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Sample records for exile helping distressed

  1. Young adults' perceptions of GPs as a help source for mental distress: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Biddle, Lucy; Donovan, Jenny L; Gunnell, David; Sharp, Debbie

    2006-01-01

    Background Few young adults with mental disorder seek help from a GP. Aim To explore young adults' perceptions of GPs as a source of help for mental distress. Design of study Qualitative interviews. Setting Bristol and surrounding areas, UK. Method Males and females aged 16–24 years screened as ‘cases’ with probable mental disorder (GHQ [General Health Questionnaire]-12 score≥4) or describing past episodes of mental disorder (n = 23) were sampled purposively according to help-seeking behaviour. Semi-structured interviews explored help-seeking choices. Transcripts were analysed using thematic, constant comparison and case study analysis. Results Most young adults did not value or recognise GPs as a source of help for mental disorder or distress. They thought that GPs deal exclusively with physical illness, lack training in mental health, are unable to provide ‘talking’ therapy, and may be dismissive of those consulting with mental distress. A prescription for antidepressants was seen as the most likely outcome of a consultation, but young adults wished to avoid this and so rarely consulted. Encounters with GPs could challenge or reinforce these perceptions. Conclusion Negative perceptions about the value of consulting a GP for mental distress may explain low rates of help-seeking among young adults, including those with severe distress. Young people require a better understanding of GPs' role. It is also necessary to address evidence reported elsewhere that some GPs also experience uncertainties about what they can offer within the constraints of primary care. PMID:17132380

  2. Cyber-Porn Dependence: Voices of Distress in an Italian Internet Self-Help Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaglion, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes narratives of cyber-porn users and defines major patterns of distress as self-reported by contributors to a self-help group in the Internet. It applies narrative analysis methodology to 2000 messages sent by 302 members of an Italian self-help Internet community for cyber-porn dependents ("noallapornodipendenza"). This paper…

  3. Helping behavior induced by empathic concern attenuates anterior cingulate activation in response to others' distress.

    PubMed

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Sugawara, Sho K; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Makita, Kai; Hamano, Yuki H; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Helping behavior is motivated by empathic concern for others in distress. Although empathic concern is pervasive in daily life, its neural mechanisms remain unclear. Empathic concern involves the suppression of the emotional response to others' distress, which occurs when individuals distance themselves emotionally from the distressed individual. We hypothesized that helping behavior induced by empathic concern, accompanied by perspective-taking, would attenuate the neural activation representing aversive feelings. We also predicted reward system activation due to the positive feeling resulting from helping behavior. Participant underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while playing a virtual ball-toss game. In some blocks ("concern condition"), one player ("isolated player") did not receive ball-tosses from other players. In this condition, participants increased ball-tosses to the isolated player (helping behavior). Participants then evaluated the improved enjoyment of the isolated player resulting from their helping behavior. Anterior cingulate activation during the concern condition was attenuated by the evaluation of the effect of helping behavior. The right temporoparietal junction, which is involved in perspective-taking and the dorsal striatum, part of the reward system, were also activated during the concern condition. These results suggest that humans can attenuate affective arousal by anticipating the positive outcome of empathic concern through perspective-taking. PMID:26032190

  4. Helping behavior induced by empathic concern attenuates anterior cingulate activation in response to others' distress.

    PubMed

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Sugawara, Sho K; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Makita, Kai; Hamano, Yuki H; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Helping behavior is motivated by empathic concern for others in distress. Although empathic concern is pervasive in daily life, its neural mechanisms remain unclear. Empathic concern involves the suppression of the emotional response to others' distress, which occurs when individuals distance themselves emotionally from the distressed individual. We hypothesized that helping behavior induced by empathic concern, accompanied by perspective-taking, would attenuate the neural activation representing aversive feelings. We also predicted reward system activation due to the positive feeling resulting from helping behavior. Participant underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while playing a virtual ball-toss game. In some blocks ("concern condition"), one player ("isolated player") did not receive ball-tosses from other players. In this condition, participants increased ball-tosses to the isolated player (helping behavior). Participants then evaluated the improved enjoyment of the isolated player resulting from their helping behavior. Anterior cingulate activation during the concern condition was attenuated by the evaluation of the effect of helping behavior. The right temporoparietal junction, which is involved in perspective-taking and the dorsal striatum, part of the reward system, were also activated during the concern condition. These results suggest that humans can attenuate affective arousal by anticipating the positive outcome of empathic concern through perspective-taking.

  5. Factors related to perceived helpfulness in supporting highly distressed individuals through an online support chat.

    PubMed

    Barak, Azy; Bloch, Nili

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the contribution made by dimensions of session-impact factors (depth and smoothness), end-of-session factors of client's mood (positivity and emotional arousal), and several textual variables (use of positive and negative emotional words; helper's and client's writing lengths) to perceived helpfulness of emotional support conversations carried on by trained, paraprofessional helpers through an Internet chat with highly distressed individuals. Two studies were conducted at an Israeli, exclusively online emotional support service for suicidal and highly distressed people who have undergone various negative experiences (SAHAR). Study 1 compared 40 chat conversations deliberately indicated by clients as having been helpful at the termination stage of session with 40 other conversations, using expert judgments of session-impact factors, as well as objective word counts for textual variables. Study 2 examined correlations between helpers' evaluation of the sessions' helpfulness to clients in 60 (other) chat support conversations and session-impact factors and textual variables. The findings of Study 1 showed that all four impact factors significantly differentiated between helpful and other conversations, while textual variables did not. In Study 2, the results showed that all four session-impact factors positively correlated with session helpfulness, yielding multiple R = 0.54, as well as the length of helper's and client's writing. The implications of these studies are similar to offline counseling sessions: deep, smooth conversations that yield positive responses and arouse clients' emotions in online support are more helpful than shallow, bumping conversations that leave clients emotionally indifferent. Longer writing, by both helpers and clients, seems to be an important factor, as well.

  6. Language, Identity, and Exile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdinast-Vulcan, Daphna

    2010-01-01

    The exilic mode of being, a living on boundary-lines, produces a constant relativization of one's home, one's culture, one's language, and one's self, through the acknowledgement of otherness. It is a homesickness without nostalgia, without the desire to return to the same, to be identical to oneself. The encounter with the other which produces a…

  7. Wittgenstein as Exile: A Philosophical Topography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that Wittgenstein considered himself an exile and indeed was a self-imposed exile from his native Vienna; that this condition of exile is important for understanding Wittgenstein the man and his philosophy; and that exile as a condition has become both a central characteristic condition of late modernity (as much as alienation…

  8. Psychological Distress and Help Seeking Amongst Higher Education Students: Findings from a Mixed Method Study of Undergraduate Nursing/Midwifery and Teacher Education Students in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deasy, Christine; Coughlan, Barry; Pironom, Julie; Jourdan, Didier; Mannix-McNamara, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress as experienced by higher education students is of major concern because of its potential to adversely impact academic performance, retention, mental health and lifestyle. This paper reports a mixed method investigation of student self-reported psychological distress and help-seeking behaviour. The sample comprised all…

  9. Professional Distress and Meaning in Health Care: Why Professional Empathy Can Help.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Eve; Halpern, Jodi

    2015-01-01

    For human service care providers working in hospitals, balancing the motivation for interpersonal engagement with patients alongside self-protective emotional boundaries is a familiar struggle. Empathy is a critical, although not thoroughly understood, aspect of patient care as well as an important ingredient for feeling work satisfaction and meaning. However, empathy can lead to feelings of sympathetic emotional distress and even burnout. This article uses an illustrative case study from a medical social worker in the emergency room to explore these themes of empathy, burnout, and the search for meaning in work. The discussion examines areas for further empirical study and intervention to support care-provider empathy and avoid burnout.

  10. Professional Distress and Meaning in Health Care: Why Professional Empathy Can Help.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Eve; Halpern, Jodi

    2015-01-01

    For human service care providers working in hospitals, balancing the motivation for interpersonal engagement with patients alongside self-protective emotional boundaries is a familiar struggle. Empathy is a critical, although not thoroughly understood, aspect of patient care as well as an important ingredient for feeling work satisfaction and meaning. However, empathy can lead to feelings of sympathetic emotional distress and even burnout. This article uses an illustrative case study from a medical social worker in the emergency room to explore these themes of empathy, burnout, and the search for meaning in work. The discussion examines areas for further empirical study and intervention to support care-provider empathy and avoid burnout. PMID:26317765

  11. Children of Exiles and Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, Ana

    1979-01-01

    Calls attention to problems faced by children of exiles and immigrants as they attend school in places other than their countries of origin. Major problems include problems communicating in the language of the host country, culture shock, inability to readjust patterns of behavior, and inability to preserve an authentic model of their original…

  12. Philosophical and Psychopathological Perspective of Exile: On Time and Space Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Silva Rojas, Matías; Armijo Nuñez, Julio; Nuñez Erices, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the experience of exile from an interdisciplinary perspective (philosophy and psychiatry). The main purpose is to try to understand the experience of exile by rehearsing a psychopathological perspective to address it, so it can help with the treatment of disorders that come with this experience. Furthermore, the article tries to explore the experience and reflection of philosophers and thinkers who, being exiled themselves, tried to understand and explain this radical human experience, focusing on the experience of time and space. PMID:26074825

  13. Relationships between Adolescents' Preferred Sources of Help and Emotional Distress, Ambivalence over Emotional Expression, and Causal Attribution of Symptoms: A Singapore Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Boon-Ooi

    2009-01-01

    Past research has shown that many adolescents with depression and anxiety disorders do not consult mental health professionals. This study examines how emotional distress, ambivalence over emotional expression, and causal attribution of depressive and anxious symptoms are related to adolescents' preferred sources of help for these symptoms. 300…

  14. Wittgenstein as Exile: A Philosophical Topography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Exilic thought is a kind of uprooted thought developed away from "home" under conditions of displacement and uncertainty, often in a different mother tongue, language tradition and culture. Exilic thought is sometimes the self-imposed discipline of the "stranger" who develops his or her identity as an "alien" or immigrant against the conventions…

  15. Rethinking reproductive "tourism" as reproductive "exile".

    PubMed

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Patrizio, Pasquale

    2009-09-01

    Whereas reproductive "tourism" implies leisure travel, reproductive "exile" bespeaks the numerous difficulties and constraints faced by infertile patients who are "forced" to travel globally for assisted reproduction. Given this reality, it is time to rethink the language of "reproductive tourism," replacing it with more accurate and patient-centered terms. PMID:19249025

  16. Cuba's Exiles: Portrait of a Refugee Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedraza-Bailey, Sylvia

    1985-01-01

    Argues that to understand the changing social characteristics of Cuban exiles over 20 years of migration, one must understand the changing phases of the Cuban revolution. Explores Egon F. Kunz's theoretical framework for refugee migration in relation to Cuban exodus data. (GC)

  17. Respiratory Distress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The University of Miami School of Medicine asked the Research Triangle Institute for assistance in improvising the negative pressure technique to relieve respiratory distress in infants. Marshall Space Flight Center and Johnson Space Center engineers adapted this idea to the lower-body negative-pressure system seals used during the Skylab missions. Some 20,000 babies succumb to respiratory distress in the U.S. each year, a condition in which lungs progressively lose their ability to oxygenate blood. Both positive and negative pressure techniques have been used - the first to force air into lungs, the second to keep infant's lungs expanded. Negative pressure around chest helps the baby expand his lungs and maintain proper volume of air. If doctors can keep the infant alive for four days, the missing substance in the lungs will usually form in sufficient quantity to permit normal breathing. The Skylab chamber and its leakproof seals were adapted for medical use.

  18. Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tollefson, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Planning to start or expand a K-8 critical language program? Looking for support in doing so? There "may" be help at the federal level for great ideas and strong programs. While there have been various pools of federal dollars available to support world language programs for a number of years, the federal government's interest in assuring strong…

  19. Exile as a Means for the Meeting and Construction of Pedagogies: The Exiled Spanish Republican Teachers in Mexico in 1939

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civera, Alicia

    2011-01-01

    There has been little study of political exile as a means for transferring pedagogic ideas and models, which has been important in Latin America, especially in the case of the Spaniards exiled in Mexico after the defeat of the Second Republic at the end of the 1930s. The Mexican government's sympathy with the Second Republic allowed many teachers…

  20. Development of a Self-Help Web-Based Intervention Targeting Young Cancer Patients With Sexual Problems and Fertility Distress in Collaboration With Patient Research Partners

    PubMed Central

    Obol, Claire Micaux; Lampic, Claudia; Eriksson, Lars E; Pelters, Britta; Wettergren, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Background The Internet should be suitable for delivery of interventions targeting young cancer patients. Young people are familiar with the technologies, and this patient group is small and geographically dispersed. Still, only few psycho-educational Web-based interventions are designed for this group. Young cancer patients consider reproductive health, including sexuality, an area of great importance and approximately 50% report sexual problems and fertility-related concerns following cancer treatment. Therefore, we set out to develop a self-help Web-based intervention, Fex-Can, to alleviate such problems. To improve its quality, we decided to involve patients and significant others as research partners. The first 18 months of our collaboration are described in this paper. The intervention will subsequently be tested in a feasibility study followed by a randomized controlled trial. Objective The study aims to describe the development of a Web-based intervention in long-term collaboration with patient research partners (PRPs). Methods Ten former cancer patients and two significant others participated in building the Web-based intervention, using a participatory design. The development process is described according to the design step in the holistic framework presented by van Gemert-Pijnen et al and evaluates the PRPs’ impact on the content, system, and service quality of the planned intervention. Results The collaboration between the research group and the PRPs mainly took place in the form of 1-day meetings to develop the key components of the intervention: educational and behavior change content, multimedia (pictures, video vignettes, and audios), interactive online activities (eg, self-monitoring), and partial feedback support (discussion forum, tailored feedback from experts). The PRPs influenced the intervention’s content quality in several ways. By repeated feedback on prototypes, the information became more comprehensive, relevant, and understandable

  1. [Growing old in exile: a double punishment or a double luck?].

    PubMed

    Griner-Abraham, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Between the situation of the exile, for whom all points of reference have been lost, and the clinical presentation of elderly patients, the symptomatology is similar. So what is the situation regarding the ageing of exiled patients? Exile is a trauma typically marked by five clinical phases. A clinical approach to exile between nostalgia, ageing and belonging: this reflection is based on an assessment of existing circumstances and on the epidemiological and clinical aspects relating to treatments. PMID:25095591

  2. Newborn Respiratory Distress.

    PubMed

    Hermansen, Christian L; Mahajan, Anand

    2015-12-01

    Newborn respiratory distress presents a diagnostic and management challenge. Newborns with respiratory distress commonly exhibit tachypnea with a respiratory rate of more than 60 respirations per minute. They may present with grunting, retractions, nasal flaring, and cyanosis. Common causes include transient tachypnea of the newborn, respiratory distress syndrome, meconium aspiration syndrome, pneumonia, sepsis, pneumothorax, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, and delayed transition. Congenital heart defects, airway malformations, and inborn errors of metabolism are less common etiologies. Clinicians should be familiar with updated neonatal resuscitation guidelines. Initial evaluation includes a detailed history and physical examination. The clinician should monitor vital signs and measure oxygen saturation with pulse oximetry, and blood gas measurement may be considered. Chest radiography is helpful in the diagnosis. Blood cultures, serial complete blood counts, and C-reactive protein measurement are useful for the evaluation of sepsis. Most neonates with respiratory distress can be treated with respiratory support and noninvasive methods. Oxygen can be provided via bag/mask, nasal cannula, oxygen hood, and nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Ventilator support may be used in more severe cases. Surfactant is increasingly used for respiratory distress syndrome. Using the INSURE technique, the newborn is intubated, given surfactant, and quickly extubated to nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Newborns should be screened for critical congenital heart defects via pulse oximetry after 24 hours but before hospital discharge. Neonatology consultation is recommended if the illness exceeds the clinician's expertise and comfort level or when the diagnosis is unclear in a critically ill newborn. PMID:26760414

  3. [Freud in the journals of the German speaking exile].

    PubMed

    May, Ulrike

    2006-01-01

    Freud and psychoanalysis figure frequently in exile journals. This paper documents two letters to the editor written by Alexander Freud who denied that his brother Sigmund had been a zionist, and the recollections of the sculptor Königsberger who had made a bust of Freud in 1920.

  4. Race and Place in the Adaptation of Mariel Exiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skop, Emily H.

    2001-01-01

    The influx of lower class Cuban emigres during the 1980 Mariel Boatlift complicates the success story image of previous waves of Cuban exiles. Argues that place of incorporation should be a necessary ingredient in illuminating diverse adjustment experiences among immigrants and refugees to the United States. Concludes by discussing the Cuban…

  5. Distress Screening in a Multidisciplinary Lung Cancer Clinic: Prevalence and Predictors of Clinically-Significant Distress

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Kristi D.; Arnold, Susanne M.; Love, Celia L.; Kirsh, Kenneth L.; Moore, Pamela G.; Passik, Steven D.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Screening for distress in cancer patients is recommended by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, and a Distress Thermometer has previously been developed and empirically-validated for this purpose. The present study sought to determine the rates and predictors of distress in a sample of patients being seen in a multidisciplinary lung cancer clinic. Consecutive patients (N = 333) were recruited from an outpatient multidisciplinary lung cancer clinic to complete the Distress Thermometer, an associated Problem Symptom List, and two questions about interest in receiving help for symptoms. Over half (61.6%) of patients reported distress at a clinically significant level, and 22.5% of patients indicated interest in receiving help with their distress and/or symptoms. Problems in the areas of family relationships, emotional functioning, lack of information about diagnosis/treatment, physical functioning, and cognitive functioning were associated with higher reports of distress. Specific symptoms of depression, anxiety, pain and fatigue were most predictive of distress. Younger age was also associated with higher levels of distress. Distress was not associated with other clinical variables, including stage of illness or medical treatment approach. Similar results were obtained when individuals who had not yet received a definitive diagnosis of lung cancer (n = 134) were excluded from analyses; however, family problems and anxiety were no longer predictive of distress. Screening for distress in a multidisciplinary lung cancer clinic is feasible and a significant number of patients can be expected to meet clinical criteria for distress. Results also highlight younger age and specific physical and psychosocial symptoms as predictive of clinically-significant distress. Identification of the presence and predictors of distress are the first steps toward appropriate referral and treatment of symptoms and problems that contribute to cancer patients’ distress. PMID

  6. Exile Has Its Place: A High School Principal Reflects on School Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, T. Elijah

    2011-01-01

    Exile has its place. As an age-old human response to conflict, its potential value to the healthy maturation of students and the school community should not be discounted. Exile or ostracism goes by various names in school. Students are told: Move your desk. Leave the classroom and wait in the hall. Go to the office. Go to detention. You're…

  7. Between Exile and the Kingdom: Albert Camus and Empowering Classroom Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curzon-Hobson, Aidan

    2003-01-01

    In undertaking an analysis of the work of Camus in the context of the learning environment, this paper examines the breadth of Camus's writing with particular emphasis on the writer's final major work: "Exile and the Kingdom" (1958). It is proposed that "Exile and the Kingdom" could and should be read as an attempt by Camus to explicate in full…

  8. Exile and professional identity: on going back to Cuba.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, E R

    1996-01-01

    The author tells the story of her lifelong attempts to create a coherent, complex cultural identity from her family's multiple diaspora legacies, and the impact of these struggles on her personal and professional development. She emphasizes the intergenerational conflicts created by the sociopolitical circumstances of her generation's Cuban immigration experience, and progressive attempts to include her Cuban identity in her sense of self. An unexpected lesson in the politics and history of psychoanalysis, itself an immigrant movement that abandoned its social conscience to survive in exile, catalyzed a return to Cuba and a greater inclusion of its social values in her personal and professional lives. PMID:9225558

  9. Living in exile when disaster strikes at home.

    PubMed

    Stige, Signe Hjelen; Sveaass, Nora

    2010-01-01

    As the number of migrants,- forced or voluntary,- increases, there is a growing need to understand how negative events in the country of origin influence those residing abroad. This issue has been actualized by the recent earthquakes in Haiti and Chile. Persons in exile have frequently been exposed to severe human rights violations and other stressors prior to emigration. The present study explored possible associations between ongoing and former stressors and mental health problems among persons living in exile as the Tsunami disaster of 2004 struck their country of origin. The contribution of former exposure and exilerelated difficulties in explaining current mental health problems was explored together with Tsunami related bereavement and social support. Following the Tsunami disaster of 2004 a questionnaire was administered to individuals of Tamil and Acehnese origin residing in Norway. The results suggest an independent contribution of exilerelated difficulties, former exposure and social support in explaining current mental health problems in this group. The study also disclosed methodological challenges involved both in relation to recruiting participants and in isolating the contribution of a particular stressor in populations with high levels of former exposure as well as ongoing stress.

  10. [Getting old on foreign earth: more suffering from exile].

    PubMed

    Stitou, Rajaa

    2008-03-01

    This paper, which refers to psychoanalysis and anthropology, is devoted to the clinical impact of suffering to get old on foreign earth, at the junction of singularity and culture, on psychic and social sides. It presents some elements on: the discontentment or even the misery of those called foreign workers and who, however, live more and more their retirement and their old age far from the world which contains their language and their culture; the necessity of a redevelopment of settings for listening, when confronted to a suffering whose expressive forms exceed the logic underlying the classical conceptual frames, and disturbs the social and caregiver professionals. This approach leaves place, at first, to the subjective resonance of exile without which one cannot understand what old subjects have to pass through. This exile, which cannot be reduced to emigration, and which sometimes is again actualized with violence during the passage to retirement and aging, reminds to each one his incompleteness and mortality. It disturbs the self-feeling and the relation to others, which require to pass by cultural references to feel being protected and humanized. Listening, to be efficient, should not break or emphasize their difference, but has to be attentive to the peculiar link which connects him to its culture; link which allows him to give sense in every decisive moment of existence. PMID:18364293

  11. Living in exile when disaster strikes at home.

    PubMed

    Stige, Signe Hjelen; Sveaass, Nora

    2010-01-01

    As the number of migrants,- forced or voluntary,- increases, there is a growing need to understand how negative events in the country of origin influence those residing abroad. This issue has been actualized by the recent earthquakes in Haiti and Chile. Persons in exile have frequently been exposed to severe human rights violations and other stressors prior to emigration. The present study explored possible associations between ongoing and former stressors and mental health problems among persons living in exile as the Tsunami disaster of 2004 struck their country of origin. The contribution of former exposure and exilerelated difficulties in explaining current mental health problems was explored together with Tsunami related bereavement and social support. Following the Tsunami disaster of 2004 a questionnaire was administered to individuals of Tamil and Acehnese origin residing in Norway. The results suggest an independent contribution of exilerelated difficulties, former exposure and social support in explaining current mental health problems in this group. The study also disclosed methodological challenges involved both in relation to recruiting participants and in isolating the contribution of a particular stressor in populations with high levels of former exposure as well as ongoing stress. PMID:20952824

  12. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Hyaline membrane disease (HMD); Infant respiratory distress syndrome; Respiratory distress syndrome in infants; RDS - infants ... Neonatal RDS occurs in infants whose lungs have not yet fully ... disease is mainly caused by a lack of a slippery substance in ...

  13. Exiling children, creating orphans: when immigration policies hurt citizens.

    PubMed

    Zayas, Luis H; Bradlee, Mollie H

    2014-04-01

    Citizen-children born in the United States to undocumented immigrants have become collateral damage of immigration enforcement. These children suffer the effects of immigration laws designed to deport large numbers of people. In removal proceedings, parents often must decide to either leave their citizen-children behind in the care of others or take them to a country the child may have never known. Accordingly, immigration policy frequently creates two de facto classes of children: exiles and orphans. In discussing these classes, the authors offer a summary of how U.S. citizen-children come into contact with the immigration enforcement system. The article explores the impact of detention and deportation on the health, mental health, and developmental trajectories of citizen-children and argues for reforms in policy and practice that will adhere to the highest standards of child welfare practice. By integrating these children into the immigration discourse, practitioners and policymakers will be better able to understand the effects of immigration enforcement, reduce harm to children, and provide for the protection of their rights.

  14. The anatomist Hans Elias: A Jewish German in exile.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, S

    2012-04-01

    Hans Elias (1907 to 1985) was an anatomist, an educator, a mathematician, a cinematographer, a painter, and a sculptor. Above all, he was a German of Jewish descent, who had to leave his home country because of the policies of the National Socialist (NS) regime. He spent his life in exile, first in Italy and then in the United States. His biography is exemplary for a generation of younger expatriates from National Socialist Germany who had to find a new professional career under difficult circumstances. Elias was a greatly productive morphologist whose artistic talent led to the foundation of the new science of stereology and made him an expert in scientific cinematography. He struggled hard to fulfill his own high expectations of himself in terms of his effectiveness as a scientist, educator, and politically acting man in this world. Throughout his life this strong-willed and outspoken man never lost his great fondness for Germany and many of its people, while reserving some of his sharpest criticism for fellow anatomists who were active in National Socialist Germany, among them his friend Hermann Stieve, Max Clara, and Heinrich von Hayek. Hans Elias' life is well documented in his unpublished diaries and memoirs, and thus allows fresh insights into a time period when some anatomists were among the first victims of NS policies and other anatomists became involved in the execution of such policies.

  15. The anatomist Hans Elias: A Jewish German in exile.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, S

    2012-04-01

    Hans Elias (1907 to 1985) was an anatomist, an educator, a mathematician, a cinematographer, a painter, and a sculptor. Above all, he was a German of Jewish descent, who had to leave his home country because of the policies of the National Socialist (NS) regime. He spent his life in exile, first in Italy and then in the United States. His biography is exemplary for a generation of younger expatriates from National Socialist Germany who had to find a new professional career under difficult circumstances. Elias was a greatly productive morphologist whose artistic talent led to the foundation of the new science of stereology and made him an expert in scientific cinematography. He struggled hard to fulfill his own high expectations of himself in terms of his effectiveness as a scientist, educator, and politically acting man in this world. Throughout his life this strong-willed and outspoken man never lost his great fondness for Germany and many of its people, while reserving some of his sharpest criticism for fellow anatomists who were active in National Socialist Germany, among them his friend Hermann Stieve, Max Clara, and Heinrich von Hayek. Hans Elias' life is well documented in his unpublished diaries and memoirs, and thus allows fresh insights into a time period when some anatomists were among the first victims of NS policies and other anatomists became involved in the execution of such policies. PMID:22038841

  16. Moral distress and moral conflict in clinical ethics.

    PubMed

    Fourie, Carina

    2015-02-01

    Much research is currently being conducted on health care practitioners' experiences of moral distress, especially the experience of nurses. What moral distress is, however, is not always clearly delineated and there is some debate as to how it should be defined. This article aims to help to clarify moral distress. My methodology consists primarily of a conceptual analysis, with especial focus on Andrew Jameton's influential description of moral distress. I will identify and aim to resolve two sources of confusion about moral distress: (1) the compound nature of a narrow definition of distress which stipulates a particular cause, i.e. moral constraint, and (2) the distinction drawn between moral dilemma (or, more accurately, moral conflict) and moral distress, which implies that the two are mutually exclusive. In light of these concerns, I argue that the definition of moral distress should be revised so that moral constraint should not be a necessary condition of moral distress, and that moral conflict should be included as a potential cause of distress. Ultimately, I claim that moral distress should be understood as a specific psychological response to morally challenging situations such as those of moral constraint or moral conflict, or both. PMID:24602097

  17. Dynamics of H II regions around exiled O stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, Jonathan; Langer, Norbert; Gvaramadze, Vasilii V.

    2013-11-01

    At least 25 per cent of massive stars are ejected from their parent cluster, becoming runaways or exiles, travelling with often-supersonic space velocities through the interstellar medium (ISM). Their overpressurized H II regions impart kinetic energy and momentum to the ISM, compress and/or evaporate dense clouds, and can constrain properties of both the star and the ISM. Here, we present one-, two- and (the first) three-dimensional simulations of the H II region around a massive star moving supersonically through a uniform, magnetized ISM, with properties appropriate for the nearby O star ζ Oph. The H II region leaves an expanding overdense shell behind the star and, inside this, an underdense wake that should be filled with hot gas from the shocked stellar wind. The gas column density in the shell is strongly influenced by the ISM magnetic field strength and orientation. Hα emission maps show that H II region remains roughly circular, although the star is displaced somewhat from the centre of emission. For our model parameters, the kinetic energy feedback from the H II region is comparable to the mechanical luminosity of the stellar wind, and the momentum feedback rate is >100 times larger than that from the wind and ≈10 times larger than the total momentum input rate available from radiation pressure. Compared to the star's eventual supernova explosion, the kinetic energy feedback from the H II region over the star's main-sequence lifetime is >100 times less, but the momentum feedback is up to 4 times larger. H II region dynamics are found to have only a small effect on the ISM conditions that a bow shock close to the star would encounter.

  18. Ever Ready to Go: The Multiple Exiles of Leo Szilard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Tibor

    2005-06-01

    I argue that to understand the life and work of Leo Szilard (1898 1964) we have to understand, first, that he was driven by events to numerous departures, escapes, and exiles, changing his religion, his language, his country of residence, and his scientific disciplines; second, that he was a man haunted by major moral dilemmas throughout his life, burdened by a sincere and grave sense of responsibility for the fate of the world; and third, that he experienced a terrible sense of déjà vu: his excessive sensitivity and constant alertness were products of his experiences as a young student in Budapest in 1919. The mature Szilard in Berlin of 1933, and forever after, was always ready to move. I proceed as follows:After a brief introduction to his family background, youth, and education in Budapest, I discuss the impact of his army service in the Great War and of the tumultous events in Hungary in 1918 1919 on his life and psyche, forcing him to leave Budapest for Berlin in late 1919. He completed his doctoral degree under Max von Laue (1879 1960) at the University of Berlin in 1922 and his Habilitationsschrift in 1925. During the 1920s and early 1930s, he filed a number of patents, several of them jointly with Albert Einstein (1879 1955). He left Berlin in March 1933 for London where he played a leading role in the rescue operations for refugee scientists and scholars from Nazi Germany. He also carried out notable research in nuclear physics in London and Oxford before immigrating to the United States at the end of 1938. He drafted Einstein’s famous letter of August 2, 1939, to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, worked in the Manhattan Project during World War II, initiated a petition to President Harry S. Truman not to use the bomb on Japan, and immediately after the war was a leader in the scientists’ movement that resulted in civilian control of nuclear energy. In 1946 he turned to biology, in which his most significant contribution was to formulate a theory of

  19. Women's Exile and Transatlantic Epistolary Ties in the Work of Pilar de Zubiaurre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Allende, Iker

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, I analyze Pilar de Zubiaurre's experience of exile by focusing on the articles she published in the magazine "Euzko Deya" and the letters she wrote and received in Mexico. Among the letters Zubiaurre received, I study those from Maria Martos de Baeza. My main argument is that for Zubiaurre, writing became a fundamental way to…

  20. Resisting Exile in the Homeland: He Mo'oleno No La'ie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikau, Hokulani K.

    2008-01-01

    Kanaka Maoli are under constant threat of becoming exiles in their homeland. With the steady encroachment of development such as new luxury subdivisions on Moloka'i, high-rise condominiums in Waikiki, and new multi-million-dollar homes on the beaches of all the major islands, they are being pushed off their land and replaced by new wealthy…

  1. Lessons from the Exile for the Instruction of the Church in Ecological Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Donald B.

    1990-01-01

    Points out the centrality of imagery in the educational process and argues that images from the Exile period of Hebrew history could provide analogies and metaphors for study of the current ecological crisis. Explores parallels between these historical eras. Urges humans to see themselves as connected to nature rather than dominating nature. (DB)

  2. Leader and Spokesman for a People in Exile: Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Samvit

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses Chief Joseph's surrender that marked the beginning of his diplomatic stand for justice in Indian Territory, where his tribe was forcibly exiled in accordance with American Indian policy of the time. Joseph battled for the repatriation of the Nez Perce through protests and other legal means, winning the support of the growing…

  3. Helping Kids Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiss, E. Renee

    2008-01-01

    Educators need to help kids help others so that they can help themselves. Volunteering does not involve competition or grades. This is one area where students don't have to worry about measuring up to the expectations of parents, teachers, and coaches. Students participate in charitable work to add another line to a college transcript or job…

  4. Helping Users Help Themselves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Claire E.

    This discussion of the design of user-initiated help systems in computers focuses on the information that users actively seek to help them with their tasks, with emphasis on how to help users ask the questions that will bridge the gap between the initial internal (mental) form of the query and their information need as expressed by the system.…

  5. Helping as a Function of Empathic Responses and Sociopathy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Edward L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Investigated helping as a function of empathic anxiety (anxiety in response to modeled distress) and individual differences in sociopathic tendencies. Results indicated modeled distress produces increases in anxiety which are positively associated with helping and sociopathic individuals are less likely to help than are nonsociopathic individuals.…

  6. Factors associated with distress in relatives of a family member experiencing recent-onset psychosis.

    PubMed

    Barrowclough, Christine; Gooding, Patricia; Hartley, Samantha; Lee, Gary; Lobban, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Factors associated with distress in relatives of people experiencing recent-onset psychosis are unclear, but subjective appraisals of the illness seem to be implicated. We aimed to identify the contribution of illness perceptions to predicting distress in relatives of people experiencing recent-onset psychosis. The relatives were assessed on measures including distress and illness perceptions, and these were repeated 6 months later. Almost half of the relatives had significant distress that persisted at 6 months. Where symptoms of the service users were more severe, and for the older relatives, distress showed less improvement. Perceptions of greater perceived future negative consequences and a more chronic timeline predicted greater distress at 6 months, whereas increased perceived coping efficacy of the relatives predicted a reduction in distress. Distress in relatives is evident early on in psychosis, but assessment of appraisals of relatives may help identify those at risk for enduring problems and offers opportunity for clinical intervention. PMID:24375211

  7. [Turkish exile of women and their contribution to the science of Turkey from 1933 to 1945].

    PubMed

    Erichsen, Regine

    2005-12-01

    When the National-Socialists from the year 1933 forced Jewish civil-servants and professionals to leave their jobs with restrictive laws against different professional groups, among those who left the country in order do find new openings were many women. For many of them the exile meant the break up of their academic career. However, those who found a new occupation in the Turkish university reform the Turkish state started in 1933 made an important contribution to a successful project of science transfer the large group of emigrants from Germany and Austria carried out in Turkey between 1933 and 1945. The article shows how exiled German and Austrian women especially in the medical professions took part in the innovational shift of science and learning of the Turkish universities and the clinical practice in the institutions of public health.

  8. Tester for Distress Beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    Distress beacons on aircraft and boats checked for proper operation with aid of onboard monitor. Monitor mounted in aircraft cockpit or at wheel of boat. Connected to beacon electronics by cable. Monitor used with interface circuitry in beacon, which acts as buffer so that operation of beacon is not adversely affected if monitor is removed or if connecting cable is accidentally short circuited.

  9. A programme of mental health for political refugees: dealing with the invisible pain of political exile.

    PubMed

    Barudy, J

    1989-01-01

    Political persecution, state terrorism, torture, political assassinations, kidnapping and forced exile have become common occurrences in many parts of the world. Several researchers have tried to determine the impact of these situations on the mental health of those affected. At the same time, different types of aid programmes have been developed to prevent and treat the effects of violence on mental health. In this article we present clinical materials collected for 10 years by the Latin American Collective of Psychosocial Work [Colectivo Latinamericano de Trabajo Psicosocial (Colat)], a medical-psychosocial assistance programme for political refugees. The programme was under the academic supervision of the Catholic Universities of Leuven (KUL, ULC), Belgium. The concept of identity is the central theme of a model which tries to understand and explain the suffering of exiles. We try to identify and expose the mechanisms of political violence that have traumatized an individual's self-esteem and disordered his familial and social bonds. In the second part of this article, the central ideas which support the medical-psychosocial practice of the programme are presented. This programme seeks to heal the damage caused by repression and exile through the active participation of those affected. Only in a context of communal action is it possible to develop a therapy to promote an individual recovery. It is in this sense that the strategic goal of the programme is to permit elaboration of the suffering at an individual, familial and group level, and to facilitate group dynamics which can trigger the potential of the exiles to transform the conditions of violence that originated and maintain their pain. PMID:2652324

  10. A programme of mental health for political refugees: dealing with the invisible pain of political exile.

    PubMed

    Barudy, J

    1989-01-01

    Political persecution, state terrorism, torture, political assassinations, kidnapping and forced exile have become common occurrences in many parts of the world. Several researchers have tried to determine the impact of these situations on the mental health of those affected. At the same time, different types of aid programmes have been developed to prevent and treat the effects of violence on mental health. In this article we present clinical materials collected for 10 years by the Latin American Collective of Psychosocial Work [Colectivo Latinamericano de Trabajo Psicosocial (Colat)], a medical-psychosocial assistance programme for political refugees. The programme was under the academic supervision of the Catholic Universities of Leuven (KUL, ULC), Belgium. The concept of identity is the central theme of a model which tries to understand and explain the suffering of exiles. We try to identify and expose the mechanisms of political violence that have traumatized an individual's self-esteem and disordered his familial and social bonds. In the second part of this article, the central ideas which support the medical-psychosocial practice of the programme are presented. This programme seeks to heal the damage caused by repression and exile through the active participation of those affected. Only in a context of communal action is it possible to develop a therapy to promote an individual recovery. It is in this sense that the strategic goal of the programme is to permit elaboration of the suffering at an individual, familial and group level, and to facilitate group dynamics which can trigger the potential of the exiles to transform the conditions of violence that originated and maintain their pain.

  11. Stress and distress.

    PubMed

    Selye, H

    1975-12-01

    I must ask the reader's indulgence for this article's concern with applications of the stress concept, which are distinct from, although related to clinical medicine. It has not been my object to deal with the way physicians have been aided by stress research in the practice of medicine--that information is already widely available. Rather, I have attempted to sketch briefly the history of the stress theory and to demonstrate how this information can help anyone, physician or layman, lead a more complete and satisfying life. The applications of the stress theory have been dealt with at length elsewhere. I believe that we can find within scientifically verified observations the basis of a code of behavior suited to our century. The great laws of nature that regulate the defenses of living beings against stress of any kind are essentially the same at all levels of life, from individual cells to entire complex human organisms and societies. It helps a great deal to understand the fundamental advantages and disadvantages of catatoxic and syntoxic attitudes by studying the biologic basis of self-preservation as reflected in syntoxic and catatoxic chemical mechanisms. When applied to everyday problems, this understanding should lead to choices most likely to provide us the pleasant eustress (from the Greek eu meaning good, as in euphoria) involved in achieving fulfillment and victory, thereby avoiding the self-destructive distress of frustration and failure. So the translation of the laws governing resistance of cells and organs to a code of behavior comes down to three basic precepts: 1. Find your own natural stress level. People differ with regard to the amount and kind of work they consider worth doing to meet the exigencies of daily life and to assure their future security and happiness. In this respect, all of us are influenced by hereditary predispositions and the expectations of our society. Only through planned self-analysis can we establish what we really want

  12. Parent-Reported Distress in Children Under 3-years Old During Preventive Medical and Dental Care

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Travis M.; Huebner, Colleen E.; Kim, Amy; Scott, JoAnna M.; Pickrell, Jacqueline E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study examined factors related to young children’s distress during preventive oral health visits. Additionally, associations between parent-reported child behavior during the dental visit and during prior medical visits were tested. Methods One hundred twenty two children under 3 years of age enrolled in a government insurance program for low-income children were seen for examination, prophylaxis, and fluoride application at a university-based dental clinic. Child distress was rated by parents on a numerical rating scale. Results The average age of children enrolled was 23.5 ± 7.3 months. The majority (55.7%) were judged to have little or no distress pre-examination. Mild or no distress during the examination was reported for 42.6% of the children and severe distress was reported for 39.4%. Intensity of distress during the examination was not associated with the child’s age, gender, dental health, or prior experience with dental care. Distress was also unrelated to the caregiver’s education level or own dental health. Intensity of distress was associated with the child’s pre-dental examination distress and distress during prior medical examinations and injections. Conclusions Dental professionals can better anticipate child distress by assessing children before examination and inquiring about previous medical experiences. Strategies to prepare parents and alleviate distress may help children cope with the preventive dental visit. PMID:25514877

  13. Moral Distress among Iranian Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Tabatabaei, Shahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the moral distress among Iranian registered nurses. Methods: This was a descriptive –analytic study, in which 264 out of 1000 nurses were randomly selected as a sample group and completed the questionnaire. The nurses’ moral distress was assessed using Corley’s 30-item Moral Distress Scale adapted for use in an Iranian population. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 19. Results: In this study, no correlation was found between the level of moral distress and any of the demographic data. The mean moral distress score ranged from 3.56 to 5.83, indicating moderate to high levels of moral distress. The item with the highest mean score was “working with unsafe levels of nurse staffing”. The item with the lowest mean score was “giving medication intravenously to a patient who has refused to take it”. Nurses working in EMS and NICU units had the highest levels of moral distress. Conclusion: A higher degree of moral distress is observed among nurses who work in health care systems. The results of this study highly recommend practical and research-oriented evaluation of moral distress in the medical society in Iran. Our findings suggest that Iranian version of MDS is a reliable instrument to measure moral distress in nurses. PMID:26005478

  14. First results of the (n,γ) EXILL campaigns at the Institut Laue Langevin using EXOGAM and FATIMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolie, J.; Régis, J.-M.; Wilmsen, D.; Ahmed, S.; Pfeiffer, M.; Saed-Samii, N.; Warr, N.; Blanc, A.; Jentschel, M.; Köster, U.; Mutti, P.; Soldner, T.; Simpson, G.; de France, G.; Urban, W.; Bruce, A. M.; Roberts, O. J.; Fraile, L. M.; Paziy, V.; Ignatov, A.; Ilieva, S.; Kröll, Th; Scheck, M.; Thürauf, M.; Ivanova, D.; Kisyov, S.; Lalkovski, S.; Podolyak, Zs; Regan, P. H.; Korten, W.; Habs, D.; Thirolf, P. G.; Ur, C. A.

    2014-09-01

    At the PF1B cold neutron beam line at the Institut Laue Langevin the EXILL array consisting of EXOGAM, GASP and LOHENGRIN detectors was used to perform (n,γ) measurements under very high coincidence rates. About ten different reactions were then measured in autumn 2012. In spring 2013 the EXOGAM array was combined with 16 LaBr3(Ce) scintillators in the FATIMA@EXILL campaign for the measurement of lifetimes using the generalised centroid difference method. We report on the properties of both set-ups and present first results on Pt isotopes from both campaigns.

  15. "Once a Soldier, a Soldier Forever": Exiled Zimbabwean Soldiers in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Maringira, Godfrey; Carrasco, Lorena Núñez

    2015-01-01

    Through military training, soldiers' bodies are shaped and prepared for war and military-related duties. In the context these former Zimbabwean soldiers find themselves--that of desertion and 'underground life' in exile in South Africa--their military-trained bodies and military skills are their only resource. In this article, we explore the ways in which former soldiers maintain and 'reuse' their military-trained bodies in South Africa for survival, in a context of high unemployment and a violent, inner-city environment. We look at their social world and practices of soldiering--a term that refers to the specific forms of their social interaction in exile, through which they keep their memories of their military past alive. By attending to their subjectivities and the endurance of their masculine military identities and bodies, we aim to contribute to the discussion on demilitarization, which has largely focused on the failure of models of intervention to assist ex-combatants in postconflict contexts. PMID:25897821

  16. Stories of pre-war, war and exile: Bosnian refugee children in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Goldin, S; Levin, L; Persson, L A; Hägglof, B

    2001-01-01

    While standardized questionnaires produce counts of isolated events, a semi-structured interview derives a story, a complex narrative in time and place. Ninety Bosnian refugee children and adolescents (ages 1-20), resettled in Sweden, were assessed in a semi-structured clinical interview designed to identify and offer support to children at risk. A family-child account of traumatic exposure was analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. Type-stories or clusters of experience were identified for three distinct periods: prior to war, during war, and after war in exile. The extent of trauma-stress exposure during each of these periods proved unrelated. Pre-war experience presented as preponderantly good and safe. Differences in child exposure during war and exile could be understood in relation to identifiable socio-demographic factors; particularly ethnic background, social class, child age and family size. Further, the stories derived cast light on the equity of Swedish refugee reception, exposing both egalitarian and discriminatory tendencies. PMID:11339342

  17. Does Change in Distress Matter? Mechanisms of Change in Prolonged Exposure for PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Bluett, Ellen J.; Zoellner, Lori A.; Feeny, Norah C.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Clinically, many individuals persist in prolonged exposure therapy (PE) for chronic PTSD despite continuing distress during recounting of the trauma memory (imaginal exposure). Theorists suggest that distress reduction is necessary for successful treatment outcome (e.g., Foa & Kozak, 1986), while others suggest otherwise (e.g., Craske et al., 2008). This study examined clinically reliable changes in distress, relations to broad clinical outcomes, and whether homework adherence affected this relationship. Method In 116 patients with PTSD, first to last imaginal exposure sessions’ peak and average distress was examined, calculating reliable change in distress. Homework adherence and helpfulness were examined. At post-treatment, PTSD symptoms (re-experiencing, avoidance, hyperarousal), depression, and functioning were examined. Results Patients exhibited a lack of reliable change in distress (64.7%) more than a reliable change in distress (35.3%). Although no difference in post-treatment PTSD diagnostic status, individuals experiencing a reliable change in distress reported lower PTSD severity (re-experiencing, hyperarousal), depression, and better functioning. Further, perceived helpfulness of imaginal homework had an indirect effect on this relationship. Limitations This study did not utilize a distress tolerance self-report measure; however, examined self-reported distress during imaginal exposure. Conclusions Results are encouraging for clinicians treating PTSD with PE, arguing that lack of reliable change in distress to the trauma memory does not result in treatment failure. Patient “buy in” to homework, rather than amount completed, was related to the process of distress reduction. Results suggest that distress reduction in imaginal exposure is not a key mechanism underlying therapeutic change in PE. PMID:24091202

  18. Writing Germany in Exile--The Bilingual Author as Cultural Mediator: Klaus Mann, Stefan Heym, Rudolf Arnheim and Hannah Arendt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Verena

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the process of self-translation undertaken by German exile writers who translated their own works, written in English, the language of their host country, back into their mother tongue, German. It postulates that the necessary precondition for self-translation is not just bilinguality but also biculturality and that it is this…

  19. Relationship satisfaction and psychological distress among concerned significant others of pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Hodgins, David C; Shead, N Will; Makarchuk, Karyn

    2007-01-01

    This study explores correlates of psychological distress and relationship satisfaction among concerned significant others (CSOs) of pathological gamblers. CSOs often seek help in dealing with the gambling problem and are influential in recovery, but little is known about the sources of their distress. A sample of 186 CSOs responded to media announcements offering telephone and bibliotherapy support. In multivariate models, CSOs who were spouses and who were younger reported more personal distress, and higher distress was associated with a greater number of CSO emotional and behavioral consequences. Lower relationship satisfaction was associated with more CSO emotional consequences, fewer gambler consequences, and greater severity of gambling problem. Implications for treatment are discussed.

  20. Tackling science's distress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    If arguments for limiting support for science continue to dominate the public discourse about science, “we will be talking our way into scientific decline,” said Frank Press, president of the National Academy of Sciences, to the academy's annual meeting on April 30. Press is the latest in a number of prominent figures on the Washington science scene, from George E. Brown, Jr. (D-Calif.), chairman of the House Science Committee, to Mary L. Good, head of the National Science Board, to take stock of the U.S. science enterprise.Press lauded President Bush's current budget request for science, calling it the best one in recent years. The new federal budget caps, however, provide a counterweight by creating a “fixed pie” for spending. Added to this, the university science community is in severe distress, Press said, suffering from outmoded laboratories, rising costs, budget cuts, and new and expensive government regulations, among other burdens. The budget caps also force federally funded laboratories and universities to compete with each other for support.

  1. [Burden and capability of damaged parents--how refugee children can grow in exile].

    PubMed

    Adam, Hubertus; Walter, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    In trauma, dialectical tension arises between the inner perspective of the traumatized subject and the outside perspective (objective situation), between environmental stress and the subjective attribution of meaning, as well as between experience and behaviour. The traumatic process--the subject's endeavour to comprehend the overwhelming, often inconceivable experience and integrate it into its concepts of self and world--is understood against the backdrop of these interacting dimensions. The process phases "emerge from each other, run parallel, and permeate each other" (Fischer u. Riedesser, 2003). Problems that arise in the aftermath of trauma are rarely overcome by the victims alone. Attempts to process and self-heal have a social dimension, and family members are affected by war, persecution and flight in individual, varying ways. The impacts of violence experienced by parents from different crisis regions are examined in case studies with regard to the psychological development of indirectly impacted children growing up in exile. PMID:23155785

  2. Understanding Distress in People with Severe Communication Difficulties: Developing and Assessing the Disability Distress Assessment Tool (DisDAT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regnard, C.; Reynolds, Joanna; Watson, Bill; Matthews, Dorothy; Gibson, Lynn; Clarke, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    Background: Meaningful communication with people with profound communication difficulties depends on the ability of carers to recognize and translate many different verbal cues. Carers appear to be intuitively skilled at identifying distress cues, but have little confidence in their observations. To help in this process, a number of pain tools…

  3. [Acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    PubMed

    Estenssoro, Elisa; Dubin, Arnaldo

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an acute respiratory failure produced by an inflammatory edema secondary to increased lung capillary permeability. This causes alveolar flooding and subsequently deep hypoxemia, with intrapulmonary shunt as its most important underlying mechanism. Characteristically, this alteration is unresponsive to high FIO2 and only reverses with end-expiratory positive pressure (PEEP). Pulmonary infiltrates on CXR and CT are the hallmark, together with decreased lung compliance. ARDS always occurs within a week of exposition to a precipitating factor; most frequently pneumonia, shock, aspiration of gastric contents, sepsis, and trauma. In CT scan, the disease is frequently inhomogeneous, with gravitational infiltrates coexisting with normal-density areas and also with hyperaerated parenchyma. Mortality is high (30-60%) especially in ARDS associated with septic shock and neurocritical diseases. The cornerstone of therapy lies in the treatment of the underlying cause and in the use mechanical ventilation which, if inappropriately administered, can lead to ventilator-induced lung injury. Tidal volume = 6 ml/kg of ideal body weight to maintain an end-inspiratory (plateau) pressure = 30 cm H2O ("protective ventilation") is the only variable consistently associated with decreased mortality. Moderate-to-high PEEP levels are frequently required to treat hypoxemia, yet no specific level or titration strategy has improved outcomes. Recently, the use of early prone positioning in patients with PaO2/FIO2 = 150 was associated with increased survival. In severely hypoxemic patients, it may be necessary to use adjuvants of mechanical ventilation as recruitment maneuvers, pressure-controlled modes, neuromuscular blocking agents, and extracorporeal-membrane oxygenation. Fluid restriction appears beneficial. PMID:27576283

  4. Exploring the Relationship Among Moral Distress, Coping, and the Practice Environment in Emergency Department Nurses.

    PubMed

    Zavotsky, Kathleen Evanovich; Chan, Garrett K

    2016-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) nurses practice in environments that are highly charged and unpredictable in nature and can precipitate conflict between the necessary prescribed actions and the individual's sense of what is morally the right thing to do. As a consequence of multiple moral dilemmas, ED staff nurses are at risk for experiencing distress and how they cope with these challenges may impact their practice. To examine moral distress in ED nurses and its relationship to coping in that specialty group. Using survey methods approach. One hundred ninety-eight ED nurses completed a moral distress, coping, and demographic collection instruments. Advanced statistical analysis was completed to look at relationships between the variables. Data analysis did show that moral distress is present in ED nurses (M = 80.19, SD = 53.27), and when separated into age groups, the greater the age, the less the experience of moral distress. A positive relationship between moral distress and some coping mechanisms and the ED environment was also noted. This study's findings suggest that ED nurses experience moral distress and could receive some benefit from utilization of appropriate coping skills. This study also suggests that the environment in which ED nurses practice has a significant impact on the experience of moral distress. Because health care is continuing to evolve, it is critical that issues such as moral distress and coping be studied in ED nurses to help eliminate human suffering.

  5. Perfectionism, procrastination, and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Rice, Kenneth G; Richardson, Clarissa M E; Clark, Dustin

    2012-04-01

    Using a cross-panel design and data from 2 successive cohorts of college students (N = 357), we examined the stability of maladaptive perfectionism, procrastination, and psychological distress across 3 time points within a college semester. Each construct was substantially stable over time, with procrastination being especially stable. We also tested, but failed to support, a mediational model with Time 2 (mid-semester) procrastination as a hypothesized mechanism through which Time 1 (early-semester) perfectionism would affect Time 3 (end-semester) psychological distress. An alternative model with Time 2 perfectionism as a mediator of the procrastination-distress association also was not supported. Within-time analyses revealed generally consistent strength of effects in the correlations between the 3 constructs over the course of the semester. A significant interaction effect also emerged. Time 1 procrastination had no effect on otherwise high levels of psychological distress at the end of the semester for highly perfectionistic students, but at low levels of Time 1 perfectionism, the most distressed students by the end of the term were those who were more likely to have procrastinated earlier in the semester. Implications of the stability of the constructs and their association over time, as well as the moderating effects of procrastination, are discussed in the context of maladaptive perfectionism and problematic procrastination. PMID:22352949

  6. Perfectionism, procrastination, and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Rice, Kenneth G; Richardson, Clarissa M E; Clark, Dustin

    2012-04-01

    Using a cross-panel design and data from 2 successive cohorts of college students (N = 357), we examined the stability of maladaptive perfectionism, procrastination, and psychological distress across 3 time points within a college semester. Each construct was substantially stable over time, with procrastination being especially stable. We also tested, but failed to support, a mediational model with Time 2 (mid-semester) procrastination as a hypothesized mechanism through which Time 1 (early-semester) perfectionism would affect Time 3 (end-semester) psychological distress. An alternative model with Time 2 perfectionism as a mediator of the procrastination-distress association also was not supported. Within-time analyses revealed generally consistent strength of effects in the correlations between the 3 constructs over the course of the semester. A significant interaction effect also emerged. Time 1 procrastination had no effect on otherwise high levels of psychological distress at the end of the semester for highly perfectionistic students, but at low levels of Time 1 perfectionism, the most distressed students by the end of the term were those who were more likely to have procrastinated earlier in the semester. Implications of the stability of the constructs and their association over time, as well as the moderating effects of procrastination, are discussed in the context of maladaptive perfectionism and problematic procrastination.

  7. Helping Children of Alcoholic Parents: An Elementary School Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Ruth B.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes a program in the Somerville, Massachusetts, elementary schools, designed to help children cope with the emotional distress of family alcoholism and to prevent them from abusing alcohol in adolescence or adulthood. Program structure and results are discussed. (JAC)

  8. Sera-therapy, exile and Franco's regime. The survival strategy of the Ravetllat-Pla Institute in postwar Spain.

    PubMed

    Estapé Egea, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the scientific and commercial survival strategy of the Ravetllat-Pla Institute after the Spanish Civil War. Founded in 1923 by Ramon Pla (1880-1956) and Joaquim Ravetllat (1872-1923), it produced two sera: 'Hemo-antitoxin' and the 'Ravetllat-Pla serum'. When the Civil War ended and Ramon Pla was forced into exile, management of this laboratory was taken over by his daughter, Núia Pla Monseny (1918- 2011) who had to deal with an extremely difficult economic, political and commercial situation. In this paper, I analyse the means by which the Institute survived. These involved the Institute's ability to construct different political symbols from 'Hemo-antitoxin'. I study how Franco's repression influenced this survival strategy and Ramon Pla's role in exile. I also analyse the part played in this scientific and commercial process by the Institute's scientific and commercial network in Chile. PMID:26054212

  9. Moral Distress, Workplace Health, and Intrinsic Harm.

    PubMed

    Weber, Elijah

    2016-05-01

    Moral distress is now being recognized as a frequent experience for many health care providers, and there's good evidence that it has a negative impact on the health care work environment. However, contemporary discussions of moral distress have several problems. First, they tend to rely on inadequate characterizations of moral distress. As a result, subsequent investigations regarding the frequency and consequences of moral distress often proceed without a clear understanding of the phenomenon being discussed, and thereby risk substantially misrepresenting the nature, frequency, and possible consequences of moral distress. These discussions also minimize the intrinsically harmful aspects of moral distress. This is a serious omission. Moral distress doesn't just have a negative impact on the health care work environment; it also directly harms the one who experiences it. In this paper, I claim that these problems can be addressed by first clarifying our understanding of moral distress, and then identifying what makes moral distress intrinsically harmful. I begin by identifying three common mistakes that characterizations of moral distress tend to make, and explaining why these mistakes are problematic. Next, I offer an account of moral distress that avoids these mistakes. Then, I defend the claim that moral distress is intrinsically harmful to the subject who experiences it. I conclude by explaining how acknowledging this aspect of moral distress should reshape our discussions about how best to deal with this phenomenon. PMID:26308751

  10. Predictors of psychological distress and interest in mental health services in individuals with cancer.

    PubMed

    O'Hea, Erin L; Monahan, Brigitte R; Cutillo, Alexandra; Person, Sharina D; Grissom, Grant; Boudreaux, Edwin D

    2016-06-01

    Identifying risk factors for psychological distress in patients with cancer may help providers more efficiently screen, identify, and manage distress. This article presents predictors of psychological distress in a large heterogeneous sample of cancer patients. In total, 836 patients were enrolled in a large randomized control trial and completed computerized psychosocial assessments Mental Health Assessment and Dynamic Referral for Oncology. Multivariate regressions examined predictors of distress and interest in mental health services. Final models suggest that psychological distress was related to six variables, and interest in mental health services was related to previous history of mental health counseling, total number of cancer-related symptoms, and race/ethnicity. Results may be used to identify high-risk patients who may benefit from proactive psychosocial interventions. PMID:25205777

  11. Psychological Distress in Afghan Refugees: A Mixed-Method Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Alemi, Qais; James, Sigrid; Cruz, Romalene; Zepeda, Veronica; Racadio, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Mental health problems disproportionately affect Afghan refugees and asylum seekers who continue to seek international protection with prolonged exposure to war. We performed a systematic review aimed at synthesizing peer-reviewed literature pertaining to mental health problems among Afghans resettled in industrialized nations. We used five databases to identify studies published between 1979 and 2013 that provided data on distress levels, and subjective experiences with distress. Seventeen studies met our inclusion criteria consisting of 1 mixed-method, 7 qualitative, and 9 quantitative studies. Themes from our qualitative synthesis described antecedents for distress being rooted in cultural conflicts and loss, and also described unique coping mechanisms. Quantitative findings indicated moderate to high prevalence of depressive and posttraumatic symptomatology. These findings support the need for continued mental health research with Afghans that accounts for: distress among newly resettled groups, professional help-seeking utilization patterns, and also culturally relevant strategies for mitigating distress and engaging Afghans in research. PMID:23784146

  12. 46 CFR 169.553 - Pyrotechnic distress signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... signals: (1) 6 hand red flare distress signals, and 6 hand orange smoke distress signals; or, (2) 12 hand held rocket propelled parachute red flare distress signals. (d) (e) All pyrotechnic distress...

  13. 46 CFR 169.553 - Pyrotechnic distress signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... signals: (1) 6 hand red flare distress signals, and 6 hand orange smoke distress signals; or, (2) 12 hand held rocket propelled parachute red flare distress signals. (d) (e) All pyrotechnic distress...

  14. 46 CFR 169.553 - Pyrotechnic distress signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... signals: (1) 6 hand red flare distress signals, and 6 hand orange smoke distress signals; or, (2) 12 hand held rocket propelled parachute red flare distress signals. (d) (e) All pyrotechnic distress...

  15. 46 CFR 169.553 - Pyrotechnic distress signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... signals: (1) 6 hand red flare distress signals, and 6 hand orange smoke distress signals; or, (2) 12 hand held rocket propelled parachute red flare distress signals. (d) (e) All pyrotechnic distress...

  16. 46 CFR 169.553 - Pyrotechnic distress signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... signals: (1) 6 hand red flare distress signals, and 6 hand orange smoke distress signals; or, (2) 12 hand held rocket propelled parachute red flare distress signals. (d) (e) All pyrotechnic distress...

  17. Back Pain and Emotional Distress

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as analgesic medications, manual therapy and/or physical therapy for symptomatic relief. Questions You Need to Ask In order to minimize emotional distress, it is important to ask your health care provider ques- tions about your back pain so you do not leave the office uncertain ...

  18. Perfectionism, Procrastination, and Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Richardson, Clarissa M. E.; Clark, Dustin

    2012-01-01

    Using a cross-panel design and data from 2 successive cohorts of college students ( N = 357), we examined the stability of maladaptive perfectionism, procrastination, and psychological distress across 3 time points within a college semester. Each construct was substantially stable over time, with procrastination being especially stable. We also…

  19. Mindfulness and bodily distress.

    PubMed

    Fjorback, Lone Overby

    2012-11-01

    We have created a mindfulness approach to treat patients who experience multiple, persistent, and disabling physical symptoms that cannot be explained by a well-defined medical or surgical condition. Randomized controlled trials in this area are few, and research is hampered by the lack of clear definitions. Bodily distress syndrome (BDS) or bodily stress is an empirically defined definition unifying various conditions such as fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and somatization disorder. In the present PhD, we explored whether patients suffering from BDS may be committed to mental training in the form of mindfulness therapy, which is a mindfulness program specifically targeted patients suffering from BDS. The theoretical model for including mindfulness training in the treatment of BDS is based on identified neurobiological impairments in these patients and the neurobiological improvements that mindfulness training may offer. BDS is a major public health issue possibly associated with the pathology of the immuno-endocrine and autonomic nervous system. BDS patients are often stigmatized, and effective treatment is rarely delivered, which leaves these patients isolated, left by themselves, vulnerable to potentially harming medical and/or alternative treatments. Accordingly, there is a need for non-harming practical tools that patients can learn to master so that they can improve the ability to take responsibility for their own health and wellbeing. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a group program that employs mindfulness practice to alleviate suffering associated with physical, psychosomatic, and psychiatric disorders. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is designed to prevent depressive relapse. Paper I and II present systematic literature reviews only of randomized controlled trials on MBSR and MBCT. The effect of MBSR has been explored on fibromyalgia in three studies, none of them showed convincing results, but gave some indications as to

  20. The patient dignity inventory: a novel way of measuring dignity-related distress in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Chochinov, Harvey Max; Hassard, Thomas; McClement, Susan; Hack, Thomas; Kristjanson, Linda J; Harlos, Mike; Sinclair, Shane; Murray, Alison

    2008-12-01

    Quality palliative care depends on a deep understanding of distress facing patients nearing death. Yet, many aspects of psychosocial, existential and spiritual distress are often overlooked. The aim of this study was to test a novel psychometric--the Patient Dignity Inventory (PDI)--designed to measure various sources of dignity-related distress among patients nearing the end of life. Using standard instrument development techniques, this study examined the face validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, factor structure and concurrent validity of the PDI. The 25-items of the PDI derive from a model of dignity in the terminally ill. To establish its basic psychometric properties, the PDI was administered to 253 patients receiving palliative care, along with other measures addressing issues identified within the Dignity Model in the Terminally Ill. Cronbach's coefficient alpha for the PDI was 0.93; the test-retest reliability was r = 0.85. Factor analysis resulted in a five-factor solution; factor labels include Symptom Distress, Existential Distress, Dependency, Peace of Mind, and Social Support, accounting for 58% of the overall variance. Evidence for concurrent validity was reported by way of significant associations between PDI factors and concurrent measures of distress. The PDI is a valid and reliable new instrument, which could assist clinicians to routinely detect end-of-life dignity-related distress. Identifying these sources of distress is a critical step toward understanding human suffering and should help clinicians deliver quality, dignity-conserving end-of-life care.

  1. Psychological distress, perceived stigma, and coping among caregivers of patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Hui Chien; Ibrahim, Norhayati; Wahab, Suzaily

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, family members are gradually taking on the role of full-time caregivers for patients suffering from schizophrenia. The increasing burden and tasks of caretaking can cause them psychological distress such as depression or anxiety. The aim of this study was to measure the correlation between perceived stigma and coping, and psychological distress as well as determine the predictors of psychological distress among the caregivers. Results showed that 31.5% of the caregivers experienced psychological distress. “Community rejection” was found to be positively associated with psychological distress. In case of coping subscales, psychological distress had a positive correlation with substance use, use of emotional support, behavioral disengagement, venting, and self-blame, while it was negatively correlated with “positive reframing”. Behavioral disengagement was the best predictor of psychological distress among caregivers of patients with schizophrenia, followed by positive reframing, use of emotional support, self-blame, and venting. Health practitioners can use adaptive coping strategies instead of maladaptive for caregivers to help ease their distress and prevent further deterioration of psychological disorders. PMID:27574475

  2. Psychological distress, perceived stigma, and coping among caregivers of patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ong, Hui Chien; Ibrahim, Norhayati; Wahab, Suzaily

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, family members are gradually taking on the role of full-time caregivers for patients suffering from schizophrenia. The increasing burden and tasks of caretaking can cause them psychological distress such as depression or anxiety. The aim of this study was to measure the correlation between perceived stigma and coping, and psychological distress as well as determine the predictors of psychological distress among the caregivers. Results showed that 31.5% of the caregivers experienced psychological distress. "Community rejection" was found to be positively associated with psychological distress. In case of coping subscales, psychological distress had a positive correlation with substance use, use of emotional support, behavioral disengagement, venting, and self-blame, while it was negatively correlated with "positive reframing". Behavioral disengagement was the best predictor of psychological distress among caregivers of patients with schizophrenia, followed by positive reframing, use of emotional support, self-blame, and venting. Health practitioners can use adaptive coping strategies instead of maladaptive for caregivers to help ease their distress and prevent further deterioration of psychological disorders. PMID:27574475

  3. 47 CFR 2.402 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 2.402 Section 2... distress traffic. The control of distress traffic is the responsibility of the mobile station in distress... distress call. These stations may, however, delegate the control of the distress traffic to another station....

  4. 47 CFR 2.402 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 2.402 Section 2... distress traffic. The control of distress traffic is the responsibility of the mobile station in distress... distress call. These stations may, however, delegate the control of the distress traffic to another station....

  5. Psychological distress and mental health of Thai caregivers.

    PubMed

    Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Seubsman S, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian C

    2012-08-01

    BACKGROUND: As the proportion of elderly people within a population increases there is an accompanying increase in the role of informal caregivers. Many studies on caregivers report negative health outcomes but very few have addressed positive aspects of caregiving. This study examines characteristics of Thai caregivers, the distribution of psychological distress and mental health among caregivers, and the association between caregiver status and psychological distress. METHODS: This report is based on an ongoing national cohort study of 60,569 Thai adults. Caregiving was common in the cohort, and in 2009 6.6% were full-time and 27.5% were part-time caregivers. Outcomes of the study were reported using an international standard Kessler 6 for psychological distress and a national Thai Mental Health Indicator. Determinants included age, sex, marital status, household income, work status and urban-rural residence. Frequency of social contacts was also included as explanatory variable. RESULTS: Among cohort members, 27.5% were part-time caregivers and 6.6% were full-time caregivers. Compared to non-caregivers, full-time caregivers tended to be older, to be married, more likely to be in the lowest household income group, to be unpaid family members, and to reside in rural areas. We noted the seeming contradiction that when compared to non-caregivers, the caregivers reported higher psychological distress but higher positive mental health (i.e., self-esteem and content with life), higher positive mental capacity (i.e., coping with crises), and higher positive mental quality (i.e., helping others). After adjusting for possible covariates, part-time and full-time caregivers were more likely to report high psychological distress (Adjusted Odds Ratios, AOR 1.33 and 1.78 among males and 1.32 and 1.45 among females). Less contact with colleagues was associated with high psychological distress both in males and females (AOR 1.36 and 1.33). Less contact with friends was also

  6. Helping Children Help Themselves. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

    Youth leaders and parents can use this activity oriented publication to help children six to twelve years of age become more independent by acquiring daily living skills. The publication consists of five units, each of which contains an introduction, learning activities, and lists of resource materials. Age-ability levels are suggested for…

  7. Assessment of Psychological Distress in Epilepsy: Perspective from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Sahar, Najam-us

    2012-01-01

    The unpredictable nature & elongated course of epilepsy affect all dimensions (physical, psychological, and social) of an individual's life. People with the diagnosis of epilepsy are a high-risk group for different psychiatric problems that is anxiety, depression as well as social problems (marriage, education, and daily activities). The findings of present research revealed high rate (70%) of psychological distress among fifty adult individuals with epilepsy. It was also found that people with uncontrolled epilepsy experience high level of psychological distress (100%) as compared to those with controlled (42%). Demographic and clinical factors associated with distress include lack of occupation, the presence of an underlying disabling condition (with treatment), and the severity of epilepsy. The finding generated here showed that 13 out of 19 females with epilepsy reported psychological distress. It was also found that none of these women was employed (a cultural specific phenomenon) with a slightly high number of unmarried females (74%). So by understanding the relationship between clinical and psychosocial variables, a good management plan can be devised with a focus on social and gender differences. The present research can also help to increase the awareness and to lower the stigmatization related to epilepsy. PMID:22934159

  8. Drinking, smoking, and psychological distress in middle and late life.

    PubMed

    Choi, Namkee G; Dinitto, Diana M

    2011-08-01

    A limited number of studies have examined the co-occurrence of alcohol use and smoking and their mental health effects in middle and late life. In this study, using the 2008 National Survey of Drug Use and Health, the characteristics of individuals aged 50 and older who abstained from both substances, who used both substances, and who used one or the other substance were examined. Then, the main and interaction effects of drinking and smoking on psychological distress were analyzed. Findings show that smoker-nondrinkers are the most disadvantaged group in terms of sociodemographic and health characteristics, while drinker-nonsmokers are the most advantaged group. When sociodemographic, health, and other factors were controlled, no direct effects of drinking or interaction effect of drinking and smoking were detected for either gender. However, heavy smoking (6+ cigarettes on a typical smoking day) was significantly associated with an elevated level of psychological distress among women. The findings highlight the vulnerability of heavy smoking middle-aged and older women. These women are the most psychologically distressed and may need interventions designed to help them quit smoking, reduce or quit drinking, and alleviate psychological distress.

  9. Understanding tinnitus distress: introducing the concepts of moderators and mediators.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Gerhard; Westin, Vendela

    2008-11-01

    We focus this theoretical paper on a neglected distinction in tinnitus research between moderators and mediators of tinnitus distress. A moderator variable is one that influences the strength of a relationship between two other variables. In the paper we propose that several variables might act as moderators of tinnitus distress. Degree of hearing loss, arousal, insomnia, characteristics of tinnitus, noise sensitivity, and a range of psychological factors such as personality and perceived control are discussed as potential moderators. We then move on to mediator variables. A mediator variable is one that explains the relationship between the two other variables, and must by definition be caused by a predictor, and then mediate between the predictor and the dependent variable. We propose that stress levels (caused by tinnitus), classical conditioning, selective attention towards tinnitus, and psychological acceptance of tinnitus (versus experiential avoidance) might be mediators of distress. We encourage more research on moderators and mediators of tinnitus distress, as these will help illuminate treatment protocols and how they might work.

  10. Distressing near-death experiences.

    PubMed

    Greyson, B; Bush, N E

    1992-02-01

    Most reported near-death experiences include profound feelings of peace, joy, and cosmic unity. Less familiar are the reports following close brushes with death of experiences that are partially or entirely unpleasant, frightening, or frankly hellish. While little is known about the antecedents or aftereffects of these distressing experiences, there appear to be three distinct types, involving (1) phenomenology similar to peaceful near-death experiences but interpreted as unpleasant, (2) a sense of nonexistence or eternal void, or (3) graphic hellish landscapes and entities. While the first type may eventually convert to a typical peaceful experience, the relationship of all three types to prototypical near-death experiences merits further study. The effect of the distressing experience in the lives of individuals deserves exploration, as the psychological impact may be profound and long-lasting.

  11. Nasal diseases and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Deping; Luo, Wenlong

    2016-01-01

    A high rate of ENT doctors were murdered by nasal disordered patients in China recently. It is obviously important and urgent to find out whether there is any potential relationship between nasal diseases (ND) and psychological distress that might contribute to violent behavior. For this purpose, we carried out this literature review. There is a complex relationship between ND and psychiatric distress, which is mainly considered as a bidirectional causal relationship with other controversy opinions. However, most of the previous studies were found to be focused on allergic rhinitis and chronic rhinosinusitis, while reports about other ND were rare. Further study is still needed to uncover the secret aspects in this field, and more attentions need to be paid to other ND. PMID:26095351

  12. Understanding how men experience, express and cope with mental distress: where next?

    PubMed

    Ridge, Damien; Emslie, Carol; White, Alan

    2011-01-01

    In line with the shift towards prioritising lay accounts and narratives of chronic illness in sociology, there is an emerging literature on men, their subjectivities and experiences of mental distress. We argue in this paper that subjectivities and distress among men are an important area for critical sociological research. Very little is known about men's subjectivities or the meanings they give to - and how they cope with or seek help for - distress. At the same time, current theories of gender relations, performativity and wellbeing as they pertain to men are likely to shed further light on subjectivity and distress. However, current theories (and qualitative research involving men and women) are pointing to considerable complexity. In this paper, we outline what is known about distress and men, and consider the utility of gender relations, performativity, subjectivities and wellbeing for a better understanding of distress. We also ask: What other factors influence distress, and how should these be considered in relation to men and masculinities? What are the implications for research and policy? PMID:21039617

  13. Study of menstrual attitudes and distress among postmenarcheal female students in Hualien County.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Ting; Chen, Yueh-Chih

    2009-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess menstrual attitudes and menstrual distress and investigate factors associated with menstrual distress among postmenarcheal female elementary students. A total of 129 female students from 12 elementary schools in Taiwan's Hualien County participated in this study. A stratified cluster random sampling method was adopted. The questionnaire used consisted of three sections asking questions regarding the individual's menstrual characteristics, menstrual attitudes, and menstrual distress. Study results showed that most respondents experienced menstrual blood seepage during the daytime and awakened at night during their periods due to worries about menstrual blood seepage. This study found that indigenous students had significantly more frequent episodes of menstrual blood seepage during the daytime and awakened at night during period than did nonindigenous students. The mean score on the Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire was 1.88 (SD = 0.36, possible score = 1-4). The three most prevalent symptoms of menstrual distress were dysmenorrhea, acne, and fatigue. The mean score on the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire was 1.00 (SD = 0.76; possible score = 0-4). Moreover, there was a significantly negative correlation between menstrual attitudes and menstrual distress and significantly positive correlations between menstrual distress and (a) time since menarche, (b) menstrual blood seepage during the daytime, and (c) menstrual blood seepage while sleeping. Study results recommend that families and elementary schools help postmenarcheal female elementary students to accept menstruation as a natural process.

  14. Premenstrual Distress Among Japanese High School Students: Self-Care Strategies and Associated Physical and Psychosocial Factors.

    PubMed

    Otsuka-Ono, Hiroko; Sato, Iori; Ikeda, Mari; Kamibeppu, Kiyoko

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify self-care strategies and assess physical and psychosocial factors associated with premenstrual distress among high school students. A cross-sectional survey of 217 adolescent girls aged 15 to 18 years was conducted in October 2009. Most (84.3 percent) had at least one or more symptoms of premenstrual distress. Premenstrual distress interfered with normal school activity in 51.2 percent. Most participants (57.1 percent) did not perform any self-care strategies for premenstrual distress. A hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis was conducted. Comprehension of one's own physical and mental states during premenstrual phases mediated the relationship between neuroticism and premenstrual distress. Activity restrictions due to menstrual distress mediated the relationship between the family's understanding of one's behavior during premenstrual phases and premenstrual distress. Findings suggest that, even if girls have neuroticism, it will be important to teach them to address the comprehension of one's own physical and mental states so that perceptions of both premenstruation and menstruation become more positive. Findings also suggest that the family's understanding was associated with alleviation of premenstrual distress. This study suggests the need for education to help adolescent girls and their families manage premenstrual distress and increase awareness of the benefit of managing its associated symptoms.

  15. Social support, marital adjustment, and psychological distress among women with primary infertility in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Farah; Khalid, Amna; Medhin, Girmay

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify prevalence rates of psychological distress among Pakistani women seeking help for primary infertility. The associations of social support, marital adjustment, and sociodemographic factors with psychological distress were also examined. A total of 177 women with primary infertility were interviewed from one hospital in Islamabad using a Self-Reporting Questionnaire, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test. The data were collected between November 2012 and March 2013. The prevalence of psychological distress was 37.3 percent. The results of the logistic regression suggested that marital adjustment and social support were significantly negatively associated with psychological distress in this sample. These associations were not confounded by any of the demographic variables controlled in the multivariable regression models. The role of perceived social support and adjustment in marriage among women experiencing primary infertility are important factors in understanding their psychological distress. The results of this small-scale effort highlight the need for social and familial awareness to help tackle the psychological distress related to infertility. Future research needs to focus on the way the experience of infertility is conditioned by social structural realities. New ways need to be developed to better take into account the process and nature of the infertility experience.

  16. Gender differences in resilience and psychological distress of patients with burns.

    PubMed

    Masood, Afsheen; Masud, Yusra; Mazahir, Shama

    2016-03-01

    This research explored the gender differences in resilience and psychological distress of patients with burns. In Pakistan, psychological states of patients with burns have not been widely studied, women making up as the neglected section of society lag far behind in availing the needful health facilities. It was hypothesized that there would be significant gender differences in resilience and psychological distress of patients with burns. The sample of the study consisted of 50 patients with burns, obtained from four different hospitals of Lahore. In order to investigate resilience and psychological distress, the State Trait Resilience Scales (Hiew, 2007) and Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (Kessler, 2001) were used. In addition to these, self-constructed demographic questionnaire was administered. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Independent sample t-test was conducted to find gender differences in resilience and psychological distress. The findings from the current research revealed that there were significant gender differences in resilience and psychological distress of patients with burns. The insightful findings from the current research carry strong implications for the clinicians, psychologists and policy makers who can help to develop and implement the rehabilitation programs for the affected population and can launch resilience promoting programs that would help them in coping with burns in effective manner.

  17. 47 CFR 80.325 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 80.325 Section 80... Safety Procedures § 80.325 Control of distress traffic. (a) Distress traffic consists of all messages relating to the immediate assistance required by the mobile station in distress. In distress traffic,...

  18. 47 CFR 80.325 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 80.325 Section 80... Safety Procedures § 80.325 Control of distress traffic. (a) Distress traffic consists of all messages relating to the immediate assistance required by the mobile station in distress. In distress traffic,...

  19. Empathy and Responsibility in the Motivation of Children's Helping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Michael; And Others

    1987-01-01

    To investigate affective and dispositional factors in the motivation of children's helping, 60 children ranging from preschool to sixth grade were observed in laboratory distress incidents. Results indicated that helping tended to be positively correlated with positive affect and negatively correlated with negative and neutral affect. (Author/RH)

  20. Experiences against HIV/AIDS/STDS of Somalis in exile in Gothenburg, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Aden, A S; Dahlgren, L; Guerra, R

    2004-01-01

    Since 1989, the City of Göteborg Immigrant Services Administration has been making efforts to inform about HIV/AIDS. The purpose has been to ensure that even immigrant residents of the City of Göteborg (Gothenburg) have access to relevant information about HIV/AIDS. The administration's efforts have been a part of the collected efforts of Gothenburg to prevent the spreading of HIV. This paper attempts to discover and describe experiences against HIV/AIDS/STDs of Somalis in Exile in Gothenburg, Sweden. A qualitative sociological in-depth interviews with 13 individuals (6 women and 7 men) and with semi-structured and themetized emerging design was carried on. A follow up focus group interviews with 10 individuals (2 women and 8 men) was also performed. The paper reveals that the general understanding of subjects on the issues under discussion is almost the same though details may vary from one research participant to the other. They have described this through narratives. STDs and specially HIV/AIDS was perceived as something dishonourable by the subjects. The HIV/AIDS is perceived as a sin which Allah sends to punish those who have fornication or sex without marriage (Zinna). Of course, this tendency of shying off the problem leads to ignorance of how to behave, which in turn decreases the risk of perceptions and as a result may also increase the risk of being infected. As concerns protection as a preventive measure, attitudes vary. The traditionalists have argued that condom increased the possibility of promiscuity or fonication, while young and more modern people saw condom as something good. We may conclude that Somalis who have arrived in Western world and in Sweden as adults did never have a modern sexual education for themselves due to socio-cultural reasons and this has important implication for giving proper information to their children about sex organs, human sexual development and preventive measures against HIV/AIDS/STDs. These immigrant parents should

  1. Racial Differences in Effects of Religiosity and Mastery on Psychological Distress: Evidence from National Longitudinal Data.

    PubMed

    Oates, Gary L; Goode, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    This research engages nationally representative longitudinal data and a multipopulation LISREL model to investigate variation among black and white Americans in the impact of religiosity and mastery on psychological distress. Guided by the stress and coping perspective and prominent theorizing about how religiosity influences mental health, the model assesses not only direct effects of religiosity and mastery on distress but also the possibility of religiosity and mastery inhibiting distress indirectly (via effects on other coping resources or stressors) and attenuating the distress-inducing properties of individual stressors. Findings solidly support the endorsed proposition of religiosity's being particularly beneficial to blacks' emotional well-being and moderately support the prediction of mastery's being primarily helpful to whites'. Public religiosity substantially eclipses private and subjective religiosity as a facilitator of blacks' emotional well-being, and although main effects dominate, there are significant mediation and moderation effects of religiosity or mastery within each race. PMID:23762783

  2. Racial Differences in Effects of Religiosity and Mastery on Psychological Distress: Evidence from National Longitudinal Data.

    PubMed

    Oates, Gary L; Goode, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    This research engages nationally representative longitudinal data and a multipopulation LISREL model to investigate variation among black and white Americans in the impact of religiosity and mastery on psychological distress. Guided by the stress and coping perspective and prominent theorizing about how religiosity influences mental health, the model assesses not only direct effects of religiosity and mastery on distress but also the possibility of religiosity and mastery inhibiting distress indirectly (via effects on other coping resources or stressors) and attenuating the distress-inducing properties of individual stressors. Findings solidly support the endorsed proposition of religiosity's being particularly beneficial to blacks' emotional well-being and moderately support the prediction of mastery's being primarily helpful to whites'. Public religiosity substantially eclipses private and subjective religiosity as a facilitator of blacks' emotional well-being, and although main effects dominate, there are significant mediation and moderation effects of religiosity or mastery within each race.

  3. Racial Differences in Effects of Religiosity and Mastery on Psychological Distress: Evidence from National Longitudinal Data

    PubMed Central

    Oates, Gary L.; Goode, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This research engages nationally representative longitudinal data and a multipopulation LISREL model to investigate variation among black and white Americans in the impact of religiosity and mastery on psychological distress. Guided by the stress and coping perspective and prominent theorizing about how religiosity influences mental health, the model assesses not only direct effects of religiosity and mastery on distress but also the possibility of religiosity and mastery inhibiting distress indirectly (via effects on other coping resources or stressors) and attenuating the distress-inducing properties of individual stressors. Findings solidly support the endorsed proposition of religiosity’s being particularly beneficial to blacks’ emotional well-being and moderately support the prediction of mastery’s being primarily helpful to whites’. Public religiosity substantially eclipses private and subjective religiosity as a facilitator of blacks’ emotional well-being, and although main effects dominate, there are significant mediation and moderation effects of religiosity or mastery within each race. PMID:23762783

  4. Personal distress and the influence of bystanders on responding to an emergency.

    PubMed

    Hortensius, Ruud; Schutter, Dennis J L G; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2016-08-01

    Spontaneous helping behavior during an emergency is influenced by the personality of the onlooker and by social situational factors such as the presence of bystanders. Here, we sought to determine the influences of sympathy, an other-oriented response, and personal distress, a self-oriented response, on the effect of bystanders during an emergency. In four experiments, we investigated whether trait levels of sympathy and personal distress predicted responses to an emergency in the presence of bystanders by using behavioral measures and single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation. Sympathy and personal distress were expected to be associated with faster responses to an emergency without bystanders present, but only personal distress would predict slower responses to an emergency with bystanders present. The results of a cued reaction time task showed that people who reported higher levels of personal distress and sympathy responded faster to an emergency without bystanders (Exp. 1). In contrast to our predictions, perspective taking but not personal distress was associated with slower reaction times as the number of bystanders increased during an emergency (Exp. 2). However, the decrease in motor corticospinal excitability, a direct physiological measure of action preparation, with the increase in the number of bystanders was solely predicted by personal distress (Exp. 3). Incorporating cognitive load manipulations during the observation of an emergency suggested that personal distress is linked to an effect of bystanders on reflexive responding to an emergency (Exp. 4). Taken together, these results indicate that the presence of bystanders during an emergency reduces action preparation in people with a disposition to experience personal distress. PMID:27126708

  5. 47 CFR 80.1115 - Transmission of a distress alert by a station not itself in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of a distress alert by a station not itself in distress. (a) A station in the mobile or mobile-satellite service which learns that a mobile unit is in distress must initiate and transmit a distress alert relay in any of the following cases: (1) When the mobile unit in distress is not itself in a position...

  6. 47 CFR 80.1115 - Transmission of a distress alert by a station not itself in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of a distress alert by a station not itself in distress. (a) A station in the mobile or mobile-satellite service which learns that a mobile unit is in distress must initiate and transmit a distress alert relay in any of the following cases: (1) When the mobile unit in distress is not itself in a position...

  7. Adult Children of Alcoholics and Psychological Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kashubeck, Susan

    1994-01-01

    Describes investigation of relationship between parental alcoholism and psychological distress and mediating effects of social support and hardiness among undergraduates. Suggests parental alcoholism is positively related to psychological distress and higher levels of social support and hardiness are associated with lower levels of psychological…

  8. Work and Family Roles and Psychological Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voydnaoff, Patricia; Donnelly, Brenda W.

    1989-01-01

    Assessed through analysis of telephone interviews (N=630) extent to which women's higher levels of psychological distress can be explained by work and family role configurations, satisfactions, and strains. Found that, although a relationship existed between work and family roles and psychological distress, factoring in these variables did not…

  9. Toward a Behavioral Profile of Marital Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Neil S.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The reinforcers that are most potent in affecting the day-to-day satisfaction levels of married couples differ according to the level of distress. Marital distress is characterized by a tendency to react strongly to the delivery of punishers and to respond in kind. (Author)

  10. 47 CFR 80.314 - Distress communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distress communications. 80.314 Section 80.314 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety...

  11. 47 CFR 80.314 - Distress communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Distress communications. 80.314 Section 80.314 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety...

  12. 47 CFR 80.314 - Distress communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Distress communications. 80.314 Section 80.314 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety...

  13. 47 CFR 80.314 - Distress communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Distress communications. 80.314 Section 80.314 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety...

  14. 47 CFR 80.314 - Distress communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Distress communications. 80.314 Section 80.314 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety...

  15. Attributional Models of Depression and Marital Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horneffer, Karen J.; Fincham, Frank D.

    1996-01-01

    Compares attributional models presented in depression and marital literatures by examining simultaneously their prediction of depressive symptoms and marital distress with 150 married couples. Findings show that a model including paths from depressogenic and distress-maintaining marital attributions to both depressive symptoms and marital distress…

  16. 47 CFR 80.1111 - Distress alerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... distress message format, which is relayed through space stations. (b) The distress alert must be sent... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... authority of the person responsible for the ship, aircraft or other vehicle carrying the mobile station...

  17. 47 CFR 80.1111 - Distress alerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... distress message format, which is relayed through space stations. (b) The distress alert must be sent... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... authority of the person responsible for the ship, aircraft or other vehicle carrying the mobile station...

  18. 47 CFR 80.1111 - Distress alerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... distress message format, which is relayed through space stations. (b) The distress alert must be sent... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... authority of the person responsible for the ship, aircraft or other vehicle carrying the mobile station...

  19. 47 CFR 80.1111 - Distress alerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... distress message format, which is relayed through space stations. (b) The distress alert must be sent... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... authority of the person responsible for the ship, aircraft or other vehicle carrying the mobile station...

  20. 47 CFR 80.1111 - Distress alerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... distress message format, which is relayed through space stations. (b) The distress alert must be sent... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... authority of the person responsible for the ship, aircraft or other vehicle carrying the mobile station...

  1. Moral distress: the state of the science.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Debra R

    2004-01-01

    Moral distress, a complex human experience, has lacked a clear, complete definition. Intuitively, clinicians know that moral distress might be occurring for patients with increasing frequency due to technological advances that alter the natural order of life and death. Yet clinicians have not been able to evaluate the presence or extent of moral distress. To date, moral distress has been investigated mainly as an occupational issue using Jameton's (1984) definition, which has been problematic for several reasons. Without an adequate definition, moral distress can be unrecognized, yet have a silent, clinically significant impact on health. The literature is discussed from several perspectives to show the current state of the science in this topical area, and its potential future.

  2. Moral Distress: Recognition, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Trautmann, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Infusion nursing is a unique hybrid of inpatient and ambulatory nursing. The subspecialty of nurses cares for patients requiring treatment over long periods, including cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and patients who require short bursts of treatment, such as those with multiple sclerosis, Crohn's disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. Infusion nurses are exposed to many of the common root causes of moral distress in their practice, similar to nurses caring for terminally ill or critically ill patients. The specific aims of this article are to (1) define moral distress, moral residue, and the crescendo effect; (2) describe ethical stressors that can be confused with moral distress; (3) review the effects of moral distress on different health care providers; and (4) provide strategies to manage moral distress in the workplace using a case example.

  3. Insight, distress and coping styles in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Michael; Peters, Emmanuelle; Fannon, Dominic; Anilkumar, Anantha P.P.; Aasen, Ingrid; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2007-01-01

    Background The stigma and negative societal views attached to schizophrenia can make the diagnosis distressing. There is evidence that poor insight into symptoms of the disorder and need for treatment may reflect the use of denial as a coping style. However, the relationships between insight and other coping styles have seldom been investigated. Method We examined the associations between insight, distress and a number of coping styles in 65 outpatients with schizophrenia (final n = 57) in a cross-sectional study. Results We found that (i) awareness of symptoms and problems correlated with greater distress, (ii) ‘preference for positive reinterpretation and growth’ coping style correlated with lower distress and with lower symptom awareness (re-labelling), (iii) ‘preference for mental disengagement’ coping style correlated with greater distress and lower awareness of problems, and (iv) ‘social support-seeking’ coping style correlated with greater awareness of illness, but not distress. No relationship occurred between the use of ‘denial’ as a coping style and insight or distress. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that awareness of illness and related problems is associated with greater distress in schizophrenia. However, this investigation has not supported a simple psychological denial explanation for this relationship, as complex relationships emerged between different dimensions of insight and coping styles. The negative association between ‘positive reinterpretation and growth’ and distress suggests that adopting this style may lead to re-labelling symptoms in a less distressing way. Avoidant and isolating styles of coping both appear unhelpful. Psychological interventions should aim to promote more active coping such as discussing a mental health problem with others. PMID:17561377

  4. Psychological Distress, Acculturation, and Mental Health-Seeking Attitudes among People of African Descent in the United States: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obasi, Ezemenari M.; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between psychological distress, acculturation, and help-seeking attitudes among people of African descent (N = 130). Psychological distress was measured using the Global Severity Index from the Brief Symptom Inventory (L. R. Derogatis & N. Melisaratos, 1983), acculturation was measured using the…

  5. Germanium-gated γ-γ fast timing of excited states in fission fragments using the EXILL&FATIMA spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Régis, J.-M.; Simpson, G. S.; Blanc, A.; de France, G.; Jentschel, M.; Köster, U.; Mutti, P.; Paziy, V.; Saed-Samii, N.; Soldner, T.; Ur, C. A.; Urban, W.; Bruce, A. M.; Drouet, F.; Fraile, L. M.; Ilieva, S.; Jolie, J.; Korten, W.; Kröll, T.; Lalkovski, S.; Mach, H.; Mărginean, N.; Pascovici, G.; Podolyak, Zs.; Regan, P. H.; Roberts, O. J.; Smith, J. F.; Townsley, C.; Vancraeyenest, A.; Warr, N.

    2014-11-01

    A high-granularity mixed spectrometer consisting of high-resolution Ge and very fast LaBr3(Ce)-scintillator detectors has been installed around a fission target at the cold-neutron guide PF1B of the high-flux reactor of the Institut Laue-Langevin. Lifetimes of excited states in the range of 10 ps to 10 ns can be measured in around 100 exotic neutron-rich fission fragments using Ge-gated LaBr3(Ce)-LaBr3(Ce) or Ge-Ge-LaBr3(Ce)-LaBr3(Ce) coincidences. We report on various characteristics of the EXILL&FATIMA spectrometer for the energy range of 40 keV up to 6.8 MeV and present results of ps-lifetime test measurements in a fission fragment. The results are discussed with respect to possible systematic errors induced by background contributions.

  6. Constructs of depression and distress in diabetes: time for an appraisal.

    PubMed

    Snoek, Frank J; Bremmer, Marijke A; Hermanns, Norbert

    2015-06-01

    Depression presents in roughly 20% of people with diabetes worldwide, and adversely affects quality of life and treatment outcomes. The causes of depression in diabetes are poorly understood, but research suggests a bi-directional association, at least for type 2 diabetes. Inconsistent findings regarding prevalence and depression treatment outcomes in patients with diabetes seem partly attributable to inconsistencies in the definition and measurement of depression and in distinguishing it from diabetes-distress, a psychological concept related to depression. We review evidence suggesting that diabetes-distress and depression are correlated and overlapping constructs, but are not interchangeable. Importantly, diabetes-distress seems to mediate the association between depression and glycaemic control. We propose a model to explain the direct and indirect effects of depression and diabetes-distress on glycaemic control. Additionally, using emerging insights from data-driven approaches, we suggest three distinct symptom profiles to define depression in patients with diabetes that could help explain differential associations between depression and metabolic abnormalities, and to tailor interventions for depression. Future research should focus on further refining depression profiles in patients with diabetes, taking into account the natural history of diabetes and depression, clinical characteristics, and diabetes-distress. The assessment of diabetes-distress and depression in research and clinical practice will be essential to identify high-risk patients with different mental health needs. PMID:25995123

  7. Sepsis and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Recent Update.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won-Young; Hong, Sang-Bum

    2016-04-01

    Severe sepsis or septic shock is characterized by an excessive inflammatory response to infectious pathogens. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a devastating complication of severe sepsis, from which patients have high mortality. Advances in treatment modalities including lung protective ventilation, prone positioning, use of neuromuscular blockade, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, have improved the outcome over recent decades, nevertheless, the mortality rate still remains high. Timely treatment of underlying sepsis and early identification of patients at risk of ARDS can help to decrease its development. In addition, further studies are needed regarding pathogenesis and novel therapies in order to show promising future treatments of sepsis-induced ARDS. PMID:27066082

  8. Psychological and physical distress of sheltered battered women.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, J; Lee, K; Neylan, T; Marmar, C

    2001-06-01

    We explored the physical and psychological distress of sheltered battered women. A convenience sample of 50 ethnically diverse women was obtained from women who had resided in two shelters for at least 21 days. Participants had experienced multiple traumatic events (8.1+/-4.6); however, only 19 (38.8%) of the participants were diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). When we analyzed biopsychosocial variables, we saw beneficial effects of support (financial, social, spiritual). These findings reinforce the need to enhance the resources of battered women, to help them identify existing opportunities, and to fortify self-caring strategies that give them strength. PMID:11813787

  9. The relationship between food frequency and menstrual distress in high school females

    PubMed Central

    Mohamadirizi, Soheila; Kordi, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nutrition pattern is one of the important factors predicting menstrual distress, which varies among different cultures and countries. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between food frequency and menstrual distress in high school girls from Mashhad. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 using a two-stage sampling method on 407 high school female students from Mashhad who met the inclusion criteria. Subjects completed questionnaires of demographic characteristics, food frequency, and Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ) during three phases of the menstrual cycle (a week before bleeding, during menstrual bleeding period, and a week after menstruation). The collected data were analyzed by statistical tests such as Pearson correlation coefficient test, independent Student's t-test, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Results showed that 87.7% of the students were at moderate economic status, 82.2% were exposed to cigarette smoke, 94.8% had mothers without university education, and 9.4% had working mothers. About 71% of the students reported minor pre-menstruation distress, 81% reported minor distress during bleeding, and 39% reported minor post-menstruation distress. In addition, the mean (SD) values for sweet–fatty foods, salty–fatty foods, fast foods, and caffeine were 3.6, 3.3, 1.3, and 10.2 per week, respectively. In addition, Pearson correlation coefficient test showed no significant correlation between total menstruation distress and food frequency (P > 0.05). Conclusions: With regard to the inappropriate food frequency and high intensity of menstrual distress among high school students and as health care and educational efforts for prevention and health promotion in society are among the duties of health workers, the results of this study can help the officials involved in education to emphasize on nutrition and the menstrual health of students. PMID:26793254

  10. Behavioral Intervention to Reduce Child and Parent Distress during Venipuncture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manne, Sharon L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated behavioral intervention to control child distress during invasive cancer treatment. Children (n=23) requiring physical restraint to complete venipuncture were alternately assigned to behavioral intervention or attention control condition. Observed child distress, parent-rated child distress, and parent ratings of own distress were…

  11. 47 CFR 80.1113 - Transmission of a distress alert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission of a distress alert. 80.1113... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1113 Transmission of a distress alert. (a) The... stations that a ship is in distress. These alerts are based on the use of transmissions via...

  12. Predicting symptomatic distress in emergency services personnel.

    PubMed

    Weiss, D S; Marmar, C R; Metzler, T J; Ronfeldt, H M

    1995-06-01

    This study identified predictors of symptomatic distress in emergency services (EMS) personnel exposed to traumatic critical incidents. A replication was performed in 2 groups: 154 EMS workers involved in the 1989 Interstate 880 freeway collapse during the San Francisco Bay area earthquake, and 213 counterparts from the Bay area and from San Diego. Evaluated predictors included exposure, social support, and psychological traits. Replicated analyses showed that levels of symptomatic distress were positively related to the degree of exposure to the critical incident. Level of adjustment was also related to symptomatic distress. After exposure, adjustment, social support, years of experience on the job, and locus of control were controlled, 2 dissociative variables remained strongly predictive of symptomatic response. The study strengthens the literature linking dissociative tendencies and experiences to distress from exposure to traumatic stressors.

  13. Maternal smoking and respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Curet, L B; Rao, A V; Zachman, R D; Morrison, J; Burkett, G; Poole, W K

    1983-10-15

    Infants of 603 patients on whom information about smoking habits during pregnancy was available were studied for incidence respiratory distress syndrome. Among the 360 patients who did not smoke, the incidence of respiratory distress syndrome in the neonate was 15.1%, whereas among patients who smoked, the incidence was 9.1%. We speculate that smoking produces a condition of chronic stress in the fetus which brings about an acceleration of fetal pulmonary maturation. PMID:6624813

  14. Maternal hurricane exposure and fetal distress risk.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Sammy; Snodgrass, Jeffrey G; Peek, Lori; Weiler, Stephan

    2010-10-01

    Logistic regression and spatial analytic techniques are used to model fetal distress risk as a function of maternal exposure to Hurricane Andrew. First, monthly time series compare the proportion of infants born distressed in hurricane affected and unaffected areas. Second, resident births are analyzed in Miami-Dade and Broward counties, before, during, and after Hurricane Andrew. Third, resident births are analyzed in all Florida locales with 100,000 or more persons, comparing exposed and unexposed gravid females. Fourth, resident births are analyzed along Hurricane Andrew's path from southern Florida to northeast Mississippi. Results show that fetal distress risk increases significantly with maternal exposure to Hurricane Andrew in second and third trimesters, adjusting for known risk factors. Distress risk also correlates with the destructive path of Hurricane Andrew, with higher incidences of fetal distress found in areas of highest exposure intensity. Hurricane exposed African-American mothers were more likely to birth distressed infants. The policy implications of in utero costs of natural disaster exposure are discussed.

  15. Helping at the bedside: spouses' preferences for helping critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Eldredge, Deborah

    2004-10-01

    Spouses of patients in intensive care units (ICU) need to be close and helpful to ill partners. According to adult attachment theory, emotional responses may be related to preferences for closeness and helpfulness, and according to control theory optimism also may influence spouses' emotional responses. Spouses' goals and helping behaviors were assessed in 88 spouses of ICU patients. Using a repeated-measures design, the relationships of closeness, helpfulness, and optimism to emotional outcomes were assessed. Preferences for closeness and helpfulness were strongly related, and together with optimism, predicted spouses' mood at some point of the illness trajectory. Spouses who were over-involved with partners' care requirements were at greater risk for emotional distress. Results suggest that closeness and helpfulness are integrated concepts, and that attachment dimensions of a relationship and optimism are useful for understanding spouses' emotional responses to critical illness.

  16. Help-Seeking by Young People with Depressive Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Michael G.; Sawyer, Alyssa C. P.; La Greca, Annette M.

    2012-01-01

    Depressive disorders commonly occur for the first time during adolescence and often become a recurring source of distress and impairment. Unfortunately, only a small proportion of adolescents with depressive disorders receive help from professional services, and there is evidence that adolescents with higher levels of depressive symptoms may be…

  17. The Perceived Helpfulness of Rendering Emotional First Aid via Email

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilat, Itzhak; Reshef, Eyal

    2015-01-01

    The present research examined the perceived helpfulness of an increasingly widespread mode of psychological assistance, namely, emotional first aid via email. The sample comprised 62 naturally occurring email interactions between distressful clients and trained volunteers operating within the framework of the Israeli Association for Emotional…

  18. Helping Children Learn To Care for One Another.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Dawne

    1999-01-01

    Discusses ways of helping children learn to care for one another. Notes that even very young children respond with empathy to others' expressed distress. Explores ways to enhance children's natural empathy in terms of empathy as identification, as communication, as a caring act, as a moral act, and as respect. (DLH)

  19. Distress vs. Non-Distress Approach and the Personal Space of Masculine, Feminine, and Androgynous Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glisson, Pamela A.; Thomas, Georgelle

    Examined was the relationship between personal space and sex roles. Feminine females (N=25), androgynous females (N=25) and masculine males (N=25) viewed a film of male and female approaching stimulus persons in distress and non-distress conditions. Subjects marked the Comfortable Interpersonal Distance Scale at the point where they would prefer…

  20. 47 CFR 80.324 - Transmission of distress message by station not itself in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission of distress message by station not itself in distress. 80.324 Section 80.324 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements...

  1. 47 CFR 80.324 - Transmission of distress message by station not itself in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission of distress message by station not itself in distress. 80.324 Section 80.324 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements...

  2. 47 CFR 80.324 - Transmission of distress message by station not itself in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission of distress message by station not itself in distress. 80.324 Section 80.324 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements...

  3. 47 CFR 80.324 - Transmission of distress message by station not itself in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission of distress message by station not itself in distress. 80.324 Section 80.324 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements...

  4. 47 CFR 80.324 - Transmission of distress message by station not itself in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission of distress message by station not itself in distress. 80.324 Section 80.324 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements...

  5. Gendered experiences of conflict and co-operation in heterosexual relations of Somalis in exile in Gothenburg, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Aden, A S; Dahlgren, L; Tarsitani, G

    2004-01-01

    Political upheaval and poverty at home has been forcing many Somalis to immigrate. These immigrants do not only leave their physical house, families, relatives, loved ones, friends, but also familiarities, culture, customs, and often they do end up in no man's land being between their own and new home culture. Available reports suggest that there are about 15,000 Somalis in Sweden and their majority came here from late 1989 to 1996. About one third these immigrants live in and around the city of Gothenburg. This paper explores and describes gendered experiences of conflict and co-operation in heterosexual relations of Somalis in exile in Gothenburg, Sweden. A qualitative sociological in-depth interviews with 6 women and 7 men was performed during May 1999 to January 2000. A follow up focus group interviews with 10 people (2 women and 8 men) was also carried on. The results show that both the Somali culture and Muslim religion do not support the children being taught sex education in schools or the names of the sex organs being pronounced other than to be used as metaphors. The girls, unlike their age group males, experience a very painful and terrifying process during childhood in which their self-esteem is downgraded by means of serious degrading traditional active violence such as female genital mutilation and visible virginity control. The narratives tell stories in which Somali women are degraded and expected to obey in situations characterised by their man's arbitrariness. They are subject to a very extensive form of social control, which is especially pronounced on issues regarding sexuality. Their integrity as women is, consequently set aside. When Somali refugees came to Sweden some of them came to adopt much of the modern lifestyle and cultural norm systems, preferable young people and some of the females. Relating to a new culture with its new expectations on the norm obedience also created changes in self-esteem. Exile situation tends to generate

  6. Maternal and adolescent distress tolerance: the moderating role of gender.

    PubMed

    Daughters, Stacey B; Gorka, Stephanie M; Rutherford, Helena J V; Mayes, Linda C

    2014-04-01

    Distress tolerance is defined behaviorally as the ability to maintain goal-directed behavior while experiencing physical or psychological distress. Distress tolerance is closely related to emotion regulation and is a clinically relevant construct contributing to psychopathology across adults and adolescents, yet limited research has examined the development of this construct. A number of studies suggest the importance of parenting in the emergence of emotion regulation capacities in childhood and adolescence. In the current study, we utilize a behavioral measure of distress tolerance to examine whether maternal distress tolerance is related to adolescent distress tolerance, and whether this association differs as a function of gender. We also examine the influence of family emotional climate, namely maternal response to adolescent distress and adolescent attachment. Results indicate a significant maternal distress tolerance by adolescent gender interaction, such that maternal distress tolerance predicts adolescent distress tolerance in daughters, but not sons. The family emotional climate variables were unrelated to maternal or adolescent distress tolerance. Taken together, data indicate that maternal distress tolerance is significantly related to the distress tolerance of adolescent daughters and indicates the potential utility of addressing maternal distress tolerance in clinical work with adolescents. PMID:24364854

  7. Race and Psychological Distress: The South African Stress and Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Pamela Braboy; Williams, David R.; Stein, Dan J.; Herman, Allen; Williams, Stacey L.; Redmond, Deidre L.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze data from the South African Stress and Health Study, a nationally representative in-person psychiatric epidemiologic survey of 4,351 adults conducted as part of the World Mental Health Survey Initiative between January 2002 and June 2004. All blacks (Africans, Coloreds, and Indians) initially report higher levels of non-specific distress and anger/hostility than whites. Access to socioeconomic resources helps explain differences in non-specific distress between Coloreds and whites and Indians and whites. However, only when social stressors are considered do we find few differences in psychological distress (i.e., non-specific distress and anger/hostility) between Africans and whites. In addition, self-esteem and mastery have independent effects on non-specific distress and anger/hostility, but differences between Coloreds and whites in feelings of anger/hostility are not completely explained by self-esteem and mastery. The findings contribute to the international body of work on social stress theory, challenge underlying assumptions of the minority status perspective, and raise a series of questions regarding mental health disparities among South Africans. PMID:21131621

  8. A guest in the house: nursing instructors' experiences of the moral distress felt by students during inpatient psychiatric clinical rotations.

    PubMed

    Wojtowicz, Bernadine; Hagen, Brad

    2014-01-01

    Significant research has been done on the impact of moral distress among nurses, particularly in acute and intensive care settings. However, little research to date has investigated the experiences that nursing students have with moral distress. Additionally, there is a dearth of research on the role of nursing instructors' perceptions of their responsibilities to their students when encountering morally distressing situations. This manuscript describes a qualitative study conducted with eight mental health nursing instructors who acknowledged a responsibility for helping students deal with moral distress and ethical issues, but who also struggled with ways to do so. Additionally, instructors expressed frustration with their "guest" status on inpatient psychiatric units and their powerlessness to effect moral change in a medical model of psychiatric care.

  9. Parent Tookit: Homework Help. Helpful Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    All Kinds of Minds, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This check list contains tips for parents to help students reinforce and build upon what children learn at school: (1) Set a consistent time each day for doing homework; (2) Encourage children to make a homework checklist; (3) Provide assistance to help get started on a task; (4) Help children make a list of all needed materials before starting…

  10. Cancer distress screening. Needs, models, and methods.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Linda E; Bultz, Barry D

    2003-11-01

    The idea of screening for distress in oncology populations is not new. Many recommendations have been made regarding the need for routine screening, and methods have been suggested for accomplishing this. However, a synthesis of this body of research is not readily available. This paper summarizes the literature documenting the levels of distress commonly found in cancer patients, followed by discussion of recommended standards for routine distress screening, and a summary of various programs that have attempted to establish clinical screening programs. The computerized quality of life (QL) screening literature is also briefly reviewed as potentially instructive. This review is followed by a theoretical and psychometric assessment of the various screening instruments and screening models that have been suggested in the literature or used clinically and a brief assessment of possible economic costs of psychosocial screening, ending with concrete suggestions for methods and models that could be widely adopted by psychosocial oncology programs.

  11. Moral repugnance, moral distress, and organ sales.

    PubMed

    Taylor, James Stacey

    2015-06-01

    Many still oppose legalizing markets in human organs on the grounds that they are morally repugnant. I will argue in this paper that the repugnance felt by some persons towards sales of human organs is insufficient to justify their prohibition. Yet this rejection of the view that markets in human organs should be prohibited because some persons find them to be morally repugnant does not imply that persons' feelings of distress at the possibility of organ sales are irrational. Eduardo Rivera-Lopez argues that such instinctive distress is an appropriate response to the (rationally defensible) perception that certain kinds of arguments that are offered in favor of legalizing organ sales are "in an important sense, illegitimate." Having argued that repugnance should not ground the prohibition of markets in human organs, I will also argue that the moral distress that some feel towards certain arguments that favor such markets is not rationally defensible, either.

  12. Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia and Neonatal Respiratory Distress

    PubMed Central

    Mullowney, Tara; Manson, David; Kim, Raymond; Stephens, Derek; Shah, Vibhuti

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare inherited disease affecting motile cilia lining the respiratory tract. Despite neonatal respiratory distress as an early feature, diagnosis is typically delayed until late childhood. Our objective was to identify characteristics that differentiate PCD from common causes of term neonatal respiratory distress. METHODS: This was a case-control study. Patients with PCD born after 1994 attending a regional PCD clinic who had a history of neonatal respiratory distress (n = 46) were included. Controls (n = 46), term neonates with respiratory distress requiring a chest radiograph, were randomly selected from hospital birth records and matched on gender, birth month/year, and mode of delivery. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the association between neonatal characteristics and PCD diagnosis. The diagnostic performance of the best predictive variables was estimated by calculating sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: PCD cases required more oxygen therapy (39 cases, 29 controls, P = .01), longer duration of oxygen therapy (PCD mean = 15.2 days, control mean = 0.80 days, P < .01), had later onset of neonatal respiratory distress (PCD median = 12 hours, control median = 1 hour, P < .001), and higher frequency of lobar collapse and situs inversus (PCD = 70% and 48% respectively, control = 0% for both, P < .001). Situs inversus, lobar collapse, or oxygen need for >2 days had 87% (95% confidence interval: 74–94) sensitivity and 96% (95% confidence interval: 85–99) specificity for PCD. CONCLUSIONS: When encountering term neonates with unexplained respiratory distress, clinicians should consider PCD in those with lobar collapse, situs inversus, and/or prolonged oxygen therapy (>2 days). PMID:25422025

  13. Capital management helps hospitals face hard times.

    PubMed

    Harris, J; Pitts, K

    1989-03-01

    Financial officers of healthcare organizations in severe financial distress must map out an effective capital management strategy to help their institutions avoid disaster. An executive's plan of action should include streamlining and restructuring the organization, studying long- and short-term assets to improve cash flow, and investigating ways to refinance debt. Healthcare organizations must develop warning signals for impending financial difficulties and contingency plans that address operating and capital responses to such a crisis. Learning to guide an organization through financial difficulties may be an executive's most important financial skill in the decade to come.

  14. Predictors of enduring clinical distress in women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lo-Fo-Wong, Deborah N N; de Haes, Hanneke C J M; Aaronson, Neil K; van Abbema, Doris L; den Boer, Mathilda D; van Hezewijk, Marjan; Immink, Marcelle; Kaptein, Ad A; Menke-Pluijmers, Marian B E; Reyners, Anna K L; Russell, Nicola S; Schriek, Manon; Sijtsema, Sieta; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Sprangers, Mirjam A G

    2016-08-01

    To date, little is known about enduring clinical distress as measured with the commonly used distress thermometer. We therefore used the distress thermometer to examine: (a) the prevalence of enduring clinical distress, distress-related problems, and subsequent wish for referral of women with breast cancer, and (b) sociodemographic, clinical, and psychosocial predictors of enduring clinical distress. The study had a multicenter, prospective, observational design. Patients with primary breast cancer completed a questionnaire at 6 and 15 months postdiagnosis. Medical data were retrieved from chart reviews. Enduring clinical distress was defined as heightened distress levels over time. The prevalence of enduring clinical distress, problems, and wish for referral was examined with descriptive analyses. Associations between predictors and enduring clinical distress were examined with multivariate analyses. One hundred sixty-four of 746 patients (22 %) reported having enduring clinical distress at 6 and 15 months postdiagnosis. Of these, 10 % wanted to be referred for care. Fatigue was the most frequently reported problem by patients with and without clinical distress, at both time points. Lack of muscle strength (OR = 1.82, 95 % CI 1.12-2.98), experience of a low level of life satisfaction (OR = 0.77, 95 % CI 0.67-0.89), more frequent cancer worry (OR = 1.40, 95 % CI 1.05-1.89), and neuroticism (OR = 1.09, 95 % CI 1.00-1.18) were predictors of enduring clinical distress. In conclusion, one in five women with breast cancer develops enduring clinical distress. Oncologists, nurse practitioners, and cancer nurses are advised to use single-item questions about distress and distress-related problems to ensure timely detection of high-risk patients. Providers should also routinely assess fatigue and its causes, as fatigue is the most frequently reported distress-related problem over time. PMID:27417105

  15. Nurses' responses to initial moral distress in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Marie P; McClement, Susan E; Read, Laurie R

    2013-10-01

    While researchers have examined the types of ethical issues that arise in long-term care, few studies have explored long-term care nurses' experiences of moral distress and fewer still have examined responses to initial moral distress. Using an interpretive description approach, 15 nurses working in long-term care settings within one city in Canada were interviewed about their responses to experiences of initial moral distress, resources or supports they identified as helpful or potentially helpful in dealing with these situations, and factors that hindered nurses in their responses. Using a thematic analysis process, three major themes were identified from the nurses' experiences: (i) the context of the situation matters; (ii) the value of coming together as a team; and (iii) looking for outside direction. The work of responding to initial moral distress was more fruitful if opportunities existed to discuss conflicts with other team members and if managers supported nurses in moving their concerns forward through meetings or conversations with the team, physician, or family. Access to objective others and opportunities for education about ethics were also identified as important for dealing with value conflicts.

  16. Development of a model of moral distress in military nursing.

    PubMed

    Fry, Sara T; Harvey, Rose M; Hurley, Ann C; Foley, Barbara Jo

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the development of a model of moral distress in military nursing. The model evolved through an analysis of the moral distress and military nursing literature, and the analysis of interview data obtained from US Army Nurse Corps officers (n = 13). Stories of moral distress (n = 10) given by the interview participants identified the process of the moral distress experience among military nurses and the dimensions of the military nursing moral distress phenomenon. Models of both the process of military nursing moral distress and the phenomenon itself are proposed. Recommendations are made for the use of the military nursing moral distress models in future research studies and in interventions to ameliorate the experience of moral distress in crisis military deployments.

  17. Interpersonal Relationships and Emotional Distress in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Rachel; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine positive and negative qualities in adolescents' interpersonal relationships and their relative importance in predicting emotional distress. Participants were 260 students from three schools in the Dublin area (119 girls; 141 boys), aged 12-18 years (M = 15.32, SD = 1.91). Students completed questionnaires…

  18. Religion and Psychological Distress in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roemer, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces data from a new random sample of Japanese adults. Findings show that reporting of distress symptoms are: (1. positively associated with a religious coping index (i.e., beliefs that religion or supernatural beings provide comfort, support or protection), (2. associated in different directions with ownership of different…

  19. Women's Feminist Consciousness, Anger, and Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Ann R.; Good, Glenn E.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to bring together several lines of research and theory on women's feminist consciousness from psychology, sociology, and philosophy. Past literatures had suggested bivariate links between feminist identity development and psychological distress, feminist identity and anger, feminist identity and interpersonal conflict,…

  20. Acute respiratory distress caused by Neosartorya udagawae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe the first reported case of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) attributed to Neosartorya infection. The mold grew rapidly in culture of both sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from a previously healthy 43-year-old woman with ARDS, which developed as the culmination of a...

  1. Substance Use, Distress, and Adolescent School Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Jane D.; Uemura, Ryotaro

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the associations of substance use, psychological distress, and mental health services receipt with the structure and content of adolescent school-based networks. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we found that substance use was associated with receiving more, but making fewer, peer…

  2. Disordered Eating and Psychological Distress among Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali

    2011-01-01

    The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.…

  3. Relief and Distress after Marital Separation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanier, Graham B.; Thompson, Linda

    1983-01-01

    Examined relief and distress as responses to the termination of marriage in a study of 205 individuals soon after their final separation. Results showed that relief is a frequent response to marital separation. Group differences in response were associated with the rewards and costs of ending a marriage. (JAC)

  4. Intrusive Cognitive Content and Postdeployment Distress.

    PubMed

    Shipherd, Jillian C; Salters-Pedneault, Kristalyn; Matza, Alexis

    2016-08-01

    Although intrusive cognitions (ICs) are common posttrauma, little is known about trauma-related IC content, or associations between IC content and posttraumatic adjustment. A mixed-method cross-sectional approach was used in a secondary analysis of IC content and postdeployment distress. Participants were 1,521 U.S. Army soldiers 3-12 months postdeployment reporting their most distressing postdeployment ICs (mean number of ICs reported was 1.20). ICs were transcribed and content was categorized by 13 emergent themes. The most commonly reported ICs were of injury or death (48.2%) and combat (43.5%), and soldiers with probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n = 187) were more likely to report the presence of these ICs, χ(2) s(1) = 35.27, ps < .001, φs < .16 than those without probable PTSD (n = 1,331). Other domains also emerged frequently, including ICs about friends (31.0%), family (15.8%), and leadership concerns (13.8%). IC content was a small, but significant correlate of distress after adjusting for combat exposure (ΔR(2) ≥ .02, ps ≤ .001). The presence of ICs of injury or death, combat, military sexual trauma, health, leadership, and family (βs > .06, ps < .02) were unique correlates of distress. Results suggested that ICs about a wide range of topics should be addressed in postdeployment interventions. PMID:27405098

  5. Happiness and Death Distress: Two Separate Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between happiness and death distress (death anxiety, death depression, and death obsession) in 275 volunteer Kuwaiti undergraduates. They responded to the Oxford Happiness Inventory, the Death Anxiety Scale, the Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety, the Death Depression Scale-Revised, and the…

  6. 46 CFR 25.25-19 - Visual distress signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Other Lifesaving Equipment § 25.25-19 Visual distress signals. Each uninspected passenger vessel must meet the visual distress signal requirements of 33 CFR part 175 applicable to the vessel. ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Visual distress signals. 25.25-19 Section...

  7. Negative Emotions and Behaviors are Markers of Breakup Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    Method: University students who experienced a recent romantic breakup were given several self-report measures and were then divided into high versus low breakup distress groups. Results: The high breakup distress versus the low breakup distress groups had higher scores on negative emotions scales including depression, anxiety and anger and…

  8. 46 CFR 117.68 - Distress flares and smoke signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Distress flares and smoke signals. 117.68 Section 117.68... AND ARRANGEMENTS Emergency Communications § 117.68 Distress flares and smoke signals. (a) Oceans... hand orange smoke distress signals approved in accordance with § 160.037 in subchapter Q of...

  9. 46 CFR 180.68 - Distress flares and smoke signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Distress flares and smoke signals. 180.68 Section 180.68... TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Emergency Communications § 180.68 Distress flares and smoke... Commandant; and (2) Six hand orange smoke distress signals approved in accordance with § 160.037...

  10. 46 CFR 117.68 - Distress flares and smoke signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distress flares and smoke signals. 117.68 Section 117.68... AND ARRANGEMENTS Emergency Communications § 117.68 Distress flares and smoke signals. (a) Oceans... hand orange smoke distress signals approved in accordance with § 160.037 in subchapter Q of...

  11. 46 CFR 180.68 - Distress flares and smoke signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Distress flares and smoke signals. 180.68 Section 180.68... TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Emergency Communications § 180.68 Distress flares and smoke... Commandant; and (2) Six hand orange smoke distress signals approved in accordance with § 160.037...

  12. Predictors of Psychological Distress among Infertility Clinic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Kelly A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated predictors of psychological distress among infertility clinic patients. Analyses indicated that infertile men and women reported greater psychological distress than the general population. Self-blame and avoidance coping significantly predicted psychological distress among men and women. Increased age and childlessness added to…

  13. Psychological Distress Among Elderly Mexican Americans and Anglos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markides, Kyriakos S.; And Others

    Psychological distress is investigated in a sample of elderly Mexican Americans and Anglos residing in a four-census tract area in southwest San Antonio. Comparisons of the two ethnic groups using the Computer Derived Mental Health Rating as the measure of psychological distress show that Mexican Americans exhibit more distress than Anglos. This…

  14. 47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.1114 Section 80.1114 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Operating Procedures for Distress...

  15. 47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.1114 Section 80.1114 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Operating Procedures for Distress...

  16. Trauma and Psychological Distress among Ethnically Diverse Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edman, Jeanne L.; Watson, Susan B.; Patron, David J.

    2016-01-01

    An association has been found between traumatic experiences and psychological distress; however, the impact of ethnicity on psychological distress is less clear. The present study examined the relationship between traumatic experiences and measures of psychological distress among a multiethnic sample of community college students. A total of 389…

  17. [Acute respiratory distress syndrome: a review of the Berlin definition].

    PubMed

    de Luis Cabezón, N; Sánchez Castro, I; Bengoetxea Uriarte, U X; Rodrigo Casanova, M P; García Peña, J M; Aguilera Celorrio, L

    2014-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is due to many causes. The absence of a universal definition up until now has led to a series of practical problems for a definitive diagnosis. The incidences of ARDS and Acute Lung Injury (ALI) vary widely in the current literature. The American-European Consensus Conference definition has been applied since its publication in 1994 and has helped to improve knowledge about ARDS. However, 18 years later, in 2011, the European Intensive Medicine Society, requested a team of international experts to meet in Berlin to review the ARDS definition. The purpose of the Berlin definition is not to use it as a prognostic tool, but to improve coherence between research and clinical practice.

  18. Finding a way back home: a spirituality of exile after Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    DeMoor, Emily Ann

    2009-03-01

    Three years ago breath took the form of Hurricane Katrina and passed through our bodies and our lives, leaving us forever changed. We all breathed her, but for those of us living on the Gulf Coast our encounter with Katrina was more intimate, our breathing more conscious, our memory more charged, our lives forever changed. My story takes me from the winds of Hurricane Katrina blasting through the Gulf Coast, through the tube of a machine that helped keep my son's lung expanded, through the Sinai dessert and the valley of the dry bones, through the in-between spaces of grounded groundlessness, to the forests and rivers of the Berskhire Mountains, where I have relocated and started my life over. My spiritual journey "home" is a dynamic story of Earth, wind, fire, water, flesh, and Spirit.

  19. A case–control study of psychological distress in survivors of farmers' suicides in Wardha District in central India

    PubMed Central

    Bhise, Manik Changoji; Behere, Prakash Balkrushna

    2016-01-01

    Context: Lack of literature on psychological aspects of survivors of farmers' suicides is hurdle in devising effective helping strategies for rising number of survivors across the country. Aims and Objectives: To assess the psychological distress and its correlates in survivors of farmers' suicides. Settings and Design: Case–control study design was used in Wardha District of Vidarbha region in the central India. Materials and Methods: A predesigned and pretested semistructured questionnaire was used to assess sociodemographic variables. Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 was used to evaluate psychological distress in 98 survivors of farmers' suicides and 98 age, sex, and occupation-matched controls. Statistical Analysis: Significance of differences between case and control groups were assessed using Chi-square test or Fisher's two-tailed exact test for class variables. For continuous variables, Student's t-test was used P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Significantly higher proportion of survivors had psychological distress than controls. Female survivors, spouse and parents of suicide victims had a high risk of distress. Psychological distress was commonly expressed by depressive and somatic symptoms. Conclusions: Survivors of farmers' suicides are suffering from significant psychological distress. PMID:27385846

  20. Petrography, mineralogy, and chemistry of calcite-silica deposits at Exile Hill, Nevada, compared with local spring deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Vaniman, D.T.; Chipera, S.J.; Bish, D.L.

    1995-12-01

    Chemical, mineralogic, and petrographic analyses of siliceous calcretes from Exile Hill east of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, indicate that pedogenic processes alone account for the formation of the calcretes. These calcretes have been interpreted by some observers as evidence of seismically triggered eruptions of deep water. Such an origin could have important consequences if Yucca Mountain is developed as an unsaturated site for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste. At odds with this hypothesis are the absence of features that should be present at fault-fed springs (e.g., fissure-ridge mounds with microterraces) and the preservation within root casts of delicate pedogenic microfossils, such as calcified filaments and needle-fiber calcites. Mineral-chemical evidence of pedogenic origin is found in heavy-mineral concentrations, reflected in Fe and Sc enrichments. These concentrations, which occur in the most massive of the vein calcretes, require derivation of detritus from a mixture of weathered and eolian materials that occur in the overlying B soil horizons, as opposed to direct incorporation of adjacent unweathered bedrock. Carbonate and silica abundances and accumulation rates are well within the scope of pedogenic processes. Calcium is derived from rainwater or eolian sources, whereas silica is derived in part by dissolution of local volcanic glasses or from dissolution of unstable silica minerals that are abundant in the local tuffs. In contrast with local deposits that are of spring or seep origin, the siliceous calcretes at Yucca Mountain are pedogenic in origin as well as evolution and provide no evidence in support of conjectured spring activity.

  1. 47 CFR 80.1115 - Transmission of a distress alert by a station not itself in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission of a distress alert by a station not itself in distress. 80.1115 Section 80.1115 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress...

  2. 47 CFR 80.1115 - Transmission of a distress alert by a station not itself in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission of a distress alert by a station not itself in distress. 80.1115 Section 80.1115 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress...

  3. Sexual Assault Disclosure Recipients' Experiences: Emotional Distress and Changes in the Relationship With the Victim.

    PubMed

    Milliken, Jennifer; Paul, Lisa A; Sasson, Sapir; Porter, Abigail; Hasulube, Jemi

    2016-01-01

    Sexual assault victims are more likely to disclose their experience to friends and family than formal support sources (e.g., police, counselors). As such, disclosure receipt is a relatively common occurrence, but little is known about the recipients' disclosure experience. This study examined predictors of recipient emotional distress and positive and negative changes in the victim-recipient relationship postdisclosure among 69 female undergraduates at 3 universities. Predictors of distress included greater self-rated closeness to the victim and greater confusion about how to help. Positive changes were predicted by greater closeness and less responsibility attributed to the victim, and negative changes were predicted by less closeness, greater assigned responsibility, and greater perceived ineffectiveness of one's help. Implications for improving the disclosure experience via psychoeducational interventions are presented. PMID:27074789

  4. Children of traumatized and exiled refugee families: resilience and vulnerability. A case study report.

    PubMed

    Hosin, A A

    2001-01-01

    This paper focuses on the main problems and outcomes of two children of a traumatized refugee family who have been in Britain since 1993. Their parents witnessed near death experiences and physical assaults, and suffered losses and a wide range of physical problems; the father manifests post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The children have been exposed regularly to episodic rage and violent behaviour by their father, and have developed separation problems and psychosomatic complaints. Their mother has coped better and is very resilient in her care and approach to problems. This report acknowledges the negative experience of trauma, but also the sources of resilience of parents, children's adjustment and cultural differences in coping styles. Refugee experiences devastate individual well-being and coping mechanisms if there is no hope, support and faith in one's own potential. Protective and risk factors that may affect the manifestation of trauma symptoms are highlighted. A variety of treatment approaches are required for both adult and child victims of multiple trauma. A wide range of techniques, such as group therapy, behaviour and cognitive therapy, and desensitization and relaxation training, can help sufferers to enhance their coping skills and deal effectively with devastating life events.

  5. Children of traumatized and exiled refugee families: resilience and vulnerability. A case study report.

    PubMed

    Hosin, A A

    2001-01-01

    This paper focuses on the main problems and outcomes of two children of a traumatized refugee family who have been in Britain since 1993. Their parents witnessed near death experiences and physical assaults, and suffered losses and a wide range of physical problems; the father manifests post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The children have been exposed regularly to episodic rage and violent behaviour by their father, and have developed separation problems and psychosomatic complaints. Their mother has coped better and is very resilient in her care and approach to problems. This report acknowledges the negative experience of trauma, but also the sources of resilience of parents, children's adjustment and cultural differences in coping styles. Refugee experiences devastate individual well-being and coping mechanisms if there is no hope, support and faith in one's own potential. Protective and risk factors that may affect the manifestation of trauma symptoms are highlighted. A variety of treatment approaches are required for both adult and child victims of multiple trauma. A wide range of techniques, such as group therapy, behaviour and cognitive therapy, and desensitization and relaxation training, can help sufferers to enhance their coping skills and deal effectively with devastating life events. PMID:11471915

  6. Religiosity, Spirituality, and Help-Seeking among Filipino Americans: Religious Clergy or Mental Health Professionals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abe-Kim, Jennifer; Gong, Fang; Takeuchi, David

    2004-01-01

    Data from structured interviews with 2,285 respondents for the Filipino American Community Epidemiological Survey (FACES) were used to examine help-seeking for emotional distress among Filipino Americans. The influence of religious affiliation, religiosity, and spirituality upon help-seeking from religious clergy and mental health professionals…

  7. Racial and Ethnic Minority College Students' Stigma Associated with Seeking Psychological Help: Examining Psychocultural Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Hsiu-Lan; Kwan, Kwong-Liem Karl; Sevig, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Many college students underuse professional psychological help for mental health difficulties. The stigma associated with seeking such help appears to be one of the reasons for this underuse. Levels of psychological distress and past use of counseling/psychotherapy have been found to be important correlates of stigma associated with seeking…

  8. Mothers' mental distress and parenting practices with infants and toddlers.

    PubMed

    Leiferman, J A; Ollendick, T H; Kunkel, D; Christie, I C

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether maternal mental distress affects parenting practices related to monitoring activities (i.e. daily routines, enrichment activities). The nationally representative sample consisted of 1638 mothers. Maternal mental distress was assessed by the 5-item Mental Health Index (MHI). Logistic regression models were conducted, controlling for covariates (e.g. marital status, education level, etc.). Approximately 14% of the women reported high levels of mental distress and 25% of the women failed to engage in enrichment activities or consistent daily routines with their children. There was a significant adverse relationship between mental distress and routines, with women who were mentally distressed being more likely to not engage in daily routines. There was no significant relationship between mental distress and enrichment activities. Race differentials were evident among these relationships. These findings highlight the prevalence of maternal mental distress and its deleterious effects on select parenting behaviors.

  9. Parents’ Empathic Responses and Pain and Distress in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Penner, Louis A.; Cline, Rebecca J. W.; Albrecht, Terrance L.; Harper, Felicity W. K.; Peterson, Amy M.; Taub, Jeffrey M.; Ruckdeschel, John C.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between parents’ empathic responses prior to their children undergoing cancer treatment procedures and children’s pain/distress during the procedures. We hypothesized: (1) parents’ empathic distress would be positively associated with children’s pain/distress, (2) parents’ empathic concern would be negatively associated with children’s pain/distress; and (3) parents’ enduring dispositions and social support would be associated with their empathic responses. Parents completed: (1) measures of dispositions and perceived social support several weeks before their children underwent the procedures, and (2) state measures of empathic distress and empathic concern just before the procedures. Empathic distress was positively associated with children’s pain; empathic concern was negatively associated with children’s pain/distress. Predictions about dispositions and social support were also substantially confirmed. PMID:20514359

  10. Distress in patients with cancer: definition, assessment, and suggested interventions.

    PubMed

    Vitek, Leesa; Rosenzweig, Margaret Quinn; Stollings, Susan

    2007-06-01

    Distress in patients with cancer impacts their quality of life. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) created a distress thermometer and a problem checklist to aid in recognizing distress. The thermometer measures distress on a 0-10 scale, and the problem checklist identifies more specific etiologies of distress, such as practical, spiritual, physical, emotional, and family problems. Oncology nurses play a key role in the success of the distress-screening tool because they have the most patient contact. The NCCN guidelines suggest that patients complete the screening tools at each visit and clinicians review the outcome. NCCN has provided clinical pathways for treating the etiologies of distress using a multidisciplinary approach, including members from social work, pastoral services, mental health, and oncology.

  11. Adequacy of help received among individuals with severe mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Piat, Myra; Tremblay, Jacques

    2014-05-01

    Using multiple linear regression analyses and a new assessment measure, this exploratory study identifies variables associated with help adequacy of 352 individuals with severe mental disorder. Help adequacy is higher with tobacco use, psychological distress domain, having a caregiver, help form services, being older, and lower with number of needs; accommodation, food, childcare and involvement in treatment decisions domains; number of suicide attempts, legal problems in previous year, and drugs problem. Results confirm the importance of a better collaboration with relatives, healthcare and social service providers to provide more adequate and satisfactory services for severe mental disorders individuals.

  12. Patterns of psychological distress in mothers of preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Holditch-Davis, Diane; Santos, Hudson; Levy, Janet; White-Traut, Rosemary; O'Shea, T Michael; Geraldo, Victoria; David, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Mothers of preterm infants experience significant psychological distress, with elevated levels of inter-correlated depressive, stress, anxiety and post-traumatic stress symptoms. In a sample of racially and ethnically diverse mothers of preterm infants, we identified differing patterns of psychological distress during infant hospitalization and examined the effect of these psychological distress patterns on longitudinal trajectories of each psychological distress measure and on maternal perceptions of the child over the first year of the infant's life. Mothers of preterm infants (N=232) completed five questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms, anxiety, post-traumatic stress symptoms, stress due to infant appearance, and stress due to parental role alteration during enrollment during the neonatal hospitalization, discharge, and at 2, 6, and 12 months of age adjusted for prematurity. Latent class analysis on the enrollment psychological distress variables allowed us to identify five sub-groups of mothers exhibiting similar patterns of psychological distress, differing primarily in degree and type: low distress, moderate distress, high NICU-related distress, high depressive and anxiety symptoms, and extreme distress. These classes continued to show different longitudinal trajectories for the psychological distress measures through 12 months corrected age. Mothers in the extreme distress class and, to a lesser degree, mothers in the high depressive and anxiety symptom class remained at risk of significant psychological distress one year after discharge and had less positive perceptions of their child (greater worry and higher perceptions of child vulnerability). In conclusion, distinctive sub-groups of mothers during hospitalization had different patterns of psychological distress throughout the 12-month period and may require different interventions in the NICU. PMID:26495909

  13. Secondary Traumatic Stress and Burnout in Child Welfare Workers: A Comparative Analysis of Occupational Distress across Professional Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprang, Ginny; Craig, Carlton; Clark, James

    2011-01-01

    This study describes predictors of secondary traumatic stress and burnout in a national sample of helping professionals, with a specific focus on the unique responses of child welfare (CW) workers. Specific worker and exposure characteristics are examined as possible predictors of these forms of occupational distress in a sample of 669…

  14. Neglect and perceived stigmatization impact psychological distress of orphans in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Hermenau, Katharin; Eggert, Ina; Landolt, Markus A.; Hecker, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Background Research has shown that orphans in sub-Saharan Africa are at increased risk for mental health problems. Exposure to maltreatment and HIV/AIDS-related stigmatization are related to orphans’ psychological distress. Yet, researchers stress the need for more research in low-income countries to identify which factors of being an orphan may lead to psychological distress. Objectives The present study aims to systematically investigate orphans’ experiences of maltreatment and stigmatization to identify factors that relate to their psychological distress. Methods In total, 89 Tanzanian children who had lost at least one parent were compared to 89 matched non-orphans (mean age: 11 years; 51% boys). We measured exposure to maltreatment and perceived stigmatization as an orphan. Mental health was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Children's Depression Inventory, the UCLA PTSD Index for Children, and the Reactive–Proactive Questionnaire. Results Orphans reported significantly more experiences of neglect, but not of abuse. A group comparison revealed more depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and aggressive behavior among orphans. Neglect, abuse, and stigmatization correlated with orphans’ internalizing and externalizing problems, yet only neglect and stigmatization were related to orphans’ depression severity. Perceived stigmatization moderated the relationship between neglect and depression. Conclusions Our findings suggest that orphans in Tanzania are at increased risk of experiencing neglect. Maltreatment and perceived stigmatization may play a role in orphans’ psychological distress. Culturally appropriate and evidence-based interventions may help to prevent maltreatment and stigmatization of orphans. PMID:26589257

  15. Examining Behavioural Coping Strategies as Mediators between Work-Family Conflict and Psychological Distress

    PubMed Central

    Shamsuddin, Khadijah

    2015-01-01

    We examined the mediating role of behavioral coping strategies in the association between work-family conflict and psychological distress. In particular, we examined the two directions of work-family conflict, namely, work interference into family and family interference into work. Furthermore, two coping styles in this study were adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 Malaysian working women using self-reported data. The results of mediational analysis in the present study showed that adaptive coping strategy does not significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. However, maladaptive coping strategies significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. These results show that adaptive coping strategies, which aimed to improve the stressful situation, are not effective in managing stressor such as work-family conflict. We found that experiencing interrole conflict steers employees toward frequent use of maladaptive coping strategies which in turn lead to psychological distress. Interventions targeted at improvement of coping skills which are according to individual's needs and expectation may help working women to balance work and family demands. The important issue is to keep in mind that effective coping strategies are to control the situations not to eliminate work-family conflict. PMID:25695097

  16. The dynamic financial distress prediction method of EBW-VSTW-SVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jie; Li, Hui; Chang, Pei-Chann; He, Kai-Yu

    2016-07-01

    Financial distress prediction (FDP) takes important role in corporate financial risk management. Most of former researches in this field tried to construct effective static FDP (SFDP) models that are difficult to be embedded into enterprise information systems, because they are based on horizontal data-sets collected outside the modelling enterprise by defining the financial distress as the absolute conditions such as bankruptcy or insolvency. This paper attempts to propose an approach for dynamic evaluation and prediction of financial distress based on the entropy-based weighting (EBW), the support vector machine (SVM) and an enterprise's vertical sliding time window (VSTW). The dynamic FDP (DFDP) method is named EBW-VSTW-SVM, which keeps updating the FDP model dynamically with time goes on and only needs the historic financial data of the modelling enterprise itself and thus is easier to be embedded into enterprise information systems. The DFDP method of EBW-VSTW-SVM consists of four steps, namely evaluation of vertical relative financial distress (VRFD) based on EBW, construction of training data-set for DFDP modelling according to VSTW, training of DFDP model based on SVM and DFDP for the future time point. We carry out case studies for two listed pharmaceutical companies and experimental analysis for some other companies to simulate the sliding of enterprise vertical time window. The results indicated that the proposed approach was feasible and efficient to help managers improve corporate financial management.

  17. The Association of Metacognitive Beliefs With Emotional Distress After Diagnosis of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Emotional distress after a diagnosis of cancer is normal and, for most people, will diminish over time. However, a significant minority of patients with cancer experience persistent or recurrent symptoms of emotional distress for which they need help. A model developed in mental health, the self-regulatory executive function model (S-REF), specifies that maladaptive metacognitive beliefs and processes, including persistent worry, are key to understanding why such emotional problems persist. This cross-sectional study explored, for the first, time whether metacognitive beliefs were associated with emotional distress in a cancer population, and whether this relationship was mediated by worry, as predicted by the S-REF model. Method: Two hundred twenty-nine participants within 3 months of diagnosis of, and before treatment for, primary breast or prostate cancer completed self-report questionnaires measuring anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, metacognitive beliefs, worry, and illness perceptions. Results: Regression analysis showed that metacognitive beliefs were associated with symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD, and explained additional variance in these outcomes after controlling for age, gender, and illness perceptions. Structural equation modeling was consistent with cross-sectional hypotheses derived from the theory that metacognitive beliefs cause and maintain distress both directly and indirectly by driving worry. Conclusions: The findings provide promising first evidence that the S-REF model may be usefully applied in cancer. Further study is required to establish the predictive and clinical utility of these findings. PMID:25133826

  18. Exploring Sources of Emotional Distress among People Living with Scleroderma: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Gumuchian, Stephanie T.; Peláez, Sandra; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Carrier, Marie-Eve; Jewett, Lisa R.; El-Baalbaki, Ghassan; Fortune, Catherine; Hudson, Marie; Impens, Ann; Körner, Annett; Persmann, Jennifer; Kwakkenbos, Linda; Bartlett, Susan J.; Thombs, Brett D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Systemic sclerosis, or scleroderma, is a chronic and rare connective tissue disease with negative physical and psychological implications. Sources of emotional distress and the impact they have on the lives of people with scleroderma are not well understood. Objectives To gain an in-depth understanding of the emotional experiences and sources of emotional distress for women and men living with scleroderma through focus group discussions. Methods Three semi-structured focus group discussions were conducted (two in English, one in French) with a total of 22 people with scleroderma recruited through the Scleroderma Society of Ontario in Hamilton, Ontario and a scleroderma clinic in Montreal, Canada. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and then coded for emerging themes using thematic inductive analysis. Results Core themes representing sources of emotional distress were identified, including: (a) facing a new reality; (b) the daily struggle of living with scleroderma; (c) handling work, employment and general financial burden; (d) changing family roles; (e) social interactions; and (f) navigating the health care system. Collectively, these themes refer to the stressful journey of living with scleroderma including the obstacles faced and the emotional experiences beginning prior to receiving a diagnosis and continuing throughout the participants’ lives. Conclusion Scleroderma was portrayed as being an unpredictable and overwhelming disease, resulting in many individuals experiencing multiple sources of emotional distress. Interventions and supportive resources need to be developed to help individuals with scleroderma and people close to them manage and cope with the emotional aspects of the disease. PMID:27008209

  19. Support Service Use and Interest in Support Services among Distressed Family Caregivers of Lung Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mosher, Catherine E.; Champion, Victoria L.; Hanna, Nasser; Jalal, Shadia I.; Fakiris, Achilles J.; Birdas, Thomas J.; Okereke, Ikenna C.; Kesler, Kenneth A.; Einhorn, Lawrence H.; Given, Barbara A.; Monahan, Patrick O.; Ostroff, Jamie S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examined support service use and interest in support services among distressed family caregivers of patients recently entering a comprehensive cancer care facility. Methods Primary family caregivers of lung cancer patients (N = 83) were recruited from three medical centers within 12 weeks of the patient’s new visit to the oncology clinic. All family caregivers were screened for psychological distress and those reporting significant anxiety or depressive symptoms were eligible for this study. Caregivers completed a baseline assessment of support service use (i.e., use of mental health services and complementary and alternative medicine [CAM]) and interest in support services. Support service use was also assessed three months later. Results Although all caregivers reported clinically meaningful distress, only 26% used mental health and 39% used CAM services during the 3-month study period. Patients’ receipt of chemotherapy was positively associated with caregivers’ mental health service use, whereas greater education and receiving assistance with caregiving tasks were associated with CAM use. Forty percent of caregivers who did not use CAM at baseline were interested in CAM. In addition, 29% of caregivers who did not receive mental health services at baseline were interested in professional psychosocial support, and 29% of caregivers who did not receive staff assistance with practical needs at baseline were interested in this service. Conclusions Findings suggest that distressed family caregivers of lung cancer patients underuse mental health services and that a sizable minority are interested in professional help with psychosocial and practical needs. PMID:22941782

  20. Gas exchange in the respiratory distress syndromes.

    PubMed

    Albert, Richard K; Jobe, Alan

    2012-07-01

    This article describes the gas exchange abnormalities occurring in the acute respiratory distress syndrome seen in adults and children and in the respiratory distress syndrome that occurs in neonates. Evidence is presented indicating that the major gas exchange abnormality accounting for the hypoxemia in both conditions is shunt, and that approximately 50% of patients also have lungs regions in which low ventilation-to-perfusion ratios contribute to the venous admixture. The various mechanisms by which hypercarbia may develop and by which positive end-expiratory pressure improves gas exchange are reviewed, as are the effects of vascular tone and airway narrowing. The mechanisms by which surfactant abnormalities occur in the two conditions are described, as are the histological findings that have been associated with shunt and low ventilation-to-perfusion. PMID:23723019

  1. Predicting pavement distress in oil field areas

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.M.; Scullion, T.; Stampley, B.E.

    1984-05-01

    A study on oil field traffic characteristics was performed and a procedure was developed for assessing current and future effects of oil field truck traffic on surface-treated (stage construction type) pavements. A computer program calculates several types of pavement distress and serviceability parameters to evaluate pavement performance under various axle load repetitions. Stepwise regression analysis of 132 surface-treated pavement sections led to the development of individual distress equations for rutting, raveling, flushing, alligator cracking, patching, longitudinal and transverse cracking, and failures (potholes). The versatility of the program provides a means of anticipating early pavement failures due to increased axle load repetitions. The program also provides the basic framework for computing the effects of other ''special-use'' truck traffic demands.

  2. Predicting pavement distress in oil field areas

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.M.; Scullion, T.; Stampley, B.E.

    1983-05-01

    A study on oil field traffic characteristics was performed and a procedure was developed for assessing current and future effects of oil field truck traffic on surface-treated (stage construction type) pavements. A computer program calculates several types of pavement distress and serviceability parameters to evaluate pavement performance under various axle load repetitions. Stepwise regression analysis of 132 surface-treated pavement sections led to the development of individual distress equations for rutting, raveling, flushing, alligator cracking, patching, longitudinal and transverse cracking, and failures (potholes). The versatility of the program provides a means of anticipating early pavement failures due to increased axle load repetitions. The program also provides the basic framework for computing the effects of other ''special-use'' truck traffic demands.

  3. Psychological distress of marital and cohabitation breakups.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Lara Patrício; Aassve, Arnstein

    2013-11-01

    Using data from a large survey, the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS), this paper explores the extent to which marital and cohabiting unions differ with respect to the short-term effects of union dissolution on mental health. We compare married individuals who divorced or separated with cohabitors whose first union ended and test the hypothesis that married individuals experience larger negative effects. Results show that initial differences are not statistically significant once the presence of children is controlled for, suggesting that the presence of children is a particularly significant source of increased psychological distress in union dissolutions. However, parenthood does not explain serious psychological distress, which appears to be associated with enduring traits (the personality trait neuroticism).

  4. Emotional distress in junior house officers.

    PubMed Central

    Firth-Cozens, J

    1987-01-01

    In a study of 170 junior house officers who were followed up from their fourth year in medical school mean levels of stress were higher than in other reported occupational groups, and the estimated prevalence of emotional disturbance was 50%, with 28% of the subjects showing evidence of depression. Nearly a fifth of the subjects reported occasional or frequent bouts of heavy drinking, a quarter took drugs for physical illness, and a few took drugs for recreation. Those who were emotionally distressed at the initial study and the follow up were more empathetic and more self critical than those who had low levels of stress on both occasions. Overwork was the most stressful aspect of their jobs, though the number of hours worked was not related to stress levels, unlike diet and sleep. The more stressed they were the more unfavourably they viewed aspects of their jobs. The incidence of distress is unacceptably high in junior house officers, and both they and the hospitals need to deal with the causes of the distress. PMID:3117213

  5. Emotional distress in junior house officers.

    PubMed

    Firth-Cozens, J

    1987-08-29

    In a study of 170 junior house officers who were followed up from their fourth year in medical school mean levels of stress were higher than in other reported occupational groups, and the estimated prevalence of emotional disturbance was 50%, with 28% of the subjects showing evidence of depression. Nearly a fifth of the subjects reported occasional or frequent bouts of heavy drinking, a quarter took drugs for physical illness, and a few took drugs for recreation. Those who were emotionally distressed at the initial study and the follow up were more empathetic and more self critical than those who had low levels of stress on both occasions. Overwork was the most stressful aspect of their jobs, though the number of hours worked was not related to stress levels, unlike diet and sleep. The more stressed they were the more unfavourably they viewed aspects of their jobs. The incidence of distress is unacceptably high in junior house officers, and both they and the hospitals need to deal with the causes of the distress.

  6. Family Caregivers' Motives for Helping Scale derived from motivation-to-help theory.

    PubMed

    Smith, C E; Kleinbeck, S V; Boyle, D; Kochinda, C; Parker, S

    2001-01-01

    The literature does not contain a measure of family caregivers' motives for helping provide daily complex home care. Such a measure will permit nurses to assess and provide interventions specific to each caregiver's motivation for helping. The purpose of this study was to apply Batson's empirically derived helping pathway theory to the measurement of caregiver motives for helping and develop a short form that does not add to the burden of caregiving. A Principal Components factor analysis (N = 93) of Family Caregivers' Motives for Helping Scale is used. Criterion-related validity is ascertained using a triangulated, independent validation procedure with qualitative data from a subsample (N = 41). Subsample subjects' interview data were categorized, based on Batson's theoretical pathway definitions, by coders blinded to caregiver Motives for Helping Scale scores. Three of Batson's four helping pathways (reward seeking, altruism, and punishment-avoidance) were extracted during factor analysis. This three-factor solution explained 66.6% of the variance and was confirmed by a 97% agreement between three of Batson's pathways and caregivers' helping motive score. The content analyses of the descriptive interview data also coincide with the 3-factor solution. The scale items representing Batson's fourth helping pathway, distress reaction, were not retained due to cross loading. The Family Caregivers' Motives for Helping Scale accurately measures three of four theoretically derived motivations for helping another. The scale should be reanalyzed in a larger sample of caregivers. Aligning nursing interventions to caregiver motives for helping can provide reinforcement for caregivers and potentially enhance home care outcomes.

  7. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Help! It's Hair Loss! KidsHealth > For Kids > Help! It's Hair Loss! Print A A A Text Size ... part above the skin, is dead. (That's why it doesn't hurt to get a haircut!) This ...

  8. Evaluation of Youth Mental Health First Aid USA: A program to assist young people in psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Aakre, Jennifer M; Lucksted, Alicia; Browning-McNee, Lea Ann

    2016-05-01

    Youth Mental Health First Aid USA (YMHFA) is a manualized training program designed to educate members of the public on common emotional problems and psychological disorders among youth and to provide trainees with tools anyone can use to assist young people in psychological distress. The present study used a pre versus post design to assess the ability of social service employees to generate appropriate strategies to use in hypothetical situations featuring a young person in distress, before versus after participation in the 8-hr YMHFA training. Trainee responses demonstrated significant overall improvement (M = 1.32, SD = 0.80 pretraining vs. M = 1.87, SD = 1.1 posttraining, t = 6.6, p < .001) by including four of the five central YMHFA strategies significantly more often after training. Increased confidence in, likelihood of, and comfort with helping a young person in emotional distress or crisis were also reported posttraining compared to pretraining (all p ≤ .001). Results suggest that individuals participating in YMHFA training are better informed regarding when to assess for risk of suicide, listen nonjudgmentally, encourage appropriate professional help, and encourage self-help strategies with young people in psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27148946

  9. A health care chaplain's pastoral response to moral distress.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article offers health care chaplains a pastoral response to moral distress experienced by health care professionals. The article offers a broad definition, explores its impact on health care professionals, and looks at various interventions to ameliorate its effects. The article goes on to clarify the concept of moral distress by differentiating it from the experience of moral dilemmas, and looking closer at the aspects of initial and reactive distress. After defining moral distress, the article explores two clinical models that create a better context to understand the phenomenon. Finally, the article proposes a pastoral response to moral distress from the integration of the five functions of pastoral care: "healing," "sustaining," "guiding," "reconciling," and "nurturing" based on the work of William Clebsch, Charles Jaekle, and Howard Clinebell. The author then applies the pastoral response to moral distress by illustrating the outcome of a scenario with a critical care nurse. PMID:24579954

  10. Authenticity, life satisfaction, and distress: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Boyraz, Güler; Waits, J Brandon; Felix, Victoria A

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the reciprocal relationships between authenticity and measures of life satisfaction and distress using a 2-wave panel study design. Data were collected from 232 college students attending 2 public universities. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The results of the cross-lagged panel analysis indicated that after controlling for temporal stability, initial authenticity (Time 1) predicted later distress and life satisfaction (Time 2). Specifically, higher levels of authenticity at Time 1 were associated with increased life satisfaction and decreased distress at Time 2. Neither distress nor life satisfaction at Time 1 significantly predicted authenticity at Time 2. However, the relationship between Time 1 distress and Time 2 authenticity was not significantly different from the relationship between Time 1 authenticity and Time 2 distress. Results are discussed in light of humanistic-existential theories and the empirical research on well-being. PMID:25019552

  11. Authenticity, life satisfaction, and distress: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Boyraz, Güler; Waits, J Brandon; Felix, Victoria A

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the reciprocal relationships between authenticity and measures of life satisfaction and distress using a 2-wave panel study design. Data were collected from 232 college students attending 2 public universities. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The results of the cross-lagged panel analysis indicated that after controlling for temporal stability, initial authenticity (Time 1) predicted later distress and life satisfaction (Time 2). Specifically, higher levels of authenticity at Time 1 were associated with increased life satisfaction and decreased distress at Time 2. Neither distress nor life satisfaction at Time 1 significantly predicted authenticity at Time 2. However, the relationship between Time 1 distress and Time 2 authenticity was not significantly different from the relationship between Time 1 authenticity and Time 2 distress. Results are discussed in light of humanistic-existential theories and the empirical research on well-being.

  12. Perceptions of friendship among youth with distressed friends.

    PubMed

    Hill, Erin N; Swenson, Lance P

    2014-02-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between a friend's level of internalizing distress and the focal child's perceptions of friendship amongst 5th, 8th, and 11th grade youth. Participants completed the Youth Self-Report to assess internalizing distress and measures assessing perceptions of friendship quality, social support, and self-disclosure within reciprocal, same-sex friendship dyads. Results indicated that youth with friends experiencing low levels of internalizing distress reported poorer friendship quality and decreased levels of social support and self-disclosure within the friendship compared to youth with friends experiencing average or high internalizing distress. In a second set of analyses controlling for the focal child's own internalizing symptoms, gender, and age, friend's level of internalizing distress remained a significant, unique predictor of target participants' self-disclosure about their own problems within the friendship. The findings suggest that a mild degree of internalizing distress may enhance, rather than harm, friendships amongst youth.

  13. A demedicalized view of maternal distress: conceptualization and instrument development.

    PubMed

    Arditti, Joyce A; Grzywacz, Jospeh G; Gallimore, Sara Wang

    2013-11-01

    The goal of this article was to describe instrument development of a demedicalized, multidomain view of maternal distress, with psychological, relational, and situational manifestations. We developed a pilot instrument derived from our previous grounded theory conceptualization of maternal distress and administered it to a purposive sample of 100 low-income single mothers. Analyses testing the relationship between maternal distress and depressive symptoms, guilt, child rearing stress, and community needs variables suggested that the maternal distress inventory had convergent, discriminant, and concurrent validity. Not only was maternal distress distinct from depressive symptomology and generalized child rearing stress, it appeared to be more meaningfully associated with "real world" outcomes of interest to psychological service providers than purely psychological measures of the distress. PMID:22984879

  14. Relationship between Resilience, Psychological Distress and Physical Activity in Cancer Patients: A Cross-Sectional Observation Study

    PubMed Central

    Matzka, Martin; Mayer, Hanna; Köck-Hódi, Sabine; Moses-Passini, Christina; Dubey, Catherine; Jahn, Patrick; Schneeweiss, Sonja; Eicher, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Objective Psychological distress remains a major challenge in cancer care. The complexity of psychological symptoms in cancer patients requires multifaceted symptom management tailored to individual patient characteristics and active patient involvement. We assessed the relationship between resilience, psychological distress and physical activity in cancer patients to elucidate potential moderators of the identified relationships. Method A cross-sectional observational study to assess the prevalence of symptoms and supportive care needs of oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy, radiotherapy or chemo-radiation therapy in a tertiary oncology service. Resilience was assessed using the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC 10), social support was evaluated using the 12-item Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and both psychological distress and activity level were measured using corresponding subscales of the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist (RSCL). Socio-demographic and medical data were extracted from patient medical records. Correlation analyses were performed and structural equation modeling was employed to assess the associations between resilience, psychological distress and activity level as well as selected socio-demographic variables. Results Data from 343 patients were included in the analysis. Our revised model demonstrated an acceptable fit to the data (χ2(163) = 313.76, p = .000, comparative fit index (CFI) = .942, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = .923, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = .053, 90% CI [.044.062]). Resilience was negatively associated with psychological distress (β = -.59), and positively associated with activity level (β = .20). The relationship between resilience and psychological distress was moderated by age (β = -0.33) but not social support (β = .10, p = .12). Conclusion Cancer patients with higher resilience, particularly older patients, experience lower psychological distress. Patients

  15. Psychological distress in husbands of eating disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Van den Broucke, S; Vandereycken, W; Vertommen, H

    1994-04-01

    Psychological distress scores of 21 eating-disordered (ED) women and their husbands were compared with those of two matched groups of 21 maritally distressed (MD) and 21 maritally nondistressed (ND) control groups. In contrast to previous clinical reports, ED husbands in the present group did not report significantly more psychological distress than did ND husbands, and actually reported less interpersonal sensitivity and hostility than did MD husbands.

  16. Antenatal Maternal Emotional Distress and Duration of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Lukasse, Mirjam; Helbig, Anne; Benth, Jūratė Šaltytė; Eberhard-Gran, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s) We sought to prospectively study the association between antenatal emotional distress and gestational length at birth as well as preterm birth. Study Design We followed up 40,077 primiparous women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Emotional distress was reported in a short form of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (SCL-5) at 17 and 30 weeks of gestation. Gestational length at birth, obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, was used as continuous (gestational length in days) and categorized (early preterm (22–31 weeks) and late preterm (32–36 weeks) versus term birth (≥37 weeks)) outcome, using linear and logistic regression analysis, respectively. Births were divided into spontaneous and provider-initiated. Results Of all women, 7.4% reported emotional distress at 17 weeks, 6.0% at 30 weeks and 5.1% had a preterm birth. All measurements of emotional distress at 30 weeks were significantly associated with a reduction of gestational length, in days, for provider-initiated births at term. Emotional distress at 30 weeks showed a reduced duration of pregnancy at birth of 2.40 days for provider-initiated births at term. An increase in emotional distress from 17 to 30 weeks was associated with a reduction of gestational length at birth of 2.13 days for provider-initiated births at term. Sustained high emotional distress was associated with a reduction of gestational length at birth of 2.82 days for provider-initiated births. Emotional distress did not increase the risk of either early or late preterm birth. Conclusion Emotional distress at 30 weeks, an increase in emotional distress from 17 to 30 weeks and sustained high levels of emotional distress were associated with a reduction in gestational length in days for provider-initiated term birth. We found no significant association between emotional distress and the risk of preterm birth. PMID:25000409

  17. How symptom manifestations affect help seeking for mental health problems among Chinese Americans.

    PubMed

    Kung, Winnie W; Lu, Pei-Chun

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to examine how help-seeking behaviors of Chinese Americans are associated with the types of mental disorder, the tendency to somatize symptoms, social disruptiveness of symptoms, and comorbidity. Based on data from the Chinese American Psychiatric Epidemiological Study, we examined 246 Chinese Americans with a diagnosable major depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, or somatoform disorder, using hierarchical logistic regression analyses. Compared with respondents with somatoform disorder, those with anxiety or depressive disorder were 94% and 87% less likely to seek professional help. The tendency to somatize distress is positively related to soliciting help, especially medical help. Social disruptiveness had a very potent positive association with help seeking whereas comorbidity is nonsignificant when the symptom severity is controlled. The overall picture indicates that somatic expression of distress is a major impetus to help seeking, which happens to concur with the cultural conceptualization and subjective embodied experience of mental disorders among Chinese.

  18. The landscape of distress in the terminally ill.

    PubMed

    Chochinov, Harvey Max; Hassard, Thomas; McClement, Susan; Hack, Thomas; Kristjanson, Linda J; Harlos, Mike; Sinclair, Shane; Murray, Alison

    2009-11-01

    Understanding the complexities of distress and knowing who is most vulnerable is foundational to the provision of quality, palliative end-of-life care. Although prior studies have examined the prevalence of symptom distress among patients nearing death, these studies have tended to largely focus on physical and, to a lesser extent, psychological challenges. The aim of this study was to use the Patient Dignity Inventory (PDI), a novel, reliable, and validated measure of end-of-life distress, to describe a broad landscape of distress in patients who are terminally ill. The PDI, a 25-item self-report, was administered to 253 patients receiving palliative care. Each PDI item is rated by patients to indicate the degree to which they experience various kinds of end-of-life distress. Palliative care patients reported an average of 5.74 problems (standard deviation, 5.49; range, 0-24), including physical, psychological, existential, and spiritual challenges. Being an inpatient, being educated, and having a partner were associated with certain kinds of end-of-life problems, particularly existential distress. Spirituality, especially its existential or "sense of meaning and purpose" dimension, was associated with less distress for terminally ill patients. A better appreciation for the nature of distress is a critical step toward a fuller understanding of the challenges facing the terminally ill. A clear articulation of the landscape of distress, including insight regarding those who are most at risk, should pave the way toward more effective, dignity-conserving end-of-life care.

  19. Resilience, loneliness, and psychological distress among homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Perron, Jeff L; Cleverley, Kristin; Kidd, Sean A

    2014-08-01

    Extant quantitative research on loneliness among homeless youth has grouped loneliness with other elements of psychological distress. The current study seeks to determine if loneliness has a different relationship with resilience than does psychological distress among street youth. Using data from 47 participants, linear regression was conducted. Results indicate that homeless youth experiencing higher psychological distress reported lower resilience scores. However, levels of resilience are not significantly associated with feelings of loneliness when psychological distress was accounted for. This study has implications for how researchers and clinicians conceptualize and address feelings of loneliness among homeless youth. PMID:25017554

  20. Distress tolerance in social versus solitary college student drinkers.

    PubMed

    Williams, Catherine L; Vik, Peter W; Wong, Maria M

    2015-11-01

    Low distress tolerance has been an inconsistent predictor of alcohol-related consequences in college students, but its relationships to depression and coping motives for alcohol have received stronger support. Research on college students who drink heavily in isolation suggests that this population is more likely to have a greater number and severity of alcohol-related problems, depression, and coping motives. Solitary heavy drinkers were therefore hypothesized to have lower distress tolerance than other drinkers. This study examined differences in self-reported and behavioral distress tolerance across two groups of university students: those who endorsed heavy solitary drinking (20.1%) versus those who endorsed other types of drinking. Students completed a self-report measure (Distress Intolerance Self-Report, or DISR) and behavioral measure of distress tolerance (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test, or PASAT). Students who reported drinking heavily in isolation differed from other students on the DISR, F(1, 132) = 4.645, p = .033, η(2) = .034, but not on the PASAT, F(1, 132) = 0.056, p = .813. These students also endorsed more coping motives for alcohol. Distress tolerance did not predict drinking consequences directly, yet a mediation model linking distress tolerance to consequences through coping motives supports previous findings of distress tolerance as a distal, indirect predictor of drinking problems. The unique characteristics of solitary binge drinkers and the significance of distress tolerance as an indirect predictor of alcohol-related consequences are discussed. PMID:26114980

  1. Distress tolerance in social versus solitary college student drinkers.

    PubMed

    Williams, Catherine L; Vik, Peter W; Wong, Maria M

    2015-11-01

    Low distress tolerance has been an inconsistent predictor of alcohol-related consequences in college students, but its relationships to depression and coping motives for alcohol have received stronger support. Research on college students who drink heavily in isolation suggests that this population is more likely to have a greater number and severity of alcohol-related problems, depression, and coping motives. Solitary heavy drinkers were therefore hypothesized to have lower distress tolerance than other drinkers. This study examined differences in self-reported and behavioral distress tolerance across two groups of university students: those who endorsed heavy solitary drinking (20.1%) versus those who endorsed other types of drinking. Students completed a self-report measure (Distress Intolerance Self-Report, or DISR) and behavioral measure of distress tolerance (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test, or PASAT). Students who reported drinking heavily in isolation differed from other students on the DISR, F(1, 132) = 4.645, p = .033, η(2) = .034, but not on the PASAT, F(1, 132) = 0.056, p = .813. These students also endorsed more coping motives for alcohol. Distress tolerance did not predict drinking consequences directly, yet a mediation model linking distress tolerance to consequences through coping motives supports previous findings of distress tolerance as a distal, indirect predictor of drinking problems. The unique characteristics of solitary binge drinkers and the significance of distress tolerance as an indirect predictor of alcohol-related consequences are discussed.

  2. Moral distress experienced by nurses: a quantitative literature review.

    PubMed

    Oh, Younjae; Gastmans, Chris

    2015-02-01

    Nurses are frequently confronted with ethical dilemmas in their nursing practice. As a consequence, nurses report experiencing moral distress. The aim of this review was to synthesize the available quantitative evidence in the literature on moral distress experienced by nurses. We appraised 19 articles published between January 1984 and December 2011. This review revealed that many nurses experience moral distress associated with difficult care situations and feel burnout, which can have an impact on their professional position. Further research is required to examine worksite strategies to support nurses in these situations and to develop coping strategies for dealing with moral distress.

  3. Distressing near-death experiences: the basics.

    PubMed

    Bush, Nancy Evans; Greyson, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Like the better-publicized pleasurable NDEs, distressing near-death experiences are both fascinating and frustrating as altered states of consciousness. Because of the deeply rooted concept of hell in Western culture and its Christian association with eternal physical torment, they pose serious challenges to the individuals who must shape their lives around such a profoundly durable event, and to their families, friends, and physicians. In the absence of clear-cut clinical data and universal cultural views, physicians are advised that neutrality of opinion and careful listening are likely to constitute best professional practice for addressing these difficult near-death experiences.

  4. The Mediating Role of Resilience on Quality of Life and Cancer Symptom Distress in Adolescent Patients With Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei-Wen; Tsai, Shao-Yu; Liang, Shu-Yuan; Liu, Chieh-Yu; Jou, Shiann-Tarng; Berry, Donna L

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how cancer symptom distress and resilience contribute to quality of life (QoL) in adolescent cancer and may potentially help these patients achieve better health-related outcomes. The objective of this study was to describe cancer symptom distress, QoL, and resilience in adolescents with cancer and to determine whether resilience is a mediating variable. Forty adolescent cancer patients were recruited, and data were collected via a demographic questionnaire, the Cancer Symptom Distress Scale, the Resilience Scale, and the Minneapolis-Manchester Quality of Life Scale. Pearson's correlation, multiple regressions, and the Sobel test were conducted. Both resilience and cancer symptom distress were regressed against QoL, accounting for 62.1% of observed variation in QoL scores. The bootstrap result estimated the true indirect effect between -.0189 and -.0024, with a 95% confidence interval. Resilience mediates the relationship between cancer symptom distress and QoL. Clinical use of a resilience measure, for example to use in developing and evaluating interventions focused on enhancing resilience, may be practical for nurses.

  5. Perceived welfare caseworker support and psychological distress among low-income urban women with children.

    PubMed

    Hill, Terrence D; Cain, Daphne S

    2012-10-01

    Although some research suggests that the relationship between Child Protective Services workers and their clients may influence client outcomes, little is known about the function of the relationship between welfare or Temporary Assistance for Needy Families caseworkers and their clients. Building on previous research, the authors use 1999 survey data from the Welfare, Children, and Families Project--a probability sample of 853 low-income women with children living in Boston, Chicago, and San Antonio, Texas--to examine the association between perceived welfare caseworker support and psychological distress. Results revealed that women who perceive their welfare caseworker to be interested, caring, and helpful also tend to exhibit lower levels of psychological distress.

  6. 47 CFR 80.335 - Procedures for canceling false distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the distress alert orally over the telephony distress traffic channel associated with each DSC channel... DSC channel on which the distress alert was transmitted; and (3) Tune for radiotelephony transmission... telephony distress traffic channel associated with each DSC channel on which the distress alert...

  7. Solzhenitsyn's Second Exile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericson, Edward E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    When Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn entered the world stage in the 1960s, the West interpreted him without preconceptions. Then the West turned against him with a vengeance. The great exception to this turn was France--"France!"--where virtually all of his writings appeared in translation and where intellectuals took instruction from him on the nature of…

  8. THE IMPACT OF THE TRUTH AND RECONCILIATION COMMISSION ON PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS AND FORGIVENESS IN SOUTH AFRICA

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Dan J.; Seedat, Soraya; Kaminer, Debra; Moomal, Hashim; Herman, Allen; Sonnega, John; Williams, David R.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Legislation to establish a Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was passed soon after election of South Africa’s first democratic government. Discourse around the TRC focused on the importance of bearing witness to the past, and on the healing powers of forgiveness. However, there was also a concern that individuals with TRC relevant experience would simply be re-traumatized by participation in the process. To date, there has been little empirical data for either hypothesis. METHODS A nationally representative survey of the South African population (n=4351) was undertaken 6 to 8 years after the TRC process began. Information about subjects’ exposure to and participation in the TRC was collected, and views about the testimony of survivors and perpetrators were assessed. To determine the predictors of distress, anger, and forgiveness, linear regressions were undertaken with inclusion of demographic variables, exposure to TRC variables, and attitudes to the TRC. RESULTS Distress was significantly associated with specific demographic factors (female gender, less education), with having a TRC related experience to share, and with negative perceptions of the TRC (a negative view of survivors’ testimony). Anger had similar associations but was also predicted by lower age. Forgiveness was associated with age and education, with being Coloured, and with having a positive view of perpetrator’s testimony, while it was inversely associated with having a TRC experience to share. Distress and anger correlated inversely with forgiveness. Perceptions of the TRC were moderately positive irrespective of many demographic variables (race, education, age). CONCLUSION In this cross-sectional study, causal relationships are difficult to ascertain. Nevertheless, relationships between increased distress/anger, having a TRC relevant experience to share, and negative perceptions of the TRC, support a view that bearing testimony is not necessarily helpful to survivors

  9. Assessment of work intensification by managers and psychological distressed and non-distressed employees: a multilevel comparison

    PubMed Central

    BAMBERGER, Simon Grandjean; LARSEN, Anelia; VINDING, Anker Lund; NIELSEN, Peter; FONAGER, Kirsten; NIELSEN, René Nesgaard; RYOM, Pia; OMLAND, Øyvind

    2015-01-01

    Work intensification is a popular management strategy to increase productivity, but at the possible expense of employee mental stress. This study examines associations between ratings of work intensification and psychological distress, and the level of agreement between compared employee-rated and manager-rated work intensification. Multi-source survey data were collected from 3,064 employees and 573 company managers from the private sector in 2010. Multilevel regression models were used to compare different work intensification ratings across psychological distress strata. Distressed employees rated higher degree of total work intensification compared to non-distressed employees, and on three out of five sub ratings there were an increased prevalence of work intensification in the case group. In general, there was poor agreement between employee and company work intensification rating. Neither manager-rated work intensification nor employee/manager discrepancy in work intensification ratings was associated with psychological distress. Distressed employees had a higher total score of employee/manager agreed work intensification, and a higher prevalence of increased demands of labour productivity. This study demonstrates higher ratings of employee/manager agreed work intensification in distressed employees compared to non-distressed employees, challenging previous findings of reporting bias in distressed employees’ assessment of work environment. PMID:25752252

  10. Intrauterine resuscitation: active management of fetal distress.

    PubMed

    Thurlow, J A; Kinsella, S M

    2002-04-01

    Acute fetal distress in labour is a condition of progressive fetal asphyxia with hypoxia and acidosis. It is usually diagnosed by finding characteristic features in the fetal heart rate pattern, wherever possible supported by fetal scalp pH measurement. Intrauterine resuscitation consists of applying specific measures with the aim of increasing oxygen delivery to the placenta and umbilical blood flow, in order to reverse hypoxia and acidosis. These measures include initial left lateral recumbent positioning followed by right lateral or knee-elbow if necessary, rapid intravenous infusion of a litre of non-glucose crystalloid, maternal oxygen administration at the highest practical inspired percentage, inhibition of uterine contractions usually with subcutaneous or intravenous terbutaline 250 microg, and intra-amniotic infusion of warmed crystalloid solution. Specific manoeuvres for umbilical cord prolapse are also described. Intrauterine resuscitation may be used as part of the obstetric management of labour, while preparing for caesarean delivery for fetal distress, or at the time of establishment of regional analgesia during labour in the compromised fetus. The principles may also be applied during inter-hospital transfers of sick or labouring parturients.

  11. Diagnosis and distress in Navajo healing.

    PubMed

    Csordas, Thomas J; Storck, Michael J; Strauss, Milton

    2008-08-01

    In contemporary Navajo society, traditional Navajo ceremonies, Native American Church prayer meetings, and Navajo Christian faith healing are all highly sought-after resources in the everyday pursuit of health and well-being. What is the nature of affliction among patients who turn to such forms of religious healing? Are these patients typically afflicted with psychiatric disorder? In this article we discuss 84 Navajo patients who participated in the Navajo Healing Project during a period in which they consulted one of these forms of healing. We present diagnostic results obtained from the Structured Clinical Interview for DSMIV (SCID) administered to these patients. We then present an ethnographically augmented analysis comparing the research diagnosis obtained via the SCID with a clinical diagnosis, with the diagnosis given by religious healers, and with the understanding of their own distress on the part of patients. These analyses demonstrate how a cultural approach contributes to the basic science and clinical understandings of affliction as well as to discussion of the advantages and limitations of DSM categories as descriptors of distress and disorder.

  12. Surfactant treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Herce, J.; de Lucas, N.; Carrillo, A.; Bustinza, A.; Moral, R.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine prospectively the efficacy of surfactant in acute respiratory distress syndrome.
STUDY DESIGN—Twenty patients, 1 month to 16 years of age, diagnosed with an acute pulmonary disease with severe hypoxaemia (PaO2/FiO2 < 100) (13 with systemic or pulmonary disease and seven with cardiac disease) were treated with one to six doses of 50-200 mg/kg of porcine surfactant administered directly into the trachea. The surfactant was considered to be effective when the PaO2/FiO2 improved by > 20%.
RESULTS—After initial surfactant administration the PaO2/FiO2 increased significantly in patients with systemic or pulmonary disease from 68 to 111, and the oxygenation index (OI) diminished significantly from 36.9 to 27.1. The PaO2/FiO2 and OI did not improve in children with cardiac disease. The improvement of the patients who survived was greater than that of those who died.
CONCLUSIONS—Surfactant moderately improves oxygenation in some children with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome secondary to pulmonary or systemic disease.

 PMID:10325705

  13. Diagnosis and distress in Navajo healing.

    PubMed

    Csordas, Thomas J; Storck, Michael J; Strauss, Milton

    2008-08-01

    In contemporary Navajo society, traditional Navajo ceremonies, Native American Church prayer meetings, and Navajo Christian faith healing are all highly sought-after resources in the everyday pursuit of health and well-being. What is the nature of affliction among patients who turn to such forms of religious healing? Are these patients typically afflicted with psychiatric disorder? In this article we discuss 84 Navajo patients who participated in the Navajo Healing Project during a period in which they consulted one of these forms of healing. We present diagnostic results obtained from the Structured Clinical Interview for DSMIV (SCID) administered to these patients. We then present an ethnographically augmented analysis comparing the research diagnosis obtained via the SCID with a clinical diagnosis, with the diagnosis given by religious healers, and with the understanding of their own distress on the part of patients. These analyses demonstrate how a cultural approach contributes to the basic science and clinical understandings of affliction as well as to discussion of the advantages and limitations of DSM categories as descriptors of distress and disorder. PMID:18974670

  14. Avian maternal response to chick distress

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, J. L.; Lowe, J. C.; Paul, E. S.; Nicol, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which an animal is affected by the pain or distress of a conspecific will depend on its capacity for empathy. Empathy most probably evolved to facilitate parental care, so the current study assessed whether birds responded to an aversive stimulus directed at their chicks. Domestic hens were exposed to two replicates of the following conditions in a counterbalanced order: control (C; hen and chicks undisturbed), air puff to chicks (APC; air puff directed at chicks at 30 s intervals), air puff to hen (APH; air puff directed at hen at 30 s intervals) and control with noise (CN; noise of air puff at 30 s intervals). During each test, the hens' behaviour and physiology were measured throughout a 10 min pre-treatment and a 10 min treatment period. Hens responded to APH and APC treatments with increased alertness, decreased preening behaviour and a reduction in eye temperature. No such changes occurred during any control period. Increased heart rate and maternal vocalization occurred exclusively during the APC treatment, even though chicks produced few distress vocalizations. The pronounced and specific reaction observed indicates that adult female birds possess at least one of the essential underpinning attributes of empathy. PMID:21389025

  15. Intrauterine resuscitation: active management of fetal distress.

    PubMed

    Thurlow, J A; Kinsella, S M

    2002-04-01

    Acute fetal distress in labour is a condition of progressive fetal asphyxia with hypoxia and acidosis. It is usually diagnosed by finding characteristic features in the fetal heart rate pattern, wherever possible supported by fetal scalp pH measurement. Intrauterine resuscitation consists of applying specific measures with the aim of increasing oxygen delivery to the placenta and umbilical blood flow, in order to reverse hypoxia and acidosis. These measures include initial left lateral recumbent positioning followed by right lateral or knee-elbow if necessary, rapid intravenous infusion of a litre of non-glucose crystalloid, maternal oxygen administration at the highest practical inspired percentage, inhibition of uterine contractions usually with subcutaneous or intravenous terbutaline 250 microg, and intra-amniotic infusion of warmed crystalloid solution. Specific manoeuvres for umbilical cord prolapse are also described. Intrauterine resuscitation may be used as part of the obstetric management of labour, while preparing for caesarean delivery for fetal distress, or at the time of establishment of regional analgesia during labour in the compromised fetus. The principles may also be applied during inter-hospital transfers of sick or labouring parturients. PMID:15321562

  16. A philosophical taxonomy of ethically significant moral distress.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Tessy A; McCullough, Laurence B

    2015-02-01

    Moral distress is one of the core topics of clinical ethics. Although there is a large and growing empirical literature on the psychological aspects of moral distress, scholars, and empirical investigators of moral distress have recently called for greater conceptual clarity. To meet this recognized need, we provide a philosophical taxonomy of the categories of what we call ethically significant moral distress: the judgment that one is not able, to differing degrees, to act on one's moral knowledge about what one ought to do. We begin by unpacking the philosophical components of Andrew Jameton's original formulation from his landmark 1984 work and identify two key respects in which that formulation remains unclear: the origins of moral knowledge and impediments to acting on that moral knowledge. We then selectively review subsequent literature that shows that there is more than one concept of moral distress and that explores the origin of the values implicated in moral distress and impediments to acting on those values. This review sets the stage for identifying the elements of a philosophical taxonomy of ethically significant moral distress. The taxonomy uses these elements to create six categories of ethically significant moral distress: challenges to, threats to, and violations of professional integrity; and challenges to, threats to, and violations of individual integrity. We close with suggestions about how the proposed philosophical taxonomy of ethically significant moral distress sheds light on the concepts of moral residue and crescendo effect of moral distress and how the proposed taxonomy might usefully guide prevention of and future qualitative and quantitative empirical research on ethically significant moral distress.

  17. Handi Helps, 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handi Helps, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The eight issues of Handi Helps presented in this document focus on specific issues of concern to the disabled, parents, and those working with the disabled. The two-page handi help fact sheets focus on the following topics: child abuse, leukemia, arthritis, Tourette Syndrome, hemophilia, the puppet program "Meet the New Kids on the Block" and dog…

  18. The Help Desk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Regina; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The first of three articles describes the results of a survey that examined characteristics and responsibilities of help-desk personnel at major database and online services. The second provides guidelines to using such customer services, and the third lists help-desk numbers for online databases and systems. (CLB)

  19. Handi Helps, 1985

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handi Helps, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The six issues of Handi Helps presented here focus on specific issues of concern to the disabled, parents, and those working with the disabled. The two-page handi help fact sheets focus on the following topics: child sexual abuse prevention, asthma, scoliosis, the role of the occupational therapist, kidnapping, and muscular dystrophy. Each handi…

  20. Helping Children Understand Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allers, Robert D.

    1980-01-01

    Children of divorced parents may bring many problems along when they come to school. Teachers can recognize these troubles and help children learn to handle them. They may be able to help children better understand their feelings about their parents' divorce. (CJ)

  1. Students' Distress over Grades: Entitlement or a Coping Response?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Judith C.

    2011-01-01

    Faculties across disciplines have noted an increasing number of students who are highly distressed over grades, and this distress is accompanied by pervasive demands on professors. The student behavior takes several forms, including demands for higher grades, expectations of special accommodations by faculty, and the predictions of dire outcomes…

  2. Psychopathic Traits, Victim Distress and Aggression in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Baardewijk, Yoast; Stegge, Hedy; Bushman, Brad J.; Vermeiren, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Background: The relationship between psychopathic traits and aggression in children may be explained by their reduced sensitivity to signs of distress in others. Emotional cues such as fear and sadness function to make the perpetrator aware of the victim's distress and supposedly inhibit aggression. As children high in psychopathic traits show a…

  3. Spanish Translations of a Standard Assessment Battery for Marital Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, D. Eugene; Thurber, Shawn L.; Crane, Brent E.

    2003-01-01

    To better serve the growing number of Spanish-speaking couples and families in the U.S., it is useful to have a battery of instruments to assess the nature of their marital distress. This article presents the standard assessment battery that Brigham Young University uses to evaluate marital distress. (Contains 11 references and 1 table.) (GCP)

  4. Relationship between psychological distress and resilience in rescue workers

    PubMed Central

    Yasien, Saba; Nasir, Jamal Abdul; Shaheen, Tayabba

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the relationship between psychological distress and resilience in rescue workers. Following hypothesis was formulated; there would be negative correlation between psychological distress and resilience in rescue workers. Method: A correlational study was conducted from June-August 2015 in Rahim Yar Khan, Punjab, Pakistan. The sample of the present study consisted of 100 rescue workers. The age of the participants ranged from 23 to 40 year old with the mean age of 27.4±3.9 years. Demographic information form, Kessler psychological distress scale and adult resilience measure were administered on the participants to assess the level of psychological distress and resilience. Results: Pearson product moment coefficient of correlation was applied to analyze the relationship of psychological distress and resilience. Analysis of the result indicated that there is negative relationship between psychological distress and resilience (r= -0.203, p<0.01) in rescue workers. Further, contextual factors (r= -0.292, p<0.05) and its subcomponents including spiritual beliefs (r= -0.239, p<0.05) and cultural resources (r= -0.287, p<0.01) were also found to be inversely correlated with psychological distress. Conclusion: The research evidenced that rescue workers were experiencing psychological distress Resilience factors should be considered while designing trainings to preserve mental health and to enhance the psychological well-being of rescue workers. PMID:27381539

  5. Assessing Racial Microaggression Distress in a Diverse Sample.

    PubMed

    Torres-Harding, Susan; Turner, Tasha

    2015-12-01

    Racial microaggressions are everyday subtle or ambiguous racially related insults, slights, mistreatment, or invalidations. Racial microaggressions are a type of perceived racism that may negatively impact the health and well-being of people of color in the United States. This study examined the reliability and validity of the Racial Microaggression Scale distress subscales, which measure the perceived stressfulness of six types of microaggression experiences in a racially and ethnically diverse sample. These subscales exhibited acceptable to good internal consistency. The distress subscales also evidenced good convergent validity; the distress subscales were positively correlated with additional measures of stressfulness due to experiencing microaggressions or everyday discrimination. When controlling for the frequency of one's exposure to microaggression incidents, some racial/ethnic group differences were found. Asian Americans reported comparatively lower distress and Latinos reporting comparatively higher distress in response to Foreigner, Low-Achieving, Invisibility, and Environmental microaggressions. African Americans reported higher distress than the other groups in response to Environmental microaggressions. Results suggest that the Racial Microaggressions Scale distress subscales may aid health professionals in assessing the distress elicited by different types of microaggressions. In turn, this may facilitate diagnosis and treatment planning in order to provide multiculturally competent care for African American, Latino, and Asian American clients.

  6. Frustrated Fertility: Infertility and Psychological Distress among Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuillan, Julia; Greil, Arthur L.; White, Lynn; Jacob, Mary Casey

    2003-01-01

    Tests the hypothesis that women who have experienced infertility report higher psychological distress. Examines whether roles or resources condition the effects of infertility or whether its effects are limited to childless women. Infertility combined with involuntary childlessness is associated with significantly greater distress. For women in…

  7. Controversies involving hypercapnic acidosis in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nardelli, Liliane; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo; Garcia, Cristiane Sousa Nascimento Baez

    2009-12-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome is characterized by a diffuse inflammatory reaction of lung parenchyma induced by a direct insult to the alveolar epithelium (pulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome) or an indirect lesion through the vascular endothelium (extrapulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome). The main therapeutic strategy for acute respiratory distress syndrome is the ventilatory support. However, mechanical ventilation can worsen lung injury. In this context, a protective ventilatory strategy with low tidal volume has been proposed. The use of low tidal volume reduced the mortality rate of acute respiratory distress syndrome patients, but result in hypercapnic acidosis. The current article presents a review of literature on the effects of permissive hypercapnia in acute respiratory distress syndrome. To that end, we carried out a systematic review of scientific literature based on established criteria for documental analysis including clinical and experimental articles, using as data bases MedLine, LILACS, SciELO, PubMed, Cochrane. Hypercapnic acidosis has been considered by some authors as a modulator of the inflammatory process of acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, clinical and experimental studies on the effects of hypercapnic acidosis have shown controversial results. Therefore it is important to better elucidate the role of hypercapnic acidosis in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  8. Psychological Distress of Caregivers: The Mediator Effect of Caregiving Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pot, A. M.; Deeg, D. J. H.; van Dyck, R.; Jonker, C.

    1998-01-01

    Examines whether the role of caregiving appraisal explains why stressors in the caregiving situation affect caregivers' psychological distress. Results show that for spouse caregivers, perceived pressure explains the association between their caregiving tasks and psychological distress. Results also show clear mediator effects of perceived…

  9. Relaxation Training and Expectation in the Treatment of Postpartum Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halonen, Jane S.; Passman, Richard H.

    1985-01-01

    Examined the effectiveness of relaxation training in reducing postpartum distress for 48 first-time mothers-to-be via a treatment-component strategy. Compared with nonrelaxation conditions, relaxation treatments reduced reported postpartal distress. Expectations about treatment effectiveness were not significant factors in treatment outcome.…

  10. 47 CFR 97.405 - Station in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station in distress. 97.405 Section 97.405 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... prevents the use by an amateur station in distress of any means at its disposal to attract attention,...

  11. 47 CFR 97.405 - Station in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station in distress. 97.405 Section 97.405 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... prevents the use by an amateur station in distress of any means at its disposal to attract attention,...

  12. 47 CFR 97.405 - Station in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station in distress. 97.405 Section 97.405 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... prevents the use by an amateur station in distress of any means at its disposal to attract attention,...

  13. 47 CFR 97.405 - Station in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station in distress. 97.405 Section 97.405 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... prevents the use by an amateur station in distress of any means at its disposal to attract attention,...

  14. 47 CFR 97.405 - Station in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station in distress. 97.405 Section 97.405 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... prevents the use by an amateur station in distress of any means at its disposal to attract attention,...

  15. Psychological Distress and Mortality: Are Women More Vulnerable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Nuriddin, Tariqah A.

    2006-01-01

    Does psychological distress increase mortality risk? If it does, are women more vulnerable than men to the effect of distress on mortality? Drawing from cumulative disadvantage theory, these questions are addressed with data from a 20-year follow-up of a national sample of adults ages 25-74. Event history analyses were performed to examine…

  16. 47 CFR 80.312 - Priority of distress transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Priority of distress transmissions. 80.312 Section 80.312 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress,...

  17. 47 CFR 80.312 - Priority of distress transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Priority of distress transmissions. 80.312 Section 80.312 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress,...

  18. 47 CFR 80.312 - Priority of distress transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Priority of distress transmissions. 80.312 Section 80.312 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress,...

  19. 47 CFR 80.311 - Authority for distress transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Authority for distress transmission. 80.311 Section 80.311 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress,...

  20. 47 CFR 80.325 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 80.325 Section 80.325 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency...

  1. 47 CFR 80.312 - Priority of distress transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Priority of distress transmissions. 80.312 Section 80.312 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress,...

  2. 47 CFR 80.311 - Authority for distress transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Authority for distress transmission. 80.311 Section 80.311 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress,...

  3. 47 CFR 80.325 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 80.325 Section 80.325 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency...

  4. 47 CFR 80.313 - Frequencies for use in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequencies for use in distress. 80.313 Section 80.313 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress,...

  5. 47 CFR 80.313 - Frequencies for use in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frequencies for use in distress. 80.313 Section 80.313 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress,...

  6. 47 CFR 80.313 - Frequencies for use in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequencies for use in distress. 80.313 Section 80.313 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress,...

  7. 47 CFR 80.311 - Authority for distress transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Authority for distress transmission. 80.311 Section 80.311 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress,...

  8. 47 CFR 80.313 - Frequencies for use in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequencies for use in distress. 80.313 Section 80.313 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress,...

  9. 47 CFR 80.311 - Authority for distress transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Authority for distress transmission. 80.311 Section 80.311 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress,...

  10. 47 CFR 80.325 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 80.325 Section 80.325 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency...

  11. 47 CFR 80.311 - Authority for distress transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authority for distress transmission. 80.311 Section 80.311 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress,...

  12. 47 CFR 80.312 - Priority of distress transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Priority of distress transmissions. 80.312 Section 80.312 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress,...

  13. 47 CFR 80.313 - Frequencies for use in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frequencies for use in distress. 80.313 Section 80.313 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress,...

  14. Parental Attachments and Psychological Distress among African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Keisha McGhee

    2008-01-01

    African American college students attending predominately White institutions often encounter stressors that their Caucasian peers do not experience. Because of these unique stressors, African American students are more prone to experience psychological distress. Identifying factors that counteract psychological distress among these students is…

  15. 47 CFR 80.1113 - Transmission of a distress alert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission of a distress alert. 80.1113 Section 80.1113 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS)...

  16. 47 CFR 80.1109 - Distress, urgency, and safety communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Distress, urgency, and safety communications. 80.1109 Section 80.1109 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System...

  17. 47 CFR 80.1109 - Distress, urgency, and safety communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Distress, urgency, and safety communications. 80.1109 Section 80.1109 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System...

  18. 47 CFR 80.1113 - Transmission of a distress alert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission of a distress alert. 80.1113 Section 80.1113 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS)...

  19. BABY EMPATHY: INFANT DISTRESS AND PEER PROSOCIAL RESPONSES.

    PubMed

    Liddle, Mitzi-Jane E; Bradley, Ben S; Mcgrath, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is an important competence in our social world, a motivator of prosocial behavior, and thought to develop throughout the second year of life. The current study examined infants' responses to naturalistic peer distress to explore markers of empathy and prosocial behavior in young babies. Seventeen 8-month-old infants participated in a repeated measures design using the "babies-in-groups" paradigm, with maternal presence as the independent variable. Significant differences were found between response types: Gaze was the standard response to infant distress, followed by socially directed behaviors and affect, with self-distress rarely occurring. Maternal presence was not found to impact the nature or frequency of babies' responses to peer distress. During distress episodes, babies looked preferentially at the distressed peer, then other mothers, and least to their own mother. Data revealed that infant responses to peer distress resulted in a successful cessation of that distress episode over one third of the time. Case studies are provided to illustrate the quantitative data. The results provided evidence of empathic concern and prosocial behavior in the first year of life, and provoke a challenge to developmental theories of empathy.

  20. Examining Victimization and Psychological Distress in Transgender College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Effrig, Jessica C.; Bieschke, Kathleen J.; Locke, Benjamin D.

    2011-01-01

    Treatment-seeking and non-treatment-seeking transgender college students were examined with regard to victimization and psychological distress. Findings showed that transgender college students had elevated rates of distress as compared with college students who identified as men or women. Results indicated that treatment-seeking and non-treatment…

  1. 7 CFR 762.143 - Servicing distressed accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Servicing distressed accounts. 762.143 Section 762.143 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.143 Servicing distressed accounts. (a) A borrower...

  2. Ethnic Differences in Adolescents' Mental Distress, Social Stress, and Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Heeseung; Meininger, Janet C.; Roberts, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    Limited data on ethnic group differences among young adolescents exist regarding the prevalence of mental distress, social stress, and resources. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine ethnic differences among African American (AA), European American (EA), Hispanic American (HA), and Asian American adolescents in mental distress,…

  3. Differences in Distress among Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kashubeck, Susan; Christensen, Sue A.

    1992-01-01

    Investigated psychological distress, social support, and hardiness among 79 adult children of alcoholics (ACAs) compared to 67 ACAs not involved in support groups. Group members reported higher levels of psychological distress, lower levels of hardiness, and less satisfaction with perceived social support than did nonmembers. For both groups,…

  4. Intrusive Thoughts: A Primary Variable in Breakup Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeannette

    2013-01-01

    University students who were high versus low on breakup distress scores were given self-report measures to assess their intrusive thoughts about the romantic breakup and their somatic symptoms that followed the breakup as well as their extracurricular activities and social support that might alleviate their breakup distress. In a regression…

  5. Assessing Racial Microaggression Distress in a Diverse Sample.

    PubMed

    Torres-Harding, Susan; Turner, Tasha

    2015-12-01

    Racial microaggressions are everyday subtle or ambiguous racially related insults, slights, mistreatment, or invalidations. Racial microaggressions are a type of perceived racism that may negatively impact the health and well-being of people of color in the United States. This study examined the reliability and validity of the Racial Microaggression Scale distress subscales, which measure the perceived stressfulness of six types of microaggression experiences in a racially and ethnically diverse sample. These subscales exhibited acceptable to good internal consistency. The distress subscales also evidenced good convergent validity; the distress subscales were positively correlated with additional measures of stressfulness due to experiencing microaggressions or everyday discrimination. When controlling for the frequency of one's exposure to microaggression incidents, some racial/ethnic group differences were found. Asian Americans reported comparatively lower distress and Latinos reporting comparatively higher distress in response to Foreigner, Low-Achieving, Invisibility, and Environmental microaggressions. African Americans reported higher distress than the other groups in response to Environmental microaggressions. Results suggest that the Racial Microaggressions Scale distress subscales may aid health professionals in assessing the distress elicited by different types of microaggressions. In turn, this may facilitate diagnosis and treatment planning in order to provide multiculturally competent care for African American, Latino, and Asian American clients. PMID:25237154

  6. Vietnamese Amerasians: Predictors of Distress and Self-Destructive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bemak, Fred; Chung, Rita Chi-Ying

    1998-01-01

    Pre- and postmigration variables that predict psychological distress and self-destructive behavior for Vietnamese Amerasians (N=169) are examined, and implications for counseling discussed. Results may indicate that observing traumatic events is a greater predictor of psychological distress and self-destructive behavior than actually experiencing…

  7. Anxious attachment and psychological distress in cardiac rehabilitation patients.

    PubMed

    West, M; Sarah Rose, M; Brewis, C S

    1995-06-01

    This study investigated the relevance of anxious attachment to the differentiation of psychologically distressed and non-psychologically distressed cardiac patients. Attachment is a biologically based behavioral system in which proximity to a special other is sought or maintained to achieve a sense of safety and security. Anxious attachment, as the name denotes, fails to achieve the function of attachment in the sense of individuals having little or no confidence in the availability of their attachment figures. Empirically, three scales (feared loss of the attachment figure, proximity seeking and separation protest) capture the features of anxious attachment as elaborated by Bowlby. These scales were administered to 178 cardiac rehabilitation patients drawn from the cardiac rehabilitation program of the Calgary General Hospital. The results indicate that feared loss and proximity seeking differentiated psychologically distressed from non-psychologically distressed patients. The implications of this finding for the understanding of psychologically distressed cardiac patients are discussed.

  8. Maternal distress and women's reentry into family and community life.

    PubMed

    Arditti, Joyce; Few, April

    2008-09-01

    This paper advances conceptualization of maternal distress following incarceration. We utilized a multiple case study methodology based on interviews with 10 mothers who demonstrated various permutations of "the triple threat" (depression, domestic violence, and substance abuse; Arditti & Few, 2006). Findings suggest that depressive symptomology persisted and worsened for mothers in our study and that maternal distress was indicative not only of women's psychological state, but also a relational and situational construct that embodied women's core experience. Maternal distress was largely characterized by health challenges, dysfunctional intimate relationships, loss related trauma, guilt and worry over children, and economic inadequacy. Further, maternal distress seemed to be intensified by the punitive traumatic context of prison and lessened by rehabilitation opportunities as well as support by kin and probation officers after reentry. Recommendations for clinicians and professionals who work with reentry mothers center around the need to alleviate maternal distress and better address women's emotional and physical health needs during incarceration and reentry.

  9. An investigation of moral distress experienced by occupational therapists.

    PubMed

    Penny, Neil H; Ewing, Timothy L; Hamid, Rachel C; Shutt, Kimberly A; Walter, Amy S

    2014-10-01

    This study used a quantitative survey design to investigate the existence of moral distress among occupational therapists. The Moral Distress Scale-Revised (MDS-R-OHPA) was distributed to a random sample of 600 members of the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA). The results of this explorative study found that occupational therapists reported moderate levels of moral distress with occupational therapists working in geriatric settings reporting higher levels of moral distress than occupational therapists who work in physical disability settings, although the difference was not statistically significant. However, occupational therapists who were considering leaving their current position reported the highest levels of moral distress. These initial findings are discussed as well as the need for further research.

  10. Population level mental distress in rural Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As part of a situational analysis for a research programme on the integration of mental health care into primary care (Programme for Improving Mental Health Care-PRIME), we conducted a baseline study aimed at determining the broad indicators of the population level of psychosocial distress in a predominantly rural community in Ethiopia. Methods The study was a population-based cross-sectional survey of 1497 adults selected through a multi-stage random sampling process. Population level psychosocial distress was evaluated by estimating the magnitude of common mental disorder symptoms (CMD; depressive, anxiety and somatic symptoms reaching the level of probable clinical significance), harmful use of alcohol, suicidality and psychosocial stressors experienced by the population. Results The one-month prevalence of CMD at the mild, moderate and severe threshold levels was 13.8%, 9.0% and 5.1% respectively. The respective one-month prevalence of any suicidal ideation, persistent suicidal ideation and suicide attempt was 13.5%, 3.8% and 1.8%. Hazardous use of alcohol was identified in 22.4%, significantly higher among men (33.4%) compared to women (11.3%). Stressful life events were widespread, with 41.4% reporting at least one threatening life event in the preceding six months. A similar proportion reported poor social support (40.8%). Stressful life events, increasing age, marital loss and hazardous use of alcohol were associated with CMD while stressful life events, marital loss and lower educational status, and CMD were associated with suicidality. CMD was the strongest factor associated with suicidality [e.g., OR (95% CI) for severe CMD = 60.91 (28.01, 132.48)] and the strength of association increased with increase in the severity of the CMD. Conclusion Indicators of psychosocial distress are prevalent in this rural community. Contrary to former assumptions in the literature, social support systems seem relatively weak and stressful life events common

  11. Psychological Distress and Pain Reporting in Australian Coal Miners

    PubMed Central

    Carlisle, Kristy N.; Parker, Anthony W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Coal mining is of significant economic importance to the Australian economy. Despite this fact, the related workforce is subjected to a number of psychosocial risks and musculoskeletal injury, and various psychological disorders are common among this population group. Because only limited research has been conducted in this population group, we sought to examine the relationship between physical (pain) and psychological (distress) factors, as well as the effects of various demographic, lifestyle, and fatigue indicators on this relationship. Methods Coal miners (N = 231) participated in a survey of musculoskeletal pain and distress on-site during their work shifts. Participants also provided demographic information (job type, age, experience in the industry, and body mass index) and responded to questions about exercise and sleep quality (on- and off-shift) as well as physical and mental tiredness after work. Results A total of 177 workers (80.5%) reported experiencing pain in at least one region of their body. The majority of the sample population (61.9%) was classified as having low-level distress, 28.4% had scores indicating mild to moderate distress, and 9.6% had scores indicating high levels of distress. Both number of pain regions and job type (being an operator) significantly predicted distress. Higher distress score was also associated with greater absenteeism in workers who reported lower back pain. In addition, perceived sleep quality during work periods partially mediated the relationship between pain and distress. Conclusion The study findings support the existence of widespread musculoskeletal pain among the coal-mining workforce, and this pain is associated with increased psychological distress. Operators (truck drivers) and workers reporting poor sleep quality during work periods are most likely to report increased distress, which highlights the importance of supporting the mining workforce for sustained productivity. PMID:25516813

  12. Helping Parents Say No.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duel, Debra K.

    1988-01-01

    Provides some activities that are designed to help students understand some of the reasons why parents sometimes refuse to let their children have pets. Includes mathematics and writing lessons, a student checklist, and a set of tips for parents. (TW)

  13. Can Reading Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Ponders the effect of September 11th on teenagers. Proposes that reading books can help teenagers sort out complicated issues. Recommends young adult novels that offer hope for overcoming tragedy. Lists 50 short story collections worth reading. (PM)

  14. Hooked on Helping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longhurst, James; McCord, Joan

    2014-01-01

    In this article, teens presenting at a symposium on peer-helping programs describe how caring for others fosters personal growth and builds positive group cultures. Their individual thoughts and opinions are expressed.

  15. Helping Friends and Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... take them up on it! When the adjustment process gets stuck back to top There are times ... are some ways to help move the adjustment process along: Speak honestly and frankly about your feelings . ...

  16. Help Teens Manage Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Training (CST) as a part of routine diabetes management. Its aim is to improve diabetic teens' coping and communication skills, healthy behaviors, and conflict resolution. The CST training helps diabetic teens to ...

  17. Helping Teens Cope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jami I.

    2003-01-01

    Considers the role of school library media specialists in helping teens cope with developmental and emotional challenges. Discusses resiliency research, and opportunities to develop programs and services especially for middle school and high school at-risk teens. (LRW)

  18. Sharing, liking, commenting, and distressed? The pathway between Facebook interaction and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenhong; Lee, Kye-Hyoung

    2013-10-01

    Studies on the mental health implications of social media have generated mixed results. Drawing on a survey of college students (N=513), this research uses structural equation modeling to assess the relationship between Facebook interaction and psychological distress and two underlying mechanisms: communication overload and self-esteem. It is the first study, to our knowledge, that examines how communication overload mediates the mental health implications of social media. Frequent Facebook interaction is associated with greater distress directly and indirectly via a two-step pathway that increases communication overload and reduces self-esteem. The research sheds light on new directions for understanding psychological well-being in an increasingly mediated social world as users share, like, and comment more and more. PMID:23745614

  19. How to help the patient motivate himself?

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, A

    2012-03-01

    In order to help a patient with a chronic disease motivate himself, caregivers spontaneously make use of reason with a view to having the patient share the caregivers' point of view, in other words, to some extent, transforming the care recipient into a caregiver. However, it is not unusual for a caregiver suffering from the disease in which he specializes not to treat himself in compliance with the rules he recommends to his patients. Man is a trinity with three instances of the self. In addition to the "rational self" that tends towards the universal, there is also an "animal self" subject to powerful, frequently imperious, primary needs which may be compared to impulsions, compulsions and addictions. Lastly, there is an "identity self", an irreducible singularity, governed by the law of optimizing pleasure or, in any event, avoiding moral distress. The patient has to learn to navigate between objectives oriented by reason, more or less imperious urges and the striving for well-being and avoidance of moral distress. These various instances of the "self" have a distinct relationship with the norm and with time. Psychologists recognize two types of motivation: intrinsic motivation, an activity implemented for itself, and extrinsic motivation, an activity practiced for its secondary beneficial effects. Clearly, caring for oneself derives from an extrinsic motivation. This motivation may be very powerful but is frequently of limited duration. Helping a patient suffering from a chronic disease motivate himself over time thus consists in helping the patient take on board an extrinsic motivation in order for the treatment to become a routine or a source of satisfaction or even pleasure. The physician has to promote the acquisition of self-care skills and a feeling of success in the patient. The physician is also to help the patient negotiate the optimum compromise between his "rational self" and his "identity self" by acting as the advocate of the two parties, while not

  20. How to help the patient motivate himself?

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, A

    2012-03-01

    In order to help a patient with a chronic disease motivate himself, caregivers spontaneously make use of reason with a view to having the patient share the caregivers' point of view, in other words, to some extent, transforming the care recipient into a caregiver. However, it is not unusual for a caregiver suffering from the disease in which he specializes not to treat himself in compliance with the rules he recommends to his patients. Man is a trinity with three instances of the self. In addition to the "rational self" that tends towards the universal, there is also an "animal self" subject to powerful, frequently imperious, primary needs which may be compared to impulsions, compulsions and addictions. Lastly, there is an "identity self", an irreducible singularity, governed by the law of optimizing pleasure or, in any event, avoiding moral distress. The patient has to learn to navigate between objectives oriented by reason, more or less imperious urges and the striving for well-being and avoidance of moral distress. These various instances of the "self" have a distinct relationship with the norm and with time. Psychologists recognize two types of motivation: intrinsic motivation, an activity implemented for itself, and extrinsic motivation, an activity practiced for its secondary beneficial effects. Clearly, caring for oneself derives from an extrinsic motivation. This motivation may be very powerful but is frequently of limited duration. Helping a patient suffering from a chronic disease motivate himself over time thus consists in helping the patient take on board an extrinsic motivation in order for the treatment to become a routine or a source of satisfaction or even pleasure. The physician has to promote the acquisition of self-care skills and a feeling of success in the patient. The physician is also to help the patient negotiate the optimum compromise between his "rational self" and his "identity self" by acting as the advocate of the two parties, while not

  1. Hope in the Context of Lung Cancer: Relationships of Hope to Symptoms and Psychological Distress

    PubMed Central

    Berendes, David; Keefe, Francis J.; Somers, Tamara J.; Kothadia, Sejal M.; Porter, Laura S.; Cheavens, Jennifer S.

    2010-01-01

    Context Hope may be important in explaining the variability in how patients adjust to lung cancer. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine how hope, as conceptualized by Snyder and colleagues, is associated with multiple indices of adjustment to lung cancer. This theoretical model of hope suggests that people with high levels of hope are able to think about the pathways to goals (pathways) and feel confident that they can pursue those pathways to reach their goals (agency). Methods We hypothesized that higher levels of hope, as measured by Snyder et al.’s hope scale, would be related to lower levels of pain and other lung cancer symptoms (i.e., fatigue, cough) and lower psychological distress (i.e., depression). Participants in this study included patients with a diagnosis of lung cancer (n = 51). All participants provided demographic and medical information and completed measures of hope, lung cancer symptoms, and psychological distress. Results Data analyses found that hope was inversely associated with major symptoms of cancer (i.e., pain, fatigue, cough) and psychological distress (i.e., depression), even after accounting for important demographic and medical variables (i.e., age, cancer stage). Conclusion The findings of this cross-sectional study highlight the potential importance of hope in understanding adjustment to lung cancer. Future longitudinal research could help reveal how hope and adjustment interact over the course of cancer survivorship. PMID:20579840

  2. When distress hits home: the role of contextual factors and psychological distress in predicting employees' responses to abusive supervision.

    PubMed

    Restubog, Simon Lloyd D; Scott, Kristin L; Zagenczyk, Thomas J

    2011-07-01

    We developed a model of the relationships among aggressive norms, abusive supervision, psychological distress, family undermining, and supervisor-directed deviance. We tested the model in 2 studies using multisource data: a 3-wave investigation of 184 full-time employees (Study 1) and a 2-wave investigation of 188 restaurant workers (Study 2). Results revealed that (a) abusive supervision mediated the relationship between aggressive norms and psychological distress, (b) psychological distress mediated the effects of abusive supervision on spouse undermining, (c) abusive supervision had a direct positive relationship with supervisor-directed deviance, (d) the positive relationship between psychological distress and spouse undermining was stronger for men as opposed to women, and (e) employees engaged in relationship-oriented occupations reported greater levels of abusive supervision and psychological distress. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  3. Visual height intolerance and acrophobia: distressing partners for life.

    PubMed

    Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Fitz, Werner; Huppert, Doreen; Grill, Eva; Brandt, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The course of illness, the degree of social impairment, and the rate of help-seeking behavior was evaluated in a sample of individuals with visual height intolerance (vHI) and acrophobia. On the basis of a previously described epidemiological sample representative of the German general population, 574 individuals with vHI were identified, 128 fulfilled the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria of acrophobia. The illness of the majority of all susceptible individuals with vHI ran a year-long chronic course. Two thirds were in the category "persistent/worse", whereas only one third was in the category "improved/remitted". Subjects with acrophobia showed significantly more traumatic triggers of onset, more signs of generalization to other height stimuli, higher rates of increasing intensity of symptom load, higher grades of social impairment, and greater overall negative impact on the quality of life than those with pure vHI. An unfavorable course of illness in pure vHI was predicted by major depression, agoraphobia, social phobia, posttraumatic stress, initial traumatic trigger, and female sex; an unfavorable course in acrophobia was predicted by major depression, chronic fatigue, panic attacks, initial traumatic trigger, social phobia, other specific phobic fears, and female sex. Help-seeking behavior was astonishingly low in the overall sample of individuals with vHI. The consequences of therapeutic interventions if complied with at all were quite modest. In adults pure vHI and even more so acrophobia are by no means only transitionally distressing states. In contrast to their occurrence in children they are more often persisting and disabling conditions. Both the utilization of and adequacy of treatment of these illnesses pose major challenges within primary and secondary neurological and psychiatric medical care.

  4. The Montessori Model in Puebla, Mexico: How One Nonprofit Is Helping Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harger, Jeni

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how the JUCONI Foundation in Puebla, Mexico is helping children. (JUCONI is an acronym for "Junto con los Ninos", or "Together with the Children)." This Mexican nongovernmental organization (NGO) has been successfully working with distressed families and children in Puebla since 1989. For the JUCONI…

  5. Helping Self-Harming Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selekman, Matthew D.

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 14 to 17 percent of adolescents today self-harm, deliberately cutting, burning, or bruising themselves. Most self-harming adolescents use the behavior as a coping strategy to get immediate relief from emotional distress or other stressors in their lives. Stressors include fitting in with peers, activity and homework overload, fears…

  6. Partner relationship satisfaction and maternal emotional distress in early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recognition of maternal emotional distress during pregnancy and the identification of risk factors for this distress are of considerable clinical- and public health importance. The mental health of the mother is important both for herself, and for the physical and psychological health of her children and the welfare of the family. The first aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for maternal emotional distress during pregnancy with special focus on partner relationship satisfaction. The second aim was to assess interaction effects between relationship satisfaction and the main predictors. Methods Pregnant women enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (n = 51,558) completed a questionnaire with questions about maternal emotional distress, relationship satisfaction, and other risk factors. Associations between 37 predictor variables and emotional distress were estimated by multiple linear regression analysis. Results Relationship dissatisfaction was the strongest predictor of maternal emotional distress (β = 0.25). Other predictors were dissatisfaction at work (β = 0.11), somatic disease (β = 0.11), work related stress (β = 0.10) and maternal alcohol problems in the preceding year (β = 0.09). Relationship satisfaction appeared to buffer the effects of frequent moving, somatic disease, maternal smoking, family income, irregular working hours, dissatisfaction at work, work stress, and mother's sick leave (P < 0.05). Conclusions Dissatisfaction with the partner relationship is a significant predictor of maternal emotional distress in pregnancy. A good partner relationship can have a protective effect against some stressors. PMID:21401914

  7. Disentangling depression and distress networks in the tinnitus brain.

    PubMed

    Joos, Kathleen; Vanneste, Sven; De Ridder, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Tinnitus is the continuous perception of an internal auditory stimulus. This permanent sound often affects a person's emotional state inducing distress and depressive feelings changes in 6-25% of the affected population. Distress and depression are two distinct emotional states. Whereas distress describes a transient aversive state, interfering with a person's ability to adequately adapt to stressors, depressive feelings should rather be considered as a more constant emotional state. Based on previous observations in chronic pain, posttraumatic stress disorder and depression, we assume that both states are related to separate neural circuits. We used the Dutch version of the Tinnitus Questionnaire to assess the global index of distress together with the Beck Depression Inventory to evaluate the depressive symptoms accompanying tinnitus. Furthermore sLORETA analysis was performed to correlate current density distribution with distress and depression scores, revealing a lateralization effect of depression versus distress. Distress is mainly correlated with alpha 2, beta 1 and beta 2 activity of the right frontopolar cortex and orbitofrontal cortex in combination with beta 2 activation of the anterior cingulate cortex. In contrast, the more permanent depressive alterations induced by tinnitus are associated with activity of alpha 2 activity in the left frontopolar and orbitofrontal cortex. These specific neural circuits are embedded in a greater neural network, with the parahippocampal region functioning as a crucial linkage between both tinnitus related pathways.

  8. The relationship between psychological distress and adolescent polydrug use.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Adrian B; Chan, Gary C K; Mason, W Alex; Williams, Joanne W

    2015-09-01

    Polydrug use is relatively common among adolescents. Psychological distress is associated with the use of specific drugs, and may be uniquely associated with polydrug use. The purpose of this study was to test the association of psychological distress with polydrug use using a large adolescent sample. The sample consisted of 10,273 students aged 12-17 years from the State of Victoria, Australia. Participants completed frequency measures of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, inhalant, and other drug use in the past 30 days, and psychological distress. Control variables included age, gender, family socioeconomic status, school suspensions, academic failure, cultural background, and peer drug use. Drug-use classes were derived using latent-class analysis, then the association of psychological distress and controls with drug-use classes was modeled using multinomial ordinal regression. There were 3 distinct classes of drug use: no drug use (47.7%), mainly alcohol use (44.1%), and polydrug use (8.2%). Independent of all controls, psychological distress was higher in polydrug users and alcohol users, relative to nondrug users, and polydrug users reported more psychological distress than alcohol users. Psychological distress was most characteristic of polydrug users, and targeted prevention outcomes may be enhanced by a collateral focus on polydrug use and depression and/or anxiety. PMID:26415064

  9. Disentangling Depression and Distress Networks in the Tinnitus Brain

    PubMed Central

    Joos, Kathleen; Vanneste, Sven; De Ridder, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Tinnitus is the continuous perception of an internal auditory stimulus. This permanent sound often affects a person's emotional state inducing distress and depressive feelings changes in 6–25% of the affected population. Distress and depression are two distinct emotional states. Whereas distress describes a transient aversive state, interfering with a person's ability to adequately adapt to stressors, depressive feelings should rather be considered as a more constant emotional state. Based on previous observations in chronic pain, posttraumatic stress disorder and depression, we assume that both states are related to separate neural circuits. We used the Dutch version of the Tinnitus Questionnaire to assess the global index of distress together with the Beck Depression Inventory to evaluate the depressive symptoms accompanying tinnitus. Furthermore sLORETA analysis was performed to correlate current density distribution with distress and depression scores, revealing a lateralization effect of depression versus distress. Distress is mainly correlated with alpha 2, beta 1 and beta 2 activity of the right frontopolar cortex and orbitofrontal cortex in combination with beta 2 activation of the anterior cingulate cortex. In contrast, the more permanent depressive alterations induced by tinnitus are associated with activity of alpha 2 activity in the left frontopolar and orbitofrontal cortex. These specific neural circuits are embedded in a greater neural network, with the parahippocampal region functioning as a crucial linkage between both tinnitus related pathways. PMID:22808188

  10. Relationship of Moral Sensitivity and Distress Among Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Nejadsarvari, Nasrin; Abbasi, Mahmoud; Borhani, Fariba; Ebrahimi, Ali; Rasooli, Hamidreza; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein; Kiani, Mehrzad; Bazmi, Shabnam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Providing health services is described as an important moral measure, since its major aim is to ensure the welfare of the people who need treatment and care. Moral sensitivity is the ability to identify the existing moral problem and understand the moral consequences of the decisions made on the patient’s part. Physicians are always exposed to moral distress due to various circumstances. Objectives: In this survey, we evaluated moral sensitivity and moral distress among physicians and the relationship of these ethical factors on them. Hence, we assessed y relationship between moral sensitivity and moral distress in physicians will facilitate their sound management so as to provide high-quality and safe health services. Moreover it will confirm proposed theories regarding this subject. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study aimed at investigating the relationship between moral sensitivity and moral distress among 321 specialist physicians working in hospitals affiliated to Tehran Medical Universities in Tehran. The samples were selected through two-stage random cluster sampling method. A three-partite questionnaire comprising of demographic characteristics, moral distress, and moral sensitivity was used for collecting data which then were analyzed using SPSS-20. Results: There was a negative significant relationship between moral sensitivity and moral distress frequency; there was a positive significant relationship between moral sensitivity and moral distress intensity. Participating in medical ethics courses increased moral sensitivity and decreased the frequency of moral distress. Conclusions: Participating in medical ethics courses increased moral sensitivity and decreased the frequency of moral distress. PMID:26290859

  11. Contemporary healthcare practice and the risk of moral distress.

    PubMed

    Austin, Wendy

    2016-05-01

    Healthcare professionals are moral agents whose fiduciary relationship with the public is animated by responsibility and the promise to use knowledge and skills to aid those in their care. When their ability to keep this promise is constrained or compromised, moral distress can result. Moral distress in healthcare is defined and outlined. Constraints and factors that lead to moral distress are identified as are the means that individual professionals and organizations use to address it. A call is made for transformative change to overcome a culture of silence and to sustain a healthcare system that is morally habitable. PMID:27060801

  12. Psychological Distress and Violence Towards Parents of Patients with Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Masako; Solomon, Phyllis; Yokoyama, Keiko

    2016-10-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between violence and psychological distress experienced by parents of patients with schizophrenia. Questionnaire data from 379 parents were analyzed. A total of 151 parents (39.8%) had not experienced violence in the past year, whereas 96 (25.3%) and 132 (34.8%) had experienced psychological violence only or physical violence, respectively. A total of 216 (57.0%) of parents reported being psychologically distressed. Multiple logistic regression revealed that the risk of psychological distress significantly increased with the experience of psychological and physical violence, lower household income, greater family stigma, and the increasing age of patients.

  13. Contemporary healthcare practice and the risk of moral distress.

    PubMed

    Austin, Wendy

    2016-05-01

    Healthcare professionals are moral agents whose fiduciary relationship with the public is animated by responsibility and the promise to use knowledge and skills to aid those in their care. When their ability to keep this promise is constrained or compromised, moral distress can result. Moral distress in healthcare is defined and outlined. Constraints and factors that lead to moral distress are identified as are the means that individual professionals and organizations use to address it. A call is made for transformative change to overcome a culture of silence and to sustain a healthcare system that is morally habitable.

  14. Psychological Distress and Violence Towards Parents of Patients with Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Masako; Solomon, Phyllis; Yokoyama, Keiko

    2016-10-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between violence and psychological distress experienced by parents of patients with schizophrenia. Questionnaire data from 379 parents were analyzed. A total of 151 parents (39.8%) had not experienced violence in the past year, whereas 96 (25.3%) and 132 (34.8%) had experienced psychological violence only or physical violence, respectively. A total of 216 (57.0%) of parents reported being psychologically distressed. Multiple logistic regression revealed that the risk of psychological distress significantly increased with the experience of psychological and physical violence, lower household income, greater family stigma, and the increasing age of patients. PMID:27654247

  15. Stretching: Does It Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vardiman, Phillip; Carrand, David; Gallagher, Philip M.

    2010-01-01

    Stretching prior to activity is universally accepted as an important way to improve performance and help prevent injury. Likewise, limited flexibility has been shown to decrease functional ability and predispose a person to injuries. Although this is commonly accepted, appropriate stretching for children and adolescents involved with sports and…

  16. Helping Perceptually Handicapped Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Helen S.

    1974-01-01

    Five children diagnosed as having a perceptual problem as revealed by the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test received special tutoring to help develop their visual discrimination abilities. The six-week program for teaching the concept of shapes employed kinesthetic, visual, tactile, and verbal processes. (CS)

  17. With a Little Help.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Richard

    1997-01-01

    Describes a volunteer tutoring program coordinated by associates of the Exxon Corporation to help middle and high school students with math and science homework. Enumerates the successes of the tutoring program and highlights other outreach activities of the company in Baton Rouge. Stresses that the future of high-technology companies depends on…

  18. Help for Stressed Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Denise Clarke; Simon, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The authors argue that increased focus and pressure for high academic achievement, particularly among more highly-motivated and successful students, may have serious negative consequences. They present a number of strategies designed to help reduce both causes and consequences associated with academic stress and improve students' mental and…

  19. Helping Teachers Communicate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kise, Jane; Russell, Beth; Shumate, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Personality type theory describes normal differences in how people are energized, take in information, make decisions, and approach work and life--all key elements in how people teach and learn. Understanding one another's personality type preferences helps teachers share their instructional strategies and classroom information. Type theory…

  20. A Helping Hand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Jason M.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how designing a hand washing-friendly environment can help to reduce the spread of germs in school restrooms. Use of electronic faucets, surface risk management, traffic flow, and user- friendly hand washing systems that are convenient and maximally hygienic are examined. (GR)

  1. What Helps Us Learn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Leadership, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This article presents comments of high school students at the Howard Gardner School in Alexandria, Virginia, who were asked, What should teachers know about students to help them learn? Twelve high school students from the Howard Gardner School in Alexandria, Virginia, describe how their best teachers get to know them and thus were more able to…

  2. Ayudele! [Help Him!].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Maria Gutierrez, Comp.; Almance, Sofia, Comp.

    Written in Spanish and English, the booklet briefly discusses what parents can do to help their child learn at school. The booklet briefly notes the importance of getting enough sleep; eating breakfast; praising the child; developing the five senses; visiting the doctor; having a home and garden; talking, listening, and reading to the child;…

  3. Effects of a Bovine Lactoferrin Formulation from Cow’s Milk on Menstrual Distress in Volunteers: A Randomized, Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Hiroshi M.; Yoshise, Ran Emilie; Sugino, Tomohiro; Kajimoto, Osami; Kobayashi, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Dysmenorrhea is a highly prevalent complaint and highly undiagnosed gynecologic condition. Dairy products have a potential in the management of menstrual distress, and bovine lactoferrin can help the subjective dysphoria associated with dysmenorrhea. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of a lactoferrin formulation isolated from cow’s milk on menstrual symptoms in volunteers. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study of the iron-lactoferrin complex (FeLf) was performed in thirty-five healthy Japanese women. Participants received the 150 mg FeLf (per day) or placebo from day ten of the luteal phase to day four of the follicular phase. The Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ) was measured for menstrual distress, and heart rate variability was measured as an index of autonomic nerve balance during menses. A visual analog scale for menstrual pain, and a verbal rating scale for quality of life during the first three days of menstruation were measured. The MDQ score for the automatic nervous system subscale was lower and the parasympathetic nervous system activity was greater in FeLf than in placebo for intention-to-treat or per-protocol populations. The other variables were not different between the groups. No treatment-related side effects were observed during the study. The results indicate that FeLf can provide a beneficial effect on the psychological symptoms in women affected by menstrual distress. PMID:27258249

  4. Effects of a Bovine Lactoferrin Formulation from Cow's Milk on Menstrual Distress in Volunteers: A Randomized, Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Hiroshi M; Yoshise, Ran Emilie; Sugino, Tomohiro; Kajimoto, Osami; Kobayashi, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Dysmenorrhea is a highly prevalent complaint and highly undiagnosed gynecologic condition. Dairy products have a potential in the management of menstrual distress, and bovine lactoferrin can help the subjective dysphoria associated with dysmenorrhea. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of a lactoferrin formulation isolated from cow's milk on menstrual symptoms in volunteers. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study of the iron-lactoferrin complex (FeLf) was performed in thirty-five healthy Japanese women. Participants received the 150 mg FeLf (per day) or placebo from day ten of the luteal phase to day four of the follicular phase. The Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ) was measured for menstrual distress, and heart rate variability was measured as an index of autonomic nerve balance during menses. A visual analog scale for menstrual pain, and a verbal rating scale for quality of life during the first three days of menstruation were measured. The MDQ score for the automatic nervous system subscale was lower and the parasympathetic nervous system activity was greater in FeLf than in placebo for intention-to-treat or per-protocol populations. The other variables were not different between the groups. No treatment-related side effects were observed during the study. The results indicate that FeLf can provide a beneficial effect on the psychological symptoms in women affected by menstrual distress. PMID:27258249

  5. Effects of Screening for Psychological Distress on Patient Outcomes in Cancer: a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, Anna; Roseman, Michelle; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Milette, Katherine; Levis, Brooke; Syamchandra, Achyuth; Stefanek, Michael E.; Stewart, Donna E.; de Jonge, Peter; Coyne, James C.; Thombs, Brett D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Several practice guidelines recommend routine screening for psychological distress in cancer care. The objective was to evaluate the effect of screening cancer patients for psychological distress by assessing the (1) effectiveness of interventions to reduce distress among patients identified as distressed; and (2) effects of screening for distress on distress outcomes. Methods CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, ISI, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS databases were searched through April 6, 2011 with manual searches of 45 relevant journals, reference list review, citation tracking of included articles, and trial registry reviews through June 30, 2012. Articles in any language on cancer patients were included if they (1) compared treatment for patients with psychological distress to placebo or usual care in a randomized controlled trial (RCT); or (2) assessed the effect of screening on psychological distress in a RCT. Results There were 14 eligible RCTs for treatment of distress, and 1 RCT on the effects of screening on patient distress. Pharmacological, psychotherapy and collaborative care interventions generally reduced distress with small to moderate effects. One study investigated effects of screening for distress on psychological outcomes, and it found no improvement. Conclusion Treatment studies reported modest improvement in distress symptoms, but only a single eligible study was found on the effects of screening cancer patients for distress, and distress did not improve in screened patients versus those receiving usual care. Because of the lack of evidence of beneficial effects of screening cancer patients for distress, it is premature to recommend or mandate implementation of routine screening. PMID:23751231

  6. Erotic value of female distress in sexually explicit photographs.

    PubMed

    Heilbrun, A B; Seif, D T

    1988-01-01

    The extent to which distress of the female model contributed to the erotic value of sexually explicit photographs of women in bondage was studied for a sample of 54 young-adult college males. In addition, subjects were categorized by level of antisociality and level of facial-decoding skill with the prediction that the erotic value of a model in distress would be greatest for subjects departing most from social values (antisociality) and most capable of recognizing emotions as facially displayed by another person (facial decoding). There was an overall sadism effect. Most of the men reported pictures depicting a distressed model in bondage to be more sexually stimulating than pictures in which the female model displayed positive affect. The erotic value of distressed females in bondage was greatest when subjects combined greater anti-sociality and better facial-decoding skill. PMID:22375634

  7. Non-pharmacological approaches to alleviate distress in dementia care.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Gary; Agnelli, Joanne

    2015-11-25

    Distress is one of the most common clinical manifestations associated with dementia. Pharmacological intervention may be appropriate in managing distress in some people. However, best practice guidelines advocate non-pharmacological interventions as the preferred first-line treatment. The use of non-pharmacological interventions encourages healthcare professionals to be more person-centred in their approach, while considering the causes of distress. This article provides healthcare professionals with an overview of some of the non-pharmacological approaches that can assist in alleviating distress for people living with dementia including: reminiscence therapy, reality orientation, validation therapy, music therapy, horticultural therapy, doll therapy and pet therapy. It provides a summary of their use in clinical practice and links to the relevant literature. PMID:26602678

  8. Religiosity and death distress in Arabic college students.

    PubMed

    Al-Sabwah, Mohammed N; Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship between religiosity and death distress (death anxiety, death depression, and death obsession) among a sample (N = 570) of Egyptian women nursing undergraduates, mainly Muslims. Their ages ranged from 17 to 25. The correlations between religiosity and both death anxiety and death depression were significant and negative, whereas the correlation between religiosity and death obsession was not. Significant, positive and high correlations were found between the different scales of death distress. Factor analysis of all the correlations yielded a single, salient, and bipolar factor labeled 'death distress versus religiosity.' It was argued that different situational variables may have had influenced the conceptual relationship between religiosity and death distress, including the young ages of the present sample.

  9. Prison Experiences and Psychological Distress among Older Inmates.

    PubMed

    Baidawi, Susan; Trotter, Christopher; Flynn, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates relationships between older prisoners' social experiences and their levels of distress. One hundred and seventy-three older prisoners (aged ≥ 50 years) from 8 Australian prisons were administered the Kessler Psychological Distress (K10) Scale, with additional information collected via individual interviews. Psychological distress scores were significantly associated with measures of self-reported safety (p < .001), prison victimization (p < .05), perceived social support from staff (p < .01) and inmates (p < .001), current employment (p < .05), and level of exercise (p < .001) among older inmates. Findings suggest that strategies for improving sense of safety, social support and level of exercise may ameliorate distress among older prisoners. PMID:27276386

  10. Association between ruptured membranes, tocolytic therapy, and respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Curet, L B; Rao, A V; Zachman, R D; Morrison, J C; Burkett, G; Poole, W K; Bauer, C

    1984-02-01

    Two hundred ninety-seven patients from the placebo group of the National Institutes of Health Collaborative Study on Antenatal Steroid Therapy for prevention of respiratory distress syndrome were selected for analysis to investigate a possible association between premature rupture of the membranes, tocolytic therapy, and respiratory distress syndrome. Both premature rupture of the membranes and tocolytic therapy with isoxsuprine were individually associated with a lowered incidence of respiratory distress syndrome. However, when present together, their protective effect was not additive and resulted in a higher incidence of respiratory distress syndrome. It is suggested that the use of tocolytic therapy with beta-adrenergic agents be restricted to patients with intact membranes. PMID:6695972

  11. 33 CFR 175.110 - Visual distress signals required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... passenger vessel subject to the requirements of 46 CFR chapter I, subchapter C, unless visual distress... onboard. Devices suitable for day use and devices suitable for night use, or devices suitable for both...

  12. 33 CFR 175.110 - Visual distress signals required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... passenger vessel subject to the requirements of 46 CFR chapter I, subchapter C, unless visual distress... onboard. Devices suitable for day use and devices suitable for night use, or devices suitable for both...

  13. 33 CFR 175.110 - Visual distress signals required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... passenger vessel subject to the requirements of 46 CFR chapter I, subchapter C, unless visual distress... onboard. Devices suitable for day use and devices suitable for night use, or devices suitable for both...

  14. 33 CFR 175.110 - Visual distress signals required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... passenger vessel subject to the requirements of 46 CFR chapter I, subchapter C, unless visual distress... onboard. Devices suitable for day use and devices suitable for night use, or devices suitable for both...

  15. Distress in everyday life in people with poliomyelitis sequelae.

    PubMed

    Thorén-Jönsson, A L; Hedberg, M; Grimby, G

    2001-03-01

    The prevalence of distress in aspects of perceived health and its relation to involvement of poliomyelitis sequelae were studied with the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) in 113 outpatients (mean age 57 years). The leisure and employment situation was also recorded. Most distress was found in the NHP dimensions physical mobility, pain and energy, and least distress in social isolation. Most health-related problems were reported in housework, employment and leisure. Three-quarters of the persons were satisfied with their leisure, although many of them had problems. Fifty-nine per cent of the subjects of working age were in gainful employment, and no difference in employment rate due to the distribution of polio involvement was found. In comparison with norm values for the respective age groups, the subjects with poliomyelitis sequelae aged below 45 and 45-65 years had more distress in a larger number of NHP dimensions than older subjects. PMID:11482352

  16. The balancing act: psychiatrists' experience of moral distress.

    PubMed

    Austin, Wendy J; Kagan, Leon; Rankel, Marlene; Bergum, Vangie

    2008-03-01

    Experiences of moral distress encountered in psychiatric practice were explored in a hermeneutic phenomenological study. Moral distress is the state experienced when moral choices and actions are thwarted by constraints. Psychiatrists describe struggling 'to do the right thing' for individual patients within a societal system that places unrealistic demands on psychiatric expertise. Certainty on the part of the psychiatrist is an expectation when judgments of dangerousness and/or the need for coercive treatments are made. This assumption, however, ignores the uncertainty and complexity of reality. Society entrusts psychiatrists to care for and treat those among its most vulnerable members: persons deemed to have a severely diminished capacity for autonomy due to a mental disorder. Simultaneously, psychiatrists are held accountable by society for the protection of the public. Moral distress arose for psychiatrists in their efforts to fulfill both roles. They described an 'outsider/insider' status and the ways in which they attempted to cope with moral distress.

  17. GaAs monolithic RF modules for SARSAT distress beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauley, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Monolithic GaAs UHF components for use in SARSAT Emergency Distress beacons are under development by Microwave Monolithics, Inc., Simi Valley, CA. The components include a bi-phase modulator, driver amplifier, and a 5 watt power amplifier.

  18. Assessing distress in pediatric intensive care environments: the COMFORT scale.

    PubMed

    Ambuel, B; Hamlett, K W; Marx, C M; Blumer, J L

    1992-02-01

    Managing psychological distress is a central treatment goal in Pediatric Intensive Care Units (PICUs), with medical and psychological implications. However, there is no objective measure for assessing efficacy of pharmacologic and psychological interventions used to reduce distress. Development of the COMFORT scale is described, a nonintrusive measure for assessing distress in PICU patients. Eight dimensions were selected based upon a literature review and survey of PICU nurses. Interrater agreement and internal consistency were high. Criterion validity, assessed by comparison with concurrent global ratings of PICU nurses, was also high. Principal components analysis revealed 2 correlated factors, behavioral and physiologic, accounting for 84% of variance. An ecological-developmental model is presented for further study of children's distress and coping in the PICU.

  19. 47 CFR 80.334 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures...) Could not be verified as a result of either the ship's failure to keep watch on appropriate...

  20. 47 CFR 80.334 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures...) Could not be verified as a result of either the ship's failure to keep watch on appropriate...

  1. 47 CFR 80.334 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures...) Could not be verified as a result of either the ship's failure to keep watch on appropriate...

  2. 47 CFR 80.334 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures...) Could not be verified as a result of either the ship's failure to keep watch on appropriate...

  3. 47 CFR 80.334 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures...) Could not be verified as a result of either the ship's failure to keep watch on appropriate...

  4. 'Moral distress'--time to abandon a flawed nursing construct?

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Hutchinson, Alison

    2015-02-01

    Moral distress has been characterised in the nursing literature as a major problem affecting nurses in all healthcare systems. It has been portrayed as threatening the integrity of nurses and ultimately the quality of patient care. However, nursing discourse on moral distress is not without controversy. The notion itself is conceptually flawed and suffers from both theoretical and practical difficulties. Nursing research investigating moral distress is also problematic on account of being methodologically weak and disparate. Moreover, the ultimate purpose and significance of the research is unclear. In light of these considerations, it is contended that the notion of moral distress ought to be abandoned and that concerted attention be given to advancing inquiries that are more conducive to improving the quality and safety of moral decision-making, moral conduct and moral outcomes in nursing and healthcare domains.

  5. Ordered LOGIT Model approach for the determination of financial distress.

    PubMed

    Kinay, B

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, as a result of the global competition encountered, numerous companies come up against financial distresses. To predict and take proactive approaches for those problems is quite important. Thus, the prediction of crisis and financial distress is essential in terms of revealing the financial condition of companies. In this study, financial ratios relating to 156 industrial firms that are quoted in the Istanbul Stock Exchange are used and probabilities of financial distress are predicted by means of an ordered logit regression model. By means of Altman's Z Score, the dependent variable is composed by scaling the level of risk. Thus, a model that can compose an early warning system and predict financial distress is proposed.

  6. Fibromyalgia: When Distress Becomes (Un)sympathetic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Lavin, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a painful stress-related disorder. A key issue in fibromyalgia research is to investigate how distress could be converted into pain. The sympathetic nervous system is the main element of the stress response system. In animal models, physical trauma, infection, or distressing noise can induce abnormal connections between the sympathetic nervous system and the nociceptive system. Dorsal root ganglia sodium channels facilitate this type of sympathetic pain. Similar mechanisms may operate in fibromyalgia. Signs of sympathetic hyperactivity have been described in this condition. Genetic factors and/or distressful lifestyle may lead to this state of sympathetic hyperactivity. Trauma and infection are recognized fibromyalgia triggers. Women who suffer from fibromyalgia have catecholamine-evoked pain. Sympathetic dysfunction may also explain nonpain-related fibromyalgia symptoms. In conclusion, in fibromyalgia, distress could be converted into pain through forced hyperactivity of the sympathetic component of the stress response system. PMID:22110948

  7. Acute Respiratory Distress: from syndrome to disease.

    PubMed

    Cardinal-Fernández, P; Correger, E; Villanueva, J; Rios, F

    2016-04-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is currently one of the most important critical entities given its high incidence, rate of mortality, long-term sequelae and non-specific pharmacological treatment. The histological hallmark of ARDS is diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). Approximately 50% of ARDS patients present DAD, the rest is made up of a heterogeneous group of histological patterns, many of which correspond to a well-recognized disease. For that reason, if these patterns could be diagnosed, patients could benefit from a treatment. Recently, the effect of DAD in clinical and analytical evolution of ARDS has been demonstrated, so the classical approach to ARDS as an entity defined solely by clinical, radiological and gasometrical variables should be reconsidered. This narrative review aims to examine the need to evolve from the concept of ARDS as a syndrome to ARDS as a specific disease. So we have raised 4 critical questions: a) What is a disease?; b) what is DAD?; c) how is DAD considered according to ARDS definition?, and d) what is the relationship between ARDS and DAD?

  8. Racism: perceptions of distress among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Vetta L Sanders

    2002-04-01

    Some scholars have suggested that stressful living conditions are a major source of mental disorder among African Americans (Krieger, 1999; Neighbors, 1990; Kessler & Neighbors, 1986). There has, however, been debate as to whether this higher level of distress is due to racism or the fact that African Americans are more often of lower socioeconomic status. Stressors that play a significant role in mental disorder might be expected to occur more frequently among African Americans than the general population. This paper attempts to provide empirical support for the notion that racism is a separate and unique source of stress for African Americans. Specifically, it was hypothesized that African Americans would report more experiences of (1) daily stress and (2) racism than other groups and (3) the impact of racial stress would be greater among African Americans. One hundred and fifty six participants completed the Daily Stress Inventory and the Experience of Discrimination questionnaire. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that African Americans reported higher impact of discrimination scores than European Americans. There were no gender or ethnicity differences in daily stress or the number of racial incidents reported. The implications of the data are discussed.

  9. Mothers' perceptions of infant distress vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Petrovich-Bartell, N; Cowan, N; Morse, P A

    1982-09-01

    In the present study the psychological and acoustic properties of the distress vocalizations of five 3-4-month-old infants were examined. Each vocalization was rated on a 5-point scale from "definitely fuss" to "definitely cry" by mothers on two home visits. On the first home visit, each mother rated a set of her own infant's vocalizations recorded 1/2 hour previously and presented in the order of occurrence. Three weeks later, on the second home visit, mothers were presented with the master tape that contained the vocalizations of all five infants in random order. Analyses of the judgment data and acoustic parameters of the vocalizations revealed that (a) mothers were able to rate infant vocalizations reliably along a fuss-cry continuum, both shortly after these vocalizations were produced and 3 weeks later with fewer available nonacoustic, contextual cues; (b) mothers relied upon mean and peak intensity, mean F2 frequency, the ratio of F1 to F2, and mean duration in their judgments of infant cries versus fusses; and (c) although there was a high level of rating consistency across mothers, there were some discrepancies between visit 1 and 2 ratings due to the contribution of context cues present on visit 1 only.

  10. Impact of Multiple Factors on the Degree of Tinnitus Distress

    PubMed Central

    Brüggemann, Petra; Szczepek, Agnieszka J.; Rose, Matthias; McKenna, Laurence; Olze, Heidi; Mazurek, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The primary cause of subjective tinnitus is a dysfunction of the auditory system; however, the degree of distress tinnitus causes depends largely on the psychological status of the patient. Our goal was to attempt to associate the grade of tinnitus-related distress with the psychological distress, physical, or psychological discomfort patients experienced, as well as potentially relevant social parameters, through a simultaneous analysis of these factors. Methods: We determined the level of tinnitus-related distress in 531 tinnitus patients using the German version of the tinnitus questionnaire (TQ). In addition, we used the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ); General Depression Scale Allgemeine Depression Skala (ADS), Berlin Mood Questionnaire (BSF); somatic symptoms inventory (BI), and SF-8 health survey as well as general information collected through a medical history. Results: The TQ score significantly correlated with a score obtained using PSQ, ADS, BSF, BI, and SF-8 alongside psychosocial factors such as age, gender, and marital status. The level of hearing loss and the auditory properties of the specific tinnitus combined with perceived stress and the degree of depressive mood and somatic discomfort of a patient were identified as medium-strong predictors of chronic tinnitus. Social factors such as gender, age, or marital status also had an impact on the degree of tinnitus distress. The results that were obtained were implemented in a specific cortical distress network model. Conclusions: Using a large representative sample of patients with chronic tinnitus permitted a simultaneous statistical measurement of psychometric and audiological parameters in predicting tinnitus distress. We demonstrate that single factors can be distinguished in a manner that explains their causative association and influence on the induction of tinnitus-related distress. PMID:27445776

  11. A veterinarian's role in helping pet owners with decision making.

    PubMed

    Shanan, Amir

    2011-05-01

    End-of-life care frequently requires owners and veterinarians to make decisions of monumental consequences while feeling they sorely lack essential information. This feeling can be distressing to owners and veterinarians and lead to strains in their relationship. This article illustrates an approach to end-of-life decision making that offers the greatest benefit to the animal, the owner, the veterinarian, the veterinary practice, and, ultimately, the veterinary profession. The article introduces issues and concepts that underlie all companion animal end-of-life decision making-the human-animal bond, quality of life, and veterinarians' nonmedical helping roles-and discusses major end-of-life decisions. PMID:21601751

  12. An empirical investigation of Albert Ellis's binary model of distress.

    PubMed

    David, Daniel; Montgomery, Guy H; Macavei, Bianca; Bovbjerg, Dana H

    2005-04-01

    In the current literature, distress is typically described according to a unitary model: High levels of distress are conceptualized as a high level of negative affect while low levels of distress are typically conceptualized as a low level of negative affect. On the other hand, Albert Ellis (1994) and some of his rational-emotive and cognitive-behavioral professional colleagues have more recently described distress as a binary construct composed of two different components: functional negative feelings (e.g., sad) and dysfunctional negative feelings (e.g., worthless). In two studies using 55 U.S. breast-cancer patients and 45 Romanian breast-cancer patients, respectively, we compared hypotheses derived from unitary and binary models of distress. The results revealed that in a stressful situation (i.e., upcoming breast surgery) high levels of irrational beliefs were associated with a high level of both functional and dysfunctional negative feelings while low levels of irrational beliefs were associated with a low level of dysfunctional negative feelings and a high level of functional negative feelings. Thus, that support for the binary model of distress found in both U.S. and Romanian samples suggests both the robustness and the generalizability of the results. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  13. Maternal Psychological Distress and Visitation to the NICU

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Michelle M; Rossman, Beverly; Patra, Kousiki; Kratovil, Amanda; Khan, Samah; Meier, Paula P

    2016-01-01

    Aim To examine associations between maternal NICU visitation rates, maternal psychological distress (“distress”), and preterm infant outcome post-NICU discharge in a contemporary cohort of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Methods This was a prospective study of 69 mothers and their VLBW infants. Distress was assessed 1 month post-birth, 2 weeks prior to NICU discharge and after NICU discharge at 4 months corrected age [CA]. Maternal NICU visitation rates were calculated for the first 2 weeks and 1 month post-birth as well as for the entire NICU hospitalization. Regression analyses adjusted for the impact of 1. maternal and infant characteristics and distress on maternal visitation rates and 2. the impact of visitation on long-term maternal distress, and rates of infant clinic attendance and rehospitalization. Results Greater number of children in the home, maternal exposure to a greater number of potentially traumatic events prior to childbirth, and lower maternal anxiety consistently predicted lower visitation rate. Lower maternal visitation rate predicted higher maternal depression scores at infants’ 4 month CA visit. Maternal NICU visitation rate did not predict post-NICU discharge infant clinic attendance or rehospitalization. Conclusion Distress is an important predictor of visitation. In turn, visitation is associated with long-term maternal distress. PMID:25684177

  14. Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) reassure others in distress

    PubMed Central

    de Waal, Frans B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Contact directed by uninvolved bystanders toward others in distress, often termed consolation, is uncommon in the animal kingdom, thus far only demonstrated in the great apes, canines, and corvids. Whereas the typical agonistic context of such contact is relatively rare within natural elephant families, other causes of distress may trigger similar, other-regarding responses. In a study carried out at an elephant camp in Thailand, we found that elephants affiliated significantly more with other individuals through directed, physical contact and vocal communication following a distress event than in control periods. In addition, bystanders affiliated with each other, and matched the behavior and emotional state of the first distressed individual, suggesting emotional contagion. The initial distress responses were overwhelmingly directed toward ambiguous stimuli, thus making it difficult to determine if bystanders reacted to the distressed individual or showed a delayed response to the same stimulus. Nonetheless, the directionality of the contacts and their nature strongly suggest attention toward the emotional states of conspecifics. The elephants’ behavior is therefore best classified with similar consolation responses by apes, possibly based on convergent evolution of empathic capacities. PMID:24688856

  15. Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) reassure others in distress.

    PubMed

    Plotnik, Joshua M; de Waal, Frans B M

    2014-01-01

    Contact directed by uninvolved bystanders toward others in distress, often termed consolation, is uncommon in the animal kingdom, thus far only demonstrated in the great apes, canines, and corvids. Whereas the typical agonistic context of such contact is relatively rare within natural elephant families, other causes of distress may trigger similar, other-regarding responses. In a study carried out at an elephant camp in Thailand, we found that elephants affiliated significantly more with other individuals through directed, physical contact and vocal communication following a distress event than in control periods. In addition, bystanders affiliated with each other, and matched the behavior and emotional state of the first distressed individual, suggesting emotional contagion. The initial distress responses were overwhelmingly directed toward ambiguous stimuli, thus making it difficult to determine if bystanders reacted to the distressed individual or showed a delayed response to the same stimulus. Nonetheless, the directionality of the contacts and their nature strongly suggest attention toward the emotional states of conspecifics. The elephants' behavior is therefore best classified with similar consolation responses by apes, possibly based on convergent evolution of empathic capacities. PMID:24688856

  16. Treatment of depressed mothers in home visiting: Impact on psychological distress and social functioning☆

    PubMed Central

    Ammerman, Robert T.; Putnam, Frank W.; Altaye, Mekibib; Teeters, Angelique R.; Stevens, Jack; Van Ginkel, Judith B.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Depression is prevalent in mothers receiving home visiting. Little is known about the impact of treatment on associated features of maternal depression in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a novel, adapted treatment for depressed mothers in home visiting on psychological distress and social functioning. Methods In-Home Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (IH-CBT) was developed to treat depressed mothers in home visiting. A randomized clinical trial design was used in which subjects were 93 new mothers in a home visiting program. Mothers with major depressive disorder identified at 3 months postpartum were randomized into IH-CBT and ongoing home visiting (n = 47) or standard home visiting (SHV; n = 46) in which they received home visitation alone and could obtain treatment in the community. Measures of psychological distress, social support, and social network were measured at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and three-month follow-up. Clinical features of depression and home visiting parameters were examined as potential moderators. Results Subjects receiving IH-CBT reported decreased psychological distress at post-treatment (ES = 0.77) and follow-up (ES = 0.73). Examination of types of psychological distress indicated broad improvements at both time points. Those receiving IH-CBT reported increased social support over time relative to those in the SHV condition. Effect sizes were modest at post-treatment (ES = 0.38) but increased at follow-up (ES = 0.65). Improvements were seen in affiliative and belonginess aspects of social support, in contrast to tangible support which was statistically non-significant. Findings were not moderated by clinical features of depression or home visiting parameters. No group differences were found in size of and involvement with social networks. Conclusions IH-CBT is effective in reducing psychological distress and improving perceived social support in depressed mothers receiving home visiting

  17. The ethics of distress: toward a framework for determining the ethical acceptability of distressing health promotion advertising.

    PubMed

    Brown, Stephen L; Whiting, Demian

    2014-04-01

    Distressing health promotion advertising involves the elicitation of negative emotion to increase the likelihood that health messages will stimulate audience members to adopt healthier behaviors. Irrespective of its effectiveness, distressing advertising risks harming audience members who do not consent to the intervention and are unable to withdraw from it. Further, the use of these approaches may increase the potential for unfairness or stigmatization toward those targeted, or be considered unacceptable by some sections of the public. We acknowledge and discuss these concerns, but, using the public health ethics literature as a guide, argue that distressing advertising can be ethically defensible if conditions of effectiveness, proportionality necessity, least infringement, and public accountability are satisfied. We do not take a broad view as to whether distressing advertising is ethical or unethical, because we see the evidence for both the effectiveness of distressing approaches and their potential to generate iatrogenic effects to be inconclusive. However, we believe it possible to use the current evidence base to make informed estimates of the likely consequences of specific message presentations. Messages can be pre-tested and monitored to identify and deal with potential problems. We discuss how advertisers can approach the problems of deciding on the appropriate intensity of ethical review, and evaluating prospective distressing advertising campaigns against the conditions outlined. PMID:24811879

  18. The ethics of distress: toward a framework for determining the ethical acceptability of distressing health promotion advertising.

    PubMed

    Brown, Stephen L; Whiting, Demian

    2014-04-01

    Distressing health promotion advertising involves the elicitation of negative emotion to increase the likelihood that health messages will stimulate audience members to adopt healthier behaviors. Irrespective of its effectiveness, distressing advertising risks harming audience members who do not consent to the intervention and are unable to withdraw from it. Further, the use of these approaches may increase the potential for unfairness or stigmatization toward those targeted, or be considered unacceptable by some sections of the public. We acknowledge and discuss these concerns, but, using the public health ethics literature as a guide, argue that distressing advertising can be ethically defensible if conditions of effectiveness, proportionality necessity, least infringement, and public accountability are satisfied. We do not take a broad view as to whether distressing advertising is ethical or unethical, because we see the evidence for both the effectiveness of distressing approaches and their potential to generate iatrogenic effects to be inconclusive. However, we believe it possible to use the current evidence base to make informed estimates of the likely consequences of specific message presentations. Messages can be pre-tested and monitored to identify and deal with potential problems. We discuss how advertisers can approach the problems of deciding on the appropriate intensity of ethical review, and evaluating prospective distressing advertising campaigns against the conditions outlined.

  19. Helping Your Child through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series

    MedlinePlus

    ... CHILD'S ACADEMIC SUCCESS Helping Your Child Through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series PDF (1 MB) For ... Acknowledgements Tips to Help Your Child through Early Adolescence No Child Left Behind < Previous page | ^ Top ^ | Next ...

  20. Please Help Your Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killeen, Tim

    2006-03-01

    The continuing success of AGU relies entirely on the volunteer work of members. A major contribution to these efforts comes from the over 40 committees that plan, oversee, and have operational roles in our meetings, publications, finances, elections, awards, education, public information, and public affairs activities. The names of committees are provided in the accompanying text box; their current membership and descriptions can be found on the Web at the AGU site. One of the most important and challenging tasks of the incoming AGU President is to reestablish these committees by appointing hundreds of volunteers. I now solicit your help in staffing these committees. Ideally, participation in these important committees will reflect the overall membership and perspectives of AGU members, so please do consider volunteering yourself. Of course, nominations of others would also be very welcome. I am particularly interested in making sure that the gender balance, age, and geographic representation are appropriate and reflect our changing demographics. Any suggestions you might have will be more helpful if accompanied by a few sentences of background information relevant to the particular committee.

  1. Who Seeks Help Online for Self-Injury?

    PubMed

    Frost, Mareka; Casey, Leanne

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify differences between young people who seek help online for self-injury and those who self-injure but do not seek help online, in order to improve online services for young people at high risk of suicide. Young people reporting a history of self-injury (N = 679) were identified as part of larger study (N = 1,463) exploring help-seeking. One third of young people with a history of self-injury reported online help-seeking for self-injury. Online help-seekers were significantly more distressed, suicidal, and had a greater degree of self-injury compared to those who did not seek help online. The Internet provides an important form of support to the most at risk young people in this population, and may be a proximal step to face-to-face help-seeking. Further research is required to investigate the forms of support currently accessed by young people online, and their effectiveness.

  2. A Population Based Analysis of Subclinical Psychosis and Help-Seeking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Jamie; Shevlin, Mark; Houston, James; Adamson, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Clinically defined psychosis is recognizable and distinguishable from nonclinical or subclinical psychosis by virtue of its clinical relevance (ie, its associated distress and its need for care and/or treatment). According to the continuum hypothesis, subclinical psychosis is merely quantitatively different from more extreme phenotypic expressions and as such should also be indicative of distress and help-seeking behavior but to a lesser extent. Using data from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, the current study focused on self-reported psychosis and help-seeking experiences in a general population sample free from clinically defined psychosis (N = 7266). After statistically controlling for the effects of a series of potential help-seeking correlates the findings showed that subclinical psychosis symptom experience was significantly associated with various forms of help-seeking behavior. Individuals who reported subclinical experiences of thought control, paranoia, and strange experiences were on average 2 times more likely to attend their general practitioner for emotional problems compared with those individuals who reported no psychosis. Individuals who reported subclinical experiences of paranoia were 3 times more likely to be in receipt of counseling/therapy compared with those with no experience of paranoia. Multiple subclinical psychotic experiences also predicted elevated help-seeking behavior. These findings may have a positive impact on the detection of individuals who are at increased risk of psychological distress and aid in the design and implementation of more effective treatments at both clinical and subclinical levels. PMID:20709763

  3. Helping Clients Manage Stress: A Practical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Dennis

    The pervasiveness of stress as a problem, with its many harmful effects on people, makes it a matter of growing interest for counselors and other personnel workers. This monograph provides definitions of stress, distress, and eustress, and discusses numerous causes of distress, as well as the benefits of stress to a healthy, productive life.…

  4. A Web-Based Training Program Using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Alleviate Psychological Distress Among Employees: Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tajima, Miyuki; Kimura, Risa; Sasaki, Norio; Somemura, Hironori; Ito, Yukio; Okanoya, June; Yamamoto, Megumi; Nakamura, Saki; Tanaka, Katsutoshi

    2014-01-01

    initially exhibited clinically significant psychological distress (K6 score ≥5) showed that the mean K6 score was significantly improved immediately after training completion for the training group compared to the control group (−2.50 vs −0.07; mean difference 2.43, 95% CI 0.55-4.31; d=0.61), with this effect remaining even after 6 months (−3.49 vs −0.50; mean difference 2.99, 95% CI 0.70-5.29; d=0.60). Conclusions Our results suggest that a brief stress management program that combines group CBT education with Web-based CBT homework moderately alleviates the distress of employees with clinically significant psychological distress. In addition, the program might help improve employees’ ability to evaluate their own stress management skills. PMID:25470499

  5. Distressing situations in the intensive care unit: a descriptive study of nurses' responses.

    PubMed

    McClendon, Heather; Buckner, Ellen B

    2007-01-01

    Moral distress is a significant stressor for nurses in critical care. Feeling that they are doing the "right thing" is important to nurses, and situations of moral distress can make them question their work. The purpose of this study was to describe critical care nurses' levels of moral distress, the effects of that distress on their personal and professional lives, and nurses' coping strategies. The study consisted of open-ended questions to elicit qualitatively the nurses' feelings about moral distress and a quantitative measure of the degree of distress caused by certain types of situations. The questionnaires were then analyzed to assess the nurses' opinions regarding moral distress, how their self-perceived job performance is affected, and what coping methods they use to deal with moral distress. The most frequently encountered moral distress situations involved critically ill patients whose families wished to continue aggressive treatment when it probably would not benefit the patient in the end. PMID:17704676

  6. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: the Berlin Definition.

    PubMed

    Ranieri, V Marco; Rubenfeld, Gordon D; Thompson, B Taylor; Ferguson, Niall D; Caldwell, Ellen; Fan, Eddy; Camporota, Luigi; Slutsky, Arthur S

    2012-06-20

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was defined in 1994 by the American-European Consensus Conference (AECC); since then, issues regarding the reliability and validity of this definition have emerged. Using a consensus process, a panel of experts convened in 2011 (an initiative of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine endorsed by the American Thoracic Society and the Society of Critical Care Medicine) developed the Berlin Definition, focusing on feasibility, reliability, validity, and objective evaluation of its performance. A draft definition proposed 3 mutually exclusive categories of ARDS based on degree of hypoxemia: mild (200 mm Hg < PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 300 mm Hg), moderate (100 mm Hg < PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 200 mm Hg), and severe (PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 100 mm Hg) and 4 ancillary variables for severe ARDS: radiographic severity, respiratory system compliance (≤40 mL/cm H2O), positive end-expiratory pressure (≥10 cm H2O), and corrected expired volume per minute (≥10 L/min). The draft Berlin Definition was empirically evaluated using patient-level meta-analysis of 4188 patients with ARDS from 4 multicenter clinical data sets and 269 patients with ARDS from 3 single-center data sets containing physiologic information. The 4 ancillary variables did not contribute to the predictive validity of severe ARDS for mortality and were removed from the definition. Using the Berlin Definition, stages of mild, moderate, and severe ARDS were associated with increased mortality (27%; 95% CI, 24%-30%; 32%; 95% CI, 29%-34%; and 45%; 95% CI, 42%-48%, respectively; P < .001) and increased median duration of mechanical ventilation in survivors (5 days; interquartile [IQR], 2-11; 7 days; IQR, 4-14; and 9 days; IQR, 5-17, respectively; P < .001). Compared with the AECC definition, the final Berlin Definition had better predictive validity for mortality, with an area under the receiver operating curve of 0.577 (95% CI, 0.561-0.593) vs 0.536 (95% CI, 0.520-0.553; P

  7. Tinnitus-Related Distress and the Personality Characteristic Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Wallhäusser-Franke, Elisabeth; Delb, Wolfgang; Balkenhol, Tobias; Hiller, Wolfgang; Hörmann, Karl

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that personality traits may be prognostic for the severity of suffering from tinnitus. Resilience as measured with the Wagnild and Young resilience scale represents a positive personality characteristic that promotes adaptation to adverse life conditions including chronic health conditions. Aim of the study was to explore the relation between resilience and tinnitus severity. In a cross-sectional study with a self-report questionnaire, information on tinnitus-related distress and subjective tinnitus loudness was recorded together with the personality characteristic resilience and emotional health, a measure generated from depression, anxiety, and somatic symptom severity scales. Data from 4705 individuals with tinnitus indicate that tinnitus-related distress and to a lesser extent the experienced loudness of the tinnitus show an inverse correlation with resilience. A mediation analysis revealed that the relationship between resilience and tinnitus-related distress is mediated by emotional health. This indirect effect indicates that high resilience is associated with better emotional health or less depression, anxiety, and somatic symptom severity, which in turn is associated with a less distressing tinnitus. Validity of resilience as a predictor for tinnitus-related distress is supported but needs to be explored further in longitudinal studies including acute tinnitus patients. PMID:25120934

  8. The many faces of moral distress among clinicians.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Cynda Hylton; Boss, Renee; Hallett, Kristina; Hensel, Jaime; Humphrey, G Bennett; Les, Jessica; Mack, Cheryl; McCammon, Susan; Murray, John S; Nathanson, Esther; Pniewski, Janet; Shuham, A M t; Volpe, Rebecca L

    2013-01-01

    This narrative symposium illuminates the problem of clinician moral distress. NIB editorial staff and narrative symposium editors, Cynda Rushton, PhD, RN, FAAN and Renee Boss, MD, MHS, developed a call for stories, which was sent to several list serves and posted on Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics' website. The request for personal stories from inter-professional healthcare providers asked them to: identify specific clinical situations that give rise to moral distress; discuss the sources of this distress; reflect on how they experienced moral distress-physically, psychologically, socially, or spiritually; assess how they managed their situations; and offer suggestions for avoiding future problems of a similar nature. Twelve stories are found in the print version of the journal and an additional eight supplemental stories are published online only through Project MUSE. The clinicians describe a wide range of experiences with patients, other clinicians, and their own professional and personal identities. Embedded in each of the narratives are deeply felt emotions that accompany their experiences of moral distress. Katherine Brown-Saltzman (a nurse), Alisa Carse (a philosopher), Zhanna Bagdasarov and Shane Connelly (industrial-organizational psychologists), and Nancy Berlinger (a bioethicist) provided commentaries.

  9. Floating on Air: Fulfillment and Self-in-Context for Distressed Japanese Women.

    PubMed

    Saint Arnault, Denise; Shimabukuro, Shizuka

    2016-05-01

    This research was part of a larger mixed-methods study examining culture, distress, and help seeking. We surveyed 209 Japanese women living in the United States recruited from clinic and community-based sites, and carried out semi-structured ethnographic interviews with a highly distressed subsample of 25 Japanese. Analytic Ethnography revealed that women described themselves as a "self-in-context," negotiating situations using protective resources or experiencing risk exposure. Women experienced quality of life (QOL) when they were successful. However, a related goal of achievingIkigai(or purpose in life) was differentiated from QOL, and was defined as an ongoing process of searching for balance between achieving social and individual fulfillment. Our resulting hypothetical model suggested that symptom level would be related to risk and protective factors (tested for the full sample) and to specific risk and protective phenomenon (tested in the distressed subsample). Thettests in the full sample found that women who were above threshold for depressive symptoms (n= 26) had higher social stressor and lower social support means. Women who were above the threshold for physical symptoms (n= 99) had higher social stressor means. Analysis of the interviewed subsample found that low self-validation and excessive responsibilities were related to high physical symptoms. We conclude that perceived lack of balance between culturally defined, and potentially opposing, markers of success can create a stressful dilemma for first-generation immigrant Japanese women, requiring new skills to achieve balance. Perceptions of health, as well as illness, are part of complex culturally based interpretations that have implications for intervention for immigrant Japanese women living in the United States.

  10. Floating on Air: Fulfillment and Self-in-Context for Distressed Japanese Women.

    PubMed

    Saint Arnault, Denise; Shimabukuro, Shizuka

    2016-05-01

    This research was part of a larger mixed-methods study examining culture, distress, and help seeking. We surveyed 209 Japanese women living in the United States recruited from clinic and community-based sites, and carried out semi-structured ethnographic interviews with a highly distressed subsample of 25 Japanese. Analytic Ethnography revealed that women described themselves as a "self-in-context," negotiating situations using protective resources or experiencing risk exposure. Women experienced quality of life (QOL) when they were successful. However, a related goal of achievingIkigai(or purpose in life) was differentiated from QOL, and was defined as an ongoing process of searching for balance between achieving social and individual fulfillment. Our resulting hypothetical model suggested that symptom level would be related to risk and protective factors (tested for the full sample) and to specific risk and protective phenomenon (tested in the distressed subsample). Thettests in the full sample found that women who were above threshold for depressive symptoms (n= 26) had higher social stressor and lower social support means. Women who were above the threshold for physical symptoms (n= 99) had higher social stressor means. Analysis of the interviewed subsample found that low self-validation and excessive responsibilities were related to high physical symptoms. We conclude that perceived lack of balance between culturally defined, and potentially opposing, markers of success can create a stressful dilemma for first-generation immigrant Japanese women, requiring new skills to achieve balance. Perceptions of health, as well as illness, are part of complex culturally based interpretations that have implications for intervention for immigrant Japanese women living in the United States. PMID:26896391

  11. Anhedonia and general distress show dissociable ventromedial prefrontal cortex connectivity in major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Young, C B; Chen, T; Nusslock, R; Keller, J; Schatzberg, A F; Menon, V

    2016-01-01

    Anhedonia, the reduced ability to experience pleasure in response to otherwise rewarding stimuli, is a core symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD). Although the posterior ventromedial prefrontal cortex (pVMPFC) and its functional connections have been consistently implicated in MDD, their roles in anhedonia remain poorly understood. Furthermore, it is unknown whether anhedonia is primarily associated with intrinsic ‘resting-state' pVMPFC functional connectivity or an inability to modulate connectivity in a context-specific manner. To address these gaps, a pVMPFC region of interest was first identified using activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis. pVMPFC connectivity was then examined in relation to anhedonia and general distress symptoms of depression, using both resting-state and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging involving pleasant music, in current MDD and healthy control groups. In MDD, pVMPFC connectivity was negatively correlated with anhedonia but not general distress during music listening in key reward- and emotion-processing regions, including nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra, orbitofrontal cortex and insula, as well as fronto-temporal regions involved in tracking complex sound sequences, including middle temporal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus. No such dissociations were observed in the healthy controls, and resting-state pVMPFC connectivity did not dissociate anhedonia from general distress in either group. Our findings demonstrate that anhedonia in MDD is associated with context-specific deficits in pVMPFC connectivity with the mesolimbic reward system when encountering pleasurable stimuli, rather than a static deficit in intrinsic resting-state connectivity. Critically, identification of functional circuits associated with anhedonia better characterizes MDD heterogeneity and may help track of one of its core symptoms. PMID:27187232

  12. Recurrent headache and interpersonal violence in adolescence: the roles of psychological distress, loneliness and family cohesion: the HUNT study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recurrent headache is the most common and disabling pain condition in adolescence. Co-occurrence of psychosocial adversity is associated with increased risk of chronification and functional impairment. Exposure to interpersonal violence seems to constitute an important etiological factor. Thus, knowledge of the multiple pathways linking interpersonal violence to recurrent headache could help guide preventive and clinical interventions. In the present study we explored a hypothetical causal model where the link between exposure to interpersonal violence and recurrent headache is mediated in parallel through loneliness and psychological distress. Higher level of family cohesion and male sex is hypothesized to buffer the adverse effect of exposure to interpersonal violence on headache. Methods The model was assessed using data from the cross-sectional, population-based Young-HUNT 3 study of Norwegian adolescents, conducted from 2006–2008. A cohort of 10 464 adolescents were invited. The response rate was 73% (7620), age ranged from 12 and 20 years, and 50% (3832) were girls. The study comprised self-report measures of exposure to interpersonal violence, loneliness, psychological distress and family cohesion, in addition to a validated interview on headache, meeting the International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria. Recurrent headache was defined as headache recurring at least monthly during the past year, and sub-classified into monthly and weekly headache, which served as separate outcomes. Results In Conditional Process Analysis, loneliness and psychological distress consistently posed as parallel mediating mechanisms, indirectly linking exposure to interpersonal violence to recurrent headache. We found no substantial moderating effect of family cohesion or sex. Conclusions Loneliness and psychological distress seem to play crucial roles in the relationship between exposure to interpersonal violence and recurrent headache. To facilitate

  13. Moral distress in nurses in oncology and haematology units.

    PubMed

    Lazzarin, Michela; Biondi, Andrea; Di Mauro, Stefania

    2012-03-01

    One of the difficulties nurses experience in clinical practice in relation to ethical issues in connection with young oncology patients is moral distress. In this descriptive correlational study, the Moral Distress Scale-Paediatric Version (MDS-PV) was translated from the original language and tested on a conventional sample of nurses working in paediatric oncology and haematology wards, in six north paediatric hospitals of Italy. 13.7% of the total respondents claimed that they had changed unit or hospital due to moral distress. The items with the highest mean intensity in the sample were almost all connected with medical and nursing competence and have considerably higher values than frequency. The instrument was found to be reliable. The results confirmed the validity of the MDS-PV (Cronbach's alpha = 0.959). This study represents the first small-scale attempt to validate MDS-PV for use in paediatric oncology-haematology nurses in Italy.

  14. Neonatal thyroid function: prematurity, prenatal steroids, and respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, R C; Purdie, G L; O'Grady, C M

    1986-01-01

    Indices of thyroid function were measured in 97 preterm infants at birth and at 5, 10, and 15 days of age. Triiodothyronine uptake, free thyroxine index, thyroxine, free thyroxine, triiodothyronine, reverse triiodothyronine, and thyroxine binding globulin values at birth correlated with gestational age, whereas thyroid stimulating hormone values did not. Treatment with steroids prenatally had no apparent effect on thyroid function at birth or postnatally. Infants developing respiratory distress syndrome had normal values for all indices at birth. These infants had significantly lower thyroxine, free thyroxine index, free thyroxine, and triiodothyronine values at 5 days of age, while thyroid stimulating hormone values remained normal. This alteration in thyroid function was interpreted as being secondary to respiratory distress syndrome. Gestational maturity and respiratory distress syndrome, if present, must be taken into account when evaluating thyroxine variables in preterm infants, whereas measurement of thyroid stimulating hormone as the screen for congenital hypothyroidism circumvents these considerations. PMID:3729529

  15. Collectivistic coping strategies for distress among Polynesian Americans.

    PubMed

    Allen, G E Kawika; Smith, Timothy B

    2015-08-01

    Previous research has shown that psychological services designed to assist clients in coping with stressful or traumatic events are more effective when aligned with clients' cultural values, practices, and worldviews. However, limited research is available regarding the preferred coping strategies of Polynesian Americans. In examining collectivistic coping styles and their association with previous distress among 94 Polynesian Americans, we found that participants were highly likely to use family support and religion/spirituality to buffer the initial and residual effects of impairment attributable to distressing events, and private emotional outlets, such as psychotherapy, very infrequently. The use of private emotional outlets was associated with lower impairment from distress, although family support was much more predictive of lower impairment and positive psychological well-being. Mental health professionals can align their services with the cultural values of Polynesian Americans by accounting for collectivistic coping styles and family dynamics.

  16. Discrimination and Psychological Distress among Recently Released Male Prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Turney, Kristin; Lee, Hedwig; Comfort, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Though theoretical perspectives suggest experiences of stigma and discrimination after release may be one pathway through which incarceration leads to poor mental health, little research considers the relationship between discrimination and mental health among former inmates. In this paper, data from a sample of men recently released from prison to Oakland or San Francisco, California (N = 172), is used to consider how criminal record discrimination and racial/ethnic discrimination are independently and cumulatively associated with psychological distress. Results indicate (1) the frequency of criminal record discrimination and racial/ethnic discrimination are similar; (2) both forms of discrimination are independently, negatively associated with psychological distress; and (3) the level of racial/ethnic discrimination does not alter the association between criminal record discrimination and psychological distress. The results highlight that criminal record discrimination is an important social stressor with negative implications for the mental health of previously incarcerated individuals. PMID:23553444

  17. Psychological distress and milk volume in lactating mothers.

    PubMed

    Hill, Pamela D; Aldag, Jean C; Chatterton, Robert T; Zinaman, Michael

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold: (a) to compare psychological distress as measured via self-reported perceived stress, sleep, and fatigue levels in lactating mothers of a term infant and mothers of a preterm infant and(b) to determine whether the addition of psychological distress to a previous model predicts milk volume at Postpartum Week 6 by gestation group. The convenience sample of 95 mothers of a preterm infant (31 weeks) and 98 mothers of a term infant completed the Perceived Stress Visual Analogue Scale, Richards-Campbell Sleep Questionnaire, and the Fatigue Visual Analog Scale. Stress, sleep difficulty, and fatigue levels decreased during the 6-week study period for mothers of a term but not for mothers of a preterm infant. Perceived stress, sleep difficulty, and fatigue during the first 6 weeks postpartum were not related to milk volume; thus, the mother's perceived psychological distress had no apparent effect on lactation. PMID:16157942

  18. Prolonged pregnancy. I. Observations concerning the causes of fetal distress.

    PubMed

    Leveno, K J; Quirk, J G; Cunningham, F G; Nelson, S D; Santos-Ramos, R; Toofanian, A; DePalma, R T

    1984-11-01

    During a 2-year prospective investigation of prolonged pregnancy in 727 women, 59 (8%) were delivered by cesarean section for fetal distress. This condition was diagnosed by means of electronic fetal heart rate monitoring in 47 of the women, and the patterns were unexpectedly characteristic of umbilical cord compression rather than uteroplacental insufficiency. Blinded sonar examinations were performed in 213 women, and the incidence of cesarean section for fetal distress as now described was significantly increased in those with oligohydramnios (two or fewer 1 cm pockets of amniotic fluid). We conclude that the pathophysiology of fetal distress in prolonged pregnancy is typically oligohydramnios that leads to compromised umbilical cord perfusion, rather than uteroplacental insufficiency.

  19. Collectivistic coping strategies for distress among Polynesian Americans.

    PubMed

    Allen, G E Kawika; Smith, Timothy B

    2015-08-01

    Previous research has shown that psychological services designed to assist clients in coping with stressful or traumatic events are more effective when aligned with clients' cultural values, practices, and worldviews. However, limited research is available regarding the preferred coping strategies of Polynesian Americans. In examining collectivistic coping styles and their association with previous distress among 94 Polynesian Americans, we found that participants were highly likely to use family support and religion/spirituality to buffer the initial and residual effects of impairment attributable to distressing events, and private emotional outlets, such as psychotherapy, very infrequently. The use of private emotional outlets was associated with lower impairment from distress, although family support was much more predictive of lower impairment and positive psychological well-being. Mental health professionals can align their services with the cultural values of Polynesian Americans by accounting for collectivistic coping styles and family dynamics. PMID:26053646

  20. Patterns of gender equality at workplaces and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Elwér, Sofia; Harryson, Lisa; Bolin, Malin; Hammarström, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Research in the field of occupational health often uses a risk factor approach which has been criticized by feminist researchers for not considering the combination of many different variables that are at play simultaneously. To overcome this shortcoming this study aims to identify patterns of gender equality at workplaces and to investigate how these patterns are associated with psychological distress. Questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 715) have been analysed and supplemented with register data about the participants' workplaces. The register data were used to create gender equality indicators of women/men ratios of number of employees, educational level, salary and parental leave. Cluster analysis was used to identify patterns of gender equality at the workplaces. Differences in psychological distress between the clusters were analysed by chi-square test and logistic regression analyses, adjusting for individual socio-demographics and previous psychological distress. The cluster analysis resulted in six distinctive clusters with different patterns of gender equality at the workplaces that were associated to psychological distress for women but not for men. For women the highest odds of psychological distress was found on traditionally gender unequal workplaces. The lowest overall occurrence of psychological distress as well as same occurrence for women and men was found on the most gender equal workplaces. The results from this study support the convergence hypothesis as gender equality at the workplace does not only relate to better mental health for women, but also more similar occurrence of mental ill-health between women and men. This study highlights the importance of utilizing a multidimensional view of gender equality to understand its association to health outcomes. Health policies need to consider gender equality at the workplace level as a social determinant of health that is of importance for reducing differences in health

  1. Psychological distress and coping in military cadre candidates

    PubMed Central

    Nakkas, Can; Annen, Hubert; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background Soldiers must cope with stressors during both military operations and training if they are to accomplish their missions successfully and stay mentally stable. This holds true particularly for military superiors, as they bear greater responsibilities and must meet greater demands during both deployment and training. Accordingly, in the present study, we investigated whether recruits chosen for further promotion at the end of basic training differed with regard to psychological distress and coping strategies from those not chosen for promotion, and whether recruits’ coping styles and distress levels were associated. Methods A total of 675 Swiss recruits took part in the study. At the beginning of basic training, recruits filled out self-rating questionnaires covering demographic data, psychological distress (depression, somatization, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, and hostility), and coping styles. Results were compared between those recruits who received a recommendation for further promotion at the end of basic training and those who did not. Results Recruits selected for promotion had lower scores for depressive symptoms and hostility, engaged more in active coping, and considered their coping to be more effective. Dysfunctional and functional coping were associated with higher and lower distress levels, respectively. Conclusion Recruits recommended for promotion exhibited less psychological distress during basic training and exhibited a socially more conducive profile of distress. They also endorsed more efficient and more prosocial coping strategies than those recruits not recommended for promotion. These cognitive–emotional features not only contribute to resilience but are also consistent with leadership research, indicating the importance of emotional stability and prosocial behavior in successful leaders. PMID:27621634

  2. Psychological distress and coping in military cadre candidates

    PubMed Central

    Nakkas, Can; Annen, Hubert; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background Soldiers must cope with stressors during both military operations and training if they are to accomplish their missions successfully and stay mentally stable. This holds true particularly for military superiors, as they bear greater responsibilities and must meet greater demands during both deployment and training. Accordingly, in the present study, we investigated whether recruits chosen for further promotion at the end of basic training differed with regard to psychological distress and coping strategies from those not chosen for promotion, and whether recruits’ coping styles and distress levels were associated. Methods A total of 675 Swiss recruits took part in the study. At the beginning of basic training, recruits filled out self-rating questionnaires covering demographic data, psychological distress (depression, somatization, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, and hostility), and coping styles. Results were compared between those recruits who received a recommendation for further promotion at the end of basic training and those who did not. Results Recruits selected for promotion had lower scores for depressive symptoms and hostility, engaged more in active coping, and considered their coping to be more effective. Dysfunctional and functional coping were associated with higher and lower distress levels, respectively. Conclusion Recruits recommended for promotion exhibited less psychological distress during basic training and exhibited a socially more conducive profile of distress. They also endorsed more efficient and more prosocial coping strategies than those recruits not recommended for promotion. These cognitive–emotional features not only contribute to resilience but are also consistent with leadership research, indicating the importance of emotional stability and prosocial behavior in successful leaders.

  3. Psychological distress related to BRCA testing in ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Bjørnslett, Merete; Dahl, Alv A; Sørebø, Øystein; Dørum, Anne

    2015-12-01

    An increasing demand for genetic testing has moved the procedure from highly selected at-risk individuals, now also including cancer patients for treatment associated testing. The heritable fraction of ovarian cancer is more than 10%, and our department has offered BRCA testing to such patients irrespective of family history since 2002. This study examined potential psychosocial distress associated with this procedure using The Multidimensional Impact of Cancer Risk Assessment (MICRA) questionnaire and other patient-rated generic distress instruments. Patients were divided into four groups according to cancer risk: mutation carriers, own history of breast cancer and ovarian cancer, family history of breast cancer and/or ovarian cancer, and patients without family history. In a postal survey, 354 patients responded. Good acceptance of the MICRA was observed, and previously described good psychometric properties were confirmed. A significant association between MICRA total score and receiving a positive BRCA test result was found. No significant between-group differences were observed with generic distress instruments. Time since cancer diagnosis, test result, and survey showed no significant associations with MICRA scores. Internal consistencies of instruments were adequate. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed adequate fit indices for a three factor solution of the MICRA, but further refinement of the items should be considered. In conclusion, the specific types of worry and distress most relevant to receiving genetic testing irrespective of family history were not captured by the generic distress instruments. The MICRA was supported as a useful tool for detection of mental distress related to genetic testing and risk evaluation.

  4. Slow dissolving of emotional distress contributes to hyperarousal

    PubMed Central

    Wassing, Rick; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Dekker, Kim; Moens, Sarah; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Riemann, Dieter; van der Sluis, Sophie; Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D.; Talamini, Lucia M.; Walker, Matthew P.; Schalkwijk, Frans; Van Someren, Eus J. W.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying hyperarousal, the key symptom of insomnia, have remained elusive, hampering cause-targeted treatment. Recently, restless rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep emerged as a robust signature of sleep in insomnia. Given the role of REM sleep in emotion regulation, we hypothesized that restless REM sleep could interfere with the overnight resolution of emotional distress, thus contributing to accumulation of arousal. Participants (n = 1,199) completed questionnaires on insomnia severity, hyperarousal, self-conscious emotional distress, and thought-like nocturnal mentation that was validated to be a specific proxy for restless REM sleep (selective fragmentation: R = 0.57, P < 0.001; eye movement density: R = 0.46, P < 0.01) in 32 polysomnographically assessed participants. The experience of distress lasting overnight increased with insomnia severity (β = 0.29, P < 10−23), whereas short-lasting distress did not (β = −0.02, P = 0.41). Insomnia severity was associated with hyperarousal (β = 0.47, P < 10−63) and with the thought-like nocturnal mentation that is specifically associated with restless REM sleep (β = 0.31, P < 10−26). Structural equation modeling showed that 62.4% of the association between these key characteristics of insomnia was mediated specifically by reduced overnight resolution of emotional distress. The model outperformed all alternative mediation pathways. The findings suggest that restless REM sleep reflects a process that interferes with the overnight resolution of distress. Its accumulation may promote the development of chronic hyperarousal, giving clinical relevance to the role of REM sleep in emotion regulation in insomnia, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. PMID:26858434

  5. Patterns of Gender Equality at Workplaces and Psychological Distress

    PubMed Central

    Bolin, Malin; Hammarström, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Research in the field of occupational health often uses a risk factor approach which has been criticized by feminist researchers for not considering the combination of many different variables that are at play simultaneously. To overcome this shortcoming this study aims to identify patterns of gender equality at workplaces and to investigate how these patterns are associated with psychological distress. Questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 715) have been analysed and supplemented with register data about the participants' workplaces. The register data were used to create gender equality indicators of women/men ratios of number of employees, educational level, salary and parental leave. Cluster analysis was used to identify patterns of gender equality at the workplaces. Differences in psychological distress between the clusters were analysed by chi-square test and logistic regression analyses, adjusting for individual socio-demographics and previous psychological distress. The cluster analysis resulted in six distinctive clusters with different patterns of gender equality at the workplaces that were associated to psychological distress for women but not for men. For women the highest odds of psychological distress was found on traditionally gender unequal workplaces. The lowest overall occurrence of psychological distress as well as same occurrence for women and men was found on the most gender equal workplaces. The results from this study support the convergence hypothesis as gender equality at the workplace does not only relate to better mental health for women, but also more similar occurrence of mental ill-health between women and men. This study highlights the importance of utilizing a multidimensional view of gender equality to understand its association to health outcomes. Health policies need to consider gender equality at the workplace level as a social determinant of health that is of importance for reducing differences in health

  6. Music reduces sensation and distress of labor pain.

    PubMed

    Phumdoung, Sasitorn; Good, Marion

    2003-06-01

    Labor pain is often severe, and analgesic medication may not be indicated. In this randomized controlled trial we examined the effects of music on sensation and distress of pain in Thai primiparous women during the active phase of labor. The gate control theory of pain was the theoretical framework for this study. Randomization with a computerized minimization program was used to assign women to a music group (n = 55) or a control group (n = 55). Women in the intervention group listened to soft music without lyrics for 3 hours starting early in the active phase of labor. Dual visual analog scales were used to measure sensation and distress of pain before starting the study and at three hourly posttests. While controlling for pretest scores, one-way repeated measures analysis of covariance indicated that those in the music group had significantly less sensation and distress of pain than did the control group (F (1, 107) = 18.69, p <.001, effect size =.15, and F (1, 107) = 14.87, p <.001, effect size =.12), respectively. Sensation and distress significantly increased across the 3 hours in both groups (p <.001), except for distress in the music group during the first hour. Distress was significantly lower than sensation in both groups (p <.05). In this controlled study, music--a mild to moderate strength intervention--consistently provided significant relief of severe pain across 3 hours of labor and delayed the increase of affective pain for 1 hour. Nurses can provide soft music to laboring women for greater pain relief during the active phase when contractions are strong and women suffer.

  7. Distress in cancer patients and primary nurses' empathy skills.

    PubMed

    Reid-Ponte, P

    1992-08-01

    This descriptive, correlational study was designed to explore the relationship between the empathy skills of primary nurses and the distress level of their primary patients. Data on empathy skills were generated from the La Monica Empathy Profile. Data on patient distress were generated from the Profile of Mood State Inventory and a Visual Analogue Scale. A nonprobability convenience sample of 65 primary nurses employed on surgical primary nursing care units of a large teaching hospital participated in the study. Sixty-five cancer patients assigned to the participating primary nurses also took part in the study. Descriptive statistics of each variable were examined. Pearson product-moment correlations were used to examine the hypothesis and the demographic variables for nurses and patients. Analysis of variance was used to assess relationships among many of the demographic variables. A significant correlation (but not in the expected direction) was found between the perceiving/feeling/listening empathy skill and patient distress. Nurses' age, years of experience, and education were significantly correlated with some empathy skills. Distress levels of female patients were higher than those of male patients. In general, nurses scored low in the use of empathy skills, and patients scored low in distress. The complex nature of defining and measuring communication skills and relating these skills to outcomes in patient care, such as distress, requires more study. Research questions exploring how and why nurses' interpersonal skills make a difference to patients and their health care outcomes must be generated by nurse administrators, nurse educators, nurse researchers, and practicing nurses.

  8. Respiratory distress of the newborn: congenital laryngeal atresia.

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, Art; Magit, Anthony

    2012-11-01

    Congenital laryngeal atresia is a rare cause of respiratory distress of the newborn. The defect may be isolated or occur in association with other congenital abnormalities, notably the presence of a tracheoesophageal fistula, esophageal atresia, encephalocele, or Congenital High Airway Obstructive Syndrome (CHAOS). We present the case of a newborn with no identified intrapartum abnormalities with respiratory distress at birth secondary to near-complete laryngeal atresia. Management included tracheostomy, repeated endoscopic incisions, and serial balloon dilatations employing the topical use of Mitomycin C. Seven year follow-up was significant for mobilization of the true vocal cords bilaterally, as well as successful decannulation.

  9. [The Life Style Index: correlations with psychological distress and hostility].

    PubMed

    Hyphantis, T; Floros, G D; Goulia, P; Iconomou, G; Assimakopoulos, K

    2011-01-01

    The Life Style Index (LSI) was designed to assess defense mechanisms, assuming that their use is related to specific emotional states and diagnostic concepts. Aiming to further investigate the psychometric properties of the Greek version of the LSI, the aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of specific defense mechanisms with dimensions of psychological distress and hostility features in three different populations. The sample comprised 1261 adults (410 healthy participants, 723 medical patients and 128 psychiatric patients). Along with defense mechanisms (LSI), Psychological Distress (General Health Questionnaire, GHQ-28) and Hostility features (Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire, HDHQ) were also assessed. The results showed that increased psychological distress is related with increased use of all defenses except Denial, with which psychological distress is negatively associated. Regression is constantly related with psychological distress and differentiates psychiatric patients from the other groups of participants, while Compensation and Reaction Formation are related to depressive symptomatology. In medical patients, Repression was found to increase the physical dimension of psychological distress and the social dysfunction. On the contrary,Denial was negatively associated with these dimensions of psychological distress. In the psychiatric patient and healthy participant samples, Projection plays the most detrimental role. Regarding hostility and direction of hostility, those who were found to introvert their hostility presented with higher scores in Denial, indicating that they possibly 'deny' their hostility, and the degree of the Denial was found to be negatively associated with the degree of Introverted Hostility. Those who directed their hostility towards the others, presented with higher rates of Projection, while neither Denial nor Reaction Formation seemed sufficient enough to temper the degree of Extroverted

  10. Emotional distress in Israeli women before and after abortion.

    PubMed

    Teichman, Y; Shenhar, S; Segal, S

    1993-04-01

    Emotional distress in a group of Israeli women who requested legal abortion was compared with that in a group of women on the verge of delivery and in a random group of nonpregnant women on measures of anxiety and depression. Emotional consequences of the abortion were evaluated by before-and-after comparisons of the same measures in a subgroup of the aborting women. Findings indicated significantly greater distress in the aborting women, with lower levels after the abortion. The effects on emotional well-being of personal and contextual factors and their interactions were also examined.

  11. Congenital rickets presenting as refractory respiratory distress at birth.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Soumya; Kumar, Rajesh; Singla, Shilpy; Dudeja, Ajay; Nangia, Sushma; Saili, Arvind

    2014-08-01

    Congenital rickets is a very rare entity in the spectrum of metabolic bone disease in children. The authors report an as yet unreported case of congenital rickets presenting with respiratory distress at birth. The radiographs of long bones and wrist showed generalized osteopenia with cupping and fraying of epiphyseal ends in the second week of life. The patient was managed with very high doses of vitamin D which led to clinico-radiological and biochemical improvement. More than being interesting for its extreme rarity, this report assumes importance as it brings forth the possibility of congenital rickets being a differential diagnosis for a newborn with respiratory distress.

  12. Housing Instability and Mental Distress among US Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Blosnich, John R.; Piegari, Rebecca I.; Hill, Lindsay L.; Kane, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Evidence has suggested increased risk for homelessness and suicide among US veterans, but little is known about the associations between housing instability and psychological distress (including suicidal ideation). We examined frequent mental distress (FMD) and suicidal ideation among a probability-based sample of 1767 Nebraska veterans who participated in the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey who had and had not experienced housing instability in the past 12 months. Veterans experiencing housing instability had increased odds of FMD and suicidal ideation. PMID:24148047

  13. Successful Solutions to SSME/AT Development Turbine Blade Distress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Stuart K.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the High-Pressure Fuel Turbopump/Alternate Turbopump (HPFTP/AT) turbine blade development program, unique turbine blade design features were implemented to address 2nd stage turbine blade high cycle fatigue distress and improve turbine robustness. Features included the addition of platform featherseal dampers, asymmetric blade tip seal segments, gold plating of the blade attachments, and airfoil tip trailing edge modifications. Development testing shows these features have eliminated turbine blade high cycle fatigue distress and consequently these features are currently planned for incorporation to the flight configuration. Certification testing will begin in 1999. This presentation summarizes these features.

  14. Responsiveness to conspecific distress calls is influenced by day-roost proximity in bats (Saccopteryx bilineata)

    PubMed Central

    Eckenweber, Maria; Knörnschild, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Distress calls signal extreme physical distress, e.g. being caught by a predator. In many bat species, distress calls attract conspecifics. Because bats often occupy perennial day-roosts, they might adapt their responsiveness according to the social relevance in which distress calls are broadcast. Specifically, we hypothesized that conspecific distress calls broadcast within or in proximity to the day-roost would elicit a stronger responsiveness than distress calls broadcast at a foraging site. We analysed the distress calls and conducted playback experiments with the greater sac-winged bat, Saccopteryx bilineata, which occupies perennial day-roosts with a stable social group composition. S. bilineata reacted significantly differently depending on the playback's location. Bats were attracted to distress call playbacks within the day-roost and in proximity to it, but showed no obvious response to distress call playbacks at a foraging site. Hence, the bats adapted their responsiveness towards distress calls depending on the social relevance in which distress calls were broadcast. Distress calls within or in proximity to the day-roost are probably perceived as a greater threat and thus have a higher behavioural relevance than distress calls at foraging sites, either because bats want to assess the predation risk or because they engage in mobbing behaviour. PMID:27293797

  15. Responsiveness to conspecific distress calls is influenced by day-roost proximity in bats (Saccopteryx bilineata).

    PubMed

    Eckenweber, Maria; Knörnschild, Mirjam

    2016-05-01

    Distress calls signal extreme physical distress, e.g. being caught by a predator. In many bat species, distress calls attract conspecifics. Because bats often occupy perennial day-roosts, they might adapt their responsiveness according to the social relevance in which distress calls are broadcast. Specifically, we hypothesized that conspecific distress calls broadcast within or in proximity to the day-roost would elicit a stronger responsiveness than distress calls broadcast at a foraging site. We analysed the distress calls and conducted playback experiments with the greater sac-winged bat, Saccopteryx bilineata, which occupies perennial day-roosts with a stable social group composition. S. bilineata reacted significantly differently depending on the playback's location. Bats were attracted to distress call playbacks within the day-roost and in proximity to it, but showed no obvious response to distress call playbacks at a foraging site. Hence, the bats adapted their responsiveness towards distress calls depending on the social relevance in which distress calls were broadcast. Distress calls within or in proximity to the day-roost are probably perceived as a greater threat and thus have a higher behavioural relevance than distress calls at foraging sites, either because bats want to assess the predation risk or because they engage in mobbing behaviour. PMID:27293797

  16. We Want to Help!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trombino, D. F.

    1997-05-01

    The D.M.S.O. is the only full-time optical solar observatory in the Sunshine State. Its instruments are made available on a NO CHARGE basis to deserving Central Florida amateur astronomers, undergraduate students at nearby Stetson University and other local colleges. We are privately owned and completely independent of federal funding. Our research is supported through small, individual and corporate donations (mainly equipment) and the voluntary manpower of trained amateur solar observers. The D.M.S.O. is an affiliate of the Museum of Art & Sciences, Daytona Beach, and maintains ties with the Department of Physics and Computer Sciences at Stetson University in DeLand. Daily solar observations are made in while-light, H-alpha and calcium II K-line wavelengths using University grade Day-Star filters in conjunction with a long focus 15cm refractor and two 12 cm refractors. Particular attention is given to the morphology of sunspots, plage, flares, prominence and other features. Our results are reported to the Solar Sections of the B.A.A. (England), A.L.P.O. (U.S.A.) and SONNE, (Germany). Our East coast location enables us to record photospheric and chromospheric activity well in advance of West coast observatories: an obvious advantage. Numerous lakes at our site provides us with exceptional seeing -- at times approaching one arc/sec. Future plans call for high resolution CCD/video solar patrol monitoring, simultaneously in three wavelengths at 15 second intervals. This and other projects, including establishing a web page, will be undertaken in cooperation with the Computer Sciences Institute at Stetson University. We do no have all the answers, but we may have the solution to your problems. We welcome the opportunity to discuss your needs and our future cooperative goals. We need each other and we want to help! Please leave your card and feel free to contact me at the above address. Our E-mail address is NLTsolar@aol.com, if you prefer.

  17. The Relationship between Individual Personality Traits (Internality-Externality) and Psychological Distress in Employees in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fushimi, Masahito

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the internality-externality (I-E) scale as an indicator of coping styles and the Kessler 6 (K6) scale as an indicator of psychological distress and analyzes the effects of sociodemographic and employment-related factors on this relationship. Employees from Akita prefecture in Japan were invited to complete self-administered questionnaires. A uniform pattern of findings emerged in the relationship between the two scales as follows: all the significant correlations were negative, that is, as the I-E score increased, the K6 score decreased. Furthermore, significant effects were observed for the I-E scale regarding sex, age, education, employee type, and employment status and the K6 scale with multiple regression analyses. Among these, the effect of the K6 scale was significant for the I-E scale in both males and females. The results of this study may help improve mental health clinicians' understanding of psychological distress in employees.

  18. The Impact of School Social Support and Bullying Victimization on Psychological Distress among California Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Ra, Chaelin Karen; Zhang, Donglan; Zhang, Yunting; MacLeod, Kara E.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose National reports showed that over 20% of high school students were victims of bullying, which could potentially lead to psychological problems. School social support may be protective against mental distress linked with victimization. This study examined the main and moderating effects of social support from adults in schools on non-specific serious psychological distress (SPD) related to victimization among California adolescents. Methods Utilizing the 2011–2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS), we analyzed a representative sample of 2,799 adolescents aged 12–17 years old. Logistic regression analyses were conducted modeling the odds of SPD in relation to school social support and victimization. Results Adolescents who were victimized were twice as likely to have SPD compared to non-victims. Higher level of social support from adults in schools was protective against SPD, but did not buffer the effect of bullying exposure. Discussion Findings from the present study suggested that adult support from schools can help with students’ psychological problems but does not appear to prevent the psychological consequences of victimization. Additional intervention is needed, above and beyond social support, to prevent victimization and its psychological consequences. PMID:27708555

  19. The Impact of School Social Support and Bullying Victimization on Psychological Distress among California Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Ra, Chaelin Karen; Zhang, Donglan; Zhang, Yunting; MacLeod, Kara E.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose National reports showed that over 20% of high school students were victims of bullying, which could potentially lead to psychological problems. School social support may be protective against mental distress linked with victimization. This study examined the main and moderating effects of social support from adults in schools on non-specific serious psychological distress (SPD) related to victimization among California adolescents. Methods Utilizing the 2011–2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS), we analyzed a representative sample of 2,799 adolescents aged 12–17 years old. Logistic regression analyses were conducted modeling the odds of SPD in relation to school social support and victimization. Results Adolescents who were victimized were twice as likely to have SPD compared to non-victims. Higher level of social support from adults in schools was protective against SPD, but did not buffer the effect of bullying exposure. Discussion Findings from the present study suggested that adult support from schools can help with students’ psychological problems but does not appear to prevent the psychological consequences of victimization. Additional intervention is needed, above and beyond social support, to prevent victimization and its psychological consequences.

  20. Sleep Disturbances Predict Later Trauma-Related Distress: Cross Panel Investigation Amidst Violent Turmoil

    PubMed Central

    Gerhart, James I.; Hall, Brian J.; Russ, Eric U.; Canetti, Daphna; Hobfoll, Stevan E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Sleep disturbances, including trouble falling and remaining asleep and recurrent nightmares, are symptoms of posttraumatic stress. A growing body of literature indicates that sleep disturbance may also convey vulnerability for the continuation of other symptoms of posttraumatic stress including fear, anxiety, and heightened arousal. However, longitudinal research, which could help understand how these relationships unfold over time, has been limited. Method The longitudinal relationships between sleep disturbance and posttraumatic stress were investigated in 779 Palestinian adults randomly selected and interviewed twice during the period of April, 2008 to November, 2008 amidst ongoing violent political turmoil. The recruitment method produced a representative sample and excellent retention. Cross-panel structural equation modeling was used to examine relationships between sleep and distress across two study periods. Results Results indicated that initial sleep problems were associated with increased PTSD, depression, and intrapersonal resource loss at follow-up 6 months later, but initial PTSD, depression, and intrapersonal resource loss were not associated with increased sleep problems at follow-up. Conclusions Sleep problems may confer vulnerability to longer-term distress in the presence of ongoing political violence. Future research should examine whether interventions targeting trauma-related sleep problems may improve prevention and treatment for PTSD and related disorders. PMID:23668851

  1. Help Helps, but Only so Much: Research on Help Seeking with Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleven, Vincent; Roll, Ido; McLaren, Bruce M.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    Help seeking is an important process in self-regulated learning (SRL). It may influence learning with intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs), because many ITSs provide help, often at the student's request. The Help Tutor was a tutor agent that gave in-context, real-time feedback on students' help-seeking behavior, as they were learning with an ITS.…

  2. Screening for distress: responding is a critical function for oncology nurses.

    PubMed

    Fitch, Margaret I; Howell, Doris; McLeod, Deborah; Green, Esther

    2012-01-01

    The practice of routine screening for distress in cancer populations has been gaining worldwide support over the past several years with the conceptualization of distress as the sixth vital sign. Across Canada, experience with screening for distress is growing, as cancer facilities implement screening programs. Early learning from these efforts has emphasized the need for a programmatic approach and the importance of oncology nurses in screening and providing the initial response to distress. To date, little has been written from the nursing perspective about the oncology nursing role in a program screening for distress and responding to the identified patient concerns. This article describes the current thinking about distress; explores how screening for and responding to distress is integral to oncology nursing practice; and shares the early learning and experiences of cancer nurses in implementing screening for distress initiatives.

  3. Correlates of psychological distress, burnout, and resilience among Chinese female nurses

    PubMed Central

    ZOU, Guiyuan; SHEN, Xiuying; TIAN, Xiaohong; LIU, Chunqin; LI, Guopeng; KONG, Linghua; LI, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The present survey investigated the association between resilience, burnout and psychological distress among Chinese female nurses. A total of 366 female nurses were enrolled in our study. A series of self-reported questionnaires that dispose of the following constructs: psychological distress, burnout, and resilience were estimated. The hierarchical linear regression models were used to evaluate the mediating effect of resilience on the relationship between burnout and psychological distress. Results of the survey showed 85.5% nurses experienced psychological distress. Resilience was negatively related to psychological distress and burnout whereas burnout was positively associated with psychological distress. Mediation analysis revealed that resilience could partially mediate the relationship between the dimensions of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and psychological distress. This study highlights the mediator of resilience between burnout and psychological distress of female nurses. As such, interventions that attend to resilience training may be the focus for future clinical and research endeavors. PMID:27021058

  4. Experiences of Psychological and Physical Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Links to Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Garrido, Edward; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This research examined links between adolescents' experiences of psychological and physical relationship aggression and their psychological distress. Experiences of psychological and physical aggression were expected to correlate positively with symptoms of psychological distress, but experiences of psychological aggression were…

  5. Standard versus prosocial online support groups for distressed breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Internet can increase access to psychosocial care for breast cancer survivors through online support groups. This study will test a novel prosocial online group that emphasizes both opportunities for getting and giving help. Based on the helper therapy principle, it is hypothesized that the addition of structured helping opportunities and coaching on how to help others online will increase the psychological benefits of a standard online group. Methods/Design A two-armed randomized controlled trial with pretest and posttest. Non-metastatic breast cancer survivors with elevated psychological distress will be randomized to either a standard facilitated online group or to a prosocial facilitated online group, which combines online exchanges of support with structured helping opportunities (blogging, breast cancer outreach) and coaching on how best to give support to others. Validated and reliable measures will be administered to women approximately one month before and after the interventions. Self-esteem, positive affect, and sense of belonging will be tested as potential mediators of the primary outcomes of depressive/anxious symptoms and sense of purpose in life. Discussion This study will test an innovative approach to maximizing the psychological benefits of cancer online support groups. The theory-based prosocial online support group intervention model is sustainable, because it can be implemented by private non-profit or other organizations, such as cancer centers, which mostly offer face-to-face support groups with limited patient reach. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01396174 PMID:21867502

  6. Detecting psychological distress among patients attending secondary health care clinics. Self-report and physician rating.

    PubMed

    Feldman, D; Rabinowitz, J; Ben Yehuda, Y

    1995-11-01

    A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of psychological distress, as reported by patients and their physicians, in orthopedic, neurology, dermatology, and ophthalmology clinics; to study their accuracy in detecting psychological distress; and to determine if there is any connection among psychological distress, accuracy of detecting distress, and use of mental health and primary health care physicians' prognosis for the somatic complaints. Five hundred and fifty-six patients, ages 18-21, responded to the Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Interview Demoralization Scale (PERI-D), a measure of psychological distress, and to questions about their mental health and use of mental health and primary health services. Physicians, who were blind to patients' responses, were asked to what extent they thought the cause of patients' complaints was physical and to what extent they thought it was psychological in nature, and to prognosticate. Based on the PERI-D, about 25% of patients were distressed, this was less for females than males and varied between clinics. Based on self-reporting, about 14% of patients (males and females) were distressed. Based on physician reporting, about 17% (males less) were distressed. Physicians identified 35% of the PERI-D-distressed cases and 79% of nondistressed cases. About 66% of patients identified their distress and 83% their lack of distress. Increased use of primary health care and mental health care was related to distress. The prognosis was negatively related to distress. Based on this study, there is a need for more attention to psychological distress among secondary health care patients. Patients' ability to identify their distress suggests the importance of involving the patient in the diagnostic process. Correct detection of distress alone does not appear to decrease the use of primary medical and mental health services. PMID:8714802

  7. Partnership Transitions and Mental Distress: Investigating Temporal Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blekesaune, Morten

    2008-01-01

    The study uses 15 waves of the British Household Panel Survey and the General Health Questionnaire to investigate changes in mental distress over several years surrounding transitions both into and out of marital partnerships (marriages and cohabitations) using fixed effects models. Entering marital partnerships is associated with reduced distress…

  8. Children's Memories for Painful Cancer Treatment Procedures: Implications for Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Edith; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.; Craske, Michelle G.; Katz, Ernest R.

    2000-01-01

    Examined memory of 3- to 18-year-olds with leukemia regarding lumbar punctures (LP). Found that children displayed considerable accuracy for event details, with accuracy increasing with age. Use of Versed (anxiolytic medication described as a "memory blocker") was not related to recall. Higher distress predicted greater exaggerations in later…

  9. Damaged Goods: Exploring Predictors of Distress in Prison Inmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochstetler, Andy; Murphy, Daniel S.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2004-01-01

    Victimization is a significant part of the incarceration experience. In this study, we assessed the effects of victimization while incarcerated and pre-existing conditions on prisoners' distress. Data are drawn from surveys administered to 208 men recently released from prison. Using path analysis, we examined the direct effects of victimization…

  10. Psychological Distress and Related Factors in Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazquez, Fernando L.; Otero, Patricia; Diaz, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the psychological distress in Spanish college women and analyzed it in relation to sociodemographic and academic factors. Participants and Methods: The authors selected a stratified random sampling of 1,043 college women (average age of 22.2 years). Sociodemographic and academic information were collected, and…

  11. The Effect of Reappraising Social Exclusion on Emotional Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchens, Michael B.; Gohm, Carol L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether reappraisal, which is a strategy where the personal meaning of an event is reevaluated, would influence participants' emotional reactions to social exclusion feedback. It was expected that reappraising this event would reduce the emotional distress that accompanies social exclusion, but…

  12. Distress Behavior in Children With Leukemia Undergoing Medical Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Ernest R.

    Improving prognosis for many forms of childhood cancer has resulted in increased attention on the quality-of-life experience. Conditioned anxiety and pain associated with recurrent diagnostic and treatment procedures have been identified as major sources of distress in children with malignant disease. To evaluate the efficacy of various…

  13. The Expression of Distress by Children Receiving Medical Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Brenda D.; Gipson, Martin

    The nature of children's distress reactions to medical treatment is examined in terms of age and sex differences and initial normative data are provided. Predominately white, middle class children, ages 1 to 11, were observed while receiving allergy treatment injections. Males were observed on 453 injection occasions while females were observed on…

  14. Flashbulb Memories of Menarche and Adult Menstrual Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillemer, David B.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Female college students (N=99) recounted memories of menarche, described menarcheal circumstances, and completed the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ). Found inadequate emotional preparation for menstruation to be associated with negative feelings at menarche. Menarcheal circumstances were not strongly predictive of adult MDQ scores. (Author)

  15. Stress and Psychological Distress among Trainee Secondary Teachers in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplain, Roland P.

    2008-01-01

    The relationships between stress and psychological distress were investigated among a cohort of trainee secondary school teachers in England. Specifically, the study examined the structure of a Teacher Stress Scale and its relationship to mental health as measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Three factors were identified:…

  16. Predicting Depression from Marital Distress and Attributional Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heim, Susan Creekmore; Snyder, Douglas K.

    1991-01-01

    Examined the interaction between marital distress and spouses' attributions and expectancies regarding the marital relationship in predicting depressive symptoms in a mixed sample of 59 clinic and nonclinic couples. Best predictor of depression for both sexes was measure of disaffection, reflecting emotional distance and alienation in the…

  17. Psychological Distress in Refugee Children: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronstein, Israel; Montgomery, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Nearly one-quarter of the refugees worldwide are children. There have been numerous studies reporting their levels of psychological distress. The aim of this paper is to review systematically and synthesize the epidemiological research concerning the mental health of refugee children residing in Western countries. A Cochrane Collaboration style…

  18. Religiosity, Spirituality, and Personal Distress among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Walter E.

    1997-01-01

    Examines whether religiosity and spirituality are inversely associated with personal distress. Data taken from 282 upper division students produced mixed results. The importance of religion showed a positive association, belief in the existence of God a curvilinear relationship, and having a sense of meaning and direction an inverse association…

  19. Distress in the City: Racism, Fundamentalism and a Democratic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Linden

    2016-01-01

    Every day brings news about so-called Islamic State and its seduction of young people in the West. The radicalization of young Muslims causes alarm; even the desirability of multiculturalism is questioned in troubled cities where racism and Islamophobia are on the rise. This book is a case study of one distressed post-industrial city struggling…

  20. Reducing teachers' psychological distress through a mindfulness training program.

    PubMed

    Franco, Clemente; Mañas, Israel; Cangas, Adolfo J; Moreno, Emilio; Gallego, José

    2010-11-01

    Teachers constitute one of the professional collectives most affected by psychological problems. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study is to examine the efficacy of a mindfulness training programme to reduce psychological distress in a group of teachers. The sample comprised 68 teachers of Secondary School Education, from various public schools; half of them formed the experimental group, and the another half the control group. The levels of psychological distress were measured, in both groups, by the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) before and after the application of the programme. Statistical analysis shows the significant reduction of three general measures of psychological distress (Global Severity Index, Positive Symptom Distress Index, and Positive Symptom Total), as well in all its dimensions (somatization, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensibility, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism), in the experimental group compared with the control group. Follow-up measures show that these results were maintained for four months after termination of the intervention in the experimental group.

  1. 33 CFR 175.130 - Visual distress signals accepted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements of § 175.110: (1) An electric distress light meeting the standards of 46 CFR 161.013. One is required to meet the night only requirement. (2) An orange flag meeting the standards of 46 CFR 160.072....130—Pyrotechnic Signal Devices Approval number under 46 CFR Device description Meets requirement...

  2. 33 CFR 175.130 - Visual distress signals accepted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements of § 175.110: (1) An electric distress light meeting the standards of 46 CFR 161.013. One is required to meet the night only requirement. (2) An orange flag meeting the standards of 46 CFR 160.072....130—Pyrotechnic Signal Devices Approval number under 46 CFR Device description Meets requirement...

  3. 33 CFR 175.130 - Visual distress signals accepted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements of § 175.110: (1) An electric distress light meeting the standards of 46 CFR 161.013. One is required to meet the night only requirement. (2) An orange flag meeting the standards of 46 CFR 160.072....130—Pyrotechnic Signal Devices Approval number under 46 CFR Device description Meets requirement...

  4. 33 CFR 175.130 - Visual distress signals accepted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements of § 175.110: (1) An electric distress light meeting the standards of 46 CFR 161.013. One is required to meet the night only requirement. (2) An orange flag meeting the standards of 46 CFR 160.072....130—Pyrotechnic Signal Devices Approval number under 46 CFR Device description Meets requirement...

  5. Conditioned Emotional Distress in Women Receiving Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Paul B.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated whether women undergoing outpatient chemotherapy for breast cancer can develop classically conditioned emotional distress. Patients' responses to a distinctive stimulus were assessed in a location not associated with chemotherapy administration. Results supported hypothesis that pairing a distinctive stimulus with chemotherapy would…

  6. Oxytocin reduces separation distress in piglets when given intranasally

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxytocin (OT) is one of the neurobiological foundations of sociality. It acts as a neuropeptide in numerous social processes, from ultra-social to anti-social behaviors. Evidence supports a role for OT in social support, possibly by attenuating separation distress. Nonetheless, research on OT is lac...

  7. Physical Symptoms and Psychological Distress among Inhalant Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joe, George W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Among 110 Mexican-American adolescents with varying drug use histories, self-reported physical health problems were not related to inhalant use history, but blood analyses indicated a relationship between extensive inhalant use and liver problems. Psychological distress symptoms were related to inhalant use and physical symptoms. Contains 23…

  8. Marital Conflict and Adolescent Distress: The Role of Adolescent Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harold, Gordon T.; Conger, Rand D.

    1997-01-01

    Studied role of adolescents' awareness in relationship between marital conflict and adolescent distress. Found marital conflict was related to parental hostility toward adolescents and adolescents' awareness of conflict; parental hostility and adolescents' awareness of marital conflict were related to adolescent-perceived parental hostility. Found…

  9. Pregnancy Loss and Distress among U.S. Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shreffler, Karina M.; Greil, Arthur L.; McQuillan, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Although pregnancy loss--especially miscarriage--is a relatively common experience among reproductive-aged women, much of our understanding about the experience has come from small clinic-based or other nonrepresentative samples. We compared fertility-specific distress among a national sample of 1,284 women who have ever experienced a stillbirth…

  10. Impact of Rehabilitation on Psychological Distress: Gender Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Barbara M.; Smith, Richard T.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of data (n=11,739) from a Social Security Survey (1978) examined rehabilitation and mental health characteristics of people with various disabilities or health problems. Correlates of psychological distress included nature of the disability, race, education, gender. Men and women also responded differently to rehabilitation with men…

  11. Dual Minority Stress and Asian American Gay Men's Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yung-Chi; Tryon, Georgiana Shick

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the direct and additive effects of racial minority stress and sexual minority stress on the psychological well-being among a community sample of 139 Asian American gay men. Self-esteem was tested to see whether it moderated or mediated the effects of perceived dual minority stress on psychological distress. Results…

  12. Public hospitals in peril: factors associated with financial distress.

    PubMed

    Ramamonjiarivelo, Zo; Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Hearld, Larry; Pradhan, Rohit

    2014-01-01

    As "safety net providers," public hospitals have played a major role in health care delivery, especially in serving the indigent and the uninsured. For several decades, public hospitals have been operating in a challenging environment, and some of them have experienced financial difficulties. The purpose of this study was to explore the organizational and environmental factors associated with public hospitals' financial distress. This study used a national sample of public hospitals based on longitudinal panel data from 1997 to 2009, resulting in a sample size of 7,257 hospital-year observations. The Altman Z-score method was applied to assess hospitals' financial condition. The significant findings from a random effects logistic regression model with state and year fixed-effects indicated that higher Medicare HMO penetration was associated with financial distress. Organizational variables such as health network, size, occupancy rate, and outpatient mix decreased the odds of financial distress; and membership in a multihospital system increased the odds of financial distress. PMID:25223157

  13. Stress, Coping, Social Support, and Psychological Distress among MSW Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addonizio, Frank Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship among sources and levels of stress, coping patterns, sources and levels of social support, and psychological distress for MSW students. Stress is a common feeling experienced by people throughout life and it is important to understand the way they cope with their stressors. Most of the…

  14. Knowledge Based Leadership for Cycles of Culturally Induced Educational Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, P. J.

    American schools have recently been exposed to a grave cycle of educational distress advanced by both internal and external constituencies for a variety of reasons, which range from political correctness to vouchers. Responses by educational administrators appeared to have found solace in the overt practice of deliberate inaction rather than…

  15. Loss and the Experience of Emotional Distress in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Leslie K.; Weems, Carl F.; Costa, Natalie M.; Carrion, Victor G.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate loss and the experience of emotional distress through a series of three studies. In Study 1, results indicated that when controlling for the total number of traumas experienced, children with loss traumas did not differ significantly from children with other types of traumas in terms of the level of…

  16. Faculty Role in Responding to the Acutely Distressed College Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Lisa Stacey

    2010-01-01

    The acutely distressed student, one who exhibits disturbing or disruptive behavior that is outside of the norm of other students due to significant mental illness and who may be at risk to harm oneself or others, poses considerable challenges to today's higher education institutions (Amanda, 1994; Jed Foundation, 2006; McKinley & Dworkin, 1989).…

  17. Adolescent Mental Health: Neighborhood Stress and Emotional Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snedker, Karen A.; Herting, Jerald R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the role of neighborhood characteristics, specifically economic disadvantage/advantage, residential instability, and racial/ethnic heterogeneity on emotional distress (depressed affect, anxiety, hopelessness) among youth. Using a regional sample of adolescents and matching their data to census tracts, we…

  18. Cognitive Distortion and Psychological Distress in Chronic Low Back Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Timothy W.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Indicated that cognitive distortion was associated with high scores on the Minnesota Multiophasic Personality Inventory (MMPH) Depression (D), Psychasthenia (Pt), and Schizophrenia (Sc) scales, but not the Hypochondriasis (Hs) and Hysteria (Hy) scales. Cognitive distortion is likely to be an important factor in general distress but not in…

  19. Hunger, inhibitory control and distress-induced emotional eating.

    PubMed

    van Strien, Tatjana; Ouwens, Machteld A; Engel, Carmen; de Weerth, Carolina

    2014-08-01

    Self-reported emotional eating has been found to significantly moderate distress-induced food intake, with low emotional eaters eating less after a stress task than after a control task and high emotional eaters eating more. The aim of the present study was to explore possible underlying mechanisms by assessing possible associations with (1) ability to experience the typical post-stress reduction of hunger and (2) inhibitory control. We studied these effects in 54 female students who were preselected on the basis of extremely high or low scores on an emotional eating questionnaire. Using a within subject design we measured the difference of actual food or snack intake after a control or a stress task (Trier Social Stress Test). As expected, the moderator effect of emotional eating on distress-induced food intake was found to be only present in females with a failure to report the typical reduction of hunger immediately after a stress task (an a-typical hunger stress response). Contrary to our expectations, this moderator effect of emotional eating was also found to be only present in females with high ability to stop motor impulses (high inhibitory control). These findings suggest that an a-typical hunger stress response but not poor inhibitory control may underlie the moderator effect of emotional eating on distress-induced food intake. However, inhibitory control may play a role whether or not there is a moderator effect of self-reported emotional eating on distress-induced food intake.

  20. Maladaptive Perfectionism, Hassles, Coping, and Psychological Distress in University Professors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Joshua C.; Whelton, William J.; Sharpe, Donald

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the roles of hassles, avoidant and problem-focused coping, and perceived social support as mediating the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and psychological distress in a sample of university professors. Hassles and avoidant coping both partially mediated a strong association between maladaptive perfectionism and…

  1. Religiosity and Death Distress in Arabic College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Sabwah, Mohammed N.; Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship between religiosity and death distress (death anxiety, death depression, and death obsession) among a sample (N = 570) of Egyptian women nursing undergraduates, mainly Muslims. Their ages ranged from 17 to 25. The correlations between religiosity and both death anxiety and death…

  2. 33 CFR 175.130 - Visual distress signals accepted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements of § 175.110: (1) An electric distress light meeting the standards of 46 CFR 161.013. One is required to meet the night only requirement. (2) An orange flag meeting the standards of 46 CFR 160.072....130—Pyrotechnic Signal Devices Approval number under 46 CFR Device description Meets requirement...

  3. Fetal distress during a maternal systemic allergic reaction.

    PubMed

    Klein, V R; Harris, A P; Abraham, R A; Niebyl, J R

    1984-09-01

    Systemic allergic reactions to food ingestion rarely result in life-threatening situations. When these reactions occur during pregnancy, however, the accompanying physiologic changes may result in fetal distress. A case of repetitive late decelerations in the fetal heart rate during a maternal allergic reaction is presented. Prompt and aggressive medical management brought about total resolution of maternal and fetal compromise.

  4. 13 CFR 301.3 - Economic distress levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... point greater than the national average unemployment rate; (ii) Per capita income that is, for the most recent period for which data are available, eighty (80) percent or less of the national average per... Assistance as follows: (i) For economic distress levels based upon the unemployment rate or per capita...

  5. 13 CFR 301.3 - Economic distress levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... point greater than the national average unemployment rate; (ii) Per capita income that is, for the most recent period for which data are available, eighty (80) percent or less of the national average per... Assistance as follows: (i) For economic distress levels based upon the unemployment rate or per capita...

  6. Online Information Searches and Help Seeking for Mental Health Problems in Urban China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Zhu, Shizhan

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, the Internet has emerged as an alternative information source on mental health problems. Yet, the profile of the typical Internet help seeker is to be determined. Based on data from a household survey of 2558 Beijing residents, the study investigates online information searches and help seeking for mental health problems. Multinomial logistic regressions are estimated for respondents' access to the Internet, and mental-health-related information searches and help seeking on the Internet for the whole community sample and the most psychologically distressed subsample. The study identifies a digital divide in online help seeking for mental health issues based on age, migration and hukou status, and socio-economic factors. Youth and high socio-economic status are significant predictors of Internet access and use. Among the whole community sample, rural-to-urban migrants are less likely to have access to the Internet and search information or seek help online. Among the most psychologically distressed subsample, urban-to-urban migrants are significantly more likely to have access to the Internet and search information or seek help online. Given the shortage of mental health professionals in China, online information dissemination and guided self-help, if properly designed, could offer a means to reach large numbers of individuals in a cost-effective manner. PMID:25981055

  7. Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Marijuana Sections Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma? Why Eye ... Don't Recommend Marijuana for Glaucoma Infographic Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma? Written by: David Turbert , contributing ...

  8. Psychological distress following wildfires disaster in a rural part of Greece: a case-control population-based study.

    PubMed

    Papanikolaou, Vicky; Adamis, Dimitrios; Mellon, Robert C; Prodromitis, Gerasimos

    2011-01-01

    Psychological distress is common in the aftermath of a disaster. This study investigated psychological distress and morbidity in individuals who had experienced severe exposure to a wildfire disaster in a part of Greece. The study was a cross sectional case control of an adult population (18-65 years old). Face to face interviews were used in the collection of the data which were demographics, the type and number of losses and the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised for assessment of psychological symptoms. The results showed that those exposed to wildfires disaster scored significantly higher on the symptoms of somatization, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, and paranoia; had significantly more symptoms of psychopathology and were more distressed, compared to controls. Risk factors for potential psychiatric cases were those exposed to disaster; those who had lower education, and those who were widowed. It was concluded that wildfires may cause considerable psychological symptoms comparable to other disasters and there are reasons to create services to help and improve the mental health of those affected.

  9. Psychological Distress among Nursing, Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy Students: A Longitudinal and Predictive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nerdrum, Per; Rustoen, Tone; Helge Ronnestad, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we present longitudinal data on changes in psychological distress among 232 Norwegian undergraduate students of nursing, physiotherapy, and occupational therapy. Psychological distress was assessed by applying the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire. Nursing students became substantially more distressed during the…

  10. The Relationship of Stress Arousal and Stress Prone Personality Traits to Menstrual Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, David C.

    The various relationships of stress arousal and stress-prone personality traits to menstrual distress were investigated in order to quantify psychophysiological arousal differences between high and low menstrual distress symptom reporters and examine differences in stress-prone personality traits between high and low menstrual distress symptom…

  11. A Comparison of High- and Low-Distress Marriages that End in Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.; Hohmann-Marriott, Bryndl

    2007-01-01

    We used data from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households to study high- and low-distress marriages that end in divorce. A cluster analysis of 509 couples who divorced between waves revealed that about half were in high-distress relationships and the rest in low-distress relationships. These 2 groups were not artifacts of…

  12. Brief Report: Associations of Parental Warmth, Peer Support, and Gender with Adolescent Emotional Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Operario, Don; Tschann, Jeanne; Flores, Elena; Bridges, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    This is an exploratory study of the associations among parental warmth, peer support, gender, and emotional distress in a sample of 308 adolescents in the United States. Parental warmth was associated with less emotional distress, whereas turning to peers for support during family conflict was associated with more emotional distress. Gender…

  13. Assessment of Distress in Young Children: A Comparison of Autistic Disorder, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, G.; Venuti, P.; Bornstein, M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Distress emotions in very young children are manifest in vocal, facial, and bodily cues. Moreover, children with different developmental conditions (i.e. autistic disorder, AD; developmental delay, DD; typically developing, TD) appear to manifest their distress emotions via different channels. To decompose channel of emotional distress display by…

  14. Lifestyle and Mental Health Correlates of Psychological Distress in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Hackman, Christine L.; Sharma, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Objective: College students are at an increased risk of mental distress. The purpose of this study was to determine whether mental and lifestyle factors differed according to self-reported levels of psychological distress. Design and setting: A self-report questionnaire comprising the Kessler-6 Psychological Distress Scale, Revised Life…

  15. Exposure to Maternal Distress in Childhood and Cortisol Activity in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahrer, Nicole E.; Luecken, Linda J.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulated cortisol is a risk factor for poor health outcomes. Children of distressed mothers exhibit dysregulated cortisol, yet it is unclear whether maternal distress predicts cortisol activity in later developmental stages. This longitudinal study examined the prospective relation between maternal distress during late childhood (9-12 years)…

  16. Responses of Six-Month-Olds to the Distress of Their Peers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Dale F.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The distressed vocalizations of six-month-old infants interacting with peers in a playroom were statistically independent of the peer's vocalizations of distress. Absence of toys reliably predicted the extent of the infant's distress, whereas psychomotor development and sex did not. (Author/ DB)

  17. Serious Psychological Distress and Substance Use among Young Adult Males. The NSDUH Report. Issue 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) includes questions to assess serious psychological distress (SPD) and substance use. SPD is an overall indicator of nonspecific psychological distress. This report examines serious psychological distress and substance use among young adult males aged 18 to 25, a relatively understudied group with…

  18. Psychological distress and lifestyle of students: implications for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Deasy, Christine; Coughlan, Barry; Pironom, Julie; Jourdan, Didier; Mcnamara, Patricia Mannix

    2015-03-01

    Poor diet, physical inactivity, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption are major risk factors for chronic disease and premature mortality. These behaviours are of concern among higher education students and may be linked to psychological distress which is problematic particularly for students on programmes with practicum components such as nursing and teaching. Understanding how risk behaviours aggregate and relate to psychological distress and coping among this population is important for health promotion. This research examined, via a comprehensive survey undergraduate nursing/midwifery and teacher education students' (n = 1557) lifestyle behaviour (Lifestyle Behaviour Questionnaire), self-reported psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire) and coping processes (Ways of Coping Questionnaire). The results showed that health- risk behaviours were common, including alcohol consumption (93.2%), unhealthy diet (26.3%), physical inactivity (26%), tobacco smoking (17%), cannabis use (11.6%) and high levels of stress (41.9%). Students tended to cluster into two groups: those with risk behaviours (n = 733) and those with positive health behaviours (n = 379). The group with risk behaviours had high psychological distress and used mostly passive coping strategies such as escape avoidance. The potential impact on student health and academic achievement is of concern and suggests the need for comprehensive health promotion programmes to tackle multiple behaviours. As these students are the nurses and teachers of the future, their risk behaviours, elevated psychological distress and poor coping also raise concerns regarding their roles as future health educators/promoters. Attention to promotion of health and well-being among this population is essential. PMID:25315646

  19. Hyperandrogenemia, psychological distress, and food cravings in young women.

    PubMed

    Lim, Siew S; Norman, Robert J; Clifton, Peter M; Noakes, Manny

    2009-09-01

    Reproductive disorders and psychological distress are common co-morbidities of obesity in young women. Psychological and reproductive disturbances may also be associated with increased food cravings but the relationships between these factors have not been explored. This study aimed to explore the pattern of food cravings and to determine the relationship between psychological distress, reproductive health and food cravings in overweight and obese young women using baseline data in a weight loss trial. A total of 198 young women were included in this analysis (BMI 33.3+/-0.3 kg/m(2), age 28+/-0.3 years). The most frequently craved food item was chocolate (3.9+/-0.08 i.e., sometimes-often). The most frequently craved food categories were fast foods (2.6+/-0.07) and sweets (2.5+/-0.05). Psychological distress was significantly correlated with food cravings (R(2)=0.18, P<0.05). High fat (r=0.2), sweets (r=0.17) and overall cravings (r=0.20) were significantly correlated with energy intake (P<0.05). Psychological distress did not correlate with energy intake (P>0.05). Participants with menstrual disturbances had greater fast food cravings independent of age, BMI and PCOS status (P<0.05). Participants with hyperandrogenemia had greater high fat food cravings independent of age, BMI and PCOS status (P<0.01). Energy intake did not differ with menstrual disturbances or hyperandrogenemia (P>0.05). These results suggest that psychological distress, hyperandrogenemia and menstrual disturbances are associated with greater food cravings. Further investigations are required to elucidate the relationship between hyperandrogenemia and food cravings in young women.

  20. Psychological distress and lifestyle of students: implications for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Deasy, Christine; Coughlan, Barry; Pironom, Julie; Jourdan, Didier; Mcnamara, Patricia Mannix

    2015-03-01

    Poor diet, physical inactivity, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption are major risk factors for chronic disease and premature mortality. These behaviours are of concern among higher education students and may be linked to psychological distress which is problematic particularly for students on programmes with practicum components such as nursing and teaching. Understanding how risk behaviours aggregate and relate to psychological distress and coping among this population is important for health promotion. This research examined, via a comprehensive survey undergraduate nursing/midwifery and teacher education students' (n = 1557) lifestyle behaviour (Lifestyle Behaviour Questionnaire), self-reported psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire) and coping processes (Ways of Coping Questionnaire). The results showed that health- risk behaviours were common, including alcohol consumption (93.2%), unhealthy diet (26.3%), physical inactivity (26%), tobacco smoking (17%), cannabis use (11.6%) and high levels of stress (41.9%). Students tended to cluster into two groups: those with risk behaviours (n = 733) and those with positive health behaviours (n = 379). The group with risk behaviours had high psychological distress and used mostly passive coping strategies such as escape avoidance. The potential impact on student health and academic achievement is of concern and suggests the need for comprehensive health promotion programmes to tackle multiple behaviours. As these students are the nurses and teachers of the future, their risk behaviours, elevated psychological distress and poor coping also raise concerns regarding their roles as future health educators/promoters. Attention to promotion of health and well-being among this population is essential.

  1. A "good death" for whom? Quality of spouse's death and psychological distress among older widowed persons.

    PubMed

    Carr, Deborah

    2003-06-01

    Ethicists, policy makers, and care providers are increasingly concerned with helping the dying elderly to experience a "good death." A "good death" is characterized by physical comfort, social support, acceptance, and appropriate medical care, and it should minimize psychological distress for the dying and their families. I identify the predictors of death quality and evaluate how the quality of an older adult's death affects the surviving spouse's psychological adjustment six months after the loss. Analyses use Changing Lives of Older Couples (CLOC) data, a prospective study of married persons ages 65 and older. Positive spousal relationships during the final days increase survivors' yearning yet reduce their anger. Having a spouse die a painful death is associated with elevated anxiety, yearning, and intrusive thoughts. The perception of physician negligence is associated with elevated anger. These findings suggest that improved end-of-life care and pain management will benefit both the dying and their bereaved spouses. PMID:12866391

  2. Professional and service-user perceptions of self-help in primary care mental health services.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Rebekah; Halliday, Emma; Maxwell, Margaret

    2009-03-01

    Self-help is becoming an increasingly accessible option for addressing mental health problems. Despite this, self-help is subject to a variety of interpretations, little is known about how professionals and service-users conceptualise self-help, or how service-users engage in self-help activities. This study aimed to explore the views of self-help by service-users and health professionals in one area of Scotland, including the perceptions of what constitutes self-help and how it might be used to address mental health problems in primary care. The research involved semistructured interviews with 31 primary care mental health professionals, and in-depth interviews with 34 service-users. We found that professionals and service-users describe self-help in different ways, which has great implications for referral to and implementation of self-help in primary care settings. It also emerged that self-help was not necessarily perceived to be able to address the causes of mental distress, which could leave some professionals defaulting to offering no interventions despite the fairly positive attitude service-users show to self-help strategies. Finally, professionals need to be convinced that interventions are useful, effective and accessible as there are significant barriers in professionals using self-help; if they are not convinced, such approaches will support their therapeutic approach. The research supports the need to develop methods of delivery that offer self-help as part of a broad package of care that also considers social causes of distress.

  3. When Distress Hits Home: The Role of Contextual Factors and Psychological Distress in Predicting Employees' Responses to Abusive Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Restubog, Simon Lloyd D.; Scott, Kristin L.; Zagenczyk, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    We developed a model of the relationships among aggressive norms, abusive supervision, psychological distress, family undermining, and supervisor-directed deviance. We tested the model in 2 studies using multisource data: a 3-wave investigation of 184 full-time employees (Study 1) and a 2-wave investigation of 188 restaurant workers (Study 2).…

  4. Psychometric properties of the Trauma and Distress Scale, TADS, in an adult community sample in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Salokangas, Raimo K. R.; Schultze-Lutter, Frauke; Patterson, Paul; von Reventlow, Heinrich Graf; Heinimaa, Markus; From, Tiina; Luutonen, Sinikka; Hankala, Juha; Kotimäki, Mika; Tuominen, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence that a history of childhood abuse and neglect is not uncommon among individuals who experience mental disorder and that childhood trauma experiences are associated with adult psychopathology. Although several interview and self-report instruments for retrospective trauma assessment have been developed, many focus on sexual abuse (SexAb) rather than on multiple types of trauma or adversity. Methods Within the European Prediction of Psychosis Study, the Trauma and Distress Scale (TADS) was developed as a new self-report assessment of multiple types of childhood trauma and distressing experiences. The TADS includes 43 items and, following previous measures including the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, focuses on five core domains: emotional neglect (EmoNeg), emotional abuse (EmoAb), physical neglect (PhyNeg), physical abuse (PhyAb), and SexAb. This study explores the psychometric properties of the TADS (internal consistency and concurrent validity) in 692 participants drawn from the general population who completed a mailed questionnaire, including the TADS, a depression self-report and questions on help-seeking for mental health problems. Inter-method reliability was examined in a random sample of 100 responders who were reassessed in telephone interviews. Results After minor revisions of PhyNeg and PhyAb, internal consistencies were good for TADS totals and the domain raw score sums. Intra-class coefficients for TADS total score and the five revised core domains were all good to excellent when compared to the interviewed TADS as a gold standard. In the concurrent validity analyses, the total TADS and its all core domains were significantly associated with depression and help-seeking for mental problems as proxy measures for traumatisation. In addition, robust cutoffs for the total TADS and its domains were calculated. Conclusions Our results suggest the TADS as a valid, reliable, and clinically useful instrument for assessing

  5. A systematic review of self-help for disfigurement: effectiveness, usability, and acceptability.

    PubMed

    Muftin, Zina; Thompson, Andrew R

    2013-09-01

    Self-help has been found to be efficacious in treating mood disorders, however, little is known about its use, effectiveness, or user satisfaction, in reducing distress associated with disfigurement. This review describes the content and focus of self-help interventions available in this area. A systematic search and appraisal protocol facilitated identification of studies, extraction of data, and appraisal of quality. Clinical trials were included if the primary method of intervention delivery was via self-help. Other types of study were included if they investigated user perspectives of a self-help intervention. Eleven studies covering a range of populations met the inclusion criteria. There is tentative support for the use of self-help to manage anxiety associated with disfigurement but little is known about the management of other psychosocial difficulties. Further research and intervention development is required to examine the effectiveness, acceptability, and utility of self-help in managing the appearance related distress associated with disfigurement. PMID:23962642

  6. Influences of face, stigma, and psychological symptoms on help-seeking attitudes in Macao.

    PubMed

    Cheang, Sut Ieng; Davis, J Mark

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between concerns about loss of face, stigma, psychological symptoms, and attitudes toward seeking mental health services such as counseling in Macao. Participants included 391 students attending the largest public university in Macao: 277 were from Macao and 114 were from Mainland China. Participants completed questionnaires measuring attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help, concerns about loss of face, self-stigma, public-stigma, and psychological symptoms. Results showed that positive attitudes toward help-seeking were significantly negatively correlated with self-stigma, public-stigma, and concerns about loss of face but there was no significant correlation with psychological symptoms. Psychological symptoms were positively correlated with face concerns, self-stigma, and public-stigma. Stigma (self and public) was found to be significantly positively associated with face concerns, but the correlations were weak. Findings also showed that Macao students had higher levels of distress, and endorsed greater self- and public-stigma than Mainland Chinese students; however, the groups did not differ in face concerns or attitudes toward help-seeking. Regression analysis indicated that group membership was not a significant predictor of help-seeking. Self-stigma was the strongest predictor of professional help-seeking. Age and sex were also found to be significant predictors. Results suggested that younger students were more likely to seek help and that female students reported greater levels of distress and tended to have more positive attitudes toward seeking psychological services than male students.

  7. Influences of face, stigma, and psychological symptoms on help-seeking attitudes in Macao.

    PubMed

    Cheang, Sut Ieng; Davis, J Mark

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between concerns about loss of face, stigma, psychological symptoms, and attitudes toward seeking mental health services such as counseling in Macao. Participants included 391 students attending the largest public university in Macao: 277 were from Macao and 114 were from Mainland China. Participants completed questionnaires measuring attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help, concerns about loss of face, self-stigma, public-stigma, and psychological symptoms. Results showed that positive attitudes toward help-seeking were significantly negatively correlated with self-stigma, public-stigma, and concerns about loss of face but there was no significant correlation with psychological symptoms. Psychological symptoms were positively correlated with face concerns, self-stigma, and public-stigma. Stigma (self and public) was found to be significantly positively associated with face concerns, but the correlations were weak. Findings also showed that Macao students had higher levels of distress, and endorsed greater self- and public-stigma than Mainland Chinese students; however, the groups did not differ in face concerns or attitudes toward help-seeking. Regression analysis indicated that group membership was not a significant predictor of help-seeking. Self-stigma was the strongest predictor of professional help-seeking. Age and sex were also found to be significant predictors. Results suggested that younger students were more likely to seek help and that female students reported greater levels of distress and tended to have more positive attitudes toward seeking psychological services than male students. PMID:26271940

  8. Psychological distress among dancers seeking outpatient treatment for musculoskeletal injury.

    PubMed

    Air, Mary Elizabeth

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and magnitude of clinically significant psychological symptoms among outpatient injured dancers presenting for musculoskeletal issues and to identify features of "at risk" dancer-patients who might require additional psychological support when injured. The Brief Symptom Inventory® (BSI), a highly reliable and valid screening tool for psychological distress, was administered to first- and last-visit injured dancers at an orthopedic clinic in the Netherlands from February to May 2008. In all, 153 BSI surveys were completed, including 82 among first-visit patients and 71 among end-treatment patients. Scores were examined for the influence of age, gender, dance level, style, pain, perceived level of artistic compromise, and anatomic location of injury. Dancers' scores were compared to normative values for adult non-psychiatric patient community members. Ninety-two dancers (60.1%) met requirements for clinical referral to a psychologist or psychiatrist, having scored two or more standard deviations (SD) above the norm in at least one of nine psychopathological symptoms. Across first- and last-visit groups, dancers met referral criteria for an average of four psychopathological symptoms. First-visit dancers demonstrated higher distress than the general population on 90% of BSI dimensional symptoms and last-visit dancers on 50%. On the Global Symptom Index, a summary score for overall distress and the best measure of psychological discomfort, 46.6% of dancers demonstrated "above average" distress (≥ 1 SD) compared to the general population, and 19.6% demonstrated "high" (≥ 2 SD) or "very high" (≥ 2.5 SD) distress. Compared to academy level pre-professional students, professionals showed reduction in BSI scores on somatic, cognitive, interpersonal sensitivity, anxious, hostile, phobic, and global scores following resolution of injury, particularly among those greater than 25 years of age. Students and

  9. Chronic Avoidance Helps Explain the Relationship between Severity of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Psychological Distress in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, M. Zachary; Rasmussen Hall, Mandra L.; Palm, Kathleen M.; Batten, Sonja V.; Follette, Victoria M.

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have found that chronic avoidance of unpleasant internal experiences (e.g., thoughts, emotions, memories) is a maladaptive means of affect regulation often adopted by women with a history of sexual victimization in childhood. The primary aim of this study was to replicate and extend previous findings suggesting that higher levels of…

  10. Acute respiratory distress syndrome following cardiovascular surgery: current concepts and novel therapeutic approaches

    PubMed Central

    Hoegl, Sandra; Zwissler, Bernhard; Eltzschig, Holger K.; Vohwinkel, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review This review gives an update on current treatment options and novel concepts on the prevention and treatment of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in cardiovascular surgery patients. Recent findings The only proven beneficial therapeutic options in ARDS are those that help to prevent further ventilator-induced lung injury, such as prone position, use of lung-protective ventilation strategies, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. In the future also new approaches like mesenchymal cell therapy, activation of hypoxia-elicited transcription factors or targeting of purinergic signaling may be successful outside the experimental setting. Owing to the so far limited treatment options, it is of great importance to determine patients at risk for developing ARDS already perioperatively. In this context, serum biomarkers and lung injury prediction scores could be useful. Summary Preventing ARDS as a severe complication in the cardiovascular surgery setting may help to reduce morbidity and mortality. As cardiovascular surgery patients are of greater risk to develop ARDS, preventive interventions should be implemented early on. Especially, use of low tidal volumes, avoiding of fluid overload and restrictive blood transfusion regimes may help to prevent ARDS. PMID:26598954

  11. Metaphors of Distress: Photo-Elicitation Enhances a Discourse Analysis of Parents' Accounts.

    PubMed

    Kantrowitz-Gordon, Ira; Vandermause, Roxanne

    2016-07-01

    In research on sensitive topics, photo-elicitation can be a profound aid to data collection and interpretation processes. Photo-elicitation methods were used in this manner in a discourse analysis of parents' distress at least 6 months after preterm birth. After an initial interview, participants were asked to take digital photographs representing their distress and to return for a second interview to discuss the photographs. The elicited photo representations supported participants' engagement with their current or past distress and generated new meanings from the reappraisal of old photographs. Photo-elicitation demonstrated the embodiment of parents' distress in the child and the placement of distress in specific locations. Photographs of documents showed the power of the written word in generating and maintaining distress. Participants used existing photographs from their child's photo history to generate rich metaphors for their distress as parents. These findings have implications for enhancing interpretive health research by incorporating photo-elicitation methods. PMID:25792488

  12. Metaphors of Distress: Photo-Elicitation Enhances a Discourse Analysis of Parents' Accounts.

    PubMed

    Kantrowitz-Gordon, Ira; Vandermause, Roxanne

    2016-07-01

    In research on sensitive topics, photo-elicitation can be a profound aid to data collection and interpretation processes. Photo-elicitation methods were used in this manner in a discourse analysis of parents' distress at least 6 months after preterm birth. After an initial interview, participants were asked to take digital photographs representing their distress and to return for a second interview to discuss the photographs. The elicited photo representations supported participants' engagement with their current or past distress and generated new meanings from the reappraisal of old photographs. Photo-elicitation demonstrated the embodiment of parents' distress in the child and the placement of distress in specific locations. Photographs of documents showed the power of the written word in generating and maintaining distress. Participants used existing photographs from their child's photo history to generate rich metaphors for their distress as parents. These findings have implications for enhancing interpretive health research by incorporating photo-elicitation methods.

  13. Dyadic Effects of Stigma and Discrimination on Distress in Chinese HIV Discordant Couples.

    PubMed

    Yu, Nancy Xiaonan; Chan, Cecilia L W; Zhang, Jianxin

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigated the dyadic effects of stigma and discrimination on distress in Chinese couples affected by HIV. Chinese people living with HIV (PLHIV) and their seronegative spouses (N = 119 couples) participated in this study. The PLHIV completed measures on stigma beliefs about being better off dead and dignity-related distress. The spouses completed measures on perceived discrimination and exclusion and caregiver distress. The results showed that there was no significant correlation between the PLHIV's stigma beliefs and the spouses' perceived discrimination and exclusion. The couples showed significant associations in their dignity-related distress and caregiver distress. Analyses using the actor-partner interdependence model showed that PLHIV's stigma beliefs and the spouses' perceived discrimination and exclusion both had significant actor and partner effects on distress within the dyad. Psychosocial interventions aiming for distress reduction in the context of HIV should tackle stigma and discrimination and target the couples rather than solely the patient or spouse. PMID:27427923

  14. To Help Substance Abusers, We Must First Help Ourselves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Leadership, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Administrator recounts experience growing up in alcoholic home, hoping to inspire other school professionals helping young people with substance abuse problems. Although helping others seems natural for adult children of alcoholics, certain unconsciously held attitudes and behaviors can impede school prevention and recovery programs. Organizations…

  15. The Chandra HelpDesk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galle, Elizabeth C.

    2008-03-01

    The Chandra X-ray Center (CXC) HelpDesk has answered hundreds of user questions over the course of the Chandra mission, ranging from basic syntax errors to advanced analysis questions. This talk gives an introduction to the HelpDesk system and staff, presents a sample of recent HelpDesk requests, and discusses how user-submitted questions improve the software and documentation.

  16. Healing war wounds and perfuming exile: the use of vegetal, animal, and mineral products for perfumes, cosmetics, and skin healing among Sahrawi refugees of Western Sahara

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, there has been growing interest within ethnobiology in the knowledge and practices of migrating people. Within this, scholars have given relatively less attention to displaced people and refugees: to the loss, maintenance, and adaptation of refugees’ ethnobiological knowledge, and to its significance for refugees’ wellbeing. This study focuses on cosmetics and remedies used to heal skin afflictions that are traditionally used by Sahrawi refugees displaced in South Western Algerian refugee camps. Methods The research methods included a structured survey carried out with 37 refugee households, semi-structured interviews with 77 refugees, 24 retrospective interviews with refugees and other knowledgeable informants, and a voucher specimen collection of the plants and products cited. Results We recorded the use of 55 plant species, nine animal species, and six mineral products used within the three main use categories discussed in this paper: 1) Remedies for health issues that are typical of the desert environment where the Sahrawi once lived as nomads and now live as refugees (e.g. eye afflictions); 2) Remedies for wounds that are influenced by the Sahrawi’s recent history of guerrilla warfare; and 3) Cosmetics and products used for body care, decoration and perfuming (e.g. hair care, teeth cleansing, henna use) and for aromatizing the air inside of tents and which are widely used in everyday life and social practices. Conclusions We discuss the changes that have occurred in the patterns of use and procurement of these products with exile and sedentarization in refugee camps, and conclude that refugees are not simply passive recipients of national and international aid, but rather struggle to maintain and recover their traditional ethnobiological practices in exile. Finally, we suggest further research into the ethnobiological practices and knowledge of displaced populations. Resumen Sanando las heridas de guerra y perfumando el

  17. Healing war wounds and perfuming exile: the use of vegetal, animal, and mineral products for perfumes, cosmetics, and skin healing among Sahrawi refugees of Western Sahara

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, there has been growing interest within ethnobiology in the knowledge and practices of migrating people. Within this, scholars have given relatively less attention to displaced people and refugees: to the loss, maintenance, and adaptation of refugees’ ethnobiological knowledge, and to its significance for refugees’ wellbeing. This study focuses on cosmetics and remedies used to heal skin afflictions that are traditionally used by Sahrawi refugees displaced in South Western Algerian refugee camps. Methods The research methods included a structured survey carried out with 37 refugee households, semi-structured interviews with 77 refugees, 24 retrospective interviews with refugees and other knowledgeable informants, and a voucher specimen collection of the plants and products cited. Results We recorded the use of 55 plant species, nine animal species, and six mineral products used within the three main use categories discussed in this paper: 1) Remedies for health issues that are typical of the desert environment where the Sahrawi once lived as nomads and now live as refugees (e.g. eye afflictions); 2) Remedies for wounds that are influenced by the Sahrawi’s recent history of guerrilla warfare; and 3) Cosmetics and products used for body care, decoration and perfuming (e.g. hair care, teeth cleansing, henna use) and for aromatizing the air inside of tents and which are widely used in everyday life and social practices. Conclusions We discuss the changes that have occurred in the patterns of use and procurement of these products with exile and sedentarization in refugee camps, and conclude that refugees are not simply passive recipients of national and international aid, but rather struggle to maintain and recover their traditional ethnobiological practices in exile. Finally, we suggest further research into the ethnobiological practices and knowledge of displaced populations. Resumen Sanando las heridas de guerra y perfumando el

  18. Impact of a home-based walking intervention on outcomes of sleep quality, emotional distress, and fatigue in patients undergoing treatment for solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Jennifer A; Griffith, Kathleen A; Shang, Jingjing; Thompson, Carol B; Hedlin, Haley; Stewart, Kerry J; DeWeese, Theodore; Mock, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Exercise use among patients with cancer has been shown to have many benefits and few notable risks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a home-based walking intervention during cancer treatment on sleep quality, emotional distress, and fatigue. Methods. A total of 138 patients with prostate (55.6%), breast (32.5%), and other solid tumors (11.9%) were randomized to a home-based walking intervention or usual care. Exercise dose was assessed using a five-item subscale of the Cooper Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study Physical Activity Questionnaire. Primary outcomes of sleep quality, distress, and fatigue were compared between the two study arms. Results. The exercise group (n = 68) reported more vigor (p = .03) than control group participants (n = 58). In dose response models, greater participation in aerobic exercise was associated with 11% less fatigue (p < .001), 7.5% more vigor (p = .001), and 3% less emotional distress (p = .03), after controlling for intervention group assignment, age, and baseline exercise and fatigue levels. Conclusion. Patients who exercised during cancer treatment experienced less emotional distress than those who were less active. Increasing exercise was also associated with less fatigue and more vigor. Home-based walking is a simple, sustainable strategy that may be helpful in improving a number of symptoms encountered by patients undergoing active treatment for cancer. PMID:23568000

  19. Impact of a home-based walking intervention on outcomes of sleep quality, emotional distress, and fatigue in patients undergoing treatment for solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Jennifer A; Griffith, Kathleen A; Shang, Jingjing; Thompson, Carol B; Hedlin, Haley; Stewart, Kerry J; DeWeese, Theodore; Mock, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Exercise use among patients with cancer has been shown to have many benefits and few notable risks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a home-based walking intervention during cancer treatment on sleep quality, emotional distress, and fatigue. Methods. A total of 138 patients with prostate (55.6%), breast (32.5%), and other solid tumors (11.9%) were randomized to a home-based walking intervention or usual care. Exercise dose was assessed using a five-item subscale of the Cooper Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study Physical Activity Questionnaire. Primary outcomes of sleep quality, distress, and fatigue were compared between the two study arms. Results. The exercise group (n = 68) reported more vigor (p = .03) than control group participants (n = 58). In dose response models, greater participation in aerobic exercise was associated with 11% less fatigue (p < .001), 7.5% more vigor (p = .001), and 3% less emotional distress (p = .03), after controlling for intervention group assignment, age, and baseline exercise and fatigue levels. Conclusion. Patients who exercised during cancer treatment experienced less emotional distress than those who were less active. Increasing exercise was also associated with less fatigue and more vigor. Home-based walking is a simple, sustainable strategy that may be helpful in improving a number of symptoms encountered by patients undergoing active treatment for cancer.

  20. Impact of parental emotional support and coercive control on adolescents' self-esteem and psychological distress: results of a four-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Boudreault-Bouchard, Anne-Marie; Dion, Jacinthe; Hains, Jennifer; Vandermeerschen, Jill; Laberge, Luc; Perron, Michel

    2013-08-01

    This study aims at investigating the impact of parental practices on youths' adjustment. In all, 605 adolescents completed questionnaires at ages 14, 16 and 18. Self-esteem, psychological distress as well as parental emotional support and coercive control were measured. Analyses based on individual growth models revealed that self-esteem increased with age, but psychological distress remained stable over time. Boys reported higher levels of self-esteem and lower levels of psychological distress than girls. Maternal and paternal emotional support reinforced self-esteem over time. Maternal coercive control undermined self-esteem, but only at ages 16 and 18. Psychological distress decreased with parental emotional support but increased with parental coercive control at ages 14, 16 and 18. Overall, these results indicate that positive parental practices are related to youths' well-being. These findings support the importance of establishing intervention strategies designed to promote best practices among parents of teenagers to help them develop into well-adjusted adults.

  1. Impact of parental emotional support and coercive control on adolescents' self-esteem and psychological distress: results of a four-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Boudreault-Bouchard, Anne-Marie; Dion, Jacinthe; Hains, Jennifer; Vandermeerschen, Jill; Laberge, Luc; Perron, Michel

    2013-08-01

    This study aims at investigating the impact of parental practices on youths' adjustment. In all, 605 adolescents completed questionnaires at ages 14, 16 and 18. Self-esteem, psychological distress as well as parental emotional support and coercive control were measured. Analyses based on individual growth models revealed that self-esteem increased with age, but psychological distress remained stable over time. Boys reported higher levels of self-esteem and lower levels of psychological distress than girls. Maternal and paternal emotional support reinforced self-esteem over time. Maternal coercive control undermined self-esteem, but only at ages 16 and 18. Psychological distress decreased with parental emotional support but increased with parental coercive control at ages 14, 16 and 18. Overall, these results indicate that positive parental practices are related to youths' well-being. These findings support the importance of establishing intervention strategies designed to promote best practices among parents of teenagers to help them develop into well-adjusted adults. PMID:23849664

  2. Motivation for change and psychological distress in homeless substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Velasquez, M M; Crouch, C; von Sternberg, K; Grosdanis, I

    2000-12-01

    This study explores the treatment needs of homeless individuals participating in a large urban day shelter program. Alcohol and drug use, psychological distress, and stage of change were assessed in 100 participants presenting for services. The associations among substance use, risk perception, and readiness to change were examined for alcohol and drugs separately. Participants had high levels of psychological distress compared to "non-patient" samples. Eighty percent had used alcohol in the past 6 months, with 65% of those drinking at higher-risk levels; 60% had used drugs, with 82% in the higher-risk levels. While the majority felt that they drank and/or used drugs "too much", most were in precontemplation or contemplation stages of change. Intervention efforts for this population should focus on motivation, facilitation through the stages, and the associations between psychiatric symptoms and substance use.

  3. [Acute respiratory distress syndrome after near-drowning (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Tempel, G; Jelen, S; Forster, B; Gullotta, U; Daum, S

    1977-08-01

    After successful rescue from drowning there may develop a situation which is called secondary drowning, resulting in acute respiratory distress characterized by interstitial pulmonary oedema, hypoxaemia, hypercapnia and acidosis during drowning, direct alteration of the alveolar membrane by aspirated water and particulate matters and a volume overloading by adsorption and--not seldom--inept therapy. This situation requires mechanical ventilation and forced diuresis, combined with high doses of steroids, antibiotics and digitalis. We present the case of an eleven year old patient whose clinical course demonstrate the necessity of exact clinical observation after rescue from drowning. After development of acute respiratory distress only the immediate utilization of the therapeutic modalities of an intensive care may result in a satisfactory outcome. Four months later our patient had normal pulmonary function except for a moderate reduction of compliance.

  4. UNDERSTANDING HETEROGENEITY IN PTSD: FEAR, DYSPHORIA, AND DISTRESS

    PubMed Central

    Zoellner, Lori A.; Pruitt, Larry D.; Farach, Frank J.; Jun, Janie J.

    2014-01-01

    Fear, dysphoria, and distress are prominent components in the conceptualization of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, because our diagnostic categories are open concepts, relying on observed patterns of symptoms for classification, it is unclear whether these components represent core or auxiliary features of the disorder. Convergence across multiple indices is critical for this understanding. In this paper, we examine these components of PTSD across observed symptom patterns, broader theoretical conceptualizations, underlying information processing mechanisms of attention and memory, and underlying learning and neurobiological mechanisms. For each, evidence for similarity or distinctiveness of PTSD with other anxiety disorders and depression is examined. Throughout the review, key points of similarity to the anxiety disorders and divergence with depression argue for a distinction between core fear symptoms and auxiliary dysphoria and distress symptoms. Implications are discussed, noting that, as heterogeneity increases, core characteristics will become more diffused and ancillary constructs will gain an inflated degree of importance. PMID:23761021

  5. Diabetes Technology: Uptake, Outcomes, Barriers, and the Intersection With Distress.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, Diana; Tanenbaum, Molly L; Iturralde, Esti; Hood, Korey K

    2016-07-01

    Patients managing type 1 diabetes have access to new technologies to assist in management. This manuscript has two aims: 1) to briefly review the literature on diabetes technology use and how this relates to psychological factors and 2) to present an example of human factors research using our data to examine psychological factors associated with technology use. Device/technology uptake and use has increased over the years and at present day is a common clinical practice. There are mixed results in terms of health and psychosocial outcomes, with specific subgroups doing better than others with technology. Our data demonstrated that patients have moderately elevated diabetes distress across differing types of technology used, from low-tech to high-tech options, possibly meaning that technology does not add or take away distress. In addition, users on multiple daily injections compared to all other technology groups have less positive attitudes about technology. Finally, we discuss implications for clinical practice and future research.

  6. Psychological Distress and Arrhythmia: Risk Prediction and Potential Modifiers

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, James; Whang, William

    2014-01-01

    The connection between the heart and the brain has long been anecdotally recognized but systematically studied only relatively recently. Cardiac arrhythmias, especially sudden cardiac death, remain a major public health concern and there is mounting evidence that psychological distress plays a critical role as both a predictor of high-risk cardiac substrate and as an inciting trigger. The transient, unpredictable nature of emotions and cardiac arrhythmias have made their study challenging, but evolving technologies in monitoring and imaging along with larger epidemiological data sets have encouraged more sophisticated studies examining this relationship. Here we review the research on psychological distress including anger, depression and anxiety on cardiac arrhythmias, insights into proposed mechanisms, and potential avenues for future research. PMID:23621968

  7. Progress and Challenges in Reducing Economic Distress in Appalachia: An Analysis of National and Regional Trends since 1960.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Lawrence E.; Bischak, Gregory A.

    This report analyzes changes in the number of distressed counties in Appalachia since 1960, identifies macroeconomic trends associated with distress in Appalachia, and examines socioeconomic factors associated with long-term distress as well as factors that predict whether a county moved out of distress. These data are also compared with similar…

  8. Psychometric evaluation of the HIV symptom distress scale.

    PubMed

    Marc, Linda G; Wang, Ming-Mei; Testa, Marcia A

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this article is to psychometrically validate the HIV symptom distress scale (SDS), an instrument that can be used to measure overall HIV symptom distress or clinically relevant groups of HIV symptoms. A secondary data analysis was conducted using the Collaborations in HIV Outcomes Research US Cohort (CHORUS). Inclusion criteria required study participants (N=5521) to have a valid baseline measure of the AIDS Clinical Trial Group Symptom Distress Module, with an SF-12 or SF-36 completed on the same day. Psychometric testing assessed unidimensionality, internal consistency, and factor structure using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modeling (SEM). Construct validity examined whether the new measure discriminates across clinical significance (CD4 and HIV viral load). Findings show that the SDS has high reliability (α=0.92), and SEM supports a correlated second-order factor model (physical and mental distress) with acceptable fit (GFI=0.88, AGFI=0.85, NFI=0.99, NNFI=0.99; RMSEA=0.06, [90% CI 0.06 - 0.06]; Satorra Bentler scaled, C (2) =3274.20; p=0.0). Construct validity shows significant differences across categories for HIV-1 viral load (p<0.001) and CD4 (p<0.001). Differences in mean SDS scores exist across gender (p<0.001), race/ethnicity (p<0.05), and educational attainment (p<0.001). Hence, the HIV SDS is a reliable and valid instrument, which measures overall HIV symptoms or clinically relevant groups of symptoms.

  9. Positive end expiratory pressure in acute and chronic respiratory distress.

    PubMed

    Greenough, A; Chan, V; Hird, M F

    1992-03-01

    The optimum level of positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) was determined in 16 infants with respiratory distress syndrome (median gestational age 29 weeks, median postnatal age 1 day) and in 16 infants with chronic respiratory distress (median gestational age 25 weeks, median postnatal age 15 days). All infants were studied at a PEEP sequence of 3, 0, 3, 6, and 3 cm H2O, all other ventilator parameters being kept constant. Each PEEP level was maintained for 20 minutes and at the end of each period arterial blood gas was checked. During acute respiratory distress syndrome there were no significant changes in oxygenation but arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) significantly decreased from a mean of 4.93 kPa at 3 cm H2O to 4.40 kPa at 0 cm H2O and increased to a mean of 5.87 kPa at 6 cm H2O. In the infants with chronic respiratory distress, oxygenation fell from a mean of 8.66 kPa at 3 cm H2O to 6.40 kPa at 0 cm H2O and improved at 6 cm H2O to a mean of 10.50 kPa. There were no significant changes in PaCO2. We conclude that addition of PEEP, up to 6 cm H2O, may be useful even after the first week of life. High levels of PEEP, however, have previously been reported, in certain infants, to result in circulatory disturbance. It is therefore important to assess the use of 6 cm H2O PEEP in a controlled study of longer term clinical outcome.

  10. Moral distress and the contemporary plight of health professionals.

    PubMed

    Austin, Wendy

    2012-03-01

    Once a term used primarily by moral philosophers, "moral distress" is increasingly used by health professionals to name experiences of frustration and failure in fulfilling moral obligations inherent to their fiduciary relationship with the public. Although such challenges have always been present, as has discord regarding the right thing to do in particular situations, there is a radical change in the degree and intensity of moral distress being expressed. Has the plight of professionals in healthcare practice changed? "Plight" encompasses not only the act of pledging, but that of predicament and peril. The author claims that health professionals are increasingly put in peril by healthcare reform that undermines their efficacy and jeopardizes ethical engagement with those in their care. The re-engineering of healthcare to give precedence to corporate and commercial values and strategies of commodification, service rationing, streamlining, and measuring of "efficiency," is literally demoralizing health professionals. Healthcare practice needs to be grounded in a capacity for compassion and empathy, as is evident in standards of practice and codes of ethics, and in the understanding of what it means to be a professional. Such grounding allows for humane response to the availability of unprecedented advances in biotechnological treatments, for genuine dialogue and the raising of difficult, necessary ethical questions, and for the mutual support of health professionals themselves. If healthcare environments are not understood as moral communities but rather as simulated marketplaces, then health professionals' moral agency is diminished and their vulnerability to moral distress is exacerbated. Research in moral distress and relational ethics is used to support this claim. PMID:22441996

  11. Positive end expiratory pressure in acute and chronic respiratory distress.

    PubMed Central

    Greenough, A; Chan, V; Hird, M F

    1992-01-01

    The optimum level of positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) was determined in 16 infants with respiratory distress syndrome (median gestational age 29 weeks, median postnatal age 1 day) and in 16 infants with chronic respiratory distress (median gestational age 25 weeks, median postnatal age 15 days). All infants were studied at a PEEP sequence of 3, 0, 3, 6, and 3 cm H2O, all other ventilator parameters being kept constant. Each PEEP level was maintained for 20 minutes and at the end of each period arterial blood gas was checked. During acute respiratory distress syndrome there were no significant changes in oxygenation but arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) significantly decreased from a mean of 4.93 kPa at 3 cm H2O to 4.40 kPa at 0 cm H2O and increased to a mean of 5.87 kPa at 6 cm H2O. In the infants with chronic respiratory distress, oxygenation fell from a mean of 8.66 kPa at 3 cm H2O to 6.40 kPa at 0 cm H2O and improved at 6 cm H2O to a mean of 10.50 kPa. There were no significant changes in PaCO2. We conclude that addition of PEEP, up to 6 cm H2O, may be useful even after the first week of life. High levels of PEEP, however, have previously been reported, in certain infants, to result in circulatory disturbance. It is therefore important to assess the use of 6 cm H2O PEEP in a controlled study of longer term clinical outcome. PMID:1575557

  12. A Brief Review of the Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Sheik N.; Hackney, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    The adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is seen with increasing frequency. It is associated with a variety of conditions even in the absence of preexisting pulmonary diseases. The treatment often includes intubation, using positive-end expiratory pressure (PEEP), and other ancillary support. The mortality rate is high, and physicians caring for such patients should be on guard for disseminated intravascular coagulation, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and infection. PMID:7120452

  13. Prognostic Factors for Distress After Genetic Testing for Hereditary Cancer.

    PubMed

    Voorwinden, Jan S; Jaspers, Jan P C

    2016-06-01

    The psychological impact of an unfavorable genetic test result for counselees at risk for hereditary cancer seems to be limited: only 10-20 % of counselees have psychological problems after testing positive for a known familial mutation. The objective of this study was to find prognostic factors that can predict which counselees are most likely to develop psychological problems after presymptomatic genetic testing. Counselees with a 50 % risk of BRCA1/2 or Lynch syndrome completed questionnaires at three time-points: after receiving a written invitation for a genetic counseling intake (T1), 2-3 days after receiving their DNA test result (T2), and 4-6 weeks later (T3). The psychological impact of the genetic test result was examined shortly and 4-6 weeks after learning their test result. Subsequently, the influence of various potentially prognostic factors on psychological impact were examined in the whole group. Data from 165 counselees were analyzed. Counselees with an unfavorable outcome did not have more emotional distress, but showed significantly more cancer worries 4-6 weeks after learning their test result. Prognostic factors for cancer worries after genetic testing were pre-existing cancer worries, being single, a high risk perception of getting cancer, and an unfavorable test result. Emotional distress was best predicted by pre-existing cancer worries and pre-existing emotional distress. The psychological impact of an unfavorable genetic test result appears considerable if it is measured as "worries about cancer." Genetic counselors should provide additional guidance to counselees with many cancer worries, emotional distress, a high risk perception or a weak social network.

  14. Moral distress and the contemporary plight of health professionals.

    PubMed

    Austin, Wendy

    2012-03-01

    Once a term used primarily by moral philosophers, "moral distress" is increasingly used by health professionals to name experiences of frustration and failure in fulfilling moral obligations inherent to their fiduciary relationship with the public. Although such challenges have always been present, as has discord regarding the right thing to do in particular situations, there is a radical change in the degree and intensity of moral distress being expressed. Has the plight of professionals in healthcare practice changed? "Plight" encompasses not only the act of pledging, but that of predicament and peril. The author claims that health professionals are increasingly put in peril by healthcare reform that undermines their efficacy and jeopardizes ethical engagement with those in their care. The re-engineering of healthcare to give precedence to corporate and commercial values and strategies of commodification, service rationing, streamlining, and measuring of "efficiency," is literally demoralizing health professionals. Healthcare practice needs to be grounded in a capacity for compassion and empathy, as is evident in standards of practice and codes of ethics, and in the understanding of what it means to be a professional. Such grounding allows for humane response to the availability of unprecedented advances in biotechnological treatments, for genuine dialogue and the raising of difficult, necessary ethical questions, and for the mutual support of health professionals themselves. If healthcare environments are not understood as moral communities but rather as simulated marketplaces, then health professionals' moral agency is diminished and their vulnerability to moral distress is exacerbated. Research in moral distress and relational ethics is used to support this claim.

  15. Consequences of psychological distress in adolescents with acne.

    PubMed

    Misery, Laurent

    2011-02-01

    Acne may cause psychological distress that is associated with many psychiatric disorders. In this issue, Halvorsen et al. report suicidal ideation, mental health problems, and affective isolation to be relatively frequent in adolescents with acne. This report suggests that adverse events that have been attributed to therapies for acne, including suicidal ideation and depression, may reflect the burden of substantial acne rather than the effect of medications.

  16. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in lambs. Hematology.

    PubMed

    Ulvund, M J; Grønstøl, H

    1984-01-01

    Lambs suffering from Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) showed elevated PCV, neutrophilia, a tendency towards lymphopenia, eosinopenia, hyperphosphatemia, hypoglycemia and extremely low serum Ca values during the first couple of days after the outbreak of symptoms. During the very early phase, plasma potassium values were mostly lowered (Figs. 1-3, Table I). The possible involvement of histamine is shortly discussed: either 1) through an atopic reaction, 2) because of acute ruminal acidosis and sudden histamine formation, or 3) involvement of endotoxins.

  17. Neonatal respiratory distress following elective delivery. A preventable disease?

    PubMed

    Hack, M; Fanaroff, A A; Klaus, M H; Mendelawitz, B D; Merkatz, I R

    1976-09-01

    Twelve per cent of all infants with respiratory distress admitted to our neonatal intensive-care unit from November, 1973 to April, 1974, were born after elective intervention (15 cesarean sections and four vaginal inductions). All were white and 18/19 were private compared to yearly admissions of white (56 per cent) and private (57 per cent). Eighteen of 19 were admitted from the region via the transport service. Mean birth weight was 2.69 kilograms, with 18 infants over 2 kilograms. Pediatric gestational age from a physical and neurological evaluation ranged from 32 to 39 weeks (mean 36.2 weeks) in contrast to obstetric dating which ranged from 38 to 44 weeks (mean 39 weeks). The obstetric dating was 3 or more weeks greater than the pediatric age in 11 infants. Pulmonary disease included transient tachypnea (5) and respiratory distress syndrome (14). No prior documentation of pulmonary maturity had been obtained in any of these infants. Mean hospitalization was 23 days (range 1 to 140), with estimated costs of $3,421 per baby. Two infants died. Respiratory distress following elective delivery remains a potent source of on-going perinatal morbidity. Regional programs must direct increased educational efforts to eliminate this preventable disease.

  18. Diagnosis, disease stage, and distress of Chinese cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Boyan; Chen, Huiping; Deng, Yaotiao; Yi, Tingwu; Wang, Yuqing

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective is to assess how cancer patients know about their diagnosis what they know about their real stage, and the relationship between cancer stage and psychological distress. Methods A questionnaire including the Distress Thermometer was delivered to 422 cancer inpatients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Most of patients (68.7%) knew the bad news immediately after diagnosis. Half of patients knew their diagnosis directly from medical reports. Nearly one third of patients were informed by doctors. Cancer stages, which patients believed, differed significantly from their real disease stages (P<0.001). Over half of patients did not know their real disease stages. Patients with stage I–III cancer were more likely to know their real disease stage than patients with stage IV cancer (P<0.001). Distress scores of cancer patients were determined by the real cancer stage (P=0.012), not the stage which patients believed. Conclusions Although most of participants knew the bad news immediately after diagnosis, less than half of them knew their real disease stage. Patient with stage I–III cancer was more likely to know the real disease stage and had a DT score <4 than patient with stage IV disease. PMID:27004220

  19. Psychosocial distress in patients presenting with voice concerns

    PubMed Central

    Misono, Stephanie; Peterson, Carol B.; Meredith, Liza; Banks, Kathryn; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Yueh, Bevan; Frazier, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prevalence of psychosocial distress (depression, anxiety, somatization, and perceived stress) in a consecutive sample of patients presenting with voice concerns, and to qualitatively analyze patient comments on challenges associated with voice problems. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Methods New patients presenting to a multidisciplinary voice clinic with voice concerns were invited to participate. Respondents (n = 197) completed the Brief Symptom Inventory 18 item scale (BSI-18), the 4-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4), and the Voice Handicap Index 10 item scale (VHI-10). Qualitative analysis was performed of responses to an open-ended question about challenges associated with a voice problem. Results Approximately one-third (32%) of patients met strict case criteria for depression, anxiety, and/or somatic concerns based on the BSI-18. The majority of these patients had no prior diagnosis of depression or anxiety, and degree of distress was not predicted by type of voice-related diagnosis. Perceived stress was elevated among female patients (p=0.02). As expected, scores on the VHI-10 were indicative of concurrent voice-related handicap (mean 19.5, standard deviation 9.4). In qualitative analysis of responses regarding challenges associated with a voice problem, 19 themes were identified (e.g., threat to occupational functioning). Conclusions These findings identify a high prevalence of multiple types of distress among patients with voice disorders, representing an opportunity to provide more comprehensive care to this patient population. PMID:24930373

  20. [Psychological distress among civilian police: A gender-based analysis].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Franco, Letícia Gastão; Meireles, Camila de Carvalho; Ferreira, Vanessa Tokunaga; Dos Santos, Nilton César

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate potential psychological distress among members of the civilian police force, based on gender differences. It analyzes data from previous research on work, health conditions, and quality of life in the civilian police using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The study included and tested data from the questionnaire applied to a statistically representative sample of 2,746 civilian police (80.8% males and 19.2% females) from the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, according to gender variables and position in the police force (administrative, technical, and operational law enforcement). The study presents an overview of social and economic characteristics, job conditions, health problems, and quality of life, highlighting the areas of information where gender appears as an important factor. The Self-Reported Questionnaire (SRQ-20) was used to investigate psychological distress comparing males and females. The results did not show gender differences in psychological distress, but did identify significant differences in some items in the scale. Female police, especially in technical positions, showed a higher proportion than males. The conclusions corroborate some previous research. PMID:17187109