Science.gov

Sample records for exile helping distressed

  1. Seeking Help for Psychological Distress in Urban China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Based on data gathered through a household survey of 1,474 urban residents in Beijing, this study examines Chinese help-seeking behaviors in times of psychological distress and perceived barriers to seeking professional help. The results demonstrate that most respondents rely on informal means of seeking help whereas mental health and medical…

  2. Cyber-Porn Dependence: Voices of Distress in an Italian Internet Self-Help Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaglion, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes narratives of cyber-porn users and defines major patterns of distress as self-reported by contributors to a self-help group in the Internet. It applies narrative analysis methodology to 2000 messages sent by 302 members of an Italian self-help Internet community for cyber-porn dependents ("noallapornodipendenza").…

  3. Polish Literature in Exile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zielinska, Marie F.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a brief historical overview of the development of Polish literature in exile with emphasis on publishing. The upheaval of World War II left many Poles outside their native land. They have created a flourishing press and literature, with 21 Polish houses outside of Poland and other active presses. (SLD)

  4. Language, Identity, and Exile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdinast-Vulcan, Daphna

    2010-01-01

    The exilic mode of being, a living on boundary-lines, produces a constant relativization of one's home, one's culture, one's language, and one's self, through the acknowledgement of otherness. It is a homesickness without nostalgia, without the desire to return to the same, to be identical to oneself. The encounter with the other which produces a…

  5. Help-seeking among airmen in distressed relationships: Promoting relationship well-being.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Douglas K; Balderrama-Durbin, Christina; Cigrang, Jeffrey A; Talcott, G Wayne; Slep, Amy M Smith; Heyman, Richard E

    2016-03-01

    Although a substantial proportion of service members returning from a combat deployment report individual emotional and behavioral disorders as well as intimate relationship difficulties, previous studies indicate that only a minority actually seek mental health services. Little is known about factors that predict help-seeking in this population. We first review key findings from the literature on help-seeking in military and veteran populations, including mixed findings regarding the role of perceived stigma and attitudes toward mental health treatment. We then present data from a longitudinal study of United States Air Force Security Forces following a year-long high-risk deployment to Iraq-including findings regarding who seeks help, for what problems, and from which providers. We also examine whether these findings differ for Airmen in a married or committed relationship versus nonpartnered Airmen and, for the former group, whether findings differ for those in a distressed versus nondistressed relationship. Finally, we discuss implications of these findings for extending couple-based interventions to service members and veterans, and describe a multitiered "stepped" approach for promoting relationship resiliency.

  6. Wittgenstein as Exile: A Philosophical Topography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that Wittgenstein considered himself an exile and indeed was a self-imposed exile from his native Vienna; that this condition of exile is important for understanding Wittgenstein the man and his philosophy; and that exile as a condition has become both a central characteristic condition of late modernity (as much as alienation…

  7. Psychological Distress and Help Seeking Amongst Higher Education Students: Findings from a Mixed Method Study of Undergraduate Nursing/Midwifery and Teacher Education Students in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deasy, Christine; Coughlan, Barry; Pironom, Julie; Jourdan, Didier; Mannix-McNamara, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress as experienced by higher education students is of major concern because of its potential to adversely impact academic performance, retention, mental health and lifestyle. This paper reports a mixed method investigation of student self-reported psychological distress and help-seeking behaviour. The sample comprised all…

  8. Philosophical and Psychopathological Perspective of Exile: On Time and Space Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Silva Rojas, Matías; Armijo Nuñez, Julio; Nuñez Erices, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the experience of exile from an interdisciplinary perspective (philosophy and psychiatry). The main purpose is to try to understand the experience of exile by rehearsing a psychopathological perspective to address it, so it can help with the treatment of disorders that come with this experience. Furthermore, the article tries to explore the experience and reflection of philosophers and thinkers who, being exiled themselves, tried to understand and explain this radical human experience, focusing on the experience of time and space. PMID:26074825

  9. Being white helps: intersections of self-concealment, stigmatization, identity formation, and psychological distress in racial and sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Shannon L; Antonucci, Erica A; Haden, Sara C

    2014-01-01

    This study had two objectives: (1) examine the impact of self-concealment on identity formation and on degree of psychological distress and (2) examine the impact of perceived stigma on identity formation and on degree of psychological distress. Analyses were conducted on a diverse sample of 166 women, ages 18-32 (white lesbian, non-white lesbian, white heterosexual, and non-white heterosexual). Findings revealed that self-concealment was positively associated with psychological distress in stigmatized women, but unrelated to psychological distress in the non-stigmatized group. Furthermore, although perceived stigma negatively impacted identity formation in the heterosexual groups, it did not impact either group of lesbians. Finally, non-white heterosexual women's perception of stigma was associated with psychological distress. Implications and specific psychological health disparities between groups are discussed.

  10. A Decade of Counseling Services in One College of Veterinary Medicine: Veterinary Medical Students' Psychological Distress and Help-Seeking Trends.

    PubMed

    Drake, Adryanna A S; Hafen, McArthur; Rush, Bonnie R

    2017-01-01

    Much has been discussed about the high prevalence of psychological distress among veterinary medical students. Studies investigating general samples of veterinary medical students indicate that, on average, depression and anxiety symptoms are present at higher rates than in comparison samples. However, little is known about veterinary medical students who seek counseling. This study intends to expand the literature on veterinary student well-being, as the first to examine a sample of veterinary medical students seeking counseling services. It offers an overview of student distress and help-seeking trends from a decade of counseling services provided in one College of Veterinary Medicine (CVM) in the US. The sample includes data from 279 participants. Results indicate a steady increase in students seeking counseling over the last decade. First-year students sought services at higher rates but second-year students experienced the greatest distress when compared to other cohorts. Students seeking counseling services experienced levels of overall distress, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and social role concerns that were, on average, above cut-off scores. Physical health was significantly associated with student distress, suggesting opportunities for intervention.

  11. [Networks in science: the "JAE" in the exile].

    PubMed

    Orovio, Consuelo Naranjo; Puig-Samper, Miguel Angel

    2007-01-01

    Junta para Ampliación de Estudios created different academic centers and laboratories in Spain. In this way, JAE helped to create an intellectual network. These centers not only blessed interchanges, debates and the modernization of Spanish science and culture, but also contributed to establish a platform that worked as a bridge in the aftermath of the Spanish Civil War. This network made possible for republican scientists and intellectuals, to find new positions abroad, when the time for exile came.

  12. Wittgenstein as Exile: A Philosophical Topography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Exilic thought is a kind of uprooted thought developed away from "home" under conditions of displacement and uncertainty, often in a different mother tongue, language tradition and culture. Exilic thought is sometimes the self-imposed discipline of the "stranger" who develops his or her identity as an "alien" or immigrant against the conventions…

  13. Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tollefson, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Planning to start or expand a K-8 critical language program? Looking for support in doing so? There "may" be help at the federal level for great ideas and strong programs. While there have been various pools of federal dollars available to support world language programs for a number of years, the federal government's interest in…

  14. Three scales assessing high school students' attitudes and perceived norms about seeking adult help for distress and suicide concerns.

    PubMed

    Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; Pisani, Anthony R; Petrova, Mariya; Wyman, Peter A

    2012-04-01

    Validated measures that can be administered to school populations are needed to advance knowledge of help-seeking processes and to evaluate suicide prevention programs that target help-seeking. With 6,370 students from 22 high schools, we assessed the psychometric properties of three brief measures: Help-Seeking Acceptability at School, Adult Help for Suicidal Youth, and Reject Codes of Silence. Internal consistency coefficients ranged from .64 to .84. In support of construct validity, lower scores on each scale were associated with more maladaptive coping norms; for each one unit increase on each scale, students were one third to one half as likely to report suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and elevated depression.

  15. Rethinking reproductive "tourism" as reproductive "exile".

    PubMed

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Patrizio, Pasquale

    2009-09-01

    Whereas reproductive "tourism" implies leisure travel, reproductive "exile" bespeaks the numerous difficulties and constraints faced by infertile patients who are "forced" to travel globally for assisted reproduction. Given this reality, it is time to rethink the language of "reproductive tourism," replacing it with more accurate and patient-centered terms.

  16. Cuba's Exiles: Portrait of a Refugee Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedraza-Bailey, Sylvia

    1985-01-01

    Argues that to understand the changing social characteristics of Cuban exiles over 20 years of migration, one must understand the changing phases of the Cuban revolution. Explores Egon F. Kunz's theoretical framework for refugee migration in relation to Cuban exodus data. (GC)

  17. The Soul's Legacy: A Program Designed to Help Prepare Senior Adults Cope With End-of-Life Existential Distress.

    PubMed

    Grewe, Fred

    2017-01-01

    Current innovative psychological therapies have made great progress in addressing existential suffering in dying patients but are often begun to late in the end-of-life process and often ignore religion, which for many is a major component in the meaning-making process. Therefore, this article explores how chaplains (who are familiar with various religious traditions without promoting them) can help prepare senior adults effectively cope with inevitable end-of-life existential issues. The project described in this article provides tools for chaplains to address the real issues that terrify us all, but particularly the elderly: death, isolation, and meaninglessness. It is proposed that the addition of a spiritual will or legacy of the soul added to end-of-life planning can help ameliorate existential suffering at life's end.

  18. Dreaming woman: Image, place, and the aesthetics of exile.

    PubMed

    Greenspan, Rachel

    2017-03-14

    Looking closely at an Argentine dream interpretation column published in a popular women's magazine from 1948 to 1951, this article examines the role of the dream image in shaping psychoanalytic discourse on femininity and national identity. The column, 'Psychoanalysis Will Help You,' emerged during Juan Domingo Perón's first presidency, featuring verbal interpretations written under the pen name 'Richard Rest,' as well as surreal photomontages by Grete Stern, a German-born, Bauhaus-trained photographer living in exile since 1936. While the column's Jungian text encourages readers' adaptation to the external reality of their social situation, Stern's droll images emphasize the disjuncture between subject and environment, exposing tensions between the experience of exile and the Peronist mission to consolidate an Argentine national identity. Experimenting formally with European avant-garde techniques, Stern presents femininity and nation as conflictive imaginary configurations. This theme resurfaces at the 2013 Venice Biennale, where Nicola Costantino's multimedia installation Eva - Argentina: A Contemporary Metaphor was exhibited alongside Carl Jung's Red Book. Formal contrasts between Stern's use of photomontage, Costantino's projection technique, and Jung's theory of mandala symbolism indicate the divergent ways in which their artwork posits the therapeutic function of the dream image, as well as the role of aesthetic production in psychoanalytic care.

  19. Respiratory Distress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The University of Miami School of Medicine asked the Research Triangle Institute for assistance in improvising the negative pressure technique to relieve respiratory distress in infants. Marshall Space Flight Center and Johnson Space Center engineers adapted this idea to the lower-body negative-pressure system seals used during the Skylab missions. Some 20,000 babies succumb to respiratory distress in the U.S. each year, a condition in which lungs progressively lose their ability to oxygenate blood. Both positive and negative pressure techniques have been used - the first to force air into lungs, the second to keep infant's lungs expanded. Negative pressure around chest helps the baby expand his lungs and maintain proper volume of air. If doctors can keep the infant alive for four days, the missing substance in the lungs will usually form in sufficient quantity to permit normal breathing. The Skylab chamber and its leakproof seals were adapted for medical use.

  20. Exile as a Means for the Meeting and Construction of Pedagogies: The Exiled Spanish Republican Teachers in Mexico in 1939

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civera, Alicia

    2011-01-01

    There has been little study of political exile as a means for transferring pedagogic ideas and models, which has been important in Latin America, especially in the case of the Spaniards exiled in Mexico after the defeat of the Second Republic at the end of the 1930s. The Mexican government's sympathy with the Second Republic allowed many teachers…

  1. Development of a Self-Help Web-Based Intervention Targeting Young Cancer Patients With Sexual Problems and Fertility Distress in Collaboration With Patient Research Partners

    PubMed Central

    Obol, Claire Micaux; Lampic, Claudia; Eriksson, Lars E; Pelters, Britta; Wettergren, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Background The Internet should be suitable for delivery of interventions targeting young cancer patients. Young people are familiar with the technologies, and this patient group is small and geographically dispersed. Still, only few psycho-educational Web-based interventions are designed for this group. Young cancer patients consider reproductive health, including sexuality, an area of great importance and approximately 50% report sexual problems and fertility-related concerns following cancer treatment. Therefore, we set out to develop a self-help Web-based intervention, Fex-Can, to alleviate such problems. To improve its quality, we decided to involve patients and significant others as research partners. The first 18 months of our collaboration are described in this paper. The intervention will subsequently be tested in a feasibility study followed by a randomized controlled trial. Objective The study aims to describe the development of a Web-based intervention in long-term collaboration with patient research partners (PRPs). Methods Ten former cancer patients and two significant others participated in building the Web-based intervention, using a participatory design. The development process is described according to the design step in the holistic framework presented by van Gemert-Pijnen et al and evaluates the PRPs’ impact on the content, system, and service quality of the planned intervention. Results The collaboration between the research group and the PRPs mainly took place in the form of 1-day meetings to develop the key components of the intervention: educational and behavior change content, multimedia (pictures, video vignettes, and audios), interactive online activities (eg, self-monitoring), and partial feedback support (discussion forum, tailored feedback from experts). The PRPs influenced the intervention’s content quality in several ways. By repeated feedback on prototypes, the information became more comprehensive, relevant, and understandable

  2. [Growing old in exile: a double punishment or a double luck?].

    PubMed

    Griner-Abraham, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Between the situation of the exile, for whom all points of reference have been lost, and the clinical presentation of elderly patients, the symptomatology is similar. So what is the situation regarding the ageing of exiled patients? Exile is a trauma typically marked by five clinical phases. A clinical approach to exile between nostalgia, ageing and belonging: this reflection is based on an assessment of existing circumstances and on the epidemiological and clinical aspects relating to treatments.

  3. Race and Place in the Adaptation of Mariel Exiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skop, Emily H.

    2001-01-01

    The influx of lower class Cuban emigres during the 1980 Mariel Boatlift complicates the success story image of previous waves of Cuban exiles. Argues that place of incorporation should be a necessary ingredient in illuminating diverse adjustment experiences among immigrants and refugees to the United States. Concludes by discussing the Cuban…

  4. Late style as exile: De/colonising the life course.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Heike

    2016-12-01

    In the collection of essays On Late Style, Edward Said reflects on the new idiom achieved by great artists in their work near the end of their lives as "late style." Drawing on Adorno's essay on Beethoven's late style, Said also focuses on the aesthetic aspects of lateness. Defining the late works of artists as "a form of exile," however, Said moves beyond Adorno's aesthetic conception of late style. Highlighting the artist's abandonment of communication with the established social order, who achieves a contradictory, alienated relationship with it instead, Said compares artistic lateness with the experience of the subject in exile. Drawing on the analogy provided by Said, this article argues that the relationship between "self" and "other" in the different theoretical contexts of Postcolonial Studies and Age Studies can be usefully combined in the composite concept of "late style as exile." In order to explore how the concept of lateness correlates with that of exile, this contribution turns to theoretical and autobiographical texts by Edward Said.

  5. [Exile of Czechoslovak physicians to Sweden after 1968].

    PubMed

    Stěpán, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the situation of the Czechoslovak exile, especially the exile of physicians to Sweden. Many of Czechoslovak physicians decided to emigrate due to their political attitudes. Majority of them left Czechoslovakia after the invasion of Warsaw Pact armies in 1968. The top of the exile wave was shortly after August 1968 and during 1969. Most of the people escaped from Czechoslovakia via Austria, where they asked for political asylum. Part of the emigrants had to spend some months in the refugee camps and during this time they tried to get visa to other European or non European countries. One of target countries for medical emigrants was also Sweden. In the 60th Sweden had deficiency in physicians and the wave of Czechoslovak emigration was convenient for Swedish Ministry of Health. The group of emigrants consisted of experts from hospitals or graduated medical students. In Sweden they had to attend special courses of Swedish medical language, Swedish medical law and social medicine. If they had medical training shorter than three years, they had to attend special courses also in internal medicine, surgery and psychiatry. After one year of service in northern part of Sweden, where there was a lack of physicians, they could choose hospital, where they wanted to work. Czechoslovak physicians were very successful in the Swedish medical system and also well accepted in the Swedish society as other exulants from Czechoslovakia. Key words: Czechoslovak exile to Sweden, political asylum 1968-1968.

  6. [Freud in the journals of the German speaking exile].

    PubMed

    May, Ulrike

    2006-01-01

    Freud and psychoanalysis figure frequently in exile journals. This paper documents two letters to the editor written by Alexander Freud who denied that his brother Sigmund had been a zionist, and the recollections of the sculptor Königsberger who had made a bust of Freud in 1920.

  7. Between Home and Exile: A Reading of the Exilic Experience of the Iraqi Poet Adnan Al-Sayegh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghena, Hana Khlaif

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at exploring the exilic experience of the Iraqi poet, Adnan Al-Sayegh whose involuntarily departure from his homeland, Iraq, in the early 1990s made him suffer a strong sense of estrangement, nostalgia, self-fragmentation and disconnection. The paper is divided into three sections and a conclusion. Section one sheds light on the…

  8. Prevention and Treatment of Relationship Distress

    PubMed Central

    Byers, E. Sandra

    1989-01-01

    Relationship distress is likely to be a pervasive problem among patients seen by the primary care physician. Further, it can influence the patient's mental and physical health and well-being. The physician should play a role in the prevention and the alleviation of relationship distress. The author suggests how the physician can help prevent relationship distress by providing anticipatory counselling. In addition, some guidelines for effective physician intervention in cases of mild distress and for successful referral in cases of significant distress are outlined. PMID:21249067

  9. Distress intolerance and clinical functioning in persons with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Nugent, Katie L.; Chiappelli, Joshua; Rowland, Laura M.; Daughters, Stacey B.; Hong, L. Elliot

    2014-01-01

    Impaired tolerance to distress may help explain part of the cognitive and functional impairments in schizophrenia. This project investigated distress intolerance in schizophrenia patients (SZ) as compared to controls, and whether distress intolerance represented an independent domain in relationship to symptoms, cognition, and functional capacity. Healthy controls (n=43) and SZ (n=65) completed a psychological distress challenge experiment and their levels of intolerance to distress were estimated. SZ showed increased distress intolerance such that they were significantly more likely to terminate the distress challenge session early compared to controls. Greater distress intolerance was associated with reduced functional capacity and worse cognitive performance in SZ. Mediation analyses suggested that distress intolerance had an independent effect on functional capacity, while some of this effect was mediated by cognitive performance. Our results suggest that distress intolerance is a promising domain for treatment research, and functional capacity may be improved by targeting treatments towards SZ patient’s ability to tolerate distress. PMID:25107316

  10. DOD’s Use of Iraqi Exiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    the Invasion and Occupation of Iraq (2006), 316. 104 Ibid. See also: Warren P. Strobel and John Walcott , "Post-War Planning Non-Existent," Knight...that he had spent 120 Warren P. Strobel and John Walcott , "Post-War Planning Non-Existent," Knight...Chalabi: Help Us Liberate Iraq," National Journal (July 13, 2002). http://www.cfr.org (accessed December 9, 2005). Strobel, Warren P. and John Walcott

  11. Exile Has Its Place: A High School Principal Reflects on School Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, T. Elijah

    2011-01-01

    Exile has its place. As an age-old human response to conflict, its potential value to the healthy maturation of students and the school community should not be discounted. Exile or ostracism goes by various names in school. Students are told: Move your desk. Leave the classroom and wait in the hall. Go to the office. Go to detention. You're…

  12. Between Exile and the Kingdom: Albert Camus and Empowering Classroom Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curzon-Hobson, Aidan

    2003-01-01

    In undertaking an analysis of the work of Camus in the context of the learning environment, this paper examines the breadth of Camus's writing with particular emphasis on the writer's final major work: "Exile and the Kingdom" (1958). It is proposed that "Exile and the Kingdom" could and should be read as an attempt by Camus to explicate in full…

  13. [Respiratory distress].

    PubMed

    Galili, D; Garfunkel, A; Elad, S; Zusman, S P; Malamed, S F; Findler, M; Kaufman, E

    2002-01-01

    Dental treatment is usually conducted in the oral cavity and in very close proximity to the upper respiratory airway. The possibility of unintentionally compromising this airway is high in the dental environment. The accumulation of fluid (water or blood) near to the upper respiratory airway or the loosening of teeth fragmentations and fallen dental instruments can occur. Also, some of the drugs prescribed in the dental practice are central nervous system depressants and some are direct respiratory drive depressors. For this reason, awareness of the respiratory status of the dental patient is of paramount importance. This article focuses on several of the more common causes of respiratory distress, including airway obstruction, hyperventilation, asthma, bronchospasm, pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism and cardiac insufficiency. The common denominator to all these conditions described here is that in most instances the patient is conscious. Therefore, on the one hand, valuable information can be retrieved from the patient making diagnosis easier than when the patient is unconscious. On the other hand, the conscious patient is under extreme apprehension and stress under such situations. Respiratory depression which occurs during conscious sedation or following narcotic analgesic medication will not be dealt with in this article. Advanced pain and anxiety control techniques such as conscious sedation and general anesthesia should be confined only to operators who undergo special extended training.

  14. [Getting old on foreign earth: more suffering from exile].

    PubMed

    Stitou, Rajaa

    2008-03-01

    This paper, which refers to psychoanalysis and anthropology, is devoted to the clinical impact of suffering to get old on foreign earth, at the junction of singularity and culture, on psychic and social sides. It presents some elements on: the discontentment or even the misery of those called foreign workers and who, however, live more and more their retirement and their old age far from the world which contains their language and their culture; the necessity of a redevelopment of settings for listening, when confronted to a suffering whose expressive forms exceed the logic underlying the classical conceptual frames, and disturbs the social and caregiver professionals. This approach leaves place, at first, to the subjective resonance of exile without which one cannot understand what old subjects have to pass through. This exile, which cannot be reduced to emigration, and which sometimes is again actualized with violence during the passage to retirement and aging, reminds to each one his incompleteness and mortality. It disturbs the self-feeling and the relation to others, which require to pass by cultural references to feel being protected and humanized. Listening, to be efficient, should not break or emphasize their difference, but has to be attentive to the peculiar link which connects him to its culture; link which allows him to give sense in every decisive moment of existence.

  15. Distress in Older Patients With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hurria, Arti; Li, Daneng; Hansen, Kurt; Patil, Sujata; Gupta, Ravi; Nelson, Christian; Lichtman, Stuart M.; Tew, William P.; Hamlin, Paul; Zuckerman, Enid; Gardes, Jonathan; Limaye, Sewanti; Lachs, Mark; Kelly, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine the predictors of distress in older patients with cancer. Patients and Methods Patients age ≥ 65 years with a solid tumor or lymphoma completed a questionnaire that addressed these geriatric assessment domains: functional status, comorbidity, psychological state, nutritional status, and social support. Patients self-rated their level of distress on a scale of zero to 10 using a validated screening tool called the Distress Thermometer. The relationship between distress and geriatric assessment scores was examined. Results The geriatric assessment questionnaire was completed by 245 patients (mean age, 76 years; standard deviation [SD], 7 years; range, 65 to 95 years) with cancer (36% stage IV; 71% female). Of these, 87% also completed the Distress Thermometer, with 41% (n = 87) reporting a distress score of ≥ 4 on a scale of zero to 10 (mean score, 3; SD, 3; range, zero to 10). Bivariate analyses demonstrated an association between higher distress (≥ 4) and poorer physical function, increased comorbid medical conditions, poor eyesight, inability to complete the questionnaire alone, and requiring more time to complete the questionnaire. In a multivariate regression model based on the significant bivariate findings, poorer physical function (increased need for assistance with instrumental activities of daily living [P = .015] and lower physical function score on the Medical Outcomes Survey [P = .018]) correlated significantly with a higher distress score. Conclusion Significant distress was identified in 41% of older patients with cancer. Poorer physical function was the best predictor of distress. Further studies are needed to determine whether interventions that improve or assist with physical functioning can help to decrease distress in older adults with cancer. PMID:19652074

  16. Emojis help young people communicate.

    PubMed

    2016-10-26

    'The use of technology to support communication in therapy is an exciting development, particularly the use of mobile device emojis to help young people express, and practitioners to assess, their mental distress'.

  17. Exiling children, creating orphans: when immigration policies hurt citizens.

    PubMed

    Zayas, Luis H; Bradlee, Mollie H

    2014-04-01

    Citizen-children born in the United States to undocumented immigrants have become collateral damage of immigration enforcement. These children suffer the effects of immigration laws designed to deport large numbers of people. In removal proceedings, parents often must decide to either leave their citizen-children behind in the care of others or take them to a country the child may have never known. Accordingly, immigration policy frequently creates two de facto classes of children: exiles and orphans. In discussing these classes, the authors offer a summary of how U.S. citizen-children come into contact with the immigration enforcement system. The article explores the impact of detention and deportation on the health, mental health, and developmental trajectories of citizen-children and argues for reforms in policy and practice that will adhere to the highest standards of child welfare practice. By integrating these children into the immigration discourse, practitioners and policymakers will be better able to understand the effects of immigration enforcement, reduce harm to children, and provide for the protection of their rights.

  18. The anatomist Hans Elias: A Jewish German in exile.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, S

    2012-04-01

    Hans Elias (1907 to 1985) was an anatomist, an educator, a mathematician, a cinematographer, a painter, and a sculptor. Above all, he was a German of Jewish descent, who had to leave his home country because of the policies of the National Socialist (NS) regime. He spent his life in exile, first in Italy and then in the United States. His biography is exemplary for a generation of younger expatriates from National Socialist Germany who had to find a new professional career under difficult circumstances. Elias was a greatly productive morphologist whose artistic talent led to the foundation of the new science of stereology and made him an expert in scientific cinematography. He struggled hard to fulfill his own high expectations of himself in terms of his effectiveness as a scientist, educator, and politically acting man in this world. Throughout his life this strong-willed and outspoken man never lost his great fondness for Germany and many of its people, while reserving some of his sharpest criticism for fellow anatomists who were active in National Socialist Germany, among them his friend Hermann Stieve, Max Clara, and Heinrich von Hayek. Hans Elias' life is well documented in his unpublished diaries and memoirs, and thus allows fresh insights into a time period when some anatomists were among the first victims of NS policies and other anatomists became involved in the execution of such policies.

  19. Charlotte Wolff and lesbian history: reconfiguring liminality in exile.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Toni; Hegarty, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the "liminality" of the psychologist Charlotte Wolff, MD (1897-1986). Always living openly as a lesbian since her school days in Danzig, Wolff trained as a doctor-also pursuing a parallel interest in poetry and in philosophy. As a Jewish person, she was forced to leave the Berlin Health Service and flee Germany when the Nazi regime came to power. Having moved to Great Britain in 1936 after three years in France, Wolff reconfigured "exile" beyond the literal experience of emigration and immigration, as a form of "marginality" or "liminality" always involved in artistic and scientific endeavors. In her life and work she negotiated several liminal areas-from her gender presentation to her standing in the academic and scientific community (she was a Fellow of the British Psychological Society, to which she bequeathed her papers and the copyright to her work, but at the same time she was not an eminent psychologist), to her membership of sexual minority organizations (she conducted pioneering research on lesbianism and bisexuality, but some resented her connection with the psy-professions). In the spirit of Wolff's "liminality" as a strategy and creative zone, and along the lines indicated by Morawski (1994) as regards the transformative possibilities of feminist psychology as a liminal science, we argue for a reappraisal of Wolff's life and work that, in negotiating the borderlands between lesbian history and history of psychology, could enrich both disciplines.

  20. Helping Kids Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiss, E. Renee

    2008-01-01

    Educators need to help kids help others so that they can help themselves. Volunteering does not involve competition or grades. This is one area where students don't have to worry about measuring up to the expectations of parents, teachers, and coaches. Students participate in charitable work to add another line to a college transcript or job…

  1. Making Sure Helping Helps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartner, Audrey; Riessman, Frank

    1993-01-01

    Benefits to the helper are important to consider in a national-service program, along with the benefits to the recipient. Some suggestions are offered to ensure reciprocity in community service. Democratizing help giving, that is making it available to the widest possible audience, could help remove some of the pitfalls associated with help…

  2. Ever Ready to Go: The Multiple Exiles of Leo Szilard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Tibor

    2005-06-01

    I argue that to understand the life and work of Leo Szilard (1898 1964) we have to understand, first, that he was driven by events to numerous departures, escapes, and exiles, changing his religion, his language, his country of residence, and his scientific disciplines; second, that he was a man haunted by major moral dilemmas throughout his life, burdened by a sincere and grave sense of responsibility for the fate of the world; and third, that he experienced a terrible sense of déjà vu: his excessive sensitivity and constant alertness were products of his experiences as a young student in Budapest in 1919. The mature Szilard in Berlin of 1933, and forever after, was always ready to move. I proceed as follows:After a brief introduction to his family background, youth, and education in Budapest, I discuss the impact of his army service in the Great War and of the tumultous events in Hungary in 1918 1919 on his life and psyche, forcing him to leave Budapest for Berlin in late 1919. He completed his doctoral degree under Max von Laue (1879 1960) at the University of Berlin in 1922 and his Habilitationsschrift in 1925. During the 1920s and early 1930s, he filed a number of patents, several of them jointly with Albert Einstein (1879 1955). He left Berlin in March 1933 for London where he played a leading role in the rescue operations for refugee scientists and scholars from Nazi Germany. He also carried out notable research in nuclear physics in London and Oxford before immigrating to the United States at the end of 1938. He drafted Einstein’s famous letter of August 2, 1939, to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, worked in the Manhattan Project during World War II, initiated a petition to President Harry S. Truman not to use the bomb on Japan, and immediately after the war was a leader in the scientists’ movement that resulted in civilian control of nuclear energy. In 1946 he turned to biology, in which his most significant contribution was to formulate a theory of

  3. Resisting Exile in the Homeland: He Mo'oleno No La'ie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikau, Hokulani K.

    2008-01-01

    Kanaka Maoli are under constant threat of becoming exiles in their homeland. With the steady encroachment of development such as new luxury subdivisions on Moloka'i, high-rise condominiums in Waikiki, and new multi-million-dollar homes on the beaches of all the major islands, they are being pushed off their land and replaced by new wealthy…

  4. Leader and Spokesman for a People in Exile: Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Samvit

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses Chief Joseph's surrender that marked the beginning of his diplomatic stand for justice in Indian Territory, where his tribe was forcibly exiled in accordance with American Indian policy of the time. Joseph battled for the repatriation of the Nez Perce through protests and other legal means, winning the support of the growing…

  5. Helping Kids Help Themselves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, E. Perry

    This book explains how many of the behaviors that adults use to "help" kids are, at best, ineffective and, at worst, destructive to the adults' relationships with children. Adults traditionally believe that external cues prompt correct behavior--the premise of stimulus-response psychology. However, the ideas discussed here revolve around the…

  6. Psychological distress and patient satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Greenley, J R; Young, T B; Schoenherr, R A

    1982-04-01

    Psychologically distressed patients and clients of health care and social service organizations are found to report somewhat more dissatisfaction with services than do the nondistressed. Four explanations for this relationship are examined: 1) the psychologically distressed are generally dissatisfied; 2) service providers react negatively to the psychologically distressed; 3) psychologically distressed patients are dissatisfied when service providers do not respond to their psychological needs; and 4) patients who deny their psychological distress tend to be dissatisfied. The results show that the psychologically distressed report more dissatisfaction because of the very high levels of dissatisfaction found among patients who deny having personal problems.

  7. A community-based study of the relationship between somatic and psychological distress in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sing; Leung, Candi Mc; Kwok, Kathleen Ps; Lam Ng, King

    2015-10-01

    Although the predominantly somatic presentation of distress has been used to explain low rates of emotional illnesses and health service use in Chinese communities, this concept of somatization has not been examined by concurrently studying the profile of somatically and psychologically distressed Chinese individuals. A random population-based sample of 3014 adults underwent a structured telephone interview that examined their sociodemographic characteristics, somatic distress (Patient Health Questionnaire-15, PHQ-15), non-specific psychological distress (Kessler Scale-6, K6), health service use, and functional impairment. Four groups of individuals identified by PHQ-15 and K6 cut-off scores were compared. Results showed that PHQ-15 and K6 scores were positively correlated. The large majority of respondents (85.9%) reported both somatic and psychological distress. The proportions of Low Distress Group, Somatically Distressed Group, Psychologically Distressed Group, and Mixed Distress Group were 69.2%, 5.0%, 15.8%, and 10.0%, respectively. Specific age range, male gender, greater family income, higher education level, and retirement were associated with decreased odds of somatic and/or psychological distress. Although psychological distress best predicted impairment, somatic distress best predicted health service use. Mixed distress predicted most impairment and health service use. Thus, psychological distress and somatic distress commonly coexist across Chinese sociodemographic groups. This speaks against the conventional notion of somatization and is consistent with recent findings of a higher prevalence of emotional illnesses in Chinese people. That psychologically distressed individuals are more impaired but less inclined to seek help than somatically distressed individuals may partly explain low levels of help-seeking for mental disorders found in epidemiological studies.

  8. Loneliness and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Jackson, J; Cochran, S D

    1991-05-01

    Research on relationships between loneliness and psychological symptoms has generally shown significant positive associations across a wide spectrum of psychopathologies. However, such results may be artificial, to some extent, given the high intercorrelations of typical psychopathology measures. In the current study, we examined associations between psychological symptoms, assessed by the Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90; Derogatis, Lipman, & Covi, 1973) and loneliness, as measured by the UCLA-R Loneliness Scale (Russell, Peplau, & Cutrona, 1980), in college students. Using partial correlations to control for the confounding influence of generalized distress, relationships between loneliness and individual dimensions of distress were examined. Results indicate a significant association between loneliness and interpersonal sensitivity (low self-esteem) and depression. Other dimensions of distress were not significantly related to loneliness. In addition, no sex differences in patterns of association were observed. Results support the notion that self-blame and self-devaluation are strong correlates of loneliness.

  9. Tester for Distress Beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    Distress beacons on aircraft and boats checked for proper operation with aid of onboard monitor. Monitor mounted in aircraft cockpit or at wheel of boat. Connected to beacon electronics by cable. Monitor used with interface circuitry in beacon, which acts as buffer so that operation of beacon is not adversely affected if monitor is removed or if connecting cable is accidentally short circuited.

  10. A programme of mental health for political refugees: dealing with the invisible pain of political exile.

    PubMed

    Barudy, J

    1989-01-01

    Political persecution, state terrorism, torture, political assassinations, kidnapping and forced exile have become common occurrences in many parts of the world. Several researchers have tried to determine the impact of these situations on the mental health of those affected. At the same time, different types of aid programmes have been developed to prevent and treat the effects of violence on mental health. In this article we present clinical materials collected for 10 years by the Latin American Collective of Psychosocial Work [Colectivo Latinamericano de Trabajo Psicosocial (Colat)], a medical-psychosocial assistance programme for political refugees. The programme was under the academic supervision of the Catholic Universities of Leuven (KUL, ULC), Belgium. The concept of identity is the central theme of a model which tries to understand and explain the suffering of exiles. We try to identify and expose the mechanisms of political violence that have traumatized an individual's self-esteem and disordered his familial and social bonds. In the second part of this article, the central ideas which support the medical-psychosocial practice of the programme are presented. This programme seeks to heal the damage caused by repression and exile through the active participation of those affected. Only in a context of communal action is it possible to develop a therapy to promote an individual recovery. It is in this sense that the strategic goal of the programme is to permit elaboration of the suffering at an individual, familial and group level, and to facilitate group dynamics which can trigger the potential of the exiles to transform the conditions of violence that originated and maintain their pain.

  11. Idioms of distress among trauma survivors: subtypes and clinical utility.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Devon E; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2010-06-01

    In this introduction to the Special Issue on Trauma and Idioms of Distress, we provide an overview of the concept and typology of "idioms of distress," focusing particularly on their clinical utility. This includes the role of idioms as indicators of trauma exposure, of various types of psychopathology and of levels of distress, risk and functioning. It likewise includes the fact that idioms of distress may profoundly influence the personal meaning of having a trauma-related disorder, may shape the interpersonal course of the disorder and may pattern help-seeking and self-treatment. Finally, it illustrates the fact that idioms may also help clinicians understand sufferers' views of the causes of their distress, constitute key therapeutic targets and help increase therapeutic empathy and treatment adherence. This special issue focuses on the role played by idioms of distress in the local trauma ontology, the associations between the idioms and psychiatric disorders occurring in the context of trauma and the mechanisms by which the idioms profoundly influence the personal and interpersonal course of trauma-related disorders.

  12. Moral Distress among Iranian Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Tabatabaei, Shahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the moral distress among Iranian registered nurses. Methods: This was a descriptive –analytic study, in which 264 out of 1000 nurses were randomly selected as a sample group and completed the questionnaire. The nurses’ moral distress was assessed using Corley’s 30-item Moral Distress Scale adapted for use in an Iranian population. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 19. Results: In this study, no correlation was found between the level of moral distress and any of the demographic data. The mean moral distress score ranged from 3.56 to 5.83, indicating moderate to high levels of moral distress. The item with the highest mean score was “working with unsafe levels of nurse staffing”. The item with the lowest mean score was “giving medication intravenously to a patient who has refused to take it”. Nurses working in EMS and NICU units had the highest levels of moral distress. Conclusion: A higher degree of moral distress is observed among nurses who work in health care systems. The results of this study highly recommend practical and research-oriented evaluation of moral distress in the medical society in Iran. Our findings suggest that Iranian version of MDS is a reliable instrument to measure moral distress in nurses. PMID:26005478

  13. Understanding persons with psychological distress in primary health care.

    PubMed

    Arvidsdotter, Tina; Marklund, Bertil; Kylén, Sven; Taft, Charles; Ekman, Inger

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain more knowledge and a deeper understanding of experiences of persons living with psychological distress who seek help in primary care. Psychological distress is a state of emotional suffering associated with stressors and demands that are difficult to cope with in daily life. The lack of effective care for and difficulty in identifying psychological distress is frustrating for patients and health professionals alike. The aim was therefore to gain more knowledge about the experience of living with psychological distress. Twelve persons (nine women and three men) aged 23-51 years were interviewed. Analyses were based on a phenomenological hermeneutic method and indicated that psychological distress may be seen as an imbalance (incongruence) between the self and the ideal self, which slowly breaks down a person's self-esteem. This imbalance was described in three dimensions: Struggling to cope with everyday life, Feeling inferior to others and Losing one's grip on life. It seems to be associated with a gradual depletion of existential capacities and lead to dissatisfaction, suffering, poor self-esteem and lack of control. As psychological distress may be a forerunner to mental, physical and emotional exhaustion, there is a need to initiate preventive or early interventions to avoid mental, physical and emotional chaos in such patients. Patients' with psychological distress need to be involved in a person-centred salutogenic dialogue with health professionals to become aware of and strengthen their own capacities to regain health and well-being.

  14. Acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening condition with multiple causes and a high mortality rate. Approximately 150,000 cases are reported in the United States annually, making ARDS a public health concern. Management of the condition is complex because of its severity, and medical imaging is essential for both the diagnosis and management of ARDS. This article introduces common signs, symptoms, risk factors, and causes of ARDS. Diagnostic criteria, histopathology, treatment strategies, and prognostic information also are discussed. The article explains the value of medical imaging studies of ARDS, especially radiography, computed tomography, and ultrasonography.

  15. Adult respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cutts, S; Talboys, R; Paspula, C; Prempeh, E M; Fanous, R; Ail, D

    2017-01-01

    Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has now been described as a sequela to such diverse conditions as burns, amniotic fluid embolism, acute pancreatitis, trauma, sepsis and damage as a result of elective surgery in general. Patients with ARDS require immediate intubation, with the average patient now being ventilated for between 8 and 11 days. While the acute management of ARDS is conducted by the critical care team, almost any surgical patient can be affected by the condition and we believe that it is important that a broader spectrum of hospital doctors gain an understanding of the nature of the pathology and its current treatment.

  16. Psychological distress, personality, and adjustment among nursing students.

    PubMed

    Warbah, L; Sathiyaseelan, M; Vijayakumar, C; Vasantharaj, B; Russell, S; Jacob, K S

    2007-08-01

    Psychological distress and poor adjustment among a significant number of nursing students is an important issue facing nursing education. The concerns need to be studied in detail and solutions need to be built into the nursing course in order to help students with such difficulty. This study used a cross-sectional survey design to study psychological distress, personality and adjustment among nursing students attending the College of Nursing, Christian Medical College, Vellore, India. One hundred and forty five nursing students were assessed using the General Health Questionnaire 12, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and the Bell's Adjustment Inventory to investigate psychological distress, personality profile and adjustment, respectively. Thirty participants (20.7%) of the 145 students assessed reported high scores on the General Health Questionnaire. Psychological distress was significantly associated with having neurotic personality and adjustment difficulties in different areas of functioning.

  17. "Once a Soldier, a Soldier Forever": Exiled Zimbabwean Soldiers in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Maringira, Godfrey; Carrasco, Lorena Núñez

    2015-01-01

    Through military training, soldiers' bodies are shaped and prepared for war and military-related duties. In the context these former Zimbabwean soldiers find themselves--that of desertion and 'underground life' in exile in South Africa--their military-trained bodies and military skills are their only resource. In this article, we explore the ways in which former soldiers maintain and 'reuse' their military-trained bodies in South Africa for survival, in a context of high unemployment and a violent, inner-city environment. We look at their social world and practices of soldiering--a term that refers to the specific forms of their social interaction in exile, through which they keep their memories of their military past alive. By attending to their subjectivities and the endurance of their masculine military identities and bodies, we aim to contribute to the discussion on demilitarization, which has largely focused on the failure of models of intervention to assist ex-combatants in postconflict contexts.

  18. Physical and psychological sequelae to torture. A controlled clinical study of exiled asylum applicants.

    PubMed

    Hougen, H P

    1988-10-01

    The study comprised 24 male Lebanese refugees living in Denmark. Twelve of them alleged having been tortured in Lebanon during the period 1981-85. The remaining twelve had neither been imprisoned nor tortured and thus acted as control persons. All the testimonies were found to be valid according to a method previously used by the author. The most common forms of torture were blows against the head, body and foot soles, suspension and asphyxiation. Threats and solitary confinement were frequent, and sexual violations were also reported. At the time of examination (March-November 1986), the main complaints were headaches, various cardiopulmonary symptoms, sleep disturbances with nightmares, impaired concentration and memory, and emotional lability. Suicide attempts were reported. Prior to the torture all the probands had been healthy except for several cases of gunshot wounds. The clinical examination revealed different scars possibly related to torture in nearly all the cases. Missing or fractured teeth, peripheral nerve damage and mental depression were also found. The 12 controls had several mental and physical complaints, but significantly fewer than the probands. Almost all of them had scars from gunshot wounds. The present study clearly indicates that torture plus exilation has a more deteriorating effect on the health status than exilation alone.

  19. [Acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    PubMed

    Hecker, M; Weigand, M A; Mayer, K

    2012-05-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the clinical manifestation of an acute lung injury caused by a variety of direct and indirect injuries to the lung. The cardinal clinical feature of ARDS, refractory arterial hypoxemia, is the result of protein-rich alveolar edema with impaired surfactant function, due to vascular leakage and dysfunction with consequently impaired matching of ventilation to perfusion. Better understanding of the pathophysiology of ARDS has led to the development of novel therapies, pharmacological strategies, and advances in mechanical ventilation. However, protective ventilation is the only confirmed option in ARDS management improving survival, and few other therapies have translated into improved oxygenation or reduced ventilation time. The development of innovative therapy options, such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, have the potential to further improve survival of this devastating disease.

  20. Impact of ethnicity, violence and acculturation on displaced migrants: psychological distress and psychosomatic complaints among refugees in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Sundquist, J; Bayard-Burfield, L; Johansson, L M; Johansson, S E

    2000-06-01

    This study uses data collected in 1996 by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. By means of interviews with 1980 foreign-born immigrants, an attempt was made to determine the impact of a) migration status (country of birth/ethnicity), b) exposure to violence, c) Antonovsky's sense of coherence, d) acculturation status (knowledge of Swedish), e) sense of control over one's life, f) economic difficulties, and g) education, both on psychological distress (using General Health Questionnaire 12) and psychosomatic complaints (daytime fatigue, sleeping difficulties, and headache/migraine). Iranians and Chileans (age-adjusted) were at great risk for psychological distress as compared with Poles, whereas Turks and Kurds exhibited no such risk. When the independent factors were included in the model, the migration status effect decreased to insignificance (with the exception of Iranian men). A low sense of coherence, poor acculturation (men only), poor sense of control, and economic difficulties were strongly associated with the outcomes, generally accounting for a convincing link between migration status and psychological distress. Furthermore, a low sense of coherence, poor acculturation (men only), poor sense of control, and economic difficulties in exile seemed to be stronger risk factors for psychological distress in this group than exposure to violence before migration.

  1. Cultural Distress: An Emerging Paradigm.

    PubMed

    DeWilde, Christine; Burton, Candace W

    2016-12-12

    Although cultural competence in practice is a common goal within the health care professions, little is known about the consequences of a lack of such competence in health and healing. We propose a novel theoretical framework of cultural distress to describe patient experiences of and reactions to care that does not incorporate attention to cultural needs. Use of the cultural distress model to guide research offers an innovative framework by which researchers may identify potential interventions such that patients never reach a level of cultural distress.

  2. Peritraumatic dissociation as a mediator of peritraumatic distress and PTSD: a retrospective, cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Otis, Catherine; Marchand, André; Courtois, Frédérique

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present article was to examine the mediational significance of peritraumatic dissociation in the relationship between peritraumatic distress and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A total of 71 individuals with spinal cord injuries completed interviews and questionnaires measuring PTSD symptomatology, peritraumatic dissociation, and peritraumatic distress. Peritraumatic dissociation was found to partially mediate the relationship between peritraumatic distress and PTSD symptomatology. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that peritraumatic distress and peritraumatic dissociation significantly impact PTSD severity. The findings also support the hypothesis that peritraumatic dissociation is provoked by peritraumatic distress. The results further indicate that although peritraumatic dissociation seems to be a significant risk factor for PTSD, it is not necessary for the development of PTSD; the presence of peritraumatic distress may be sufficient. These findings highlight the importance of investigating peritraumatic reactions after a traumatic event in order to identify individuals at risk for developing PTSD. Such a practice may help prevent the development of chronic conditions.

  3. Entering exile: trauma, mental health, and coping among Tibetan refugees arriving in Dharamsala, India.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Emily; Rosenfeld, Barry; Lhewa, Dechen; Rasmussen, Andrew; Keller, Allen

    2008-04-01

    Each year thousands of Tibetans escape Chinese-controlled Tibet. The authors present findings on the experiences, coping strategies, and psychological distress (depression, anxiety, somatization, and posttraumatic stress disorder) of 769 Tibetan refugees arriving in Dharamsala, India (2003-2004). Distress increased significantly with greater trauma exposure. However, despite a high prevalence of potentially traumatizing events, levels of psychological distress were extremely low. Coping activity (primarily religious) and subjective appraisals of trauma severity appeared to mediate the psychological effects of trauma exposure. The potential impact of other variables, including culturally determined attitudes about trauma and timing of assessment, are discussed.

  4. Culture, Context, and the Internalizing Distress of Mexican American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polo, Antonio J.; Lopez, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    Latino youth appear to be at higher risk for depression relative to youth from other ethnic groups. This study assessed the relationship between nativity and several forms of internalizing distress among Mexican American middle school students as well as sociocultural factors that may help explain this relationship. Immigrant Mexican American…

  5. Social capital and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Song, Lijun

    2011-12-01

    The author proposes a conceptual model to explain the diverse roles of social capital--resources embedded in social networks--in the social production of health. Using a unique national U.S. sample, the author estimated a path analysis model to examine the direct and indirect effects of social capital on psychological distress and its intervening effects on the relationships between other structural antecedents and psychological distress. The results show that social capital is inversely associated with psychological distress, and part of that effect is indirect through subjective social status. Social capital also acts as an intervening mechanism to link seven social factors (age, gender, race-ethnicity, education, occupational prestige, annual family income, and voluntary participation) with psychological distress. This study develops the theory of social capital as network resources and demonstrates the complex functions of social capital as a distinct social determinant of health.

  6. [Acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    PubMed

    Matĕjovic, M; Novák, I; Srámek, V; Rokyta, R; Hora, P; Nalos, M

    1999-04-26

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the general term used for severe acute respiratory failure of diverse aetiology. It is associated with a high morbidity, mortality (50-70%), and financial costs. Regardless of aetiology, the basic pathogenesis of ARDS is a systemic inflammatory response leading to a diffuse inflammatory process that involves both lungs, thus causing diffuse alveolar and endothelial damage with increased pulmonary capillary permeability and excessive extravascular lung water accumulation. ARDS is commonly associated with sepsis and multiple organ failure. The clinical picture involves progressive hypoxaemia, radiographic evidence of pulmonary oedema, decreased lung compliance and pulmonary hypertension. Despite the scientific and technological progress in critical care medicine, there is no specific ARDS therapy available at the moment and its management remains supportive. Therapeutic goals include resolution of underlying conditions, maintenance of acceptable gas exchange and tissue oxygenation and prevention of iatrogenic lung injury. Many new specific therapeutic strategies have been developed, however, most of them require further scientific evaluation. The paper reviews definition, basic pathogenesis and pathophysiology of ARDS and discusses current concepts of therapeutic possibilities of ARDS.

  7. Moral Distress in Pediatric Healthcare Providers.

    PubMed

    Trotochaud, Karen; Coleman, Joyce Ramsey; Krawiecki, Nicolas; McCracken, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric providers across professions and clinical settings experience moral distress. Higher moral distress correlates with intent to leave for all professionals. Physicians as professional group had the highest moral distress. Intensive care nurses had the highest moral distress for nurses. While all providers describe distressing scenarios as disturbing, physicians report situations as occurring more frequently. The most distressing situations include requests for aggressive treatments not in child's best interest, poor team communication and lack of provider continuity. Understanding moral distress as experienced by all pediatric providers is needed to create interventions with a goal of reducing provider turnover.

  8. Understanding Distress in People with Severe Communication Difficulties: Developing and Assessing the Disability Distress Assessment Tool (DisDAT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regnard, C.; Reynolds, Joanna; Watson, Bill; Matthews, Dorothy; Gibson, Lynn; Clarke, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    Background: Meaningful communication with people with profound communication difficulties depends on the ability of carers to recognize and translate many different verbal cues. Carers appear to be intuitively skilled at identifying distress cues, but have little confidence in their observations. To help in this process, a number of pain tools…

  9. [Burden and capability of damaged parents--how refugee children can grow in exile].

    PubMed

    Adam, Hubertus; Walter, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    In trauma, dialectical tension arises between the inner perspective of the traumatized subject and the outside perspective (objective situation), between environmental stress and the subjective attribution of meaning, as well as between experience and behaviour. The traumatic process--the subject's endeavour to comprehend the overwhelming, often inconceivable experience and integrate it into its concepts of self and world--is understood against the backdrop of these interacting dimensions. The process phases "emerge from each other, run parallel, and permeate each other" (Fischer u. Riedesser, 2003). Problems that arise in the aftermath of trauma are rarely overcome by the victims alone. Attempts to process and self-heal have a social dimension, and family members are affected by war, persecution and flight in individual, varying ways. The impacts of violence experienced by parents from different crisis regions are examined in case studies with regard to the psychological development of indirectly impacted children growing up in exile.

  10. Helping Children of Alcoholic Parents: An Elementary School Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Ruth B.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes a program in the Somerville, Massachusetts, elementary schools, designed to help children cope with the emotional distress of family alcoholism and to prevent them from abusing alcohol in adolescence or adulthood. Program structure and results are discussed. (JAC)

  11. Exploring the Relationship Among Moral Distress, Coping, and the Practice Environment in Emergency Department Nurses.

    PubMed

    Zavotsky, Kathleen Evanovich; Chan, Garrett K

    2016-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) nurses practice in environments that are highly charged and unpredictable in nature and can precipitate conflict between the necessary prescribed actions and the individual's sense of what is morally the right thing to do. As a consequence of multiple moral dilemmas, ED staff nurses are at risk for experiencing distress and how they cope with these challenges may impact their practice. To examine moral distress in ED nurses and its relationship to coping in that specialty group. Using survey methods approach. One hundred ninety-eight ED nurses completed a moral distress, coping, and demographic collection instruments. Advanced statistical analysis was completed to look at relationships between the variables. Data analysis did show that moral distress is present in ED nurses (M = 80.19, SD = 53.27), and when separated into age groups, the greater the age, the less the experience of moral distress. A positive relationship between moral distress and some coping mechanisms and the ED environment was also noted. This study's findings suggest that ED nurses experience moral distress and could receive some benefit from utilization of appropriate coping skills. This study also suggests that the environment in which ED nurses practice has a significant impact on the experience of moral distress. Because health care is continuing to evolve, it is critical that issues such as moral distress and coping be studied in ED nurses to help eliminate human suffering.

  12. Perfectionism, procrastination, and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Rice, Kenneth G; Richardson, Clarissa M E; Clark, Dustin

    2012-04-01

    Using a cross-panel design and data from 2 successive cohorts of college students (N = 357), we examined the stability of maladaptive perfectionism, procrastination, and psychological distress across 3 time points within a college semester. Each construct was substantially stable over time, with procrastination being especially stable. We also tested, but failed to support, a mediational model with Time 2 (mid-semester) procrastination as a hypothesized mechanism through which Time 1 (early-semester) perfectionism would affect Time 3 (end-semester) psychological distress. An alternative model with Time 2 perfectionism as a mediator of the procrastination-distress association also was not supported. Within-time analyses revealed generally consistent strength of effects in the correlations between the 3 constructs over the course of the semester. A significant interaction effect also emerged. Time 1 procrastination had no effect on otherwise high levels of psychological distress at the end of the semester for highly perfectionistic students, but at low levels of Time 1 perfectionism, the most distressed students by the end of the term were those who were more likely to have procrastinated earlier in the semester. Implications of the stability of the constructs and their association over time, as well as the moderating effects of procrastination, are discussed in the context of maladaptive perfectionism and problematic procrastination.

  13. Sera-therapy, exile and Franco's regime. The survival strategy of the Ravetllat-Pla Institute in postwar Spain.

    PubMed

    Estapé Egea, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the scientific and commercial survival strategy of the Ravetllat-Pla Institute after the Spanish Civil War. Founded in 1923 by Ramon Pla (1880-1956) and Joaquim Ravetllat (1872-1923), it produced two sera: 'Hemo-antitoxin' and the 'Ravetllat-Pla serum'. When the Civil War ended and Ramon Pla was forced into exile, management of this laboratory was taken over by his daughter, Núia Pla Monseny (1918- 2011) who had to deal with an extremely difficult economic, political and commercial situation. In this paper, I analyse the means by which the Institute survived. These involved the Institute's ability to construct different political symbols from 'Hemo-antitoxin'. I study how Franco's repression influenced this survival strategy and Ramon Pla's role in exile. I also analyse the part played in this scientific and commercial process by the Institute's scientific and commercial network in Chile.

  14. Financial Distress in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Jonas A.; Wong, Yu-Ning

    2013-01-01

    Novel diagnostic and therapeutic options offer hope to cancer patients with both localized and advanced disease. However, many of these treatments are often costly and even well-insured patients can face high out-of-pocket costs. Families may also be at risk of financial distress due to lost wages and other treatment-related expenses. Research is needed to measure and characterize financial distress in cancer patients and understand how it affects their quality of life. In addition, health care providers need to be trained to counsel patients and their families so they can make patient-centered treatment decisions that reflect their preferences and values. PMID:24349677

  15. Helping Children Help Themselves. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

    Youth leaders and parents can use this activity oriented publication to help children six to twelve years of age become more independent by acquiring daily living skills. The publication consists of five units, each of which contains an introduction, learning activities, and lists of resource materials. Age-ability levels are suggested for…

  16. Help Us to Help Ourselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Local authorities have a strong tradition of supporting communities to help themselves, and this is nowhere better illustrated than in the learning they commission and deliver through the Adult Safeguarded Learning budget. The budget was set up to protect at least a minimum of provision for adult liberal education, family learning and learning for…

  17. Moral Distress, Workplace Health, and Intrinsic Harm.

    PubMed

    Weber, Elijah

    2016-05-01

    Moral distress is now being recognized as a frequent experience for many health care providers, and there's good evidence that it has a negative impact on the health care work environment. However, contemporary discussions of moral distress have several problems. First, they tend to rely on inadequate characterizations of moral distress. As a result, subsequent investigations regarding the frequency and consequences of moral distress often proceed without a clear understanding of the phenomenon being discussed, and thereby risk substantially misrepresenting the nature, frequency, and possible consequences of moral distress. These discussions also minimize the intrinsically harmful aspects of moral distress. This is a serious omission. Moral distress doesn't just have a negative impact on the health care work environment; it also directly harms the one who experiences it. In this paper, I claim that these problems can be addressed by first clarifying our understanding of moral distress, and then identifying what makes moral distress intrinsically harmful. I begin by identifying three common mistakes that characterizations of moral distress tend to make, and explaining why these mistakes are problematic. Next, I offer an account of moral distress that avoids these mistakes. Then, I defend the claim that moral distress is intrinsically harmful to the subject who experiences it. I conclude by explaining how acknowledging this aspect of moral distress should reshape our discussions about how best to deal with this phenomenon.

  18. Psychological Distress in Afghan Refugees: A Mixed-Method Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Alemi, Qais; James, Sigrid; Cruz, Romalene; Zepeda, Veronica; Racadio, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Mental health problems disproportionately affect Afghan refugees and asylum seekers who continue to seek international protection with prolonged exposure to war. We performed a systematic review aimed at synthesizing peer-reviewed literature pertaining to mental health problems among Afghans resettled in industrialized nations. We used five databases to identify studies published between 1979 and 2013 that provided data on distress levels, and subjective experiences with distress. Seventeen studies met our inclusion criteria consisting of 1 mixed-method, 7 qualitative, and 9 quantitative studies. Themes from our qualitative synthesis described antecedents for distress being rooted in cultural conflicts and loss, and also described unique coping mechanisms. Quantitative findings indicated moderate to high prevalence of depressive and posttraumatic symptomatology. These findings support the need for continued mental health research with Afghans that accounts for: distress among newly resettled groups, professional help-seeking utilization patterns, and also culturally relevant strategies for mitigating distress and engaging Afghans in research. PMID:23784146

  19. Predictors of Maternal Sensitivity to Infant Distress

    PubMed Central

    Leerkes, Esther M.

    2010-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective The present study was designed to examine the extent to which mothers’ emotional (i.e., empathy, negative emotions) and cognitive (i.e., accurate detection of distress, goals about infant crying, and emotion efficacy) responses to infant distress are related to maternal sensitivity in tasks designed to elicit infant distress. Mothers’ emotional and cognitive responses to distress were assessed both prenatally in response to unfamiliar infants and postnatally in response to own infant. The extent to which prenatal and postnatal measures correlated with one another and with sensitivity to distress was examined. Design One-hundred and one mothers were interviewed prenatally about their responses to videotapes of crying infants, then videotaped interacting with their own infants at 6-months postpartum in two emotionally arousing tasks during which maternal sensitivity and infant distress were rated, and participated in a video-recall interview about their thoughts and feelings during the emotionally arousing tasks. Results Mothers’ prenatal and postnatal goals in relation to infant distress and emotional reactions to infant distress were the most consistent predictors of sensitivity, but prenatal accurate detection of infant distress also predicted sensitivity. Furthermore, mothers’ goals, emotional reactions to crying, and accurate distress detection buffered maternal sensitivity from the negative effect of observed infant distress. That is, infant distress was less strongly negatively associated with sensitivity when mothers had more infant-oriented goals, reported fewer negative emotions in response to infant crying, or were skilled at detecting infant distress. Conclusions Assessing mothers’ emotional and cognitive responses to infant distress provides insights into the origins of sensitivity to infant distress. Methodological issues relevant to assessing mothers’ emotional and cognitive responses to infant distress are raised. PMID

  20. Wavelet-aided pavement distress image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jian; Huang, Peisen S.; Chiang, Fu-Pen

    2003-11-01

    A wavelet-based pavement distress detection and evaluation method is proposed. This method consists of two main parts, real-time processing for distress detection and offline processing for distress evaluation. The real-time processing part includes wavelet transform, distress detection and isolation, and image compression and noise reduction. When a pavement image is decomposed into different frequency subbands by wavelet transform, the distresses, which are usually irregular in shape, appear as high-amplitude wavelet coefficients in the high-frequency details subbands, while the background appears in the low-frequency approximation subband. Two statistical parameters, high-amplitude wavelet coefficient percentage (HAWCP) and high-frequency energy percentage (HFEP), are established and used as criteria for real-time distress detection and distress image isolation. For compression of isolated distress images, a modified EZW (Embedded Zerotrees of Wavelet coding) is developed, which can simultaneously compress the images and reduce the noise. The compressed data are saved to the hard drive for further analysis and evaluation. The offline processing includes distress classification, distress quantification, and reconstruction of the original image for distress segmentation, distress mapping, and maintenance decision-making. The compressed data are first loaded and decoded to obtain wavelet coefficients. Then Radon transform is then applied and the parameters related to the peaks in the Radon domain are used for distress classification. For distress quantification, a norm is defined that can be used as an index for evaluating the severity and extent of the distress. Compared to visual or manual inspection, the proposed method has the advantages of being objective, high-speed, safe, automated, and applicable to different types of pavements and distresses.

  1. A Conversation on Distressed Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Jack; Baldwin, Fred D.

    1998-01-01

    In 1999, 108 of Appalachia's 406 counties were "distressed," with high poverty and unemployment rates. Three experts on Appalachia (Ron Eller, Amy K. Glasmeier, Greg Bischak) discuss problems and potentials of these counties, focusing on the working poor, welfare reform, the utility of social indicators, the challenge of changing the…

  2. Perfectionism, Procrastination, and Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Richardson, Clarissa M. E.; Clark, Dustin

    2012-01-01

    Using a cross-panel design and data from 2 successive cohorts of college students ( N = 357), we examined the stability of maladaptive perfectionism, procrastination, and psychological distress across 3 time points within a college semester. Each construct was substantially stable over time, with procrastination being especially stable. We also…

  3. Mindfulness and bodily distress.

    PubMed

    Fjorback, Lone Overby

    2012-11-01

    We have created a mindfulness approach to treat patients who experience multiple, persistent, and disabling physical symptoms that cannot be explained by a well-defined medical or surgical condition. Randomized controlled trials in this area are few, and research is hampered by the lack of clear definitions. Bodily distress syndrome (BDS) or bodily stress is an empirically defined definition unifying various conditions such as fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and somatization disorder. In the present PhD, we explored whether patients suffering from BDS may be committed to mental training in the form of mindfulness therapy, which is a mindfulness program specifically targeted patients suffering from BDS. The theoretical model for including mindfulness training in the treatment of BDS is based on identified neurobiological impairments in these patients and the neurobiological improvements that mindfulness training may offer. BDS is a major public health issue possibly associated with the pathology of the immuno-endocrine and autonomic nervous system. BDS patients are often stigmatized, and effective treatment is rarely delivered, which leaves these patients isolated, left by themselves, vulnerable to potentially harming medical and/or alternative treatments. Accordingly, there is a need for non-harming practical tools that patients can learn to master so that they can improve the ability to take responsibility for their own health and wellbeing. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a group program that employs mindfulness practice to alleviate suffering associated with physical, psychosomatic, and psychiatric disorders. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is designed to prevent depressive relapse. Paper I and II present systematic literature reviews only of randomized controlled trials on MBSR and MBCT. The effect of MBSR has been explored on fibromyalgia in three studies, none of them showed convincing results, but gave some indications as to

  4. 47 CFR 80.1111 - Distress alerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... digital selective call using a distress call format in bands used for terrestrial radio-communication or a... Safety Communications § 80.1111 Distress alerting. (a) The transmission of a distress alert...

  5. 47 CFR 2.401 - Distress messages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Distress, Disaster, and Emergency Communications § 2.401 Distress messages. Each... aircraft in distress; shall cease all sending on frequencies which will interfere with hearing...

  6. 47 CFR 2.401 - Distress messages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Distress, Disaster, and Emergency Communications § 2.401 Distress messages. Each... aircraft in distress; shall cease all sending on frequencies which will interfere with hearing...

  7. 47 CFR 2.401 - Distress messages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Distress, Disaster, and Emergency Communications § 2.401 Distress messages. Each... aircraft in distress; shall cease all sending on frequencies which will interfere with hearing...

  8. 47 CFR 2.401 - Distress messages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Distress, Disaster, and Emergency Communications § 2.401 Distress messages. Each... aircraft in distress; shall cease all sending on frequencies which will interfere with hearing...

  9. 47 CFR 2.401 - Distress messages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Distress, Disaster, and Emergency Communications § 2.401 Distress messages. Each... aircraft in distress; shall cease all sending on frequencies which will interfere with hearing...

  10. Moving from conceptual ambiguity to knowledgeable action: using a critical realist approach to studying moral distress.

    PubMed

    Musto, Lynn C; Rodney, Patricia A

    2016-04-01

    Moral distress is a phenomenon that has been receiving increasing attention in nursing and other health care disciplines. Moral distress is a concept that entered the nursing literature - and subsequently the health care ethics lexicon - in 1984 as a result of the work done by American philosopher and bioethicist Andrew Jameton. Over the past decade, research into moral distress has extended beyond the profession of nursing as other health care disciplines have come to question the impact of moral constraint on individual practitioners, professional practice, and patient outcomes. Along with increased interest in the phenomenon of moral distress have come increasing critiques - critiques that in their essence point to a serious lack of conceptual clarity in the definition, study, and application of the concept. Foundational to gaining conceptual clarity in moral distress in order to develop strategies to prevent and ameliorate the experience is a careful revisiting of the epistemological assumptions underpinning our knowledge and use of the concept of moral distress. It is our contention that the conceptual challenges reveal flaws in the original understanding of moral distress that are based on an epistemological stance that holds a linear conception of cause and effect coupled with a simplistic perspective of 'constraint' and 'agency'. We need a more nuanced approach to our study of moral distress such that our ontological and epistemological stances help us to better appreciate the complexity of moral agents acting in organizational contexts. We believe that critical realism offers such a nuanced approach.

  11. Psychological distress, perceived stigma, and coping among caregivers of patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Hui Chien; Ibrahim, Norhayati; Wahab, Suzaily

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, family members are gradually taking on the role of full-time caregivers for patients suffering from schizophrenia. The increasing burden and tasks of caretaking can cause them psychological distress such as depression or anxiety. The aim of this study was to measure the correlation between perceived stigma and coping, and psychological distress as well as determine the predictors of psychological distress among the caregivers. Results showed that 31.5% of the caregivers experienced psychological distress. “Community rejection” was found to be positively associated with psychological distress. In case of coping subscales, psychological distress had a positive correlation with substance use, use of emotional support, behavioral disengagement, venting, and self-blame, while it was negatively correlated with “positive reframing”. Behavioral disengagement was the best predictor of psychological distress among caregivers of patients with schizophrenia, followed by positive reframing, use of emotional support, self-blame, and venting. Health practitioners can use adaptive coping strategies instead of maladaptive for caregivers to help ease their distress and prevent further deterioration of psychological disorders. PMID:27574475

  12. Sexual assault related distress and drinking: the influence of daily reports of social support and coping control.

    PubMed

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Hassija, Christina M; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-03-01

    Introduction. A history of sexual assault (SA) is often associated with increased distress and heavy drinking. One's ability to cope with the distress and seek social support has been associated with drinking more generally. However, SA-related distress, drinking, and the extent to which a woman engages in adaptive coping or seeks social support is known to vary day-to-day. The goal of the present investigation was to examine the moderating influence of perceived coping control and social support on the event-level association between SA-related distress and drinking. Methods. This study included 133 college women with a history of SA who reported recent heavy drinking. Participants provided daily reports of their SA-related distress, perceived coping control, perceived social support, and alcohol consumption every day for 30days. Results. Results of generalized estimating equation models suggest that coping control moderated the association between distress and drinking such that those with less perceived coping control drank more as their SA-related distress increased from their average. Although social support did not moderate between distress and drinking, decreases in perceived social support were associated with more drinking on that day. Conclusions. The results suggest that daily deviations in SA-related distress may influence alcohol consumption more than average levels of distress, especially among women with low coping control. Interventions for women with SA histories should help them build coping skills as well as adequate social support in order to reduce drinking.

  13. Social support moderates posttraumatic stress and general distress after disaster.

    PubMed

    Arnberg, Filip K; Hultman, Christina M; Michel, Per-Olof; Lundin, Tom

    2012-12-01

    Social support buffers the negative impact of stressful events. Less, however, is known about the characteristics of this association in the context of disaster and findings have been discrepant regarding direct and buffering effects. This study tested whether the protective effects of social support differed across levels of exposure severity (i.e., buffered distress) and assessed whether the buffering effect differed between event-specific and general distress. Participants were 4,600 adult Swedish tourists (44% of invited; 55% women) repatriated within 3 weeks after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. A survey 14 months after the disaster included the Crisis Support Scale, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Social support buffered the negative impact of exposure on both outcomes. The support and distress association ranged from very small in participants with low exposure to moderate in those with high exposure (η(p)(2) = .004 to .053). The buffering effect was not found to differ between the IES-R and GHQ-12, F(2, 4589) = 0.87, p = .42. The findings suggest that social support moderates the stressor-distress relationship after disasters. This study might help explain discrepant findings and point to refinements of postdisaster interventions.

  14. Fruit and vegetable consumption and psychological distress: cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses based on a large Australian sample

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Binh; Ding, Ding; Mihrshahi, Seema

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Growing evidence suggests a link between diet and mental health. This study aimed to investigate the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and the prevalence and incidence of psychological distress in middle-aged and older Australians. Design Cross-sectional and prospective. Setting New South Wales, Australia. Methods A sample of 60 404 adults aged ≥45 years completed baseline (2006–2008) and follow-up (2010) questionnaires. Psychological distress was assessed at baseline and follow-up using the validated Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), a 10-item questionnaire measuring general anxiety and depression. Psychological distress was defined as the presence of high-to-very high levels of distress (K10 score ≥22). Usual fruit and vegetable consumption was assessed using short validated questions. The association between baseline fruit and vegetable consumption and the prevalence or incidence of psychological distress was examined using logistic regression models. Results At baseline, 5.6% reported psychological distress. After a mean 2.7 years of follow-up, 4.0% of those who did not report distress at baseline reported distress at follow-up. Baseline fruit and vegetable consumption considered separately or combined, was associated with a lower prevalence of psychological distress even after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle risk factors. Baseline fruit and vegetable consumption, measured separately or combined, was associated with a lower incidence of psychological distress in minimally adjusted models. Most of these associations remained significant at medium levels of intake but were no longer significant at the highest intake levels in fully adjusted models. Conclusions Increasing fruit and vegetable consumption may help reduce psychological distress in middle-aged and older adults. However, the association of fruit and vegetable consumption with the incidence of psychological distress

  15. Acute respiratory distress in a silversmith

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Jignesh Mukeshkumar; Dhareshwar, Shashank; Sharma, Anand; Karanth, Raghuveer; Ramkumar, V. S.; Ramaiah, Indira

    2014-01-01

    A 25-year-old young male patient presented in casualty department with severe respiratory distress on the fourth day from onset of symptoms. The patient was nonsmoker and had no antecedent medical or drug history. Prior to admission, patient had dry cough and bilateral pleuritic chest pain for the last three days. He was in severe respiratory distress with use of accessory muscles of respiration. On examination, he had heart rate of 120 beats/min, blood pressure (BP) of 150/80, respiratory rate of 48-52/min and central cyanosis present. On systemic examination, reduced intensity of breath sounds with extensive rhonchi and crepitation was found in both lung fields, with other examination being within normal limits. On pulse oximetry, oxygen saturation was 28% on room air, which increased up to 36% with the help of 4 L oxygen via nasal prongs. PaO2/FiO2 ratio was 100. Chest X-ray analysis was suggestive of non-cardiac pulmonary edema in view of bilateral fluffy opacity without cardiomegaly. In view of 2/3 positive criteria, his provisional diagnosis was Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). He required mechanical ventilatory support and was gradually weaned over a period of 10 days. The patient was treated with broad spectrum antibiotics and other supportive measures. On re-evaluation of history, we found that he was a goldsmith by occupation, smelting silver and gold for the past 8-10 years. On the day of onset of symptoms, while smelting silver he was exposed to golden yellow fumes for around 15 minutes, with the quantum of exposure more than any other day earlier. From previous experience and analysis of similar silver metals, he was able to tell us that the silver was adulterated with large amount of cadmium on that day than before. Serum level of cadmium was 2.9 μg/L 6 days after initial exposure. At the time of discharge, he had residual opacities in the chest radiograph and resting oxygen saturation was 94% on room air. PMID:25006313

  16. Reducing psychological distress in patients undergoing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Milanti, Ariesta; Metsälä, Eija; Hannula, Leena

    Psychological distress is a common problem among patients with cancer, yet it mostly goes unreported and untreated. This study examined the association of a psycho-educational intervention with the psychological distress levels of breast cancer and cervical cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The design of the study was quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design with a comparison group. One hundred patients at a cancer hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia, completed Distress Thermometer screening before and after chemotherapy. Fifty patients in the intervention group were given a psycho-educational video with positive reappraisal, education and relaxation contents, while receiving chemotherapy. Patients who received the psycho-educational intervention had significantly lower distress levels compared with those in the control group. Routine distress screening, followed by distress management and outcome assessment, is needed to improve the wellbeing of cancer patients.

  17. Respiratory distress of the term newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Martin O; Kotecha, Sarah J; Kotecha, Sailesh

    2013-03-01

    Respiratory distress is recognised as any signs of breathing difficulties in neonates. In the early neonatal period respiratory distress is common, occurring in up to 7% of newborn infants, resulting in significant numbers of term-born infants being admitted to neonatal units. Many risk factors are involved; the increasing number of term infants delivered by elective caesarean section has also increased the incidence. Additionally the risk decreases with each advancing week of gestation. At 37 weeks, the chances are three times greater than at 39-40 weeks gestation. Multiple conditions can present with features of respiratory distress. Common causes in term newborn infants include transient tachypnoea of the newborn, respiratory distress syndrome, pneumonia, meconium aspiration syndrome, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate and pneumothorax. Early recognition of respiratory distress and initiation of appropriate treatment is important to ensure optimal outcomes. This review will discuss these common causes of respiratory distress in term-born infants.

  18. Premenstrual Distress Among Japanese High School Students: Self-Care Strategies and Associated Physical and Psychosocial Factors.

    PubMed

    Otsuka-Ono, Hiroko; Sato, Iori; Ikeda, Mari; Kamibeppu, Kiyoko

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify self-care strategies and assess physical and psychosocial factors associated with premenstrual distress among high school students. A cross-sectional survey of 217 adolescent girls aged 15 to 18 years was conducted in October 2009. Most (84.3 percent) had at least one or more symptoms of premenstrual distress. Premenstrual distress interfered with normal school activity in 51.2 percent. Most participants (57.1 percent) did not perform any self-care strategies for premenstrual distress. A hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis was conducted. Comprehension of one's own physical and mental states during premenstrual phases mediated the relationship between neuroticism and premenstrual distress. Activity restrictions due to menstrual distress mediated the relationship between the family's understanding of one's behavior during premenstrual phases and premenstrual distress. Findings suggest that, even if girls have neuroticism, it will be important to teach them to address the comprehension of one's own physical and mental states so that perceptions of both premenstruation and menstruation become more positive. Findings also suggest that the family's understanding was associated with alleviation of premenstrual distress. This study suggests the need for education to help adolescent girls and their families manage premenstrual distress and increase awareness of the benefit of managing its associated symptoms.

  19. 47 CFR 80.324 - Transmission of distress message by station not itself in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... station not itself in distress. (a) A mobile station or a land station which learns that a mobile station... has not been acknowledged. When a mobile station transmits such a distress message, it must notify...

  20. 47 CFR 80.324 - Transmission of distress message by station not itself in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... station not itself in distress. (a) A mobile station or a land station which learns that a mobile station... has not been acknowledged. When a mobile station transmits such a distress message, it must notify...

  1. Gender differences in resilience and psychological distress of patients with burns.

    PubMed

    Masood, Afsheen; Masud, Yusra; Mazahir, Shama

    2016-03-01

    This research explored the gender differences in resilience and psychological distress of patients with burns. In Pakistan, psychological states of patients with burns have not been widely studied, women making up as the neglected section of society lag far behind in availing the needful health facilities. It was hypothesized that there would be significant gender differences in resilience and psychological distress of patients with burns. The sample of the study consisted of 50 patients with burns, obtained from four different hospitals of Lahore. In order to investigate resilience and psychological distress, the State Trait Resilience Scales (Hiew, 2007) and Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (Kessler, 2001) were used. In addition to these, self-constructed demographic questionnaire was administered. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Independent sample t-test was conducted to find gender differences in resilience and psychological distress. The findings from the current research revealed that there were significant gender differences in resilience and psychological distress of patients with burns. The insightful findings from the current research carry strong implications for the clinicians, psychologists and policy makers who can help to develop and implement the rehabilitation programs for the affected population and can launch resilience promoting programs that would help them in coping with burns in effective manner.

  2. 47 CFR 80.325 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 80.325 Section 80... Safety Procedures § 80.325 Control of distress traffic. (a) Distress traffic consists of all messages relating to the immediate assistance required by the mobile station in distress. In distress traffic,...

  3. 47 CFR 80.325 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 80.325 Section 80... Safety Procedures § 80.325 Control of distress traffic. (a) Distress traffic consists of all messages relating to the immediate assistance required by the mobile station in distress. In distress traffic,...

  4. 47 CFR 80.325 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 80.325 Section 80... Safety Procedures § 80.325 Control of distress traffic. (a) Distress traffic consists of all messages relating to the immediate assistance required by the mobile station in distress. In distress traffic,...

  5. 47 CFR 80.325 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 80.325 Section 80... Safety Procedures § 80.325 Control of distress traffic. (a) Distress traffic consists of all messages relating to the immediate assistance required by the mobile station in distress. In distress traffic,...

  6. 47 CFR 80.325 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 80.325 Section 80... Safety Procedures § 80.325 Control of distress traffic. (a) Distress traffic consists of all messages relating to the immediate assistance required by the mobile station in distress. In distress traffic,...

  7. Racial Differences in Effects of Religiosity and Mastery on Psychological Distress: Evidence from National Longitudinal Data.

    PubMed

    Oates, Gary L; Goode, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    This research engages nationally representative longitudinal data and a multipopulation LISREL model to investigate variation among black and white Americans in the impact of religiosity and mastery on psychological distress. Guided by the stress and coping perspective and prominent theorizing about how religiosity influences mental health, the model assesses not only direct effects of religiosity and mastery on distress but also the possibility of religiosity and mastery inhibiting distress indirectly (via effects on other coping resources or stressors) and attenuating the distress-inducing properties of individual stressors. Findings solidly support the endorsed proposition of religiosity's being particularly beneficial to blacks' emotional well-being and moderately support the prediction of mastery's being primarily helpful to whites'. Public religiosity substantially eclipses private and subjective religiosity as a facilitator of blacks' emotional well-being, and although main effects dominate, there are significant mediation and moderation effects of religiosity or mastery within each race.

  8. A New Measure for Distress during Child Sexual Abuse Examinations: The Genital Examination Distress Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gully, Kevin J.; Britton, Helen; Hansen, Karen; Goodwill, Kristopher; Nope, Joni L.

    1999-01-01

    A study (n=242) investigated the effectiveness of a simple seven-item scale designed to quantify indices of emotional distress during the rectal-genital phase of a child sexual-abuse examination. The Genital Examination Distress Scale found increased distress was associated with positive physical findings. (CR)

  9. Personal distress and the influence of bystanders on responding to an emergency.

    PubMed

    Hortensius, Ruud; Schutter, Dennis J L G; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2016-08-01

    Spontaneous helping behavior during an emergency is influenced by the personality of the onlooker and by social situational factors such as the presence of bystanders. Here, we sought to determine the influences of sympathy, an other-oriented response, and personal distress, a self-oriented response, on the effect of bystanders during an emergency. In four experiments, we investigated whether trait levels of sympathy and personal distress predicted responses to an emergency in the presence of bystanders by using behavioral measures and single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation. Sympathy and personal distress were expected to be associated with faster responses to an emergency without bystanders present, but only personal distress would predict slower responses to an emergency with bystanders present. The results of a cued reaction time task showed that people who reported higher levels of personal distress and sympathy responded faster to an emergency without bystanders (Exp. 1). In contrast to our predictions, perspective taking but not personal distress was associated with slower reaction times as the number of bystanders increased during an emergency (Exp. 2). However, the decrease in motor corticospinal excitability, a direct physiological measure of action preparation, with the increase in the number of bystanders was solely predicted by personal distress (Exp. 3). Incorporating cognitive load manipulations during the observation of an emergency suggested that personal distress is linked to an effect of bystanders on reflexive responding to an emergency (Exp. 4). Taken together, these results indicate that the presence of bystanders during an emergency reduces action preparation in people with a disposition to experience personal distress.

  10. Causes and consequences of psychological distress among orphans in eastern Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Nyamukapa, C.A.; Gregson, S.; Wambe, M.; Mushore, P.; Lopman, B.; Mupambireyi, Z.; Nhongo, K.; Jukes, M.C.H.

    2010-01-01

    Substantial resources are invested in psychological support for children orphaned or otherwise made vulnerable in the context of HIV/AIDS (OVC). However, there is still only limited scientific evidence for greater psychological distress amongst orphans and even less evidence for the effectiveness of current support strategies. Furthermore, programmes that address established mechanisms through which orphanhood can lead to greater psychological distress should be more effective. We use quantitative and qualitative data from Eastern Zimbabwe to measure the effects of orphanhood on psychological distress and to test mechanisms for greater distress amongst orphans suggested in a recently published theoretical framework. Orphans were found to suffer greater psychological distress than non-orphans (sex- and age-adjusted co-efficient: 0.15; 95% CI 0.03–0.26; P = 0.013). Effects of orphanhood contributing to their increased levels of distress included trauma, being out-of-school, being cared for by a non-parent, inadequate care, child labour, physical abuse, and stigma and discrimination. Increased mobility and separation from siblings did not contribute to greater psychological distress in this study. Over 40% of orphaned children in the sample lived in households receiving external assistance. However, receipt of assistance was not associated with reduced psychological distress. These findings and the ideas put forward by children and caregivers in the focus group discussions suggest that community-based programmes that aim to improve caregiver selection, increase support for caregivers, and provide training in parenting responsibilities and skills might help to reduce psychological distress. These programmes should be under-pinned by further efforts to reduce poverty, increase school attendance and support out-of-school youth. PMID:20552465

  11. Causes and consequences of psychological distress among orphans in eastern Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Nyamukapa, C A; Gregson, S; Wambe, M; Mushore, P; Lopman, B; Mupambireyi, Z; Nhongo, K; Jukes, M C H

    2010-08-01

    Substantial resources are invested in psychological support for children orphaned or otherwise made vulnerable in the context of HIV/AIDS (OVC). However, there is still only limited scientific evidence for greater psychological distress amongst orphans and even less evidence for the effectiveness of current support strategies. Furthermore, programmes that address established mechanisms through which orphanhood can lead to greater psychological distress should be more effective. We use quantitative and qualitative data from Eastern Zimbabwe to measure the effects of orphanhood on psychological distress and to test mechanisms for greater distress amongst orphans suggested in a recently published theoretical framework. Orphans were found to suffer greater psychological distress than non-orphans (sex- and age-adjusted co-efficient: 0.15; 95% CI 0.03-0.26; P=0.013). Effects of orphanhood contributing to their increased levels of distress included trauma, being out-of-school, being cared for by a non-parent, inadequate care, child labour, physical abuse, and stigma and discrimination. Increased mobility and separation from siblings did not contribute to greater psychological distress in this study. Over 40% of orphaned children in the sample lived in households receiving external assistance. However, receipt of assistance was not associated with reduced psychological distress. These findings and the ideas put forward by children and caregivers in the focus group discussions suggest that community-based programmes that aim to improve caregiver selection, increase support for caregivers, and provide training in parenting responsibilities and skills might help to reduce psychological distress. These programmes should be under-pinned by further efforts to reduce poverty, increase school attendance and support out-of-school youth.

  12. [Moral distress in nursing care].

    PubMed

    Negrisolo, Adriana; Brugnaro, Luca

    2012-01-01

    In nursing practice, the ability to make decisions regarding patients and to act on them is considered to be an expression of the professional nursing role. Problems may arise when a nurses would like to perform an action they believe morally correct but which are conflictual with the habits, organization or politics of the health structure in which they work. This inevitably produces moral distress in nurses who feel impotent to act as they feel they should. Although a certain amount of moral distress is part and parcel of the nursing profession , when it is excessive or prolonged it may become unacceptable and culminate in burn-out and the relative consequences. The aim of the study was to compare the level of moral stress in 111 Italian nurses working in different Operative Units to identify those clinical situations significantly associated with moral stress using the MDS scale. Similarly to studies performed in the USA, the level of moral stress in the 3 different work contexts was moderate, although some clinical situations were related to significant stress levels.

  13. 47 CFR 80.1115 - Transmission of a distress alert by a station not itself in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of a distress alert by a station not itself in distress. (a) A station in the mobile or mobile-satellite service which learns that a mobile unit is in distress must initiate and transmit a distress alert relay in any of the following cases: (1) When the mobile unit in distress is not itself in a position...

  14. 47 CFR 80.1115 - Transmission of a distress alert by a station not itself in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of a distress alert by a station not itself in distress. (a) A station in the mobile or mobile-satellite service which learns that a mobile unit is in distress must initiate and transmit a distress alert relay in any of the following cases: (1) When the mobile unit in distress is not itself in a position...

  15. Help-Negation and Suicidal Ideation: The Role of Depression, Anxiety and Hopelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Coralie J.; Deane, Frank P.

    2010-01-01

    Help-negation is expressed behaviorally by the refusal or avoidance of available help and cognitively by the inverse relationship between self-reported symptoms of psychological distress and help-seeking intentions. The current study examined the association between suicidal ideation and intentions to seek help from friends, family and…

  16. 47 CFR 80.314 - Distress communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Distress communications. 80.314 Section 80.314 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety...

  17. 47 CFR 80.314 - Distress communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Distress communications. 80.314 Section 80.314 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety...

  18. 47 CFR 80.314 - Distress communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distress communications. 80.314 Section 80.314 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety...

  19. 47 CFR 80.314 - Distress communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Distress communications. 80.314 Section 80.314 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety...

  20. 47 CFR 80.314 - Distress communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Distress communications. 80.314 Section 80.314 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety...

  1. 47 CFR 80.1111 - Distress alerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... distress message format, which is relayed through space stations. (b) The distress alert must be sent... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... authority of the person responsible for the ship, aircraft or other vehicle carrying the mobile station...

  2. 47 CFR 80.1111 - Distress alerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... distress message format, which is relayed through space stations. (b) The distress alert must be sent... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... authority of the person responsible for the ship, aircraft or other vehicle carrying the mobile station...

  3. 47 CFR 80.1111 - Distress alerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... distress message format, which is relayed through space stations. (b) The distress alert must be sent... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... authority of the person responsible for the ship, aircraft or other vehicle carrying the mobile station...

  4. 47 CFR 80.1111 - Distress alerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... distress message format, which is relayed through space stations. (b) The distress alert must be sent... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... authority of the person responsible for the ship, aircraft or other vehicle carrying the mobile station...

  5. Special Populations. Distress Therapy through Leisure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, P. Kelly

    1982-01-01

    Education for leisure and stress management, combined with carefully planned recreational experiences, are the key components for distress therapy through leisure. The ultimate goal is to design and implement leisure programs, for special populations, which alleviate distress, channel stress into positive avenues, and enhance their quality of…

  6. Conflict in Maritally Distressed Military Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, William A.; Morgan, Allison R.

    1988-01-01

    Investigated whether 30 maritally distressed military couples differed from 30 distressed civilian couples using marital satisfaction questionnaires. Found same-sex differences across groups, and cross-sex differences within groups. Found military wives were more likely to be physically abused than were civilian wives, and more often requested…

  7. Racial/ethnic differences in associations between neighborhood socioeconomic status, distress, and smoking among U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Liu, Huiguo; Johnson, Renee M

    2016-01-01

    Neighborhood disadvantage may increase smoking by increasing distress, while neighborhood affluence may reduce smoking by increasing positive affect. We examined whether relationships between neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and daily smoking operated through distress and positive affect. Simultaneous multivariate path models used pooled cross-sectional data from the 2000 and 2005 National Alcohol Surveys (15,963 respondents; weighted N = 10,753) and the 2000 Decennial Census. Multiple groups analysis assessed differences by gender and race/ethnicity. Covariates included neighborhood immigrant concentration and individual-level demographics. In the full sample, neighborhood disadvantage significantly increased smoking and neighborhood affluence significantly decreased smoking, with no indirect paths through either distress or positive affect. Unique among Hispanics, affluence resulted in decreased smoking indirectly through reduced distress. Relationships between affect and smoking also varied by race/ethnicity, with no significant differences by gender. Interventions targeting neighborhood socioeconomic status and distress may help reduce smoking, particularly for racial/ethnic minorities.

  8. Marital Adjustment and Psychological Distress in Japan.

    PubMed

    Li, Angela; Robustelli, Briana L; Whisman, Mark A

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to examine the association between marital adjustment and psychological distress in a large, probability sample of married adults in Japan (N = 710) from the Midlife Development in Japan (MIDJA) study. Results indicate that positive and negative dimensions of marital adjustment were significantly associated with dimensional and categorical measures of psychological distress. Furthermore, the associations between marital adjustment and psychological distress remained significant when statistically controlling for neuroticism, quality of friend and family relationships, and demographic variables. These results demonstrate that the well-established association between marital adjustment and psychological distress found in European-American countries is also found in Japan. Findings support continued research on marital functioning and psychological distress in East Asian countries.

  9. Idioms of distress: alternatives in the expression of psychosocial distress: a case study from South India.

    PubMed

    Nichter, M

    1981-12-01

    This paper focuses attention on alternative modes of expressing distress and the need to analyze particular manifestations of distress in relation to personal and cultural meaning complexes as well as the availability and social implications of coexisting idioms of expression. To illustrate this point the case of South Kanarese Havik Brahmin women is presented. These women are described as having a weak social support network and limited opportunities to ventilate feelings and seek counsel outside the household. Alternative means of expressing psychosocial distress resorted to by Havik women are discussed in relation to associated Brahminic values, norms and stereotypes. Somatization is focused upon as an important idiom through which distress is communicated. Idioms of distress more peripheral to the personal or cultural behavioral repertoire of Havik women are considered as adaptive responses in circumstances where other modes of expression fail to communicate distress adequately or provide appropriate coping strategies. The importance of an 'idioms of distress' approach to psychiatric evaluation is noted.

  10. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: 30 years later.

    PubMed

    Lesur, O; Berthiaume, Y; Blaise, G; Damas, P; Deland, E; Guimond, J G; Michel, R P

    1999-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was first described about 30 years ago. Modern definitions and statements have recently been proposed to describe ARDS accurately, but none is perfect. Diffuse alveolar damage is the basic pathological pattern most commonly observed in ARDS, and the term includes permeability edema. The alveolar epithelium of the alveolar-capillary barrier is clearly a key component requiring repair, given its multipotent functional activity. Lung inflammation and neutrophil accumulation are essential markers of disease in ARDS, and a wide variety of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines have been described in the alveolar fluid and blood of patients. These molecules still have to prove their value as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers of ARDS. Supportive therapy in ARDS improved in the past decade; mechanical ventilation with lung protective strategies and patient positioning are gaining interest, but the indications for corticosteroids for ARDS are still debated. Nitric oxide may have a place in the treatment of one-third of patients. Novel approaches, such as surfactant replacement and liquid ventilation, may further improve supportive therapy. Innovative interventions may be on the horizon in treatments that help to resolve or modulate common pathways of ARDS, such as inflammation (eg, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor) or epithelial repair (eg, keratinocyte growth factor).

  11. [Acute respiratory distress syndrome in children].

    PubMed

    Stucki, P; Scalfaro, P; Parret, L; Wassenberg, J; Krähenbühl, J D; Curchod, P; Di Bernardo, S; Llor, J; Cotting, J

    2001-03-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) encountered in a child may be either due to a primary lung infection or may be secondary to a systemic inflammatory response of varying origin. Therapy is based on: 1) the mechanical ventilation strategy aimed at maintaining the functional residual capacity by alveolar recruitment using positive end expiratory pressure and to limit secondary pulmonary lesions by using small tidal volumes, 2) prone positioning as soon as sufficient stability is achieved; 3) optimizing tissue oxygen delivery by cardiac support; 4) correction of any other organ dysfunction. If this conventional approach is not sufficient experimental therapies may be tempted given the vital risk. For instance inhaled nitric oxide and high frequency oscillation ventilation may be a valuable support. Newer techniques, such as partial liquid ventilation, are being developed and could become useful therapeutic options. After the acute phase a close medical follow-up is mandatory. Because of the possibility of a chronic respiratory insufficiency with negative consequences on the right ventricular function, these patients may need long term oxygen therapy and diuretics. Cardiac echography helps orientation in maintaining or discontinuing this long term therapy by estimating the arterial pulmonary pressure.

  12. Psychological Distress and Problem Drinking.

    PubMed

    Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Roberts, Bayard; Suhrcke, Marc; McKee, Martin

    2016-03-01

    We examine the influence of harmful alcohol use on mental health using a flexible two-step instrumental variables approach and household survey data from nine countries of the former Soviet Union. Using alcohol advertisements to instrument for alcohol, we show that problem drinking has a large detrimental effect on psychological distress, with problem drinkers exhibiting a 42% increase in the number of mental health problems reported and a 15% higher chance of reporting very poor mental health. Ignoring endogeneity leads to an underestimation of the damaging effect of excessive drinking. Findings suggest that more effective alcohol policies and treatment services in the former Soviet Union may have added benefits in terms of reducing poor mental health.

  13. Psychological Distress, Acculturation, and Mental Health-Seeking Attitudes among People of African Descent in the United States: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obasi, Ezemenari M.; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between psychological distress, acculturation, and help-seeking attitudes among people of African descent (N = 130). Psychological distress was measured using the Global Severity Index from the Brief Symptom Inventory (L. R. Derogatis & N. Melisaratos, 1983), acculturation was measured using the…

  14. Student distress in clinical workplace learning: differences in social comparison behaviours.

    PubMed

    Janet Raat, A N; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna; van Hell, E Ally; Kuks, Jan B M; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2015-03-01

    In medical education, student distress is known to hamper learning and professional development. To address this problem, recent studies aimed at helping students cope with stressful situations. Undergraduate students in clinical practice frequently use experiences of surrounding peers to estimate their abilities to master such challenging situations. This use of the experiences of others, known as social comparison, may affect student distress both positively and negatively. To find characteristics of a beneficial use of social comparison, we examined differences in comparison behaviours between students expressing low and high levels of distress. The participants in our study, response rate 93% (N = 301/321), were all medical students in their first year in clinical practice. They completed the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) to measure distress, and three separate questionnaires to measure: (1) orientation to comparison, (2) motive for comparison, and (3) interpretation of comparison. Differences were analysed using multivariate analysis of variance. Although all students were oriented towards social comparison, the analyses showed that this orientation was less apparent among low-distress students. Besides, the low-distress students were less inclined to use motives indicative for comparisons with peers perceived as performing worse and were less negative in the interpretations of their comparisons. As social comparison is frequently used among all students, we recommend to make them aware of their comparison behaviours and inform them about the pros and cons of the distinguished aspects of the comparison process.

  15. The relationship between food frequency and menstrual distress in high school females

    PubMed Central

    Mohamadirizi, Soheila; Kordi, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nutrition pattern is one of the important factors predicting menstrual distress, which varies among different cultures and countries. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between food frequency and menstrual distress in high school girls from Mashhad. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 using a two-stage sampling method on 407 high school female students from Mashhad who met the inclusion criteria. Subjects completed questionnaires of demographic characteristics, food frequency, and Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ) during three phases of the menstrual cycle (a week before bleeding, during menstrual bleeding period, and a week after menstruation). The collected data were analyzed by statistical tests such as Pearson correlation coefficient test, independent Student's t-test, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Results showed that 87.7% of the students were at moderate economic status, 82.2% were exposed to cigarette smoke, 94.8% had mothers without university education, and 9.4% had working mothers. About 71% of the students reported minor pre-menstruation distress, 81% reported minor distress during bleeding, and 39% reported minor post-menstruation distress. In addition, the mean (SD) values for sweet–fatty foods, salty–fatty foods, fast foods, and caffeine were 3.6, 3.3, 1.3, and 10.2 per week, respectively. In addition, Pearson correlation coefficient test showed no significant correlation between total menstruation distress and food frequency (P > 0.05). Conclusions: With regard to the inappropriate food frequency and high intensity of menstrual distress among high school students and as health care and educational efforts for prevention and health promotion in society are among the duties of health workers, the results of this study can help the officials involved in education to emphasize on nutrition and the menstrual health of students. PMID:26793254

  16. Help-Seeking by Young People with Depressive Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Michael G.; Sawyer, Alyssa C. P.; La Greca, Annette M.

    2012-01-01

    Depressive disorders commonly occur for the first time during adolescence and often become a recurring source of distress and impairment. Unfortunately, only a small proportion of adolescents with depressive disorders receive help from professional services, and there is evidence that adolescents with higher levels of depressive symptoms may be…

  17. The Perceived Helpfulness of Rendering Emotional First Aid via Email

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilat, Itzhak; Reshef, Eyal

    2015-01-01

    The present research examined the perceived helpfulness of an increasingly widespread mode of psychological assistance, namely, emotional first aid via email. The sample comprised 62 naturally occurring email interactions between distressful clients and trained volunteers operating within the framework of the Israeli Association for Emotional…

  18. Behavioral Intervention to Reduce Child and Parent Distress during Venipuncture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manne, Sharon L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated behavioral intervention to control child distress during invasive cancer treatment. Children (n=23) requiring physical restraint to complete venipuncture were alternately assigned to behavioral intervention or attention control condition. Observed child distress, parent-rated child distress, and parent ratings of own distress were…

  19. 47 CFR 80.1113 - Transmission of a distress alert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission of a distress alert. 80.1113... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1113 Transmission of a distress alert. (a) The... stations that a ship is in distress. These alerts are based on the use of transmissions via...

  20. 47 CFR 80.1113 - Transmission of a distress alert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission of a distress alert. 80.1113... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1113 Transmission of a distress alert. (a) The... stations that a ship is in distress. These alerts are based on the use of transmissions via...

  1. 47 CFR 80.1113 - Transmission of a distress alert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission of a distress alert. 80.1113... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1113 Transmission of a distress alert. (a) The... coast earth stations that a ship is in distress. These alerts are based on the use of transmissions...

  2. 47 CFR 80.1113 - Transmission of a distress alert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission of a distress alert. 80.1113... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1113 Transmission of a distress alert. (a) The... coast earth stations that a ship is in distress. These alerts are based on the use of transmissions...

  3. 47 CFR 80.1113 - Transmission of a distress alert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission of a distress alert. 80.1113... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1113 Transmission of a distress alert. (a) The... stations that a ship is in distress. These alerts are based on the use of transmissions via...

  4. 33 CFR 175.130 - Visual distress signals accepted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... red flare (160.024 or 160.036) meets both day and night requirements. Three hand held orange smoke... Smoke Distress Signals Day Only 3 160.024 Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals Day and Night 1 3 160.036... Orange Smoke Distress Signals Day Only 3 160.057 Floating Orange Smoke Distress Signals Day Only 3...

  5. Is viewing ostracism on television distressing?

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Robinson, Simon L; Gundersen, Nicola C

    2011-01-01

    Being ostracized can be a painful and distressing experience and can lead to subsequent aggression by the victim. However, it is unknown whether watching someone else be ostracized either in real life or on television is similarly distressing. The purpose of the current study was to examine what type of distress (if any) is induced after viewing ostracism on television. The study consisted of 50 participants, half who viewed a movie clip containing ostracism and half who viewed a control clip. Physiological and self-report data revealed that viewing ostracism was distressing to participants. In particular, participants who viewed the ostracism clip reported a lower sense of belonging, self esteem, and mood, and a greater increase in heart rate and skin conductivity than those who viewed the control clip.

  6. Parent Tookit: Homework Help. Helpful Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    All Kinds of Minds, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This check list contains tips for parents to help students reinforce and build upon what children learn at school: (1) Set a consistent time each day for doing homework; (2) Encourage children to make a homework checklist; (3) Provide assistance to help get started on a task; (4) Help children make a list of all needed materials before starting…

  7. Peer Pressure, Psychological Distress and the Urge to Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yi-Wen; Wen, Yu-Wen; Tsai, Chia-Rung; Tsai, Tzu-I

    2009-01-01

    Background: Psychology and addiction research have found that cigarette smokers react with subjective and automatic responses to stimuli associated with smoking. This study examines the association between the number of cigarettes smokers consume per month and their response to cues derived from peer and psychological distress. Methods: We studied 1,220 adult past and current smokers drawn from a national face-to-face interview survey administered in 2004. We defined two types of cues possibly triggering a smoker to have a cigarette: peer cues and psychological cues. We used ordinary least square linear regressions to analyze smoking amount and response to peer and psychological distress cues. Results: We found a positive association between amount smoked and cue response: peer cues (1.06, 95%CI: 0.74–1.38) and psychological cues (0.44, 95%CI = 0.17–0.70). Response to psychological cues was lower among male smokers (−1.62, 95%CI = −2.26–−0.98), but response to psychological cues were higher among those who had senior high school level educations (0.96, 95%CI = 0.40–1.53) and who began smoking as a response to their moods (1.25, 95%CI = 0.68–1.82). Conclusions: These results suggest that both peer cues and psychological cues increase the possibility of contingent smoking, and should, therefore, be addressed by anti-smoking policies and anti-smoking programs. More specifically, special attention can be paid to help smokers avoid or counter social pressure to smoke and to help smokers resist the use of cigarettes to relieve distress. PMID:19578461

  8. Alternatives to Pyrotechnic Distress Signals; Supplemental Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    duty cycle for the two-color, visual signal described in “Alternatives to Pyrotechnic Distress Signals; Laboratory and Field Studies.” 17. Key Words... cycle 18. Distribution Statement Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 19. Security Class (This...subjective trial concerning relative visibility of the two-color visual distress signal, at signal duty cycles different from the initially tested 50% duty

  9. Helping Children Cope in an Increasingly Threatening World: Four Cornerstones of Emotional Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Amy

    2002-01-01

    Discusses some tools and guidelines that can be used to help parents help their children cope with the new dangers in our world. Topics include how parents can help children turn fear into resiliency, what the signs of distress are, and how to use family meetings to teach coping skills and establish a forum for open communication. (GCP)

  10. Maternal hurricane exposure and fetal distress risk.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Sammy; Snodgrass, Jeffrey G; Peek, Lori; Weiler, Stephan

    2010-10-01

    Logistic regression and spatial analytic techniques are used to model fetal distress risk as a function of maternal exposure to Hurricane Andrew. First, monthly time series compare the proportion of infants born distressed in hurricane affected and unaffected areas. Second, resident births are analyzed in Miami-Dade and Broward counties, before, during, and after Hurricane Andrew. Third, resident births are analyzed in all Florida locales with 100,000 or more persons, comparing exposed and unexposed gravid females. Fourth, resident births are analyzed along Hurricane Andrew's path from southern Florida to northeast Mississippi. Results show that fetal distress risk increases significantly with maternal exposure to Hurricane Andrew in second and third trimesters, adjusting for known risk factors. Distress risk also correlates with the destructive path of Hurricane Andrew, with higher incidences of fetal distress found in areas of highest exposure intensity. Hurricane exposed African-American mothers were more likely to birth distressed infants. The policy implications of in utero costs of natural disaster exposure are discussed.

  11. [Exploring moral distress among clinical nurses].

    PubMed

    Lovato, Sabrina; Lovato, Liliana; Cunico, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Moral distress in nursing practice is described as a suffering situation that arises when the nurse is unable to act her/his ethical choices, when institutional constraints interfere with acting in the way she/he believes to be right. The aim is to describe nursing practice situations causing moral distress resulting from the recognition of the ethical appropriate actions combined with the impossibility to pursue it; to describe how nurses manage moral distress situations and the strategies to cope with them. A focus group was conducted in three wards of a large teaching-hospital in the north of Italy. In another ward the nurses were asked to write a moral distress experience. A total of 40 nurses were involved and 50 experiences collected. The experiences' analysis has shown 5 source areas of moral distress: 1) clinical decision; 2) nursing competences; 3) nurse-physician collaboration; 4) organization of care; 5) safe care. For each area the most frequent themes were highlighted.Areas of clinical decision, nursing competences, nurse-physician collaboration involve nurse leaders in identification and implementation of strategies for managing moral distress.

  12. Non lineal respiratory systems mechanics simulation of acute respiratory distress syndrome during mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Madorno, Matias; Rodriguez, Pablo O

    2010-01-01

    Model and simulation of biological systems help to better understand these systems. In ICUs patients often reach a complex situation where supportive maneuvers require special expertise. Among them, mechanical ventilation in patients suffering from acuter respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is specially challenging. This work presents a model which can be simulated and use to help in training of physicians and respiratory therapists to analyze the respiratory mechanics in this kind of patients. We validated the model in 2 ARDS patients.

  13. Detained and Distressed: Persistent Distressing Symptoms in a Population of Older Jail Inmates.

    PubMed

    Bolano, Marielle; Ahalt, Cyrus; Ritchie, Christine; Stijacic-Cenzer, Irena; Williams, Brie

    2016-11-01

    Distressing symptoms are associated with poor function, acute care use, and mortality in older adults. The number of older jail inmates is increasing rapidly, prompting calls to develop systems of care to meet their healthcare needs, yet little is known about multidimensional symptom burden in this population. This cross-sectional study describes the prevalence and factors associated with distressing symptoms and the overlap between different forms of symptom distress in 125 older jail inmates in an urban county jail. Physical distress was assessed using the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. Several other forms of symptom distress were also examined, including psychological (Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire), existential (Patient Dignity Inventory), and social (Three Item Loneliness Scale). Information was collected on participant sociodemographic characteristics, multimorbidity, serious mental illness (SMI), functional impairment, and behavioral health risk factors through self-report and chart review. Chi-square tests were used to identify factors associated with physical distress. Overlap between forms of distress was evaluated using set theory analysis. Overall, many participants (74%) reported distressing symptoms, including having one or more physical (44%), psychological (37%), existential (54%), or social (45%) symptoms. Physical distress was associated with poor health (multimorbidity, functional impairment, SMI) and low income. Of the 93 participants with any symptom, 49% reported three or more forms of distress. These findings suggest that an optimal model of care for this population would include a geriatrics-palliative care approach that integrates the management of all forms of symptom distress into a comprehensive treatment paradigm stretching from jail to the community.

  14. Capital management helps hospitals face hard times.

    PubMed

    Harris, J; Pitts, K

    1989-03-01

    Financial officers of healthcare organizations in severe financial distress must map out an effective capital management strategy to help their institutions avoid disaster. An executive's plan of action should include streamlining and restructuring the organization, studying long- and short-term assets to improve cash flow, and investigating ways to refinance debt. Healthcare organizations must develop warning signals for impending financial difficulties and contingency plans that address operating and capital responses to such a crisis. Learning to guide an organization through financial difficulties may be an executive's most important financial skill in the decade to come.

  15. Pathobiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sapru, Anil; Flori, Heidi; Quasney, Michael W; Dahmer, Mary K

    2015-06-01

    The unique characteristics of pulmonary circulation and alveolar-epithelial capillary-endothelial barrier allow for maintenance of the air-filled, fluid-free status of the alveoli essential for facilitating gas exchange, maintaining alveolar stability, and defending the lung against inhaled pathogens. The hallmark of pathophysiology in acute respiratory distress syndrome is the loss of the alveolar capillary permeability barrier and the presence of protein-rich edema fluid in the alveoli. This alteration in permeability and accumulation of fluid in the alveoli accompanies damage to the lung epithelium and vascular endothelium along with dysregulated inflammation and inappropriate activity of leukocytes and platelets. In addition, there is uncontrolled activation of coagulation along with suppression of fibrinolysis and loss of surfactant. These pathophysiological changes result in the clinical manifestations of acute respiratory distress syndrome, which include hypoxemia, radiographic opacities, decreased functional residual capacity, increased physiologic deadspace, and decreased lung compliance. Resolution of acute respiratory distress syndrome involves the migration of cells to the site of injury and re-establishment of the epithelium and endothelium with or without the development of fibrosis. Most of the data related to acute respiratory distress syndrome, however, originate from studies in adults or in mature animals with very few studies performed in children or juvenile animals. The lack of studies in children is particularly problematic because the lungs and immune system are still developing during childhood and consequently the pathophysiology of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome may differ in significant ways from that seen in acute respiratory distress syndrome in adults. This article describes what is known of the pathophysiologic processes of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome as we know it today while also presenting the much

  16. 47 CFR 80.324 - Transmission of distress message by station not itself in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission of distress message by station not itself in distress. 80.324 Section 80.324 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements...

  17. 47 CFR 80.324 - Transmission of distress message by station not itself in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission of distress message by station not itself in distress. 80.324 Section 80.324 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements...

  18. 47 CFR 80.324 - Transmission of distress message by station not itself in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission of distress message by station not itself in distress. 80.324 Section 80.324 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements...

  19. Self systems, cultural idioms of distress, and the psycho-bodily consequences of childhood suffering.

    PubMed

    Hollan, Douglas

    2004-03-01

    In this article, I examine the effects of childhood suffering in two cases--one from my anthropological fieldwork in the central highlands of Sulawesi in Indonesia and one from my psychotherapeutic practice in Los Angeles. I argue that although people will always carry with them the psycho-bodily signature of their past social experience, these signatures are affected by the cultural idioms of distress into which they are woven and from which psycho-bodily attention is channeled and given meaning (or not). However, I also suggest that past social experiences are related to life trajectories in very complicated ways. For example, while the enactment of a cultural idiom of distress may help to resolve or give meaning to a form of illness or distress, it also may cause or exacerbate other forms of suffering--depending on how it is used and articulated by any given individual.

  20. The Impact of Miscarriage and Parity on Patterns of Maternal Distress in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Woods-Giscombé, Cheryl L.; Lobel, Marci; Crandell, Jamie L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine patterns of state anxiety and pregnancy-specific distress across pregnancy in a diverse sample of women with (n = 113) and without (n = 250) prior miscarriage. For both groups, state anxiety and pregnancy-specific distress were highest in the first trimester and decreased significantly over the course of pregnancy. Compared to women without prior miscarriage, women with prior miscarriage experienced greater state anxiety in the second and third trimesters. Having a living child did not buffer state anxiety in women with a prior miscarriage. Attention to patterns of distress can contribute to delivery of appropriate support resources to women experiencing pregnancy after miscarriage and may help reduce risk for stress-related outcomes. PMID:20544819

  1. Help Seeking and Receiving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadler, Arie

    Although social psychology has always had an interest in helping behavior, only recently has the full complexity of helping relations begun to be researched. Help seeking and receiving in the educational setting raise many issues regarding the use and effectiveness of the help itself. Central to all helping relations is the seeking/receiving…

  2. The prospective effects of perceived and laboratory indices of distress tolerance on cannabis use following a self-guided quit attempt.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Nadeem S; Babson, Kimberly A; Banducci, Anne N; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2015-12-01

    The majority of individuals who attempt to quit using cannabis do not seek formalized treatment. To better understand which malleable factors contribute to cannabis use following a self-guided quit attempt, we concurrently examined 2 measures of distress tolerance (DT) as prospective predictors of cannabis use post quit attempt. We hypothesized that veterans with higher in relation to lower levels of DT would be less likely to use cannabis following a self-guided quit attempt. In this study, we included 103 cannabis-dependent veterans (Mage = 50, 95% male, 37% White, 36% Black, 14% Hispanic, 14% other) who reported being motivated to quit using cannabis. Veterans completed 2 measures of DT, the Distress Tolerance Scale (perceived distress tolerance) and the Mirror-Tracing Persistence Task (laboratory analogue of distress tolerance). Findings indicated that veterans with greater perceived distress tolerance used less cannabis over the quit period than did veterans with less perceived distress tolerance. However, contrary to expectations, baseline performance on a laboratory analogue of distress tolerance was not related to cannabis use over the quit period. Results suggest that veterans' perceived ability to tolerate distress is an important predictor of cannabis use following a self-guided quit attempt. Thus, the Distress Tolerance Scale could serve as an important tool for helping to identify veterans at risk for cannabis use postquit.

  3. Community perceptions of mental distress in a post-conflict setting: a qualitative study in Burundi.

    PubMed

    Familiar, Itziar; Sharma, Sonali; Ndayisaba, Herman; Munyentwari, Norbert; Sibomana, Seleus; Bass, Judith K

    2013-01-01

    There is scant documentation of the mental health characteristics of low-income communities recovering from armed conflict. To prepare for quantitative health surveys and health service planning in Burundi, we implemented a qualitative study to explore concepts related to mental distress and coping among adults. Mental distress was defined as problems related to feelings, thinking, behaviour and physical stress. Using free listing and key informant interviews with a range of community members, we triangulated data to identify salient issues. Thirty-eight free list respondents and 23 key informants were interviewed in 5 rural communities in Burundi using 2 interview guides from the WHO Toolkit for Mental Health Assessment in Humanitarian Settings. Based on these interviews, we identified four locally defined idioms/terms relating to mental distress: ihahamuka (anxiety spectrum illnesses), ukutiyemera (a mix of depression and anxiety-like syndrome), akabonge (depression/grief-like syndrome) and kwamana ubwoba burengeje (anxiety-like syndrome). Mental distress terms were perceived as important problems impacting community development. Affected individuals sought help from several sources within the community, including community leaders and traditional healers. We discuss how local expressions of distress can be used to tailor health research and service integration from the bottom up.

  4. Emotional distress and psychosocial resources in patients recovering from severe burn injury.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Hanna; Renneberg, Babette; Ripper, Sabine; Germann, Günter; Wind, Gerhard; Jester, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Emotional distress as well as psychosocial resources in 55 patients with burn injuries was assessed during acute and follow-up treatment. Results showed significantly greater values of emotional distress among patients when compared with norms of the general population. As well as higher levels of general psychopathology, particularly prevalent were anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic symptoms. However, patients also reported high levels of resources such as general optimism, self-efficacy, and perceived social support. Within the sample, no significant correlation between severity of emotional distress and severity of burn injury was found. By psychological assessments a subgroup of highly distressed patients was identified. These patients were highly emotionally distressed while having objective injury severity comparable with the other patients in the sample. Reactions to burn accidents vary individually. The results demonstrate the importance of routine screenings of psychological symptoms. An early identification of patients at-risk allows for tailored psychotherapeutic interventions and can thus help to improve quality of life and general well-being of burn patients on a long-term basis.

  5. Helping Parents Help Their Children Toward Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, G. Jeane

    A practicum was designed to help parents of kindergartners in a low income area help their children develop literacy. The primary goal was to secure the active involvement of parents in their children's learning experiences. Other goals included improving kindergarten teachers' communication skills and expanding their strategies for reaching out…

  6. Psychological distress with direct-to-consumer genetic testing: a case report of an unexpected BRCA positive test result.

    PubMed

    Dohany, Lindsay; Gustafson, Shanna; Ducaine, Whitney; Zakalik, Dana

    2012-06-01

    We report a case of a client who discovered she had a BRCA mutation following direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing in the absence of genetic counseling. After testing she presented for genetic counseling with anxiety, distress, and a deficit of knowledge about what the DTC genetic testing revealed. Genetic counseling helped alleviate distress while empowering the client to apply the results of testing to improve medical management. Despite recent studies demonstrating no negative psychological impact of DTC genetic testing on the consumer, this case illustrates that significant psychological distress and confusion can occur as a result of DTC genetic testing for highly penetrant single gene disorders. Pre- and post-test genetic counseling in conjunction with DTC genetic testing may alleviate consumers' distress and empower clients to proactively utilize their result information.

  7. A guest in the house: nursing instructors' experiences of the moral distress felt by students during inpatient psychiatric clinical rotations.

    PubMed

    Wojtowicz, Bernadine; Hagen, Brad

    2014-07-23

    Significant research has been done on the impact of moral distress among nurses, particularly in acute and intensive care settings. However, little research to date has investigated the experiences that nursing students have with moral distress. Additionally, there is a dearth of research on the role of nursing instructors' perceptions of their responsibilities to their students when encountering morally distressing situations. This manuscript describes a qualitative study conducted with eight mental health nursing instructors who acknowledged a responsibility for helping students deal with moral distress and ethical issues, but who also struggled with ways to do so. Additionally, instructors expressed frustration with their "guest" status on inpatient psychiatric units and their powerlessness to effect moral change in a medical model of psychiatric care.

  8. A pavement Moisture Accelerated Distress (MAD) identification system, volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, S. H.; Darter, M. I.; Dempsey, B. J.

    1981-09-01

    A users manual is designed which provides the engineer with a rational method of examining a pavement and determining rehabilitation needs that are related to the causes of the existing distress, particularly moisture related distress. The key elements in this procedure are the MAD Index developed in Volume 1, the Pavement Condition Index (PCI) and the Moisture Distress Index (MDI). Step by step procedures are presented for calculating each parameter. Complete distress identification manuals are included for asphalt surfaced highways and jointed reinforced concrete highways with pictures and descriptions of all major distress types. Descriptions of the role moisture plays in the development of each distress type are included.

  9. Relating pavement distress to serviceability and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, W. R.; Finn, F. N.; Pedigo, R. D.; Roberts, F. L.

    1981-02-01

    Regression analyses, Markov processes, Bayesian analysis, and utility theory were examined as analytical tools useful in relating distress to performance. Several specific performance models of limited applicability are reported, along with some generally applicable techniques and recommended methods. It is shown that useful relationships can be obtained from existing data and are, in fact, being used in several states and other highway agencies. In each case, however, it is shown that significant improvements in the distress performance relationships are needed which can only be obtained through the conscientious observation of distress and performance of pavements under a variety of environmental and load conditions for a reasonable period of time, e.g., (approximately ten years).

  10. Moral repugnance, moral distress, and organ sales.

    PubMed

    Taylor, James Stacey

    2015-06-01

    Many still oppose legalizing markets in human organs on the grounds that they are morally repugnant. I will argue in this paper that the repugnance felt by some persons towards sales of human organs is insufficient to justify their prohibition. Yet this rejection of the view that markets in human organs should be prohibited because some persons find them to be morally repugnant does not imply that persons' feelings of distress at the possibility of organ sales are irrational. Eduardo Rivera-Lopez argues that such instinctive distress is an appropriate response to the (rationally defensible) perception that certain kinds of arguments that are offered in favor of legalizing organ sales are "in an important sense, illegitimate." Having argued that repugnance should not ground the prohibition of markets in human organs, I will also argue that the moral distress that some feel towards certain arguments that favor such markets is not rationally defensible, either.

  11. Distress among young adults from divorced families.

    PubMed

    Laumann-Billings, L; Emery, R E

    2000-12-01

    Researchers find that most children from divorced families function normally, but some clinicians assert that young people are disturbed even many years after a divorce. These accounts may be less discrepant than they appear, because research typically focuses on notably problematic behavior (disorder), whereas case studies emphasize more subtle inner turmoil (distress). In Study 1 college students reported painful feelings, beliefs, and memories about their parents divorce on a reliable new measure, but they also reported accepting the divorce and having few psychological symptoms. Distress about family life was greater among students from divorced than from married families. Study 2 replicated these findings in a community sample of young people from low-income divorced families. In both studies, greater distress was associated with children's residence, frequency of contact with fathers, interparental conflict, and psychological symptoms.

  12. Psychological distress in survivors of the 2010 Haiti earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Guimaro, Melissa Simon; Steinman, Milton; Kernkraut, Ana Merzel; dos Santos, Oscar Fernando Pavão; Lacerda, Shirley Silva

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the presence of depression and anxiety symptoms in survivors of the Haiti earthquake who were assisted by a healthcare team from the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, and to evaluate the impact that losing a family member during this catastrophe could have on the development of these symptoms. Methods: Forty survivors of the Haiti earthquake who were assisted by the healthcare team between February and March of 2010 were included in this study. All subjects underwent a semi-structured interview. The group was divided into Group A (individuals who had some death in the family due to the disaster) and Group B (those who did not lose any family member). Results: A total of 55% of the subjects had depression symptoms whereas 40% had anxiety symptoms. The individuals who lost a family member were five times more likely to develop anxiety and depression symptoms than those who did not. Conclusion: Catastrophe victims who lost at least one family member due to the disaster were more likely to develop anxiety and depression symptoms. To these individuals, as well as others showing psychological distress, should be offered early mental health care to help them cope with the great emotional distress inherent in these situations. PMID:23579738

  13. Does education buffer the impact of disability on psychological distress?

    PubMed

    Mandemakers, Jornt J; Monden, Christiaan W S

    2010-07-01

    This paper investigates whether education buffers the impact of physical disability on psychological distress. It further investigates what makes education helpful, by examining whether cognitive ability and occupational class can explain the buffering effect of education. Two waves of the 1958 British National Child Development Study are used to test the hypothesis that the onset of a physical disability in early adulthood (age 23 to 33) has a smaller effect on psychological distress among higher educated people. In total 423 respondents (4.6%) experienced the onset of a physical disability between the ages of 23 and 33. We find that a higher educational level cushions the psychology impact of disability. Cognitive ability and occupational class protect against the effect of a disability too. The education buffer arises in part because individuals with a higher level of education have more cognitive abilities, but the better social position of those with higher levels of education appears to be of greater importance. Implications of these findings for the social gradient in health are discussed.

  14. Psychological Distress and Emotional Expression on Facebook.

    PubMed

    Bazarova, Natalya N; Choi, Yoon Hyung; Whitlock, Janis; Cosley, Dan; Sosik, Victoria

    2017-03-01

    Social network sites (SNS) are a novel social environment for college students with psychological distress to connect with their peers, but the nature and effects of these interactions are not well understood. This study reports findings from a Facebook study among 238 college students reporting nonspecific psychological distress using the K-6 scale. Behavioral data included Facebook status updates containing affect words written by participants within the past 60 days and the number of responses (comments and likes) each update received. The updates were also coded for depression symptoms. Self-report data included participants' self-presentational concerns, the affective valence of each post, effects of responses on mood, and satisfaction with the responses to and outcome of each status update. Higher psychological distress was associated with displaying depression language on Facebook, with higher self-presentational concerns, and with less satisfaction with audiences' responses and less overall satisfaction with the outcome of the interaction. These results offer a unique glimpse into the social world of college students with psychological distress through their everyday use of Facebook, and how the interplay of this novel environment and students' mental health impacts their social behaviors and interaction meaning-making on Facebook.

  15. Interpersonal Relationships and Emotional Distress in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Rachel; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine positive and negative qualities in adolescents' interpersonal relationships and their relative importance in predicting emotional distress. Participants were 260 students from three schools in the Dublin area (119 girls; 141 boys), aged 12-18 years (M = 15.32, SD = 1.91). Students completed questionnaires…

  16. Relief and Distress after Marital Separation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanier, Graham B.; Thompson, Linda

    1983-01-01

    Examined relief and distress as responses to the termination of marriage in a study of 205 individuals soon after their final separation. Results showed that relief is a frequent response to marital separation. Group differences in response were associated with the rewards and costs of ending a marriage. (JAC)

  17. Differences Between Experienced and Anticipatory Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowa, Claudia J.; Barsanti, Anne, N.

    1986-01-01

    Examined differences between distress ratings of anticipated and experienced life events in 168 college students. Found gender differences and significant differences between perceived and experienced aversion across events predicting symptoms of stress, depression, anxiety, and somatic discomfort in occupational, social and familial situations.…

  18. Discrimination Distress among Chinese American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Jennifer M.; Liang, Belle

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses contradictions between common perceptions of Asian Americans as a "model minority" and growing evidence of discrimination and its negative psychological implications for this group. The current study examined Chinese American early adolescents' distress from experiences of discrimination, its relationship with mental health…

  19. Religion and Psychological Distress in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roemer, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces data from a new random sample of Japanese adults. Findings show that reporting of distress symptoms are: (1. positively associated with a religious coping index (i.e., beliefs that religion or supernatural beings provide comfort, support or protection), (2. associated in different directions with ownership of different…

  20. Substance Use, Distress, and Adolescent School Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Jane D.; Uemura, Ryotaro

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the associations of substance use, psychological distress, and mental health services receipt with the structure and content of adolescent school-based networks. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we found that substance use was associated with receiving more, but making fewer, peer…

  1. Once Distressed, Jackson County Moves On.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    1998-01-01

    In 1981, Jackson County, North Carolina, appeared on the first list of "distressed counties" in Appalachia. Since then, the rural county has made significant improvements by investing in its physical infrastructure (which also promotes tourism); fostering economic-development partnerships among governments, small businesses, and local…

  2. 46 CFR 28.145 - Distress signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Area Devices required Ocean, more than 50 miles from coastline 3 parachute flares, approval series 160..., 3-50 miles from the coastline; or more than 3 miles from the coastline on the Great Lakes 3... Great Lakes; or within 3 miles of the coastline on the Great Lakes Night visual distress...

  3. [Acute respiratory distress revealing severe pulmonary leptospirosis].

    PubMed

    Sekkach, Y; Qaçif, H; Jira, M; El Qatni, M; El omri, N; Ghafir, D

    2007-01-01

    We return a clinical case of leptospirose revelated by a complicated febrile harp pneumopathie of a sharp respiratory distress syndrome having required a transfer in resuscitation. The goal of our article is to recall that it is necessary to think systematically about a pulmonary shape of leptospirose facing an atypical pneumopahie.

  4. Acute respiratory distress caused by Neosartorya udagawae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe the first reported case of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) attributed to Neosartorya infection. The mold grew rapidly in culture of both sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from a previously healthy 43-year-old woman with ARDS, which developed as the culmination of a...

  5. Disordered Eating and Psychological Distress among Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali

    2011-01-01

    The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.…

  6. 46 CFR 28.145 - Distress signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., 3-50 miles from the coastline; or more than 3 miles from the coastline on the Great Lakes 3....021; plus 3 smoke signals, approval series 160.122, 160.022, or 160.037. Coastal waters, excluding the Great Lakes; or within 3 miles of the coastline on the Great Lakes Night visual distress...

  7. Understanding Undergraduate Student Perceptions of Mental Health, Mental Well-Being and Help-Seeking Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laidlaw, Anita; McLellan, Julie; Ozakinci, Gozde

    2016-01-01

    Despite relatively high levels of psychological distress, many students in higher education do not seek help for difficulties. This study explored undergraduate student understanding of the concepts of mental health and mental well-being and where undergraduate students would seek help for mental well-being difficulties. Semi-structured interviews…

  8. Religiosity, Spirituality, and Help-Seeking among Filipino Americans: Religious Clergy or Mental Health Professionals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abe-Kim, Jennifer; Gong, Fang; Takeuchi, David

    2004-01-01

    Data from structured interviews with 2,285 respondents for the Filipino American Community Epidemiological Survey (FACES) were used to examine help-seeking for emotional distress among Filipino Americans. The influence of religious affiliation, religiosity, and spirituality upon help-seeking from religious clergy and mental health professionals…

  9. Racial and Ethnic Minority College Students' Stigma Associated with Seeking Psychological Help: Examining Psychocultural Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Hsiu-Lan; Kwan, Kwong-Liem Karl; Sevig, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Many college students underuse professional psychological help for mental health difficulties. The stigma associated with seeking such help appears to be one of the reasons for this underuse. Levels of psychological distress and past use of counseling/psychotherapy have been found to be important correlates of stigma associated with seeking…

  10. 46 CFR 25.25-19 - Visual distress signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Visual distress signals. 25.25-19 Section 25.25-19... Other Lifesaving Equipment § 25.25-19 Visual distress signals. Each uninspected passenger vessel must meet the visual distress signal requirements of 33 CFR part 175 applicable to the vessel....

  11. 33 CFR 175.130 - Visual distress signals accepted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visual distress signals accepted. 175.130 Section 175.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS Visual Distress Signals § 175.130 Visual distress...

  12. 33 CFR 175.110 - Visual distress signals required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visual distress signals required... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS Visual Distress Signals § 175.110 Visual distress signals... passenger vessel subject to the requirements of 46 CFR chapter I, subchapter C, unless visual...

  13. Negative Emotions and Behaviors are Markers of Breakup Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    Method: University students who experienced a recent romantic breakup were given several self-report measures and were then divided into high versus low breakup distress groups. Results: The high breakup distress versus the low breakup distress groups had higher scores on negative emotions scales including depression, anxiety and anger and…

  14. Predictors of Psychological Distress among Infertility Clinic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Kelly A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated predictors of psychological distress among infertility clinic patients. Analyses indicated that infertile men and women reported greater psychological distress than the general population. Self-blame and avoidance coping significantly predicted psychological distress among men and women. Increased age and childlessness added to…

  15. Trauma and Psychological Distress among Ethnically Diverse Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edman, Jeanne L.; Watson, Susan B.; Patron, David J.

    2016-01-01

    An association has been found between traumatic experiences and psychological distress; however, the impact of ethnicity on psychological distress is less clear. The present study examined the relationship between traumatic experiences and measures of psychological distress among a multiethnic sample of community college students. A total of 389…

  16. 47 CFR 80.312 - Priority of distress transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Priority of distress transmissions. 80.312..., Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.312 Priority of distress transmissions. The distress call has absolute priority over all other transmissions. All stations which hear it must immediately cease any...

  17. 47 CFR 80.312 - Priority of distress transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Priority of distress transmissions. 80.312..., Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.312 Priority of distress transmissions. The distress call has absolute priority over all other transmissions. All stations which hear it must immediately cease any...

  18. 47 CFR 80.312 - Priority of distress transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Priority of distress transmissions. 80.312..., Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.312 Priority of distress transmissions. The distress call has absolute priority over all other transmissions. All stations which hear it must immediately cease any...

  19. 47 CFR 80.312 - Priority of distress transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Priority of distress transmissions. 80.312..., Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.312 Priority of distress transmissions. The distress call has absolute priority over all other transmissions. All stations which hear it must immediately cease any...

  20. 47 CFR 80.312 - Priority of distress transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Priority of distress transmissions. 80.312..., Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.312 Priority of distress transmissions. The distress call has absolute priority over all other transmissions. All stations which hear it must immediately cease any...

  1. 46 CFR 180.68 - Distress flares and smoke signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Distress flares and smoke signals. 180.68 Section 180.68... TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Emergency Communications § 180.68 Distress flares and smoke... Commandant; and (2) Six hand orange smoke distress signals approved in accordance with § 160.037...

  2. 46 CFR 180.68 - Distress flares and smoke signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Distress flares and smoke signals. 180.68 Section 180.68... TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Emergency Communications § 180.68 Distress flares and smoke... Commandant; and (2) Six hand orange smoke distress signals approved in accordance with § 160.037...

  3. [Acute respiratory distress syndrome: a review of the Berlin definition].

    PubMed

    de Luis Cabezón, N; Sánchez Castro, I; Bengoetxea Uriarte, U X; Rodrigo Casanova, M P; García Peña, J M; Aguilera Celorrio, L

    2014-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is due to many causes. The absence of a universal definition up until now has led to a series of practical problems for a definitive diagnosis. The incidences of ARDS and Acute Lung Injury (ALI) vary widely in the current literature. The American-European Consensus Conference definition has been applied since its publication in 1994 and has helped to improve knowledge about ARDS. However, 18 years later, in 2011, the European Intensive Medicine Society, requested a team of international experts to meet in Berlin to review the ARDS definition. The purpose of the Berlin definition is not to use it as a prognostic tool, but to improve coherence between research and clinical practice.

  4. Culture, context, and the internalizing distress of Mexican American youth.

    PubMed

    Polo, Antonio J; López, Steven R

    2009-03-01

    Latino youth appear to be at higher risk for depression relative to youth from other ethnic groups. This study assessed the relationship between nativity and several forms of internalizing distress among Mexican American middle school students as well as sociocultural factors that may help explain this relationship. Immigrant Mexican American youth (n = 78) reported significantly higher social anxiety and loneliness than U.S.-born Mexican American youth (n = 83). Acculturation stress and English proficiency were identified as significant mediators of these nativity differences. Although internalizing problems and depression symptoms did not vary across nativity groups, both were related to lower affiliative obedience. The findings point to cultural socialization values and contextual influences as important variables in the mental health of youth in immigrant families.

  5. Communication, support and psychosocial work environment affecting psychological distress among working women aged 20 to 39 years in Japan.

    PubMed

    Honda, Ayumi; Date, Yutaka; Abe, Yasuyo; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Honda, Sumihisa

    2016-01-01

    When compared with their older counterparts, younger women are more likely to have depressive symptoms because they more often experience interrupted work history and a heavy childrearing burden. The purposes of the present study were 1) to investigate the possible association of psychosocial work environment with psychological distress and 2) to examine the way by which communication and support in the workplace affect to psychological distress among young women. We studied 198 women aged 20 to 39 yr in a cross-sectional study. The Kessler Scale-10 (K10 Scale) was used to examine psychological distress. In employees who experienced interpersonal conflict, those who had little or no conversations with their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 4.2), and those who received little or no support from their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 3.8) compared to those who had more frequent communication and received more support. Harmonious communication in the workplace can help prevent psychological distress among employees, which in turn may enable them to be satisfied with their work.

  6. Petrography, mineralogy, and chemistry of calcite-silica deposits at Exile Hill, Nevada, compared with local spring deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Vaniman, D.T.; Chipera, S.J.; Bish, D.L.

    1995-12-01

    Chemical, mineralogic, and petrographic analyses of siliceous calcretes from Exile Hill east of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, indicate that pedogenic processes alone account for the formation of the calcretes. These calcretes have been interpreted by some observers as evidence of seismically triggered eruptions of deep water. Such an origin could have important consequences if Yucca Mountain is developed as an unsaturated site for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste. At odds with this hypothesis are the absence of features that should be present at fault-fed springs (e.g., fissure-ridge mounds with microterraces) and the preservation within root casts of delicate pedogenic microfossils, such as calcified filaments and needle-fiber calcites. Mineral-chemical evidence of pedogenic origin is found in heavy-mineral concentrations, reflected in Fe and Sc enrichments. These concentrations, which occur in the most massive of the vein calcretes, require derivation of detritus from a mixture of weathered and eolian materials that occur in the overlying B soil horizons, as opposed to direct incorporation of adjacent unweathered bedrock. Carbonate and silica abundances and accumulation rates are well within the scope of pedogenic processes. Calcium is derived from rainwater or eolian sources, whereas silica is derived in part by dissolution of local volcanic glasses or from dissolution of unstable silica minerals that are abundant in the local tuffs. In contrast with local deposits that are of spring or seep origin, the siliceous calcretes at Yucca Mountain are pedogenic in origin as well as evolution and provide no evidence in support of conjectured spring activity.

  7. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Help! It's Hair Loss! KidsHealth > For Kids > Help! It's Hair Loss! A A A What's in ... a better look at what's going on to help decide what to do next. For a fungal ...

  8. Help with Hives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Help With Hives KidsHealth > For Kids > Help With Hives A A A What's in this ... about what happened. The doctor can try to help figure out what might be causing your hives, ...

  9. Moral distress in nursing: contributing factors, outcomes and interventions.

    PubMed

    Burston, Adam S; Tuckett, Anthony G

    2013-05-01

    Moral distress has been widely reviewed across many care contexts and among a range of disciplines. Interest in this area has produced a plethora of studies, commentary and critique. An overview of the literature around moral distress reveals a commonality about factors contributing to moral distress, the attendant outcomes of this distress and a core set of interventions recommended to address these. Interventions at both personal and organizational levels have been proposed. The relevance of this overview resides in the implications moral distress has on the nurse and the nursing workforce: particularly in regard to quality of care, diminished workplace satisfaction and physical health of staff and increased problems with staff retention.

  10. Distress in patients with cancer: definition, assessment, and suggested interventions.

    PubMed

    Vitek, Leesa; Rosenzweig, Margaret Quinn; Stollings, Susan

    2007-06-01

    Distress in patients with cancer impacts their quality of life. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) created a distress thermometer and a problem checklist to aid in recognizing distress. The thermometer measures distress on a 0-10 scale, and the problem checklist identifies more specific etiologies of distress, such as practical, spiritual, physical, emotional, and family problems. Oncology nurses play a key role in the success of the distress-screening tool because they have the most patient contact. The NCCN guidelines suggest that patients complete the screening tools at each visit and clinicians review the outcome. NCCN has provided clinical pathways for treating the etiologies of distress using a multidisciplinary approach, including members from social work, pastoral services, mental health, and oncology.

  11. Secondary Traumatic Stress and Burnout in Child Welfare Workers: A Comparative Analysis of Occupational Distress across Professional Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprang, Ginny; Craig, Carlton; Clark, James

    2011-01-01

    This study describes predictors of secondary traumatic stress and burnout in a national sample of helping professionals, with a specific focus on the unique responses of child welfare (CW) workers. Specific worker and exposure characteristics are examined as possible predictors of these forms of occupational distress in a sample of 669…

  12. Patterns of Psychological Distress in Mothers of Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Hudson; Levy, Janet; White-Traut, Rosemary; O’Shea, T. Michael; Geraldo, Victoria; David, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Mothers of preterm infants experience significant psychological distress, with elevated levels of inter-correlated depressive symptoms, stress, anxiety and post-traumatic stress symptoms. In a sample of racially and ethnically diverse mothers of preterm infants, we identified differing patterns of psychological distress during infant hospitalization and examined the effect of these psychological distress patterns on longitudinal trajectories of each psychological distress measure and on maternal perceptions of the child over the first year of the infant’s life. Mothers of preterm infants (N = 232) completed five questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms, anxiety, post-traumatic stress symptoms, stress due to infant appearance, and stress due to parental role alteration during enrollment in the neonatal hospitalization, discharge, and at 2, 6, and 12 months of age adjusted for prematurity. Latent class analysis on the enrollment psychological distress variables allowed us to identify five sub-groups of mothers exhibiting similar patterns of psychological distress, differing primarily in degree and type: low distress, moderate distress, high NICU-related distress, high depressive and anxiety symptoms, and extreme distress. These classes continued to show different longitudinal trajectories for the psychological distress measures through 12 months corrected age. Mothers in the extreme distress class and, to a lesser degree, mothers in the high depressive and anxiety symptom class remained at risk of significant psychological distress one year after discharge and had less positive perceptions of their child (greater worry and higher perceptions of child vulnerability). In conclusion, distinctive subgroups of mothers during hospitalization had different patterns of psychological distress throughout the 12-month period and may require different interventions in the NICU. PMID:26495909

  13. Support Service Use and Interest in Support Services among Distressed Family Caregivers of Lung Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mosher, Catherine E.; Champion, Victoria L.; Hanna, Nasser; Jalal, Shadia I.; Fakiris, Achilles J.; Birdas, Thomas J.; Okereke, Ikenna C.; Kesler, Kenneth A.; Einhorn, Lawrence H.; Given, Barbara A.; Monahan, Patrick O.; Ostroff, Jamie S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examined support service use and interest in support services among distressed family caregivers of patients recently entering a comprehensive cancer care facility. Methods Primary family caregivers of lung cancer patients (N = 83) were recruited from three medical centers within 12 weeks of the patient’s new visit to the oncology clinic. All family caregivers were screened for psychological distress and those reporting significant anxiety or depressive symptoms were eligible for this study. Caregivers completed a baseline assessment of support service use (i.e., use of mental health services and complementary and alternative medicine [CAM]) and interest in support services. Support service use was also assessed three months later. Results Although all caregivers reported clinically meaningful distress, only 26% used mental health and 39% used CAM services during the 3-month study period. Patients’ receipt of chemotherapy was positively associated with caregivers’ mental health service use, whereas greater education and receiving assistance with caregiving tasks were associated with CAM use. Forty percent of caregivers who did not use CAM at baseline were interested in CAM. In addition, 29% of caregivers who did not receive mental health services at baseline were interested in professional psychosocial support, and 29% of caregivers who did not receive staff assistance with practical needs at baseline were interested in this service. Conclusions Findings suggest that distressed family caregivers of lung cancer patients underuse mental health services and that a sizable minority are interested in professional help with psychosocial and practical needs. PMID:22941782

  14. The dynamic financial distress prediction method of EBW-VSTW-SVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jie; Li, Hui; Chang, Pei-Chann; He, Kai-Yu

    2016-07-01

    Financial distress prediction (FDP) takes important role in corporate financial risk management. Most of former researches in this field tried to construct effective static FDP (SFDP) models that are difficult to be embedded into enterprise information systems, because they are based on horizontal data-sets collected outside the modelling enterprise by defining the financial distress as the absolute conditions such as bankruptcy or insolvency. This paper attempts to propose an approach for dynamic evaluation and prediction of financial distress based on the entropy-based weighting (EBW), the support vector machine (SVM) and an enterprise's vertical sliding time window (VSTW). The dynamic FDP (DFDP) method is named EBW-VSTW-SVM, which keeps updating the FDP model dynamically with time goes on and only needs the historic financial data of the modelling enterprise itself and thus is easier to be embedded into enterprise information systems. The DFDP method of EBW-VSTW-SVM consists of four steps, namely evaluation of vertical relative financial distress (VRFD) based on EBW, construction of training data-set for DFDP modelling according to VSTW, training of DFDP model based on SVM and DFDP for the future time point. We carry out case studies for two listed pharmaceutical companies and experimental analysis for some other companies to simulate the sliding of enterprise vertical time window. The results indicated that the proposed approach was feasible and efficient to help managers improve corporate financial management.

  15. Exploring Sources of Emotional Distress among People Living with Scleroderma: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Gumuchian, Stephanie T.; Peláez, Sandra; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Carrier, Marie-Eve; Jewett, Lisa R.; El-Baalbaki, Ghassan; Fortune, Catherine; Hudson, Marie; Impens, Ann; Körner, Annett; Persmann, Jennifer; Kwakkenbos, Linda; Bartlett, Susan J.; Thombs, Brett D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Systemic sclerosis, or scleroderma, is a chronic and rare connective tissue disease with negative physical and psychological implications. Sources of emotional distress and the impact they have on the lives of people with scleroderma are not well understood. Objectives To gain an in-depth understanding of the emotional experiences and sources of emotional distress for women and men living with scleroderma through focus group discussions. Methods Three semi-structured focus group discussions were conducted (two in English, one in French) with a total of 22 people with scleroderma recruited through the Scleroderma Society of Ontario in Hamilton, Ontario and a scleroderma clinic in Montreal, Canada. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and then coded for emerging themes using thematic inductive analysis. Results Core themes representing sources of emotional distress were identified, including: (a) facing a new reality; (b) the daily struggle of living with scleroderma; (c) handling work, employment and general financial burden; (d) changing family roles; (e) social interactions; and (f) navigating the health care system. Collectively, these themes refer to the stressful journey of living with scleroderma including the obstacles faced and the emotional experiences beginning prior to receiving a diagnosis and continuing throughout the participants’ lives. Conclusion Scleroderma was portrayed as being an unpredictable and overwhelming disease, resulting in many individuals experiencing multiple sources of emotional distress. Interventions and supportive resources need to be developed to help individuals with scleroderma and people close to them manage and cope with the emotional aspects of the disease. PMID:27008209

  16. Neglect and perceived stigmatization impact psychological distress of orphans in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Hermenau, Katharin; Eggert, Ina; Landolt, Markus A.; Hecker, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Background Research has shown that orphans in sub-Saharan Africa are at increased risk for mental health problems. Exposure to maltreatment and HIV/AIDS-related stigmatization are related to orphans’ psychological distress. Yet, researchers stress the need for more research in low-income countries to identify which factors of being an orphan may lead to psychological distress. Objectives The present study aims to systematically investigate orphans’ experiences of maltreatment and stigmatization to identify factors that relate to their psychological distress. Methods In total, 89 Tanzanian children who had lost at least one parent were compared to 89 matched non-orphans (mean age: 11 years; 51% boys). We measured exposure to maltreatment and perceived stigmatization as an orphan. Mental health was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Children's Depression Inventory, the UCLA PTSD Index for Children, and the Reactive–Proactive Questionnaire. Results Orphans reported significantly more experiences of neglect, but not of abuse. A group comparison revealed more depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and aggressive behavior among orphans. Neglect, abuse, and stigmatization correlated with orphans’ internalizing and externalizing problems, yet only neglect and stigmatization were related to orphans’ depression severity. Perceived stigmatization moderated the relationship between neglect and depression. Conclusions Our findings suggest that orphans in Tanzania are at increased risk of experiencing neglect. Maltreatment and perceived stigmatization may play a role in orphans’ psychological distress. Culturally appropriate and evidence-based interventions may help to prevent maltreatment and stigmatization of orphans. PMID:26589257

  17. The Association of Metacognitive Beliefs With Emotional Distress After Diagnosis of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Emotional distress after a diagnosis of cancer is normal and, for most people, will diminish over time. However, a significant minority of patients with cancer experience persistent or recurrent symptoms of emotional distress for which they need help. A model developed in mental health, the self-regulatory executive function model (S-REF), specifies that maladaptive metacognitive beliefs and processes, including persistent worry, are key to understanding why such emotional problems persist. This cross-sectional study explored, for the first, time whether metacognitive beliefs were associated with emotional distress in a cancer population, and whether this relationship was mediated by worry, as predicted by the S-REF model. Method: Two hundred twenty-nine participants within 3 months of diagnosis of, and before treatment for, primary breast or prostate cancer completed self-report questionnaires measuring anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, metacognitive beliefs, worry, and illness perceptions. Results: Regression analysis showed that metacognitive beliefs were associated with symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD, and explained additional variance in these outcomes after controlling for age, gender, and illness perceptions. Structural equation modeling was consistent with cross-sectional hypotheses derived from the theory that metacognitive beliefs cause and maintain distress both directly and indirectly by driving worry. Conclusions: The findings provide promising first evidence that the S-REF model may be usefully applied in cancer. Further study is required to establish the predictive and clinical utility of these findings. PMID:25133826

  18. Examining behavioural coping strategies as mediators between work-family conflict and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Aazami, Sanaz; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Akmal, Syaqirah

    2015-01-01

    We examined the mediating role of behavioral coping strategies in the association between work-family conflict and psychological distress. In particular, we examined the two directions of work-family conflict, namely, work interference into family and family interference into work. Furthermore, two coping styles in this study were adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 Malaysian working women using self-reported data. The results of mediational analysis in the present study showed that adaptive coping strategy does not significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. However, maladaptive coping strategies significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. These results show that adaptive coping strategies, which aimed to improve the stressful situation, are not effective in managing stressor such as work-family conflict. We found that experiencing interrole conflict steers employees toward frequent use of maladaptive coping strategies which in turn lead to psychological distress. Interventions targeted at improvement of coping skills which are according to individual's needs and expectation may help working women to balance work and family demands. The important issue is to keep in mind that effective coping strategies are to control the situations not to eliminate work-family conflict.

  19. Miliary tuberculosis and adult respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Piqueras, A R; Marruecos, L; Artigas, A; Rodriguez, C

    1987-01-01

    Although, miliary tuberculosis is an unusual cause of severe acute respiratory failure, we describe nine patients with miliary tuberculosis who developed adult respiratory distress syndrome. This complication occurred in seven patients despite treatment with antituberculous drugs. In two patients who developed the syndrome, miliary tuberculosis was diagnosed only at postmortem. The presence of pulmonary hypertension in all cases and disseminated intravascular coagulation in seven cases suggests a possible pathophysiologic relationship with severe pulmonary vascular damage. The high mortality rate (88.8%) was associated with nonpulmonary organ system failure. Miliary tuberculosis should be considered in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome of unknown etiology, and simple diagnostic procedures such as sputum, bronchial brushing, and gastric examination should be followed by invasive diagnostic procedures to confirm this etiology. Since untreated miliary tuberculosis is usually fatal, early recognition of this disease is of great importance, and specific therapy may play a lifesaving role.

  20. Psychological distress of marital and cohabitation breakups.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Lara Patrício; Aassve, Arnstein

    2013-11-01

    Using data from a large survey, the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS), this paper explores the extent to which marital and cohabiting unions differ with respect to the short-term effects of union dissolution on mental health. We compare married individuals who divorced or separated with cohabitors whose first union ended and test the hypothesis that married individuals experience larger negative effects. Results show that initial differences are not statistically significant once the presence of children is controlled for, suggesting that the presence of children is a particularly significant source of increased psychological distress in union dissolutions. However, parenthood does not explain serious psychological distress, which appears to be associated with enduring traits (the personality trait neuroticism).

  1. Predicting pavement distress in oil field areas

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.M.; Scullion, T.; Stampley, B.E.

    1983-05-01

    A study on oil field traffic characteristics was performed and a procedure was developed for assessing current and future effects of oil field truck traffic on surface-treated (stage construction type) pavements. A computer program calculates several types of pavement distress and serviceability parameters to evaluate pavement performance under various axle load repetitions. Stepwise regression analysis of 132 surface-treated pavement sections led to the development of individual distress equations for rutting, raveling, flushing, alligator cracking, patching, longitudinal and transverse cracking, and failures (potholes). The versatility of the program provides a means of anticipating early pavement failures due to increased axle load repetitions. The program also provides the basic framework for computing the effects of other ''special-use'' truck traffic demands.

  2. Predicting pavement distress in oil field areas

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.M.; Scullion, T.; Stampley, B.E.

    1984-05-01

    A study on oil field traffic characteristics was performed and a procedure was developed for assessing current and future effects of oil field truck traffic on surface-treated (stage construction type) pavements. A computer program calculates several types of pavement distress and serviceability parameters to evaluate pavement performance under various axle load repetitions. Stepwise regression analysis of 132 surface-treated pavement sections led to the development of individual distress equations for rutting, raveling, flushing, alligator cracking, patching, longitudinal and transverse cracking, and failures (potholes). The versatility of the program provides a means of anticipating early pavement failures due to increased axle load repetitions. The program also provides the basic framework for computing the effects of other ''special-use'' truck traffic demands.

  3. Psychological Distress in Twins with Urological Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Lisa Johnson; Noonan, Carolyn; Ahumada, Sandra; Rodríguez, María Ángeles Bullones; Buchwald, Dedra; Afari, Niloofar

    2010-01-01

    Objective Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) is a chronic pain condition with unclear underlying etiology. Our objectives were to determine if psychological distress was higher in twins with urological symptoms commonly found in IC/PBS than twins without, and if so, did familial influences contribute to this association. Method Data from 1,165 female twins in a community-based sample were used. Urological symptoms, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and perceived stress were assessed with standardized questionnaires. Generalized estimating equation regression models were used to examine the relationship between psychological distress and urological symptoms. Results Compared to unaffected twins, twins with urological symptoms were more likely to report PTSD symptoms (OR = 3.9; CI = 2.6-5.8), depression (OR = 3.1; CI = 2.0-5.0), anxiety (OR = 3.4; CI = 2.3-5.2), and perceived stress (OR = 3.2; CI = 2.1-4.9). After adjusting for familial influences, the within-pair effects remained significant for PTSD symptoms (OR = 2.2; CI = 1.2-3.8) and perceived stress (OR = 2.2; CI = 1.2-3.8). Conclusion Familial influences partially explained the relationship between indicators of psychological distress and urological symptoms. Future research should examine shared environmental and genetic mechanisms that may further explain this relationship and improve diagnosis and treatment of this unexplained clinical condition. PMID:20430229

  4. Emotional distress in junior house officers.

    PubMed Central

    Firth-Cozens, J

    1987-01-01

    In a study of 170 junior house officers who were followed up from their fourth year in medical school mean levels of stress were higher than in other reported occupational groups, and the estimated prevalence of emotional disturbance was 50%, with 28% of the subjects showing evidence of depression. Nearly a fifth of the subjects reported occasional or frequent bouts of heavy drinking, a quarter took drugs for physical illness, and a few took drugs for recreation. Those who were emotionally distressed at the initial study and the follow up were more empathetic and more self critical than those who had low levels of stress on both occasions. Overwork was the most stressful aspect of their jobs, though the number of hours worked was not related to stress levels, unlike diet and sleep. The more stressed they were the more unfavourably they viewed aspects of their jobs. The incidence of distress is unacceptably high in junior house officers, and both they and the hospitals need to deal with the causes of the distress. PMID:3117213

  5. Helping Children Understand Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakariya, Sally Banks

    1978-01-01

    The program described uses simulation activities; exposure to aids and appliances; guest speakers; books, movies, slides, and videotapes; and class discussion to help elementary students understand disabilities. (IRT)

  6. Severity of psychological distress among adults with and without disabilities.

    PubMed

    Okoro, Catherine A; Dhingra, Satvinder S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine psychological distress and its individual symptoms between adults with and without disabilities, and among adults with disabilities, to examine whether an association exists between severity of distress and health-related factors. Cross-sectional data from the 2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used for this study. Severity of psychological distress was assessed using the Kessler 6 scale of nonspecific psychological distress. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate predicted marginals and prevalence ratios. Nine percent of adults had mild to moderate psychological distress and 3.9% had serious psychological distress. The adjusted mean Kessler 6 total scores and individual item scores were higher for adults with disabilities, as was the average number of days that a mental health condition interfered with activities in the past 30 days. Among adults with disabilities, mild to moderate and serious psychological distress were particularly high among those who were unemployed or unable to work. Those who had either mild to moderate or serious psychological distress were significantly more likely than those with no psychological distress to be physically inactive, to smoke, and to report fair or poor health, life dissatisfaction, and inadequate social support. A dose-response relationship exists between categorical severity of psychological distress and examined health-related factors. These findings may inform the design of targeted public health strategies that aim to eliminate health disparities between people with and without disabilities.

  7. Moral distress and burnout in internal medicine residents

    PubMed Central

    Sajjadi, Sharareh; Norena, Monica; Wong, Hubert; Dodek, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background Residents frequently encounter situations in their workplace that may induce moral distress or burnout. The objective of this study was to measure overall and rotation-specific moral distress and burnout in medical residents, and the relationship between demographics and moral distress and burnout. Methods The revised Moral Distress Scale and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (Human Service version) were administered to Internal Medicine residents in the 2013–2014 academic year at the University of British Columbia. Results Of the 88 residents, 45 completed the surveys. Participants (mean age 30+/−3; 46% male) reported a median moral distress score (interquartile range) of 77 (50–96). Twenty-six percent of residents had considered quitting because of moral distress, 21% had a high level of burnout, and only 5% had a low level of burnout. Moral distress scores were highest during Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and Clinical Teaching Unit (CTU) rotations, and lowest during elective rotations (p<0.0001). Women reported higher emotional exhaustion. Moral distress was associated with depersonalization (p=0.01), and both moral distress and burnout were associated with intention to leave the job. Conclusion Internal Medicine residents report moral distress that is greatest during ICU and CTU rotations, and is associated with burnout and intention to leave the job. PMID:28344714

  8. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    MedlinePlus

    ... los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Help! It's Hair Loss! KidsHealth > For Kids > Help! It's Hair Loss! Print A A A What's in ... part above the skin, is dead. (That's why it doesn't hurt to get a haircut!) This ...

  9. Helping Our Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polk, Sophie

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Ikaiyurluki Mikelnguut (Helping Our Children) project in the Yukon Kuskokwim Delta of Alaska where trained natural helpers are helping Yup'ik Eskimo villagers to cope with crisis situations--notably teenage suicide and drug and alcohol abuse. (Author/BB)

  10. Handi Helps, 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handi Helps, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The eight issues of Handi Helps presented in this document focus on specific issues of concern to the disabled, parents, and those working with the disabled. The two-page handi help fact sheets focus on the following topics: child abuse, leukemia, arthritis, Tourette Syndrome, hemophilia, the puppet program "Meet the New Kids on the…

  11. Helping America's Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Laura

    2005-01-01

    As First Lady of the United States, Laura Bush is leading the Helping America's Youth initiative of the federal government. She articulates the goal of enlisting public and volunteer resources to foster healthy growth by early intervention and mentoring of youngsters at risk. Helping America's Youth will benefit children and teenagers by…

  12. Handi Helps, 1985

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handi Helps, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The six issues of Handi Helps presented here focus on specific issues of concern to the disabled, parents, and those working with the disabled. The two-page handi help fact sheets focus on the following topics: child sexual abuse prevention, asthma, scoliosis, the role of the occupational therapist, kidnapping, and muscular dystrophy. Each handi…

  13. Helping Friends and Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... chapter Join our online community Helping Friends and Family Part of living well with Alzheimer’s is adjusting to your “new normal” and helping family and friends do the same. Knowing what to ...

  14. Impact of imagery rehearsal treatment on distressing dreams, psychological distress, and sleep parameters in nightmare patients.

    PubMed

    Germain, Anne; Nielsen, Tore

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the impact of imagery rehearsal treatment (IRT) on nightmare frequency, psychological distress, and sleep quality using polysomnography (PSG). 12 chronic nightmare patients completed prospective dream logs, measures of psychological distress, and underwent PSG prior to and 8.5 weeks following a single IRT session. Post-treatment, significant reductions were observed in retrospective nightmare frequency (d = 1.06, p = .007), prospective bad dream frequency (d = 0.53, p = .03), and anxiety scores (d = 1.01, p = .004). Minimal sleep alterations were found post-IRT, and varied as a function of nightmare etiology. The results independently replicate the efficacy of IRT for alleviating disturbing dreams and psychological distress. Sleep improvement may occur later in the recovery process.

  15. Supporting staff to care for people with dementia who experience distress reactions.

    PubMed

    Elliot, Victoria; Williams, Angelena; Meyer, Julienne

    2014-08-01

    This article outlines the development of distress reaction training in a large care home charity, provided by directly employed My Home Life Admiral nurses, who are mental health nurses specialising in dementia. Reference is made to the limitations of a person-centred approach to care, and the importance of relationship-centred care, which underpins the My Home Life social movement for quality improvement in care homes. The authors argue that relationship-centred care is a more helpful approach to improve the lived experience and wellbeing of residents, relatives and staff. Potentially, it might also help to address high staff turnover in the care home sector.

  16. Anxiety, depression and distress among irritable bowel syndrome and their subtypes: An epidemiological population based study

    PubMed Central

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Bidaki, Ehsan Zare; Hasanzadeh-Keshteli, Ammar; Daghaghzade, Hamed; Afshar, Hamid; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Background: Psychiatric disorders are common in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We conducted this study to investigate the relationship of IBS and their subtypes with some of psychological factors. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed among 4763 staff of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2011. Modified ROME III questionnaire and Talley Bowel Disease Questionnaire were used to evaluate IBS symptoms. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and 12-item General Health Questionnaire were utilized to assess anxiety, depression and psychological distress. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association of psychological states and IBS in the total subject and both genders. Results: About, 4763 participants with mean age 36/58 ± 8/09 were included the 2106 males and 2657 females. Three thousand and seven hundred and seventy-six (81.2%) and 2650 (57.2%) participants were married and graduated respectively. Subtype analysis of IBS and its relationship with anxiety, depression and distress comparing the two genders can be observed that: IBS and clinically-significant IBS have higher anxiety, depression symptoms, and distress than the subject without IBS (P < 0.001). Women with IBS, have higher scores than men (P < 0.001). Compared to other subtypes, mixed IBS subtype has a higher anxiety, depression, and distress score. Conclusion: A high prevalence of anxiety, depression symptoms and distress in our subjects emphasize the importance of the psychological evaluation of the patients with IBS, in order to better management of the patients and may also help to reduce the burden of health care costs. PMID:28028523

  17. Early Childhood Adversity and Its Associations with Anxiety, Depression, and Distress in Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Daniel C; Andreotti, Charissa; Harris, Kirk; Mandeli, John; Tiersten, Amy; Holland, Jimmie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Certain vulnerability factors have been found to place patients at risk for depression and anxiety, especially within the context of medical illness. Early childhood adversity (ECA) primes adults to become more vulnerable to depression by enhancing their reactivity to stress; this relationship is not adequately described in patients with breast cancer. Methods Breast cancer patients (Stage 0-IV) were assessed for ECA (i.e., the Risky Families Questionnaire [RFQ]-subscales include Abuse/Neglect/Chaotic Home Environment), distress (i.e., Distress Thermometer and Problem List [DT&PL]), anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety [HADS-A]), depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression [HADS-D]), meeting standardized cut-off thresholds for distress (DT&PL ≥4 or ≥7)/anxiety (HADS-A ≥8)/depression (HADS-D ≥8), and demographic factors. Results One hundred twenty-five participants completed the study (78% response rate). ECA was associated with depression (p<.001), anxiety (p=.001), and distress (p=.006) and with meeting cut-off threshold criteria for distress (p=.024), anxiety (p=.048), and depression (p=.001). On Multivariate analysis, only depression (p=.04) and emotional issues (i.e, component of DT&PL)(p=.001) were associated with ECA. Neglect, but not Abuse and Chaotic Home Environment, was associated with depression (β=.442, p<.001), anxiety (β=.342, p=.002), and self-identified problems with family (β−.288, p=.022), emotion (β=.345, p=.004), and physical issues (β=.408, p<.001). Conclusion ECA and neglect are associated with multiple psychological symptoms but most specifically depression in the setting of breast cancer. ECA contributes to psychological burden as a vulnerability factor. ECA may help to explain individual patient trajectories and influence the provision of patient centered care for psychological symptoms in patients with breast cancer. PMID:26876888

  18. A demedicalized view of maternal distress: conceptualization and instrument development.

    PubMed

    Arditti, Joyce A; Grzywacz, Jospeh G; Gallimore, Sara Wang

    2013-11-01

    The goal of this article was to describe instrument development of a demedicalized, multidomain view of maternal distress, with psychological, relational, and situational manifestations. We developed a pilot instrument derived from our previous grounded theory conceptualization of maternal distress and administered it to a purposive sample of 100 low-income single mothers. Analyses testing the relationship between maternal distress and depressive symptoms, guilt, child rearing stress, and community needs variables suggested that the maternal distress inventory had convergent, discriminant, and concurrent validity. Not only was maternal distress distinct from depressive symptomology and generalized child rearing stress, it appeared to be more meaningfully associated with "real world" outcomes of interest to psychological service providers than purely psychological measures of the distress.

  19. Understanding Associations among Family Support, Friend Support, and Psychological Distress

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Briana N.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Charles, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    Emotional support from family and friends is associated with lower psychological distress. This study examined whether genetic and environmental influences explain associations among family support, friend support, and psychological distress. Data were drawn from the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study and included 947 pairs of MZ, same-sex DZ, and opposite-sex DZ twins. Results showed that a genetic factor explains the relationship between friend support and psychological distress, independent of family support. Alternatively, a nonshared environmental factor accounts for an association among family support, friend support, and psychological distress. Thus, heritable factors shape a distinct relationship between friend support and psychological distress, but unique experiences contribute to a link among family support, friend support, and psychological distress. PMID:26009699

  20. Factors associated with financial distress of nonprofit hospitals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Financial distress can have a detrimental influence on the performance of hospitals. Hospital management needs to monitor potential financial distress effectively and know how it will respond depending on the severity of the circumstances. This study examined the multiple factors that may explain the financial distress of nonprofit hospitals during 1998 to 2001 and discussed their importance. To obtain more robust results, financial distress was assessed in 2 ways: first, financial strength index was used to incorporate 4 financial dimensions including profitability, liquidity, leverage, and physical facilities; second, cash flow (CF) was used to address the issues of accrual-based accounting in hospitals. This study finds that decrease in occupancy rate and increase in Medicaid payer mix, health maintenance organization penetration, market competition, physician supply, and percentage of the elderly are associated with increased likelihood of financial distress of urban hospitals. Increases in both Medicare and Medicaid payer mix, however, are related to higher likelihood of financial distress of rural hospitals.

  1. Racial/ethnic Differences in Associations between Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status, Distress and Smoking among U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; Liu, HuiGuo; Johnson, Renee M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There are strong associations between neighborhood disadvantage and increased tobacco use. Theories suggest neighborhood disadvantage may increase smoking by increasing distress. By extension, neighborhood affluence may reduce smoking by increasing positive affect. We examined whether relationships between neighborhood socioeconomic status and daily smoking operated through distress and positive affect. Methods Simultaneous multivariate path models used pooled cross-sectional data from the 2000 and 2005 National Alcohol Surveys (15,963 respondents; weighted N=10,753) and the 2000 Decennial Census. Multiple groups analysis assessed differences by gender and race/ethnicity. Covariates included neighborhood immigrant concentration and individual-level demographics. Results In the full sample, neighborhood disadvantage had a significant direct path that increased smoking and neighborhood affluence had a significant direct path that decreased smoking. There were no indirect paths to smoking through either distress or positive affect, but distress was significantly associated with increased smoking. Positive affect was not associated with smoking. Sub-group analyses revealed a protective effect of neighborhood affluence unique to Hispanics: Affluence resulted in decreased smoking indirectly through reduced distress. Relationships between affect and smoking also varied by race/ethnicity, with distress being positively associated with smoking for all groups but Whites, and positive affect being negatively associated with smoking for Whites only. There were no significant differences by gender. Conclusions Existing theories of neighborhood effects appear insufficient to explain geographic variation in smoking. Further research to develop and test new models in diverse groups is needed. Interventions targeting neighborhood socioeconomic status and distress may help reduce smoking, particularly for racial/ethnic minorities. PMID:26115317

  2. Help! Where to Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneer, Marian E.

    1984-01-01

    Developing and maintaining effective physical education programs requires that teachers continually update their knowledge and skills. Books and journals, conferences, professional organizations, and consultants provide information to help teachers develop effective programs. (DF)

  3. Hooked on Helping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longhurst, James; McCord, Joan

    2014-01-01

    In this article, teens presenting at a symposium on peer-helping programs describe how caring for others fosters personal growth and builds positive group cultures. Their individual thoughts and opinions are expressed.

  4. Helping Parents Say No.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duel, Debra K.

    1988-01-01

    Provides some activities that are designed to help students understand some of the reasons why parents sometimes refuse to let their children have pets. Includes mathematics and writing lessons, a student checklist, and a set of tips for parents. (TW)

  5. Helping Teens Cope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jami I.

    2003-01-01

    Considers the role of school library media specialists in helping teens cope with developmental and emotional challenges. Discusses resiliency research, and opportunities to develop programs and services especially for middle school and high school at-risk teens. (LRW)

  6. Help with Hearing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Foundation has shared over 7,000 Gund Teddy Bears with repaired cleft lips with children and families ... call the Cleftline for more information about our bears. If you are interested in helping us continue ...

  7. Can Reading Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Ponders the effect of September 11th on teenagers. Proposes that reading books can help teenagers sort out complicated issues. Recommends young adult novels that offer hope for overcoming tragedy. Lists 50 short story collections worth reading. (PM)

  8. Grandparents Can Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieper, Elizabeth

    1976-01-01

    Although grandparents may have difficulty in accepting their handicapped grandchild due to such factors as the notion of "bad blood," they can be helpful to parents by drawing from their experience to give new perspectives to complex problems. (SB)

  9. The Lung Surfactant System in Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERo THE LUNG SURFACTANT SYSTEM IN ADULT RESPIRATORY Annual DISTRESS SYNDROME 6. PERFORMING ORO. REPORT...SURFACTANT SYSTEM IN ADULT RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME - Annual Progress Report John U. Balis December 1979 Sponsored by: US ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH AND...112-116, 1979. 6. Hallman, M., Feldman, B.H., Kirkpatrick, E. and Gluck, L.: Absence of phosphatidylglycerol (PG) in respiratory distress syndrome in

  10. Muted neural response to distress among securely attached people.

    PubMed

    Nash, Kyle; Prentice, Mike; Hirsh, Jacob; McGregor, Ian; Inzlicht, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Neural processes that support individual differences in attachment security and affect regulation are currently unclear. Using electroencephalography, we examined whether securely attached individuals, compared with insecure individuals, would show a muted neural response to experimentally manipulated distress. Participants completed a reaction time task that elicits error commission and the error-related negativity (ERN)-a neural signal sensitive to error-related distress-both before and after a distressing insecurity threat. Despite similar pre-threat levels, secure participants showed a stable ERN, whereas insecure participants showed a post-threat increase in ERN amplitude. These results suggest a neural mechanism that allows securely attached people to regulate distress.

  11. Moral distress experienced by nurses: a quantitative literature review.

    PubMed

    Oh, Younjae; Gastmans, Chris

    2015-02-01

    Nurses are frequently confronted with ethical dilemmas in their nursing practice. As a consequence, nurses report experiencing moral distress. The aim of this review was to synthesize the available quantitative evidence in the literature on moral distress experienced by nurses. We appraised 19 articles published between January 1984 and December 2011. This review revealed that many nurses experience moral distress associated with difficult care situations and feel burnout, which can have an impact on their professional position. Further research is required to examine worksite strategies to support nurses in these situations and to develop coping strategies for dealing with moral distress.

  12. CE: Moral Distress: A Catalyst in Building Moral Resilience.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Cynda Hylton; Caldwell, Meredith; Kurtz, Melissa

    2016-07-01

    : Moral distress is a pervasive problem in the nursing profession. An inability to act in alignment with one's moral values is detrimental not only to the nurse's well-being but also to patient care and clinical practice as a whole. Moral distress has typically been seen as characterized by powerlessness and victimization; we offer an alternate view. Ethically complex situations and experiences of moral distress can become opportunities for growth, empowerment, and increased moral resilience. This article outlines the concept and prevalence of moral distress, describes its impact and precipitating factors, and discusses promising practices and interventions.

  13. The Mediating Role of Resilience on Quality of Life and Cancer Symptom Distress in Adolescent Patients With Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei-Wen; Tsai, Shao-Yu; Liang, Shu-Yuan; Liu, Chieh-Yu; Jou, Shiann-Tarng; Berry, Donna L

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how cancer symptom distress and resilience contribute to quality of life (QoL) in adolescent cancer and may potentially help these patients achieve better health-related outcomes. The objective of this study was to describe cancer symptom distress, QoL, and resilience in adolescents with cancer and to determine whether resilience is a mediating variable. Forty adolescent cancer patients were recruited, and data were collected via a demographic questionnaire, the Cancer Symptom Distress Scale, the Resilience Scale, and the Minneapolis-Manchester Quality of Life Scale. Pearson's correlation, multiple regressions, and the Sobel test were conducted. Both resilience and cancer symptom distress were regressed against QoL, accounting for 62.1% of observed variation in QoL scores. The bootstrap result estimated the true indirect effect between -.0189 and -.0024, with a 95% confidence interval. Resilience mediates the relationship between cancer symptom distress and QoL. Clinical use of a resilience measure, for example to use in developing and evaluating interventions focused on enhancing resilience, may be practical for nurses.

  14. 47 CFR 80.335 - Procedures for canceling false distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the distress alert orally over the telephony distress traffic channel associated with each DSC channel... DSC channel on which the distress alert was transmitted; and (3) Tune for radiotelephony transmission... telephony distress traffic channel associated with each DSC channel on which the distress alert...

  15. 47 CFR 80.320 - Radiotelephone distress call and message transmission procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radiotelephone distress call and message... Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.320 Radiotelephone distress call and message... signal (whenever possible); (2) The distress call; (3) The distress message. (b) The DSC...

  16. Solzhenitsyn's Second Exile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericson, Edward E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    When Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn entered the world stage in the 1960s, the West interpreted him without preconceptions. Then the West turned against him with a vengeance. The great exception to this turn was France--"France!"--where virtually all of his writings appeared in translation and where intellectuals took instruction from him on the…

  17. Using bibliotherapy to assist people to recover from depression in Thailand: Relationship between resilience, depression and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Songprakun, Wallapa; McCann, Terence V

    2015-12-01

    Thailand is experiencing a marked increase in the prevalence of depression. Self-help has an important role in helping people with depression. The aim of this study was to assess if a favourable relationship existed between resilience, depression and psychological distress in participants with depression who receive bibliotherapy in comparison with a control group. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 56 participants with moderate depression. The intervention group received the self-help manual, whereas the control group received standard care. The findings showed a positive relationship between higher levels of resilience and lower levels of depression and psychological distress in the intervention group only, between baseline and posttest. The findings provide preliminary evidence supporting the use of bibliotherapy for individuals with depression in Thailand. Bibliotherapy can be incorporated easily into mental health nurses and other clinicians' work in promoting recovery in people with depression in the community.

  18. THE IMPACT OF THE TRUTH AND RECONCILIATION COMMISSION ON PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS AND FORGIVENESS IN SOUTH AFRICA

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Dan J.; Seedat, Soraya; Kaminer, Debra; Moomal, Hashim; Herman, Allen; Sonnega, John; Williams, David R.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Legislation to establish a Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was passed soon after election of South Africa’s first democratic government. Discourse around the TRC focused on the importance of bearing witness to the past, and on the healing powers of forgiveness. However, there was also a concern that individuals with TRC relevant experience would simply be re-traumatized by participation in the process. To date, there has been little empirical data for either hypothesis. METHODS A nationally representative survey of the South African population (n=4351) was undertaken 6 to 8 years after the TRC process began. Information about subjects’ exposure to and participation in the TRC was collected, and views about the testimony of survivors and perpetrators were assessed. To determine the predictors of distress, anger, and forgiveness, linear regressions were undertaken with inclusion of demographic variables, exposure to TRC variables, and attitudes to the TRC. RESULTS Distress was significantly associated with specific demographic factors (female gender, less education), with having a TRC related experience to share, and with negative perceptions of the TRC (a negative view of survivors’ testimony). Anger had similar associations but was also predicted by lower age. Forgiveness was associated with age and education, with being Coloured, and with having a positive view of perpetrator’s testimony, while it was inversely associated with having a TRC experience to share. Distress and anger correlated inversely with forgiveness. Perceptions of the TRC were moderately positive irrespective of many demographic variables (race, education, age). CONCLUSION In this cross-sectional study, causal relationships are difficult to ascertain. Nevertheless, relationships between increased distress/anger, having a TRC relevant experience to share, and negative perceptions of the TRC, support a view that bearing testimony is not necessarily helpful to survivors

  19. Assessment of work intensification by managers and psychological distressed and non-distressed employees: a multilevel comparison.

    PubMed

    Bamberger, Simon Grandjean; Larsen, Anelia; Vinding, Anker Lund; Nielsen, Peter; Fonager, Kirsten; Nielsen, René Nesgaard; Ryom, Pia; Omland, Øyvind

    2015-01-01

    Work intensification is a popular management strategy to increase productivity, but at the possible expense of employee mental stress. This study examines associations between ratings of work intensification and psychological distress, and the level of agreement between compared employee-rated and manager-rated work intensification. Multi-source survey data were collected from 3,064 employees and 573 company managers from the private sector in 2010. Multilevel regression models were used to compare different work intensification ratings across psychological distress strata. Distressed employees rated higher degree of total work intensification compared to non-distressed employees, and on three out of five sub ratings there were an increased prevalence of work intensification in the case group. In general, there was poor agreement between employee and company work intensification rating. Neither manager-rated work intensification nor employee/manager discrepancy in work intensification ratings was associated with psychological distress. Distressed employees had a higher total score of employee/manager agreed work intensification, and a higher prevalence of increased demands of labour productivity. This study demonstrates higher ratings of employee/manager agreed work intensification in distressed employees compared to non-distressed employees, challenging previous findings of reporting bias in distressed employees' assessment of work environment.

  20. Assessment of work intensification by managers and psychological distressed and non-distressed employees: a multilevel comparison

    PubMed Central

    BAMBERGER, Simon Grandjean; LARSEN, Anelia; VINDING, Anker Lund; NIELSEN, Peter; FONAGER, Kirsten; NIELSEN, René Nesgaard; RYOM, Pia; OMLAND, Øyvind

    2015-01-01

    Work intensification is a popular management strategy to increase productivity, but at the possible expense of employee mental stress. This study examines associations between ratings of work intensification and psychological distress, and the level of agreement between compared employee-rated and manager-rated work intensification. Multi-source survey data were collected from 3,064 employees and 573 company managers from the private sector in 2010. Multilevel regression models were used to compare different work intensification ratings across psychological distress strata. Distressed employees rated higher degree of total work intensification compared to non-distressed employees, and on three out of five sub ratings there were an increased prevalence of work intensification in the case group. In general, there was poor agreement between employee and company work intensification rating. Neither manager-rated work intensification nor employee/manager discrepancy in work intensification ratings was associated with psychological distress. Distressed employees had a higher total score of employee/manager agreed work intensification, and a higher prevalence of increased demands of labour productivity. This study demonstrates higher ratings of employee/manager agreed work intensification in distressed employees compared to non-distressed employees, challenging previous findings of reporting bias in distressed employees’ assessment of work environment. PMID:25752252

  1. Pharmacotherapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shafeeq, Hira; Lat, Ishaq

    2012-10-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) represent a continuum of a clinical syndrome of respiratory failure due to refractory hypoxia. Acute respiratory distress syndrome is differentiated from ALI by a greater degree of hypoxemia and is associated with higher morbidity and mortality. The mortality for ARDS ranges from 22-41%, with survivors usually requiring long-term rehabilitation to regain normal physiologic function. Numerous pharmacologic therapies have been studied for prevention and treatment of ARDS; however, studies demonstrating clear clinical benefit for ARDS-related mortality and morbidity are limited. In this focused review, controversial pharmacologic therapies that have demonstrated, at minimum, a modest clinical benefit are discussed. Three pharmacologic treatment strategies are reviewed in detail: corticosteroids, fluid management, and neuromuscular blocking agents. Use of corticosteroids to attenuate inflammation remains controversial. Available evidence does not support early administration of corticosteroids. Additionally, administration after 14 days of disease onset is strongly discouraged. A liberal fluid strategy during the early phase of comorbid septic shock, balanced with a conservative fluid strategy in patients with ALI or ARDS during the postresuscitation phase, is the optimum approach for fluid management. Available evidence supports an early, short course of continuous-infusion cisatracurium in patients presenting with severe ARDS. Evidence of safe and effective pharmacologic therapies for ARDS is limited, and clinicians must be knowledgeable about the areas of controversies to determine application to patient care.

  2. Avian maternal response to chick distress

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, J. L.; Lowe, J. C.; Paul, E. S.; Nicol, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which an animal is affected by the pain or distress of a conspecific will depend on its capacity for empathy. Empathy most probably evolved to facilitate parental care, so the current study assessed whether birds responded to an aversive stimulus directed at their chicks. Domestic hens were exposed to two replicates of the following conditions in a counterbalanced order: control (C; hen and chicks undisturbed), air puff to chicks (APC; air puff directed at chicks at 30 s intervals), air puff to hen (APH; air puff directed at hen at 30 s intervals) and control with noise (CN; noise of air puff at 30 s intervals). During each test, the hens' behaviour and physiology were measured throughout a 10 min pre-treatment and a 10 min treatment period. Hens responded to APH and APC treatments with increased alertness, decreased preening behaviour and a reduction in eye temperature. No such changes occurred during any control period. Increased heart rate and maternal vocalization occurred exclusively during the APC treatment, even though chicks produced few distress vocalizations. The pronounced and specific reaction observed indicates that adult female birds possess at least one of the essential underpinning attributes of empathy. PMID:21389025

  3. A philosophical taxonomy of ethically significant moral distress.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Tessy A; McCullough, Laurence B

    2015-02-01

    Moral distress is one of the core topics of clinical ethics. Although there is a large and growing empirical literature on the psychological aspects of moral distress, scholars, and empirical investigators of moral distress have recently called for greater conceptual clarity. To meet this recognized need, we provide a philosophical taxonomy of the categories of what we call ethically significant moral distress: the judgment that one is not able, to differing degrees, to act on one's moral knowledge about what one ought to do. We begin by unpacking the philosophical components of Andrew Jameton's original formulation from his landmark 1984 work and identify two key respects in which that formulation remains unclear: the origins of moral knowledge and impediments to acting on that moral knowledge. We then selectively review subsequent literature that shows that there is more than one concept of moral distress and that explores the origin of the values implicated in moral distress and impediments to acting on those values. This review sets the stage for identifying the elements of a philosophical taxonomy of ethically significant moral distress. The taxonomy uses these elements to create six categories of ethically significant moral distress: challenges to, threats to, and violations of professional integrity; and challenges to, threats to, and violations of individual integrity. We close with suggestions about how the proposed philosophical taxonomy of ethically significant moral distress sheds light on the concepts of moral residue and crescendo effect of moral distress and how the proposed taxonomy might usefully guide prevention of and future qualitative and quantitative empirical research on ethically significant moral distress.

  4. Helping Self-Harming Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selekman, Matthew D.

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 14 to 17 percent of adolescents today self-harm, deliberately cutting, burning, or bruising themselves. Most self-harming adolescents use the behavior as a coping strategy to get immediate relief from emotional distress or other stressors in their lives. Stressors include fitting in with peers, activity and homework overload, fears…

  5. Seeking help for psychologic problems. A replication and extension.

    PubMed

    Greenley, J R; Mechanic, D; Cleary, P D

    1987-12-01

    Patterns of seeking help for psychologic problems were investigated using interview and medical record data in a representative community sample and a sample of mental health clinic users from the same eligible population. In multivariate analyses, users of psychiatric services, compared with nonusers, were significantly younger, more likely to be separated or divorced, more psychologically distressed, and physically symptomatic. They were also more likely to use a large multispecialty clinic, compared with satellite clinics, and less likely to have membership in the prepaid medical plan established by the multispecialty clinic. Users had a greater reported propensity to seek help for anxiety and were more likely to know other mental health services users. Confiding social support was not significantly associated with use of mental health services, controlling for psychologic symptoms. Substantial social selection in seeking help was evident at both high and low levels of psychologic distress. Mental health users, compared with nonusers, reported more of most types of symptoms studied, except withdrawal, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and alcohol consumption. Particular social characteristics and symptoms were associated with seeking help in general and other characteristics were more specifically linked to choice of a particular provider.

  6. [Expert reconstruction of the true circumstances of the shooting of the Emperor Nikolai II, members of his family, and those who accompanied them into exile at Ekaterinburg].

    PubMed

    Kovalev, A V; Kolkutin, V V

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the materials of the criminal case, historical, archive, and forensic medical documents permitted for the first time to reconstruct the circumstances of the shooting of Emperor Nikolai II, members of the royal family, and those who chose to accompany them into exile in the house of the engineer N.N. Ipatiev, Ekaterinburg, on the night of 16-17th July (Grigorian calendar) 1918. The results of the study allowed the true picture of the assassination to be reconstructed including the mutual positions of the victims and the executors in the semi-basement room No 2, the total number of participants, the number and direction of shots, the types of the weapons used, and the sequence of actions of each person involved in the event. It was shown, that in the beginning most shots had been fired at the emperor and tsarevich Alexei.

  7. Stretching: Does It Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vardiman, Phillip; Carrand, David; Gallagher, Philip M.

    2010-01-01

    Stretching prior to activity is universally accepted as an important way to improve performance and help prevent injury. Likewise, limited flexibility has been shown to decrease functional ability and predispose a person to injuries. Although this is commonly accepted, appropriate stretching for children and adolescents involved with sports and…

  8. Helping, Manipulation, and Magic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Louise A.; Edinburg, Golda M.

    1978-01-01

    The thesis of this article is that an understanding of the primitive origins of the helping process in myth, magic, and ritual may prevent social workers from engaging in practices that negate their clients' ability to work out their own solutions to problems. (Author)

  9. Helping Perceptually Handicapped Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Helen S.

    1974-01-01

    Five children diagnosed as having a perceptual problem as revealed by the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test received special tutoring to help develop their visual discrimination abilities. The six-week program for teaching the concept of shapes employed kinesthetic, visual, tactile, and verbal processes. (CS)

  10. Helping Families Cope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Carol R.

    The paper presents observations of families having adult members with learning disabilities and describes a residential program to facilitate the transition to independent living of lower functioning learning disabled young adults. The program, called Independence Center, involves placing participants in apartments with roommates and helping them…

  11. Helping Teachers Communicate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kise, Jane; Russell, Beth; Shumate, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Personality type theory describes normal differences in how people are energized, take in information, make decisions, and approach work and life--all key elements in how people teach and learn. Understanding one another's personality type preferences helps teachers share their instructional strategies and classroom information. Type theory…

  12. Ayudele! [Help Him!].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Maria Gutierrez, Comp.; Almance, Sofia, Comp.

    Written in Spanish and English, the booklet briefly discusses what parents can do to help their child learn at school. The booklet briefly notes the importance of getting enough sleep; eating breakfast; praising the child; developing the five senses; visiting the doctor; having a home and garden; talking, listening, and reading to the child;…

  13. What Helps Us Learn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Leadership, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This article presents comments of high school students at the Howard Gardner School in Alexandria, Virginia, who were asked, What should teachers know about students to help them learn? Twelve high school students from the Howard Gardner School in Alexandria, Virginia, describe how their best teachers get to know them and thus were more able to…

  14. A Helping Hand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Jason M.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how designing a hand washing-friendly environment can help to reduce the spread of germs in school restrooms. Use of electronic faucets, surface risk management, traffic flow, and user- friendly hand washing systems that are convenient and maximally hygienic are examined. (GR)

  15. Help With Schizophrenia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disorders Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Postpartum Depression Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) More Patients & Families All Topics Help With Schizophrenia Curated and updated for the community by APA Topic Information Schizophrenia is a chronic brain disorder that affects about one percent of ...

  16. Helping Adults to Spell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorhouse, Catherine

    This book presents a range of strategies for adult literacy tutors and offers a wealth of practical advice on teaching spelling within the context of writing. Chapters 1-3 offer basic information on talking with the student about spelling, finding out how the student spells and helping the student to see himself/herself as a "good" speller, and…

  17. Helping You Age Well

    MedlinePlus

    ... to keep family relationships and friendships over time. Exercise can also help prevent depression or lift your mood. Stay active and involved in life. Talk to your physician if you are feeling depressed. Teeth & ... Lungs: Regular aerobic exercise keeps lung capacity up. Smoking leads to chronic ...

  18. Help Teens Manage Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Grey, dean of the Yale University School of Nursing, developed and tested a program called Coping Skills Training (CST) as a part of routine diabetes ... is to improve diabetic teens' coping and communication skills, healthy ... sugar levels. "Nursing research is about helping people deal with the ...

  19. Self-Help Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Robert H.

    1973-01-01

    The author believes that there is a distinct need for professionals to become competent in providing materials for self-help lay efforts. Colleges and universities must provide for the facilitation of personal growth through self administered procedures by either a clinical approach (in counseling centers) or a didactic one (in classes as, for…

  20. Help for Stressed Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Denise Clarke; Simon, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The authors argue that increased focus and pressure for high academic achievement, particularly among more highly-motivated and successful students, may have serious negative consequences. They present a number of strategies designed to help reduce both causes and consequences associated with academic stress and improve students' mental and…

  1. BABY EMPATHY: INFANT DISTRESS AND PEER PROSOCIAL RESPONSES.

    PubMed

    Liddle, Mitzi-Jane E; Bradley, Ben S; Mcgrath, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is an important competence in our social world, a motivator of prosocial behavior, and thought to develop throughout the second year of life. The current study examined infants' responses to naturalistic peer distress to explore markers of empathy and prosocial behavior in young babies. Seventeen 8-month-old infants participated in a repeated measures design using the "babies-in-groups" paradigm, with maternal presence as the independent variable. Significant differences were found between response types: Gaze was the standard response to infant distress, followed by socially directed behaviors and affect, with self-distress rarely occurring. Maternal presence was not found to impact the nature or frequency of babies' responses to peer distress. During distress episodes, babies looked preferentially at the distressed peer, then other mothers, and least to their own mother. Data revealed that infant responses to peer distress resulted in a successful cessation of that distress episode over one third of the time. Case studies are provided to illustrate the quantitative data. The results provided evidence of empathic concern and prosocial behavior in the first year of life, and provoke a challenge to developmental theories of empathy.

  2. 47 CFR 97.405 - Station in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station in distress. 97.405 Section 97.405 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... prevents the use by an amateur station in distress of any means at its disposal to attract attention,...

  3. 47 CFR 97.405 - Station in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station in distress. 97.405 Section 97.405 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... prevents the use by an amateur station in distress of any means at its disposal to attract attention,...

  4. 47 CFR 97.405 - Station in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station in distress. 97.405 Section 97.405 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... prevents the use by an amateur station in distress of any means at its disposal to attract attention,...

  5. 47 CFR 97.405 - Station in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station in distress. 97.405 Section 97.405 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... prevents the use by an amateur station in distress of any means at its disposal to attract attention,...

  6. 47 CFR 97.405 - Station in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station in distress. 97.405 Section 97.405 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... prevents the use by an amateur station in distress of any means at its disposal to attract attention,...

  7. 29 CFR 4041.41 - Requirements for a distress termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... criteria set forth in paragraph (c) of this section. (b) Effect of failure to satisfy requirements. (1... or failure to act in determining whether the person has satisfied any of those criteria. (f) Requests... provisions of section 4042 of ERISA. (c) Distress criteria. In a distress termination, each...

  8. 29 CFR 4041.41 - Requirements for a distress termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... criteria set forth in paragraph (c) of this section. (b) Effect of failure to satisfy requirements. (1... or failure to act in determining whether the person has satisfied any of those criteria. (f) Requests... provisions of section 4042 of ERISA. (c) Distress criteria. In a distress termination, each...

  9. 7 CFR 762.143 - Servicing distressed accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Servicing distressed accounts. 762.143 Section 762.143 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.143 Servicing distressed accounts. (a) A borrower...

  10. 47 CFR 80.313 - Frequencies for use in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frequencies for use in distress. 80.313 Section 80.313 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress,...

  11. 47 CFR 80.313 - Frequencies for use in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequencies for use in distress. 80.313 Section 80.313 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress,...

  12. 47 CFR 80.313 - Frequencies for use in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frequencies for use in distress. 80.313 Section 80.313 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress,...

  13. 47 CFR 80.313 - Frequencies for use in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequencies for use in distress. 80.313 Section 80.313 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress,...

  14. 47 CFR 80.313 - Frequencies for use in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequencies for use in distress. 80.313 Section 80.313 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress,...

  15. The Role of Emotional Dysregulation in Perfectionism and Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldea, Mirela A.; Rice, Kenneth G.

    2006-01-01

    Data from a sample of university students (N = 349) were used to test a model in which emotional dysregulation (a composite of emotional reactivity and splitting) was expected to account for the effect of perfectionism on general psychological distress. Significant positive effects were observed between maladaptive perfectionism and distress,…

  16. 13 CFR 301.3 - Economic distress levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Development District, which is located in a Region that does not meet the economic distress criteria of...). For EDA to designate a Region as an Economic Development District under part 304 of this chapter, such Region must: (1) Contain at least one (1) geographic area that fulfills the economic distress...

  17. Relaxation Training and Expectation in the Treatment of Postpartum Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halonen, Jane S.; Passman, Richard H.

    1985-01-01

    Examined the effectiveness of relaxation training in reducing postpartum distress for 48 first-time mothers-to-be via a treatment-component strategy. Compared with nonrelaxation conditions, relaxation treatments reduced reported postpartal distress. Expectations about treatment effectiveness were not significant factors in treatment outcome.…

  18. Parental Attachments and Psychological Distress among African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Keisha McGhee

    2008-01-01

    African American college students attending predominately White institutions often encounter stressors that their Caucasian peers do not experience. Because of these unique stressors, African American students are more prone to experience psychological distress. Identifying factors that counteract psychological distress among these students is…

  19. Intrusive Thoughts: A Primary Variable in Breakup Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeannette

    2013-01-01

    University students who were high versus low on breakup distress scores were given self-report measures to assess their intrusive thoughts about the romantic breakup and their somatic symptoms that followed the breakup as well as their extracurricular activities and social support that might alleviate their breakup distress. In a regression…

  20. Frustrated Fertility: Infertility and Psychological Distress among Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuillan, Julia; Greil, Arthur L.; White, Lynn; Jacob, Mary Casey

    2003-01-01

    Tests the hypothesis that women who have experienced infertility report higher psychological distress. Examines whether roles or resources condition the effects of infertility or whether its effects are limited to childless women. Infertility combined with involuntary childlessness is associated with significantly greater distress. For women in…

  1. 46 CFR 117.68 - Distress flares and smoke signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distress flares and smoke signals. 117.68 Section 117.68 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... AND ARRANGEMENTS Emergency Communications § 117.68 Distress flares and smoke signals. (a)...

  2. Early origins and adult correlates of psychosomatic distress.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Yin Bun

    2002-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated associations between fetal insults and psychological and developmental outcomes in children and adolescents. It is not clear whether psychosomatic problems in adults also have early origins. This study involved full-term live-born singletons free of congenital anomaly in the 1970 British Birth Cohort Study. Birthweight, gestational age, maternal smoking, parental social class and birth order were recorded around the time of birth. Psychological and somatic distresses were measured by the Malaise Inventory at age 26. A number of socio-behavioural covariates were also measured at this time. Multiple (least square) regression analysis showed that birthweight standardised for gestational age had a "reverse J" relation with psychological distress (p < 0.05); gestational age was inversely related to psychological distress (each p < 0.05); levels of maternal smoking were positively related to both psychological distress and somatic distress (each p < 0.01). Logistic regression analyses of high levels of psychological distress and somatic distress gave similar results. The findings were not strongly affected by adjustment for various adult correlates. In supplementary analyses multiple imputation was used to handle loss to follow-up and missing values at age 26. Approximately, the same patterns of associations were found. The results support the hypothesis of a biological link between perinatal factors and psychological distress in adults. The strengths of the associations were compared with those between the outcome and adult correlates.

  3. Psychological Distress in International University Students: An Australian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khawaja, Nigar Gohar; Dempsey, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    Australia is a much sought-after destination of study for many thousands of international university students. However, tertiary study brings with it many challenges that may potentially precipitate psychological distress in international students. Psychological distress may be experienced in various ways. The aim of this study was to investigate…

  4. Psychological Distress and Mortality: Are Women More Vulnerable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Nuriddin, Tariqah A.

    2006-01-01

    Does psychological distress increase mortality risk? If it does, are women more vulnerable than men to the effect of distress on mortality? Drawing from cumulative disadvantage theory, these questions are addressed with data from a 20-year follow-up of a national sample of adults ages 25-74. Event history analyses were performed to examine…

  5. Relationship between psychological distress and resilience in rescue workers

    PubMed Central

    Yasien, Saba; Nasir, Jamal Abdul; Shaheen, Tayabba

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the relationship between psychological distress and resilience in rescue workers. Following hypothesis was formulated; there would be negative correlation between psychological distress and resilience in rescue workers. Method: A correlational study was conducted from June-August 2015 in Rahim Yar Khan, Punjab, Pakistan. The sample of the present study consisted of 100 rescue workers. The age of the participants ranged from 23 to 40 year old with the mean age of 27.4±3.9 years. Demographic information form, Kessler psychological distress scale and adult resilience measure were administered on the participants to assess the level of psychological distress and resilience. Results: Pearson product moment coefficient of correlation was applied to analyze the relationship of psychological distress and resilience. Analysis of the result indicated that there is negative relationship between psychological distress and resilience (r= -0.203, p<0.01) in rescue workers. Further, contextual factors (r= -0.292, p<0.05) and its subcomponents including spiritual beliefs (r= -0.239, p<0.05) and cultural resources (r= -0.287, p<0.01) were also found to be inversely correlated with psychological distress. Conclusion: The research evidenced that rescue workers were experiencing psychological distress Resilience factors should be considered while designing trainings to preserve mental health and to enhance the psychological well-being of rescue workers. PMID:27381539

  6. Ethnic Differences in Adolescents' Mental Distress, Social Stress, and Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Heeseung; Meininger, Janet C.; Roberts, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    Limited data on ethnic group differences among young adolescents exist regarding the prevalence of mental distress, social stress, and resources. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine ethnic differences among African American (AA), European American (EA), Hispanic American (HA), and Asian American adolescents in mental distress,…

  7. Examining Victimization and Psychological Distress in Transgender College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Effrig, Jessica C.; Bieschke, Kathleen J.; Locke, Benjamin D.

    2011-01-01

    Treatment-seeking and non-treatment-seeking transgender college students were examined with regard to victimization and psychological distress. Findings showed that transgender college students had elevated rates of distress as compared with college students who identified as men or women. Results indicated that treatment-seeking and non-treatment…

  8. Students' Distress over Grades: Entitlement or a Coping Response?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Judith C.

    2011-01-01

    Faculties across disciplines have noted an increasing number of students who are highly distressed over grades, and this distress is accompanied by pervasive demands on professors. The student behavior takes several forms, including demands for higher grades, expectations of special accommodations by faculty, and the predictions of dire outcomes…

  9. Cultural and Social Predictors of Psychological Distress in Mexican Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golding, Jacqueline M.; Burnam, M. Audrey

    Studies of relative levels of psychological distress among Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic Whites have found mixed results, possibly due to cultural differences within Mexican American samples which may confound potential ethnic differences. The hypothesis that differences in psychological distress between Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic…

  10. 13 CFR 301.3 - Economic distress levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Economic distress levels. 301.3 Section 301.3 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Economic Distress Criteria § 301.3 Economic...

  11. 13 CFR 301.3 - Economic distress levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Economic distress levels. 301.3 Section 301.3 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Economic Distress Criteria § 301.3 Economic...

  12. 47 CFR 80.311 - Authority for distress transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Authority for distress transmission. 80.311 Section 80.311 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO..., Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.311 Authority for distress transmission. A mobile station in...

  13. 47 CFR 80.311 - Authority for distress transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Authority for distress transmission. 80.311 Section 80.311 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO..., Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.311 Authority for distress transmission. A mobile station in...

  14. 47 CFR 80.311 - Authority for distress transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authority for distress transmission. 80.311 Section 80.311 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO..., Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.311 Authority for distress transmission. A mobile station in...

  15. 47 CFR 80.311 - Authority for distress transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Authority for distress transmission. 80.311 Section 80.311 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO..., Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.311 Authority for distress transmission. A mobile station in...

  16. 47 CFR 80.311 - Authority for distress transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Authority for distress transmission. 80.311 Section 80.311 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO..., Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.311 Authority for distress transmission. A mobile station in...

  17. 47 CFR 2.402 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 2.402 Section 2.402 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Distress, Disaster, and Emergency Communications § 2.402 Control...

  18. 47 CFR 2.403 - Retransmission of distress message.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retransmission of distress message. 2.403 Section 2.403 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Distress, Disaster, and Emergency Communications §...

  19. 47 CFR 2.403 - Retransmission of distress message.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retransmission of distress message. 2.403 Section 2.403 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Distress, Disaster, and Emergency Communications §...

  20. 47 CFR 2.402 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 2.402 Section 2.402 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Distress, Disaster, and Emergency Communications § 2.402 Control...

  1. 47 CFR 2.402 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 2.402 Section 2.402 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Distress, Disaster, and Emergency Communications § 2.402 Control...

  2. 47 CFR 2.403 - Retransmission of distress message.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retransmission of distress message. 2.403 Section 2.403 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Distress, Disaster, and Emergency Communications §...

  3. 47 CFR 2.402 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 2.402 Section 2.402 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Distress, Disaster, and Emergency Communications § 2.402 Control...

  4. 47 CFR 2.403 - Retransmission of distress message.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Retransmission of distress message. 2.403 Section 2.403 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Distress, Disaster, and Emergency Communications §...

  5. 47 CFR 2.403 - Retransmission of distress message.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retransmission of distress message. 2.403 Section 2.403 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Distress, Disaster, and Emergency Communications §...

  6. 47 CFR 2.402 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 2.402 Section 2.402 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Distress, Disaster, and Emergency Communications § 2.402 Control...

  7. Marital Distress and Mental Health Care Service Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Whisman, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the association between marital distress and mental health service utilization in a population-based sample of men and women (N = 1,601). Method: The association between marital distress and mental health care service utilization was evaluated for overall mental health service utilization and for…

  8. Spanish Translations of a Standard Assessment Battery for Marital Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, D. Eugene; Thurber, Shawn L.; Crane, Brent E.

    2003-01-01

    To better serve the growing number of Spanish-speaking couples and families in the U.S., it is useful to have a battery of instruments to assess the nature of their marital distress. This article presents the standard assessment battery that Brigham Young University uses to evaluate marital distress. (Contains 11 references and 1 table.) (GCP)

  9. Shift work, mental distress and job satisfaction among Palestinian nurses

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, M. B.; Kristensen, P.; Bast-Pettersen, R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Associations between shift work (SW) schedules, mental distress and job satisfaction have never been completely described. Aims To examine gender-specific associations of SW with mental distress and job satisfaction in nurses in Hebron District, Palestine, in 2012. Methods Detailed information on work schedules (day versus shift), socio-demographic status, mental distress (General Health Questionnaire, GHQ-30) and job satisfaction (Generic Job Satisfaction Scale) in nurses employed in Hebron District, Palestine, was obtained through a questionnaire survey. Associations of SW and outcomes were examined by linear regression analysis. Results Of 372 nurses eligible for the study, 309 and 338 completed surveys regarding mental distress and job satisfaction, respectively. The sample comprised 62% women and 38% men. After adjusting for covariates, women working shifts reported significantly higher levels of mean mental distress [β coefficient 3.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.3–7.0] compared with women working regular day shifts. Men working shifts reported significantly lower levels of job satisfaction (–3.3; 95% CI –6.2 to –0.5) than men working regular day shifts. Women reported higher levels of mental distress than men, but this was unrelated to work schedule. Conclusions In this study, nurses working shifts reported higher levels of mental distress and lower levels of job satisfaction, although these associations were weaker when adjusted for potential covariates. There was no evidence of a gender differential in the association between SW and mental distress and job satisfaction. PMID:27694376

  10. The Montessori Model in Puebla, Mexico: How One Nonprofit Is Helping Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harger, Jeni

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how the JUCONI Foundation in Puebla, Mexico is helping children. (JUCONI is an acronym for "Junto con los Ninos", or "Together with the Children)." This Mexican nongovernmental organization (NGO) has been successfully working with distressed families and children in Puebla since 1989. For…

  11. Maternal distress and women's reentry into family and community life.

    PubMed

    Arditti, Joyce; Few, April

    2008-09-01

    This paper advances conceptualization of maternal distress following incarceration. We utilized a multiple case study methodology based on interviews with 10 mothers who demonstrated various permutations of "the triple threat" (depression, domestic violence, and substance abuse; Arditti & Few, 2006). Findings suggest that depressive symptomology persisted and worsened for mothers in our study and that maternal distress was indicative not only of women's psychological state, but also a relational and situational construct that embodied women's core experience. Maternal distress was largely characterized by health challenges, dysfunctional intimate relationships, loss related trauma, guilt and worry over children, and economic inadequacy. Further, maternal distress seemed to be intensified by the punitive traumatic context of prison and lessened by rehabilitation opportunities as well as support by kin and probation officers after reentry. Recommendations for clinicians and professionals who work with reentry mothers center around the need to alleviate maternal distress and better address women's emotional and physical health needs during incarceration and reentry.

  12. A Pathophysiologic Approach to Biomarkers in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Blondonnet, Raiko; Constantin, Jean-Michel; Sapin, Vincent; Jabaudon, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an acute-onset hypoxic condition with radiographic bilateral lung infiltration. It is characterized by an acute exudative phase combining diffuse alveolar damage and lung edema followed by a later fibroproliferative phase. Despite an improved understanding of ARDS pathobiology, our ability to predict the development of ARDS and risk-stratify patients with the disease remains limited. Biomarkers may help to identify patients at the highest risk of developing ARDS, assess response to therapy, predict outcome, and optimize enrollment in clinical trials. After a short description of ARDS pathobiology, here, we review the scientific evidence that supports the value of various ARDS biomarkers with regard to their major biological roles in ARDS-associated lung injury and/or repair. Ongoing research aims at identifying and characterizing novel biomarkers, in order to highlight relevant mechanistic explorations of lung injury and repair, and to ultimately develop innovative therapeutic approaches for ARDS patients. This review will focus on the pathophysiologic, diagnostic, and therapeutic implications of biomarkers in ARDS and on their utility to ultimately improve patient care.

  13. A Pathophysiologic Approach to Biomarkers in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Blondonnet, Raiko; Constantin, Jean-Michel; Sapin, Vincent; Jabaudon, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an acute-onset hypoxic condition with radiographic bilateral lung infiltration. It is characterized by an acute exudative phase combining diffuse alveolar damage and lung edema followed by a later fibroproliferative phase. Despite an improved understanding of ARDS pathobiology, our ability to predict the development of ARDS and risk-stratify patients with the disease remains limited. Biomarkers may help to identify patients at the highest risk of developing ARDS, assess response to therapy, predict outcome, and optimize enrollment in clinical trials. After a short description of ARDS pathobiology, here, we review the scientific evidence that supports the value of various ARDS biomarkers with regard to their major biological roles in ARDS-associated lung injury and/or repair. Ongoing research aims at identifying and characterizing novel biomarkers, in order to highlight relevant mechanistic explorations of lung injury and repair, and to ultimately develop innovative therapeutic approaches for ARDS patients. This review will focus on the pathophysiologic, diagnostic, and therapeutic implications of biomarkers in ARDS and on their utility to ultimately improve patient care. PMID:26980924

  14. Psychological Distress and Pain Reporting in Australian Coal Miners

    PubMed Central

    Carlisle, Kristy N.; Parker, Anthony W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Coal mining is of significant economic importance to the Australian economy. Despite this fact, the related workforce is subjected to a number of psychosocial risks and musculoskeletal injury, and various psychological disorders are common among this population group. Because only limited research has been conducted in this population group, we sought to examine the relationship between physical (pain) and psychological (distress) factors, as well as the effects of various demographic, lifestyle, and fatigue indicators on this relationship. Methods Coal miners (N = 231) participated in a survey of musculoskeletal pain and distress on-site during their work shifts. Participants also provided demographic information (job type, age, experience in the industry, and body mass index) and responded to questions about exercise and sleep quality (on- and off-shift) as well as physical and mental tiredness after work. Results A total of 177 workers (80.5%) reported experiencing pain in at least one region of their body. The majority of the sample population (61.9%) was classified as having low-level distress, 28.4% had scores indicating mild to moderate distress, and 9.6% had scores indicating high levels of distress. Both number of pain regions and job type (being an operator) significantly predicted distress. Higher distress score was also associated with greater absenteeism in workers who reported lower back pain. In addition, perceived sleep quality during work periods partially mediated the relationship between pain and distress. Conclusion The study findings support the existence of widespread musculoskeletal pain among the coal-mining workforce, and this pain is associated with increased psychological distress. Operators (truck drivers) and workers reporting poor sleep quality during work periods are most likely to report increased distress, which highlights the importance of supporting the mining workforce for sustained productivity. PMID:25516813

  15. Patterns of Distress in African American Mothers of Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Holditch-Davis, Diane; Miles, Margaret Shandor; Weaver, Mark A.; Black, Beth; Beeber, Linda; Thoyre, Suzanne; Engelke, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine inter-relationships among stress due to infant appearance and behavior in the NICU, parental role alteration stress in the NICU, depressive symptoms, state anxiety, post-traumatic stress symptoms, and daily hassles exhibited by African American mothers of preterm infants and to determine whether there were sub-groups of mothers based on patterns of psychological distress. Method 177 African American mothers completed questionnaires on their psychological distress at enrollment during infant hospitalization and 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after term. Results Psychological distress measures were inter-correlated. There were four latent classes of mothers: the low distress class with low scores on all measures; the high NICU-related stress class with high infant appearance and parental role stress and moderate scores on other measures; the high depressive symptoms class with high depressive symptoms and state anxiety and moderately elevated scores on NICU-related stress and post-traumatic stress symptoms; the extreme distress class with the highest means on all measures. Infants in the high stress class were sicker than infants in the other classes. The extreme distress class mothers averaged the lowest educational level. The classes differed on distress measures, worry about the child, and parenting stress through 24 months with the extreme distress class having the highest values. Conclusion Although different types of maternal psychological distress were substantially related, there were distinct sub-groups of mothers that were identifiable in the NICU. Moreover, these sub-groups continued to differ on trajectories of distress and on their perceptions of the infants and parenting through 24 months after term. PMID:19412125

  16. Sharing, liking, commenting, and distressed? The pathway between Facebook interaction and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenhong; Lee, Kye-Hyoung

    2013-10-01

    Studies on the mental health implications of social media have generated mixed results. Drawing on a survey of college students (N=513), this research uses structural equation modeling to assess the relationship between Facebook interaction and psychological distress and two underlying mechanisms: communication overload and self-esteem. It is the first study, to our knowledge, that examines how communication overload mediates the mental health implications of social media. Frequent Facebook interaction is associated with greater distress directly and indirectly via a two-step pathway that increases communication overload and reduces self-esteem. The research sheds light on new directions for understanding psychological well-being in an increasingly mediated social world as users share, like, and comment more and more.

  17. Helping pregnant teenagers.

    PubMed

    Bluestein, D; Starling, M E

    1994-08-01

    Teenagers who are pregnant face many difficult issues, and counseling by physicians can be an important source of help. We suggest guidelines for this counseling, beginning with a review of the scope and consequences of adolescent pregnancy. Communication strategies should be aimed at building rapport with techniques such as maintaining confidentiality, avoiding judgmental stances, and gearing communication to cognitive maturity. Techniques for exploring family relationships are useful because these relationships are key influences on subsequent decisions and behaviors. We discuss topics related to abortion and childbearing, such as safety, facilitation of balanced decision making, the use of prenatal care, and the formulation of long-term plans. Physicians who can effectively discuss these topics can help pregnant teenagers make informed decisions and improve their prospects for the future.

  18. Helping children talk.

    PubMed

    Day, L

    1998-01-01

    Many children and young people living in London are affected by HIV. Most such children come from families from sub-Saharan Africa. Some HIV-positive parents have died, some are ill, and some are well. Some older children know that their parents are infected with HIV, but most children are unaware. To help these children understand their situations, children with a parent or parents who have died or are very sick are invited to 6 half-days of storytelling and play, led by a family counselor and someone who uses drama. Trained volunteers come from local AIDS organizations. The sessions vary depending upon what the children choose to discuss. The adults' role is to help the children begin to reflect upon their feelings in a way which is easy for them to express. Sessions usually begin with the creation of a story using a toy animal, after which children subsequently act out the imaginary family in different ways.

  19. Prone positioning in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Kristy; Dufault, Marlene; Bergeron, Kathy

    2015-08-12

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a condition with a high morbidity and mortality rate, and treatment is often long and costly. Prone positioning is a rarely used intervention for patients with this syndrome, although research suggests it may be effective. A literature search was undertaken to examine the effects of prone positioning on oxygenation, morbidity and mortality in patients with ARDS. It revealed that prone positioning, when used with low tidal volume ventilation over an extended period, may reduce mortality rates in selected patients with severe ARDS. The selection of patients with severe ARDS for prone positioning should be done on a case-by-case basis to maximise benefits and minimise complications. Further research is required on the use of prone positioning in patients with severe ARDS to support or disclaim the therapy's use in practice, and to compare confounding variables such as ideal prone duration and mechanical versus manual pronation.

  20. Acute respiratory distress syndrome after cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Lisa Q.; Di Franco, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a leading cause of postoperative respiratory failure, with a mortality rate approaching 40% in the general population and 80% in the subset of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The increased risk of ARDS in these patients has traditionally been associated with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), the need for blood product transfusions, large volume shifts, mechanical ventilation and direct surgical insult. Indeed, the impact of ARDS in the cardiac population is substantial, affecting not only survival but also in-hospital length of stay and long-term physical and psychological morbidity. No patient undergoing cardiac surgery can be considered ARDS risk-free. Early identification of those at higher risk is crucial to warrant the adoption of both surgical and non-surgical specific preventative strategies. The present review focuses on epidemiology, risk assessment, pathophysiology, prevention and management of ARDS in the specific setting of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. PMID:27867583

  1. Children's intent attributions and feelings of distress: associations with maternal and paternal parenting practices.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David A; Coyne, Sarah M

    2009-02-01

    Many studies point to the importance of social information processing mechanisms in understanding distinct child behaviors such as aggression. However, few studies have assessed whether parenting might be related to such mechanisms. This study considers how aversive forms of parenting (i.e., corporal punishment, psychological control) as well as parental warmth and responsiveness might be concurrently associated with children's hostile intent attributions and emotional distress in response to ambiguous provocation scenarios (both instrumental and relational). A sample of 219 children (101 boys, 118 girls) and their parents participated. Bivariate associations showed that parenting dimensions and child variables were significantly associated in mostly expected ways, but only in father-child relationships (especially father-son relationships). Analyses generally showed dimensions of aversive parenting by fathers to be associated with a greater tendency toward hostile attributional bias in children. Moreover, paternal warmth and responsiveness, as well as corporal punishment, were associated with less emotional distress in boys. In contrast, paternal psychological control predicted greater emotional distress in boys. The findings suggest that the tone of the father-son relationship, in particular, may help set the tone for how boys interpret their social world. Psychological control figures prominently in this regard.

  2. Relatives' expressed emotion, distress and attributions in clinical high-risk and recent onset of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Martínez, Tecelli; Medina-Pradas, Cristina; Kwapil, Thomas R; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2017-01-01

    It has been well-demonstrated that Expressed Emotion (EE) in caregivers of schizophrenia patients is related to their illness attributions, but little is known about relatives' cognitive and emotional appraisals at early stages of psychosis. This study examined differences on the relationships of EE with distress and illness attributions in 78 relatives of At-Risk Mental States (ARMS) and First-Episode of Psychosis (FEP) patients, and which of those variables better predicted EE. Criticism and Emotional Over-Involvement (EOI) were associated with distress and with several illness attributions in both groups. Anxiety was more strongly associated with criticism in ARMS than in FEP-relatives, and it was associated with EOI in the ARMS but not in the FEP-group. No differences on the relationships of EE with depression or attributions were found. Furthermore, distress and attributions of blame toward the patients predicted criticism. Attributions of control by the patient and emotional negative representation about the disorder predicted EOI. Findings highlight the need to focus on early family interventions that provide proper information and psychological support in accordance with the illness stage, to help relatives improve their understanding of the disorder, handle difficult thoughts and emotions, reduce negative appraisals, and prevent high-EE over the psychotic process.

  3. Visual height intolerance and acrophobia: distressing partners for life.

    PubMed

    Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Fitz, Werner; Huppert, Doreen; Grill, Eva; Brandt, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The course of illness, the degree of social impairment, and the rate of help-seeking behavior was evaluated in a sample of individuals with visual height intolerance (vHI) and acrophobia. On the basis of a previously described epidemiological sample representative of the German general population, 574 individuals with vHI were identified, 128 fulfilled the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria of acrophobia. The illness of the majority of all susceptible individuals with vHI ran a year-long chronic course. Two thirds were in the category "persistent/worse", whereas only one third was in the category "improved/remitted". Subjects with acrophobia showed significantly more traumatic triggers of onset, more signs of generalization to other height stimuli, higher rates of increasing intensity of symptom load, higher grades of social impairment, and greater overall negative impact on the quality of life than those with pure vHI. An unfavorable course of illness in pure vHI was predicted by major depression, agoraphobia, social phobia, posttraumatic stress, initial traumatic trigger, and female sex; an unfavorable course in acrophobia was predicted by major depression, chronic fatigue, panic attacks, initial traumatic trigger, social phobia, other specific phobic fears, and female sex. Help-seeking behavior was astonishingly low in the overall sample of individuals with vHI. The consequences of therapeutic interventions if complied with at all were quite modest. In adults pure vHI and even more so acrophobia are by no means only transitionally distressing states. In contrast to their occurrence in children they are more often persisting and disabling conditions. Both the utilization of and adequacy of treatment of these illnesses pose major challenges within primary and secondary neurological and psychiatric medical care.

  4. Association of anxiety, depression, and psychological distress in people with and without functional dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Adibi, Peyman; Keshteli, Ammar Hasanzadeh; Daghaghzadeh, Hamed; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Pournaghshband, Nasim; Afshar, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Current studies have indicated a high ratio of psychological problems in functional dyspepsia (FD) which causes disturbance in its management, so recognition these problems help the process of treatment. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with a sample size of 4763 carried out in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2011. Modified ROME III questionnaire was used to evaluate FD symptoms. Hospital anxiety and depression scale and 12-item General Health Questionnaire-12 was used to assess the psychological issue. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association of psychological problems and FD. Results: We showed that overly 654 (13.7%), 1338 (28.1%), and 1067 (22.4%) of participants, respectively had anxiety, depression, and of psychological distress. Seven hundred and ten (15.5%) participants were diagnosed with FD. Of all participants Mean scores of anxiety (P < 0.001), depression (P < 0.001), and psychological distress (P < 0.001) in participants with FD were significantly more than those with no FD. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that psychological problems, whether in the form of psychological distress odds ratio (OR): 2 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3–3) and OR: 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1–1.7) in males and females, respectively, anxiety OR: 2.4 (95% CI: 1.5–3.9) and OR: 2.3 (95% CI: 1.7–3.2) in males and females, respectively) or depression OR: 2.2 (95% CI: 1.5–3.3) and OR: 1.7 (95% CI: 1.3–2.3) in males and females, respectively) were significantly linked to FD in both genders. Conclusions: The prevalence of FD is less in males than females, but psychological links were stronger in males. Thus, it is essential to consider and detect the psychological distress in these patients. PMID:28217633

  5. Behavioral Assessment of the Negative Emotion Aspect of Distress Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Veilleux, Jennifer C; Pollert, Garrett A; Zielinski, Melissa J; Shaver, Jennifer A; Hill, Morgan A

    2017-01-01

    The current behavioral tasks assessing distress tolerance measure tolerance to frustration and tolerance to physical discomfort, but do not explicitly assess tolerance to negative emotion. We closely evaluated the conceptual distinctions between current behavioral tasks and self-report tasks assessing distress tolerance, and then developed a new behavioral distress tolerance task called the Emotional Image Tolerance (EIT) task. The EIT task retains elements of existing behavioral tasks (e.g., indices of persistence) while augmenting the reliability and content sufficiency of existing measures by including multiple trials, including a variety of negative affect stimuli, and separating overall task persistence from task persistence after onset of distress. In a series of three studies, we found that the EIT correlated with extant behavioral measures of distress tolerance, the computerized mirror-tracing task and a physical cold pressor task. Across all of the studies, we also evaluated whether the EIT correlated with self-report measures of distress tolerance and measures of psychopathology (e.g., depression, anxiety, and binge eating). Implications for the refinement of the distress tolerance construct are discussed.

  6. Disentangling depression and distress networks in the tinnitus brain.

    PubMed

    Joos, Kathleen; Vanneste, Sven; De Ridder, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Tinnitus is the continuous perception of an internal auditory stimulus. This permanent sound often affects a person's emotional state inducing distress and depressive feelings changes in 6-25% of the affected population. Distress and depression are two distinct emotional states. Whereas distress describes a transient aversive state, interfering with a person's ability to adequately adapt to stressors, depressive feelings should rather be considered as a more constant emotional state. Based on previous observations in chronic pain, posttraumatic stress disorder and depression, we assume that both states are related to separate neural circuits. We used the Dutch version of the Tinnitus Questionnaire to assess the global index of distress together with the Beck Depression Inventory to evaluate the depressive symptoms accompanying tinnitus. Furthermore sLORETA analysis was performed to correlate current density distribution with distress and depression scores, revealing a lateralization effect of depression versus distress. Distress is mainly correlated with alpha 2, beta 1 and beta 2 activity of the right frontopolar cortex and orbitofrontal cortex in combination with beta 2 activation of the anterior cingulate cortex. In contrast, the more permanent depressive alterations induced by tinnitus are associated with activity of alpha 2 activity in the left frontopolar and orbitofrontal cortex. These specific neural circuits are embedded in a greater neural network, with the parahippocampal region functioning as a crucial linkage between both tinnitus related pathways.

  7. Psychological distress mediates the effect of pain on function.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Stephen T; Castillo, Renan C; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer; Mackenzie, Ellen J; Bosse, Michael J

    2011-06-01

    As part of a larger longitudinal study, the current analyses characterize the relationship among pain, psychological distress, and physical function after major lower extremity trauma. Structural equation modeling techniques were utilized to analyze data from a prospective 2-year observational study of 327 patients treated at 8 level I trauma centers. Data were gathered at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after injury. In the models tested, higher levels of depressive and anxious distress at the preceding time point was related to lower levels of functioning at 6, 12, and 24 months, and higher levels of pain at the preceding time point were related to lower levels of functioning at 6 and 12 months, but not at 24 months. A reverse model in which lower levels of functioning led to higher levels of psychological distress or pain was tested and did not fit the data. The combination of depressive and anxious distress plays an increasingly important role in mediating the impact of pain on physical function as the recovery from lower extremity trauma progresses from early to later stages. Both pain and psychological distress contribute to reduced function during the first year after a serious injury; however, as recovery proceeds, the role of psychological distress in determining function increases. Longitudinal data on patients with severe leg trauma demonstrates that as recovery proceeds, psychological distress plays an increasingly important role in mediating the impact of pain on function.

  8. Psychological distress in Ghana: associations with employment and lost productivity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Mental health disorders account for 13% of the global burden of disease, a burden that low-income countries are generally ill-equipped to handle. Research evaluating the association between mental health and employment in low-income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, is limited. We address this gap by examining the association between employment and psychological distress. Methods We analyzed data from the Ghana Socioeconomic Panel Survey using logistic regression (N = 5,391 adults). In multivariable analysis, we estimated the association between employment status and psychological distress, adjusted for covariates. We calculated lost productivity from unemployment and from excess absence from work that respondents reported was because of their feelings of psychological distress. Findings Approximately 21% of adults surveyed had moderate or severe psychological distress. Increased psychological distress was associated with increased odds of being unemployed. Men and women with moderate versus mild or no psychological distress had more than twice the odds of being unemployed. The association of severe versus mild or no distress with unemployment differed significantly by sex (P-value for interaction 0.004). Among men, the adjusted OR was 12.4 (95% CI: 7.2, 21.3), whereas the association was much smaller for women (adjusted OR = 3.8, 95% CI: 2.5, 6.0). Extrapolating these figures to the country, the lost productivity associated with moderate or severe distress translates to approximately 7% of the gross domestic product of Ghana. Conclusions Psychological distress is strongly associated with unemployment in Ghana. The findings underscore the importance of addressing mental health issues, particularly in low-income countries. PMID:23497536

  9. Relationship of Moral Sensitivity and Distress Among Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Nejadsarvari, Nasrin; Abbasi, Mahmoud; Borhani, Fariba; Ebrahimi, Ali; Rasooli, Hamidreza; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein; Kiani, Mehrzad; Bazmi, Shabnam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Providing health services is described as an important moral measure, since its major aim is to ensure the welfare of the people who need treatment and care. Moral sensitivity is the ability to identify the existing moral problem and understand the moral consequences of the decisions made on the patient’s part. Physicians are always exposed to moral distress due to various circumstances. Objectives: In this survey, we evaluated moral sensitivity and moral distress among physicians and the relationship of these ethical factors on them. Hence, we assessed y relationship between moral sensitivity and moral distress in physicians will facilitate their sound management so as to provide high-quality and safe health services. Moreover it will confirm proposed theories regarding this subject. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study aimed at investigating the relationship between moral sensitivity and moral distress among 321 specialist physicians working in hospitals affiliated to Tehran Medical Universities in Tehran. The samples were selected through two-stage random cluster sampling method. A three-partite questionnaire comprising of demographic characteristics, moral distress, and moral sensitivity was used for collecting data which then were analyzed using SPSS-20. Results: There was a negative significant relationship between moral sensitivity and moral distress frequency; there was a positive significant relationship between moral sensitivity and moral distress intensity. Participating in medical ethics courses increased moral sensitivity and decreased the frequency of moral distress. Conclusions: Participating in medical ethics courses increased moral sensitivity and decreased the frequency of moral distress. PMID:26290859

  10. Please Help Your Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killeen, Tim

    2006-03-01

    The continuing success of AGU relies entirely on the volunteer work of members. A major contribution to these efforts comes from the over 40 committees that plan, oversee, and have operational roles in our meetings, publications, finances, elections, awards, education, public information, and public affairs activities. The names of committees are provided in the accompanying text box; their current membership and descriptions can be found on the Web at the AGU site. One of the most important and challenging tasks of the incoming AGU President is to reestablish these committees by appointing hundreds of volunteers. I now solicit your help in staffing these committees. Ideally, participation in these important committees will reflect the overall membership and perspectives of AGU members, so please do consider volunteering yourself. Of course, nominations of others would also be very welcome. I am particularly interested in making sure that the gender balance, age, and geographic representation are appropriate and reflect our changing demographics. Any suggestions you might have will be more helpful if accompanied by a few sentences of background information relevant to the particular committee.

  11. Contemporary healthcare practice and the risk of moral distress.

    PubMed

    Austin, Wendy

    2016-05-01

    Healthcare professionals are moral agents whose fiduciary relationship with the public is animated by responsibility and the promise to use knowledge and skills to aid those in their care. When their ability to keep this promise is constrained or compromised, moral distress can result. Moral distress in healthcare is defined and outlined. Constraints and factors that lead to moral distress are identified as are the means that individual professionals and organizations use to address it. A call is made for transformative change to overcome a culture of silence and to sustain a healthcare system that is morally habitable.

  12. Prevalence and related factors of psychological distress among cancer inpatients using routine Distress Thermometer and Chinese Health Questionnaire screening

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Yu-Jie; Chiu, Nien-Mu; Wang, Liang-Jen; Li, Shau-Hsuan; Lee, Chun-Yi; Wu, Ming-Kung; Chen, Chien-Chih; Wu, Yi-Shan; Lee, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical practice guidelines suggest routine screening for distress among cancer patients for immediate early psychiatric care. However, previous studies focusing on routine screening for psychological distress among cancer inpatients in Taiwan are scant. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and related factors of psychological distress and mental illness among cancer inpatients in Taiwan. Patients and methods This study was conducted as a retrospective chart review in a general hospital in southern Taiwan. Cancer inpatients were regularly screened by nursing staff using the Distress Thermometer and the 12-item Chinese Health Questionnaire. Positive screening results on either instrument were followed by a non-commanded referral to psychiatrists for clinical psychiatric diagnosis and treatment. Results Of the 810 participants in this study, 179 (22.1%) were recognized as having psychological distress. Younger age (odds ratio [OR] =1.82), having head and neck cancer (OR =2.43), and having not received chemotherapy (OR =1.58) were significantly related to psychological distress. Among the 56 patients (31.3%) with psychological distress who were referred to psychiatrists, the most common mental illness was adjustment disorder (n=22, 39.2%), followed by major depressive disorder (n=13, 23.2%), depressive disorder not otherwise specified (n=6, 10.7%), and anxiety disorder not otherwise specified (n=4, 7.1%). Conclusion Our study indicated that cancer inpatients with psychological distress were more likely to be younger in age, have head and neck cancer, and have not received chemotherapy. The most common psychiatric disorder was adjustment disorder. Early detection of psychological distress and prompt psychiatric consultation and management are very important for cancer inpatients. PMID:27822049

  13. Effect of brief mindfulness intervention on tolerance and distress of pain induced by cold-pressor task.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinghua; Wang, Sisi; Chang, Shaochen; Chen, Wenjun; Si, Mei

    2013-08-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that short-term meditation intervention can lead to greater tolerance and lower pain or distress ratings of experimentally induced pain. However, few attempts have been made to examine the effects of short-term mindfulness-based intervention on the tolerance and distress of pain, when delivered in a therapist-free form. The present research explored the effect of brief mindfulness intervention using pre-recorded instruction on pain experimentally induced by the cold-pressor task. The effects of the mindfulness strategy, the distraction strategy and spontaneous strategy, all through the instructions of pre-recorded voices, were compared. The subjects were drawn from healthy college students and randomly assigned to the aforementioned three groups. Our results showed that compared with using spontaneous strategies, the mindfulness intervention significantly improved the participants' pain tolerance and reduced their immersion distress. The distraction strategy also significantly improved the participants' pain tolerance. However, it did not have a significant effect on the participants' level of distress during the immersion period. Our results suggest that brief mindfulness intervention without a therapist's personal involvement is capable of helping people cope with pain induced by the cold-pressor task.

  14. The experience of mental distress and recovery among people involved with the service user/survivor movement.

    PubMed

    Chassot, Carolina S; Mendes, Felismina

    2015-07-01

    This article examines how the personal experiences of mental distress of people involved in the British service user/survivor movement were shaped or transformed by this involvement, and the impact of involvement on their recovery journeys. The analysis was based on 12 in-depth interviews with service users/survivors who are, or were once, involved with the service user/survivor movement. Three large themes were identified regarding the ways in which social movement involvement affected the personal experience of mental distress: (a) making sense and reframing mental distress, (b) the social experience of involvement and (c) identity and identity reconstruction. We discuss how some features of the service user/survivor movement, such as self-help, user involvement, the centrality of experience to collective action, and the range of political positions adopted by activists can affect experience and recovery in different forms. As an exploratory study that looks into a complex topic, our findings illuminate the ways of surviving, recovering and experiencing mental distress in the context of a significant social movement.

  15. Effects of acupressure on menstrual distress and low back pain in dysmenorrheic young adult women: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huei-Mein; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chiu, Min-Huei; Hu, Hsou-Mei

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acupressure on menstrual distress and low back pain (LBP) in dysmenorrheic young adult women. In all, 129 female students, who had been experiencing dysmenorrhea with LBP during menstruation and who scored more than 4 points on the visual analog scale for pain, were randomly assigned to an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group (n = 65) received acupressure massage three times a week for 30 minutes on the sanyinjiao (SP6), ciliao (BL32), and taichong (Liver 3) acupoints. The control group (n = 64) received only a manual of menstrual health education without acupressure intervention. Data were collected at five time points: at baseline, 30 minutes, and 4, 8, and 12 months after the intervention. During the 12-month follow-up, the experimental group had significantly lower menstrual distress and LBP scores than the control group. Among 65 participants in the experimental group, 53 (82%) reported a moderate to high levels of menstrual distress, 51 (78%) reported moderate to high levels of LBP relief, and 49 (75%) reported moderate to high levels of satisfaction with acupressure. Our findings may serve as a reference for health care professionals and young women to improve self-care during menstruation and help further understand the therapeutic effects of acupressure on menstrual distress and LBP.

  16. Who Seeks Help Online for Self-Injury?

    PubMed

    Frost, Mareka; Casey, Leanne

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify differences between young people who seek help online for self-injury and those who self-injure but do not seek help online, in order to improve online services for young people at high risk of suicide. Young people reporting a history of self-injury (N = 679) were identified as part of larger study (N = 1,463) exploring help-seeking. One third of young people with a history of self-injury reported online help-seeking for self-injury. Online help-seekers were significantly more distressed, suicidal, and had a greater degree of self-injury compared to those who did not seek help online. The Internet provides an important form of support to the most at risk young people in this population, and may be a proximal step to face-to-face help-seeking. Further research is required to investigate the forms of support currently accessed by young people online, and their effectiveness.

  17. 47 CFR 80.319 - Radiotelegraph distress call and message transmission procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radiotelegraph distress call and message... Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.319 Radiotelegraph distress call and message... unnecessary: (1) The radiotelegraph alarm signal; (2) The distress call and an interval of two minutes;...

  18. 47 CFR 80.334 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures...) Could not be verified as a result of either the ship's failure to keep watch on appropriate...

  19. 47 CFR 80.334 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures...) Could not be verified as a result of either the ship's failure to keep watch on appropriate...

  20. 47 CFR 80.334 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures...) Could not be verified as a result of either the ship's failure to keep watch on appropriate...

  1. 47 CFR 80.334 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures...) Could not be verified as a result of either the ship's failure to keep watch on appropriate...

  2. 47 CFR 80.334 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures...) Could not be verified as a result of either the ship's failure to keep watch on appropriate...

  3. GaAs monolithic RF modules for SARSAT distress beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauley, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Monolithic GaAs UHF components for use in SARSAT Emergency Distress beacons are under development by Microwave Monolithics, Inc., Simi Valley, CA. The components include a bi-phase modulator, driver amplifier, and a 5 watt power amplifier.

  4. Prison Experiences and Psychological Distress among Older Inmates.

    PubMed

    Baidawi, Susan; Trotter, Christopher; Flynn, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates relationships between older prisoners' social experiences and their levels of distress. One hundred and seventy-three older prisoners (aged ≥ 50 years) from 8 Australian prisons were administered the Kessler Psychological Distress (K10) Scale, with additional information collected via individual interviews. Psychological distress scores were significantly associated with measures of self-reported safety (p < .001), prison victimization (p < .05), perceived social support from staff (p < .01) and inmates (p < .001), current employment (p < .05), and level of exercise (p < .001) among older inmates. Findings suggest that strategies for improving sense of safety, social support and level of exercise may ameliorate distress among older prisoners.

  5. 29 CFR 4041.45 - Distress termination notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Single-Employer Plan Termination, with Schedule EA-D, Distress Termination Enrolled Actuary Certification... guaranteed benefits. Unless the enrolled actuary certifies, in the Schedule EA-D filed in accordance...

  6. Fibromyalgia: When Distress Becomes (Un)sympathetic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Lavin, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a painful stress-related disorder. A key issue in fibromyalgia research is to investigate how distress could be converted into pain. The sympathetic nervous system is the main element of the stress response system. In animal models, physical trauma, infection, or distressing noise can induce abnormal connections between the sympathetic nervous system and the nociceptive system. Dorsal root ganglia sodium channels facilitate this type of sympathetic pain. Similar mechanisms may operate in fibromyalgia. Signs of sympathetic hyperactivity have been described in this condition. Genetic factors and/or distressful lifestyle may lead to this state of sympathetic hyperactivity. Trauma and infection are recognized fibromyalgia triggers. Women who suffer from fibromyalgia have catecholamine-evoked pain. Sympathetic dysfunction may also explain nonpain-related fibromyalgia symptoms. In conclusion, in fibromyalgia, distress could be converted into pain through forced hyperactivity of the sympathetic component of the stress response system. PMID:22110948

  7. Progress and perspectives in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rotta, Alexandre Tellechea; Piva, Jefferson Pedro; Andreolio, Cinara; de Carvalho, Werther Brunow; Garcia, Pedro Celiny Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a disease of acute onset characterized by hypoxemia and infiltrates on chest radiographs that affects both adults and children of all ages. It is an important cause of respiratory failure in pediatric intensive care units and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, until recently, the definitions and diagnostic criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome have focused on the adult population. In this article, we review the evolution of the definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome over nearly five decades, with a special focus on the new pediatric definition. We also discuss recommendations for the implementation of mechanical ventilation strategies in the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome in children and the use of adjuvant therapies.

  8. Religiosity and death distress in Arabic college students.

    PubMed

    Al-Sabwah, Mohammed N; Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship between religiosity and death distress (death anxiety, death depression, and death obsession) among a sample (N = 570) of Egyptian women nursing undergraduates, mainly Muslims. Their ages ranged from 17 to 25. The correlations between religiosity and both death anxiety and death depression were significant and negative, whereas the correlation between religiosity and death obsession was not. Significant, positive and high correlations were found between the different scales of death distress. Factor analysis of all the correlations yielded a single, salient, and bipolar factor labeled 'death distress versus religiosity.' It was argued that different situational variables may have had influenced the conceptual relationship between religiosity and death distress, including the young ages of the present sample.

  9. Distinguishing Fear Versus Distress Symptomatology in Pediatric OCD.

    PubMed

    Rozenman, Michelle; Peris, Tara; Bergman, R Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; O'Neill, Joseph; McCracken, James T; Piacentini, John

    2017-02-01

    Prior research has identified OCD subtypes or "clusters" of symptoms that differentially relate to clinical features of the disorder. Given the high comorbidity between OCD and anxiety, OCD symptom clusters may more broadly associate with fear and/or distress internalizing constructs. This study examines fear and distress dimensions, including physical concerns (fear), separation anxiety (fear), perfectionism (distress), and anxious coping (distress), as predictors of previously empirically-derived OCD symptom clusters in a sample of 215 youth diagnosed with primary OCD (ages 7-17, mean age = 12.25). Self-reported separation fears predicted membership in Cluster 1 (aggressive, sexual, religious, somatic obsessions, and checking compulsions) while somatic/autonomic fears predicted membership in Cluster 2 (symmetry obsessions and ordering, counting, repeating compulsions). Results highlight the diversity of pediatric OCD symptoms and their differential association with fear, suggesting the need to carefully assess both OCD and global fear constructs that might be directly targeted in treatment.

  10. 'Moral distress'--time to abandon a flawed nursing construct?

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Hutchinson, Alison

    2015-02-01

    Moral distress has been characterised in the nursing literature as a major problem affecting nurses in all healthcare systems. It has been portrayed as threatening the integrity of nurses and ultimately the quality of patient care. However, nursing discourse on moral distress is not without controversy. The notion itself is conceptually flawed and suffers from both theoretical and practical difficulties. Nursing research investigating moral distress is also problematic on account of being methodologically weak and disparate. Moreover, the ultimate purpose and significance of the research is unclear. In light of these considerations, it is contended that the notion of moral distress ought to be abandoned and that concerted attention be given to advancing inquiries that are more conducive to improving the quality and safety of moral decision-making, moral conduct and moral outcomes in nursing and healthcare domains.

  11. Non-pharmacological approaches to alleviate distress in dementia care.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Gary; Agnelli, Joanne

    2015-11-25

    Distress is one of the most common clinical manifestations associated with dementia. Pharmacological intervention may be appropriate in managing distress in some people. However, best practice guidelines advocate non-pharmacological interventions as the preferred first-line treatment. The use of non-pharmacological interventions encourages healthcare professionals to be more person-centred in their approach, while considering the causes of distress. This article provides healthcare professionals with an overview of some of the non-pharmacological approaches that can assist in alleviating distress for people living with dementia including: reminiscence therapy, reality orientation, validation therapy, music therapy, horticultural therapy, doll therapy and pet therapy. It provides a summary of their use in clinical practice and links to the relevant literature.

  12. Acute Respiratory Distress: from syndrome to disease.

    PubMed

    Cardinal-Fernández, P; Correger, E; Villanueva, J; Rios, F

    2016-04-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is currently one of the most important critical entities given its high incidence, rate of mortality, long-term sequelae and non-specific pharmacological treatment. The histological hallmark of ARDS is diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). Approximately 50% of ARDS patients present DAD, the rest is made up of a heterogeneous group of histological patterns, many of which correspond to a well-recognized disease. For that reason, if these patterns could be diagnosed, patients could benefit from a treatment. Recently, the effect of DAD in clinical and analytical evolution of ARDS has been demonstrated, so the classical approach to ARDS as an entity defined solely by clinical, radiological and gasometrical variables should be reconsidered. This narrative review aims to examine the need to evolve from the concept of ARDS as a syndrome to ARDS as a specific disease. So we have raised 4 critical questions: a) What is a disease?; b) what is DAD?; c) how is DAD considered according to ARDS definition?, and d) what is the relationship between ARDS and DAD?

  13. Adult respiratory distress syndrome in children.

    PubMed

    Pfenninger, J; Gerber, A; Tschäppeler, H; Zimmermann, A

    1982-09-01

    Twenty patients (age 2 weeks to 15 years) who fulfilled strict selection criteria for adult respiratory distress syndrome were identified during a 3 1/2-year period. The underlying disease was intra-abdominal infection/septicemia in seven, hypovolemic shock, near drowning, closed space burn, or cardiogenic shock caused by nupercaine intoxication in two each, and miscellaneous in five. The mean time of artificial ventilation with PEEP was 18 days (range 5 to 92), and the mean time of FIO2 greater than or equal to 0.5 while on the ventilatory 139 hours (range 12 to 648). PEEP levels were most often between 8 and 15 cm H2O. Eight patients had a pulmonary air leak. Eight patients died (40% mortality). Death was nearly always related to unresolved basic medical or surgical problems and multiple organ failure. Treatment of ARDS includes elimination of the cause of ARDS, early institution of mechanical ventilation with PEEP, prompt recognition and treatment of superimposed infections, and careful management of additional organ failures.

  14. [Kinetic therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    PubMed

    Chechenin, M G; Voevodin, S V; Pronichev, E Iu; Shuliveĭstrov, Iu V

    2004-01-01

    The authors evaluated the clinical and physiological effects of kinetic therapy (KT) in the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Forty-six patients with ARDS underwent successive postural positioning in accordance with two regimens: 1) lateral, prone, contralateral, supine positions; 2) prone, lateral, contralateral, supine positions. The criterion for changing each position was the change in monitoring indices: SpO2, PaO2, and thoracopulmonary compliance (C). KT was performed until a respirator was withdrawn from the patient. In 25 patients, each maneuver of positioning was made during 30-minute propofol sedation. The control group included 24 patients with ARDS who received neither KT nor propofol sedation. KT caused a decrease in Vd/Vt, Qs/Qt and an increase in PaO2/FiO2 and C was more intensive, as compared with the control group. The duration of the patient's prone position was 3.2-0.7 hours and that of the supine position was 3.4-0.8 hours. The right and left lateral positions lasted 1.1-0.2 and 1.3-0.2 hours, respectively. KT regimen 1 was found to be more effective than KT regimen 2. Propofol sedation enhanced the efficiency of KT. The latter reduced death rates in patients with ARDS.

  15. Impact of Multiple Factors on the Degree of Tinnitus Distress

    PubMed Central

    Brüggemann, Petra; Szczepek, Agnieszka J.; Rose, Matthias; McKenna, Laurence; Olze, Heidi; Mazurek, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The primary cause of subjective tinnitus is a dysfunction of the auditory system; however, the degree of distress tinnitus causes depends largely on the psychological status of the patient. Our goal was to attempt to associate the grade of tinnitus-related distress with the psychological distress, physical, or psychological discomfort patients experienced, as well as potentially relevant social parameters, through a simultaneous analysis of these factors. Methods: We determined the level of tinnitus-related distress in 531 tinnitus patients using the German version of the tinnitus questionnaire (TQ). In addition, we used the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ); General Depression Scale Allgemeine Depression Skala (ADS), Berlin Mood Questionnaire (BSF); somatic symptoms inventory (BI), and SF-8 health survey as well as general information collected through a medical history. Results: The TQ score significantly correlated with a score obtained using PSQ, ADS, BSF, BI, and SF-8 alongside psychosocial factors such as age, gender, and marital status. The level of hearing loss and the auditory properties of the specific tinnitus combined with perceived stress and the degree of depressive mood and somatic discomfort of a patient were identified as medium-strong predictors of chronic tinnitus. Social factors such as gender, age, or marital status also had an impact on the degree of tinnitus distress. The results that were obtained were implemented in a specific cortical distress network model. Conclusions: Using a large representative sample of patients with chronic tinnitus permitted a simultaneous statistical measurement of psychometric and audiological parameters in predicting tinnitus distress. We demonstrate that single factors can be distinguished in a manner that explains their causative association and influence on the induction of tinnitus-related distress. PMID:27445776

  16. What Is Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... usually need the help of a mechanical ventilator ( respirator ) to breathe. With medical care, many people with ... sup- port the person’s breathing (usually with a respirator) until the lungs heal. Most people with ARDS ...

  17. How Is Respiratory Distress Syndrome Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surfactant Replacement Therapy Surfactant is a liquid that coats the inside of the lungs. It helps keep ... during pregnancy. These medicines can speed up surfactant production and lung development in a fetus. Even if ...

  18. Refiners get petchems help

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, A.; Cornitius, T.

    1997-06-11

    The U.S.Refining Industry is facing hard times. Slow growth, tough environmental regulations, and fierce competition - especially in retail gasoline - have squeezed margins and prompted a series of mergers and acquisitions. The trend has affected the smallest and largest players, and a series of transactions over the past two years has created a new industry lineup. Among the larger companies, Mobil and Amoco are the latest to consider a refining merger. That follows recent plans by Ashland and Marathon to merge their refining businesses, and the decision by Shell, Texaco, and Saudi Aramco to combine some U.S. operations. Many of the leading independent refiners have increased their scale by acquiring refinery capacity. With refining still in the doldrums, more independents are taking a closer look at boosting production of petrochemicals, which offer high growth and, usually, better margins. That is being helped by the shift to refinery processes that favor the increased production of light olefins for alkylation and the removal of aromatics, providing opportunity to extract these materials for the petrochemical market. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Congress: how to help.

    PubMed

    James, J S

    1995-04-21

    Citizen input, through letters, calls, and visits to government representatives, is needed more urgently now than ever before. The fiscal 1996 budget and appropriations process is expected to provide disappointments. The House has eliminated HOPWA AIDS housing funding for the current year (although it could be reversed in the Senate). Moves are being made toward mandatory HIV testing, with no provisions for counseling or for care. There is no mass movement yet to support AIDS politically, and there is no single or consistent source for connecting with local organizations, or getting the necessary background information, as issues become current. This article lists several national and regional organizations which may be helpful in developing this process. National organizations with an AIDS focus include the National Association of People with AIDS, AIDS Action Council, Treatment Action Network, Mobilization Against AIDS, Center for Women Policy Studies, National Minority AIDS Council, Committee of Ten Thousand, and Mothers' Voice. Gay-focused national organizations include the Log Cabin Republicans and the Human Rights Campaign Fund. Many states have organizations which provide state and regional information on AIDS-related issues. Three major lobbying events include AIDSWATCH 95, Mother's Day Card Campaign, and the California AIDS Budget Lobby Day.

  20. Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) reassure others in distress.

    PubMed

    Plotnik, Joshua M; de Waal, Frans B M

    2014-01-01

    Contact directed by uninvolved bystanders toward others in distress, often termed consolation, is uncommon in the animal kingdom, thus far only demonstrated in the great apes, canines, and corvids. Whereas the typical agonistic context of such contact is relatively rare within natural elephant families, other causes of distress may trigger similar, other-regarding responses. In a study carried out at an elephant camp in Thailand, we found that elephants affiliated significantly more with other individuals through directed, physical contact and vocal communication following a distress event than in control periods. In addition, bystanders affiliated with each other, and matched the behavior and emotional state of the first distressed individual, suggesting emotional contagion. The initial distress responses were overwhelmingly directed toward ambiguous stimuli, thus making it difficult to determine if bystanders reacted to the distressed individual or showed a delayed response to the same stimulus. Nonetheless, the directionality of the contacts and their nature strongly suggest attention toward the emotional states of conspecifics. The elephants' behavior is therefore best classified with similar consolation responses by apes, possibly based on convergent evolution of empathic capacities.

  1. Lifetime risk factors for women's psychological distress in midlife.

    PubMed

    Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca; Rodgers, Bryan; Wadsworth, Michael E J

    2002-12-01

    Research on the causes of psychological distress in women in midlife has focused on current adversity and hormonal changes associated with menopause and paid less attention to possible risk factors across the life course. We examined the factors in childhood, adolescence and earlier adult life that show persisting effects on psychological symptoms reported annually over a 6 year period (47-52 years) using prospective data on a cohort of 1500 British women who have been followed since their birth in 1946. Even after taking into account the powerful effect of recent life stress, this study found that women with a high level of psychological distress had different life course trajectories than those with less distress. They were more likely to have scored highly on the neuroticism scale or exhibited antisocial behaviour when they were teenagers, and to have had prior experience of mental and physical health problems in adult life. Those whose parents had divorced reported more distress in midlife, particularly if they too had experienced marital breakdown. These factors accounted for the associations between some of the adult sources of risk, particularly those to do with interpersonal difficulties or poor adult socioeconomic circumstances, and psychological distress in midlife. There was no evidence that concurrent menopausal status had any effect on the level of psychological symptoms except for those women on hormone replacement therapy who had a small and independent additional risk. More attention to a long term temporal perspective is warranted in research on the causes of psychological distress in women at midlife.

  2. Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) reassure others in distress

    PubMed Central

    de Waal, Frans B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Contact directed by uninvolved bystanders toward others in distress, often termed consolation, is uncommon in the animal kingdom, thus far only demonstrated in the great apes, canines, and corvids. Whereas the typical agonistic context of such contact is relatively rare within natural elephant families, other causes of distress may trigger similar, other-regarding responses. In a study carried out at an elephant camp in Thailand, we found that elephants affiliated significantly more with other individuals through directed, physical contact and vocal communication following a distress event than in control periods. In addition, bystanders affiliated with each other, and matched the behavior and emotional state of the first distressed individual, suggesting emotional contagion. The initial distress responses were overwhelmingly directed toward ambiguous stimuli, thus making it difficult to determine if bystanders reacted to the distressed individual or showed a delayed response to the same stimulus. Nonetheless, the directionality of the contacts and their nature strongly suggest attention toward the emotional states of conspecifics. The elephants’ behavior is therefore best classified with similar consolation responses by apes, possibly based on convergent evolution of empathic capacities. PMID:24688856

  3. Psychological distress and prejudice following terror attacks in France.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Robin; Kaniasty, Krzysztof; Sun, Shaojing; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2017-03-16

    Terrorist attacks have the capacity to threaten our beliefs about the world, cause distress across populations and promote discrimination towards particular groups. We examined the impact of two different types of attacks in the same city and same year on psychological distress and probable posttraumatic stress symptoms, and the moderating effects of religion or media use on distress/posttraumatic symptoms and inter-group relations. Two panel surveys four weeks after the January 2015 Charlie Hebdo attack (N = 1981) and the November 2015 Bataclan concert hall/restaurant attacks (N = 1878), measured intrinsic religiosity, social and traditional media use, psychological distress (K6), probable posttraumatic stress symptoms (proposed ICD-11), symbolic racism and willingness to interact with Muslims by non-Muslims. Prevalence of serious mental illness (K6 score > 18) was higher after November 2015 attacks (7.0% after the first attack, 10.2% the second, χ2 (1) = 5.67, p < 0.02), as were probable posttraumatic stress symptoms (11.9% vs. 14.1%; χ2 (1) = 4.15, p < 0.04). In structural equation analyses, sex, age, geographic proximity, media use and religiosity were associated with distress, as was the interaction between event and religiosity. Distress was then associated with racism symbolism and willingness to interact with Muslims. Implications are considered for managing psychological trauma across populations, and protecting inter-group harmony.

  4. Learning the Nation in Exile: Constructing Youth Identities, Belonging and "Citizenship" in Palestinian Refugee Camps in South Lebanon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincham, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the ways in which "Palestine" and "Palestinianess" are culturally, socially and symbolically produced and regulated through formal and non-formal institutional sites in Palestinian camps in south Lebanon. It argues that although institutional power, processes and outcomes help to construct shared notions of…

  5. Public involvement in suicide prevention: understanding and strengthening lay responses to distress

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Christabel; Owen, Gareth; Lambert, Helen; Donovan, Jenny; Belam, Judith; Rapport, Frances; Lloyd, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Background The slogan "Suicide prevention is everyone's business" has been used in a number of campaigns worldwide in recent years, but most research into suicide prevention has focused on the role of medical professionals in identifying and managing risk. Little consideration has been given to the role that lay people can play in suicide prevention, or to the resources they need in order to do so. The majority of people who take their own lives are not under the care of specialist mental health services, and around half have not had recent contact with their general practitioner. These individuals are not known to be 'at risk' and there is little or no opportunity for clinical intervention. Family members and friends may be the only ones to know that a person is troubled or distressed, and their capacity to recognise, assess and respond to that distress is therefore vitally important. This study aims to discover what the suicidal process looks like from the point of view of relatives and friends and to gain insight into the complex and difficult judgements that people have to make when trying to support a distressed individual. Methods/Design The study uses qualitative methods to build up a detailed picture of 15–20 completed suicides, aged 18–34. Data are gathered by means of in-depth interviews with relatives, friends and others who knew the deceased well. In each case, as many informants as possible are sought using a purposive snowballing technique. Interviews focus on the family and social network of the deceased, the ways in which relatives and friends interpreted and responded to his/her distress, the potential for intervention that may have existed within the lay network and the knowledge, skills and other resources that would have helped members to support the distressed individual more effectively. Discussion The study will inform interventions to promote public mental health awareness and will provide a basis on which to develop community

  6. The ethics of distress: toward a framework for determining the ethical acceptability of distressing health promotion advertising.

    PubMed

    Brown, Stephen L; Whiting, Demian

    2014-04-01

    Distressing health promotion advertising involves the elicitation of negative emotion to increase the likelihood that health messages will stimulate audience members to adopt healthier behaviors. Irrespective of its effectiveness, distressing advertising risks harming audience members who do not consent to the intervention and are unable to withdraw from it. Further, the use of these approaches may increase the potential for unfairness or stigmatization toward those targeted, or be considered unacceptable by some sections of the public. We acknowledge and discuss these concerns, but, using the public health ethics literature as a guide, argue that distressing advertising can be ethically defensible if conditions of effectiveness, proportionality necessity, least infringement, and public accountability are satisfied. We do not take a broad view as to whether distressing advertising is ethical or unethical, because we see the evidence for both the effectiveness of distressing approaches and their potential to generate iatrogenic effects to be inconclusive. However, we believe it possible to use the current evidence base to make informed estimates of the likely consequences of specific message presentations. Messages can be pre-tested and monitored to identify and deal with potential problems. We discuss how advertisers can approach the problems of deciding on the appropriate intensity of ethical review, and evaluating prospective distressing advertising campaigns against the conditions outlined.

  7. eDiary and Female Sexual Distress Scale(©) in evaluating distress in hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD).

    PubMed

    Derogatis, Leonard R; Clayton, Anita H; Goldstein, Andrew; Lewis-D'Agostino, Diane; Wunderlich, Glen; Cotton, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Sex-related distress is integral to the diagnosis of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). This article describes the results of three prospective, non-treatment validation studies (two North American and one European), each testing over 200 participants with HSDD, other types of female sexual dysfunction (FSD), or no FSD in which the 12-item Female Sexual Distress Scale(©) (FSDS(©)), the 13-item FSDS-Revised(©)(FSDS-R(©)), and a single question asked using a daily electronic diary (the eDiary For HSDD Trials(©); eDiary) were used to measure sex-related distress. FSDS results with 30- and seven-day recall were equivalent. The results observed with FSDS-R Item 13 (a single question assessing concern due to low sexual desire) were comparable to the FSDS. Mean eDiary monthly distress scores were closer to the minimum possible score (equivalent to "a little bit" of distress) and were about twice as variable as FSDS or FSDS-R Item 13 scores in participants with HSDD. All three measures confirmed that there is more distress in women with HSDD compared to women with no sexual dysfunction at all time points, demonstrating discriminant validity.

  8. Help Helps, but Only so Much: Research on Help Seeking with Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleven, Vincent; Roll, Ido; McLaren, Bruce M.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    Help seeking is an important process in self-regulated learning (SRL). It may influence learning with intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs), because many ITSs provide help, often at the student's request. The Help Tutor was a tutor agent that gave in-context, real-time feedback on students' help-seeking behavior, as they were learning with an ITS.…

  9. Patterns of electronic cigarette use and level of psychological distress

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Lily; Shearston, Jenni A.; Weitzman, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background Psychological distress has been correlated with higher levels of nicotine dependence. To date, the possible association between individuals’ levels of psychological distress and e-cigarette use has not been investigated, despite the dramatic growth of e-cigarette use in the US. We examined this possible association using a nationally representative sample of US adults. Methods A total of 36,697 adults from the 2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were included. The Kessler 6 scale was used to measure psychological distress. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the association between level of psychological distress and e-cigarette use. Results Both e-cigarette and cigarette use varied according to level of psychological distress as well as multiple socio-demographic characteristics. In a multivariate model, psychological distress was significantly associated with the following groups: (a) exclusive e-cigarette ever-use (aOR = 3.7; 95% CI = 1.6, 8.6), (b) current dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes (aOR = 4.6; 95% CI = 3.1, 6.7), (c) former cigarette use and ever use of e-cigarette (aOR = 3.2; 95% CI = 2.2, 4.8) and (d) current use of cigarettes only (aOR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.7, 2.6). Conclusion These are the first data to demonstrate that, as is true for cigarettes, e-cigarette use is associated with increased levels of psychological distress. Further large-scale, longitudinal studies are needed to determine the direction of this relationship and to evaluate the long-term positive and negative consequences of such use. PMID:28278239

  10. A Web-Based Training Program Using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Alleviate Psychological Distress Among Employees: Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tajima, Miyuki; Kimura, Risa; Sasaki, Norio; Somemura, Hironori; Ito, Yukio; Okanoya, June; Yamamoto, Megumi; Nakamura, Saki; Tanaka, Katsutoshi

    2014-01-01

    initially exhibited clinically significant psychological distress (K6 score ≥5) showed that the mean K6 score was significantly improved immediately after training completion for the training group compared to the control group (−2.50 vs −0.07; mean difference 2.43, 95% CI 0.55-4.31; d=0.61), with this effect remaining even after 6 months (−3.49 vs −0.50; mean difference 2.99, 95% CI 0.70-5.29; d=0.60). Conclusions Our results suggest that a brief stress management program that combines group CBT education with Web-based CBT homework moderately alleviates the distress of employees with clinically significant psychological distress. In addition, the program might help improve employees’ ability to evaluate their own stress management skills. PMID:25470499

  11. Help Seeking and Help Design in Interactive Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleven, Vincent; Stahl, Elmar; Schworm, Silke; Fischer, Frank; Wallace, Raven

    2003-01-01

    Many interactive learning environments (ILEs) offer on-demand help, intended to positively influence learning. Recent studies report evidence that although effective help-seeking behavior in ILEs is related to better learning outcomes, learners are not using help facilities effectively. This selective review (a) examines theoretical perspectives…

  12. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: the Berlin Definition.

    PubMed

    Ranieri, V Marco; Rubenfeld, Gordon D; Thompson, B Taylor; Ferguson, Niall D; Caldwell, Ellen; Fan, Eddy; Camporota, Luigi; Slutsky, Arthur S

    2012-06-20

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was defined in 1994 by the American-European Consensus Conference (AECC); since then, issues regarding the reliability and validity of this definition have emerged. Using a consensus process, a panel of experts convened in 2011 (an initiative of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine endorsed by the American Thoracic Society and the Society of Critical Care Medicine) developed the Berlin Definition, focusing on feasibility, reliability, validity, and objective evaluation of its performance. A draft definition proposed 3 mutually exclusive categories of ARDS based on degree of hypoxemia: mild (200 mm Hg < PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 300 mm Hg), moderate (100 mm Hg < PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 200 mm Hg), and severe (PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 100 mm Hg) and 4 ancillary variables for severe ARDS: radiographic severity, respiratory system compliance (≤40 mL/cm H2O), positive end-expiratory pressure (≥10 cm H2O), and corrected expired volume per minute (≥10 L/min). The draft Berlin Definition was empirically evaluated using patient-level meta-analysis of 4188 patients with ARDS from 4 multicenter clinical data sets and 269 patients with ARDS from 3 single-center data sets containing physiologic information. The 4 ancillary variables did not contribute to the predictive validity of severe ARDS for mortality and were removed from the definition. Using the Berlin Definition, stages of mild, moderate, and severe ARDS were associated with increased mortality (27%; 95% CI, 24%-30%; 32%; 95% CI, 29%-34%; and 45%; 95% CI, 42%-48%, respectively; P < .001) and increased median duration of mechanical ventilation in survivors (5 days; interquartile [IQR], 2-11; 7 days; IQR, 4-14; and 9 days; IQR, 5-17, respectively; P < .001). Compared with the AECC definition, the final Berlin Definition had better predictive validity for mortality, with an area under the receiver operating curve of 0.577 (95% CI, 0.561-0.593) vs 0.536 (95% CI, 0.520-0.553; P

  13. Live Music Therapy as an Active Focus of Attention for Pain and Behavioral Symptoms of Distress During Pediatric Immunization.

    PubMed

    Sundar, Sumathy; Ramesh, Bhuvaneswari; Dixit, Priyanka B; Venkatesh, Soma; Das, Prarthana; Gunasekaran, Dhandapany

    2016-07-01

    A total of 100 children coming for routine immunization to pediatric outpatient department were included and were divided into experiment (n = 50) and control (n = 50) groups. Experiment group received live music therapy during immunization procedure. Control group received no intervention. The Modified Behavior Pain Scale (MBPS), 10-point pain levels, and 10-point distress levels were documented by parents. Duration of crying was recorded by investigators. Pre- and postimmunization blood pressures and heart rates of parents holding the children were also measured and recorded by investigators. Independent and paired t tests were used for analysis. All 3 domains of the Modified Behavior Pain Scale and duration of crying showed significant improvement (P < .05) in the experiment group. Pain and distress levels also showed statistically nonsignificant improvement in experiment group. Blood pressure and heart rate of parents showed no difference. Music therapy could be helpful to children, parents, and health care providers by reducing discomfort of the child during pediatric immunization.

  14. Implementing screening for distress: the joint position statement from the American Psychosocial Oncology Society, Association of Oncology Social Work, and Oncology Nursing Society.

    PubMed

    2013-09-01

    In 2015, the American College of Surgeons (ACoS) Commission on Cancer (CoC) will require cancer centers to implement screening programs for psychosocial distress as a new criterion for accreditation.1 Distress, an indicator of suffering and predictor of poor health and quality of life outcomes throughout the disease trajectory, is common and treatable.2-10 Emerging research suggests that screening for and addressing distress not only enhances quality of life but may also be associated with improved cancer outcomes.11-13 Unfortunately, distress often goes unrecognized in oncology care, necessitating the development of systematic methods for its identification and management.14,15 Our organizations wholly endorse the new CoC standard 3.2 on psychosocial distress screening and recognize that it will help address unmet psychosocial needs and improve "cancer care for the whole patient."16 While the CoC standard articulates basic components and processes that must be included in the implementation of screening, there remain some key issues that we believe are critical to quality patient care. This statement summarizes our position on these issues.

  15. 'The Right Ventricle in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome'.

    PubMed

    Zochios, Vasileios; Parhar, Ken; Tunnicliffe, William; Roscoe, Andrew; Gao, Fang

    2017-03-03

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome is associated with poor clinical outcomes with a pooled mortality rate of approximately 40% despite best standards of care. Current therapeutic strategies are based upon improving oxygenation and pulmonary compliance while minimizing ventilator induced lung injury. It has been demonstrated that relative hypoxemia can be well tolerated and improvements in oxygenation do not necessarily translate into survival benefit. Cardiac failure, in particular right ventricular dysfunction, is commonly encountered in moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and is reported to be one of the major determinants of mortality. The prevalence rate of echocardiographically evident right ventricular dysfunction in acute respiratory distress syndrome varies across studies ranging from 22% to 50%. Although there is no definitive causal relationship between right ventricular dysfunction and mortality, severe right ventricular dysfunction is associated with increased mortality. Factors that can adversely affect right ventricular function include hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, hypercapnia, and invasive ventilation with high driving pressure. It might be expected that early diagnosis of right ventricular dysfunction would be of benefit however, echocardiography markers (qualitative and quantitative) used to prospectively evaluate the right ventricle in acute respiratory distress syndrome have not been tested in adequately powered studies. In this review we examine the prognostic implications and pathophysiology of right ventricular dysfunction in acute respiratory distress syndrome and discuss available diagnostic modalities and treatment options. We aim to identify gaps in knowledge and directions for future research that could potentially improve clinical outcomes in this patient population.

  16. Executive Summary: Transforming Moral Distress into Moral Resilience in Nursing.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Cynda Hylton; Schoonover-Shoffner, Kathy; Kennedy, Maureen Shawn

    2017-02-01

    : To examine practices for addressing moral distress, a collaborative project was developed by the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics, the Johns Hopkins School of Nursing, the American Journal of Nursing, and the Journal of Christian Nursing, along with the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses and the American Nurses Association. Its purpose was to identify strategies that individuals and systems can use to mitigate the detrimental effects of moral distress and foster moral resilience. On August 11 and 12, 2016, an invitational symposium, State of the Science: Transforming Moral Distress into Moral Resilience in Nursing, was held at the Johns Hopkins School of Nursing in Baltimore, Maryland. Forty-five nurse clinicians, researchers, ethicists, organization representatives, and other stakeholders took part. The result of the symposium was group consensus on recommendations for addressing moral distress and building moral resilience in four areas: practice, education, research, and policy. Participants and the organizations represented were energized and committed to moving this agenda forward. The full report is available online at http://journals.lww.com/ajnonline/Pages/Moral-Distress-Supplement.aspx.

  17. The many faces of moral distress among clinicians.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Cynda Hylton; Boss, Renee; Hallett, Kristina; Hensel, Jaime; Humphrey, G Bennett; Les, Jessica; Mack, Cheryl; McCammon, Susan; Murray, John S; Nathanson, Esther; Pniewski, Janet; Shuham, A M t; Volpe, Rebecca L

    2013-01-01

    This narrative symposium illuminates the problem of clinician moral distress. NIB editorial staff and narrative symposium editors, Cynda Rushton, PhD, RN, FAAN and Renee Boss, MD, MHS, developed a call for stories, which was sent to several list serves and posted on Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics' website. The request for personal stories from inter-professional healthcare providers asked them to: identify specific clinical situations that give rise to moral distress; discuss the sources of this distress; reflect on how they experienced moral distress-physically, psychologically, socially, or spiritually; assess how they managed their situations; and offer suggestions for avoiding future problems of a similar nature. Twelve stories are found in the print version of the journal and an additional eight supplemental stories are published online only through Project MUSE. The clinicians describe a wide range of experiences with patients, other clinicians, and their own professional and personal identities. Embedded in each of the narratives are deeply felt emotions that accompany their experiences of moral distress. Katherine Brown-Saltzman (a nurse), Alisa Carse (a philosopher), Zhanna Bagdasarov and Shane Connelly (industrial-organizational psychologists), and Nancy Berlinger (a bioethicist) provided commentaries.

  18. Terrorism, distress, and drinking: vulnerability and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Richman, Judith A; Rospenda, Kathleen M; Cloninger, Lea

    2009-12-01

    Research has demonstrated effects of 9/11 on distress and drinking outcomes in individuals directly affected and indirectly affected across the United States. Fewer studies have addressed vulnerability and protective factors shown to moderate the effects of stress exposure. We report findings from a Midwestern workplace cohort study. Respondents to a 6 wave longitudinal mail survey completed questionnaires prior to September 11, 2001 and again in 2003 and 2005. Regression analyses encompassed measures of terrorism-related beliefs and fears, workplace stressors (sexual harassment, generalized abuse and low decision latitude), marital and parental status, and perceived social support in 2003, and distress and deleterious drinking outcomes in 2005. Analyses showed that terrorism-related fears significantly interacted with workplace stressors and interpersonal social relationships in predicting distress, drinking or both, controlling for pre-9/11 distress and drinking. Gender differences were also found. This article suggests that certain individuals may be at heightened risk for distressful reactions to and/or deleterious drinking resulting from terrorism-related issues and fears due to additional risk factors involving workplace stressors and inadequate interpersonal bonds. However, limitations of the study were noted and future research was recommended.

  19. Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Marijuana Sections Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma? Why Eye ... Don't Recommend Marijuana for Glaucoma Infographic Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma? Written by: David Turbert , contributing ...

  20. Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure Page Content Article Body Teens are more likely ... time they had intercourse. Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure “The pressure on teenagers to have sex is ...

  1. Tourette Syndrome: Help Stop Bullying

    MedlinePlus

    ... Past Emails CDC Features Tourette Syndrome: Help Stop Bullying Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... you can increase acceptance by helping to stop bullying of children with TS. Bullying doesn't just ...

  2. Helping Kids Deal with Bullies

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Helping Kids Deal With Bullies KidsHealth > For Parents > Helping Kids Deal With Bullies ... will be prepared if it does happen. Identifying Bullying Most kids have been teased by a sibling ...

  3. Children's Help Seeking and Impulsivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puustinen, Minna; Kokkonen, Marja; Tolvanen, Asko; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between students' (100 children aged 8 to 12) help-seeking behavior and impulsivity. Help-seeking behavior was evaluated using a naturalistic experimental paradigm in which children were placed in a problem-solving situation and had the opportunity to seek help from the experimenter, if…

  4. How Stitches Help Kids Heal

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? How Stitches Help Kids Heal KidsHealth > For Kids > How Stitches Help Kids Heal A A A What's in this ... the directions carefully with your mom's or dad's help. Different kinds of materials — sutures, glue, and butterflies — ...

  5. Anhedonia and general distress show dissociable ventromedial prefrontal cortex connectivity in major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Young, C B; Chen, T; Nusslock, R; Keller, J; Schatzberg, A F; Menon, V

    2016-01-01

    Anhedonia, the reduced ability to experience pleasure in response to otherwise rewarding stimuli, is a core symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD). Although the posterior ventromedial prefrontal cortex (pVMPFC) and its functional connections have been consistently implicated in MDD, their roles in anhedonia remain poorly understood. Furthermore, it is unknown whether anhedonia is primarily associated with intrinsic ‘resting-state' pVMPFC functional connectivity or an inability to modulate connectivity in a context-specific manner. To address these gaps, a pVMPFC region of interest was first identified using activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis. pVMPFC connectivity was then examined in relation to anhedonia and general distress symptoms of depression, using both resting-state and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging involving pleasant music, in current MDD and healthy control groups. In MDD, pVMPFC connectivity was negatively correlated with anhedonia but not general distress during music listening in key reward- and emotion-processing regions, including nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra, orbitofrontal cortex and insula, as well as fronto-temporal regions involved in tracking complex sound sequences, including middle temporal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus. No such dissociations were observed in the healthy controls, and resting-state pVMPFC connectivity did not dissociate anhedonia from general distress in either group. Our findings demonstrate that anhedonia in MDD is associated with context-specific deficits in pVMPFC connectivity with the mesolimbic reward system when encountering pleasurable stimuli, rather than a static deficit in intrinsic resting-state connectivity. Critically, identification of functional circuits associated with anhedonia better characterizes MDD heterogeneity and may help track of one of its core symptoms. PMID:27187232

  6. Floating on Air: Fulfillment and Self-in-Context for Distressed Japanese Women.

    PubMed

    Saint Arnault, Denise; Shimabukuro, Shizuka

    2016-05-01

    This research was part of a larger mixed-methods study examining culture, distress, and help seeking. We surveyed 209 Japanese women living in the United States recruited from clinic and community-based sites, and carried out semi-structured ethnographic interviews with a highly distressed subsample of 25 Japanese. Analytic Ethnography revealed that women described themselves as a "self-in-context," negotiating situations using protective resources or experiencing risk exposure. Women experienced quality of life (QOL) when they were successful. However, a related goal of achievingIkigai(or purpose in life) was differentiated from QOL, and was defined as an ongoing process of searching for balance between achieving social and individual fulfillment. Our resulting hypothetical model suggested that symptom level would be related to risk and protective factors (tested for the full sample) and to specific risk and protective phenomenon (tested in the distressed subsample). Thettests in the full sample found that women who were above threshold for depressive symptoms (n= 26) had higher social stressor and lower social support means. Women who were above the threshold for physical symptoms (n= 99) had higher social stressor means. Analysis of the interviewed subsample found that low self-validation and excessive responsibilities were related to high physical symptoms. We conclude that perceived lack of balance between culturally defined, and potentially opposing, markers of success can create a stressful dilemma for first-generation immigrant Japanese women, requiring new skills to achieve balance. Perceptions of health, as well as illness, are part of complex culturally based interpretations that have implications for intervention for immigrant Japanese women living in the United States.

  7. Recurrent headache and interpersonal violence in adolescence: the roles of psychological distress, loneliness and family cohesion: the HUNT study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recurrent headache is the most common and disabling pain condition in adolescence. Co-occurrence of psychosocial adversity is associated with increased risk of chronification and functional impairment. Exposure to interpersonal violence seems to constitute an important etiological factor. Thus, knowledge of the multiple pathways linking interpersonal violence to recurrent headache could help guide preventive and clinical interventions. In the present study we explored a hypothetical causal model where the link between exposure to interpersonal violence and recurrent headache is mediated in parallel through loneliness and psychological distress. Higher level of family cohesion and male sex is hypothesized to buffer the adverse effect of exposure to interpersonal violence on headache. Methods The model was assessed using data from the cross-sectional, population-based Young-HUNT 3 study of Norwegian adolescents, conducted from 2006–2008. A cohort of 10 464 adolescents were invited. The response rate was 73% (7620), age ranged from 12 and 20 years, and 50% (3832) were girls. The study comprised self-report measures of exposure to interpersonal violence, loneliness, psychological distress and family cohesion, in addition to a validated interview on headache, meeting the International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria. Recurrent headache was defined as headache recurring at least monthly during the past year, and sub-classified into monthly and weekly headache, which served as separate outcomes. Results In Conditional Process Analysis, loneliness and psychological distress consistently posed as parallel mediating mechanisms, indirectly linking exposure to interpersonal violence to recurrent headache. We found no substantial moderating effect of family cohesion or sex. Conclusions Loneliness and psychological distress seem to play crucial roles in the relationship between exposure to interpersonal violence and recurrent headache. To facilitate

  8. Intimate Partner Violence Victimization and Romantic Relationship Distress Among White and Mexican Newlyweds.

    PubMed

    Hammett, Julia F; Ulloa, Emilio C; Castañeda, Donna M; Hokoda, Audrey

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the association between intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and romantic relationship distress in a sample of 100 heterosexual White and Mexican American couples. Data were collected during the first and during the third year of marriage. In the overall sample, wives' own IPV victimization was associated with wives' increased distress and husbands' IPV victimization was associated with wives' decreased distress. Among Mexican Americans, wives' IPV victimization was related to husbands' increased distress, whereas among White Americans, wives' IPV victimization was related to husbands' decreased distress. These results indicate that the association between IPV victimization and relationship distress may not only differ by gender but also by ethnicity.

  9. Psychological distress and milk volume in lactating mothers.

    PubMed

    Hill, Pamela D; Aldag, Jean C; Chatterton, Robert T; Zinaman, Michael

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold: (a) to compare psychological distress as measured via self-reported perceived stress, sleep, and fatigue levels in lactating mothers of a term infant and mothers of a preterm infant and(b) to determine whether the addition of psychological distress to a previous model predicts milk volume at Postpartum Week 6 by gestation group. The convenience sample of 95 mothers of a preterm infant (31 weeks) and 98 mothers of a term infant completed the Perceived Stress Visual Analogue Scale, Richards-Campbell Sleep Questionnaire, and the Fatigue Visual Analog Scale. Stress, sleep difficulty, and fatigue levels decreased during the 6-week study period for mothers of a term but not for mothers of a preterm infant. Perceived stress, sleep difficulty, and fatigue during the first 6 weeks postpartum were not related to milk volume; thus, the mother's perceived psychological distress had no apparent effect on lactation.

  10. Psychological distress and alcohol use among fire fighters.

    PubMed

    Boxer, P A; Wild, D

    1993-04-01

    Few studies have investigated stressors to which fire fighters are subjected and the potential psychological consequences. One hundred and forty-five fire fighters were studied to enumerate potential occupational stressors, assess psychological distress and problems with alcohol use, and determine whether a relationship exists between these measures and self-reported stressors. Hearing that children are in a burning building was the highest ranked stressor. According to three self-report instruments, between 33 and 41% of the fire fighters were experiencing significant psychological distress, and 29% had possible or probable problems with alcohol use. These figures are significantly higher than would be expected in a typical community or working population. In a logistic regression analysis, no relationship was found between measures of psychological distress and alcohol use and the 10 most highly ranked work stressors.

  11. Moral distress in nurses in oncology and haematology units.

    PubMed

    Lazzarin, Michela; Biondi, Andrea; Di Mauro, Stefania

    2012-03-01

    One of the difficulties nurses experience in clinical practice in relation to ethical issues in connection with young oncology patients is moral distress. In this descriptive correlational study, the Moral Distress Scale-Paediatric Version (MDS-PV) was translated from the original language and tested on a conventional sample of nurses working in paediatric oncology and haematology wards, in six north paediatric hospitals of Italy. 13.7% of the total respondents claimed that they had changed unit or hospital due to moral distress. The items with the highest mean intensity in the sample were almost all connected with medical and nursing competence and have considerably higher values than frequency. The instrument was found to be reliable. The results confirmed the validity of the MDS-PV (Cronbach's alpha = 0.959). This study represents the first small-scale attempt to validate MDS-PV for use in paediatric oncology-haematology nurses in Italy.

  12. Muted neural response to distress among securely attached people

    PubMed Central

    Prentice, Mike; Hirsh, Jacob; McGregor, Ian; Inzlicht, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Neural processes that support individual differences in attachment security and affect regulation are currently unclear. Using electroencephalography, we examined whether securely attached individuals, compared with insecure individuals, would show a muted neural response to experimentally manipulated distress. Participants completed a reaction time task that elicits error commission and the error-related negativity (ERN)—a neural signal sensitive to error-related distress—both before and after a distressing insecurity threat. Despite similar pre-threat levels, secure participants showed a stable ERN, whereas insecure participants showed a post-threat increase in ERN amplitude. These results suggest a neural mechanism that allows securely attached people to regulate distress. PMID:23887815

  13. Neonatal thyroid function: prematurity, prenatal steroids, and respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, R C; Purdie, G L; O'Grady, C M

    1986-01-01

    Indices of thyroid function were measured in 97 preterm infants at birth and at 5, 10, and 15 days of age. Triiodothyronine uptake, free thyroxine index, thyroxine, free thyroxine, triiodothyronine, reverse triiodothyronine, and thyroxine binding globulin values at birth correlated with gestational age, whereas thyroid stimulating hormone values did not. Treatment with steroids prenatally had no apparent effect on thyroid function at birth or postnatally. Infants developing respiratory distress syndrome had normal values for all indices at birth. These infants had significantly lower thyroxine, free thyroxine index, free thyroxine, and triiodothyronine values at 5 days of age, while thyroid stimulating hormone values remained normal. This alteration in thyroid function was interpreted as being secondary to respiratory distress syndrome. Gestational maturity and respiratory distress syndrome, if present, must be taken into account when evaluating thyroxine variables in preterm infants, whereas measurement of thyroid stimulating hormone as the screen for congenital hypothyroidism circumvents these considerations. PMID:3729529

  14. Discrimination and Psychological Distress among Recently Released Male Prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Turney, Kristin; Lee, Hedwig; Comfort, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Though theoretical perspectives suggest experiences of stigma and discrimination after release may be one pathway through which incarceration leads to poor mental health, little research considers the relationship between discrimination and mental health among former inmates. In this paper, data from a sample of men recently released from prison to Oakland or San Francisco, California (N = 172), is used to consider how criminal record discrimination and racial/ethnic discrimination are independently and cumulatively associated with psychological distress. Results indicate (1) the frequency of criminal record discrimination and racial/ethnic discrimination are similar; (2) both forms of discrimination are independently, negatively associated with psychological distress; and (3) the level of racial/ethnic discrimination does not alter the association between criminal record discrimination and psychological distress. The results highlight that criminal record discrimination is an important social stressor with negative implications for the mental health of previously incarcerated individuals. PMID:23553444

  15. Foetal blood sampling. Practical approach to management of foetal distress.

    PubMed

    Coltart, T M; Trickey, N R; Beard, R W

    1969-02-08

    The practical application of foetal blood sampling in the routine management of patients in labour has been reviewed in a six-month survey, during which time 1,668 patients were delivered at Queen Charlotte's Hospital.Foetal acidaemia (pH 7.25 or less) occurred in 45 of the 295 patients who showed clinical signs of foetal distress. Foetal tachycardia was the presenting sign in 33 of these 45 patients, underlining the importance of this physical sign. Foetal acidaemia in association with clinical foetal distress occurred twice as often in patients who had complications of pregnancy and who were therefore regarded as obstetrically "at risk" as it did in patients who were obstetrically "normal" No cases of acidaemia were detected in any of the foetal blood samples performed routinely on "at-risk" patients in the absence of clinical foetal distress.

  16. Online Information Searches and Help Seeking for Mental Health Problems in Urban China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Zhu, Shizhan

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, the Internet has emerged as an alternative information source on mental health problems. Yet, the profile of the typical Internet help seeker is to be determined. Based on data from a household survey of 2558 Beijing residents, the study investigates online information searches and help seeking for mental health problems. Multinomial logistic regressions are estimated for respondents' access to the Internet, and mental-health-related information searches and help seeking on the Internet for the whole community sample and the most psychologically distressed subsample. The study identifies a digital divide in online help seeking for mental health issues based on age, migration and hukou status, and socio-economic factors. Youth and high socio-economic status are significant predictors of Internet access and use. Among the whole community sample, rural-to-urban migrants are less likely to have access to the Internet and search information or seek help online. Among the most psychologically distressed subsample, urban-to-urban migrants are significantly more likely to have access to the Internet and search information or seek help online. Given the shortage of mental health professionals in China, online information dissemination and guided self-help, if properly designed, could offer a means to reach large numbers of individuals in a cost-effective manner.

  17. Psychological distress related to BRCA testing in ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Bjørnslett, Merete; Dahl, Alv A; Sørebø, Øystein; Dørum, Anne

    2015-12-01

    An increasing demand for genetic testing has moved the procedure from highly selected at-risk individuals, now also including cancer patients for treatment associated testing. The heritable fraction of ovarian cancer is more than 10%, and our department has offered BRCA testing to such patients irrespective of family history since 2002. This study examined potential psychosocial distress associated with this procedure using The Multidimensional Impact of Cancer Risk Assessment (MICRA) questionnaire and other patient-rated generic distress instruments. Patients were divided into four groups according to cancer risk: mutation carriers, own history of breast cancer and ovarian cancer, family history of breast cancer and/or ovarian cancer, and patients without family history. In a postal survey, 354 patients responded. Good acceptance of the MICRA was observed, and previously described good psychometric properties were confirmed. A significant association between MICRA total score and receiving a positive BRCA test result was found. No significant between-group differences were observed with generic distress instruments. Time since cancer diagnosis, test result, and survey showed no significant associations with MICRA scores. Internal consistencies of instruments were adequate. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed adequate fit indices for a three factor solution of the MICRA, but further refinement of the items should be considered. In conclusion, the specific types of worry and distress most relevant to receiving genetic testing irrespective of family history were not captured by the generic distress instruments. The MICRA was supported as a useful tool for detection of mental distress related to genetic testing and risk evaluation.

  18. Psychological distress and coping in military cadre candidates

    PubMed Central

    Nakkas, Can; Annen, Hubert; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background Soldiers must cope with stressors during both military operations and training if they are to accomplish their missions successfully and stay mentally stable. This holds true particularly for military superiors, as they bear greater responsibilities and must meet greater demands during both deployment and training. Accordingly, in the present study, we investigated whether recruits chosen for further promotion at the end of basic training differed with regard to psychological distress and coping strategies from those not chosen for promotion, and whether recruits’ coping styles and distress levels were associated. Methods A total of 675 Swiss recruits took part in the study. At the beginning of basic training, recruits filled out self-rating questionnaires covering demographic data, psychological distress (depression, somatization, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, and hostility), and coping styles. Results were compared between those recruits who received a recommendation for further promotion at the end of basic training and those who did not. Results Recruits selected for promotion had lower scores for depressive symptoms and hostility, engaged more in active coping, and considered their coping to be more effective. Dysfunctional and functional coping were associated with higher and lower distress levels, respectively. Conclusion Recruits recommended for promotion exhibited less psychological distress during basic training and exhibited a socially more conducive profile of distress. They also endorsed more efficient and more prosocial coping strategies than those recruits not recommended for promotion. These cognitive–emotional features not only contribute to resilience but are also consistent with leadership research, indicating the importance of emotional stability and prosocial behavior in successful leaders. PMID:27621634

  19. Patterns of gender equality at workplaces and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Elwér, Sofia; Harryson, Lisa; Bolin, Malin; Hammarström, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Research in the field of occupational health often uses a risk factor approach which has been criticized by feminist researchers for not considering the combination of many different variables that are at play simultaneously. To overcome this shortcoming this study aims to identify patterns of gender equality at workplaces and to investigate how these patterns are associated with psychological distress. Questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 715) have been analysed and supplemented with register data about the participants' workplaces. The register data were used to create gender equality indicators of women/men ratios of number of employees, educational level, salary and parental leave. Cluster analysis was used to identify patterns of gender equality at the workplaces. Differences in psychological distress between the clusters were analysed by chi-square test and logistic regression analyses, adjusting for individual socio-demographics and previous psychological distress. The cluster analysis resulted in six distinctive clusters with different patterns of gender equality at the workplaces that were associated to psychological distress for women but not for men. For women the highest odds of psychological distress was found on traditionally gender unequal workplaces. The lowest overall occurrence of psychological distress as well as same occurrence for women and men was found on the most gender equal workplaces. The results from this study support the convergence hypothesis as gender equality at the workplace does not only relate to better mental health for women, but also more similar occurrence of mental ill-health between women and men. This study highlights the importance of utilizing a multidimensional view of gender equality to understand its association to health outcomes. Health policies need to consider gender equality at the workplace level as a social determinant of health that is of importance for reducing differences in health

  20. Slow dissolving of emotional distress contributes to hyperarousal

    PubMed Central

    Wassing, Rick; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Dekker, Kim; Moens, Sarah; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Riemann, Dieter; van der Sluis, Sophie; Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D.; Talamini, Lucia M.; Walker, Matthew P.; Schalkwijk, Frans; Van Someren, Eus J. W.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying hyperarousal, the key symptom of insomnia, have remained elusive, hampering cause-targeted treatment. Recently, restless rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep emerged as a robust signature of sleep in insomnia. Given the role of REM sleep in emotion regulation, we hypothesized that restless REM sleep could interfere with the overnight resolution of emotional distress, thus contributing to accumulation of arousal. Participants (n = 1,199) completed questionnaires on insomnia severity, hyperarousal, self-conscious emotional distress, and thought-like nocturnal mentation that was validated to be a specific proxy for restless REM sleep (selective fragmentation: R = 0.57, P < 0.001; eye movement density: R = 0.46, P < 0.01) in 32 polysomnographically assessed participants. The experience of distress lasting overnight increased with insomnia severity (β = 0.29, P < 10−23), whereas short-lasting distress did not (β = −0.02, P = 0.41). Insomnia severity was associated with hyperarousal (β = 0.47, P < 10−63) and with the thought-like nocturnal mentation that is specifically associated with restless REM sleep (β = 0.31, P < 10−26). Structural equation modeling showed that 62.4% of the association between these key characteristics of insomnia was mediated specifically by reduced overnight resolution of emotional distress. The model outperformed all alternative mediation pathways. The findings suggest that restless REM sleep reflects a process that interferes with the overnight resolution of distress. Its accumulation may promote the development of chronic hyperarousal, giving clinical relevance to the role of REM sleep in emotion regulation in insomnia, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. PMID:26858434

  1. Music reduces sensation and distress of labor pain.

    PubMed

    Phumdoung, Sasitorn; Good, Marion

    2003-06-01

    Labor pain is often severe, and analgesic medication may not be indicated. In this randomized controlled trial we examined the effects of music on sensation and distress of pain in Thai primiparous women during the active phase of labor. The gate control theory of pain was the theoretical framework for this study. Randomization with a computerized minimization program was used to assign women to a music group (n = 55) or a control group (n = 55). Women in the intervention group listened to soft music without lyrics for 3 hours starting early in the active phase of labor. Dual visual analog scales were used to measure sensation and distress of pain before starting the study and at three hourly posttests. While controlling for pretest scores, one-way repeated measures analysis of covariance indicated that those in the music group had significantly less sensation and distress of pain than did the control group (F (1, 107) = 18.69, p <.001, effect size =.15, and F (1, 107) = 14.87, p <.001, effect size =.12), respectively. Sensation and distress significantly increased across the 3 hours in both groups (p <.001), except for distress in the music group during the first hour. Distress was significantly lower than sensation in both groups (p <.05). In this controlled study, music--a mild to moderate strength intervention--consistently provided significant relief of severe pain across 3 hours of labor and delayed the increase of affective pain for 1 hour. Nurses can provide soft music to laboring women for greater pain relief during the active phase when contractions are strong and women suffer.

  2. The Lung Surfactant System in Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    STANDAROS- 193 A AD_ THE LUNG SURFACTANT SYSTEM IN ADULT RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME FINAL PROGRESS REPORT John U. Balls August 1980 Sponsored by: US...D-A12l 434 THE LUNG SURFACTANT SYvTKl-OJL E~~rP DISTRESS SYNDROME (U) UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA TAMPA COLL OF MEDICINE J U BALIS RUG 8S DRNDi7-78-C...SURFACTANT SYSTEM IN ADULT Final 1 November 1978 - RESPIRATORY DISTU~SS SYNDROME - 30 April 1980 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER * 7. AUTHOR(e) G. CONTRACT

  3. Successful Solutions to SSME/AT Development Turbine Blade Distress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Stuart K.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the High-Pressure Fuel Turbopump/Alternate Turbopump (HPFTP/AT) turbine blade development program, unique turbine blade design features were implemented to address 2nd stage turbine blade high cycle fatigue distress and improve turbine robustness. Features included the addition of platform featherseal dampers, asymmetric blade tip seal segments, gold plating of the blade attachments, and airfoil tip trailing edge modifications. Development testing shows these features have eliminated turbine blade high cycle fatigue distress and consequently these features are currently planned for incorporation to the flight configuration. Certification testing will begin in 1999. This presentation summarizes these features.

  4. [The Life Style Index: correlations with psychological distress and hostility].

    PubMed

    Hyphantis, T; Floros, G D; Goulia, P; Iconomou, G; Assimakopoulos, K

    2011-01-01

    The Life Style Index (LSI) was designed to assess defense mechanisms, assuming that their use is related to specific emotional states and diagnostic concepts. Aiming to further investigate the psychometric properties of the Greek version of the LSI, the aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of specific defense mechanisms with dimensions of psychological distress and hostility features in three different populations. The sample comprised 1261 adults (410 healthy participants, 723 medical patients and 128 psychiatric patients). Along with defense mechanisms (LSI), Psychological Distress (General Health Questionnaire, GHQ-28) and Hostility features (Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire, HDHQ) were also assessed. The results showed that increased psychological distress is related with increased use of all defenses except Denial, with which psychological distress is negatively associated. Regression is constantly related with psychological distress and differentiates psychiatric patients from the other groups of participants, while Compensation and Reaction Formation are related to depressive symptomatology. In medical patients, Repression was found to increase the physical dimension of psychological distress and the social dysfunction. On the contrary,Denial was negatively associated with these dimensions of psychological distress. In the psychiatric patient and healthy participant samples, Projection plays the most detrimental role. Regarding hostility and direction of hostility, those who were found to introvert their hostility presented with higher scores in Denial, indicating that they possibly 'deny' their hostility, and the degree of the Denial was found to be negatively associated with the degree of Introverted Hostility. Those who directed their hostility towards the others, presented with higher rates of Projection, while neither Denial nor Reaction Formation seemed sufficient enough to temper the degree of Extroverted

  5. Responsiveness to conspecific distress calls is influenced by day-roost proximity in bats (Saccopteryx bilineata)

    PubMed Central

    Eckenweber, Maria; Knörnschild, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Distress calls signal extreme physical distress, e.g. being caught by a predator. In many bat species, distress calls attract conspecifics. Because bats often occupy perennial day-roosts, they might adapt their responsiveness according to the social relevance in which distress calls are broadcast. Specifically, we hypothesized that conspecific distress calls broadcast within or in proximity to the day-roost would elicit a stronger responsiveness than distress calls broadcast at a foraging site. We analysed the distress calls and conducted playback experiments with the greater sac-winged bat, Saccopteryx bilineata, which occupies perennial day-roosts with a stable social group composition. S. bilineata reacted significantly differently depending on the playback's location. Bats were attracted to distress call playbacks within the day-roost and in proximity to it, but showed no obvious response to distress call playbacks at a foraging site. Hence, the bats adapted their responsiveness towards distress calls depending on the social relevance in which distress calls were broadcast. Distress calls within or in proximity to the day-roost are probably perceived as a greater threat and thus have a higher behavioural relevance than distress calls at foraging sites, either because bats want to assess the predation risk or because they engage in mobbing behaviour. PMID:27293797

  6. Variants of Uncertain Significance in BRCA Testing: Evaluation of Surgical Decisions, Risk Perception, and Cancer Distress

    PubMed Central

    Culver, J.O.; Brinkerhoff, C.D.; Clague, J.; Yang, K.; Singh, K.E.; Sand, S.R.; Weitzel, J.N.

    2013-01-01

    Studies suggest that patients carrying a BRCA variant of uncertain significance (VUS) may have lingering confusion concerning results interpretation. Counseling for uninformative BRCA-negative (UN) results is thought to be more straightforward, despite the fact that both results lead to similar methods of empiric cancer risk counseling. This study compared surgical choices and perceptions between 71 patients with VUS results and 714 patients with UN results. All patients underwent genetic counseling because of a personal or family history of breast or ovarian cancer between 1997 and 2010, and completed a two-year follow-up survey. Risk-reducing mastectomy rates in both groups were 7% (p=1.00) and risk-reducing oophorectomy rates were 5% and 3%, respectively (p=0.42). The VUS group reported less cancer distress reduction than the UN group (23.0% versus 35.8%, respectively, p=.043). Over 90% of both groups found the counseling process helpful. Overall, the study suggests that VUS results disclosed in genetic counseling did not cause excessive surgery or exaggerated cancer distress, though patients with a VUS found counseling somewhat less informative or reassuring. Future research on communication of VUS results, including pre-and post-test counseling, is essential for full realization of the potential for genomic medicine. PMID:23323793

  7. The Impact of School Social Support and Bullying Victimization on Psychological Distress among California Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Ra, Chaelin Karen; Zhang, Donglan; Zhang, Yunting; MacLeod, Kara E.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose National reports showed that over 20% of high school students were victims of bullying, which could potentially lead to psychological problems. School social support may be protective against mental distress linked with victimization. This study examined the main and moderating effects of social support from adults in schools on non-specific serious psychological distress (SPD) related to victimization among California adolescents. Methods Utilizing the 2011–2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS), we analyzed a representative sample of 2,799 adolescents aged 12–17 years old. Logistic regression analyses were conducted modeling the odds of SPD in relation to school social support and victimization. Results Adolescents who were victimized were twice as likely to have SPD compared to non-victims. Higher level of social support from adults in schools was protective against SPD, but did not buffer the effect of bullying exposure. Discussion Findings from the present study suggested that adult support from schools can help with students’ psychological problems but does not appear to prevent the psychological consequences of victimization. Additional intervention is needed, above and beyond social support, to prevent victimization and its psychological consequences. PMID:27708555

  8. Help!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Caralee

    2006-01-01

    This article presents ten time-saving ideas for teachers. One great time-saving tip is to come in an hour early once or twice a week for grading papers. It is also a great idea if teachers will not give tests on Friday in order to reduce their weekend work.

  9. 47 CFR 80.1117 - Procedure for receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... selective calling of receipt of a distress alert in the terrestrial services must comply with ITU-R M.541-9 (incorporated by reference, see § 80.7). (b) Acknowledgement through a satellite of receipt of a distress...

  10. 47 CFR 80.1117 - Procedure for receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... selective calling of receipt of a distress alert in the terrestrial services must comply with ITU-R M.541-9 (incorporated by reference, see § 80.7). (b) Acknowledgement through a satellite of receipt of a distress...

  11. Correlates of psychological distress, burnout, and resilience among Chinese female nurses

    PubMed Central

    ZOU, Guiyuan; SHEN, Xiuying; TIAN, Xiaohong; LIU, Chunqin; LI, Guopeng; KONG, Linghua; LI, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The present survey investigated the association between resilience, burnout and psychological distress among Chinese female nurses. A total of 366 female nurses were enrolled in our study. A series of self-reported questionnaires that dispose of the following constructs: psychological distress, burnout, and resilience were estimated. The hierarchical linear regression models were used to evaluate the mediating effect of resilience on the relationship between burnout and psychological distress. Results of the survey showed 85.5% nurses experienced psychological distress. Resilience was negatively related to psychological distress and burnout whereas burnout was positively associated with psychological distress. Mediation analysis revealed that resilience could partially mediate the relationship between the dimensions of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and psychological distress. This study highlights the mediator of resilience between burnout and psychological distress of female nurses. As such, interventions that attend to resilience training may be the focus for future clinical and research endeavors. PMID:27021058

  12. Experiences of Psychological and Physical Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Links to Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Garrido, Edward; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This research examined links between adolescents' experiences of psychological and physical relationship aggression and their psychological distress. Experiences of psychological and physical aggression were expected to correlate positively with symptoms of psychological distress, but experiences of psychological aggression were…

  13. The relationship between peritraumatic distress and peritraumatic dissociation: an examination of two competing models.

    PubMed

    Fikretoglu, Deniz; Brunet, Alain; Best, Suzanne; Metzler, Thomas; Delucchi, Kevin; Weiss, Daniel S; Fagan, Jeffrey; Marmar, Charles

    2006-11-01

    This study examined whether peritraumatic dissociation serves to protect trauma-exposed individuals from experiencing high levels of peritraumatic distress or is an epiphenomenon of high levels of peritraumatic distress. The sample was comprised of 709 police officers and 317 peer-nominated civilians exposed to a variety of critical incidents. Participants filled out measures of trauma exposure, traumatic stress, peritraumatic distress, and peritraumatic dissociation. There was an overall moderate-to-strong linear relationship between peritraumatic distress and dissociation. Among those with high levels of dissociation, very few reported low levels of distress. Among those with high levels of distress, a significant number--but not all--reported high levels of dissociation. Our results do not provide support for the idea that dissociation protects individuals from experiencing high levels of distress at the time of the trauma but rather suggest that dissociation is an epiphenomenon of high levels of distress observed in a subset of individuals.

  14. Helping your teen with depression

    MedlinePlus

    Teen depression - helping; Teen depression - talk therapy; Teen depression - medicine ... teen the most. The most effective treatments for depression are: Talk therapy Antidepressant medicines If your teen ...

  15. Partnership Transitions and Mental Distress: Investigating Temporal Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blekesaune, Morten

    2008-01-01

    The study uses 15 waves of the British Household Panel Survey and the General Health Questionnaire to investigate changes in mental distress over several years surrounding transitions both into and out of marital partnerships (marriages and cohabitations) using fixed effects models. Entering marital partnerships is associated with reduced distress…

  16. Distress in the City: Racism, Fundamentalism and a Democratic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Linden

    2016-01-01

    Every day brings news about so-called Islamic State and its seduction of young people in the West. The radicalization of young Muslims causes alarm; even the desirability of multiculturalism is questioned in troubled cities where racism and Islamophobia are on the rise. This book is a case study of one distressed post-industrial city struggling…

  17. Faculty Role in Responding to the Acutely Distressed College Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Lisa Stacey

    2010-01-01

    The acutely distressed student, one who exhibits disturbing or disruptive behavior that is outside of the norm of other students due to significant mental illness and who may be at risk to harm oneself or others, poses considerable challenges to today's higher education institutions (Amanda, 1994; Jed Foundation, 2006; McKinley & Dworkin, 1989).…

  18. 29 CFR 4041.41 - Requirements for a distress termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... continue in business outside the reorganization process and approves the plan termination. (3) Inability to... TERMINATIONS TERMINATION OF SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Distress Termination Process § 4041.41 Requirements for a... plan must initiate the termination process again, starting with the issuance of a new notice of...

  19. Dual Minority Stress and Asian American Gay Men's Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yung-Chi; Tryon, Georgiana Shick

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the direct and additive effects of racial minority stress and sexual minority stress on the psychological well-being among a community sample of 139 Asian American gay men. Self-esteem was tested to see whether it moderated or mediated the effects of perceived dual minority stress on psychological distress. Results…

  20. Oxytocin reduces separation distress in piglets when given intranasally

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxytocin (OT) is one of the neurobiological foundations of sociality. It acts as a neuropeptide in numerous social processes, from ultra-social to anti-social behaviors. Evidence supports a role for OT in social support, possibly by attenuating separation distress. Nonetheless, research on OT is lac...

  1. Reducing teachers' psychological distress through a mindfulness training program.

    PubMed

    Franco, Clemente; Mañas, Israel; Cangas, Adolfo J; Moreno, Emilio; Gallego, José

    2010-11-01

    Teachers constitute one of the professional collectives most affected by psychological problems. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study is to examine the efficacy of a mindfulness training programme to reduce psychological distress in a group of teachers. The sample comprised 68 teachers of Secondary School Education, from various public schools; half of them formed the experimental group, and the another half the control group. The levels of psychological distress were measured, in both groups, by the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) before and after the application of the programme. Statistical analysis shows the significant reduction of three general measures of psychological distress (Global Severity Index, Positive Symptom Distress Index, and Positive Symptom Total), as well in all its dimensions (somatization, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensibility, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism), in the experimental group compared with the control group. Follow-up measures show that these results were maintained for four months after termination of the intervention in the experimental group.

  2. Familism Beliefs and Psychological Distress among African American Women Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozario, Philip A.; DeRienzis, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Drawing from stress and coping models, we examined heterogeneity in the expression of familism (i.e., beliefs about the caregiving role) and its impact on psychological distress among African American women caregivers. Design and Methods: We relied on data from the Black Rural and Urban Caregivers Mental Health and Functioning study, a…

  3. Loss and the Experience of Emotional Distress in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Leslie K.; Weems, Carl F.; Costa, Natalie M.; Carrion, Victor G.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate loss and the experience of emotional distress through a series of three studies. In Study 1, results indicated that when controlling for the total number of traumas experienced, children with loss traumas did not differ significantly from children with other types of traumas in terms of the level of…

  4. Pregnancy Loss and Distress among U.S. Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shreffler, Karina M.; Greil, Arthur L.; McQuillan, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Although pregnancy loss--especially miscarriage--is a relatively common experience among reproductive-aged women, much of our understanding about the experience has come from small clinic-based or other nonrepresentative samples. We compared fertility-specific distress among a national sample of 1,284 women who have ever experienced a stillbirth…

  5. Stress and Psychological Distress among Trainee Secondary Teachers in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplain, Roland P.

    2008-01-01

    The relationships between stress and psychological distress were investigated among a cohort of trainee secondary school teachers in England. Specifically, the study examined the structure of a Teacher Stress Scale and its relationship to mental health as measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Three factors were identified:…

  6. Domains of distress among people with sexual orientation obsessions.

    PubMed

    Williams, Monnica T; Wetterneck, Chad; Tellawi, Ghazel; Duque, Gerardo

    2015-04-01

    Although sexual obsessions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are not uncommon, obsessions about sexual orientation have not been well studied. These obsessions focus on issues such as the fear of being or becoming gay, fear of being perceived by others as gay, and unwanted mental images involving homosexual acts. Sexual orientation obsessions in OCD are particularly distressing due to the ego-dystonic nature of the obsessions and, often, stigma surrounding a same-sex orientation. The purpose of this study was to better understand distress in people suffering from sexual orientation obsessions in OCD. Data were collected online (n = 1,176) and subjects were 74.6% male, 72.0% heterosexual, and 26.4% with an OCD diagnosis from a professional. The survey consisted of 70 novel questions that were assessed using a principal components analysis and the items separated into six components. These components were then correlated to distress among those with a prior OCD diagnosis and sexual orientation obsessions. Results indicated that sexual orientation obsessions in OCD were related to severe distress, including suicidal ideation. Implications of these findings and future directions for research are discussed.

  7. Alleviating Pain and Distress in Childhood Chronic Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuttner, Leora

    1987-01-01

    Describes psychological techniques, such as distraction and hypnotic imaginative involvement techniques, which have been found effective among chronically ill children and their parents in reducing anxiety and distress, and increasing the ability to cope with taxing medical procedures. Cases from research conducted in Vancouver, British Columbia…

  8. Children's Memories for Painful Cancer Treatment Procedures: Implications for Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Edith; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.; Craske, Michelle G.; Katz, Ernest R.

    2000-01-01

    Examined memory of 3- to 18-year-olds with leukemia regarding lumbar punctures (LP). Found that children displayed considerable accuracy for event details, with accuracy increasing with age. Use of Versed (anxiolytic medication described as a "memory blocker") was not related to recall. Higher distress predicted greater exaggerations in…

  9. Distress Behavior in Children With Leukemia Undergoing Medical Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Ernest R.

    Improving prognosis for many forms of childhood cancer has resulted in increased attention on the quality-of-life experience. Conditioned anxiety and pain associated with recurrent diagnostic and treatment procedures have been identified as major sources of distress in children with malignant disease. To evaluate the efficacy of various…

  10. 13 CFR 301.3 - Economic distress levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 301.3 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Economic distress levels. (a) Part 305 (Public Works and Economic Development Investments) and part 307... Economic Development District, which is located in a Region that does not meet the economic...

  11. 13 CFR 301.3 - Economic distress levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... capita income; or (iii) A Special Need, as determined by EDA. (2) A Project located within an Economic... most recent data available from the State. (ii) For economic distress based upon a Special Need, EDA... Special Need. (b) Part 303 (Planning Investments) and part 306 (Training, Research and...

  12. 33 CFR 175.130 - Visual distress signals accepted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Table 175.130. (b) Any combination of signal devices selected from the types noted in paragraphs (a) (1....130—Pyrotechnic Signal Devices Approval number under 46 CFR Device description Meets requirement for Number required 160.021 Hand Held Red Flare Distress Signals 3 Day and Night 3 160.022 Floating...

  13. Blastomyces gilchristii as Cause of Fatal Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dalcin, Daniel; Rothstein, Aaron; Spinato, Joanna; Escott, Nicholas; Kus, Julianne V

    2016-02-01

    Since the 2013 description of Blastomyces gilchristii, research describing the virulence or clinical outcome of B. gilchristii infection has been lacking. We report molecular evidence of B. gilchristii as an etiologic agent of fatal acute respiratory distress syndrome. B. gilchristii infection was confirmed by PCR and sequence analysis.

  14. Gender nonconformity and psychological distress in lesbians and gay men.

    PubMed

    Skidmore, W Christopher; Linsenmeier, Joan A W; Bailey, J Michael

    2006-12-01

    Some lesbians and gay men tend to be more gender nonconforming, on average and for certain traits, than their heterosexual counterparts. Gender nonconformity in childhood has also been linked to adult homosexuality. Studies of both lesbians and gay men also find elevated rates of psychological distress. We hypothesized that these facts may be related. Individuals who violate social norms for gender-appropriate behavior may suffer from stigmatization by both heterosexual and homosexual people, leading to higher levels of psychological distress. We examined whether several measures of gender nonconformity were related to psychological distress in a community-based sample of gay men and lesbians. These included self-reports of childhood and adulthood gender nonconformity, as well as observer ratings of current behavior. Several measures of gender nonconformity were related to each other for both lesbians and gay men. In addition, gender nonconformity was related to psychological distress, but only for gay men. Finally, both lesbian and gay male participants reported more positive attitudes towards gender conformity than nonconformity, although the pattern was somewhat different for each group. We discuss the implications of these results for future studies of gender nonconformity and for the promotion of psychological health in lesbians and gay men.

  15. Psychological Distress in Refugee Children: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronstein, Israel; Montgomery, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Nearly one-quarter of the refugees worldwide are children. There have been numerous studies reporting their levels of psychological distress. The aim of this paper is to review systematically and synthesize the epidemiological research concerning the mental health of refugee children residing in Western countries. A Cochrane Collaboration style…

  16. The Assessment of Emotional Distress in Personal Injury Litigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Brent Roderick

    This document asserts that civil litigation of personal injury claims involving emotional distress is commonplace in American society today. It recognizes that expert witness testimony often plays a key role in the rewarding or denial of damages in such claims and that the psychologist's role as an expert witness in such matters entails unique…

  17. Conditioned Emotional Distress in Women Receiving Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Paul B.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated whether women undergoing outpatient chemotherapy for breast cancer can develop classically conditioned emotional distress. Patients' responses to a distinctive stimulus were assessed in a location not associated with chemotherapy administration. Results supported hypothesis that pairing a distinctive stimulus with chemotherapy would…

  18. Adolescent Mental Health: Neighborhood Stress and Emotional Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snedker, Karen A.; Herting, Jerald R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the role of neighborhood characteristics, specifically economic disadvantage/advantage, residential instability, and racial/ethnic heterogeneity on emotional distress (depressed affect, anxiety, hopelessness) among youth. Using a regional sample of adolescents and matching their data to census tracts, we…

  19. The Effect of Reappraising Social Exclusion on Emotional Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchens, Michael B.; Gohm, Carol L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether reappraisal, which is a strategy where the personal meaning of an event is reevaluated, would influence participants' emotional reactions to social exclusion feedback. It was expected that reappraising this event would reduce the emotional distress that accompanies social exclusion, but…

  20. Blastomyces gilchristii as Cause of Fatal Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rothstein, Aaron; Spinato, Joanna; Escott, Nicholas; Kus, Julianne V.

    2016-01-01

    Since the 2013 description of Blastomyces gilchristii, research describing the virulence or clinical outcome of B. gilchristii infection has been lacking. We report molecular evidence of B. gilchristii as an etiologic agent of fatal acute respiratory distress syndrome. B. gilchristii infection was confirmed by PCR and sequence analysis. PMID:26812599

  1. Stress, Coping, Social Support, and Psychological Distress among MSW Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addonizio, Frank Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship among sources and levels of stress, coping patterns, sources and levels of social support, and psychological distress for MSW students. Stress is a common feeling experienced by people throughout life and it is important to understand the way they cope with their stressors. Most of the…

  2. Religiosity and Death Distress in Arabic College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Sabwah, Mohammed N.; Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship between religiosity and death distress (death anxiety, death depression, and death obsession) among a sample (N = 570) of Egyptian women nursing undergraduates, mainly Muslims. Their ages ranged from 17 to 25. The correlations between religiosity and both death anxiety and death…

  3. Hunger, inhibitory control and distress-induced emotional eating.

    PubMed

    van Strien, Tatjana; Ouwens, Machteld A; Engel, Carmen; de Weerth, Carolina

    2014-08-01

    Self-reported emotional eating has been found to significantly moderate distress-induced food intake, with low emotional eaters eating less after a stress task than after a control task and high emotional eaters eating more. The aim of the present study was to explore possible underlying mechanisms by assessing possible associations with (1) ability to experience the typical post-stress reduction of hunger and (2) inhibitory control. We studied these effects in 54 female students who were preselected on the basis of extremely high or low scores on an emotional eating questionnaire. Using a within subject design we measured the difference of actual food or snack intake after a control or a stress task (Trier Social Stress Test). As expected, the moderator effect of emotional eating on distress-induced food intake was found to be only present in females with a failure to report the typical reduction of hunger immediately after a stress task (an a-typical hunger stress response). Contrary to our expectations, this moderator effect of emotional eating was also found to be only present in females with high ability to stop motor impulses (high inhibitory control). These findings suggest that an a-typical hunger stress response but not poor inhibitory control may underlie the moderator effect of emotional eating on distress-induced food intake. However, inhibitory control may play a role whether or not there is a moderator effect of self-reported emotional eating on distress-induced food intake.

  4. Alternatives to Pyrotechnic Distress Signals; Laboratory and Field Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    London, CT 06320 Alternatives to Pyrotechnic Distress Signals; Laboratory and Field Studies iii UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 RDC | M. J. Lewandowski...1 Chelsea Street New London, CT 06320 10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS) 11. Contract or Grant No. 12. Sponsoring Organization Name and Address...various wind speeds (WS). ...................................... 22  Figure 15. Signal generator signal head

  5. Attention and Reaction to Distress in Infancy: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axia, Giovanna; Bonichini, Sabrina; Benini, Franca

    1999-01-01

    Examined whether early individual differences in look duration were related to general mechanisms of the infant nervous system combining attention and emotion. Found significant positive correlations between attention measures and duration of facial expressions of pain/distress after vaccinations at 3, 5, and 11 months. Concluded that individual…

  6. 47 CFR 2.404 - Resumption of operation after distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 2.404 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Distress, Disaster, and Emergency Communications § 2.404... operation on frequency or frequencies which may cause interference until notified by the station issuing...

  7. 47 CFR 2.404 - Resumption of operation after distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 2.404 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Distress, Disaster, and Emergency Communications § 2.404... operation on frequency or frequencies which may cause interference until notified by the station issuing...

  8. 47 CFR 2.404 - Resumption of operation after distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Section 2.404 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Distress, Disaster, and Emergency Communications § 2.404... operation on frequency or frequencies which may cause interference until notified by the station issuing...

  9. 47 CFR 2.404 - Resumption of operation after distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Section 2.404 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Distress, Disaster, and Emergency Communications § 2.404... operation on frequency or frequencies which may cause interference until notified by the station issuing...

  10. 47 CFR 2.404 - Resumption of operation after distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 2.404 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Distress, Disaster, and Emergency Communications § 2.404... operation on frequency or frequencies which may cause interference until notified by the station issuing...

  11. Physical Symptoms and Psychological Distress among Inhalant Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joe, George W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Among 110 Mexican-American adolescents with varying drug use histories, self-reported physical health problems were not related to inhalant use history, but blood analyses indicated a relationship between extensive inhalant use and liver problems. Psychological distress symptoms were related to inhalant use and physical symptoms. Contains 23…

  12. Psychological Distress and Related Factors in Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazquez, Fernando L.; Otero, Patricia; Diaz, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the psychological distress in Spanish college women and analyzed it in relation to sociodemographic and academic factors. Participants and Methods: The authors selected a stratified random sampling of 1,043 college women (average age of 22.2 years). Sociodemographic and academic information were collected, and…

  13. Attachment, Social Competencies, Social Support, and Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallinckrodt, Brent; Wei, Meifen

    2005-01-01

    In this survey study of 430 undergraduates, elements of the social competencies and interpersonal processes model (B. Mallinckrodt, 2000) were tested. Two social competencies were hypothesized to mediate the direct effects of 2 independent variables, attachment anxiety and avoidance, on 2 outcomes, psychological distress and perceived social…

  14. Cognitive Distortion and Psychological Distress in Chronic Low Back Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Timothy W.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Indicated that cognitive distortion was associated with high scores on the Minnesota Multiophasic Personality Inventory (MMPH) Depression (D), Psychasthenia (Pt), and Schizophrenia (Sc) scales, but not the Hypochondriasis (Hs) and Hysteria (Hy) scales. Cognitive distortion is likely to be an important factor in general distress but not in…

  15. Psychological distress following wildfires disaster in a rural part of Greece: a case-control population-based study.

    PubMed

    Papanikolaou, Vicky; Adamis, Dimitrios; Mellon, Robert C; Prodromitis, Gerasimos

    2011-01-01

    Psychological distress is common in the aftermath of a disaster. This study investigated psychological distress and morbidity in individuals who had experienced severe exposure to a wildfire disaster in a part of Greece. The study was a cross sectional case control of an adult population (18-65 years old). Face to face interviews were used in the collection of the data which were demographics, the type and number of losses and the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised for assessment of psychological symptoms. The results showed that those exposed to wildfires disaster scored significantly higher on the symptoms of somatization, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, and paranoia; had significantly more symptoms of psychopathology and were more distressed, compared to controls. Risk factors for potential psychiatric cases were those exposed to disaster; those who had lower education, and those who were widowed. It was concluded that wildfires may cause considerable psychological symptoms comparable to other disasters and there are reasons to create services to help and improve the mental health of those affected.

  16. Threat appraisals, distress and the development of positive life changes after September 11th in a Canadian sample.

    PubMed

    Davis, Christopher G; Macdonald, Stephanie L

    2004-01-01

    Several surveys have reported the negative psychological impact on the general public of the terrorist attacks in the USA of September 11th, 2001. Yet the attacks also led many people to make positive changes in their relationships, values and priorities. A survey of 80 adults in Ottawa, Canada demonstrated that greater perceived threat and greater initial distress reactions significantly predicted the extent to which people reported positive changes in their lives (e.g. closer to family, refocused priorities). Initial distress and greater perceived threat also correlated positively with whether people provided help after the disaster. Follow-up data on 40 of these participants 11 months later revealed significant stability over time for the extent of positive life changes reported, and demonstrated that degree of initial distress and perceived threat continued to correlate positively with life change reports at this later point in time. The data are consistent with the argument that the perception of growth may develop out of one's personal experience of emotional pain.

  17. Empathy in clinical practice: how individual dispositions, gender, and experience moderate empathic concern, burnout, and emotional distress in physicians.

    PubMed

    Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Decety, Jean

    2013-01-01

    To better understand clinical empathy and what factors can undermine its experience and outcome in care-giving settings, a large-scale study was conducted with 7,584 board certified practicing physicians. Online validated instruments assessing different aspects of empathy, distress, burnout, altruistic behavior, emotional awareness, and well-being were used. Compassion satisfaction was strongly associated with empathic concern, perspective taking and altruism, while compassion fatigue (burnout and secondary traumatic stress) was more closely related to personal distress and alexithymia. Gender had a highly selective effect on empathic concern, with women displaying higher values, which led to a wide array of negative and devalued feelings. Years of experience did not influence dispositional measures per se after controlling for the effect of age and gender. Participants who experienced compassion fatigue with little to no compassion satisfaction showed the highest scores on personal distress and alexithymia as well as the strongest indicators of compassion fatigue. Physicians who have difficulty regulating their negative arousal and describing and identifying emotions seem to be more prone to emotional exhaustion, detachment, and a low sense of accomplishment. On the contrary, the ability to engage in self-other awareness and regulate one's emotions and the tendency to help others, seem to contribute to the sense of compassion that comes from assisting patients in clinical practice.

  18. Psychological Distress among Nursing, Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy Students: A Longitudinal and Predictive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nerdrum, Per; Rustoen, Tone; Helge Ronnestad, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we present longitudinal data on changes in psychological distress among 232 Norwegian undergraduate students of nursing, physiotherapy, and occupational therapy. Psychological distress was assessed by applying the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire. Nursing students became substantially more distressed during the…

  19. Assessment of Distress in Young Children: A Comparison of Autistic Disorder, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, G.; Venuti, P.; Bornstein, M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Distress emotions in very young children are manifest in vocal, facial, and bodily cues. Moreover, children with different developmental conditions (i.e. autistic disorder, AD; developmental delay, DD; typically developing, TD) appear to manifest their distress emotions via different channels. To decompose channel of emotional distress display by…

  20. A Comparison of High- and Low-Distress Marriages that End in Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.; Hohmann-Marriott, Bryndl

    2007-01-01

    We used data from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households to study high- and low-distress marriages that end in divorce. A cluster analysis of 509 couples who divorced between waves revealed that about half were in high-distress relationships and the rest in low-distress relationships. These 2 groups were not artifacts of…

  1. Exposure to Maternal Distress in Childhood and Cortisol Activity in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahrer, Nicole E.; Luecken, Linda J.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulated cortisol is a risk factor for poor health outcomes. Children of distressed mothers exhibit dysregulated cortisol, yet it is unclear whether maternal distress predicts cortisol activity in later developmental stages. This longitudinal study examined the prospective relation between maternal distress during late childhood (9-12 years)…

  2. Problem-Solving Skills in Happy and Distressed Couples: Effects of Videotape and Verbal Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fichten, Catherine S.; Wright, John

    1983-01-01

    Investigated communication in happy and distressed married couples (N=58) in two studies. Problem-solving behaviors were evaluated by the spouses and observers. Half of the distressed couples received written feedback. Results indicated both happy and distressed wives engaged in more negative behaviors than husbands, and videotape and written…

  3. Lifestyle and Mental Health Correlates of Psychological Distress in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Hackman, Christine L.; Sharma, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Objective: College students are at an increased risk of mental distress. The purpose of this study was to determine whether mental and lifestyle factors differed according to self-reported levels of psychological distress. Design and setting: A self-report questionnaire comprising the Kessler-6 Psychological Distress Scale, Revised Life…

  4. Differences in Psychological Distress and Esteem Based on Sexual Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepler, Dustin; Perrone-McGovern, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    A sample of 791 college students between the ages of 18 and 25 years were administered a series of measures to determine their sexual identity development status, global self-esteem, global psychological distress, sexual-esteem and sexual distress. As hypothesized, results indicated no significant difference in terms of psychological distress,…

  5. The Relationship of Stress Arousal and Stress Prone Personality Traits to Menstrual Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, David C.

    The various relationships of stress arousal and stress-prone personality traits to menstrual distress were investigated in order to quantify psychophysiological arousal differences between high and low menstrual distress symptom reporters and examine differences in stress-prone personality traits between high and low menstrual distress symptom…

  6. 47 CFR 80.355 - Distress, urgency, safety, call and reply Morse code frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distress, urgency, safety, call and reply Morse... Distress, urgency, safety, call and reply Morse code frequencies. This section describes the distress, urgency, safety, call and reply carrier frequencies assignable to stations for Morse code...

  7. Self Help and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartner, Alan

    1976-01-01

    Suggests that the single most important common denominator of the various types of self-help groups examined may be that the role of the person who has already lived through the experience is critical for helping others. (Author/AM)

  8. Biomarkers in acute respiratory distress syndrome: from pathobiology to improving patient care.

    PubMed

    Walter, James M; Wilson, Jennifer; Ware, Lorraine B

    2014-10-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a clinical syndrome characterized by alveolar flooding with protein-rich pulmonary edema fluid. Despite an improved understanding of ARDS pathogenesis, our ability to predict the development of ARDS and risk-stratify patients with the disease remains limited. Biomarkers may help identify patients at highest risk of developing ARDS, assess response to therapy, predict outcome, and optimize enrollment in clinical trials. This review begins with a general description of biomarker use in clinical medicine. We then review evidence that supports the value of various ARDS biomarkers organized by the cellular injury processes central to ARDS development: endothelial injury, epithelial injury, disordered inflammation and coagulation, fibrosis, and apoptosis. Finally, we summarize the growing contributions of genomic and proteomic research and suggest ways in which the field may evolve in the coming years.

  9. Handling unexpected distress on the telephone: the development of interdisciplinary training.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Jackie

    2004-09-01

    St Nicholas's Hospice recognized that its non-clinical staff needed support and guidance regarding the management of particularly difficult telephone conversations. It is understandable that patients and family members who are experiencing extreme uncertainty, fear and worry might express anger and despair, however, non-clinical staff were troubled by having to handle such raw emotions on the telephone. Despite palliative care excelling at counselling skills and training in breaking bad news, no material or courses exist to help these staff handle unanticipated distress on the telephone. A training session was established and, unexpectedly, many clinical staff enrolled. Although a formal in-depth evaluation did not take place, participant feedback suggested it was equally beneficial to non-clinical and clinical staff. A key element of the apparent success was the interprofessional, interagency, interpersonal sharing and exchange of ideas.

  10. Mechanical ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome: The open lung revisited.

    PubMed

    Amado-Rodríguez, L; Del Busto, C; García-Prieto, E; Albaiceta, G M

    2017-02-23

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is still related to high mortality and morbidity rates. Most patients with ARDS will require ventilatory support. This treatment has a direct impact upon patient outcome and is associated to major side effects. In this regard, ventilator-associated lung injury (VALI) is the main concern when this technique is used. The ultimate mechanisms of VALI and its management are under constant evolution. The present review describes the classical mechanisms of VALI and how they have evolved with recent findings from physiopathological and clinical studies, with the aim of analyzing the clinical implications derived from them. Lastly, a series of knowledge-based recommendations are proposed that can be helpful for the ventilator assisted management of ARDS at the patient bedside.

  11. The influence of social stigma and discriminatory experience on psychological distress and quality of life among rural-to-urban migrants in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2010-07-01

    The global literature has revealed a potential negative impact of social stigma on both physical and mental health among stigmatized individuals; however, the mechanisms through which social stigma affects the individual's quality of life and mental health are not well understood. This research simultaneously examines the relationships of several determinants and mediating factors of psychological distress and quality of life. Data were collected through a cross-sectional survey among 1006 adult (predominantly male) rural-to-urban migrants in 2004-2005 in Beijing, China. Participants reported on their perceived social stigma, discriminatory experiences in daily life, preparation for migration, discrepancy between expectation and reality, coping with stigma-related stress, psychological distress, and quality of life. Structural equation modeling was performed. We found that perceived social stigma and discriminatory experiences had direct negative effects on psychological distress and quality of life among rural-to-urban migrants. Expectation-reality discrepancy mediated the effects of perceived social stigma and discriminatory experiences on psychological distress and quality of life; coping mediated the effect of social stigma on quality of life. Psychological distress was associated with quality of life. Preparation prior to migration was positively related to coping skills, which were positively related to quality of life. We conclude that perceived social stigma and daily discriminatory experiences have a significant influence on psychological distress and quality of life among rural-to-urban migrants. Pre-migration training with a focus on establishment of effective coping skills and preparation of migration may be helpful to improve their quality of life and mental health.

  12. Maternal Distress and Child Neuroendocrine and Immune Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Riis, Jenna L.; Granger, Douglas A.; Minkovitz, Cynthia S.; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; DiPietro, Janet A.; Johnson, Sara B.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Neuroendocrine-immune regulation is essential for maintaining health. Early-life adversity may cause dysregulation in the neuroendocrine-immune network through repeated activation of the stress response, thereby increasing disease risk. Objective This paper examined the extent to which maternal psychological well-being moderates neuroendocrine-immune relations in children. Methods We used data from a laboratory-based study of mothers and their five-year old children (n=125 mother-child pairs) conducted from 2011–2013 in Baltimore, Maryland. Child saliva was assayed for markers of immune function (i.e., cytokines: interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α]) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity (i.e., cortisol). A composite score for depressive symptoms, anxiety, and parenting stress characterized maternal psychological distress. Multilevel mixed models examined the relationship between maternal psychological well-being and child neuroendocrine-immune relations. Results Significant cytokine × maternal distress interactions indicated that as maternal distress increased, expected inverse cytokine-cortisol relations within children became weaker for IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. Sex-stratified models revealed that these interactions were only significant among girls. Among boys, there were inverse cytokine-cortisol relations for all cytokines, and, while in the same direction as observed among girls, the cytokine × maternal distress interactions were non-significant. Conclusion The findings suggest that maternal distress is associated with child neuroendocrine-immune relations in saliva and may alter the sensitivity of inflammatory immune processes to cortisol's inhibitory effects. This desensitization may place the child at risk for inflammatory diseases. The findings support efforts for the early detection and treatment of at-risk mothers to protect maternal and child health and well-being. PMID:26808339

  13. Psychological distress and lifestyle of students: implications for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Deasy, Christine; Coughlan, Barry; Pironom, Julie; Jourdan, Didier; Mcnamara, Patricia Mannix

    2015-03-01

    Poor diet, physical inactivity, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption are major risk factors for chronic disease and premature mortality. These behaviours are of concern among higher education students and may be linked to psychological distress which is problematic particularly for students on programmes with practicum components such as nursing and teaching. Understanding how risk behaviours aggregate and relate to psychological distress and coping among this population is important for health promotion. This research examined, via a comprehensive survey undergraduate nursing/midwifery and teacher education students' (n = 1557) lifestyle behaviour (Lifestyle Behaviour Questionnaire), self-reported psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire) and coping processes (Ways of Coping Questionnaire). The results showed that health- risk behaviours were common, including alcohol consumption (93.2%), unhealthy diet (26.3%), physical inactivity (26%), tobacco smoking (17%), cannabis use (11.6%) and high levels of stress (41.9%). Students tended to cluster into two groups: those with risk behaviours (n = 733) and those with positive health behaviours (n = 379). The group with risk behaviours had high psychological distress and used mostly passive coping strategies such as escape avoidance. The potential impact on student health and academic achievement is of concern and suggests the need for comprehensive health promotion programmes to tackle multiple behaviours. As these students are the nurses and teachers of the future, their risk behaviours, elevated psychological distress and poor coping also raise concerns regarding their roles as future health educators/promoters. Attention to promotion of health and well-being among this population is essential.

  14. Psychometric properties of the Trauma and Distress Scale, TADS, in an adult community sample in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Salokangas, Raimo K. R.; Schultze-Lutter, Frauke; Patterson, Paul; von Reventlow, Heinrich Graf; Heinimaa, Markus; From, Tiina; Luutonen, Sinikka; Hankala, Juha; Kotimäki, Mika; Tuominen, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence that a history of childhood abuse and neglect is not uncommon among individuals who experience mental disorder and that childhood trauma experiences are associated with adult psychopathology. Although several interview and self-report instruments for retrospective trauma assessment have been developed, many focus on sexual abuse (SexAb) rather than on multiple types of trauma or adversity. Methods Within the European Prediction of Psychosis Study, the Trauma and Distress Scale (TADS) was developed as a new self-report assessment of multiple types of childhood trauma and distressing experiences. The TADS includes 43 items and, following previous measures including the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, focuses on five core domains: emotional neglect (EmoNeg), emotional abuse (EmoAb), physical neglect (PhyNeg), physical abuse (PhyAb), and SexAb. This study explores the psychometric properties of the TADS (internal consistency and concurrent validity) in 692 participants drawn from the general population who completed a mailed questionnaire, including the TADS, a depression self-report and questions on help-seeking for mental health problems. Inter-method reliability was examined in a random sample of 100 responders who were reassessed in telephone interviews. Results After minor revisions of PhyNeg and PhyAb, internal consistencies were good for TADS totals and the domain raw score sums. Intra-class coefficients for TADS total score and the five revised core domains were all good to excellent when compared to the interviewed TADS as a gold standard. In the concurrent validity analyses, the total TADS and its all core domains were significantly associated with depression and help-seeking for mental problems as proxy measures for traumatisation. In addition, robust cutoffs for the total TADS and its domains were calculated. Conclusions Our results suggest the TADS as a valid, reliable, and clinically useful instrument for assessing

  15. Collective helping and bystander effects in coevolving helping networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Hang-Hyun; Lee, Hyun Keun; Park, Hyunggyu

    2010-06-01

    We study collective helping behavior and bystander effects in a coevolving helping network model. A node and a link of the network represents an agent who renders or receives help and a friendly relation between agents, respectively. A helping trial of an agent depends on relations with other involved agents and its result (success or failure) updates the relation between the helper and the recipient. We study the network link dynamics and its steady states analytically and numerically. The full phase diagram is presented with various kinds of active and inactive phases and the nature of phase transitions are explored. We find various interesting bystander effects, consistent with the field study results, of which the underlying mechanism is proposed.

  16. Distress in spouses of service members with symptoms of combat-related PTSD: secondary traumatic stress or general psychological distress?

    PubMed

    Renshaw, Keith D; Allen, Elizabeth S; Rhoades, Galena K; Blais, Rebecca K; Markman, Howard J; Stanley, Scott M

    2011-08-01

    Combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is linked with elevated psychological distress in service members'/veterans' spouses. Researchers use a variety of terms to describe this distress, and recently, secondary traumatic stress and secondary traumatic stress disorder (STS/STSD) have become increasingly commonly used. Although STS/STSD connotes a specific set of symptoms that are linked to service members'/veterans' symptoms, researchers often use general measures of distress or generically worded measures of PTSD symptoms to assess STS/STSD. To determine how often scores on such measures appear to be an accurate reflection of STS/STSD, we examined responses to a measure of PTSD symptoms in 190 wives of male service members with elevated levels of PTSD symptoms. Wives rated their own PTSD symptoms, and then answered questions about their attributions for the symptoms they endorsed. Fewer than 20% of wives who endorsed symptoms on the PTSD measure attributed these symptoms completely to their husbands' military experiences. Moreover, compared with wives who attributed symptoms only to events in their own lives, wives who attributed symptoms completely or partially to their husbands' military experiences had a greater overlap between some of their responses on the PTSD measure and their responses to a measure of general psychological distress. These results suggest that most wives of service members/veterans with PTSD experience generic psychological distress that is not conceptually consistent with STS/STSD, although a subset does appear to endorse a reaction consistent with this construct. Implications of these findings for intervention and research with this vulnerable population are discussed.

  17. Sex-Specific Impact of Spiritual Beliefs and Sleep Quality on Degree of Psychological Distress.

    PubMed

    Knowlden, Adam P; Shewmake, Meghan E; Burns, Maranda; Harcrow, Andy

    2016-12-27

    The purpose of this study was to test a set of hypotheses suggesting sleep quality and spiritual beliefs differed according to degree of psychological distress and biological sex. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index measured sleep quality, the Beliefs and Values Scale measured spiritual beliefs, and the Kessler-6 Psychological Distress Scale measured distress. A factorial MANOVA tested the model. Higher sleep quality and greater spiritual beliefs were associated with lower levels of distress. Women exhibited lower sleep quality than men, whereas spiritual beliefs were equivalent between sexes. To decrease psychological distress, interventions should improve sleep quality and increase spiritual engagement.

  18. Unemployment and psychological distress one year after childbirth in France

    PubMed Central

    Saurel-Cubizolles, M.; Romito, P.; Ancel, P.; Lelong, N.

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To analyse the relation between unemployment and the psychological distress of mothers one year after childbirth.
DESIGN—Multicentric survey concerning births occurring between September 1993 and July 1994.
SETTING—In France: two maternity units in the Parisian area and one in Champagne-Ardennes, in the east of France, comprising both urban and rural areas.
PARTICIPANTS—Primipara and secondipara women were interviewed three times: at birth by a face to face interview, five months and 12 months after the birth, by postal questionnaires, with a 83% response rate for the two postal questionnaires. The analysis includes 632 women who answered all three stages of the survey.
MEASUREMENTS—Psychological distress was mainly assessed one year after birth by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire.
RESULTS—After adjustment for unwanted pregnancy, marital conflicts, marital status, hospitalisation of the baby during the last year, lack of confiding relationship, depressive or anxious troubles before pregnancy, age, educational level and parity, unemployed women had an excess of psychological distress compared with employed women (OR = 1.87; 95%CI = 1.12, 3.13). The ratios for housewives were very close to those of employed women. Among the unemployed women, 60% had recently been without a job, since a few months before or after the birth. An excess of psychological distress among unemployed compared with employed women was observed in all social groups defined by the current or last occupation, but with various extents. Psychological distress was specially linked to the employment status in the group of women with the more qualified occupations.
CONCLUSION—Even after a birth, when women are very much involved in their maternal role, those seeking a job have worse mental health than those in a stable situation, either employed or housewives. In France, the unemployment rate among young women is high. It is specially important

  19. Psychological distress among dancers seeking outpatient treatment for musculoskeletal injury.

    PubMed

    Air, Mary Elizabeth

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and magnitude of clinically significant psychological symptoms among outpatient injured dancers presenting for musculoskeletal issues and to identify features of "at risk" dancer-patients who might require additional psychological support when injured. The Brief Symptom Inventory® (BSI), a highly reliable and valid screening tool for psychological distress, was administered to first- and last-visit injured dancers at an orthopedic clinic in the Netherlands from February to May 2008. In all, 153 BSI surveys were completed, including 82 among first-visit patients and 71 among end-treatment patients. Scores were examined for the influence of age, gender, dance level, style, pain, perceived level of artistic compromise, and anatomic location of injury. Dancers' scores were compared to normative values for adult non-psychiatric patient community members. Ninety-two dancers (60.1%) met requirements for clinical referral to a psychologist or psychiatrist, having scored two or more standard deviations (SD) above the norm in at least one of nine psychopathological symptoms. Across first- and last-visit groups, dancers met referral criteria for an average of four psychopathological symptoms. First-visit dancers demonstrated higher distress than the general population on 90% of BSI dimensional symptoms and last-visit dancers on 50%. On the Global Symptom Index, a summary score for overall distress and the best measure of psychological discomfort, 46.6% of dancers demonstrated "above average" distress (≥ 1 SD) compared to the general population, and 19.6% demonstrated "high" (≥ 2 SD) or "very high" (≥ 2.5 SD) distress. Compared to academy level pre-professional students, professionals showed reduction in BSI scores on somatic, cognitive, interpersonal sensitivity, anxious, hostile, phobic, and global scores following resolution of injury, particularly among those greater than 25 years of age. Students and

  20. New Vaccines Help Protect You

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues New Vaccines Help Protect You Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table ... this page please turn Javascript on. Important new vaccines have recently been approved for use and are ...