaluated. There are problems associated with crystallization with such ligands, but overall, the advantages appear to be greater than the drawbacks. The study involves two matrix metalloproteinases, MMP-12 and MMP-9. Using flexible and rigid linkers we show that it is possible to control the crystal packing and that by changing the ligand-enzyme stoichiometric ratio, one can toggle between having one bi-functional ligand binding to two enzymes and having the same ligand bound to each enzyme. The nature of linker and its point of attachment on the ligand can be varied to aid crystallization, and such variations can also provide valuable structural information about the interactions made by the linker with the protein. We report here the crystallization and structure determination of seven ligand-dimerized complexes. These results suggest that the use of bi-functional drugs can be extended beyond the realm of protein dimerization to include all drug design projects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Notch-Jagged complex structure implicates a catch bond in tuning ligand sensitivity

    DOE PAGES

    Luca, Vincent C.; Kim, Byoung Choul; Ge, Chenghao; ...

    2017-03-02

    Notch receptor activation initiates cell fate decisions and is distinctive in its reliance on mechanical force and protein glycosylation. The 2.5-angstrom-resolution crystal structure of the extracellular interacting region of Notch1 complexed with an engineered, high-affinity variant of Jagged1 (Jag1) reveals a binding interface that extends ~120 angstroms along five consecutive domains of each protein. O-Linked fucose modifications on Notch1 epidermal growth factor–like (EGF) domains 8 and 12 engage the EGF3 and C2 domains of Jag1, respectively, and different Notch1 domains are favored in binding to Jag1 than those that bind to the Delta-like 4 ligand. Jag1 undergoes conformational changes uponmore » Notch binding, exhibiting catch bond behavior that prolongs interactions in the range of forces required for Notch activation. In conclusion, this mechanism enables cellular forces to regulate binding, discriminate among Notch ligands, and potentiate Notch signaling.« less

  9. Notch-Jagged complex structure implicates a catch bond in tuning ligand sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Luca, Vincent C.; Kim, Byoung Choul; Ge, Chenghao

    Notch receptor activation initiates cell fate decisions and is distinctive in its reliance on mechanical force and protein glycosylation. The 2.5-angstrom-resolution crystal structure of the extracellular interacting region of Notch1 complexed with an engineered, high-affinity variant of Jagged1 (Jag1) reveals a binding interface that extends ~120 angstroms along five consecutive domains of each protein. O-Linked fucose modifications on Notch1 epidermal growth factor–like (EGF) domains 8 and 12 engage the EGF3 and C2 domains of Jag1, respectively, and different Notch1 domains are favored in binding to Jag1 than those that bind to the Delta-like 4 ligand. Jag1 undergoes conformational changes uponmore » Notch binding, exhibiting catch bond behavior that prolongs interactions in the range of forces required for Notch activation. In conclusion, this mechanism enables cellular forces to regulate binding, discriminate among Notch ligands, and potentiate Notch signaling.« less

  10. Oxygen Atom Exchange between H2O and Non-Heme Oxoiron(IV) Complexes: Ligand Dependence and Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Puri, Mayank; Company, Anna; Sabenya, Gerard; Costas, Miquel; Que, Lawrence

    2016-06-20

    Detailed studies of oxygen atom exchange (OAE) between H2(18)O and synthetic non-heme oxoiron(IV) complexes supported by tetradentate and pentadentate ligands provide evidence that they proceed by a common mechanism but within two different kinetic regimes, with OAE rates that span 2 orders of magnitude. The first kinetic regime involves initial reversible water association to the Fe(IV) complex, which is evidenced by OAE rates that are linearly dependent on [H2(18)O] and H2O/D2O KIEs of 1.6, while the second kinetic regime involves a subsequent rate determining proton-transfer step between the bound aqua and oxo ligands that is associated with saturation behavior with [H2(18)O] and much larger H2O/D2O KIEs of 5-6. [Fe(IV)(O)(TMC)(MeCN)](2+) (1) and [Fe(IV)(O)(MePy2TACN)](2+) (9) are examples of complexes that exhibit kinetic behavior in the first regime, while [Fe(IV)(O)(N4Py)](2+) (3), [Fe(IV)(O)(BnTPEN)](2+) (4), [Fe(IV)(O)(1Py-BnTPEN)](2+) (5), [Fe(IV)(O)(3Py-BnTPEN)](2+) (6), and [Fe(IV)(O)(Me2Py2TACN)](2+) (8) represent complexes that fall in the second kinetic regime. Interestingly, [Fe(IV)(O)(PyTACN)(MeCN)](2+) (7) exhibits a linear [H2(18)O] dependence below 0.6 M and saturation above 0.6 M. Analysis of the temperature dependence of the OAE rates shows that most of these complexes exhibit large and negative activation entropies, consistent with the proposed mechanism. One exception is complex 9, which has a near-zero activation entropy and is proposed to undergo ligand-arm dissociation during the RDS to accommodate H2(18)O binding. These results show that the observed OAE kinetic behavior is highly dependent on the nature of the supporting ligand and are of relevance to studies of non-heme oxoiron(IV) complexes in water or acetonitrile/water mixtures for applications in photocatalysis and water oxidation chemistry.

  11. Ligand and structure-based methodologies for the prediction of the activity of G protein-coupled receptor ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costanzi, Stefano; Tikhonova, Irina G.; Harden, T. Kendall; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2009-11-01

    Accurate in silico models for the quantitative prediction of the activity of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) ligands would greatly facilitate the process of drug discovery and development. Several methodologies have been developed based on the properties of the ligands, the direct study of the receptor-ligand interactions, or a combination of both approaches. Ligand-based three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships (3D-QSAR) techniques, not requiring knowledge of the receptor structure, have been historically the first to be applied to the prediction of the activity of GPCR ligands. They are generally endowed with robustness and good ranking ability; however they are highly dependent on training sets. Structure-based techniques generally do not provide the level of accuracy necessary to yield meaningful rankings when applied to GPCR homology models. However, they are essentially independent from training sets and have a sufficient level of accuracy to allow an effective discrimination between binders and nonbinders, thus qualifying as viable lead discovery tools. The combination of ligand and structure-based methodologies in the form of receptor-based 3D-QSAR and ligand and structure-based consensus models results in robust and accurate quantitative predictions. The contribution of the structure-based component to these combined approaches is expected to become more substantial and effective in the future, as more sophisticated scoring functions are developed and more detailed structural information on GPCRs is gathered.

  12. Modeling Conformational Transitions and Energetics of Ligand Binding with the Glutamate Receptor Ligand Binding Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurnikova, Maria

    2009-03-01

    Understanding of protein motion and energetics of conformational transitions is crucial to understanding protein function. The glutamate receptor ligand binding domain (GluR2 S1S2) is a two lobe protein, which binds ligand at the interface of two lobes and undergoes conformational transition. The cleft closure conformational transition of S1S2 has been implicated in gating of the ion channel formed by the transmembrane domain of the receptor. In this study we present a composite multi-faceted theoretical analysis of the detailed mechanism of this conformational transition based on rigid cluster decomposition of the protein structure [1] and identifying hydrogen bonds that are responsible for stabilizing the closed conformation [2]. Free energy of the protein reorganization upon ligand binding was calculated using combined Thermodynamic Integration (TI) and Umbrella Sampling (US) simulations [3]. Ligand -- protein interactions in the binding cleft were analyzed using Molecular Dynamics, continuum electrostatics and QM/MM models [4]. All model calculations compare well with corresponding experimental measurements. [4pt] [1] Protein Flexibility using Constraints from Molecular Dynamics Simulations T. Mamonova, B. Hespenheide, R. Straub, M. F. Thorpe, M. G. Kurnikova , Phys. Biol., 2, S137 (2005)[0pt] [2] Theoretical Study of the Glutamate Receptor Ligand Binding Domain Flexibility and Conformational Reorganization T. Mamonova, K. Speranskiy, and M. Kurnikova , Prot.: Struct., Func., Bioinf., 73,656 (2008)[0pt] [3] Energetics of the cleft closing transition and glutamate binding in the Glutamate Receptor ligand Binding Domain T. Mamonova, M. Yonkunas, and M. Kurnikova Biochemistry 47, 11077 (2008)[0pt] [4] On the Binding Determinants of the Glutamate Agonist with the Glutamate Receptor Ligand Binding Domain K. Speranskiy and M. Kurnikova Biochemistry 44, 11208 (2005)

  13. Analysis of nucleoside-binding proteins by ligand-specific elution from dye resin: application to Mycobacterium tuberculosis aldehyde dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Yub; Webster, Cecelia; Roberts, Justin K M; Moon, Jin Ho; Alipio Lyon, Emily Z; Kim, Heungbok; Yu, Minmin; Hung, Li-Wei; Terwilliger, Thomas C

    2009-12-01

    We show that Cibacron Blue F3GA dye resin chromatography can be used to identify ligands that specifically interact with proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and that the identification of these ligands can facilitate structure determination by enhancing the quality of crystals. Four native Mtb proteins of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) family were previously shown to be specifically eluted from a Cibacron Blue F3GA dye resin with nucleosides. In this study we characterized the nucleoside-binding specificity of one of these ALDH isozymes (recombinant Mtb Rv0223c) and compared these biochemical results with co-crystallization experiments with different Rv0223c-nucleoside pairings. We found that the strongly interacting ligands (NAD and NADH) aided formation of high-quality crystals, permitting solution of the first Mtb ALDH (Rv0223c) structure. Other nucleoside ligands (AMP, FAD, adenosine, GTP and NADP) exhibited weaker binding to Rv0223c, and produced co-crystals diffracting to lower resolution. Difference electron density maps based on crystals of Rv0223c with various nucleoside ligands show most share the binding site where the natural ligand NAD binds. From the high degree of similarity of sequence and structure compared to human mitochondrial ALDH-2 (BLAST Z-score = 53.5 and RMSD = 1.5 A), Rv0223c appears to belong to the ALDH-2 class. An altered oligomerization domain in the Rv0223c structure seems to keep this protein as monomer whereas native human ALDH-2 is a multimer.

  14. Ligand-controlled assembly of Cd(II) coordination polymers based on mixed ligands of naphthalene-dicarboxylate and dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline: From 0D+1D cocrystal, 2D rectangular network (4,4), to 3D PtS-type architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Guocheng; Chen Yongqiang; Wang Xiuli

    Three novel Cd(II) coordination polymers, namely, [Cd(Dpq)(1,8-NDC)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}][Cd(Dpq)(1,8-NDC)].2H{sub 2}O (1), [Cd(Dpq)(1,4-NDC)(H{sub 2}O)] (2), and [Cd(Dpq)(2,6-NDC)] (3) have been obtained from hydrothermal reactions of cadmium(II) nitrate with the mixed ligands dipyrido [3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline (Dpq) and three structurally related naphthalene-dicarboxylate ligands [1,8-naphthalene-dicarboxylic acid (1,8-H{sub 2}NDC), 1,4-naphthalene-dicarboxylic acid (1,4-H{sub 2}NDC), and 2,6-naphthalene-dicarboxylic acid (2,6-H{sub 2}NDC)]. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the three polymers exhibit novel structures due to different naphthalene-dicarboxylic acid. Compound 1 is a novel cocrystal of left- and right-handed helical chains and binuclear complexes and ultimately packed into a 3D supramolecular structure through hydrogen bonds and {pi}-{pi} stacking interactions. Compoundmore » 2 shows a 2D rectangular network (4,4) bridged by 1,4-NDC with two kinds of coordination modes and ultimately packed into a 3D supramolecular structure through inter-layer {pi}-{pi} stacking interactions. Compound 3 is a new 3D coordination polymer with distorted PtS-type network. In addition, the title compounds exhibit blue/green emission in solid state at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Three novel Cd(II) compounds have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions exhibiting a systematic variation of architecture by the employment of three structurally related naphthalene-dicarboxylate ligands.« less

  15. A single-ligand ultra-microporous MOF for precombustion CO2 capture and hydrogen purification

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Shyamapada; De Luna, Phil; Daff, Thomas D.; Rother, Jens; Liu, Ming; Buchanan, William; Hawari, Ayman I.; Woo, Tom K.; Vaidhyanathan, Ramanathan

    2015-01-01

    Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) built from a single small ligand typically have high stability, are rigid, and have syntheses that are often simple and easily scalable. However, they are normally ultra-microporous and do not have large surface areas amenable to gas separation applications. We report an ultra-microporous (3.5 and 4.8 Å pores) Ni-(4-pyridylcarboxylate)2 with a cubic framework that exhibits exceptionally high CO2/H2 selectivities (285 for 20:80 and 230 for 40:60 mixtures at 10 bar, 40°C) and working capacities (3.95 mmol/g), making it suitable for hydrogen purification under typical precombustion CO2 capture conditions (1- to 10-bar pressure swing). It exhibits facile CO2 adsorption-desorption cycling and has CO2 self-diffusivities of ~3 × 10−9 m2/s, which is two orders higher than that of zeolite 13X and comparable to other top-performing MOFs for this application. Simulations reveal a high density of binding sites that allow for favorable CO2-CO2 interactions and large cooperative binding energies. Ultra-micropores generated by a small ligand ensures hydrolytic, hydrostatic stabilities, shelf life, and stability toward humid gas streams. PMID:26824055

  16. Characterization of the discriminable stimulus produced by 2-BFI: effects of imidazoline I2-site ligands, MAOIs, β-carbolines, agmatine and ibogaine

    PubMed Central

    MacInnes, Nicholas; Handley, Sheila L

    2002-01-01

    The molecular nature and functions of the I2 subtype of imidazoline binding sites are unknown but evidence suggests an association with monoamine oxidase (MAO). Rats can distinguish the selective imidazoline I2-site ligand 2-BFI from vehicle in drug discrimination, indicating functional consequences of occupation of these sites. We have used drug discrimination to investigate the nature of the discriminable stimulus, especially in relation to MAO inhibition. Following training to distinguish 2-BFI 7 mg kg−1 i.p. from saline vehicle in two-lever operant-chambers, male Hooded Lister rats underwent sessions where test substances were given instead and the proportion of lever presses on the 2-BFI-associated lever (substitution) recorded. 2-BFI; its cogeners BU216, BU224, BU226 and LSL60101; the reversible MAO-A inhibitors moclobemide and RO41-1049; the β-carbolines harmane, norharmane and harmaline which also reversibly inhibit MAO-A, and the anti-addictive substance ibogaine exhibited potent, dose-dependent substitution for 2-BFI. Agmatine, and LSL60125 substituted at one dose only. The reversible MAO-B inhibitors lazabemide and RO16-1649; the σ2-site ligand SKF10,047 and the I2A-site ligand, amiloride, failed to substitute. The irreversible inhibitor of MAO, deprenyl, substituted for 2-BFI while clorgyline did not. These results suggest imidazoline I2 site ligands produce a common discriminable stimulus that appears associated with reversible inhibition of MAO-A rather than MAO-B, possibly through increases in extracellular concentration of one or more monoamines. Ibogaine exhibits a commonality in its subjective effects with those of I2-site ligands. PMID:11877331

  17. Characterization of the discriminable stimulus produced by 2-BFI: effects of imidazoline I(2)-site ligands, MAOIs, beta-carbolines, agmatine and ibogaine.

    PubMed

    MacInnes, Nicholas; Handley, Sheila L

    2002-03-01

    1. The molecular nature and functions of the I(2) subtype of imidazoline binding sites are unknown but evidence suggests an association with monoamine oxidase (MAO). Rats can distinguish the selective imidazoline I(2)-site ligand 2-BFI from vehicle in drug discrimination, indicating functional consequences of occupation of these sites. We have used drug discrimination to investigate the nature of the discriminable stimulus, especially in relation to MAO inhibition. 2. Following training to distinguish 2-BFI 7 mg kg(-1) i.p. from saline vehicle in two-lever operant-chambers, male Hooded Lister rats underwent sessions where test substances were given instead and the proportion of lever presses on the 2-BFI-associated lever (substitution) recorded. 3. 2-BFI; its cogeners BU216, BU224, BU226 and LSL60101; the reversible MAO-A inhibitors moclobemide and RO41-1049; the beta-carbolines harmane, norharmane and harmaline which also reversibly inhibit MAO-A, and the anti-addictive substance ibogaine exhibited potent, dose-dependent substitution for 2-BFI. 4. Agmatine, and LSL60125 substituted at one dose only. The reversible MAO-B inhibitors lazabemide and RO16-1649; the sigma(2)-site ligand SKF10,047 and the I(2A)-site ligand, amiloride, failed to substitute. The irreversible inhibitor of MAO, deprenyl, substituted for 2-BFI while clorgyline did not. 5. These results suggest imidazoline I(2) site ligands produce a common discriminable stimulus that appears associated with reversible inhibition of MAO-A rather than MAO-B, possibly through increases in extracellular concentration of one or more monoamines. Ibogaine exhibits a commonality in its subjective effects with those of I(2)-site ligands.

  18. A molecular dynamics investigation of CDK8/CycC and ligand binding: conformational flexibility and implication in drug discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cholko, Timothy; Chen, Wei; Tang, Zhiye; Chang, Chia-en A.

    2018-05-01

    Abnormal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8) along with its partner protein cyclin C (CycC) is a common feature of many diseases including colorectal cancer. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, this study determined the dynamics of the CDK8-CycC system and we obtained detailed breakdowns of binding energy contributions for four type-I and five type-II CDK8 inhibitors. We revealed system motions and conformational changes that will affect ligand binding, confirmed the essentialness of CycC for inclusion in future computational studies, and provide guidance in development of CDK8 binders. We employed unbiased all-atom MD simulations for 500 ns on twelve CDK8-CycC systems, including apoproteins and protein-ligand complexes, then performed principal component analysis (PCA) and measured the RMSF of key regions to identify protein dynamics. Binding pocket volume analysis identified conformational changes that accompany ligand binding. Next, H-bond analysis, residue-wise interaction calculations, and MM/PBSA were performed to characterize protein-ligand interactions and find the binding energy. We discovered that CycC is vital for maintaining a proper conformation of CDK8 to facilitate ligand binding and that the system exhibits motion that should be carefully considered in future computational work. Surprisingly, we found that motion of the activation loop did not affect ligand binding. Type-I and type-II ligand binding is driven by van der Waals interactions, but electrostatic energy and entropic penalties affect type-II binding as well. Binding of both ligand types affects protein flexibility. Based on this we provide suggestions for development of tighter-binding CDK8 inhibitors and offer insight that can aid future computational studies.

  19. Different Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) Receptor Ligands Show Distinct Kinetics and Biased or Partial Agonism for Homodimer and Heterodimer Formation*

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald-Obermann, Jennifer L.; Pike, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    The EGF receptor has seven different cognate ligands. Previous work has shown that these different ligands are capable of inducing different biological effects, even in the same cell. To begin to understand the molecular basis for this variation, we used luciferase fragment complementation to measure ligand-induced dimer formation and radioligand binding to study the effect of the ligands on subunit-subunit interactions in EGF receptor (EGFR) homodimers and EGFR/ErbB2 heterodimers. In luciferase fragment complementation imaging studies, amphiregulin (AREG) functioned as a partial agonist, inducing only about half as much total dimerization as the other three ligands. However, unlike the other ligands, AREG showed biphasic kinetics for dimer formation, suggesting that its path for EGF receptor activation involves binding to both monomers and preformed dimers. EGF, TGFα, and betacellulin (BTC) appear to mainly stimulate receptor activation through binding to and dimerization of receptor monomers. In radioligand binding assays, EGF and TGFα exhibited increased affinity for EGFR/ErbB2 heterodimers compared with EGFR homodimers. By contrast, BTC and AREG showed a similar affinity for both dimers. Thus, EGF and TGFα are biased agonists, whereas BTC and AREG are balanced agonists with respect to selectivity of dimer formation. These data suggest that the differences in biological response to different EGF receptor ligands may result from partial agonism for dimer formation, differences in the kinetic pathway utilized to generate activated receptor dimers, and biases in the formation of heterodimers versus homodimers. PMID:25086039

  20. The PPARgamma agonist pioglitazone is effective in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease through inhibition of monoamine oxidase B.

    PubMed

    Quinn, L P; Crook, B; Hows, M E; Vidgeon-Hart, M; Chapman, H; Upton, N; Medhurst, A D; Virley, D J

    2008-05-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) agonist pioglitazone has previously been shown to attenuate dopaminergic cell loss in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson's disease, an effect attributed to its anti-inflammatory properties. In the present investigation, we provide evidence that pioglitazone is effective in the MPTP mouse model, not via an anti-inflammatory action, but through inhibition of MAO-B, the enzyme required to biotransform MPTP to its active neurotoxic metabolite 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+). Mice were treated with pioglitazone (20 mg kg(-1) b.i.d. (twice a day), p.o., for 7 days), prior and post or post-MPTP (30 mg kg(-1) s.c.) treatment. Mice were then assessed for motor impairments on a beam-walking apparatus and for reductions in TH immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra and depletions in striatal dopamine. The effects of pioglitazone on striatal MPP+ levels and MAO-B activity were also assessed. Mice treated with MPTP showed deficits in motor performance, marked depletions in striatal dopamine levels and a concomitant reduction in TH immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra. Pretreatment with pioglitazone completely prevented these effects of MPTP. However, pretreatment with pioglitazone also significantly inhibited the MPTP-induced production of striatal MPP+ and the activity of MAO-B in the striatum. The neuroprotection observed with pioglitazone pretreatment in the MPTP mouse model was due to the blockade of the conversion of MPTP to its active toxic metabolite MPP+, via inhibition of MAO-B.

  1. Evidence for greater oxidative substrate flexibility in male carriers of the Pro 12 Ala polymorphism in PPARgamma2.

    PubMed

    Thamer, C; Haap, M; Volk, A; Maerker, E; Becker, R; Bachmann, O; Machicao, F; Häring, H U; Stumvoll, M

    2002-03-01

    The Pro12Ala polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2 (PPARgamma2) gene is associated with reduced type 2 diabetes risk and increased insulin sensitivity. It is possible that the oxidative shift from lipid to glucose as a fuel is more efficient in Ala allele carriers. To test this hypothesis, we examined carbohydrate and lipid oxidation by indirect calorimetry in lean, glucose tolerant subjects with (X/Ala, n = 25) and without the Pro12Ala polymorphism (Pro/Pro, n = 73) basally and after insulin stimulation during a 2-hour eugylcaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp. Insulin sensitivity was non-significantly greater in X/Ala (0.13 +/- 0.01 micromol/kg/min/pM) than in Pro/Pro (0.12 +/- 0.01 micromol/kg/min/pM, p = 0.27). Basally, there were no lipid nor carbohydrate oxidation differences between the groups. Interestingly, the decrease in lipid oxidation during insulin stimulation was significantly greater in male X/Ala (- 0.51 +/- 0.06 mg/kg/min) than in male Pro/Pro (- 0.35 +/- 0.04 mg/kg/min, p = 0.03). No difference was observed in females. Analogously, the change in carbohydrate oxidation in male X/Ala (1.34 +/- 0.2 mg/kg/min) was significantly greater than in male Pro/Pro (1.03 +/- 0.12 mg/kg/min, p = 0.05). The respiratory quotient increased more, but not significantly more, in male X/Ala (0.11 +/- 0.01) than in male Pro/Pro subjects (0.08 +/- 0.01, p = 0.08) but similarly in females. These results indicate that the mechanism by which the Ala allele improves insulin sensitivity might involve enhanced suppression of lipid oxidation permitting more efficient (predominantly non-oxidative) glucose disposal. It is unclear why this could be demonstrated only in males, although gender differences in substrate oxidation are well documented.

  2. Electronic spectra and photophysics of platinum(II) complexes with alpha-diimine ligands - Solid-state effects. I - Monomers and ligand pi dimers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miskowski, Vincent M.; Houlding, Virginia H.

    1989-01-01

    Two types of emission behavior for Pt(II) complexes containing alpha-diimine ligands have been observed in dilute solution. If the complex also has weak field ligands such as chloride, ligand field (d-d) excited states become the lowest energy excited states. If only strong field ligands are present, a diimine 3(pi-pi/asterisk/) state becomes the lowest. In none of the cases studied did metal-to-ligand charge transfer excited state lie lowest.

  3. Flexible ligand docking using a genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshiro, C. M.; Kuntz, I. D.; Dixon, J. Scott

    1995-04-01

    Two computational techniques have been developed to explore the orientational and conformational space of a flexible ligand within an enzyme. Both methods use the Genetic Algorithm (GA) to generate conformationally flexible ligands in conjunction with algorithms from the DOCK suite of programs to characterize the receptor site. The methods are applied to three enzyme-ligand complexes: dihydrofolate reductase-methotrexate, thymidylate synthase-phenolpthalein and HIV protease-thioketal haloperidol. Conformations and orientations close to the crystallographically determined structures are obtained, as well as alternative structures with low energy. The potential for the GA method to screen a database of compounds is also examined. A collection of ligands is evaluated simultaneously, rather than docking the ligands individually into the enzyme.

  4. Identifying Marine Copper-Binding Ligands in Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitby, H.; Hollibaugh, J. T.; Maldonado, M. T.; Ouchi, S.; van den Berg, S. M.

    2016-02-01

    Complexation reactions are important because they affect the bioavailability of trace metals such as copper and iron. For example, organic complexation can determine whether copper is a limiting or a toxic micronutrient at natural levels. Copper competes with iron for complexing ligands, and when iron is limiting, copper can also substitute for iron in some metabolic pathways. The speciation of copper can be measured using complexing capacity titrations, which provide the concentration of individual ligand classes (L1, L2 etc.) and the complex stabilities (log K). Using methods recently developed in our laboratory, we show that the ligands within these classes can be measured independently of titrations, thus confirming the titration method and simultaneously identifying the ligands within each class. Thiols were identified as the L1 ligand class and humic compounds as the weaker L2 class in samples from coastal Georgia, USA, collected monthly from April to December. Log K values of the ligand complexes were consistent with values expected for thiols and humic substances. Recent results from culture studies and from samples collected along Line P, a coastal - oceanic transect in the HNLC region of the NE subarctic Pacific, will be presented in comparison to the estuarine results. This comparison will help to broaden our perspective on copper complexation and the ligands responsible, furthering our understanding of ligand sources and life cycles.

  5. Structures of undecagold clusters: Ligand effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spivey, Kasi; Williams, Joseph I.; Wang, Lichang

    2006-12-01

    The most stable structure of undecagold, or Au 11, clusters was predicted from our DFT calculations to be planar [L. Xiao, L. Wang, Chem. Phys. Lett. 392 (2004) 452; L. Xiao, B. Tollberg, X. Hu, L. Wang, J. Chem. Phys. 124 (2005) 114309.]. The structures of ligand protected undecagold clusters were shown to be three-dimensional experimentally. In this work, we used DFT calculations to study the ligand effect on the structures of Au 11 clusters. Our results show that the most stable structure of Au 11 is in fact three-dimensional when SCH 3 ligands are attached. This indicates that the structures of small gold clusters are altered substantially in the presence of ligands.

  6. Proteins with similar architecture exhibit similar large-scale dynamic behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Keskin, O; Jernigan, R L; Bahar, I

    2000-01-01

    We have investigated the similarities and differences in the computed dynamic fluctuations exhibited by six members of a protein fold family with a coarse-grained Gaussian network model. Specifically, we consider the cofactor binding fragment of CysB; the lysine/arginine/ornithine-binding protein (LAO); the enzyme porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD); the ribose-binding protein (RBP); the N-terminal lobe of ovotransferrin in apo-form (apo-OVOT); and the leucine/isoleucine/valine-binding protein (LIVBP). All have domains that resemble a Rossmann fold, but there are also some significant differences. Results indicate that similar global dynamic behavior is preserved for the members of a fold family, and that differences usually occur in regions only where specific function is localized. The present work is a computational demonstration that the scaffold of a protein fold may be utilized for diverse purposes. LAO requires a bound ligand before it conforms to the large-scale fluctuation behavior of the three other members of the family, CysB, PBGD, and RBP, all of which contain a substrate (cofactor) at the active site cleft. The dynamics of the ligand-free enzymes LIVBP and apo-OVOT, on the other hand, concur with that of unliganded LAO. The present results suggest that it is possible to construct structure alignments based on dynamic fluctuation behavior. PMID:10733987

  7. Multitarget-directed tricyclic pyridazinones as G protein-coupled receptor ligands and cholinesterase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pau, Amedeo; Catto, Marco; Pinna, Giovanni; Frau, Simona; Murineddu, Gabriele; Asproni, Battistina; Curzu, Maria M; Pisani, Leonardo; Leonetti, Francesco; Loza, Maria Isabel; Brea, José; Pinna, Gérard A; Carotti, Angelo

    2015-06-01

    By following a multitarget ligand design approach, a library of 47 compounds was prepared, and they were tested as binders of selected G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and inhibitors of acetyl and/or butyryl cholinesterase. The newly designed ligands feature pyridazinone-based tricyclic scaffolds connected through alkyl chains of variable length to proper amine moieties (e.g., substituted piperazines or piperidines) for GPCR and cholinesterase (ChE) molecular recognition. The compounds were tested at three different GPCRs, namely serotoninergic 5-HT1A, adrenergic α1A, and dopaminergic D2 receptors. Our main goal was the discovery of compounds that exhibit, in addition to ChE inhibition, antagonist activity at 5-HT1A because of its involvement in neuronal deficits typical of Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases. Ligands with nanomolar affinity for the tested GPCRs were discovered, but most of them behaved as dual antagonists of α1A and 5-HT1A receptors. Nevertheless, several compounds displaying this GPCR affinity profile also showed moderate to good inhibition of AChE and BChE, thus deserving further investigations to exploit the therapeutic potential of such unusual biological profiles. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Binding Modes of Ligands Using Enhanced Sampling (BLUES): Rapid Decorrelation of Ligand Binding Modes via Nonequilibrium Candidate Monte Carlo.

    PubMed

    Gill, Samuel C; Lim, Nathan M; Grinaway, Patrick B; Rustenburg, Ariën S; Fass, Josh; Ross, Gregory A; Chodera, John D; Mobley, David L

    2018-05-31

    Accurately predicting protein-ligand binding affinities and binding modes is a major goal in computational chemistry, but even the prediction of ligand binding modes in proteins poses major challenges. Here, we focus on solving the binding mode prediction problem for rigid fragments. That is, we focus on computing the dominant placement, conformation, and orientations of a relatively rigid, fragment-like ligand in a receptor, and the populations of the multiple binding modes which may be relevant. This problem is important in its own right, but is even more timely given the recent success of alchemical free energy calculations. Alchemical calculations are increasingly used to predict binding free energies of ligands to receptors. However, the accuracy of these calculations is dependent on proper sampling of the relevant ligand binding modes. Unfortunately, ligand binding modes may often be uncertain, hard to predict, and/or slow to interconvert on simulation time scales, so proper sampling with current techniques can require prohibitively long simulations. We need new methods which dramatically improve sampling of ligand binding modes. Here, we develop and apply a nonequilibrium candidate Monte Carlo (NCMC) method to improve sampling of ligand binding modes. In this technique, the ligand is rotated and subsequently allowed to relax in its new position through alchemical perturbation before accepting or rejecting the rotation and relaxation as a nonequilibrium Monte Carlo move. When applied to a T4 lysozyme model binding system, this NCMC method shows over 2 orders of magnitude improvement in binding mode sampling efficiency compared to a brute force molecular dynamics simulation. This is a first step toward applying this methodology to pharmaceutically relevant binding of fragments and, eventually, drug-like molecules. We are making this approach available via our new Binding modes of ligands using enhanced sampling (BLUES) package which is freely available on GitHub.

  9. Assessment of automatic ligand building in ARP/wARP.

    PubMed

    Evrard, Guillaume X; Langer, Gerrit G; Perrakis, Anastassis; Lamzin, Victor S

    2007-01-01

    The efficiency of the ligand-building module of ARP/wARP version 6.1 has been assessed through extensive tests on a large variety of protein-ligand complexes from the PDB, as available from the Uppsala Electron Density Server. Ligand building in ARP/wARP involves two main steps: automatic identification of the location of the ligand and the actual construction of its atomic model. The first step is most successful for large ligands. The second step, ligand construction, is more powerful with X-ray data at high resolution and ligands of small to medium size. Both steps are successful for ligands with low to moderate atomic displacement parameters. The results highlight the strengths and weaknesses of both the method of ligand building and the large-scale validation procedure and help to identify means of further improvement.

  10. Defining the property space for chromatographic ligands from a homologous series of mixed-mode ligands.

    PubMed

    Woo, James A; Chen, Hong; Snyder, Mark A; Chai, Yiming; Frost, Russell G; Cramer, Steven M

    2015-08-14

    A homologous ligand library based on the commercially-available Nuvia cPrime ligand was generated to systematically explore various features of a multimodal cation-exchange ligand and to identify structural variants that had significantly altered chromatographic selectivity. Substitution of the polar amide bond with more hydrophobic chemistries was found to enhance retention while remaining hydrophobically-selective for aromatic residues. In contrast, increasing the solvent exposure of the aromatic ring was observed to strengthen the ligand affinity for both types of hydrophobic residues. An optimal linker length between the charged and hydrophobic moieties was also observed to enhance retention, balancing the steric accessibility of the hydrophobic moiety with its ability to interact independently of the charged group. The weak pKa of the carboxylate charge group was found to have a notable impact on protein retention on Nuvia cPrime at lower pH, increasing hydrophobic interactions with the protein. Substituting the charged group with a sulfonic acid allowed this strong MM ligand to retain its electrostatic-dominant character in this lower pH range. pH gradient experiments were also carried out to further elucidate this pH dependent behavior. A single QSAR model was generated using this accumulated experimental data to predict protein retention across a range of multimodal and ion exchange systems. This model could correctly predict the retention of proteins on resins that were not included in the original model and could prove quite powerful as an in silico approach toward designing more effective and differentiated multimodal ligands. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase CDK1 by oxindolimine ligands and corresponding copper and zinc complexes.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Rodrigo Bernardi; Petersen, Philippe Alexandre Divina; Gonzales-Zubiate, Fernando A; Oliveira, Carla Columbano; Kumar, Naresh; do Nascimento, Rafael Rodrigues; Petrilli, Helena Maria; da Costa Ferreira, Ana Maria

    2015-10-01

    Oxindolimine-copper(II) and zinc(II) complexes that previously have shown to induce apoptosis, with DNA and mitochondria as main targets, exhibit here significant inhibition of kinase CDK1/cyclin B protein. Copper species are more active than the corresponding zinc, and the free ligand shows to be less active, indicating a major influence of coordination in the process, and a further modulation by the coordinated ligand. Molecular docking and classical molecular dynamics provide a better understanding of the effectiveness and kinase inhibition mechanism by these compounds, showing that the metal complex provides a stronger interaction than the free ligand with the ATP-binding site. The metal ion introduces charge in the oxindole species, giving it a more rigid conformation that then becomes more effective in its interactions with the protein active site. Analogous experiments resulted in no significant effect regarding phosphatase inhibition. These results can explain the cytotoxicity of these metal complexes towards different tumor cells, in addition to its capability of binding to DNA, and decreasing membrane potential of mitochondria.

  12. Scoring ligand similarity in structure-based virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Zavodszky, Maria I; Rohatgi, Anjali; Van Voorst, Jeffrey R; Yan, Honggao; Kuhn, Leslie A

    2009-01-01

    Scoring to identify high-affinity compounds remains a challenge in virtual screening. On one hand, protein-ligand scoring focuses on weighting favorable and unfavorable interactions between the two molecules. Ligand-based scoring, on the other hand, focuses on how well the shape and chemistry of each ligand candidate overlay on a three-dimensional reference ligand. Our hypothesis is that a hybrid approach, using ligand-based scoring to rank dockings selected by protein-ligand scoring, can ensure that high-ranking molecules mimic the shape and chemistry of a known ligand while also complementing the binding site. Results from applying this approach to screen nearly 70 000 National Cancer Institute (NCI) compounds for thrombin inhibitors tend to support the hypothesis. EON ligand-based ranking of docked molecules yielded the majority (4/5) of newly discovered, low to mid-micromolar inhibitors from a panel of 27 assayed compounds, whereas ranking docked compounds by protein-ligand scoring alone resulted in one new inhibitor. Since the results depend on the choice of scoring function, an analysis of properties was performed on the top-scoring docked compounds according to five different protein-ligand scoring functions, plus EON scoring using three different reference compounds. The results indicate that the choice of scoring function, even among scoring functions measuring the same types of interactions, can have an unexpectedly large effect on which compounds are chosen from screening. Furthermore, there was almost no overlap between the top-scoring compounds from protein-ligand versus ligand-based scoring, indicating the two approaches provide complementary information. Matchprint analysis, a new addition to the SLIDE (Screening Ligands by Induced-fit Docking, Efficiently) screening toolset, facilitated comparison of docked molecules' interactions with those of known inhibitors. The majority of interactions conserved among top-scoring compounds for a given scoring

  13. Ligand structure and mechanical properties of single-nanoparticle-thick membranes.

    PubMed

    Salerno, K Michael; Bolintineanu, Dan S; Lane, J Matthew D; Grest, Gary S

    2015-06-01

    The high mechanical stiffness of single-nanoparticle-thick membranes is believed to result from the local structure of ligand coatings that mediate interactions between nanoparticles. These ligand structures are not directly observable experimentally. We use molecular dynamics simulations to observe variations in ligand structure and simultaneously measure variations in membrane mechanical properties. We have shown previously that ligand end group has a large impact on ligand structure and membrane mechanical properties. Here we introduce and apply quantitative molecular structure measures to these membranes and extend analysis to multiple nanoparticle core sizes and ligand lengths. Simulations of nanoparticle membranes with a nanoparticle core diameter of 4 or 6 nm, a ligand length of 11 or 17 methylenes, and either carboxyl (COOH) or methyl (CH(3)) ligand end groups are presented. In carboxyl-terminated ligand systems, structure and interactions are dominated by an end-to-end orientation of ligands. In methyl-terminated ligand systems large ordered ligand structures form, but nanoparticle interactions are dominated by disordered, partially interdigitated ligands. Core size and ligand length also affect both ligand arrangement within the membrane and the membrane's macroscopic mechanical response, but are secondary to the role of the ligand end group. Moreover, the particular end group (COOH or CH(3)) alters the nature of how ligand length, in turn, affects the membrane properties. The effect of core size does not depend on the ligand end group, with larger cores always leading to stiffer membranes. Asymmetry in the stress and ligand density is observed in membranes during preparation at a water-vapor interface, with the stress asymmetry persisting in all membranes after drying.

  14. Ligand structure and mechanical properties of single-nanoparticle thick membranes

    DOE PAGES

    Salerno, Kenneth Michael; Bolintineanu, Dan S.; Lane, J. Matthew D.; ...

    2015-06-16

    We believe that the high mechanical stiffness of single-nanoparticle-thick membranes is the result of the local structure of ligand coatings that mediate interactions between nanoparticles. These ligand structures are not directly observable experimentally. We use molecular dynamics simulations to observe variations in ligand structure and simultaneously measure variations in membrane mechanical properties. We have shown previously that ligand end group has a large impact on ligand structure and membrane mechanical properties. Here we introduce and apply quantitative molecular structure measures to these membranes and extend analysis to multiple nanoparticle core sizes and ligand lengths. Simulations of nanoparticle membranes with amore » nanoparticle core diameter of 4 or 6 nm, a ligand length of 11 or 17 methylenes, and either carboxyl (COOH) or methyl (CH 3) ligand end groups are presented. In carboxyl-terminated ligand systems, structure and interactions are dominated by an end-to-end orientation of ligands. In methyl-terminated ligand systems large ordered ligand structures form, but nanoparticle interactions are dominated by disordered, partially interdigitated ligands. Core size and ligand length also affect both ligand arrangement within the membrane and the membrane's macroscopic mechanical response, but are secondary to the role of the ligand end group. Additionally, the particular end group (COOH or CH 3) alters the nature of how ligand length, in turn, affects the membrane properties. The effect of core size does not depend on the ligand end group, with larger cores always leading to stiffer membranes. Asymmetry in the stress and ligand density is observed in membranes during preparation at a water-vapor interface, with the stress asymmetry persisting in all membranes after drying.« less

  15. Immunostaining for peroxisome proliferator gamma distinguishes dedifferentiated liposarcoma from other retroperitoneal sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Horvai, Andrew E; Schaefer, Jochen T; Nakakura, Eric K; O'Donnell, Richard J

    2008-05-01

    Dedifferentiated liposarcoma can be readily diagnosed by the juxtaposition of a well-differentiated liposarcoma to a nonlipogenic sarcoma. However, if the lipogenic component is not abundant due to surgical sampling or small biopsy, dedifferentiated liposarcoma can be difficult to distinguish from other poorly different sarcomas. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma) is a nuclear hormone receptor that plays a critical role in adipocyte differentiation. Prior studies have not only demonstrated PPAR-gamma mRNA in various subtypes of liposarcoma but have also shown that adipocyte differentiation can be induced in some liposarcomas by a PPAR-gamma agonist. In the present study, we investigated whether immunostaining for PPAR-gamma can be used to distinguish dedifferentiated liposarcoma from other retroperitoneal sarcomas. We examined a series of 40 dedifferentiated liposarcoma and compared the staining for PPAR-gamma to a series of 24 retroperitoneal sarcomas that lacked lipogenic differentiation. A monoclonal antibody against PPAR-gamma was used to stain formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. Specific nuclear immunostaining was present in 37/40 (93%) of the dedifferentiated liposarcoma and 6/24 (25%) of the other sarcomas (two leiomyosarcomas and four undifferentiated sarcomas). Interestingly, immunostaining for CDK4 and/or MDM2 was identified in three of the four PPAR-gamma-positive undifferentiated sarcomas, raising the possibility that these may represent dedifferentiated liposarcoma. This is the first study demonstrating the utility of PPAR-gamma immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of dedifferentiated liposarcoma in tissue sections. Although not completely specific, the presence of PPAR-gamma staining, in combination with histologic findings and other markers, can aid in the diagnosis of dedifferentiated liposarcoma, particularly on small biopsies that may not sample the well-differentiated component.

  16. Synthesis, characterization, thermal and biological evaluation of Cu (II), Co (II) and Ni (II) complexes of azo dye ligand containing sulfamethaxazole moiety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallikarjuna, N. M.; Keshavayya, J.; Maliyappa, M. R.; Shoukat Ali, R. A.; Venkatesh, Talavara

    2018-08-01

    A novel bioactive Cu (II), Co (II) and Ni (II) complexes of the azo dye ligand (L) derived from sulfamethoxazole were synthesized. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility, FTIR, UV-visible, 1H NMR, mass, thermal and powder XRD spectral techniques. Molar conductivity measurements in DMSO solution confirmed the non-electrolytic nature of the complexes. All the synthesized metal complexes were found to be monomeric and showed square planar geometry except the Co (II) complex which has six coordinate, octahedral environment. The metal complexes have exhibited potential growth inhibitory effect against tested bacterial strains as compared to the free ligand. The ligand and complexes have also shown significant antioxidant and Calf Thymus DNA cleavage activities. Further, the in silico molecular docking studies were performed to predict the possible binding sites of the ligand (L) and its metal complexes with target receptor Glu-6P.

  17. Manganese-Vanadate Hybrids: Impact of Organic Ligands on Their Structures, Thermal Stabilities, Optical Properties, and Photocatalytic Activities.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lan; Zeng, Yuhan; Li, Le; Luo, Zhixiang; Smirnova, Tatyana I; Maggard, Paul A

    2015-08-03

    Manganese(II)-vanadate(V)/organic hybrids were prepared in high purity using four different N-donor organic ligands (2,6:2',2″-terpyridine = terpy, 2,2'-bipyrimidine = bpym, o-phenanthroline = o-phen, and 4,4'-bipyridine = 4,4'-bpy), and their crystalline structures, thermal stabilities, optical properties, photocatalytic activities and electronic structures were investigated as a function of the organic ligand. Hydrothermal reactions were employed that targeted a 1:2 molar ratio of Mn(II)/V(V), yielding four hybrid solids with the compositions of Mn(terpy)V2O6·H2O (I), Mn2(bpym)V4O12·0.6H2O (II), Mn(H2O)(o-phen)V2O6 (III), and Mn(4,4'-bpy)V2O6·1.16H2O (IV). The inorganic component within these hybrid compounds, that is, [MnV2O6], forms infinite chains in I and layers in II, III, and IV. In each case, the organic ligand preferentially coordinates to the Mn(II) cations within their respective structures, either as chelating and three-coordinate (mer isomer in I) or two-coordinate (cis isomers in II and III), or as bridging and two coordinate (trans isomer in IV). The terminating ligands in I (terpy) and III (o-phen) yield nonbridged "MnV2O6" chains and layers, respectively, while the bridging ligands in II (bpym) and IV (4,4'-bpy) result in three-dimensional, pillared hybrid networks. The coordination number of the ligand, that is, two- or three-coordinate, has the predominant effect on the dimensionality of the inorganic component, while the connectivity of the combined metal-oxide/organic network is determined by the chelating versus bridging ligand coordination modes. Each hybrid compound decomposes into crystalline MnV2O6 upon heating in air with specific surface areas from ∼7 m(2)/g for III to ∼41 m(2)/g for IV, depending on the extent of structural collapse as the lattice water is removed. All hybrid compounds exhibit visible-light bandgap sizes from ∼1.7 to ∼2.0 eV, decreasing with the increased dimensionality of the [MnV2O6] network in the order

  18. High-throughput screening of dye-ligands for chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Punekar, Narayan S

    2014-01-01

    Dye-ligand-based chromatography has become popular after Cibacron Blue, the first reactive textile dye, found application for protein purification. Many other textile dyes have since been successfully used to purify a number of proteins and enzymes. While the exact nature of their interaction with target proteins is often unclear, dye-ligands are thought to mimic the structural features of their corresponding substrates, cofactors, etc. The dye-ligand affinity matrices are therefore considered pseudo-affinity matrices. In addition, dye-ligands may simply bind with proteins due to electrostatic, hydrophobic, and hydrogen-bonding interactions. Because of their low cost, ready availability, and structural stability, dye-ligand affinity matrices have gained much popularity. Choice of a large number of dye structures offers a range of matrices to be prepared and tested. When presented in the high-throughput screening mode, these dye-ligand matrices provide a formidable tool for protein purification. One could pick from the list of dye-ligands already available or build a systematic library of such structures for use. A high-throughput screen may be set up to choose best dye-ligand matrix as well as ideal conditions for binding and elution, for a given protein. The mode of operation could be either manual or automated. The technology is available to test the performance of dye-ligand matrices in small volumes in an automated liquid-handling workstation. Screening a systematic library of dye-ligand structures can help establish a structure-activity relationship. While the origins of dye-ligand chromatography lay in exploiting pseudo-affinity, it is now possible to design very specific biomimetic dye structures. High-throughput screening will be of value in this endeavor as well.

  19. Cationic copper (I) complexes with bulky 1,4-diaza-1,3-butadiene ligands - Synthesis, solid state structure and catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anga, Srinivas; Kottalanka, Ravi K.; Pal, Tigmansu; Panda, Tarun K.

    2013-05-01

    We report the full characterization of two glyoxal-based ligands N,N bis(diphenylmethyl)-1,4-diaza-1,3-butadiene ligand (DADPh2, 1) and more bulky N,N bis(triphenylmethyl)-1,4-diaza-1,3-butadiene ligand (DADPh3, 2) by the condensation reaction of glyoxal and diphenylmethanamine and triphenyl-methanamine respectively. The copper (I) complex of composition [Cu(DADPh2)2]PF6 (3) having two neutral bidentate N,N bis(diphenyl-methyl)-1,4-diaza-1,3-butadiene ligand was prepared by the reaction of [Cu(CH3CN)4]PF6 and 1 in 1:2 ratio in dichloromethane. In a similar reaction with N,N bis(triphenylmethyl)-1,4-diaza-1,3-butadiene ligand (2) and [Cu(CH3CN)4]PF6 in dichloromethane yielded corresponding heteroleptic copper (I) complex [Cu(DADPh3)(CH3CN)2]PF6 (4). Another copper (I) complex [Cu(DADPh2)(PPh3)]PF6 (5) can also be obtained by the one pot reaction involving ligand 1, [Cu(CH3CN)4]PF6 and triphenylphosphine. Solid state structures of all the five compounds were established by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The solid state structures of the copper complexes 3-5 reveal a distorted tetrahedral geometry around the copper (I) centers. The copper complexes 3-5 were tested as catalysts for the coupling reaction of o-iodophenol and phenyl acetylene and it was observed that complex 4 exhibits the highest catalytic activity.

  20. Synthesis, spectral, thermal and biological studies of mixed ligand complexes with newly prepared Schiff base and 1,10-phenanthroline ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El-Halim, Hanan F.; Mohamed, Gehad G.; Khalil, Eman A. M.

    2017-10-01

    A series of mixed ligand complexes were prepared from the Schiff base (L1) as a primary ligand, prepared by condensation of oxamide and furan-2-carbaldehyde, and 1,10-phenanthroline (1,10-phen) as a secondary ligand. The Schiff base ligand and its mixed ligand chelates were characterized based on elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, thermal analysis, UV-Visible, mass, molar conductance, magnetic moment. X-ray diffraction, solid reflectance and ESR also have been studied. The mixed ligand complexes were found to have the formulae of [M(L1) (1,10-phen)]Clm.nH2O (M = Cr(III) and Fe(III) (m = 3) (n = 0); M = Mn(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II) (m = 2) (n = 0); and M = Co(II) (m = 2) (n = 1), Ni(II) (m = 2) (n = 2) and Zn(II) (m = 2) (n = 3)) and that the geometrical structure of the complexes were octahedral. The parameters of thermodynamic using Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger equations were calculated. The synthesized Schiff base ligand, 1,10-phenanthroline ligand and Their mixed ligand complexes were also investigated for their antibacterial and antifungal activity against bacterial species (Gram-Ve bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) and (Gram + Ve bacteria: Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus pneumonia) and fungi (Aspergillus fumigates and Candida albicans). The anticancer activity of the new compounds had been tested against breast (MFC7) and colon (HCT-116) cell lines. The results showed high activity for the synthesized compounds.

  1. Ligand-Induced Conformational Change in the α7 Nicotinic Receptor Ligand Binding Domain

    PubMed Central

    Henchman, Richard H.; Wang, Hai-Long; Sine, Steven M.; Taylor, Palmer; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a homology model of the ligand binding domain of the α7 nicotinic receptor are conducted with a range of bound ligands to induce different conformational states. Four simulations of 15 ns each are run with no ligand, antagonist d-tubocurarine (dTC), agonist acetylcholine (ACh), and agonist ACh with potentiator Ca2+, to give insight into the conformations of the active and inactive states of the receptor and suggest the mechanism for conformational change. The main structural factor distinguishing the active and inactive states is that a more open, symmetric arrangement of the five subunits arises for the two agonist simulations, whereas a more closed and asymmetric arrangement results for the apo and dTC cases. Most of the difference arises in the lower portion of the ligand binding domain near its connection to the adjacent transmembrane domain. The transfer of the more open state to the transmembrane domain could then promote ion flow through the channel. Variation in how subunits pack together with no ligand bound appears to give rise to asymmetry in the apo case. The presence of dTC expands the receptor but induces rotations in alternate directions in adjacent subunits that lead to an asymmetric arrangement as in the apo case. Ca2+ appears to promote a slightly greater expansion in the subunits than ACh alone by stabilizing the C-loop and ACh positions. Although the simulations are unlikely to be long enough to view the full conformational changes between open and closed states, a collection of different motions at a range of length scales are observed that are likely to participate in the conformational change. PMID:15665135

  2. Boosting Affinity by Correct Ligand Preorganization for the S2 Pocket of Thrombin: A Study by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry, Molecular Dynamics, and High-Resolution Crystal Structures.

    PubMed

    Rühmann, Eggert H; Rupp, Melinda; Betz, Michael; Heine, Andreas; Klebe, Gerhard

    2016-02-04

    Structural preorganization to fix bioactive conformations at protein binding sites is a popular strategy to enhance binding affinity during late-stage optimization. The rationale for this enhancement relates to entropic advantages assigned to rigidified versus flexible ligands. We analyzed a narrow series of peptidomimetics binding to thrombin. The individual ligands exhibit at P2 a conformationally flexible glycine, more restricted alanine, N-methylglycine, N-methylhomoalanine, and largely rigidified proline moiety. Overall, affinity was found to increase by a factor of 1000, explained partly by an entropic advantage. All ligands adopt the same binding mode with small deviations. The residual mobility of the bound ligands is decreased across the series, and a protein side chain differs in its order/disorder behavior along with changes in the surface-water network pattern established across the newly generated protein-ligand surfaces. The enthalpy/entropy inventory displays a rather complex picture and emphasizes that thermodynamics can only be compared in terms of relative differences within a structurally similar ligand series. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Photoassisted photoluminescence fine-tuning of gold nanodots through free radical-mediated ligand-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Yu-Ting; Cherng, Rochelle; Harroun, Scott G.; Yuan, Zhiqin; Lin, Tai-Yuan; Wu, Chien-Wei; Chang, Huan-Tsung; Huang, Chih-Ching

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we have developed a simple photoassisted ligand assembly to fine-tune the photoluminescence (PL) of (11-mercaptoundecyl)-N,N,N-trimethylammonium bromide-capped gold nanodots (11-MUTAB-Au NDs). The 11-MUTAB-Au NDs (size: ca. 1.8 nm), obtained from the reaction of gold nanoparticles (ca. 3 nm) and 11-MUTAB, exhibited weak, near-infrared (NIR) PL at 700 nm with a quantum yield (QY) of 0.37% upon excitation at 365 nm. The PL QY of the Au NDs increased to 11.43% after reaction with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA) for 30 min under ultraviolet (UV) light, which was accompanied by a PL wavelength shift to the green region (~520 nm). UV-light irradiation accelerates 11-MUA assembly on the 11-MUTABAu NDs (11-MUA/11-MUTAB-Au NDs) through a radical-mediated reaction. Furthermore, the PL wavelength of the 11-MUA/11-MUTAB-Au NDs can be switched to 640 nm via cysteamine under UV-light irradiation. We propose that the PL of the Au NDs with NIR and visible emissions was originally from the surface thiol-Au complexes and the Au core, respectively. These dramatically different optical properties of the Au NDs were due to variation in the surface ligands, as well as the densities and surface oxidant states of the surface Au atoms/ions. These effects can be controlled by assembling surface thiol ligands and accelerated by UV irradiation.In this study, we have developed a simple photoassisted ligand assembly to fine-tune the photoluminescence (PL) of (11-mercaptoundecyl)-N,N,N-trimethylammonium bromide-capped gold nanodots (11-MUTAB-Au NDs). The 11-MUTAB-Au NDs (size: ca. 1.8 nm), obtained from the reaction of gold nanoparticles (ca. 3 nm) and 11-MUTAB, exhibited weak, near-infrared (NIR) PL at 700 nm with a quantum yield (QY) of 0.37% upon excitation at 365 nm. The PL QY of the Au NDs increased to 11.43% after reaction with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA) for 30 min under ultraviolet (UV) light, which was accompanied by a PL wavelength shift to the green region

  4. 15-Deoxy-{delta}{sup 12,14}-prostaglandin J{sub 2}-induced down-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in association with HSP70 induction

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Jinah; Lee, Hyun-Il; Chang, Young-Sun

    2007-05-25

    A natural ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}), 15-deoxy-{delta}{sup 12,14}-prostaglandin J{sub 2} (15d-PGJ{sub 2}), decreases endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression by an unknown mechanism. Here we found that 15d-PGJ{sub 2}-induced eNOS reduction is inversely associated with heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) induction in endothelial cells. Treatment of cells with 15d-PGJ{sub 2} decreased eNOS protein expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, but independently of PPAR{gamma} with no effect on mRNA levels. Although 15d-PGJ{sub 2} elicited endothelial apoptosis, inhibition of both pan-caspases and cathepsins failed to reverse reduction of eNOS protein. Interestingly, we observed that 15d-PGJ{sub 2} induced HSP70more » in a dose-dependent manner. Immunoprecipitation and heat shock treatment demonstrated that eNOS reduction was strongly related to HSP70 induction. Cellular fractionation revealed that treatment with 15d-PGJ{sub 2} increased eNOS distribution 2.5-fold from soluble to insoluble fractions. These findings provide new insights into mechanisms whereby eNOS regulation by 15d-PGJ{sub 2} is related to HSP70 induction.« less

  5. Charge Transport between Coupling Colloidal Perovskite Quantum Dots Assisted by Functional Conjugated Ligands.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jinfei; Xi, Jun; Li, Lu; Zhao, JingFeng; Shi, Yifei; Zhang, Wenwen; Ran, Chenxin; Jiao, Bo; Hou, Xun; Duan, Xinhua; Wu, Zhaoxin

    2018-05-14

    Long alkyl-chain capping ligands are indispensable for preparing stable colloidal quantum dots. However, its insulating feature blocks efficient carrier transport among QDs, leading to inferior performance in light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The trade-off between conductivity and colloidal stability of QDs has now been overcome. Methylamine lead bromide (MAPbBr 3 ) QDs with a conjugated alkyl-amine, 3-phenyl-2-propen-1-amine (PPA), as ligands were prepared. Owing to electron cloud overlapping and the delocalization effect of conjugated molecules, the conductivity and carrier mobility of PPA-QDs films increased almost 22 times over that of OA-QD films without compromising colloidal stability and photoluminescence. PPA-QDs LEDs exhibit a maximum current efficiency of 9.08 cd A -1 , which is 8 times of that of OA-QDs LEDs (1.14 cd A -1 ). This work provides critical solution for the poor conductivity of QDs in applications of energy-related devices. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Polymer complexes.. XXXX. Supramolecular assembly on coordination models of mixed-valence-ligand poly[1-acrylamido-2-(2-pyridyl)ethane] complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sonbati, A. Z.; El-Bindary, A. A.; Diab, M. A.

    2003-02-01

    The build-up of polymer metallic supramolecules based on homopolymer (1-acrylamido-2-(2-pyridyl)ethane (AEPH)) and ruthenium, rhodium, palladium as well as platinum complexes has been pursued with great interest. The homopolymer shows three types of coordination behaviour. In the mixed valence paramagnetic trinuclear polymer complexes [( 11)+( 12)] in the paper and in mononuclear polymer complexes ( 1)-( 5) it acts as a neutral bidentate ligand coordinating through the N-pyridine and NH-imino atoms, while in the mixed ligand diamagnetic poly-chelates, which are obtained from the reaction of AEPH with PdX 2 and KPtCl 4 in the presence of N-heterocyclic base consisting of polymer complexes ( 9)+( 10), and in monouclear compounds ( 6)-( 8), it behaves as a monobasic bidentate ligand coordinating through the same donor atoms. In mononuclear compounds ( 13)+( 14) it acts as a monobasic and neutral bidentate ligand coordinating only through the same donor atoms. Monomeric distorted octahedral or trimeric chlorine-bridged, approximately octahedral structures are proposed for these polymer complexes. The poly-chelates are of 1:1, 1:2 and 3:2 (metal-homopolymer) stoichiometry and exhibit six coordination. The values of ligand field parameters were calculated. The homopolymer and their polymer complexes have been characterized physicochemically.

  7. Polymer complexes. XXXX. Supramolecular assembly on coordination models of mixed-valence-ligand poly[1-acrylamido-2-(2-pyridyl)ethane] complexes.

    PubMed

    El-Sonbati, A Z; El-Bindary, A A; Diab, M A

    2003-02-01

    The build-up of polymer metallic supramolecules based on homopolymer (1-acrylamido-2-(2-pyridyl)ethane (AEPH)) and ruthenium, rhodium, palladium as well as platinum complexes has been pursued with great interest. The homopolymer shows three types of coordination behaviour. In the mixed valence paramagnetic trinuclear polymer complexes [(11)+(12)] in the paper and in mononuclear polymer complexes (1)-(5) it acts as a neutral bidentate ligand coordinating through the N-pyridine and NH-imino atoms, while in the mixed ligand diamagnetic poly-chelates, which are obtained from the reaction of AEPH with PdX2 and KPtCl4 in the presence of N-heterocyclic base consisting of polymer complexes (9)+(10), and in monouclear compounds (6)-(8), it behaves as a monobasic bidentate ligand coordinating through the same donor atoms. In mononuclear compounds (13)+(14) it acts as a monobasic and neutral bidentate ligand coordinating only through the same donor atoms. Monomeric distorted octahedral or trimeric chlorine-bridged, approximately octahedral structures are proposed for these polymer complexes. The poly-chelates are of 1:1, 1:2 and 3:2 (metal-homopolymer) stoichiometry and exhibit six coordination. The values of ligand field parameters were calculated. The homopolymer and their polymer complexes have been characterized physicochemically.

  8. PDBToSDF: Create ligand structure files from PDB file.

    PubMed

    Muppalaneni, Naresh Babu; Rao, Allam Appa

    2011-01-01

    Protein Data Bank (PDB) file contains atomic data for protein and ligand in protein-ligand complexes. Structure data file (SDF) contains data for atoms, bonds, connectivity and coordinates of molecule for ligands. We describe PDBToSDF as a tool to separate the ligand data from pdb file for the calculation of ligand properties like molecular weight, number of hydrogen bond acceptors, hydrogen bond receptors easily.

  9. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of silver(I) complexes based on N-benzoyl-L-glutamic acid and N-donor ligands with different flexibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Ming-Jie; Feng, Qi; Song, Hui-Hua

    2016-05-01

    By changing the N-donor ancillary ligand, three novel silver (I) complexes {[Ag(HbzgluO) (4,4‧-bipy)]·H2O}n (1), {[Ag2(HbzgluO)2 (bpe)2]·2H2O}n (2) and {[Ag(HbzgluO)(bpp)]·2H2O}n (3) (H2bzgluO = N-benzoyl-L-glutamic acid, 4,4‧-bipy = 4,4ˊ-bipyridine, bpe = 1,2-di(4-pyridyl)ethane, bpp = 1,3-di(4-pyridyl)propane) were synthesized. Their structures have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses and further characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). In this study, the N-donor ligands are changed from rigidity (4,4‧-bipy), quasi-flexibility (bpe) to flexibility (bpp), the structures of complexes also change. Complex 1 features a 1D chain structure which is further linked together to construct a 2D supramolecular structure through hydrogen bonds. Complex 2 is a 1D double-chains configuration which eventually forms a 3D supramolecular network via hydrogen bonding interactions. Whereas, complex 3 exhibits a 2D pleated grid structure which is linked by hydrogen bonding interactions into a 3D supramolecular network. The present observations demonstrate that the modulation of coordination polymers with different structures can accomplish by changing the spacer length of N-donor ligands. In addition, the solid-state circular dichroism (CD) spectra indicated that compound 2 exhibited negative cotton effect which originated from the chiral ligands H2bzgluO and the solid-state fluorescence spectra of the three complexes demonstrated the auxiliary ligands have influence on the photoluminescence properties of the complexes.

  10. Ruthenium(II) bipyridine complexes bearing new keto-enol azoimine ligands: synthesis, structure, electrochemistry and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Al-Noaimi, Mousa; Awwadi, Firas F; Mansi, Ahmad; Abdel-Rahman, Obadah S; Hammoudeh, Ayman; Warad, Ismail

    2015-01-25

    The novel azoimine ligand, Ph-NH-N=C(COCH3)-NHPh(C≡CH) (H2L), was synthesized and its molecular structure was determined by X-ray crystallography. Catalytic hydration of the terminal acetylene of H2L in the presence of RuCl3·3H2O in ethanol at reflux temperature yielded a ketone (L1=Ph-N=N-C(COCH3)=N-Ph(COCH3) and an enol (L2=Ph-N=N-C(COCH3)=N-PhC(OH)=CH2) by Markovnikov addition of water. Two mixed-ligand ruthenium complexes having general formula, trans-[Ru(bpy)(Y)Cl2] (1-2) (where Y=L1 (1) and Y=L2 (2), bpy is 2.2'-bipyrdine) were achieved by the stepwise addition of equimolar amounts of (H2L) and bpy ligands to RuCl3·3H2O in absolute ethanol. Theses complexes were characterized by elemental analyses and spectroscopic (IR, UV-Vis, and NMR (1D (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, (DEPT-135), (DEPT-90), 2D (1)H-(1)H and (13)C-(1)H correlation (HMQC) spectroscopy)). The two complexes exhibit a quasi-reversible one electron Ru(II)/Ru(III) oxidation couple at 604 mV vs. ferrocene/ferrocenium (Cp2Fe(0/+)) couple along with one electron ligand reduction at -1010 mV. The crystal structure of complex 1 showed that the bidentate ligand L1 coordinates to Ru(II) by the azo- and imine-nitrogen donor atoms. The complex adopts a distorted trans octahedral coordination geometry of chloride ligands. The electronic spectra of 1 and 1+ in dichloromethane have been modeled by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Importance of acetylacetone and 2,2'-bipyridyl ligands in radiation-chemical processes of complex compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalecińska, E.; Kaleciński, J.

    The study of radiation response of free ligands: acetylacetone and 2,2'-bipyridyl in frozen chloride-alcohol-water glasses allows us to identify the intermediates playing the significant role in radiation decomposition of the complexes. On the basis of absorption spectra of the intermediates it has been shown that both examined ligands are effective scavengers of electrons. In the case of acetylacetone the intermediate most probably acacOH (exhibiting absorption band with λ max at ca. 580 nm) is not sensitive for bleaching light and its concentration increases during the warming up (from 77 to 160 K) of the sample. In the case of 2,2'-bipyridyl two intermediates (high intensity narrow bands with λ max at ca. 385 and 370 nm) are formed depending on pH of the system. Their formation and interconversion have also been studied.

  12. All-inorganic Germanium nanocrystal films by cationic ligand exchange

    DOE PAGES

    Wheeler, Lance M.; Nichols, Asa W.; Chernomordik, Boris D.; ...

    2016-01-21

    In this study, we introduce a new paradigm for group IV nanocrystal surface chemistry based on room temperature surface activation that enables ionic ligand exchange. Germanium nanocrystals synthesized in a gas-phase plasma reactor are functionalized with labile, cationic alkylammonium ligands rather than with traditional covalently bound groups. We employ Fourier transform infrared and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies to demonstrate the alkylammonium ligands are freely exchanged on the germanium nanocrystal surface with a variety of cationic ligands, including short inorganic ligands such as ammonium and alkali metal cations. This ionic ligand exchange chemistry is used to demonstrate enhanced transport inmore » germanium nanocrystal films following ligand exchange as well as the first photovoltaic device based on an all-inorganic germanium nanocrystal absorber layer cast from solution. This new ligand chemistry should accelerate progress in utilizing germanium and other group IV nanocrystals for optoelectronic applications.« less

  13. Dye-ligand affinity systems.

    PubMed

    Denizli, A; Pişkin, E

    2001-10-30

    Dye-ligands have been considered as one of the important alternatives to natural counterparts for specific affinity chromatography. Dye-ligands are able to bind most types of proteins, in some cases in a remarkably specific manner. They are commercially available, inexpensive, and can easily be immobilized, especially on matrices bearing hydroxyl groups. Although dyes are all synthetic in nature, they are still classified as affinity ligands because they interact with the active sites of many proteins mimicking the structure of the substrates, cofactors, or binding agents for those proteins. A number of textile dyes, known as reactive dyes, have been used for protein purification. Most of these reactive dyes consist of a chromophore (either azo dyes, anthraquinone, or phathalocyanine), linked to a reactive group (often a mono- or dichlorotriazine ring). The interaction between the dye ligand and proteins can be by complex combination of electrostatic, hydrophobic, hydrogen bonding. Selection of the supporting matrix is the first important consideration in dye-affinity systems. There are several methods for immobilization of dye molecules onto the support matrix, in which usually several intermediate steps are followed. Both the adsorption and elution steps should carefully be optimized/designed for a successful separation. Dye-affinity systems in the form of spherical sorbents or as affinity membranes have been used in protein separation.

  14. Bis-Indole-Derived NR4A1 Ligands and Metformin Exhibit NR4A1-Dependent Glucose Metabolism and Uptake in C2C12 Cells.

    PubMed

    Mohankumar, Kumaravel; Lee, Jehoon; Wu, Chia Shan; Sun, Yuxiang; Safe, Stephen

    2018-05-01

    Treatment of C2C12 muscle cells with metformin or the NR4A1 ligand 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-hydroxyphenyl)methane (DIM-C-pPhOH) induced NR4A1 and Glut4 messenger RNA and protein expression. Similar results were observed with buttressed (3- or 3,5-substituted) analogs of DIM-C-pPhOH, including 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(3-chloro-4-hydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)methane (DIM-C-pPhOH-3-Cl-5-OCH3), and the buttressed analogs were more potent than DIM-C-pPhOH NR4A1 agonists. Metformin and the bis-indole substituted analogs also induced expression of several glycolytic genes and Rab4, which has previously been linked to enhancing cell membrane accumulation of Glut4 and overall glucose uptake in C2C12 cells, and these responses were also observed after treatment with metformin and the NR4A1 ligands. The role of NR4A1 in mediating the responses induced by the bis-indoles and metformin was determined by knockdown of NR4A1, and this resulted in attenuating the gene and protein expression and enhanced glucose uptake responses induced by these compounds. Our results demonstrate that the bis-indole-derived NR4A1 ligands represent a class of drugs that enhance glucose uptake in C2C12 muscle cells, and we also show that the effects of metformin in this cell line are NR4A1-dependent.

  15. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Ligand Interactions: Structural Cross Talk between Ligands and the Extracellular Domain

    PubMed Central

    West, Graham M.; Willard, Francis S.; Sloop, Kyle W.; Showalter, Aaron D.; Pascal, Bruce D.; Griffin, Patrick R.

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) in pancreatic β-cells potentiates insulin production and is a current therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Like other class B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), the GLP-1R contains an N-terminal extracellular ligand binding domain. N-terminal truncations on the peptide agonist generate antagonists capable of binding to the extracellular domain, but not capable of activating full length receptor. The main objective of this study was to use Hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) to identify how the amide hydrogen bonding network of peptide ligands and the extracellular domain of GLP-1R (nGLP-1R) were altered by binding interactions and to then use this platform to validate direct binding events for putative GLP-1R small molecule ligands. The HDX studies presented here for two glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) peptide ligands indicates that the antagonist exendin-4[9-39] is significantly destabilized in the presence of nonionic detergents as compared to the agonist exendin-4. Furthermore, HDX can detect stabilization of exendin-4 and exendin-4[9-39] hydrogen bonding networks at the N-terminal helix [Val19 to Lys27] upon binding to the N-terminal extracellular domain of GLP-1R (nGLP-1R). In addition we show hydrogen bonding network stabilization on nGLP-1R in response to ligand binding, and validate direct binding events with the extracellular domain of the receptor for putative GLP-1R small molecule ligands. PMID:25180755

  16. Effect of organic ligands on Mg partitioning and Mg isotope fractionation during low-temperature precipitation of calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavromatis, Vasileios; Immenhauser, Adrian; Buhl, Dieter; Purgstaller, Bettina; Baldermann, Andre; Dietzel, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Calcite growth experiments have been performed at 25 oC and 1 bar pCO2 in the presence of aqueous Mg and six organic ligands in the concentration range from 10-5 to 10-3 M. These experiments were performed in order to quantify the effect of distinct organic ligands on the Mg partitioning and Mg stable isotope fractionation during its incorporation in calcite at similar growth rates normalized to total surface area. The organic ligands used in this study comprise of (i) acetate acid, (ii) citrate, (iii) glutamate, (iv) salicylate, (v) glycine and (vi) ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), containing carboxyl- and amino-groups. These fuctional groups are required for bacterial activity and growth as well as related to biotic and abiotic mineralization processes occurring in sedimentary and earliest diagenetic aquatic environments (e.g. soil, cave, lacustrine, marine). The results obtained in this study indicate that the presence of organic ligands promotes an increase in the partition coefficient of Mg in calcite (DMg = (Mg/Ca)calcite (Mg/Ca)fluid). This behaviour can be explained by the temporal formation of aqueous Mg-ligand complexes that are subsequently adsorbed on the calcite surfaces and thereby reducing the active growth sites of calcite. The increase of DMg values as a function of the supersaturation degree of calcite in the fluid phase can be described by the linear equation LogDMg =0.3694 (±0.0329)×SIcalcite - 1.9066 (±0.0147); R2=0.92 In contrast, the presence of organic ligands, with exception of citrate, does not significantly affect the Mg isotope fractionation factor between calcite and reactive fluid (Δ26Mgcalcite-fluid = -2.5 ±0.1). Citrate likely exhibits larger fractionation between the Mg-ligand complexes and free aqueous Mg2+, compared to the other organic ligands studied in this work, as evidenced by the smaller Δ26Mgcalcite-fluid values. These results indicate that in Earth's surface calcite precipitating environments that are

  17. Structural basis for the ligand-binding specificity of fatty acid-binding proteins (pFABP4 and pFABP5) in gentoo penguin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Woo; Kim, Jung Eun; Do, Hackwon; Kim, Ryeo-Ok; Lee, Sung Gu; Park, Hyun Ho; Chang, Jeong Ho; Yim, Joung Han; Park, Hyun; Kim, Il-Chan; Lee, Jun Hyuck

    2015-09-11

    Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are involved in transporting hydrophobic fatty acids between various aqueous compartments of the cell by directly binding ligands inside their β-barrel cavities. Here, we report the crystal structures of ligand-unbound pFABP4, linoleate-bound pFABP4, and palmitate-bound pFABP5, obtained from gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua), at a resolution of 2.1 Å, 2.2 Å, and 2.3 Å, respectively. The pFABP4 and pFABP5 proteins have a canonical β-barrel structure with two short α-helices that form a cap region and fatty acid ligand binding sites in the hydrophobic cavity within the β-barrel structure. Linoleate-bound pFABP4 and palmitate-bound pFABP5 possess different ligand-binding modes and a unique ligand-binding pocket due to several sequence dissimilarities (A76/L78, T30/M32, underlining indicates pFABP4 residues) between the two proteins. Structural comparison revealed significantly different conformational changes in the β3-β4 loop region (residues 57-62) as well as the flipped Phe60 residue of pFABP5 than that in pFABP4 (the corresponding residue is Phe58). A ligand-binding study using fluorophore displacement assays shows that pFABP4 has a relatively strong affinity for linoleate as compared to pFABP5. In contrast, pFABP5 exhibits higher affinity for palmitate than that for pFABP4. In conclusion, our high-resolution structures and ligand-binding studies provide useful insights into the ligand-binding preferences of pFABPs based on key protein-ligand interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Syntheses, structures and luminescent properties of a series of 3D lanthanide coordination polymers with tripodal semirigid ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Qin Junsheng; Department of Applied Chemistry, Jilin Institute of Chemical Technology, Jilin 132022; Du Dongying

    2011-02-15

    Reactions of the tripodal bridging ligand 5-(4-carboxy-phenoxy)-isophthalic acid (abbreviated as H{sub 3}cpia) with lanthanide salts lead to the formation of a family of different coordination polymers, that is, [Ln(cpia)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n}.nH{sub 2}O (Ln=Ce (1), Pr (2), Nd (3), Sm (4), Eu (5), Gd (6), Dy (7), Er (8), Tm (9) and Y (10)) in the presence of formic acid or diethylamine, which are characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectrum, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), XRPD spectrum and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1-10 are isostructural and exhibit three-dimensional microporous frameworks. Furthermore, the photoluminescent properties of 4, 5 and 7 have been studiedmore » in detail. -- Graphical abstract: Reactions of the tripodal bridging ligand (H{sub 3}cpia) with lanthanide ions lead to the formation of a series of coordination polymers in the presence of formic acid or diethylamine. Display Omitted Research Highlights: {yields} Ten new lanthanides-based coordination polymers (1-10) have been synthesized. {yields} 1-10 exhibit 3D (4,8)-connected fluorite topology networks with 1D channel parallel to the b-axis. {yields} Compounds 4, 5 and 7 exhibit characteristic luminescence of Sm{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+} ions, respectively.« less

  19. Synthesis and characterization β-ketoamine ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaid, Nurzati Amani Mohamed; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda; Karim, Nurul Huda Abd

    2018-04-01

    β-ketoamine ligands are important members of heterodonor ligand because of their ease of preparation and modification of both steric and/or electronic effects. Complexes with β-ketoamine has received much less attention and there has been no study about this complex with β-ketoamine in ionic liquid reported. Two type of β-ketoamine ligands which are 4-amino-3-pentene-2-onato (A) and 3-amino-2-butenoic acid methyl ester (B) have been synthesized in this work. The resulting compound formed was characterized using standard spectroscopic and structural techniques which includes 1H and 13C, NMR spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. The 1H and 13C NMR spectrum displayed all the expected signals with correct integration and multiplicity. And it is proved that there are some differences between two ligands as observed in NMR and FTIR spectrum.

  20. Estimation of affinities of ligands in mixtures via magnetic recovery of target-ligand complexes and chromatographic analyses: chemometrics and an experimental model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The combinatorial library strategy of using multiple candidate ligands in mixtures as library members is ideal in terms of cost and efficiency, but needs special screening methods to estimate the affinities of candidate ligands in such mixtures. Herein, a new method to screen candidate ligands present in unknown molar quantities in mixtures was investigated. Results The proposed method involves preparing a processed-mixture-for-screening (PMFS) with each mixture sample and an exogenous reference ligand, initiating competitive binding among ligands from the PMFS to a target immobilized on magnetic particles, recovering target-ligand complexes in equilibrium by magnetic force, extracting and concentrating bound ligands, and analyzing ligands in the PMFS and the concentrated extract by chromatography. The relative affinity of each candidate ligand to its reference ligand is estimated via an approximation equation assuming (a) the candidate ligand and its reference ligand bind to the same site(s) on the target, (b) their chromatographic peak areas are over five times their intercepts of linear response but within their linear ranges, (c) their binding ratios are below 10%. These prerequisites are met by optimizing primarily the quantity of the target used and the PMFS composition ratio. The new method was tested using the competitive binding of biotin derivatives from mixtures to streptavidin immobilized on magnetic particles as a model. Each mixture sample containing a limited number of candidate biotin derivatives with moderate differences in their molar quantities were prepared via parallel-combinatorial-synthesis (PCS) without purification, or via the pooling of individual compounds. Some purified biotin derivatives were used as reference ligands. This method showed resistance to variations in chromatographic quantification sensitivity and concentration ratios; optimized conditions to validate the approximation equation could be applied to

  1. Synthesis, characterization, single crystal X-ray determination, fluorescence and electrochemical studies of new dinuclear nickel(II) and oxovanadium(IV) complexes containing double Schiff base ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafaatian, Bita; Ozbakzaei, Zahra; Notash, Behrouz; Rezvani, S. Ahmad

    2015-04-01

    A series of new bimetallic complexes of nickel(II) and vanadium(IV) have been synthesized by the reaction of the new double bidentate Schiff base ligands with nickel acetate and vanadyl acetylacetonate in 1:1 M ratio. In nickel and also vanadyl complexes the ligands were coordinated to the metals via the imine N and enolic O atoms. The complexes have been found to possess 1:1 metals to ligands stoichiometry and the molar conductance data revealed that the metal complexes were non-electrolytes. The nickel and vanadyl complexes exhibited distorted square planar and square pyramidal coordination geometries, respectively. The emission spectra of the ligands and their complexes were studied in methanol. Electrochemical properties of the ligands and their metal complexes were also investigated in DMSO solvent at 150 mV s-1 scan rate. The ligands and metal complexes showed both quasi-reversible and irreversible processes at this scan rate. The Schiff bases and their complexes have been characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, UV/Vis spectroscopies, elemental analysis and conductometry. The crystal structure of the nickel complex has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction.

  2. Clinical Use of PPARγ Ligands in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hatton, Jennifer L.; Yee, Lisa D.

    2008-01-01

    The role of PPARγ in adipocyte differentiation has fueled intense interest in the function of this steroid nuclear receptor for regulation of malignant cell growth and differentiation. Given the antiproliferative and differentiating effects of PPARγ ligands on liposarcoma cells, investigation of PPARγ expression and ligand activation in other solid tumors such as breast, colon, and prostate cancers ensued. The anticancer effects of PPARγ ligands in cell culture and rodent models of a multitude of tumor types suggest broad applicability of these agents to cancer therapy. This review focuses on the clinical use of PPARγ ligands, specifically the thiazolidinediones, for the treatment and prevention of cancer. PMID:19125177

  3. 2-Acylpyrroles as mono-anionic O,N-chelating ligands in silicon coordination chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kämpfe, Alexander; Brendler, Erica; Kroke, Edwin; Wagler, Jörg

    2014-07-21

    Kryptopyrrole (2,4-dimethyl-3-ethylpyrrole) was acylated with, for example, benzoyl chloride to afford 2-benzoyl-3,5-dimethyl-4-ethylpyrrole (L(1)H). With SiCl4 this ligand reacts under liberation of HCl and formation of the complex L(1)2SiCl2. In related reactions with HSiCl3 or H2SiCl2, the same chlorosilicon complex is formed under liberation of HCl and H2 or liberation of H2, respectively. The chlorine atoms of L(1)2SiCl2 can be replaced by fluoride and triflate using ZnF2 and Me3Si-OTf, respectively. The use of a supporting base (triethylamine) is required for the complexation of phenyltrichlorosilane and diphenyldichlorosilane. The complexes L(1)2SiCl2, L(1)2SiF2, L(1)2Si(OTf)2, L(1)2SiPhCl, and L(1)2SiPh2 exhibit various configurations of the octahedral silicon coordination spheres (i.e. cis or trans configuration of the monodentate substituents, different orientations of the bidentate chelating ligands relative to each other). Furthermore, cationic silicon complexes L(1)3Si(+) and L(1) SiPh(+) were synthesized by chloride abstraction with GaCl3. In contrast, reaction of L(1)2SiCl2 with a third equivalent of L(1)H in the presence of excess triethylamine produced a charge-neutral hexacoordinate Si complex with a new tetradentate chelating ligand which formed by Si-templated C-C coupling of two ligands L(1). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Ligand-specific regulation of the extracellular surface of a G-protein-coupled receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Bokoch, Michael P.; Zou, Yaozhong; Rasmussen, Søren G.F.

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are seven-transmembrane proteins that mediate most cellular responses to hormones and neurotransmitters. They are the largest group of therapeutic targets for a broad spectrum of diseases. Recent crystal structures of GPCRs have revealed structural conservation extending from the orthosteric ligand-binding site in the transmembrane core to the cytoplasmic G-protein-coupling domains. In contrast, the extracellular surface (ECS) of GPCRs is remarkably diverse and is therefore an ideal target for the discovery of subtype-selective drugs. However, little is known about the functional role of the ECS in receptor activation, or about conformational coupling of this surface to the nativemore » ligand-binding pocket. Here we use NMR spectroscopy to investigate ligand-specific conformational changes around a central structural feature in the ECS of the {beta}{sub 2} adrenergic receptor: a salt bridge linking extracellular loops 2 and 3. Small-molecule drugs that bind within the transmembrane core and exhibit different efficacies towards G-protein activation (agonist, neutral antagonist and inverse agonist) also stabilize distinct conformations of the ECS. We thereby demonstrate conformational coupling between the ECS and the orthosteric binding site, showing that drugs targeting this diverse surface could function as allosteric modulators with high subtype selectivity. Moreover, these studies provide a new insight into the dynamic behaviour of GPCRs not addressable by static, inactive-state crystal structures.« less

  5. Ligand-binding specificity and promiscuity of the main lignocellulolytic enzyme families as revealed by active-site architecture analysis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Li; Liu, Shijia; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Lushan

    2016-03-24

    Biomass can be converted into sugars by a series of lignocellulolytic enzymes, which belong to the glycoside hydrolase (GH) families summarized in CAZy databases. Here, using a structural bioinformatics method, we analyzed the active site architecture of the main lignocellulolytic enzyme families. The aromatic amino acids Trp/Tyr and polar amino acids Glu/Asp/Asn/Gln/Arg occurred at higher frequencies in the active site architecture than in the whole enzyme structure. And the number of potential subsites was significantly different among different families. In the cellulase and xylanase families, the conserved amino acids in the active site architecture were mostly found at the -2 to +1 subsites, while in β-glucosidase they were mainly concentrated at the -1 subsite. Families with more conserved binding amino acid residues displayed strong selectivity for their ligands, while those with fewer conserved binding amino acid residues often exhibited promiscuity when recognizing ligands. Enzymes with different activities also tended to bind different hydroxyl oxygen atoms on the ligand. These results may help us to better understand the common and unique structural bases of enzyme-ligand recognition from different families and provide a theoretical basis for the functional evolution and rational design of major lignocellulolytic enzymes.

  6. Luminescence of ytterbium(III) in mixed-ligand compounds with cinnamic acid and neutral phosphorus-containing ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinovskaya, I. V.

    2014-09-01

    The luminescence spectral characteristics of mixed-ligand compounds of ytterbium(III) with cinnamic acid and neutral phosphorus-containing ligands were studied by luminescence spectroscopy. The intensity of luminescence of the compounds was determined. The highest intensity of luminescence was found for the ytterbium(III) compound with triphenylphosphine oxide.

  7. Modulation of protein function by exogenous ligands in protein cavities: CO binding to a myoglobin cavity mutant containing unnatural proximal ligands.

    PubMed

    Decatur, S M; DePillis, G D; Boxer, S G

    1996-04-02

    A variety of heterocyclic ligands can be exchanged into the proximal cavity of sperm whale myoglobin mutant H93G, providing a simple method for introduction of the equivalent of unnatural amino acid side chains into a functionally critical location in this protein. These modified proteins bind CO on the distal side. 1H NMR data on H93G(Im)CO, where Im is imidazole, demonstrate that the structure of the distal heme pocket in H93G(Im)CO is very similar to that of wild type; thus, the effects of the proximal ligand's properties on CO binding can be studied with minimal perturbation of distal pocket structure. The exogenous proximal ligands used in this study include imidazole (Im), 4-methylimidazole (4-MeIm), 4-bromoimidazole (4-BrIm), N-methylimidazole (N-MeIm), pyridine (Pyr), and 3-fluoropyridine (3-FPyr). Substitution of the proximal ligand is found to produce substantial changes in the CO on and off rates, the equilibrium binding constant, and the vibrational stretch frequency of CO. Many of the changes are as large as those reported for distal pocket mutants prepared by site-directed mutagenesis. The ability to systematically vary the nature of the proximal ligand is exploited to test the effects of particular properties of the proximal ligand on CO binding. For example, 4-MeIm and 4-BrIm are similar in size and shape but differ significantly in pKa. The same relationship is true for Pyr and 3-FPyr. By comparison of the IR spectra and CO recombination kinetics of these complexes, the effects of proximal ligand pKa on the CO binding are assessed. Likewise, N-MeIm and 4-MeIm are similar in size and pKa but differ in their ability to hydrogen bond to amino acid residues in the proximal cavity. Comparisons of IR spectra and CO binding kinetics in these complexes reveal that proximal ligand conformation and hydrogen bonding affect the kinetics of CO binding. The mechanism of proximal ligand exchange between solution and the proximal cavity in CO complexes was

  8. Synthesis, spectral and magnetic studies of mono- and bi-nuclear metal complexes of a new bis(tridentate NO2) Schiff base ligand derived from 4,6-diacetylresorcinol and ethanolamine.

    PubMed

    Shebl, Magdy

    2009-07-15

    A new bis(tridentate NO2) Schiff base ligand, H(4)L, was prepared by the reaction of the bifunctional carbonyl compound; 4,6-diacetylresorcinol (DAR) with ethanolamine. The ligand reacted with iron(III), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II), cerium(III) and uranyl(VI) ions, in absence and in presence of LiOH, to yield mono- and bi-nuclear complexes with different coordinating sites. The ligand and its metal complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, IR, (1)H NMR, electronic, ESR and mass spectra, conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements as well as thermal analyses. In absence of LiOH, mononuclear complexes (2, 3 and 5-9) as well as binuclear complexes (1 and 4) were obtained. In mononuclear complexes, the ligand acted as a neutral, mono- and di-basic/bi- and tetra-dentate ligand while in binuclear complexes (1 and 4), the ligand acted as a bis(mono- or di-basic/tridentate) ligand. On the other hand, in presence of LiOH, only binuclear complexes (10-15) were obtained in which the ligand acted as a bis(dibasic tridentate) ligand. The metal complexes exhibited different geometrical arrangements such as octahedral, tetrahedral, square planar, square pyramidal and pentagonal bipyramidal arrangements.

  9. Adipogenesis of bovine perimuscular preadipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, Masaaki; Le Luo Guan; Zhang Bing

    2008-02-01

    In this study, non-transformed progeny adipofibroblasts, derived from mature adipocyte dedifferentiation, was used as a novel in vitro model to study adipogenic gene expression in cattle. Adipofibroblasts from dedifferentiated mature perimuscular fat (PMF) tissue were cultured with differentiation stimulants until the cells exhibited morphological differentiation. Treated cells were harvested from day 2 to 16 for RNA extraction, whereas control cells were cultured without addition of stimulants. Results from time course gene expression assays by quantitative real-time PCR revealed that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-{gamma}), sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) and their six down-stream genes were co-expressed at daymore » 2 post-differentiation induction. When compared to other adipogenesis culture systems, the adipogenic gene expression of bovine PMF adipofibroblasts culture was different, especially to the rodent model. Collectively, these results demonstrated PPAR-{gamma} and SREBP-1 cooperatively play a key role to regulate the re-differentiation of bovine adipofibroblasts, during early conversion stages in vitro.« less

  10. Reactivity of nitrido complexes of ruthenium(VI), osmium(VI), and manganese(V) bearing Schiff base and simple anionic ligands.

    PubMed

    Man, Wai-Lun; Lam, William W Y; Lau, Tai-Chu

    2014-02-18

    Nitrido complexes (M≡N) may be key intermediates in chemical and biological nitrogen fixation and serve as useful reagents for nitrogenation of organic compounds. Osmium(VI) nitrido complexes bearing 2,2':6',2″-terpyridine (terpy), 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy), or hydrotris(1-pyrazolyl)borate anion (Tp) ligands are highly electrophilic: they can react with a variety of nucleophiles to generate novel osmium(IV)/(V) complexes. This Account describes our recent results studying the reactivity of nitridocomplexes of ruthenium(VI), osmium(VI), and manganese(V) that bear Schiff bases and other simple anionic ligands. We demonstrate that these nitrido complexes exhibit rich chemical reactivity. They react with various nucleophiles, activate C-H bonds, undergo N···N coupling, catalyze the oxidation of organic compounds, and show anticancer activities. Ruthenium(VI) nitrido complexes bearing Schiff base ligands, such as [Ru(VI)(N)(salchda)(CH3OH)](+) (salchda = N,N'-bis(salicylidene)o-cyclohexyldiamine dianion), are highly electrophilic. This complex reacts readily at ambient conditions with a variety of nucleophiles at rates that are much faster than similar reactions using Os(VI)≡N. This complex also carries out unique reactions, including the direct aziridination of alkenes, C-H bond activation of alkanes and C-N bond cleavage of anilines. The addition of ligands such as pyridine can enhance the reactivity of [Ru(VI)(N)(salchda)(CH3OH)](+). Therefore researchers can tune the reactivity of Ru≡N by adding a ligand L trans to nitride: L-Ru≡N. Moreover, the addition of various nucleophiles (Nu) to Ru(VI)≡N initially generate the ruthenium(IV) imido species Ru(IV)-N(Nu), a new class of hydrogen-atom transfer (HAT) reagents. Nucleophiles also readily add to coordinated Schiff base ligands in Os(VI)≡N and Ru(VI)≡N complexes. These additions are often stereospecific, suggesting that the nitrido ligand has a directing effect on the incoming nucleophile. M≡N is also

  11. Effects of the η(5)-C5H4(i)Pr Ligand on the Properties Exhibited by Its Tungsten Nitrosyl Complexes.

    PubMed

    Fabulyak, Diana; Baillie, Rhett A; Patrick, Brian O; Legzdins, Peter; Rosenfeld, Devon C

    2016-02-15

    Reaction of Na[η(5)-C5H4(i)Pr] with W(CO)6 in refluxing THF for 4 days generates a solution of Na[(η(5)-C5H4(i)Pr)W(CO)3] that when treated with N-methyl-N-nitroso-p-toluenesulfonamide at ambient temperatures affords (η(5)-C5H4(i)Pr)W(NO)(CO)2 (1) that is isolable in good yield as an analytically pure orange oil. Treatment of 1 with an equimolar amount of I2 in Et2O at ambient temperatures affords (η(5)-C5H4(i)Pr)W(NO)I2 (2) as a dark brown solid in excellent yield. Sequential treatment at low temperatures of 2 with 0.5 equiv of Mg(CH2CMe3)2 and Mg(CH2CH═CMe2)2 in Et2O produces the alkyl allyl complex, (η(5)-C5H4(i)Pr)W(NO)(CH2CMe3)(η(3)-CH2CHCMe2) (3), as a thermally sensitive yellow liquid. Complex 3 may also be synthesized, albeit in low yield, in one vessel at low temperatures by reacting 1 first with 1 equiv of PCl5 and then with the binary magnesium reagents specified above. Interestingly, similar treatment of 1 in Et2O with PCl5 and only 0.5 equiv of Mg(CH2CH═CMe2)2 results in the formation of the unusual complex (η(5)-C5H4(i)Pr)W(NO)(PCl2CMe2CH═CH2)Cl2 (4), which probably is formed via a metathesis reaction of the binary magnesium reagent with (η(5)-C5H4(i)Pr)W(NO)(PCl3)Cl2. The C-D activation of C6D6 by complex 3 has been investigated and compared to that exhibited by its η(5)-C5Me5, η(5)-C5Me4H, and η(5)-C5Me4(n)Pr analogues. Kinetic analyses of the various activations have established that the presence of the η(5)-C5H4(i)Pr ligand significantly increases the rate of the reaction, an outcome that can be attributed to a combination of steric and electronic factors. In addition, mechanistic studies have established that in solution 3 loses neopentane under ambient conditions to generate exclusively the 16e η(2)-diene intermediate complex (η(5)-C5H4(i)Pr)W(NO)(η(2)-CH2═CMeCH═CH2), which then effects the subsequent C-D activations. This behavior contrasts with that exhibited by the η(5)-C5Me5 analogue of 3 which forms both η(2

  12. Interactions between alkaline earth cations and oxo ligands. DFT study of the affinity of the Mg²+ cation for phosphoryl ligands.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Leonardo Moreira; de Mesquita Carneiro, José Walkimar; Paes, Lilian Weitzel Coelho

    2011-08-01

    DFT (B3LYP/6-31+G(d)) calculations of Mg(2+) affinities for a set of phosphoryl ligands were performed. Two types of ligands were studied: a set of trivalent [O = P(R)] and a set of pentavalent phosphoryl ligands [O = P(R)(3)] (R = H, F, Cl, Br, OH, OCH(3), CH(3), CN, NH(2) and NO(2)), with R either bound directly to the phosphorus atom or to the para position of a phenyl ring. The affinity of the Mg(2+) cation for the ligands was quantified by means of the enthalpy for the substitution of one water molecule in the [Mg(H(2)O)(6)](2+) complex for a ligand. The enthalpy of substitution was correlated with electronic and geometric parameters. Electron-donor groups increase the interaction between the cation and the ligand, while electron-acceptor groups decrease the interaction enthalpy.

  13. Oxoiron(IV) Tetramethylcyclam Complexes with Axial Carboxylate Ligands: Effect of Tethering the Carboxylate on Reactivity.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, Jennifer O; England, Jason; Klein, Johannes E M N; Farquhar, Erik R; Frisch, Jonathan R; Martinho, Marlène; Mandal, Debasish; Münck, Eckard; Shaik, Sason; Que, Lawrence

    2017-03-20

    Oxoiron(IV) species are implicated as reactive intermediates in nonheme monoiron oxygenases, often acting as the agent for hydrogen-atom transfer from substrate. A histidine is the most likely ligand trans to the oxo unit in most enzymes characterized thus far but is replaced by a carboxylate in the case of isopenicillin N synthase. As the effect of a trans carboxylate ligand on the properties of the oxoiron(IV) unit has not been systematically studied, we have synthesized and characterized four oxoiron(IV) complexes supported by the tetramethylcyclam (TMC) macrocycle and having a carboxylate ligand trans to the oxo unit. Two complexes have acetate or propionate axial ligands, while the other two have the carboxylate functionality tethered to the macrocyclic ligand framework by one or two methylene units. Interestingly, these four complexes exhibit substrate oxidation rates that differ by more than 100-fold, despite having E p,c values for the reduction of the Fe═O unit that span a range of only 130 mV. Eyring parameters for 1,4-cyclohexadiene oxidation show that reactivity differences originate from differences in activation enthalpy between complexes with tethered carboxylates and those with untethered carboxylates, in agreement with computational results. As noted previously for the initial subset of four complexes, the logarithms of the oxygen atom transfer rates of 11 complexes of the Fe IV (O)TMC(X) series increase linearly with the observed E p,c values, reflecting the electrophilicity of the Fe═O unit. In contrast, no correlation with E p,c values is observed for the corresponding hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reaction rates; instead, the HAT rates increase as the computed triplet-quintet spin state gap narrows, consistent with Shaik's two-state-reactivity model. In fact, the two complexes with untethered carboxylates are among the most reactive HAT agents in this series, demonstrating that the axial ligand can play a key role in tuning the HAT

  14. General Anesthetics Have Additive Actions on Three Ligand-Gated Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Andrew; Lobo, Ingrid A.; Gong, Diane; Trudell, James R.; Solt, Ken; Harris, R. Adron; Eger, Edmond I

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine whether pairs of compounds, including general anesthetics, could simultaneously modulate receptor function in a synergistic manner, thus demonstrating the existence of multiple intra-protein anesthetic binding sites. Methods Using standard electrophysiologic methods, we measured the effects of at least one combination of benzene, isoflurane, halothane, chloroform, flunitrazepam, zinc and pentobarbital on at least one of the following ligand gated ion channels: N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), glycine receptors (GlyRs) and γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs). Results All drug-drug-receptor combinations were found to exhibit additive, not synergistic modulation. Isoflurane with benzene additively depressed NMDAR function. Isoflurane with halothane additively enhanced GlyR function, as did isoflurane with zinc. Isoflurane with halothane additively enhanced GABAAR function as did all of the following: halothane with chloroform, pentobarbital with isoflurane, and flunitrazepam with isoflurane. Conclusions The simultaneous allosteric modulation of ligand gated ion channels by general anesthetics is entirely additive. Where pairs of general anesthetic drugs interact synergistically to produce general anesthesia, they must do so on systems more complex than a single receptor. PMID:18633027

  15. Semiconductor Quantum Dots with Photoresponsive Ligands.

    PubMed

    Sansalone, Lorenzo; Tang, Sicheng; Zhang, Yang; Thapaliya, Ek Raj; Raymo, Françisco M; Garcia-Amorós, Jaume

    2016-10-01

    Photochromic or photocaged ligands can be anchored to the outer shell of semiconductor quantum dots in order to control the photophysical properties of these inorganic nanocrystals with optical stimulations. One of the two interconvertible states of the photoresponsive ligands can be designed to accept either an electron or energy from the excited quantum dots and quench their luminescence. Under these conditions, the reversible transformations of photochromic ligands or the irreversible cleavage of photocaged counterparts translates into the possibility to switch luminescence with external control. As an alternative to regulating the photophysics of a quantum dot via the photochemistry of its ligands, the photochemistry of the latter can be controlled by relying on the photophysics of the former. The transfer of excitation energy from a quantum dot to a photocaged ligand populates the excited state of the species adsorbed on the nanocrystal to induce a photochemical reaction. This mechanism, in conjunction with the large two-photon absorption cross section of quantum dots, can be exploited to release nitric oxide or to generate singlet oxygen under near-infrared irradiation. Thus, the combination of semiconductor quantum dots and photoresponsive ligands offers the opportunity to assemble nanostructured constructs with specific functions on the basis of electron or energy transfer processes. The photoswitchable luminescence and ability to photoinduce the release of reactive chemicals, associated with the resulting systems, can be particularly valuable in biomedical research and can, ultimately, lead to the realization of imaging probes for diagnostic applications as well as to therapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer.

  16. The role of ligands on the equilibria between functional states of a G protein-coupled receptor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hun; Chung, Ka Young; Manglik, Aashish; Hansen, Alexandar L; Dror, Ron O; Mildorf, Thomas J; Shaw, David E; Kobilka, Brian K; Prosser, R Scott

    2013-06-26

    G protein-coupled receptors exhibit a wide variety of signaling behaviors in response to different ligands. When a small label was incorporated on the cytosolic interface of transmembrane helix 6 (Cys-265), (19)F NMR spectra of the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) reconstituted in maltose/neopentyl glycol detergent micelles revealed two distinct inactive states, an activation intermediate state en route to activation, and, in the presence of a G protein mimic, a predominant active state. Analysis of the spectra as a function of temperature revealed that for all ligands, the activation intermediate is entropically favored and enthalpically disfavored. β2AR enthalpy changes toward activation are notably lower than those observed with rhodopsin, a likely consequence of basal activity and the fact that the ionic lock and other interactions stabilizing the inactive state of β2AR are weaker. Positive entropy changes toward activation likely reflect greater mobility (configurational entropy) in the cytoplasmic domain, as confirmed through an order parameter analysis. Ligands greatly influence the overall changes in enthalpy and entropy of the system and the corresponding changes in population and amplitude of motion of given states, suggesting a complex landscape of states and substates.

  17. Copper (II) complexes of bidentate ligands exhibit potent anti-cancer activity regardless of platinum sensitivity status.

    PubMed

    Wehbe, Mohamed; Lo, Cody; Leung, Ada W Y; Dragowska, Wieslawa H; Ryan, Gemma M; Bally, Marcel B

    2017-12-01

    Insensitivity to platinum, either through inherent or acquired resistance, is a major clinical problem in the treatment of many solid tumors. Here, we explored the therapeutic potential of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC), pyrithione (Pyr), plumbagin (Plum), 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ), clioquinol (CQ) copper complexes in a panel of cancer cell lines that differ in their sensitivity to platins (cisplatin/carboplatin) using a high-content imaging system. Our data suggest that the copper complexes were effective against both platinum sensitive (IC 50  ~ 1 μM platinum) and insensitive (IC 50  > 5 μM platinum) cell lines. Furthermore, copper complexes of DDC, Pyr and 8-HQ had greater therapeutic activity compared to the copper-free ligands in all cell lines; whereas the copper-dependent activities of Plum and CQ were cell-line specific. Four of the copper complexes (Cu(DDC) 2 , Cu(Pyr) 2 , Cu(Plum) 2 and Cu(8-HQ) 2 ) showed IC 50 values less than that of cisplatin in all tested cell lines. The complex copper DDC (Cu(DDC) 2 ) was selected for in vivo evaluation due to its low nano-molar range activity in vitro and the availability of an injectable liposomal formulation. Liposomal (Cu(DDC) 2 ) was tested in a fast-growing platinum-resistant A2780-CP ovarian xenograft model and was found to achieve a statistically significant reduction (50%; p < 0.05) in tumour size. This work supports the potential use of copper-based therapeutics to treat cancers that are insensitive to platinum drugs.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of a cadmium(II)-organic supramolecular coordination compound based on the multifunctional 2-amino-5-sulfobenzoic acid ligand.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Gan Yin; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Meng Jie; Zhang, Kou Lin

    2016-12-01

    Much attention has been paid by chemists to the construction of supramolecular coordination compounds based on the multifunctional ligand 5-sulfosalicylic acid (H 3 SSA) due to the structural and biological interest of these compounds. However, no coordination compounds have been reported for the multifunctional amino-substituted sulfobenzoate ligand 2-amino-5-sulfobenzoic acid (H 2 asba). We expected that H 2 asba could be a suitable building block for the assembly of supramolecular networks due to its interesting structural characteristics. The reaction of cadmium(II) nitrate with H 2 asba in the presence of the auxiliary flexible dipyridylamide ligand N,N'-bis[(pyridin-4-yl)methyl]oxamide (4bpme) under ambient conditions formed a new mixed-ligand coordination compound, namely bis(3-amino-4-carboxybenzenesulfonato-κO 1 )diaquabis{N,N'-bis[(pyridin-4-yl)methyl]oxamide-κN}cadmium(II)-N,N'-bis[(pyridin-4-yl)methyl]oxamide-water (1/1/4), [Cd(C 7 H 6 NO 5 S) 2 (C 14 H 14 N 4 O 2 ) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ]·C 14 H 14 N 4 O 2 ·4H 2 O, (1), which was characterized by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction analysis (PXRD), FT-IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TG), and UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopic analyses in the solid state. The central Cd II atom in (1) occupies a special position on a centre of inversion and exhibits a slightly distorted octahedral geometry, being coordinated by two N atoms from two monodentate 4bpme ligands, four O atoms from two monodentate 4-amino-3-carboxybenzenesulfonate (Hasba - ) ligands and two coordinated water molecules. Interestingly, complex (1) further extends into a threefold polycatenated 0D→2D (0D is zero-dimensional and 2D is two-dimensional) interpenetrated supramolecular two-dimensional (4,4) layer through intermolecular hydrogen bonding. The interlayer hydrogen bonding further links adjacent threefold polycatenated two-dimensional layers into a three-dimensional network. The optical properties of complex (1

  19. Hydrothermal syntheses, crystal structures, and photophysical properties of two coordination polymers with mixed ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Li; Liu, Chun-Ling

    2017-10-01

    Two novel metal-organic coordination polymers [Cd(ipdt)(m-BDC)·3H2O]n (1) and [Pb(mip)2(NTC) ·2H2O]n (2) [ipdt = 2,6-Dimethoxy-4-(1H-1,3,7,8-tetraaza-cyclopenta[l]phenanthren-2-yl)-phenol, mip = 2-(3-methoxyphenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline, m-BDC = isophthalic acid, NTC = nicotinic acid] have been synthesized by hydrothermal reactions and characterized by elemental analysis, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, infrared spectrum (IR) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that 1 exhibits two-dimensional (2D) layer architecture, and 2 shows 1D chain architecture. TG analysis shows clear courses of weight loss, which corresponds to the decomposition of different ligands. The luminescent properties for the ligand ipdt, mip and complexes 1-2 are also discussed in detail, which should be acted as potential luminescent material.

  20. Optical Features of Efficient Europium(III) Complexes with β-Diketonato and Auxiliary Ligands and Mechanistic Investigation of Energy Transfer Process.

    PubMed

    Bala, Manju; Kumar, Satish; Taxak, V B; Boora, Priti; Khatkar, S P

    2016-09-01

    Two new europium (III) complexes have been synthesized with 1,3-[bis(4-methoxyphenyl)]propane-1,3-dionato (HBMPD) as main ligand and 2,2'-bipyridyl (bipy) or 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) as an auxiliary ligand. The main ligand HBMPD has been synthesized by ecofriendly microwave approach and complexes by solution precipitation method. The resulting materials are characterized by IR, (1)H-NMR, elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, UV-visible and TG-DTG techniques. The photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy depicts the detail analysis of photophysical properties of the complexes, their results show that the ligand interact with Eu (III) ion which act as antenna and transfers the absorbed energy to the central europium(III) ion via sensitization process efficiently. As a consequence of this interaction, these materials exhibit excellent luminescent intensity, long decay time (τ), high quantum efficiency (η) and Judd-Ofelt intensity parameter (Ω2). The CIE coordinates fall under the deep red region, matching well with the NTSC (National Television Standard Committee) standard. Hence, these highly efficient optical materials can be used as a red component in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and full color flat panel displays.

  1. Ruthenium(II) arene complexes with chelating chloroquine analogue ligands: Synthesis, characterization and in vitro antimalarial activity†

    PubMed Central

    Glans, Lotta; Ehnbom, Andreas; de Kock, Carmen; Martínez, Alberto; Estrada, Jesús; Smith, Peter J.; Haukka, Matti; Sánchez-Delgado, Roberto A.; Nordlander, Ebbe

    2012-01-01

    Three new ruthenium complexes with bidentate chloroquine analogue ligands, [Ru(η6-cym)(L1)Cl]Cl (1, cym = p-cymene, L1 = N-(2-((pyridin-2-yl)methylamino)ethyl)-7-chloroquinolin-4-amine), [Ru(η6-cym)(L2)Cl]Cl (2, L2 = N-(2-((1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)methylamino)ethyl)-7-chloroquinolin-4-amine) and [Ru(η6-cym)(L3)Cl] (3, L3 = N-(2-((2-hydroxyphenyl)methylimino)ethyl)-7-chloroquinolin-4-amine) have been synthesized and characterized. In addition, the X-ray crystal structure of 2 is reported. The antimalarial activity of complexes 1–3 and ligands L1, L2 and L3, as well as the compound N-(2-(bis((pyridin-2-yl)methyl)amino)ethyl)-7-chloroquinolin-4-amine (L4), against chloroquine sensitive and chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria strains was evaluated. While 1 and 2 are less active than the corresponding ligands, 3 exhibits high antimalarial activity. The chloroquine analogue L2 also shows good activity against both the choloroquine sensitive and the chloroquine resistant strains. Heme aggregation inhibition activity (HAIA) at an aqueous buffer/n-octanol interface (HAIR50) and lipophilicity (D, as measured by water/n-octanol distribution coefficients) have been measured for all ligands and metal complexes. A direct correlation between the D and HAIR50 properties cannot be made because of the relative structural diversity of the complexes, but it may be noted that these properties are enhanced upon complexation of the inactive ligand L3 to ruthenium, to give a metal complex (3) with promising antimalarial activity. PMID:22249579

  2. C-H functionalization: thoroughly tuning ligands at a metal ion, a chemist can greatly enhance catalyst's activity and selectivity.

    PubMed

    Shul'pin, Georgiy B

    2013-09-28

    This brief essay consists of a few "exciting stories" devoted to relations within a metal-complex catalyst between a metal ion and a coordinated ligand. When, as in the case of a human couple, the rapport of the partners is cordial and a love cements these relations, a chemist finds an ideal married couple, in other words he obtains a catalyst of choice which allows him to functionalize C-H bonds very efficiently and selectively. Examples of such lucky marriages in the catalytic world of ions and ligands are discussed here. Activity of the catalyst is characterized by turnover number (TON) or turnover frequency (TOF) as well as by yield of a target product. Introducing a chelating N,N- or N,O-ligand to the catalyst molecule (this can be an iron or manganese derivative) sharply enhances its activity. However, the activity of vanadium derivatives (with additionally added to the solution pyrazinecarboxylic acid, PCA) as well as of various osmium complexes does not dramatically depend on the nature of ligands surrounding metal ions. Complexes of these metals are very efficient catalysts in oxidations with H2O2. Osmium derivatives are record-holders exhibiting extremely high TONs whereas vanadium complexes are on the second position. Finally, elegant examples of alkane functionalization on the ions of non-transition metals (aluminium, gallium etc.) are described when one ligand within the metal complex (namely, hydroperoxyl ligand HOO(-)) helps other ligand of this complex (H2O2 molecule coordinated to the metal) to disintegrate into two species, generating very reactive hydroxyl radical. Hydrogen peroxide molecule, even ligated to the metal ion, is perfectly stable without the assistance of the neighboring HOO(-) ligand. This ligand can be easily oxidized donating an electron to its partner ligand (H2O2). In an analogous case, when the central ion in the catalyst is a transition metal, this ion changing its oxidation state can donate an electron to the coordinated H2O2

  3. Preparation of Different Substitued Polypyridine Ligands, Ruthenium(II)-Bridged Complexes and Spectoscopıc Studies.

    PubMed

    Obali, Aslihan Yilmaz; Ucan, Halil Ismet

    2016-09-01

    Novel different substitued polypyridine ligands 4-((4-(1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline-2-yl)phenoxy)methyl)benzaldehyde (BA-PPY), (E)-N-(4-((4-(1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline-2-yl)phenoxy)methyl)benzylidene)-pyrene-4-amine (PR-PPY), (E)-N-(4-((4-(1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10] phenanthroline-2-yl)phenoxy)methyl)benzylidene)-1,10-phenanthroline-5amine (FN-PPY), 2-(4-(bromomethyl)phenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10] phenanthroline (BR-PPY), 2-(4-(azidomethyl)phenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline (N3-PPY) and triazole containing polypyridine ligand 3,4-bis[(4-(metoxy)-1,2,3-triazole)1-methylphenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline)] benzaldehyde (BA-DIPPY) and Ruthenium(II) complexes were synthesized and characterized. Their photopysical properties were investigated. The complexes RuP(PR-PPY), RuB(PR-PPY, RuP(FN-PPY) and RuB(FN-PPY) exhibited a broad absorption bands at 485, 475, 476, and 453 nm, respectively, assignable to the spin-allowed MLCT (dπ-π*) transition. The emission maxima of the pyrene-appended polypyridine ligand PR-PPY was observed at λems = 616 nm and the phenanthroline-appended polypyridine ligand FN-PPY was observed at λems = 668 nm. And the emission maxima of the complexes RuP(PR-PPY), RuB(PR-PPY), RuP(FN-PPY) and RuB(FN-PPY) were observed at λems = 646, 646, 685 and 685 nm, respectively. As seen in fluorescence spectra, the fluorescence intensities of the ligands are higher than their metal complexes. This is because of quenching effect of Ruthenium(II) metal on chromophore groups.

  4. Photoluminescent lead(II) coordination polymers stabilised by bifunctional organoarsonate ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jian-Di; Onet, Camelia I.; Schmitt, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Four lead(II) coordination polymers were isolated under hydro(solvo)thermal conditions. The applied synthetic methodology takes advantage of the coordination behaviour of a new bifunctional organoarsonate ligand, 4-(1, 2, 4-triazol-4-yl)phenylarsonic acid (H2TPAA) and involves the variation of lead(II) reactants, metal/ligand mole ratios, and solvents. The constitutional composition of the four lead(II) coordination polymers can be formulated as [Pb2(TPAA)(HTPAA)(NO3)]·6H2O (1), [Pb2(TPAA)(HTPAA)2]·DMF·0.5H2O (DMF = N, N-Dimethylformamide) (2), [Pb2Cl2(TPAA)H2O] (3), and [Pb3Cl(TPAA)(HTPAA)2H2O]Cl (4). The compounds were characterized by single-crystal and powder x-ray diffraction techniques, thermogravimetric analyses, infra-red spectroscopy, and elemental analyses. Single-crystal x-ray diffraction reveals that 1 and 2 represent two-dimensional (2D) layered structures whilst 3 and 4 form three-dimensional (3D) frameworks. The structures of 1, 2, and 4 contain one-dimensional (1D) {PbII/AsO3} substructures, while 3 is composed of 2D {PbII/AsO3} arrays. Besides their interesting topologies, 1-4 all exhibit photoluminescence properties in the solid state at room temperature.

  5. Shedding Light on Anesthetic Mechanisms: Application of Photoaffinity Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Woll, Kellie A.; Dailey, William P.; Brannigan, Grace; Eckenhoff, Roderic G.

    2016-01-01

    Anesthetic photoaffinity ligands have had an increasing presence within anesthesiology research. These ligands mimic parent general anesthetics, and allow investigators to study anesthetic interactions with receptors and enzymes; identify novel targets; and determine distribution within biological systems. To date nearly all general anesthetics used in medicine have a corresponding photoaffinity ligand represented in the literature. In this review we examine all aspects of the current methodologies, including ligand design, characterization and deployment. Finally we offer points of consideration and highlight the future outlook as more photoaffinity ligands emerge within the field. PMID:27464974

  6. Shedding Light on Anesthetic Mechanisms: Application of Photoaffinity Ligands.

    PubMed

    Woll, Kellie A; Dailey, William P; Brannigan, Grace; Eckenhoff, Roderic G

    2016-11-01

    Anesthetic photoaffinity ligands have had an increasing presence within anesthesiology research. These ligands mimic parent general anesthetics and allow investigators to study anesthetic interactions with receptors and enzymes; identify novel targets; and determine distribution within biological systems. To date, nearly all general anesthetics used in medicine have a corresponding photoaffinity ligand represented in the literature. In this review, we examine all aspects of the current methodologies, including ligand design, characterization, and deployment. Finally we offer points of consideration and highlight the future outlook as more photoaffinity ligands emerge within the field.

  7. Syntheses and structural characterization of iron(II) and copper(II) coordination compounds with the neutral flexible bidentate N-donor ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beheshti, Azizolla; Lalegani, Arash; Bruno, Giuseppe; Rudbari, Hadi Amiri

    2014-08-01

    Two new coordination compounds [Fe(bib)2(N3)2]n(1) and [Cu2(bpp)2(N3)4] (2) with azide and flexible ligands 1,4-bis(imidazolyl)butane (bib) and 1,3-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)propane (bpp) were prepared and structurally characterized. In the 2D network structure of 1, the iron(II) ion lies on an inversion center and exhibits an FeN6 octahedral arrangement while in the dinuclear structure of 2, the copper(II) ion adopts an FeN5 distorted square pyramid geometry. In the complex 1, each μ2-bib acts as bridging ligand connecting two adjacent iron(II) ions while in the complex 2, the bpp ligand is coordinated to copper(II) ion in a cyclic-bidentate fashion forming an eight-membered metallocyclic ring. Coordination compounds 1 and 2 have been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analyses and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Thermal analysis of polymer 1 was also studied.

  8. Sensing multiple ligands with single receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vijay; Nemenman, Ilya

    2015-03-01

    Cells use surface receptors to measure concentrations of external ligand molecules. Limits on the accuracy of such sensing are well-known for the scenario where concentration of one molecular species is being determined by one receptor [Endres]. However, in more realistic scenarios, a cognate (high-affinity) ligand competes with many non-cognate (low-affinity) ligands for binding to the receptor. We analyze effects of this competition on the accuracy of sensing. We show that maximum-likelihood statistical inference allows determination of concentrations of multiple ligands, cognate and non-cognate, by the same receptor concurrently. While it is unclear if traditional biochemical circuitry downstream of the receptor can implement such inference exactly, we show that an approximate inference can be performed by coupling the receptor to a kinetic proofreading cascade. We characterize the accuracy of such kinetic proofreading sensing in comparison to the exact maximum-likelihood approach. We acknowledge the support from the James S. McDonnell Foundation and the Human Frontier Science Program.

  9. Redox interplay of oxo-thio-tungsten centers with sulfur-donor co-ligands.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Simon; Eagle, Aston A; Sproules, Stephen A; Hill, Jason P; White, Jonathan M; Tiekink, Edward R T; George, Graham N; Young, Charles G

    2003-09-22

    The oxo-thio-W(VI) complexes TpWOS(S(2)PR(2)-S) and TpWOS(pyS-S) (Tp = hydrotris(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)borate, R = OEt, Ph; pyS = pyridine-2-thiolate) have been prepared and characterized by microanalytical, spectroscopic, and structural techniques. Crystals of the 1,2-dichloroethane hemisolvate of TpWOS(S(2)PPh(2)-S) belong to the triclinic space group Ponemacr; with a = 10.732(6) A, b = 16.91(1) A, c = 10.021(4) A, alpha = 104.40(4) degrees, beta = 107.52(3) degrees, gamma = 96.09(5) degrees, V = 1647(1) A(3) for Z = 2. The complex exhibits a distorted octahedral structure featuring a facial tridentate Tp ligand and mutually cis terminal oxo (W-O(1) = 1.712(7) A), terminal thio (W-S(1) = 2.162(3) A), and monodentate dithiophosphinate ligands. X-ray absorption and extended X-ray absorption fine structure results support a related oxo-thio formulation for TpWOS(pyS-S). The complexes are reduced to the corresponding oxo-thio-W(V) anions, [TpWOS(S(2)PR(2)-S)](-) and [TpWOS(pyS-S)](-), which exhibit highly anisotropic EPR spectra. They are oxidized to form the EPR-active (dithio)oxo-W(V) cations, [TpWO(S(3)PR(2)-S,S')](+) and [TpWO(pyS(2)-N,S)](+) (pyS(2) = pyridine-2-dithio). Green [TpWO(pyS(2)-N,S)]BF(4), formed in the reaction of TpWOS(pyS) and NOBF(4), has been isolated and spectroscopically and structurally characterized. Crystals of [TpWO(pyS(2)-N,S)]BF(4) belong to the monoclinic space group Cc with a = 16.007(5) A, b = 14.091(4) A, c = 13.608(4) A, beta = 124.525(4) degrees, V = 2528.8(13) A(3) for Z = 4. The cation exhibits a distorted octahedral structure featuring facial tridentate Tp, terminal oxo (W-O(1) = 1.632(12) A), and bidentate pyridine-2-dithio-N,S (W-S(1) = 2.317(7) A, S(1)-S(2) = 2.037(9) A) ligands. The structures and redox behavior of the complexes are compared and contrasted with those of the related molybdenum complexes, TpMo(VI)OS(S(2)PR(2)-S) and TpMo(IV)O(pyS(2)-N,S) (Hill, J. P.; Laughlin, L. J.; Gable, R. W.; Young, C. G. Inorg. Chem

  10. A tandem regression-outlier analysis of a ligand cellular system for key structural modifications around ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Ting

    2013-04-30

    A tandem technique of hard equipment is often used for the chemical analysis of a single cell to first isolate and then detect the wanted identities. The first part is the separation of wanted chemicals from the bulk of a cell; the second part is the actual detection of the important identities. To identify the key structural modifications around ligand binding, the present study aims to develop a counterpart of tandem technique for cheminformatics. A statistical regression and its outliers act as a computational technique for separation. A PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) agonist cellular system was subjected to such an investigation. Results show that this tandem regression-outlier analysis, or the prioritization of the context equations tagged with features of the outliers, is an effective regression technique of cheminformatics to detect key structural modifications, as well as their tendency of impact to ligand binding. The key structural modifications around ligand binding are effectively extracted or characterized out of cellular reactions. This is because molecular binding is the paramount factor in such ligand cellular system and key structural modifications around ligand binding are expected to create outliers. Therefore, such outliers can be captured by this tandem regression-outlier analysis.

  11. Structural Basis for Activation of Fatty Acid-binding Protein 4

    SciTech Connect

    Gillilan,R.; Ayers, S.; Noy, N.

    2007-01-01

    Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) delivers ligands from the cytosol to the nuclear receptor PPAR{gamma} in the nucleus, thereby enhancing the transcriptional activity of the receptor. Notably, FABP4 binds multiple ligands with a similar affinity but its nuclear translocation is activated only by specific compounds. To gain insight into the structural features that underlie the ligand-specificity in activation of the nuclear import of FABP4, we solved the crystal structures of the protein complexed with two compounds that induce its nuclear translocation, and compared these to the apo-protein and to FABP4 structures bound to non-activating ligands. Examination of these structures indicatesmore » that activation coincides with closure of a portal loop phenylalanine side-chain, contraction of the binding pocket, a subtle shift in a helical domain containing the nuclear localization signal of the protein, and a resultant change in oligomeric state that exposes the nuclear localization signal to the solution. Comparisons of backbone displacements induced by activating ligands with a measure of mobility derived from translation, libration, screw (TLS) refinement, and with a composite of slowest normal modes of the apo state suggest that the helical motion associated with the activation of the protein is part of the repertoire of the equilibrium motions of the apo-protein, i.e. that ligand binding does not induce the activated configuration but serves to stabilize it. Nuclear import of FABP4 can thus be understood in terms of the pre-existing equilibrium hypothesis of ligand binding.« less

  12. Syntheses, crystal structures, anticancer activities of three reduce Schiff base ligand based transition metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hui-Qin; Jia, Lei; Xu, Jun; Zhu, Tao-Feng; Xu, Zhou-Qing; Chen, Ru-Hua; Ma, Tie-Liang; Wang, Yuan; Wu, Wei-Na

    2016-02-01

    Three nickel(II) complexes, [Ni2(L1)2(tren)2(H2O)](ClO4)3 (1), [NiL2(tren)2](ClO4)·2.5H2O (2), [NiL2(tren)2]I·1.5H2O·CH3OH (3) based on amino acid reduced Schiff ligands are synthesized and characterized by physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. The results show that in all complexes, the amino acid ligand is deprotonated and acts as an anionic ligand. In the dinuclear complex 1, each Ni(II) atom has a distorted octahedron geometry while with different coordination environment. However, the complexes 2 and 3 are mononuclear, almost with the same coordination environment. Furthermore, in vitro experiments are carried out, including MTT assay, Annexin V/PI flow cytometry and western blotting, to assess whether the complexes have antitumor effect. And the results show that all the three complexes have moderate anticancer activity towards human hepatic cancer (HepG2), human cervical cancer (HeLa) and human prostate (PC3) cell lines, in a concentration dependent way. The complex 1 exhibit higher cytotoxicity than the other two complexes and can induce human hepatic cancer cell (HepG2) to cell apoptosis by activating caspase 3.

  13. Synthesis, photoluminescence and biological properties of terbium(III) complexes with hydroxyketone and nitrogen containing heterocyclic ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poonam; Kumar, Rajesh; Boora, Priti; Khatkar, Anurag; Khatkar, S. P.; Taxak, V. B.

    2016-01-01

    The ternary terbium(III) complexes [Tb(HDAP)3ṡbiq], [Tb(HDAP)3ṡdmph] and [Tb(HDAP)3ṡbathophen] were prepared by using methoxy substituted hydroxyketone ligand HDAP (2-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxyacetophenone) and an ancillary ligand 2,2-biquinoline or 5,6-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline or bathophenanthroline respectively. The ligand and synthesized complexes were characterised based on elemental analysis, FT-IR and 1H NMR. Thermal behaviour of the synthesized complexes illustrates the general decomposition patterns of the complexes by thermogravimetric analysis. Photophysical properties such as excitation spectra, emission spectra and luminescence decay curves of the complexes were investigated in detail. The main green emitting peak at 548 nm can be attributed to 5D4 → 7F5 of Tb3+ ion. Thus, these complexes might be used to make a bright green light-emitting diode for display purpose. In addition the in vitro antibacterial activities of HDAP and its Tb(III) complexes against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and antifungal activities against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger are reported. The Tb3+ complexes were found to be more potent antimicrobial agent as compared to the ligand. Among all these complexes, [Tb(HDAP)3ṡbathophen] exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity which proves its potential usefulness as an antimicrobial agent. Furthermore, in vitro antioxidant activity tests were carried out by using DPPH method which indicates that the complexes have considerable antioxidant activity when compared with the standard ascorbic acid.

  14. Bioinspired Orientation of β-Substituents on Porphyrin Antenna Ligands Switches Ytterbium(III) NIR Emission with Thermosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ning, Yingying; Ke, Xian-Sheng; Hu, Ji-Yun; Liu, Yi-Wei; Ma, Fang; Sun, Hao-Ling; Zhang, Jun-Long

    2017-02-20

    "Configurational isomerism" is an important approach found in naturally occurring chlorophylls to modulate light harvesting function without significant structural changes; however, this feature has been seldom applied in design of antenna ligands for lanthanide (Ln) sensitization. In this work, we introduced a bioinspired approach by orientation of β-dilactone moieties on porphyrinates, namely cis-/trans-porphodilactones, to modulate the energy transfer process from the lowest triplet excited state of the ligand (T 1 ) to the emitting level of ytterbium(III) ( 2 F 5/2 , Yb*). Interestingly, near-infrared (NIR) emission of Yb(III) could be switched "on" by the cis-porphodilactone ligand, while the trans-isomer renders Yb(III) emission "off" and the ratio of quantum yields is ∼8. Analysis of the structure-photophysical properties relationship suggests that the significant emission difference is correlated to the energy gaps between T 1 and Yb* (1152 cm -1 in the cis- vs -25 cm -1 in the trans-isomer). More interestingly, due to back energy transfer (BEnT), the Yb(III) complex of cis-porphodilactone exhibits NIR emission with high thermosensitivity (4.0%°C -1 in solution and 4.9%°C -1 in solid state), comparable to previously reported terbium (Tb) and europium (Eu) visible emitters, in contrast to the trivial emission changes of the trans-isomer and porphyrin and porpholactone analogues. This work opens up new access to design NIR emissive Ln complexes by bioinspired modification of antenna ligands.

  15. Design and Synthesis of Highly Potent HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors Containing Tricyclic Fused Ring Systems as Novel P2 Ligands: Structure-Activity Studies, Biological and X-ray Structural Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arun K; R Nyalapatla, Prasanth; Kovela, Satish; Rao, Kalapala Venkateswara; Brindisi, Margherita; Osswald, Heather L; Amano, Masayuki; Aoki, Manabu; Agniswamy, Johnson; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Weber, Irene T; Mitsuya, Hiroaki

    2018-05-24

    The design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a new class of HIV-1 protease inhibitors containing stereochemically defined fused tricyclic polyethers as the P2 ligands and a variety of sulfonamide derivatives as the P2' ligands are described. A number of ring sizes and various substituent effects were investigated to enhance the ligand-backbone interactions in the protease active site. Inhibitors 5c and 5d containing this unprecedented fused 6-5-5 ring system as the P2 ligand, an aminobenzothiazole as the P2' ligand, and a difluorophenylmethyl as the P1 ligand exhibited exceptional enzyme inhibitory potency and maintained excellent antiviral activity against a panel of highly multidrug-resistant HIV-1 variants. The umbrella-like P2 ligand for these inhibitors has been synthesized efficiently in an optically active form using a Pauson-Khand cyclization reaction as the key step. The racemic alcohols were resolved efficiently using a lipase catalyzed enzymatic resolution. Two high resolution X-ray structures of inhibitor-bound HIV-1 protease revealed extensive interactions with the backbone atoms of HIV-1 protease and provided molecular insight into the binding properties of these new inhibitors.

  16. High Throughput, Label-free Screening Small Molecule Compound Libraries for Protein-Ligands using Combination of Small Molecule Microarrays and a Special Ellipsometry-based Optical Scanner.

    PubMed

    Landry, James P; Fei, Yiyan; Zhu, X D

    2011-12-01

    Small-molecule compounds remain the major source of therapeutic and preventative drugs. Developing new drugs against a protein target often requires screening large collections of compounds with diverse structures for ligands or ligand fragments that exhibit sufficiently affinity and desirable inhibition effect on the target before further optimization and development. Since the number of small molecule compounds is large, high-throughput screening (HTS) methods are needed. Small-molecule microarrays (SMM) on a solid support in combination with a suitable binding assay form a viable HTS platform. We demonstrate that by combining an oblique-incidence reflectivity difference optical scanner with SMM we can screen 10,000 small-molecule compounds on a single glass slide for protein ligands without fluorescence labeling. Furthermore using such a label-free assay platform we can simultaneously acquire binding curves of a solution-phase protein to over 10,000 immobilized compounds, thus enabling full characterization of protein-ligand interactions over a wide range of affinity constants.

  17. Visualizing ligand molecules in Twilight electron density.

    PubMed

    Weichenberger, Christian X; Pozharski, Edwin; Rupp, Bernhard

    2013-02-01

    Three-dimensional models of protein structures determined by X-ray crystallography are based on the interpretation of experimentally derived electron-density maps. The real-space correlation coefficient (RSCC) provides an easily comprehensible, objective measure of the residue-based fit of atom coordinates to electron density. Among protein structure models, protein-ligand complexes are of special interest, given their contribution to understanding the molecular underpinnings of biological activity and to drug design. For consumers of such models, it is not trivial to determine the degree to which ligand-structure modelling is biased by subjective electron-density interpretation. A standalone script, Twilight, is presented for the analysis, visualization and annotation of a pre-filtered set of 2815 protein-ligand complexes deposited with the PDB as of 15 January 2012 with ligand RSCC values that are below a threshold of 0.6. It also provides simplified access to the visualization of any protein-ligand complex available from the PDB and annotated by the Uppsala Electron Density Server. The script runs on various platforms and is available for download at http://www.ruppweb.org/twilight/.

  18. Engineering death receptor ligands for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Wajant, Harald; Gerspach, Jeannette; Pfizenmaier, Klaus

    2013-05-28

    CD95, TNFR1, TRAILR1 and TRAILR2 belong to a subgroup of TNF receptors which is characterized by a conserved cell death-inducing protein domain that connects these receptors to the apoptotic machinery of the cell. Activation of death receptors in malignant cells attracts increasing attention as a principle to fight cancer. Besides agonistic antibodies the major way to stimulate death receptors is the use of their naturally occurring "death ligands" CD95L, TNF and TRAIL. However, dependent from the concept followed to develop a death ligand-based therapy various limiting aspects have to be taken into consideration on the way to a "bedside" usable drug. Problems arise in particular from the cell associated transmembrane nature of the death ligands, the poor serum half life of the soluble fragments derived from the transmembrane ligands, the ubiquitous expression of the death receptors and the existence of additional non-death receptors of the death ligands. Here, we summarize strategies how these limitations can be overcome by genetic engineering. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Receptor-ligand binding sites and virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Hattotuwagama, Channa K; Davies, Matthew N; Flower, Darren R

    2006-01-01

    Within the pharmaceutical industry, the ultimate source of continuing profitability is the unremitting process of drug discovery. To be profitable, drugs must be marketable: legally novel, safe and relatively free of side effects, efficacious, and ideally inexpensive to produce. While drug discovery was once typified by a haphazard and empirical process, it is now increasingly driven by both knowledge of the receptor-mediated basis of disease and how drug molecules interact with receptors and the wider physiome. Medicinal chemistry postulates that to understand a congeneric ligand series, or set thereof, is to understand the nature and requirements of a ligand binding site. Likewise, structural molecular biology posits that to understand a binding site is to understand the nature of ligands bound therein. Reality sits somewhere between these extremes, yet subsumes them both. Complementary to rules of ligand design, arising through decades of medicinal chemistry, structural biology and computational chemistry are able to elucidate the nature of binding site-ligand interactions, facilitating, at both pragmatic and conceptual levels, the drug discovery process.

  20. Ligand-Enhanced Optical Response of Gold Nanomolecules and Its Fragment Projection Analysis: The Case of Au 30 (SR) 18

    SciTech Connect

    Sementa, Luca; Barcaro, Giovanni; Baseggio, Oscar

    Here we investigate via first-principles simulations the optical absorption spectra of three different Au30(SR)18 monolayer-protected clusters (MPC): Au30(StBu)18, which is known in the literature and whose crystal structure is available, and two species – Au30(SPh)18 and Au30(SPh-pNO2)18 – which have been designed by replacing the tert-butyl organic residues with aromatic ones so as to investigate the effects of ligand replacement on the optical response of Au nanomolecules. In analogy with previously studied but rather different Au23(SR)16- anionic species, a substantial ligand-enhancement of the absorption intensity in the optical region is obtained for the Au30(SPhpNO2)18 neutral MPC. This demonstrates that usingmore » conjugated aromatic ligands with properly chosen electron withdrawal substituents and exhibiting steric hindrance so as to also achieve charge decompression at the surface is a general approach to enhance MPC photo-absorption intensity in the optical region. Moreover, the ligand-enhancement phenomenon is subjected to a detailed analysis based on fragment projection of electronic excited states and on induced transition densities, leading to a better understanding of its physical origin, thus opening avenues to its more precise control and exploitation.« less

  1. Thermometric titration studies of mixed ligand complexes of thorium.

    PubMed

    Kugler, G C; Carey, G H

    1970-10-01

    Mixed-ligand chelates consisting of two different multidentate ligands linked to a central thorium(IV) ion have been prepared in aqueous solution and their heats of formation studied thermo metrically. Pyrocatechol, tiron, chromotropic acid, potassium hydrogen phthalate, 8-hydroxyquinoline-S-sulphonic acid, iminodiacetic acid, 5-sulphosalicylic acid and salicylic acid were used as the secondary ligands, while ethylenediaminetetra-acetate and 1, 2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetate were used as primary ligands. DeltaH values for the overall reactions are given, and where possible, the DeltaH and DeltaS values for the specific secondary ligand addition were calculated. The overall stability of the mixed-ligand chelates and the enhanced stability of EDTA mixed chelates relative to the analogous DCTA chelates were found to be due to entropy rather than enthalpy effects.

  2. Calculating the mean time to capture for tethered ligands and its effect on the chemical equilibrium of bound ligand pairs.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lu; Decker, Caitlin G; Maynard, Heather D; Levine, Alex J

    2016-09-01

    We present here the calculation of the mean time to capture of a tethered ligand to the receptor. This calculation is then used to determine the shift in the partitioning between (1) free, (2) singly bound, and (3) doubly bound ligands in chemical equilibrium as a function of the length of the tether. These calculations are used in the research article Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 Dimer with Superagonist in vitro Activity Improves Granulation Tissue Formation During Wound Healing (Decker et al., in press [1]) to explain quantitatively how changes in polymeric linker length in the ligand dimers modifies the efficacy of these molecules relative to that of free ligands.

  3. [Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors PPARs: their role in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism].

    PubMed

    Andrééva-Gatéva, P

    2003-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) belong to a family of nuclear receptors broadly distributed in the organism. Their pleiotropic role has been recently proved as well as their pathogenic significance in diabetes, obesity, cell cycle controlling, carcinogenesis, inflammation and atherosclerosis. The three types of PPAR identified until today have different tissue localization. PPARgamma, primarily identified in macrophages and adipocytes, play an important role in the expression of proteins essential for lipid metabolism and adipogenesis. PPARalpha are localized predominantly in hepatocytes and have also an important role in lipid metabolism. PPAR are though to be lipid sensors in organism. Carbohydrate metabolism is also under the control of PPAR and their exogenous ligands, (ie: thiasolidinediones), are important antidiabetic drugs.

  4. Novel CoIII complexes containing fluorescent coumarin-N-acylhydrazone hybrid ligands: Synthesis, crystal structures, solution studies and DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Areas, Esther S.; Bronsato, Bruna Juliana da S.; Pereira, Thiago M.; Guedes, Guilherme P.; Miranda, Fábio da S.; Kümmerle, Arthur E.; da Cruz, Antônio G. B.; Neves, Amanda P.

    2017-12-01

    A series of new CoIII complexes of the type [Co(dien)(L1 -L3)]ClO4 (1-3), containing fluorescent coumarin-N-acylhydrazonate hybrid ligands, (E)-N‧-(1-(7-oxido-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)ethylidene)-4-R-benzohydrazonate [where R = H (L12 -), OCH3 (L22 -) or Cl (L32 -)], were obtained and isolated in the low spin CoIII configuration. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction showed that the coumarin-N-acylhydrazones act as tridentate ligands in their deprotonated form (L2 -). The cation (+ 1) complexes contain a diethylenetriamine (dien) as auxiliary ligand and their structures were calculated by DFT studies which were also performed for the CoII (S = 1/2 and S = 3/2) configurations. The LS CoII (S = 1/2) concentrated the spin density on the O-Co-O axis while the HS CoII (S = 3/2) exhibited a broad spin density distribution around the metallic center. Cyclic voltammetry studies showed that structural modifications made in the L2 - ligands caused a slight influence on the electronic density of the metal center, and the E1/2 values for the CoIII/CoII redox couple increased following the electronic effect of the R-substituent, in the order: 2 (R = OCH3) < 1 (R = H) < 3 (R = Cl). The theoretical redox potentials (E°) of the process CoIII → CoII were calculated for both CoII spin states (S = 1/2 and S = 3/2) and a better correlation was found for CoIII → CoII (S = 1/2), compared with experimental values vs SHE (E°calc = - 0.37, - 0.36 and - 0.32 V vs E°exp. = - 0.371, - 0.406 and - 0.358 V, for 1-3 respectively). Complexes 1-3 exhibited a very intense absorption band around 470 nm, assigned by DFT calculations as π-π* transitions from the delocalized coumarin-N-acylhydrazone system. 1-3 were very stable in MeOH for several days. Likewise, 1-3 were stable in phosphate buffer containing sodium ascorbate after 15 h, which was attributed to the high chelate effect and σ-donor ability of the L2 - and dien ligands.

  5. Predicting receptor-ligand pairs through kernel learning

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Regulation of cellular events is, often, initiated via extracellular signaling. Extracellular signaling occurs when a circulating ligand interacts with one or more membrane-bound receptors. Identification of receptor-ligand pairs is thus an important and specific form of PPI prediction. Results Given a set of disparate data sources (expression data, domain content, and phylogenetic profile) we seek to predict new receptor-ligand pairs. We create a combined kernel classifier and assess its performance with respect to the Database of Ligand-Receptor Partners (DLRP) 'golden standard' as well as the method proposed by Gertz et al. Among our findings, we discover that our predictions for the tgfβ family accurately reconstruct over 76% of the supported edges (0.76 recall and 0.67 precision) of the receptor-ligand bipartite graph defined by the DLRP "golden standard". In addition, for the tgfβ family, the combined kernel classifier is able to relatively improve upon the Gertz et al. work by a factor of approximately 1.5 when considering that our method has an F-measure of 0.71 while that of Gertz et al. has a value of 0.48. Conclusions The prediction of receptor-ligand pairings is a difficult and complex task. We have demonstrated that using kernel learning on multiple data sources provides a stronger alternative to the existing method in solving this task. PMID:21834994

  6. Importance of the pharmacological profile of the bound ligand in enrichment on nuclear receptors: toward the use of experimentally validated decoy ligands.

    PubMed

    Lagarde, Nathalie; Zagury, Jean-François; Montes, Matthieu

    2014-10-27

    The evaluation of virtual ligand screening methods is of major importance to ensure their reliability. Taking into account the agonist/antagonist pharmacological profile should improve the quality of the benchmarking data sets since ligand binding can induce conformational changes in the nuclear receptor structure and such changes may vary according to the agonist/antagonist ligand profile. We indeed found that splitting the agonist and antagonist ligands into two separate data sets for a given nuclear receptor target significantly enhances the quality of the evaluation. The pharmacological profile of the ligand bound in the binding site of the target structure was also found to be an additional critical parameter. We also illustrate that active compound data sets for a given pharmacological activity can be used as a set of experimentally validated decoy ligands for another pharmacological activity to ensure a reliable and challenging evaluation of virtual screening methods.

  7. Design of a Hole Trapping Ligand

    DOE PAGES

    La Croix, Andrew D.; O’Hara, Andrew; Reid, Kemar R.; ...

    2017-01-18

    A new ligand that covalently attaches to the surface of colloidal CdSe/ CdS nanorods and can simultaneously chelate a molecular metal center is described. The dithiocarbamate$-$bipyridine ligand system facilitates hole transfer through energetic overlap at the inorganic$-$organic interface and conjugation through the organic ligand to a chelated metal center. Density functional theory calculations show that the coordination of the free ligand to a CdS surface causes the formation of two hybridized molecular states that lie in the band gap of CdS. The further chelation of Fe(II) to the bipyridine moiety causes the presence of seven midgap states. Hole transfer frommore » the CdS valence band to the midgap states is dipole allowed and occurs at a faster rate than what is experimentally known for the CdSe/CdS band-edge radiative recombination. In the case of the ligand bound with iron, a two-step process emerges that places the hole on the iron, again at rates much faster than band gap recombination. The system was experimentally assembled and characterized via UV$-$vis absorbance spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Lastly, theoretically predicted red shifts in absorbance were observed experimentally, as well as the expected quench in photoluminescence and lifetimes in time-resolved photoluminescence« less

  8. Design of a Hole Trapping Ligand

    SciTech Connect

    La Croix, Andrew D.; O’Hara, Andrew; Reid, Kemar R.

    A new ligand that covalently attaches to the surface of colloidal CdSe/ CdS nanorods and can simultaneously chelate a molecular metal center is described. The dithiocarbamate$-$bipyridine ligand system facilitates hole transfer through energetic overlap at the inorganic$-$organic interface and conjugation through the organic ligand to a chelated metal center. Density functional theory calculations show that the coordination of the free ligand to a CdS surface causes the formation of two hybridized molecular states that lie in the band gap of CdS. The further chelation of Fe(II) to the bipyridine moiety causes the presence of seven midgap states. Hole transfer frommore » the CdS valence band to the midgap states is dipole allowed and occurs at a faster rate than what is experimentally known for the CdSe/CdS band-edge radiative recombination. In the case of the ligand bound with iron, a two-step process emerges that places the hole on the iron, again at rates much faster than band gap recombination. The system was experimentally assembled and characterized via UV$-$vis absorbance spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Lastly, theoretically predicted red shifts in absorbance were observed experimentally, as well as the expected quench in photoluminescence and lifetimes in time-resolved photoluminescence« less

  9. Expression of nociceptive ligands in canine osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Shor, S; Fadl-Alla, B A; Pondenis, H C; Zhang, X; Wycislo, K L; Lezmi, S; Fan, T M

    2015-01-01

    Canine osteosarcoma (OS) is associated with localized pain as a result of tissue injury from tumor infiltration and peritumoral inflammation. Malignant bone pain is caused by stimulation of peripheral pain receptors, termed nociceptors, which reside in the localized tumor microenvironment, including the periosteal and intramedullary bone cavities. Several nociceptive ligands have been determined to participate directly or indirectly in generating bone pain associated with diverse skeletal abnormalities. Canine OS cells actively produce nociceptive ligands with the capacity to directly or indirectly activate peripheral pain receptors residing in the bone tumor microenvironment. Ten dogs with appendicular OS. Expression of nerve growth factor, endothelin-1, and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 was characterized in OS cell lines and naturally occurring OS samples. In 10 dogs with OS, circulating concentrations of nociceptive ligands were quantified and correlated with subjective pain scores and tumor volume in patients treated with standardized palliative therapies. Canine OS cells express and secrete nerve growth factor, endothelin-1, and prostaglandin E2. Naturally occurring OS samples uniformly express nociceptive ligands. In a subset of OS-bearing dogs, circulating nociceptive ligand concentrations were detectable but failed to correlate with pain status. Localized foci of nerve terminal proliferation were identified in a minority of primary bone tumor samples. Canine OS cells express nociceptive ligands, potentially permitting active participation of OS cells in the generation of malignant bone pain. Specific inhibitors of nociceptive ligand signaling pathways might improve pain control in dogs with OS. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  10. Ascofuranone stimulates expression of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor through the modulation of mitogen activated protein kinase family members in 3T3-L1, murine pre-adipocyte cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Young-Chae, E-mail: ycchang@cu.ac.kr; Cho, Hyun-Ji, E-mail: hjcho.dr@gmail.com

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ascofuranone increases expression of adiponectin and PPAR{gamma}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibitors for MEK and JNK increased the expression of adiponectin and PPAR{gamma}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ascofuranone significantly suppressed phosho-ERK, while increasing phospho-p38. -- Abstract: Ascofuranone, an isoprenoid antibiotic, was originally isolated as a hypolipidemic substance from a culture broth of the phytopathogenic fungus, Ascochyta visiae. Adiponectin is mainly synthesized by adipocytes. It relieves insulin resistance by decreasing the plasma triglycerides and improving glucose uptake, and has anti-atherogenic properties. Here, we found that ascofuranone increases expression of adiponectin and PPAR{gamma}, a major transcription factor for adiponectin, in 3T3-L1, murine pre-adipocytes cell line, withoutmore » promoting accumulation of lipid droplets. Ascofuranone induced expression of adiponectin, and increases the promoter activity of adiponectin and PPRE, PPAR response element, as comparably as a PPAR{gamma} agonist, rosiglitazone, that stimulates lipid accumulation in the preadipocyte cell line. Moreover, inhibitors for MEK and JNK, like ascofuranone, considerably increased the expression of adiponectin and PPAR{gamma}, while a p38 inhibitor significantly suppressed. Ascofuranone significantly suppressed ERK phosphorylation, while increasing p38 phosphorylation, during adipocyte differentiation program. These results suggest that ascofuranone regulates the expression of adiponectin and PPAR{gamma} through the modulation of MAP kinase family members.« less

  11. Traveling Exhibitions: translating current science into effective science exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P.; Morrow, C.; Harold, J.

    The Space Science Institute (SSI) of Boulder, Colorado has recently developed two museum exhibits called the Space Weather Center and MarsQuest. It is currently planning to develop two other exhibitions called Cosmic Origins and InterActive Earth. Museum exhibitions provide research scientists the opportunity to engage in a number of activities that are vital to the success of earth and space outreach programs. The Space Weather Center was developed in partnership with various research missions at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The focus of the presentation will be on the Institute's MarsQuest exhibition. This project is a 5000 square-foot, 2.5M, traveling exhibition that is now touring the country. The exhibit's 3-year tour is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and learn more about their own planet in the process. The associated planetarium show and education program will also be described, with particular emphasis on workshops to orient host museum staff (e.g. museum educators and docents). The workshops make innovative connections between the exhibitions interactive experiences and lesson plans aligned with the National Science Education Standards. SSI is also developing an interactive web site called MarsQuest On-line. The linkage between the web site, education program and exhibit will be discussed. MarsQuest and SSI's other exhibitions are good models for actively involving scientists and their discoveries to help improve informal science education in the museum community and for forging a stronger connection between formal and informal education.

  12. Synthesis, structural and biochemical activity studies of a new hexadentate Schiff base ligand and its Cu(II), Ni(II), and Co(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekmekcioglu, Pinar; Karabocek, Nevin; Karabocek, Serdar; Emirik, Mustafa

    2015-11-01

    A new Schiff base ligand (H2L) and its metal complexes have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic moment and spectral studies. The comparative in-vitro antimicrobial activities against various pathogens with reference to known antibiotics activity under the standard control of different concentrations revealed that the metal complexes (6-8) showed enhanced antimicrobial activities in general as compared to free ligand. As an exception, the free ligand showed better activity against Trichoderma. The antifungal activity experiments were performed in triplicate. The order of biochemical activity for metal complexes were observed as in the following. CuL > CoL > NiL, which is exactly same as the order of stability constants of these complexes. Additionally, we performed DFT and TD-DFT calculation for free ligand and Cu(II) complex to support the experimental data. The geometries of the Cu(II) complex have been optimized using the B3LYP level of theory. The theoretical calculations confirm that the copper (II) center exhibits a distorted square pyramidal geometry which is favored by experimental results.

  13. Implicit ligand theory for relative binding free energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Trung Hai; Minh, David D. L.

    2018-03-01

    Implicit ligand theory enables noncovalent binding free energies to be calculated based on an exponential average of the binding potential of mean force (BPMF)—the binding free energy between a flexible ligand and rigid receptor—over a precomputed ensemble of receptor configurations. In the original formalism, receptor configurations were drawn from or reweighted to the apo ensemble. Here we show that BPMFs averaged over a holo ensemble yield binding free energies relative to the reference ligand that specifies the ensemble. When using receptor snapshots from an alchemical simulation with a single ligand, the new statistical estimator outperforms the original.

  14. Superior serum half life of albumin tagged TNF ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Nicole; Schneider, Britta; Pfizenmaier, Klaus

    2010-06-11

    Due to their immune stimulating and apoptosis inducing properties, ligands of the TNF family attract increasing interest as therapeutic proteins. A general limitation of in vivo applications of recombinant soluble TNF ligands is their notoriously rapid clearance from circulation. To improve the serum half life of the TNF family members TNF, TWEAK and TRAIL, we genetically fused soluble variants of these molecules to human serum albumin (HSA). The serum albumin-TNF ligand fusion proteins were found to be of similar bioactivity as the corresponding HSA-less counterparts. Upon intravenous injection (i.v.), serum half life of HSA-TNF ligand fusion proteins, as determined bymore » ELISA, was around 15 h as compared to approximately 1 h for all of the recombinant control TNF ligands without HSA domain. Moreover, serum samples collected 6 or 24 h after i.v. injection still contained high TNF ligand bioactivity, demonstrating that there is only limited degradation/inactivation of circulating HSA-TNF ligand fusion proteins in vivo. In a xenotransplantation model, significantly less of the HSA-TRAIL fusion protein compared to the respective control TRAIL protein was required to achieve inhibition of tumor growth indicating that the increased half life of HSA-TNF ligand fusion proteins translates into better therapeutic action in vivo. In conclusion, our data suggest that genetic fusion to serum albumin is a powerful and generally applicable mean to improve bioavailability and in vivo activity of TNF ligands.« less

  15. A functional selectivity mechanism at the serotonin-2A GPCR involves ligand-dependent conformations of intracellular loop 2

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Aguilar, Jose Manuel; Shan, Jufang; LeVine, Michael V.

    With recent progress in determination of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) structure with crystallography, a variety of other experimental approaches (e.g., NMR spectroscopy, fluorescent-based assays, mass spectrometry techniques) are also being used to characterize state-specific and ligand-specific conformational states. MD simulations offer a powerful complementary approach to elucidate the dynamic features associated with ligand-specific GPCR conformations. To shed light on the conformational elements and dynamics of the important aspect of GPCR functional selectivity, we carried out unbiased microsecond-length MD simulations of the human serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT 2AR) in the absence of ligand and bound to four distinct serotonergic agonists. Themore » 5-HT 2AR is a suitable system to study the structural features involved in the ligand-dependent conformational heterogeneity of GPCRs because it is well-characterized experimentally and exhibits a strong agonist-specific phenotype in that some 5-HT 2AR agonists induce LSD-like hallucinations, while others lack this psychoactive property entirely. Here we report evidence for structural and dynamic differences in 5-HT 2AR interacting with such pharmacologically distinct ligands, hallucinogens, and nonhallucinogens obtained from all-atom MD simulations. Differential ligand binding contacts were identified for structurally similar hallucinogens and nonhallucinogens and found to correspond to different conformations in the intracellular loop 2 (ICL2). From the different ICL2 conformations, functional selective phenotypes are suggested through effects on dimerization and/or distinct direct interaction with effector proteins. Lastly, the findings are presented in the context of currently proposed hallucinogenesis mechanisms, and ICL2 is proposed as a fine-tuning selective switch that can differentiates modes of 5-HT 2AR activation.« less

  16. A functional selectivity mechanism at the serotonin-2A GPCR involves ligand-dependent conformations of intracellular loop 2

    DOE PAGES

    Perez-Aguilar, Jose Manuel; Shan, Jufang; LeVine, Michael V.; ...

    2014-10-14

    With recent progress in determination of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) structure with crystallography, a variety of other experimental approaches (e.g., NMR spectroscopy, fluorescent-based assays, mass spectrometry techniques) are also being used to characterize state-specific and ligand-specific conformational states. MD simulations offer a powerful complementary approach to elucidate the dynamic features associated with ligand-specific GPCR conformations. To shed light on the conformational elements and dynamics of the important aspect of GPCR functional selectivity, we carried out unbiased microsecond-length MD simulations of the human serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT 2AR) in the absence of ligand and bound to four distinct serotonergic agonists. Themore » 5-HT 2AR is a suitable system to study the structural features involved in the ligand-dependent conformational heterogeneity of GPCRs because it is well-characterized experimentally and exhibits a strong agonist-specific phenotype in that some 5-HT 2AR agonists induce LSD-like hallucinations, while others lack this psychoactive property entirely. Here we report evidence for structural and dynamic differences in 5-HT 2AR interacting with such pharmacologically distinct ligands, hallucinogens, and nonhallucinogens obtained from all-atom MD simulations. Differential ligand binding contacts were identified for structurally similar hallucinogens and nonhallucinogens and found to correspond to different conformations in the intracellular loop 2 (ICL2). From the different ICL2 conformations, functional selective phenotypes are suggested through effects on dimerization and/or distinct direct interaction with effector proteins. Lastly, the findings are presented in the context of currently proposed hallucinogenesis mechanisms, and ICL2 is proposed as a fine-tuning selective switch that can differentiates modes of 5-HT 2AR activation.« less

  17. Effects of electrostatic interactions on ligand dissociation kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erbaş, Aykut; de la Cruz, Monica Olvera; Marko, John F.

    2018-02-01

    We study unbinding of multivalent cationic ligands from oppositely charged polymeric binding sites sparsely grafted on a flat neutral substrate. Our molecular dynamics simulations are suggested by single-molecule studies of protein-DNA interactions. We consider univalent salt concentrations spanning roughly a 1000-fold range, together with various concentrations of excess ligands in solution. To reveal the ionic effects on unbinding kinetics of spontaneous and facilitated dissociation mechanisms, we treat electrostatic interactions both at a Debye-Hückel (DH) (or implicit ions, i.e., use of an electrostatic potential with a prescribed decay length) level and by the more precise approach of considering all ionic species explicitly in the simulations. We find that the DH approach systematically overestimates unbinding rates, relative to the calculations where all ion pairs are present explicitly in solution, although many aspects of the two types of calculation are qualitatively similar. For facilitated dissociation (FD) (acceleration of unbinding by free ligands in solution) explicit-ion simulations lead to unbinding at lower free-ligand concentrations. Our simulations predict a variety of FD regimes as a function of free-ligand and ion concentrations; a particularly interesting regime is at intermediate concentrations of ligands where nonelectrostatic binding strength controls FD. We conclude that explicit-ion electrostatic modeling is an essential component to quantitatively tackle problems in molecular ligand dissociation, including nucleic-acid-binding proteins.

  18. [Supercomputer investigation of the protein-ligand system low-energy minima].

    PubMed

    Oferkin, I V; Sulimov, A V; Katkova, E V; Kutov, D K; Grigoriev, F V; Kondakova, O A; Sulimov, V B

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of the protein-ligand binding energy calculations and ligand positioning is strongly influenced by the choice of the docking target function. This work demonstrates the evaluation of the five different target functions used in docking: functions based on MMFF94 force field and functions based on PM7 quantum-chemical method accounting or without accounting the implicit solvent model (PCM, COSMO or SGB). For these purposes the ligand positions corresponding to the minima of the target function and the experimentally known ligand positions in the protein active site (crystal ligand positions) were compared. Each function was examined on the same test-set of 16 protein-ligand complexes. The new parallelized docking program FLM based on Monte Carlo search algorithm was developed to perform the comprehensive low-energy minima search and to calculate the protein-ligand binding energy. This study demonstrates that the docking target function based on the MMFF94 force field can be used to detect the crystal or near crystal positions of the ligand by the finding the low-energy local minima spectrum of the target function. The importance of solvent accounting in the docking process for the accurate ligand positioning is also shown. The accuracy of the ligand positioning as well as the correlation between the calculated and experimentally determined protein-ligand binding energies are improved when the MMFF94 force field is substituted by the new PM7 method with implicit solvent accounting.

  19. Critical ligand binding reagent preparation/selection: when specificity depends on reagents.

    PubMed

    Rup, Bonita; O'Hara, Denise

    2007-05-11

    Throughout the life cycle of biopharmaceutical products, bioanalytical support is provided using ligand binding assays to measure the drug product for pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and immunogenicity studies. The specificity and selectivity of these ligand binding assays are highly dependent on the ligand binding reagents. Thus the selection, characterization, and management processes for ligand binding reagents are crucial to successful assay development and application. This report describes process considerations for selection and characterization of ligand binding reagents that are integral parts of the different phases of assay development. Changes in expression, purification, modification, and storage of the ligand binding reagents may have a profound effect on the ligand binding assay performance. Thus long-term management of the critical ligand binding assay reagents is addressed including suggested characterization criteria that allow ligand binding reagents to be used in as consistent a manner as possible. Examples of challenges related to the selection, modification, and characterization of ligand binding reagents are included.

  20. Ligand.Info small-molecule Meta-Database.

    PubMed

    von Grotthuss, Marcin; Koczyk, Grzegorz; Pas, Jakub; Wyrwicz, Lucjan S; Rychlewski, Leszek

    2004-12-01

    Ligand.Info is a compilation of various publicly available databases of small molecules. The total size of the Meta-Database is over 1 million entries. The compound records contain calculated three-dimensional coordinates and sometimes information about biological activity. Some molecules have information about FDA drug approving status or about anti-HIV activity. Meta-Database can be downloaded from the http://Ligand.Info web page. The database can also be screened using a Java-based tool. The tool can interactively cluster sets of molecules on the user side and automatically download similar molecules from the server. The application requires the Java Runtime Environment 1.4 or higher, which can be automatically downloaded from Sun Microsystems or Apple Computer and installed during the first use of Ligand.Info on desktop systems, which support Java (Ms Windows, Mac OS, Solaris, and Linux). The Ligand.Info Meta-Database can be used for virtual high-throughput screening of new potential drugs. Presented examples showed that using a known antiviral drug as query the system was able to find others antiviral drugs and inhibitors.

  1. [Functional selectivity of opioid receptors ligands].

    PubMed

    Audet, Nicolas; Archer-Lahlou, Elodie; Richard-Lalonde, Mélissa; Piñeyro-Filpo, Graciela

    2010-01-01

    Opiates are the most effective analgesics available for the treatment of severe pain. However, their clinical use is restricted by unwanted side effects such as tolerance, physical dependence and respiratory depression. The strategy to develop new opiates with reduced side effects has mainly focused on the study and production of ligands that specifically bind to different opiate receptors subtypes. However, this strategy has not allowed the production of novel therapeutic ligands with a better side effects profile. Thus, other research strategies need to be explored. One which is receiving increasing attention is the possibility of exploiting ligand ability to stabilize different receptor conformations with distinct signalling profiles. This newly described property, termed functional selectivity, provides a potential means of directing the stimulus generated by an activated receptor towards a specific cellular response. Here we summarize evidence supporting the existence of ligand-specific active conformations for two opioid receptors subtypes (delta and mu), and analyze how functional selectivity may contribute in the production of longer lasting, better tolerated opiate analgesics. double dagger.

  2. Synthesis, physico-chemical properties and complexing abilities of new amphiphilic ligands from D-galacturonic acid.

    PubMed

    Allam, Anas; Behr, Jean-Bernard; Dupont, Laurent; Nardello-Rataj, Véronique; Plantier-Royon, Richard

    2010-04-19

    This paper describes a convenient and efficient synthesis of new complexing surfactants from d-galacturonic acid and n-octanol as renewable raw materials in a two-step sequence. In the first step, simultaneous O-glycosidation-esterification under Fischer conditions was achieved. The anomeric ratio of the products was studied based on the main experimental parameters and the activation mode (thermal or microwave). In the second step, aminolysis of the n-octyl ester was achieved with various functionalized primary amines under standard thermal or microwave activation. The physico-chemical properties of these new amphiphilic ligands were measured and these compounds were found to exhibit interesting surface properties. Complexing abilities of one uronamide ligand functionalized with a pyridine moiety toward Cu(II) ions was investigated in solution by EPR titrations. A solid compound was also synthesized and characterized, its relative structure was deduced from spectroscopic data. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Highly sensitive SERS analysis of the cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp peptide ligands of cells using nanogap antennas.

    PubMed

    Portela, Alejandro; Yano, Taka-Aki; Santschi, Christian; Martin, Olivier J F; Tabata, Hitoshi; Hara, Masahiko

    2017-02-01

    The cyclic RGD (cRGD) peptide ligands of cells have become widely used for treating several cancers. We report a highly sensitive analysis of c(RGDfC) using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) using single dimer nanogap antennas in aqueous environment. Good agreement between characteristic peaks of the SERS and the Raman spectra of bulk c(RGDfC) with its peptide's constituents were observed. The exhibited blinking of the SERS spectra and synchronization of intensity fluctuations, suggest that the SERS spectra acquired from single dimer nanogap antennas was dominated by the spectrum of single to a few molecules. SERS spectra of c(RGDfC) could be used to detect at the nanoscale, the cells' transmembrane proteins binding to its ligand. SERS of cyclic RGD on nanogap antenna. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Synthesis and characterisation of luminescent rhenium tricarbonyl complexes with axially coordinated 1,2,3-triazole ligands.

    PubMed

    Uppal, Baljinder S; Booth, Rebecca K; Ali, Noreen; Lockwood, Cindy; Rice, Craig R; Elliott, Paul I P

    2011-08-07

    A series of 1-alkyl-4-aryl-1,2,3-triazoles (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3-triazole (1a); 1-propyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3-triazole (1b); 1-benzyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3-triazole (1c); 1-propyl-4-p-tolyl-1,2,3-triazole (1d)) have been prepared through a one-pot procedure involving in situ generation of the alkyl azide from a halide precursor followed by copper catalysed alkyne/azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) with the appropriate aryl alkyne. Cationic Re(I) complexes [Re(bpy)(CO)(3)(1a-d)]PF(6) (2a-d) were then prepared by stirring [Re(bpy)(CO)(3)Cl] with AgPF(6) in dichloromethane in the presence of ligands 1a-d. X-ray crystal structures were obtained for 2a and 2b. In the solid state, 2a adopts a highly distorted geometry, which is not seen for 2b, in which the plane of the triazole ligand tilts by 13° with respect to the Re-N bond as a result of a π-stacking interaction between the Ph substituent and one of the rings of the bpy ligand. This π-stacking interaction also results in severe twisting of the bpy ligand. Infrared spectra of 2a-d exhibit ν(CO) bands at ∼2035 and ∼1926 cm(-1) suggesting that these ligands are marginally better donors than pyridine (ν(CO) = 2037, 1932 cm(-1)). The complexes are luminescent in aerated dichloromethane at room temperature with emission maxima at 542 to 552 nm comparable to that of the pyridine analogue (549 nm) and blue shifted relative to the parent chloride complex. Long luminescent lifetimes are observed for the triazole complexes (475 to 513 ns) in aerated dichloromethane solutions at room temperature.

  5. Ligand- and receptor-based docking with LiBELa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos Muniz, Heloisa; Nascimento, Alessandro S.

    2015-08-01

    Methodologies on molecular docking are constantly improving. The problem consists on finding an optimal interplay between the computational cost and a satisfactory physical description of ligand-receptor interaction. In pursuit of an advance in current methods we developed a mixed docking approach combining ligand- and receptor-based strategies in a docking engine, where tridimensional descriptors for shape and charge distribution of a reference ligand guide the initial placement of the docking molecule and an interaction energy-based global minimization follows. This hybrid docking was evaluated with soft-core and force field potentials taking into account ligand pose and scoring. Our approach was found to be competitive to a purely receptor-based dock resulting in improved logAUC values when evaluated with DUD and DUD-E. Furthermore, the smoothed potential as evaluated here, was not advantageous when ligand binding poses were compared to experimentally determined conformations. In conclusion we show that a combination of ligand- and receptor-based strategy docking with a force field energy model results in good reproduction of binding poses and enrichment of active molecules against decoys. This strategy is implemented in our tool, LiBELa, available to the scientific community.

  6. Mapping of ligand-binding cavities in proteins.

    PubMed

    Andersson, C David; Chen, Brian Y; Linusson, Anna

    2010-05-01

    The complex interactions between proteins and small organic molecules (ligands) are intensively studied because they play key roles in biological processes and drug activities. Here, we present a novel approach to characterize and map the ligand-binding cavities of proteins without direct geometric comparison of structures, based on Principal Component Analysis of cavity properties (related mainly to size, polarity, and charge). This approach can provide valuable information on the similarities and dissimilarities, of binding cavities due to mutations, between-species differences and flexibility upon ligand-binding. The presented results show that information on ligand-binding cavity variations can complement information on protein similarity obtained from sequence comparisons. The predictive aspect of the method is exemplified by successful predictions of serine proteases that were not included in the model construction. The presented strategy to compare ligand-binding cavities of related and unrelated proteins has many potential applications within protein and medicinal chemistry, for example in the characterization and mapping of "orphan structures", selection of protein structures for docking studies in structure-based design, and identification of proteins for selectivity screens in drug design programs. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Mapping of Ligand-Binding Cavities in Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, C. David; Chen, Brian Y.; Linusson, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The complex interactions between proteins and small organic molecules (ligands) are intensively studied because they play key roles in biological processes and drug activities. Here, we present a novel approach to characterise and map the ligand-binding cavities of proteins without direct geometric comparison of structures, based on Principal Component Analysis of cavity properties (related mainly to size, polarity and charge). This approach can provide valuable information on the similarities, and dissimilarities, of binding cavities due to mutations, between-species differences and flexibility upon ligand-binding. The presented results show that information on ligand-binding cavity variations can complement information on protein similarity obtained from sequence comparisons. The predictive aspect of the method is exemplified by successful predictions of serine proteases that were not included in the model construction. The presented strategy to compare ligand-binding cavities of related and unrelated proteins has many potential applications within protein and medicinal chemistry, for example in the characterisation and mapping of “orphan structures”, selection of protein structures for docking studies in structure-based design and identification of proteins for selectivity screens in drug design programs. PMID:20034113

  8. Visualizing ligand molecules in twilight electron density

    PubMed Central

    Weichenberger, Christian X.; Pozharski, Edwin; Rupp, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional models of protein structures determined by X-ray crystallo­graphy are based on the interpretation of experimentally derived electron-density maps. The real-space correlation coefficient (RSCC) provides an easily comprehensible, objective measure of the residue-based fit of atom coordinates to electron density. Among protein structure models, protein–ligand complexes are of special interest, given their contribution to understanding the molecular underpinnings of biological activity and to drug design. For consumers of such models, it is not trivial to determine the degree to which ligand-structure modelling is biased by subjective electron-density interpretation. A standalone script, Twilight, is presented for the analysis, visualization and annotation of a pre-filtered set of 2815 protein–ligand complexes deposited with the PDB as of 15 January 2012 with ligand RSCC values that are below a threshold of 0.6. It also provides simplified access to the visualization of any protein–ligand complex available from the PDB and annotated by the Uppsala Electron Density Server. The script runs on various platforms and is available for download at http://www.ruppweb.org/twilight/. PMID:23385767

  9. Modification of the 5' terminus of oligodeoxyribonucleotides for conjugation with ligands.

    PubMed

    Asseline, U; Thuong, N T

    2001-08-01

    Ligands can be introduced at the 5' terminus of an oligonucleotide by adding a linker to the ligand and modifying the 5' terminus of the oligonucleotide. These are then reacted to give the ligand-oligonucleotide conjugate. This unit describes the addition of carboxylated and aminoalkylated linkers, and phosphorothioate, phosphate, and masked thiol groups to the 5' terminus of an oligonucleotide. The addition of linkers to ligands and the final reaction that produces the ligand-conjugated oligonucleotide are described elsewhere in the series. This approach is particularly useful when there is a limited amount of ligand available, when the ligand is sensitive to chemical conditions required for oligonucleotide deprotection, or when the ligand is weakly soluble in solvents required for phosphoramidite- or H-phosphonate-mediated oligonucleotide synthesis.

  10. Water oxidation catalyzed by mononuclear ruthenium complexes with a 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylate (bda) ligand: how ligand environment influences the catalytic behavior.

    PubMed

    Staehle, Robert; Tong, Lianpeng; Wang, Lei; Duan, Lele; Fischer, Andreas; Ahlquist, Mårten S G; Sun, Licheng; Rau, Sven

    2014-02-03

    A new water oxidation catalyst [Ru(III)(bda)(mmi)(OH2)](CF3SO3) (2, H2bda = 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylic acid; mmi = 1,3-dimethylimidazolium-2-ylidene) containing an axial N-heterocyclic carbene ligand and one aqua ligand was synthesized and fully characterized. The kinetics of catalytic water oxidation by 2 were measured using stopped-flow technique, and key intermediates in the catalytic cycle were probed by density functional theory calculations. While analogous Ru-bda water oxidation catalysts [Ru(bda)L2] (L = pyridyl ligands) are supposed to catalyze water oxidation through a bimolecular coupling pathway, our study points out that 2, surprisingly, undergoes a single-site water nucleophilic attack (acid-base) pathway. The diversion of catalytic mechanisms is mainly ascribed to the different ligand environments, from nonaqua ligands to an aqua ligand. Findings in this work provide some critical proof for our previous hypothesis about how alternation of ancillary ligands of water oxidation catalysts influences their catalytic efficiency.

  11. Transient Ligand Docking Sites in Cerebratulus lacteus Mini-Hemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Pengchi; Nienhaus, Karin; Palladino, Pasquale; Olson, John S.; Blouin, George; Moens, Luc; Dewilde, Sylvia; Geuens, Eva; Nienhaus, G. Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    The monomeric hemoglobin of the nemertean worm Cerebratulus lacteus functions as an oxygen storage protein to maintain neural activity under hypoxic conditions. It shares a large, apolar matrix tunnel with other small hemoglobins, which has been implicated as a potential ligand migration pathway. Here we explore ligand migration and binding within the distal heme pocket, to which the tunnel provides access to ligands from the outside. FTIR/TDS experiments performed at cryogenic temperatures reveal the presence of three transient ligand docking sites within the distal pocket, the primary docking site B on top of pyrrole C and secondary sites C and D. Site C is assigned to a cavity adjacent to the distal portion of the heme pocket, surrounded by the B and E helices. It has an opening to the apolar tunnel and is expected to be on the pathway for ligand entry and exit, whereas site D, circumscribed by TyrB10, GlnE7, and the CD corner, most likely is located on a side pathway of ligand migration. Flash photolysis experiments at ambient temperatures indicate that the rate-limiting step for ligand binding to CerHb is migration through the apolar channel to site C. Movement from C to B and iron-ligand bond formation involve low energy barriers and thus are very rapid processes in the wt protein. PMID:17531406

  12. Crystal structures of a novel NNN pincer ligand and its dinuclear titanium(IV) alkoxide pincer complex.

    PubMed

    Pedziwiatr, Jakub; Ghiviriga, Ion; Abboud, Khalil A; Veige, Adam S

    2017-02-01

    This report describes a synthetic protocols and the crystal structures involving a novel pincer-type H 3 [NNN] ligand, namely di-μ-bromido-μ-{2-(2,2-di-methylpropanimido-yl)- N -[2-(2,2-di-methyl-propanimido-yl)-4-methyl-phen-yl]-4-methylaniline}-bis-[(diethyl ether)lithium], [Li 2 Br 2 (C 24 H 33 N 3 )(C 4 H 10 O) 2 ] ( 1 ) and a dinuclear metal complex, namely di-μ-bromido-2:3κ 4 Br : Br -bis-{2-(2,2-di-methylpropanimido-yl)- N -[2-(2,2-di-methyl-propanimido-yl)-4-methyl-phen-yl]-4-methylaniline}-1κ 3 N , N ', N '';4κ 3 N , N ', N ''-tetra-μ-iso-propano-lato-1:2κ 4 O : O ;3:4κ 4 O : O -diiso-propano-lato-1κ O ,4κ O -2,3-dilithium-1,4-dititanium, [Li 2 Ti 2 Br 2 (C 24 H 32 N 3 ) 2 (C 3 H 7 O) 6 ] or {[NHNNH]Ti(O i Pr) 3 (LiBr) 2 } 2 ( 2 ). Complex 1 , which sits on a twofold rotation axis, is a rare example of a pincer-type ligand which bears ketimine side arms. A unique feature of complex 1 is that the ketimine N atoms have an LiBr(Et 2 O) fragment bonded to them, with the Li atom adopting a distorted tetra-hedral geometry. This particular fragment creates an LiBr bridge between the two ketimine sidearms, which leads to a cage-type appearance of the ligand. Complex 2 consists of the previously described ligand and a Ti IV metal atom in an octa-hedral environment, and is located on an inversion center. Complex 2 crystallizes as a dinuclear species with the metal atoms being bridged by an LiBr entity [the Br atoms are disordered and refined in two positions with their site occupation factors refining to 0.674 (12)/0.372 (12)], and the Li cation being bonded to the isopropoxide O atoms (Li having a tetra-hedral coordination as in 1 ). The organic ligand of compound 2 exhibits disorder in its periphery groups; isopropyl and tert -butyl groups (occupation factors fixed at 0.6/0.4). The novel [NNN]H 3 pincer-type ligand was characterized by multinuclear and multidimensional NMR, HRMS and X-ray crystallography. The dinuclear metal complex 2 was

  13. Architecture effects on multivalent interactions by polypeptide-based multivalent ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuang

    Multivalent interactions are characterized by the simultaneous binding between multiple ligands and multiple binding sites, either in solutions or at interfaces. In biological systems, most multivalent interactions occur between protein receptors and carbohydrate ligands through hydrogen-bonding and hydrophobic interactions. Compared with weak affinity binding between one ligand and one binding site, i.e. monovalent interaction, multivalent interactioins provide greater avidity and specificity, and therefore play unique roles in a broad range of biological activities. Moreover, the studies of multivalent interactions are also essential for producing effective inhibitors and effectors of biological processes that could have important therapeutic applications. Synthetic multivalent ligands have been designed to mimic the biological functions of natural multivalent interactions, and various types of scaffolds have been used to display multiple ligands, including small molecules, linear polymers, dendrimers, nanoparticle surfaces, monolayer surfaces and liposomes. Studies have shown that multivalent interactions can be highly affected by various architectural parameters of these multivalent ligands, including ligand identities, valencies, spacing, ligand densities, nature of linker arms, scaffold length and scaffold conformation. Most of these multivalent ligands are chemically synthesized and have limitations of controlling over sequence and conformation, which is a barrier for mimicking ordered and controlled natural biological systems. Therefore, multivalent ligands with precisely controlled architecture are required for improved structure-function relationship studies. Protein engineering methods with subsequent chemical coupling of ligands provide significant advantages of controlling over backbone conformation and functional group placement, and therefore have been used to synthesize recombinant protein-based materials with desired properties similar to natural

  14. New μ-SnTe{sub 4} and μ-Sn{sub 2}Te{sub 6} ligands to transition metal: Solvothermal syntheses and characterizations of zinc tellurostannates containing polyamine ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Jialin; Wang, Fang; Shen, Yali

    2014-08-15

    Zinc tellurostannates [(Zn(teta)){sub 2}(μ-1κ:2κ-SnTe{sub 4})] (1), [(Zn(teta)){sub 3}(μ{sub 3}-1κ:2κ:3κ-SnTe{sub 4})]I{sub 2} (2), [(Zn(tren)){sub 2}(μ-1κ:2κ-Sn{sub 2}Te{sub 6})] (3), and [Zn(dien){sub 2}]{sub 4}(Sn{sub 2}Te{sub 6}){sub 1.75}(Sn{sub 2}Te{sub 8}){sub 0.25}·dien (4) were prepared by the reactions of Zn, Sn, and Te with iodine ion assistant in teta and dien. The tetrahedral [SnTe{sub 4}]{sup 4−} anion coordinates to two [Zn(teta)]{sup 2+} units as a bidentate μ-1κ:2κ-SnTe{sub 4} ligand to form the neutral complex 1. It coordinates to three [Zn(teta)]{sup 2+} units with a tridentate μ{sub 3}-1κ:2κ:3κ coordination modes, generating a complex cation [(Zn(teta)){sub 3}(μ{sub 3}-1κ:2κ:3κ- SnTe{sub 4})]{sup 2+} in 2. In 3, the [Sn{submore » 2}Te{sub 6}]{sup 4−} anion joins two [Zn(tren)]{sup 2+}cations with the trans terminal Te atoms, forming neutral complex 3. The μ-1κ:2κ-SnTe{sub 4}, μ{sub 3}-1κ:2κ:3κ-SnTe{sub 4}, and μ-1κ:2κ-Sn{sub 2}Te{sub 6} ligands to TM centers in 1–3 have not been observed before. Compound 4 contains a normal [Sn{sub 2}Te{sub 6}]{sup 4−} and an abnormal [(Sn{sub 2}Te{sub 6}){sub 0.75}(Sn{sub 2}Te{sub 8}){sub 0.25}]{sup 4−} anions. Compounds 1–4 exhibit narrow band gaps in the range of 1.47–1.98 eV, and a distinct red-shift of the band gaps is observed from 4 to 1−3. - Graphical abstract: Zinc tellurostannates were prepared with iodine ion assistant in polyamines, and first μ-1κ:2κ-SnTe{sub 4}, μ{sub 3}-1κ:2κ:3κ-SnTe{sub 4}, and μ-1κ:2κ-Sn{sub 2}Te{sub 6} ligands TM centers were obtained. - Highlights: • Zinc-tellurostannates were first prepared with iodine ion assistant. • Novel μ-1κ:2κ-SnTe{sub 4}, μ{sub 3}-1κ:2κ:3κ-SnTe{sub 4}, and μ-1κ:2κ-Sn{sub 2}Te{sub 6} ligands were obtained. • The Zinc tellurostannates exhibit optical bandgaps between 1.47 and 1.98 eV.« less

  15. Ligand-Assisted Protein Structure (LAPS): An Experimental Paradigm for Characterizing Cannabinoid-Receptor Ligand-Binding Domains.

    PubMed

    Janero, David R; Korde, Anisha; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2017-01-01

    Detailed characterization of the ligand-binding motifs and structure-function correlates of the principal GPCRs of the endocannabinoid-signaling system, the cannabinoid 1 (CB1R) and cannabinoid 2 (CB2R) receptors, is essential to inform the rational design of drugs that modulate CB1R- and CB2R-dependent biosignaling for therapeutic gain. We discuss herein an experimental paradigm termed "ligand-assisted protein structure" (LAPS) that affords a means of characterizing, at the amino acid level, CB1R and CB2R structural features key to ligand engagement and receptor-dependent information transmission. For this purpose, LAPS integrates three key disciplines and methodologies: (a) medicinal chemistry: design and synthesis of high-affinity, pharmacologically active probes as reporters capable of reacting irreversibly with particular amino acids at (or in the immediate vicinity of) the ligand-binding domain of the functionally active receptor; (b) molecular and cellular biology: introduction of discrete, conservative point mutations into the target GPCR and determination of their effect on probe binding and pharmacological activity; (c) analytical chemistry: identification of the site(s) of probe-GPCR interaction through focused, bottom-up, amino acid-level proteomic identification of the probe-receptor complex using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Subsequent in silico methods including ligand docking and computational modeling provide supplementary data on the probe-receptor interaction as defined by LAPS. Examples of LAPS as applied to human CB2R orthosteric binding site characterization for a biarylpyrazole antagonist/inverse agonist and a classical cannabinoid agonist belonging to distinct chemical classes of cannabinergic compounds are given as paradigms for further application of this methodology to other therapeutic protein targets. LAPS is well positioned to complement other experimental and in silico methods in contemporary structural biology such

  16. DNA aptamer affinity ligands for highly selective purification of human plasma-related proteins from multiple sources.

    PubMed

    Forier, Cynthia; Boschetti, Egisto; Ouhammouch, Mohamed; Cibiel, Agnès; Ducongé, Frédéric; Nogré, Michel; Tellier, Michel; Bataille, Damien; Bihoreau, Nicolas; Santambien, Patrick; Chtourou, Sami; Perret, Gérald

    2017-03-17

    Nucleic acid aptamers are promising ligands for analytical and preparative-scale affinity chromatography applications. However, a full industrial exploitation requires that aptamer-grafted chromatography media provide a number of high technical standards that remained largely untested. Ideally, they should exhibit relatively high binding capacity associated to a very high degree of specificity. In addition, they must be highly resistant to harsh cleaning/sanitization conditions, as well as to prolonged and repeated exposure to biological environment. Here, we present practical examples of aptamer affinity chromatography for the purification of three human therapeutic proteins from various sources: Factor VII, Factor H and Factor IX. In a single chromatographic step, three DNA aptamer ligands enabled the efficient purification of their target protein, with an unprecedented degree of selectivity (from 0.5% to 98% of purity in one step). Furthermore, these aptamers demonstrated a high stability under harsh sanitization conditions (100h soaking in 1M NaOH). These results pave the way toward a wider adoption of aptamer-based affinity ligands in the industrial-scale purification of not only plasma-derived proteins but also of any other protein in general. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Optical Absorbance Enhancement in PbS QD/Cinnamate Ligand Complexes.

    PubMed

    Kroupa, Daniel M; Vörös, Márton; Brawand, Nicholas P; Bronstein, Noah; McNichols, Brett W; Castaneda, Chloe V; Nozik, Arthur J; Sellinger, Alan; Galli, Giulia; Beard, Matthew C

    2018-06-08

    We studied the optical absorption enhancement in colloidal suspensions of PbS quantum dots (QD) upon ligand exchange from oleate to a series of cinnamate ligands. By combining experiments and ab initio simulations, we elucidate physical parameters that govern the optical absorption enhancement. We find that, within the cinnamate/PbS QD system, the optical absorption enhancement scales linearly with the electronic gap of the ligand, indicating that the ligand/QD coupling occurs equally efficient between the QD and ligand HOMO and their respective LUMO levels. Disruption of the conjugation that connects the aromatic ring and its substituents to the QD core causes a reduction of the electronic coupling. Our results further support the notion that the ligand/QD complex should be considered as a distinct chemical system with emergent behavior rather than a QD core with ligands whose sole purpose is to passivate surface dangling bonds and prevent agglomeration.

  18. New synthetic routes toward enantiopure nitrogen donor ligands.

    PubMed

    Sala, Xavier; Rodríguez, Anna M; Rodríguez, Montserrat; Romero, Isabel; Parella, Teodor; von Zelewsky, Alexander; Llobet, Antoni; Benet-Buchholz, Jordi

    2006-12-08

    New polypyridylic chiral ligands, having either C3 or lower symmetry, have been prepared via a de novo construction of the pyridine nucleus by means of Kröhnke methodology in the key step. The chiral moieties of these ligands originate from the monoterpen chiral pool, namely (-)-alpha-pinene ((-)-14, (-)-15) and (-)-myrtenal ((-)-9, (-)-10). Extension of the above-mentioned asymmetric synthesis procedure to the preparation of enantiopure derivatives of some commonly used polypyridylic ligands has been achieved through a new aldehyde building block ((-)-16). As an example, the synthesis of a chiral derivative of N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylamine (bpea) ligand, (-)-19, has been performed to illustrate the viability of the method. The coordinative ability of the ligands has been tested through the synthesis and characterization of complexes [Mn((-)-19)Br2], (-)-20, and [RuCl((-)-10)(bpy)](BF4), (-)-21. Some preliminary results related to the enantioselective catalytic epoxidation of styrene with the ruthenium complex are also presented.

  19. Thiophene-Core Estrogen Receptor Ligands Having Superagonist Activity

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jian; Wang, Pengcheng; Srinivasan, Sathish; Nwachukwu, Jerome C.; Guo, Pu; Huang, Minjian; Carlson, Kathryn E.; Katzenellenbogen, John A.; Nettles, Kendall W.; Zhou, Hai-Bing

    2013-01-01

    To probe the importance of the heterocyclic core of estrogen receptor (ER) ligands, we prepared a series of thiophene-core ligands by Suzuki cross-coupling of aryl boronic acids with bromo-thiophenes, and we assessed their receptor binding and cell biological activities. The disposition of the phenol substituents on the thiophene core, at alternate or adjacent sites, and the nature of substituents on these phenols all contribute to binding affinity and subtype selectivity. Most of the bis(hydroxyphenyl)-thiophenes were ERβ selective, whereas the tris(hydroxyphenyl)-thiophenes were ERα selective; analogous furan-core compounds generally have lower affinity and less selectivity. Some diarylthiophenes show distinct superagonist activity in reporter gene assays, giving maximal activities 2–3 times that of estradiol, and modeling suggests that these ligands have a different interaction with a hydrogen-bonding residue in helix-11. Ligand-core modification may be a new strategy for developing ER ligands whose selectivity is based on having transcriptional activity greater than that of estradiol. PMID:23586645

  20. Cloud computing for protein-ligand binding site comparison.

    PubMed

    Hung, Che-Lun; Hua, Guan-Jie

    2013-01-01

    The proteome-wide analysis of protein-ligand binding sites and their interactions with ligands is important in structure-based drug design and in understanding ligand cross reactivity and toxicity. The well-known and commonly used software, SMAP, has been designed for 3D ligand binding site comparison and similarity searching of a structural proteome. SMAP can also predict drug side effects and reassign existing drugs to new indications. However, the computing scale of SMAP is limited. We have developed a high availability, high performance system that expands the comparison scale of SMAP. This cloud computing service, called Cloud-PLBS, combines the SMAP and Hadoop frameworks and is deployed on a virtual cloud computing platform. To handle the vast amount of experimental data on protein-ligand binding site pairs, Cloud-PLBS exploits the MapReduce paradigm as a management and parallelizing tool. Cloud-PLBS provides a web portal and scalability through which biologists can address a wide range of computer-intensive questions in biology and drug discovery.

  1. Ligand binding by repeat proteins: natural and designed

    PubMed Central

    Grove, Tijana Z; Cortajarena, Aitziber L; Regan, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    Repeat proteins contain tandem arrays of small structural motifs. As a consequence of this architecture, they adopt non-globular, extended structures that present large, highly specific surfaces for ligand binding. Here we discuss recent advances toward understanding the functional role of this unique modular architecture. We showcase specific examples of natural repeat proteins interacting with diverse ligands and also present examples of designed repeat protein–ligand interactions. PMID:18602006

  2. Transition-metal phosphors with cyclometalating ligands: fundamentals and applications.

    PubMed

    Chi, Yun; Chou, Pi-Tai

    2010-02-01

    One goal of this critical review is to provide advanced methodologies for systematic preparation of transition-metal based phosphors that show latent applications in the field of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). We are therefore reviewing various types of cyclometalating chelates for which the favorable metal-chelate bonding interaction, on the one hand, makes the resulting phosphorescent complexes highly emissive in both fluid and solid states at room temperature. On the other hand, fine adjustment of ligand-centered pi-pi* electronic transitions allows tuning of emission wavelength across the whole visible spectrum. The cyclometalating chelates are then classified according to types of cyclometalating groups, i.e. either aromatic C-H or azolic N-H fragment, and the adjacent donor fragment involved in the formation of metallacycles; the latter is an N-containing heterocycle, N-heterocyclic (NHC) carbene fragment or even diphenylphosphino group. These cyclometalating ligands are capable to react with heavy transition-metal elements, namely: Ru(II), Os(II), Ir(III) and Pt(II), to afford a variety of highly emissive phosphors, for which the photophysical properties as a function of chelate or metal characteristics are systematically discussed. Using Ir(III) complexes as examples, the C--N chelates possessing both C-H site and N-heterocyclic donor group are essential for obtaining phosphors with emission ranging from sky-blue to saturated red, while the N--N chelates such as 2-pyridyl-C-linked azolates are found useful for serving as true-blue chromophores due to their increased ligand-centered pi-pi* energy gap. Lastly, the remaining NHC carbene and benzyl phosphine chelates are highly desirable to serve as ancillary chelates in localizing the electronic transition between the metal and remaining lower energy chromophoric chelates. As for the potential opto-electronic applications, many of them exhibit remarkable performance data, which are convincing to pave a

  3. How to Compute Labile Metal-Ligand Equilibria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Levie, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The different methods used for computing labile metal-ligand complexes, which are suitable for an iterative computer solution, are illustrated. The ligand function has allowed students to relegate otherwise tedious iterations to a computer, while retaining complete control over what is calculated.

  4. Adjustable coordination of a hybrid phosphine-phosphine oxide ligand in luminescent Cu, Ag and Au complexes.

    PubMed

    Dau, Thuy Minh; Asamoah, Benjamin Darko; Belyaev, Andrey; Chakkaradhari, Gomathy; Hirva, Pipsa; Jänis, Janne; Grachova, Elena V; Tunik, Sergey P; Koshevoy, Igor O

    2016-09-28

    A potentially tridentate hemilabile ligand, PPh2-C6H4-PPh(O)-C6H4-PPh2 (P(3)O), has been used for the construction of a family of bimetallic complexes [MM'(P(3)O)2](2+) (M = M' = Cu (1), Ag (2), Au (3); M = Au, M' = Cu (4)) and their mononuclear halide congeners M(P(3)O)Hal (M = Cu (5-7), Ag (8-10)). Compounds 1-10 have been characterized in the solid state by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis to reveal a variable coordination mode of the phosphine-oxide group of the P(3)O ligand depending on the preferable number of coordination vacancies on the metal center. According to the theoretical studies, the interaction of the hard donor P[double bond, length as m-dash]O moiety with d(10) ions becomes less effective in the order Cu > Ag > Au. 1-10 exhibit room temperature luminescence in the solid state, and the intensity and energy of emission are mostly determined by the nature of metal atoms. The photophysical characteristics of the monometallic species were compared with those of the related compounds M(P(3))Hal (11-16) with the non-oxidized ligand P(3). It was found that in the case of the copper complexes 5-7 the P(3)O hybrid ligand introduces effective non-radiative pathways of the excited state relaxation leading to poor emission, while for the silver luminophores the P[double bond, length as m-dash]O group leads mainly to the modulation of luminescence wavelength.

  5. Ligand binding was acquired during evolution of nuclear receptors

    PubMed Central

    Escriva, Hector; Safi, Rachid; Hänni, Catherine; Langlois, Marie-Claire; Saumitou-Laprade, Pierre; Stehelin, Dominique; Capron, André; Pierce, Raymond; Laudet, Vincent

    1997-01-01

    The nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily comprises, in addition to ligand-activated transcription factors, members for which no ligand has been identified to date. We demonstrate that orphan receptors are randomly distributed in the evolutionary tree and that there is no relationship between the position of a given liganded receptor in the tree and the chemical nature of its ligand. NRs are specific to metazoans, as revealed by a screen of NR-related sequences in early- and non-metazoan organisms. The analysis of the NR gene duplication pattern during the evolution of metazoans shows that the present NR diversity arose from two waves of gene duplications. Strikingly, our results suggest that the ancestral NR was an orphan receptor that acquired ligand-binding ability during subsequent evolution. PMID:9192646

  6. Structural, spectroscopic and redox properties of uranyl complexes with a maleonitrile containing ligand.

    PubMed

    Hardwick, Helen C; Royal, Drew S; Helliwell, Madeleine; Pope, Simon J A; Ashton, Lorna; Goodacre, Roy; Sharrad, Clint A

    2011-06-14

    The reaction of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate with the maleonitrile containing Schiff base 2,3-bis[(4-diethylamino-2-hydroxybenzylidene)amino]but-2-enedinitrile (salmnt((Et(2)N)(2))H(2)) in methanol produces [UO(2)(salmnt((Et2N)2))(H(2)O)] (1) where the uranyl equatorial coordination plane is completed by the N(2)O(2) tetradentate cavity of the (salmnt((Et(2)N)(2)))(2-) ligand and a water molecule. The coordinated water molecule readily undergoes exchange with pyridine (py), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO) to give a series of [UO(2)(salmnt((Et(2)N)(2)))(L)] complexes (L = py, DMSO, DMF, TPPO; 2-5, respectively). X-Ray crystallography of 1-5 show that the (salmnt((Et(2)N)(2)))(2-) ligand is distorted when coordinated to the uranyl moiety, in contrast to the planar structure observed for the free protonated ligand (salmnt((Et(2)N)(2))H(2)). The Raman spectra of 1-5 only display extremely weak bands (819-828 cm(-1)) that can be assigned to the typically symmetric O=U=O stretch. This stretching mode is also observed in the infrared spectra for all complexes 1-5 (818-826 cm(-1)) predominantly caused by the distortion of the tetradentate (salmnt((Et(2)N)(2)))(2-) ligand about the uranyl equatorial plane resulting in a change in dipole for this bond stretch. The solution behaviour of 2-5 was studied using NMR, electronic absorption and emission spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. Complexes 2-5 exhibit intense absorptions in the visible region of the spectrum due to intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) transitions and the luminescence lifetimes (< 5 ns) indicate the emission arises from ligand-centred excited states. Reversible redox processes assigned to the {UO(2)}(2+)/{UO(2)}(+) couple are observed for complexes 2-5 (2: E(1/2) = -1.80 V; 3,5: E(1/2) = -1.78 V; 4: E(1/2) = -1.81 V : vs. ferrocenium/ferrocene {Fc(+)/Fc}, 0.1 M Bu(4)NPF(6)) in dichloromethane (DCM). These are some of the most negative half potentials

  7. Conformational Transitions upon Ligand Binding: Holo-Structure Prediction from Apo Conformations

    PubMed Central

    Seeliger, Daniel; de Groot, Bert L.

    2010-01-01

    Biological function of proteins is frequently associated with the formation of complexes with small-molecule ligands. Experimental structure determination of such complexes at atomic resolution, however, can be time-consuming and costly. Computational methods for structure prediction of protein/ligand complexes, particularly docking, are as yet restricted by their limited consideration of receptor flexibility, rendering them not applicable for predicting protein/ligand complexes if large conformational changes of the receptor upon ligand binding are involved. Accurate receptor models in the ligand-bound state (holo structures), however, are a prerequisite for successful structure-based drug design. Hence, if only an unbound (apo) structure is available distinct from the ligand-bound conformation, structure-based drug design is severely limited. We present a method to predict the structure of protein/ligand complexes based solely on the apo structure, the ligand and the radius of gyration of the holo structure. The method is applied to ten cases in which proteins undergo structural rearrangements of up to 7.1 Å backbone RMSD upon ligand binding. In all cases, receptor models within 1.6 Å backbone RMSD to the target were predicted and close-to-native ligand binding poses were obtained for 8 of 10 cases in the top-ranked complex models. A protocol is presented that is expected to enable structure modeling of protein/ligand complexes and structure-based drug design for cases where crystal structures of ligand-bound conformations are not available. PMID:20066034

  8. Interaction between alkaline earth cations and oxo-ligands. DFT study of the affinity of the Ca2+ cation for carbonyl ligands.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Leonardo Moreira; Carneiro, José Walkimar de Mesquita; Romeiro, Gilberto Alves; Paes, Lilian Weitzel Coelho

    2011-02-01

    The affinity of the Ca(2+) ion for a set of substituted carbonyl ligands was analyzed with both the DFT (B3LYP/6-31+G(d)) and semi-empirical (PM6) methods. Two types of ligands were studied: a set of monosubstituted [O=CH(R)] and a set of disubstituted ligands [O=C(R)(2)] (R=H, F, Cl, Br, OH, OCH(3), CH(3), CN, NH(2) and NO(2)), with R either directly bound to the carbonyl carbon atom or to the para position of a phenyl ring. The interaction energy was calculated to quantify the affinity of the Ca(2+) cation for the ligands. Geometric and electronic parameters were correlated with the intensity of the metal-ligand interaction. The electronic nature of the substituent is the main parameter that determines the interaction energy. Donor groups make the interaction energy more negative (stabilizing the complex formed), while acceptor groups make the interaction energy less negative (destabilizing the complex formed).

  9. Computer-aided design of multi-target ligands at A1R, A2AR and PDE10A, key proteins in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Kalash, Leen; Val, Cristina; Azuaje, Jhonny; Loza, María I; Svensson, Fredrik; Zoufir, Azedine; Mervin, Lewis; Ladds, Graham; Brea, José; Glen, Robert; Sotelo, Eddy; Bender, Andreas

    2017-12-30

    Compounds designed to display polypharmacology may have utility in treating complex diseases, where activity at multiple targets is required to produce a clinical effect. In particular, suitable compounds may be useful in treating neurodegenerative diseases by promoting neuronal survival in a synergistic manner via their multi-target activity at the adenosine A 1 and A 2A receptors (A 1 R and A 2A R) and phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A), which modulate intracellular cAMP levels. Hence, in this work we describe a computational method for the design of synthetically feasible ligands that bind to A 1 and A 2A receptors and inhibit phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A), involving a retrosynthetic approach employing in silico target prediction and docking, which may be generally applicable to multi-target compound design at several target classes. This approach has identified 2-aminopyridine-3-carbonitriles as the first multi-target ligands at A 1 R, A 2A R and PDE10A, by showing agreement between the ligand and structure based predictions at these targets. The series were synthesized via an efficient one-pot scheme and validated pharmacologically as A 1 R/A 2A R-PDE10A ligands, with IC 50 values of 2.4-10.0 μM at PDE10A and K i values of 34-294 nM at A 1 R and/or A 2A R. Furthermore, selectivity profiling of the synthesized 2-amino-pyridin-3-carbonitriles against other subtypes of both protein families showed that the multi-target ligand 8 exhibited a minimum of twofold selectivity over all tested off-targets. In addition, both compounds 8 and 16 exhibited the desired multi-target profile, which could be considered for further functional efficacy assessment, analog modification for the improvement of selectivity towards A 1 R, A 2A R and PDE10A collectively, and evaluation of their potential synergy in modulating cAMP levels.

  10. Proteome-wide covalent ligand discovery in native biological systems

    PubMed Central

    Backus, Keriann M.; Correia, Bruno E.; Lum, Kenneth M.; Forli, Stefano; Horning, Benjamin D.; González-Páez, Gonzalo E.; Chatterjee, Sandip; Lanning, Bryan R.; Teijaro, John R.; Olson, Arthur J.; Wolan, Dennis W.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2016-01-01

    Small molecules are powerful tools for investigating protein function and can serve as leads for new therapeutics. Most human proteins, however, lack small-molecule ligands, and entire protein classes are considered “undruggable” 1,2. Fragment-based ligand discovery (FBLD) can identify small-molecule probes for proteins that have proven difficult to target using high-throughput screening of complex compound libraries 1,3. Although reversibly binding ligands are commonly pursued, covalent fragments provide an alternative route to small-molecule probes 4–10, including those that can access regions of proteins that are difficult to access through binding affinity alone 5,10,11. In this manuscript, we report a quantitative analysis of cysteine-reactive small-molecule fragments screened against thousands of proteins. Covalent ligands were identified for >700 cysteines found in both druggable proteins and proteins deficient in chemical probes, including transcription factors, adaptor/scaffolding proteins, and uncharacterized proteins. Among the atypical ligand-protein interactions discovered were compounds that react preferentially with pro- (inactive) caspases. We used these ligands to distinguish extrinsic apoptosis pathways in human cell lines versus primary human T-cells, showing that the former is largely mediated by caspase-8 while the latter depends on both caspase-8 and −10. Fragment-based covalent ligand discovery provides a greatly expanded portrait of the ligandable proteome and furnishes compounds that can illuminate protein functions in native biological systems. PMID:27309814

  11. Models of protein–ligand crystal structures: trust, but verify

    PubMed Central

    Deller, Marc C.

    2015-01-01

    X-ray crystallography provides the most accurate models of protein–ligand structures. These models serve as the foundation of many computational methods including structure prediction, molecular modelling, and structure-based drug design. The success of these computational methods ultimately depends on the quality of the underlying protein–ligand models. X-ray crystallography offers the unparalleled advantage of a clear mathematical formalism relating the experimental data to the protein–ligand model. In the case of X-ray crystallography, the primary experimental evidence is the electron density of the molecules forming the crystal. The first step in the generation of an accurate and precise crystallographic model is the interpretation of the electron density of the crystal, typically carried out by construction of an atomic model. The atomic model must then be validated for fit to the experimental electron density and also for agreement with prior expectations of stereochemistry. Stringent validation of protein–ligand models has become possible as a result of the mandatory deposition of primary diffraction data, and many computational tools are now available to aid in the validation process. Validation of protein–ligand complexes has revealed some instances of overenthusiastic interpretation of ligand density. Fundamental concepts and metrics of protein–ligand quality validation are discussed and we highlight software tools to assist in this process. It is essential that end users select high quality protein–ligand models for their computational and biological studies, and we provide an overview of how this can be achieved. PMID:25665575

  12. Models of protein-ligand crystal structures: trust, but verify.

    PubMed

    Deller, Marc C; Rupp, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    X-ray crystallography provides the most accurate models of protein-ligand structures. These models serve as the foundation of many computational methods including structure prediction, molecular modelling, and structure-based drug design. The success of these computational methods ultimately depends on the quality of the underlying protein-ligand models. X-ray crystallography offers the unparalleled advantage of a clear mathematical formalism relating the experimental data to the protein-ligand model. In the case of X-ray crystallography, the primary experimental evidence is the electron density of the molecules forming the crystal. The first step in the generation of an accurate and precise crystallographic model is the interpretation of the electron density of the crystal, typically carried out by construction of an atomic model. The atomic model must then be validated for fit to the experimental electron density and also for agreement with prior expectations of stereochemistry. Stringent validation of protein-ligand models has become possible as a result of the mandatory deposition of primary diffraction data, and many computational tools are now available to aid in the validation process. Validation of protein-ligand complexes has revealed some instances of overenthusiastic interpretation of ligand density. Fundamental concepts and metrics of protein-ligand quality validation are discussed and we highlight software tools to assist in this process. It is essential that end users select high quality protein-ligand models for their computational and biological studies, and we provide an overview of how this can be achieved.

  13. The effects of the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 gene on glucose/insulin metabolism interact with prenatal exposure to famine.

    PubMed

    de Rooij, Susanne R; Painter, Rebecca C; Phillips, David I W; Osmond, Clive; Tanck, Michael W T; Defesche, Joep C; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Michels, Robert P J; Bleker, Otto P; Roseboom, Tessa J

    2006-05-01

    An adverse fetal environment may permanently modify the effects of specific genes on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity. In the present study, we assessed a possible interaction of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma2 Pro12Ala polymorphism with prenatal exposure to famine on glucose and insulin metabolism. We measured plasma glucose and insulin concentrations after an oral glucose tolerance test and determined the PPAR-gamma2 genotype among 675 term singletons born around the time of the 1944-1945 Dutch famine. A significant interaction effect between exposure to famine during midgestation and the PPAR-gamma2 Pro12Ala polymorphism was found on the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes. The Ala allele of the PPAR-gamma2 gene was associated with a higher prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes but only in participants who had been prenatally exposed to famine during midgestation. Similar interactions were found for area under the curve for insulin and insulin increment ratio, which were lower for Ala carriers exposed to famine during midgestation. The effects of the PPAR-gamma2 Pro12Ala polymorphism on glucose and insulin metabolism may be modified by prenatal exposure to famine during midgestation. This is possibly due to a combined deficit in insulin secretion, as conferred by pancreatic beta-cell maldevelopment and carrier type of the Ala allele in the PPAR-gamma2 gene.

  14. Quantitative analysis of protein-ligand interactions by NMR.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Ayako; Konuma, Tsuyoshi; Yanaka, Saeko; Sugase, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    Protein-ligand interactions have been commonly studied through static structures of the protein-ligand complex. Recently, however, there has been increasing interest in investigating the dynamics of protein-ligand interactions both for fundamental understanding of the underlying mechanisms and for drug development. NMR is a versatile and powerful tool, especially because it provides site-specific quantitative information. NMR has widely been used to determine the dissociation constant (KD), in particular, for relatively weak interactions. The simplest NMR method is a chemical-shift titration experiment, in which the chemical-shift changes of a protein in response to ligand titration are measured. There are other quantitative NMR methods, but they mostly apply only to interactions in the fast-exchange regime. These methods derive the dissociation constant from population-averaged NMR quantities of the free and bound states of a protein or ligand. In contrast, the recent advent of new relaxation-based experiments, including R2 relaxation dispersion and ZZ-exchange, has enabled us to obtain kinetic information on protein-ligand interactions in the intermediate- and slow-exchange regimes. Based on R2 dispersion or ZZ-exchange, methods that can determine the association rate, kon, dissociation rate, koff, and KD have been developed. In these approaches, R2 dispersion or ZZ-exchange curves are measured for multiple samples with different protein and/or ligand concentration ratios, and the relaxation data are fitted to theoretical kinetic models. It is critical to choose an appropriate kinetic model, such as the two- or three-state exchange model, to derive the correct kinetic information. The R2 dispersion and ZZ-exchange methods are suitable for the analysis of protein-ligand interactions with a micromolar or sub-micromolar dissociation constant but not for very weak interactions, which are typical in very fast exchange. This contrasts with the NMR methods that are used

  15. Diimine triscarbonyl Re(I) of isomeric pyridyl-fulvene ligands: an electrochemical, spectroscopic, and computational investigation.

    PubMed

    Chartrand, Daniel; Castro Ruiz, Carlos A; Hanan, Garry S

    2012-12-03

    The synthesis and characterization of a novel family of positively charged fac-[Re(bpy)(CO)(3)(L)]PF(6) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) complexes are reported, where L is a pyridine functionalized in para or meta position with a fulvene moiety, namely, 4-fluoren-9-ylidenemethyl-pyridine (pFpy) and 3-fluoren-9-ylidenemethyl-pyridine (mFpy). The complexes were prepared in high yield (86%) by direct addition at room temperature of the corresponding pyridine to the tetrahydrofuran (THF) adduct fac-[Re(bpy)(CO)(3)(THF)][PF(6)] precursor. Both ligand and complex structures were fully characterized by a variety of techniques including X-ray crystallography. The complexes did not exhibit the expected triplet mixed metal-ligand-to-ligand charge transfer (MLLCT) emission, because of its deactivation by the non-emissive triplet excited state of fulvene. The absorption profile shows that the MLLCT is overshadowed by the fulvene centered π-π* transition of higher molar absorptivity as shown by time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations. The position of the fulvene on the pyridyl ring has a large effect on this transition, the para position displaying a much higher absorption coefficient (21.3 × 10(3) M(-1) cm(-1)) at lower energy (364 nm) than the meta position (331 nm, 16.0 × 10(3) M(-1) cm(-1)).

  16. PLIP: fully automated protein-ligand interaction profiler.

    PubMed

    Salentin, Sebastian; Schreiber, Sven; Haupt, V Joachim; Adasme, Melissa F; Schroeder, Michael

    2015-07-01

    The characterization of interactions in protein-ligand complexes is essential for research in structural bioinformatics, drug discovery and biology. However, comprehensive tools are not freely available to the research community. Here, we present the protein-ligand interaction profiler (PLIP), a novel web service for fully automated detection and visualization of relevant non-covalent protein-ligand contacts in 3D structures, freely available at projects.biotec.tu-dresden.de/plip-web. The input is either a Protein Data Bank structure, a protein or ligand name, or a custom protein-ligand complex (e.g. from docking). In contrast to other tools, the rule-based PLIP algorithm does not require any structure preparation. It returns a list of detected interactions on single atom level, covering seven interaction types (hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic contacts, pi-stacking, pi-cation interactions, salt bridges, water bridges and halogen bonds). PLIP stands out by offering publication-ready images, PyMOL session files to generate custom images and parsable result files to facilitate successive data processing. The full python source code is available for download on the website. PLIP's command-line mode allows for high-throughput interaction profiling. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Ligand-based virtual screening under partial shape constraints.

    PubMed

    von Behren, Mathias M; Rarey, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Ligand-based virtual screening has proven to be a viable technology during the search for new lead structures in drug discovery. Despite the rapidly increasing number of published methods, meaningful shape matching as well as ligand and target flexibility still remain open challenges. In this work, we analyze the influence of knowledge-based sterical constraints on the performance of the recently published ligand-based virtual screening method mRAISE. We introduce the concept of partial shape matching enabling a more differentiated view on chemical structure. The new method is integrated into the LBVS tool mRAISE providing multiple options for such constraints. The applied constraints can either be derived automatically from a protein-ligand complex structure or by manual selection of ligand atoms. In this way, the descriptor directly encodes the fit of a ligand into the binding site. Furthermore, the conservation of close contacts between the binding site surface and the query ligand can be enforced. We validated our new method on the DUD and DUD-E datasets. Although the statistical performance remains on the same level, detailed analysis reveal that for certain and especially very flexible targets a significant improvement can be achieved. This is further highlighted looking at the quality of calculated molecular alignments using the recently introduced mRAISE dataset. The new partial shape constraints improved the overall quality of molecular alignments especially for difficult targets with highly flexible or different sized molecules. The software tool mRAISE is freely available on Linux operating systems for evaluation purposes and academic use (see http://www.zbh.uni-hamburg.de/raise ).

  18. Ligand-based virtual screening under partial shape constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Behren, Mathias M.; Rarey, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Ligand-based virtual screening has proven to be a viable technology during the search for new lead structures in drug discovery. Despite the rapidly increasing number of published methods, meaningful shape matching as well as ligand and target flexibility still remain open challenges. In this work, we analyze the influence of knowledge-based sterical constraints on the performance of the recently published ligand-based virtual screening method mRAISE. We introduce the concept of partial shape matching enabling a more differentiated view on chemical structure. The new method is integrated into the LBVS tool mRAISE providing multiple options for such constraints. The applied constraints can either be derived automatically from a protein-ligand complex structure or by manual selection of ligand atoms. In this way, the descriptor directly encodes the fit of a ligand into the binding site. Furthermore, the conservation of close contacts between the binding site surface and the query ligand can be enforced. We validated our new method on the DUD and DUD-E datasets. Although the statistical performance remains on the same level, detailed analysis reveal that for certain and especially very flexible targets a significant improvement can be achieved. This is further highlighted looking at the quality of calculated molecular alignments using the recently introduced mRAISE dataset. The new partial shape constraints improved the overall quality of molecular alignments especially for difficult targets with highly flexible or different sized molecules. The software tool mRAISE is freely available on Linux operating systems for evaluation purposes and academic use (see http://www.zbh.uni-hamburg.de/raise).

  19. Ligand diffusion in proteins via enhanced sampling in molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Rydzewski, J; Nowak, W

    2017-12-01

    Computational simulations in biophysics describe the dynamics and functions of biological macromolecules at the atomic level. Among motions particularly important for life are the transport processes in heterogeneous media. The process of ligand diffusion inside proteins is an example of a complex rare event that can be modeled using molecular dynamics simulations. The study of physical interactions between a ligand and its biological target is of paramount importance for the design of novel drugs and enzymes. Unfortunately, the process of ligand diffusion is difficult to study experimentally. The need for identifying the ligand egress pathways and understanding how ligands migrate through protein tunnels has spurred the development of several methodological approaches to this problem. The complex topology of protein channels and the transient nature of the ligand passage pose difficulties in the modeling of the ligand entry/escape pathways by canonical molecular dynamics simulations. In this review, we report a methodology involving a reconstruction of the ligand diffusion reaction coordinates and the free-energy profiles along these reaction coordinates using enhanced sampling of conformational space. We illustrate the above methods on several ligand-protein systems, including cytochromes and G-protein-coupled receptors. The methods are general and may be adopted to other transport processes in living matter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Conditional control of selectin ligand expression and global fucosylation events in mice with a targeted mutation at the FX locus.

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter L; Myers, Jay T; Rogers, Clare E; Zhou, Lan; Petryniak, Bronia; Becker, Daniel J; Homeister, Jonathon W; Lowe, John B

    2002-08-19

    Glycoprotein fucosylation enables fringe-dependent modulation of signal transduction by Notch transmembrane receptors, contributes to selectin-dependent leukocyte trafficking, and is faulty in leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) type II, also known as congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG)-IIc, a rare human disorder characterized by psychomotor defects, developmental abnormalities, and leukocyte adhesion defects. We report here that mice with an induced null mutation in the FX locus, which encodes an enzyme in the de novo pathway for GDP-fucose synthesis, exhibit a virtually complete deficiency of cellular fucosylation, and variable frequency of intrauterine demise determined by parental FX genotype. Live-born FX(-/-) mice exhibit postnatal failure to thrive that is suppressed with a fucose-supplemented diet. FX(-/-) adults suffer from an extreme neutrophilia, myeloproliferation, and absence of leukocyte selectin ligand expression reminiscent of LAD-II/CDG-IIc. Contingent restoration of leukocyte and endothelial selectin ligand expression, general cellular fucosylation, and normal postnatal physiology is achieved by modulating dietary fucose to supply a salvage pathway for GDP-fucose synthesis. Conditional control of fucosylation in FX(-/-) mice identifies cellular fucosylation events as essential concomitants to fertility, early growth and development, and leukocyte adhesion.

  1. Lineage-specific co-evolution of the Egf receptor/ligand signaling system.

    PubMed

    Laisney, Juliette A G C; Braasch, Ingo; Walter, Ronald B; Meierjohann, Svenja; Schartl, Manfred

    2010-01-27

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr) with its numerous ligands has fundamental roles in development, cell differentiation and physiology. Dysfunction of the receptor-ligand system contributes to many human malignancies. Consistent with such various tasks, the Egfr gene family has expanded during vertebrate evolution as a consequence of several rounds of whole genome duplication. Of particular interest is the effect of the fish-specific whole genome duplication (FSGD) on the ligand-receptor system, as it has supplied this largest group of vertebrates with additional opportunities for sub- and/or neofunctionalization in this signaling system. We identified the predicted components of the Egf receptor-ligand signaling system in teleost fishes (medaka, platyfish, stickleback, pufferfishes and zebrafish). We found two duplicated egfr genes, egfra and egfrb, in all available teleost genomes. Surprisingly only one copy for each of the seven Egfr ligands could be identified in most fishes, with zebrafish hbegf being the only exception. Special focus was put on medaka, for which we more closely investigated all Egf receptors and Egfr ligands. The different expression patterns of egfra, egfrb and their ligands in medaka tissues and embryo stages suggest differences in role and function. Preferential co-expression of different subsets of Egfr ligands corroborates the possible subfunctionalization and specialization of the two receptors in adult tissues. Bioinformatic analyses of the ligand-receptor interface between Egfr and its ligands show a very weak evolutionary conservation within this region. Using in vitro analyses of medaka Egfra, we could show that this receptor is only activated by medaka ligands, but not by human EGF. Altogether, our data suggest a lineage-specific Egfr/Egfr ligand co-evolution. Our data indicate that medaka Egfr signaling occurs via its two copies, Egfra and Egfrb, each of them being preferentially coexpressed with different subsets of Egfr

  2. Lineage-specific co-evolution of the Egf receptor/ligand signaling system

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr) with its numerous ligands has fundamental roles in development, cell differentiation and physiology. Dysfunction of the receptor-ligand system contributes to many human malignancies. Consistent with such various tasks, the Egfr gene family has expanded during vertebrate evolution as a consequence of several rounds of whole genome duplication. Of particular interest is the effect of the fish-specific whole genome duplication (FSGD) on the ligand-receptor system, as it has supplied this largest group of vertebrates with additional opportunities for sub- and/or neofunctionalization in this signaling system. Results We identified the predicted components of the Egf receptor-ligand signaling system in teleost fishes (medaka, platyfish, stickleback, pufferfishes and zebrafish). We found two duplicated egfr genes, egfra and egfrb, in all available teleost genomes. Surprisingly only one copy for each of the seven Egfr ligands could be identified in most fishes, with zebrafish hbegf being the only exception. Special focus was put on medaka, for which we more closely investigated all Egf receptors and Egfr ligands. The different expression patterns of egfra, egfrb and their ligands in medaka tissues and embryo stages suggest differences in role and function. Preferential co-expression of different subsets of Egfr ligands corroborates the possible subfunctionalization and specialization of the two receptors in adult tissues. Bioinformatic analyses of the ligand-receptor interface between Egfr and its ligands show a very weak evolutionary conservation within this region. Using in vitro analyses of medaka Egfra, we could show that this receptor is only activated by medaka ligands, but not by human EGF. Altogether, our data suggest a lineage-specific Egfr/Egfr ligand co-evolution. Conclusions Our data indicate that medaka Egfr signaling occurs via its two copies, Egfra and Egfrb, each of them being preferentially coexpressed

  3. Translating in vitro ligand bias into in vivo efficacy.

    PubMed

    Luttrell, Louis M; Maudsley, Stuart; Gesty-Palmer, Diane

    2018-01-01

    It is increasingly apparent that ligand structure influences both the efficiency with which G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) engage their downstream effectors and the manner in which they are activated. Thus, 'biased' agonists, synthetic ligands whose intrinsic efficacy differs from the native ligand, afford a strategy for manipulating GPCR signaling in ways that promote beneficial signals while blocking potentially deleterious ones. Still, there are significant challenges in relating in vitro ligand efficacy, which is typically measured in heterologous expression systems, to the biological response in vivo, where the ligand is acting on natively expressed receptors and in the presence of the endogenous ligand. This is particularly true of arrestin pathway-selective 'biased' agonists. The type 1 parathyroid hormone receptor (PTH 1 R) is a case in point. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the principal physiological regulator of calcium homeostasis, and PTH 1 R expressed on cells of the osteoblast lineage are an established therapeutic target in osteoporosis. In vitro, PTH 1 R signaling is highly sensitive to ligand structure, and PTH analogs that affect the selectivity/kinetics of G protein coupling or that engage arrestin-dependent signaling mechanisms without activating heterotrimeric G proteins have been identified. In vivo, intermittent administration of conventional PTH analogs accelerates the rate of osteoblastic bone formation, largely through known cAMP-dependent mechanisms. Paradoxically, both intermittent and continuous administration of an arrestin pathway-selective PTH analog, which in vivo would be expected to antagonize endogenous PTH 1 R-cAMP signaling, also increases bone mass. Transcriptomic analysis of tissue from treated animals suggests that conventional and arrestin pathway-selective PTH1R ligands act in largely different ways, with the latter principally affecting pathways involved in the regulation of cell cycle, survival, and migration

  4. Balancing specificity, sensitivity, and speed of ligand discrimination by zero-order ultraspecificity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajita, Masashi K.; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Kobayashi, Tetsuya J.

    2017-07-01

    Specific interactions between receptors and their target ligands in the presence of nontarget ligands are crucial for biological processes such as T cell ligand discrimination. To discriminate between the target and nontarget ligands, cells have to increase specificity to the target ligands by amplifying the small differences in affinity among ligands. In addition, sensitivity to the ligand concentration and quick discrimination are also important to detect low amounts of target ligands and facilitate fast cellular decision making after ligand recognition. In this work we propose a mechanism for nonlinear specificity amplification (ultraspecificity) based on zero-order saturating reactions, which was originally proposed to explain nonlinear sensitivity amplification (ultrasensitivity) to the ligand concentration. In contrast to the previously proposed proofreading mechanisms that amplify the specificity by a multistep reaction, our model can produce an optimal balance of specificity, sensitivity, and quick discrimination. Furthermore, we show that a model for insensitivity to a large number of nontarget ligands can be naturally derived from a model with the zero-order ultraspecificity. The zero-order ultraspecificity, therefore, may provide an alternative way to understand ligand discrimination from the viewpoint of nonlinear properties in biochemical reactions.

  5. Unsymmetrical hybrid ferrocene-based phosphine-phosphoramidites: a new class of practical ligands for Rh-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiang-Ping; Zheng, Zhuo

    2004-09-30

    [reaction: see text] The synthesis and application of a new family of air-stable, highly unsymmetrical ferrocene-based phosphine-phosphoramidites is described. The new ligands exhibit excellent enantioselectivities (over 99% ee) in the Rh-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of enamides, dimethyl itaconate, and methyl (Z)-acetamidocinnamate even with high catalyst turnovers (S/C=10,000). The binaphthyl moiety is crucial for reactivity and enantioselectivity, and its absolute configuration plays a dominant role in determining the chirality of the hydrogenation products.

  6. A Mixed-Ligand Approach for a Gigantic and Hollow Heterometallic Cage {Ni64 RE96 } for Gas Separation and Magnetic Cooling Applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Peng; Liao, Pei-Qin; Yu, Youzhu; Zheng, Zhiping; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Zheng, Yan-Zhen

    2016-08-01

    Nanosized aggregations of metal ions shielded by organic ligands possessing both exquisite structural aesthetics and intriguing properties are fundamentally interesting. Three isostructural gigantic transition-metal-rare-earth heterometallic coordination cages are reported, abbreviated as {Ni64 RE96 } (RE=Gd, Dy, and Y) and obtained by a mixed-ligand approach, each possessing a cuboidal framework made of 160 metal ions and a nanosized spherical cavity in the center. Along with the structural novelty, these hollow cages show highly selective adsorptions for CO2 over CH4 or N2 at ambient temperatures. Moreover, the gadolinium analogue exhibits large magnetocaloric effect at ultralow temperatures. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. The Retinoid X Receptors and Their Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Marcia I.; Xia, Zebin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the current status of studies on the structural and molecular biology of the retinoid X receptor subtypes α, β, and γ (RXRs, NR2B1–3), their nuclear and cytoplasmic functions, post-transcriptional processing, and recently reported ligands. Points of interest are the different changes in the ligand-binding pocket induced by variously shaped agonists, the communication of the ligand–bound pocket with the coactivator binding surface and the heterodimerization interface, and recently identified ligands that are natural products, those that function as environmental toxins or drugs that had been originally designed to interact with other targets, as well as those that were deliberately designed as RXR-selective transcriptional agonists, synergists, or antagonists. Of these synthetic ligands, the general trend in design appears to be away from fully aromatic rigid structures to those containing partial elements of the flexible tetraene side chain of 9-cis-retinoic acid. PMID:22020178

  8. Photochemical Properties and Reactivity of a Ru Compound Containing an NAD/NADH-Functionalized 1,10-Phenanthroline Ligand.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Katsuaki; Ohtsu, Hideki; Nozaki, Koichi; Kitagawa, Susumu; Tanaka, Koji

    2016-03-07

    An NAD/NADH-functionalized ligand, benzo[b]pyrido[3,2-f][1,7]-phenanthroline (bpp), was newly synthesized. A Ru compound containing the bpp ligand, [Ru(bpp)(bpy)2](2+), underwent 2e(-) and 2H(+) reduction, generating the NADH form of the compound, [Ru(bppHH)(bpy)2](2+), in response to visible light irradiation in CH3CN/TEA/H2O (8/1/1). The UV-vis and fluorescent spectra of both [Ru(bpp)(bpy)2](2+) and [Ru(bppHH)(bpy)2](2+) resembled the spectra of [Ru(bpy)3](2+). Both complexes exhibited strong emission, with quantum yields of 0.086 and 0.031, respectively; values that are much higher than those obtained from the NAD/NADH-functionalized complexes [Ru(pbn)(bpy)2](2+) and [Ru(pbnHH)(bpy)2](2+) (pbn = (2-(2-pyridyl)benzo[b]-1.5-naphthyridine, pbnHH = hydrogenated form of pbn). The reduction potential of the bpp ligand in [Ru(bpp)(bpy)2](2+) (-1.28 V vs SCE) is much more negative than that of the pbn ligand in [Ru(pbn)(bpy)2](2+) (-0.74 V), although the oxidation potentials of bppHH and pbnHH are essentially equal (0.95 V). These results indicate that the electrochemical oxidation of the dihydropyridine moiety in the NADH-type ligand was independent of the π system, including the Ru polypyridyl framework. [Ru(bppHH)(bpy)2](2+) allowed the photoreduction of oxygen, generating H2O2 in 92% yield based on [Ru(bppHH)(bpy)2](2+). H2O2 production took place via singlet oxygen generated by the energy transfer from excited [Ru(bppHH)(bpy)2](2+) to triplet oxygen.

  9. Axial ligand tuning of a nonheme iron(IV)–oxo unit for hydrogen atom abstraction

    PubMed Central

    Sastri, Chivukula V.; Lee, Jimin; Oh, Kyungeun; Lee, Yoon Jin; Lee, Junghyun; Jackson, Timothy A.; Ray, Kallol; Hirao, Hajime; Shin, Woonsup; Halfen, Jason A.; Kim, Jinheung; Que, Lawrence; Shaik, Sason; Nam, Wonwoo

    2007-01-01

    The reactivities of mononuclear nonheme iron(IV)–oxo complexes bearing different axial ligands, [FeIV(O)(TMC)(X)]n+ [where TMC is 1,4,8,11-tetramethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane and X is NCCH3 (1-NCCH3), CF3COO− (1-OOCCF3), or N3− (1-N3)], and [FeIV(O)(TMCS)]+ (1′-SR) (where TMCS is 1-mercaptoethyl-4,8,11-trimethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane), have been investigated with respect to oxo-transfer to PPh3 and hydrogen atom abstraction from phenol OH and alkylaromatic CH bonds. These reactivities were significantly affected by the identity of the axial ligands, but the reactivity trends differed markedly. In the oxidation of PPh3, the reactivity order of 1-NCCH3 > 1-OOCCF3 > 1-N3 > 1′-SR was observed, reflecting a decrease in the electrophilicity of iron(IV)–oxo unit upon replacement of CH3CN with an anionic axial ligand. Surprisingly, the reactivity order was inverted in the oxidation of alkylaromatic CH and phenol OH bonds, i.e., 1′-SR > 1-N3 > 1-OOCCF3 > 1-NCCH3. Furthermore, a good correlation was observed between the reactivities of iron(IV)–oxo species in H atom abstraction reactions and their reduction potentials, Ep,c, with the most reactive 1′-SR complex exhibiting the lowest potential. In other words, the more electron-donating the axial ligand is, the more reactive the iron(IV)–oxo species becomes in H atom abstraction. Quantum mechanical calculations show that a two-state reactivity model applies to this series of complexes, in which a triplet ground state and a nearby quintet excited-state both contribute to the reactivity of the complexes. The inverted reactivity order in H atom abstraction can be rationalized by a decreased triplet-quintet gap with the more electron-donating axial ligand, which increases the contribution of the much more reactive quintet state and enhances the overall reactivity. PMID:18048327

  10. Control of Energy Flow Dynamics between Tetracene Ligands and PbS Quantum Dots by Size Tuning and Ligand Coverage

    SciTech Connect

    Kroupa, Daniel M.; Arias, Dylan H.; Blackburn, Jeffrey L.

    We have prepared a series of samples with the ligand 6,13-bistri(iso-propyl)silylethynyl tetracene 2-carboxylic acid (TIPS-Tc-COOH) attached to PbS quantum dot (QD) samples of three different sizes in order to monitor and control the extent and time scales of energy flow after photoexcitation. Fast energy transfer (~1 ps) to the PbS QD occurs upon direct excitation of the ligand for all samples. The largest size QD maintains the microsecond exciton lifetime characteristic of the as-prepared oleate terminated PbS QDs. However, two smaller QD sizes with lowest exciton energies similar to or larger than the TIPS-Tc-COO- triplet energy undergo energy transfer betweenmore » QD core and ligand triplet on nanosecond to microsecond timescales. For the intermediate size QDs in particular, energy can be recycled many times between ligand and core, but the triplet remains the dominant excited species at long times, living for ~3 us for fully exchanged QDs and up to 30 us for partial ligand exchange, which is revealed as a method for controlling the triplet lifetime. A unique upconverted luminescence spectrum is observed that results from annihilation of triplets after exclusive excitation of the QD core.« less

  11. Control of Energy Flow Dynamics between Tetracene Ligands and PbS Quantum Dots by Size Tuning and Ligand Coverage

    DOE PAGES

    Kroupa, Daniel M.; Arias, Dylan H.; Blackburn, Jeffrey L.; ...

    2018-01-24

    We have prepared a series of samples with the ligand 6,13-bistri(iso-propyl)silylethynyl tetracene 2-carboxylic acid (TIPS-Tc-COOH) attached to PbS quantum dot (QD) samples of three different sizes in order to monitor and control the extent and time scales of energy flow after photoexcitation. Fast energy transfer (~1 ps) to the PbS QD occurs upon direct excitation of the ligand for all samples. The largest size QD maintains the microsecond exciton lifetime characteristic of the as-prepared oleate terminated PbS QDs. However, two smaller QD sizes with lowest exciton energies similar to or larger than the TIPS-Tc-COO- triplet energy undergo energy transfer betweenmore » QD core and ligand triplet on nanosecond to microsecond timescales. For the intermediate size QDs in particular, energy can be recycled many times between ligand and core, but the triplet remains the dominant excited species at long times, living for ~3 us for fully exchanged QDs and up to 30 us for partial ligand exchange, which is revealed as a method for controlling the triplet lifetime. A unique upconverted luminescence spectrum is observed that results from annihilation of triplets after exclusive excitation of the QD core.« less

  12. Ligand-independent Dimer Formation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Is a Step Separable from Ligand-induced EGFR Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaochun; Sharma, Kailash D.; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Iwamoto, Ryo; Mekada, Eisuke

    2002-01-01

    Dimerization and phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) are the initial and essential events of EGF-induced signal transduction. However, the mechanism by which EGFR ligands induce dimerization and phosphorylation is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that EGFRs can form dimers on the cell surface independent of ligand binding. However, a chimeric receptor, comprising the extracellular and transmembrane domains of EGFR and the cytoplasmic domain of the erythropoietin receptor (EpoR), did not form a dimer in the absence of ligands, suggesting that the cytoplasmic domain of EGFR is important for predimer formation. Analysis of deletion mutants of EGFR showed that the region between 835Ala and 918Asp of the EGFR cytoplasmic domain is required for EGFR predimer formation. In contrast to wild-type EGFR ligands, a mutant form of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB2) did not induce dimerization of the EGFR-EpoR chimeric receptor and therefore failed to activate the chimeric receptor. However, when the dimerization was induced by a monoclonal antibody to EGFR, HB2 could activate the chimeric receptor. These results indicate that EGFR can form a ligand-independent inactive dimer and that receptor dimerization and activation are mechanistically distinct and separable events. PMID:12134089

  13. A strategy for screening of α-glucosidase inhibitors from Morus alba root bark based on the ligand fishing combined with high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometer and molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Li, Xiaoqing; Chen, Menghan; Liu, Feiyan; Han, Chao; Kong, Lingyi; Luo, Jianguang

    2018-04-01

    A new method based on ligand fishing combined with high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer and molecular docking was established to screen α-glucosidase inhibitors from a traditional Chinese medicine Morus alba root bark. α-Glucosidase was immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles, used as a solid support to incubate with crude extract. After ligand fishing, the eluates were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer, obtaining eleven ligands (1-4, 6-12) eventually. In order to discriminate the non-specific binders and discover powerful enzyme inhibitors, molecular docking was further performed and three of the eleven ligands were optimized to be excellent α-glucosidase inhibitors by the confirmation of isolation and bioassay of individual compounds. These three ligands, sanggenons G (6), O (7) and sanggenol G (12) exhibited striking inhibitory activities with extremely low IC 50 values. The results suggest that established method will be applied to a wide range of target protein to screen potential bioactive constituents from herbal medicines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Differential hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry analysis of protein–ligand interactions

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, Michael J; Busby, Scott A; Pascal, Bruce D; West, Graham M; Griffin, Patrick R

    2011-01-01

    Functional regulation of ligand-activated receptors is driven by alterations in the conformational dynamics of the protein upon ligand binding. Differential hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) coupled with mass spectrometry has emerged as a rapid and sensitive approach for characterization of perturbations in conformational dynamics of proteins following ligand binding. While this technique is sensitive to detecting ligand interactions and alterations in receptor dynamics, it also can provide important mechanistic insights into ligand regulation. For example, HDX has been used to determine a novel mechanism of ligand activation of the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ, perform detailed analyses of binding modes of ligands within the ligand-binding pocket of two estrogen receptor isoforms, providing insight into selectivity, and helped classify different types of estrogen receptor-α ligands by correlating their pharmacology with the way they interact with the receptor based solely on hierarchical clustering of receptor HDX signatures. Beyond small-molecule–receptor interactions, this technique has also been applied to study protein–protein complexes, such as mapping antibody–antigen interactions. In this article, we summarize the current state of the differential HDX approaches and the future outlook. We summarize how HDX analysis of protein–ligand interactions has had an impact on biology and drug discovery. PMID:21329427

  15. A grand unified model for liganded gold clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wen Wu; Zhu, Beien; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Gao, Yi

    2016-12-01

    A grand unified model (GUM) is developed to achieve fundamental understanding of rich structures of all 71 liganded gold clusters reported to date. Inspired by the quark model by which composite particles (for example, protons and neutrons) are formed by combining three quarks (or flavours), here gold atoms are assigned three `flavours' (namely, bottom, middle and top) to represent three possible valence states. The `composite particles' in GUM are categorized into two groups: variants of triangular elementary block Au3(2e) and tetrahedral elementary block Au4(2e), all satisfying the duet rule (2e) of the valence shell, akin to the octet rule in general chemistry. The elementary blocks, when packed together, form the cores of liganded gold clusters. With the GUM, structures of 71 liganded gold clusters and their growth mechanism can be deciphered altogether. Although GUM is a predictive heuristic and may not be necessarily reflective of the actual electronic structure, several highly stable liganded gold clusters are predicted, thereby offering GUM-guided synthesis of liganded gold clusters by design.

  16. Cloud Computing for Protein-Ligand Binding Site Comparison

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The proteome-wide analysis of protein-ligand binding sites and their interactions with ligands is important in structure-based drug design and in understanding ligand cross reactivity and toxicity. The well-known and commonly used software, SMAP, has been designed for 3D ligand binding site comparison and similarity searching of a structural proteome. SMAP can also predict drug side effects and reassign existing drugs to new indications. However, the computing scale of SMAP is limited. We have developed a high availability, high performance system that expands the comparison scale of SMAP. This cloud computing service, called Cloud-PLBS, combines the SMAP and Hadoop frameworks and is deployed on a virtual cloud computing platform. To handle the vast amount of experimental data on protein-ligand binding site pairs, Cloud-PLBS exploits the MapReduce paradigm as a management and parallelizing tool. Cloud-PLBS provides a web portal and scalability through which biologists can address a wide range of computer-intensive questions in biology and drug discovery. PMID:23762824