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Sample records for exile helping distressed

  1. Psychosocial distress of Tibetans in exile: integrating western interventions with traditional beliefs and practice.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Stewart W; Ager, Alastair; Ruwanpura, Eshani

    2005-01-01

    A psychosocial care project for Tibetan torture survivor's and other Tibetan refugees suffering from psychological distress was opened in Dharamsala, North India in 1995 by a western non-government organisation (NGO) in collaboration with the Tibetan government-in-exile. The clinic explicitly sought to integrate western and local traditional approaches to healing. The aim of the present study was to examine the views of key stakeholders of the project in the context of broader cultural and social issues faced by exiled Tibetans. Twenty individual interviews were conducted with 'officials' (members of the Tibetan government-in-exile, religious leaders, other community leaders, and senior medical staff), the staff of the project (Tibetan and western) and the clients themselves. The interviews were taped, transcribed, and analysed using a grounded theory approach. All interviewees considered that mental health was an important issue and that awareness of psychological health in the community had improved since the initiation of the project. Clients and staff of the project, and some of the 'officials', believed that it provided a much-needed service and that it effectively and sensitively combined western psychological approaches with local cultural and religious beliefs and practices. However, a majority of the 'officials' felt that mental health issues were not a top priority in the competing health needs of the community, and that other ways of dealing with such problems (using traditional approaches or local health services) were adequate. Given these and other factors, the longer-term sustainability of the project appears to be a major challenge. According to the users and providers interviewed, the current project has developed an important and beneficial psychosocial support service. However, the continuing debate amongst community leaders regarding the place and future of the project suggests the importance of accommodating the views and priorities of all

  2. Seeking Help for Psychological Distress in Urban China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Based on data gathered through a household survey of 1,474 urban residents in Beijing, this study examines Chinese help-seeking behaviors in times of psychological distress and perceived barriers to seeking professional help. The results demonstrate that most respondents rely on informal means of seeking help whereas mental health and medical…

  3. Seeking Help for Psychological Distress in Urban China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Based on data gathered through a household survey of 1,474 urban residents in Beijing, this study examines Chinese help-seeking behaviors in times of psychological distress and perceived barriers to seeking professional help. The results demonstrate that most respondents rely on informal means of seeking help whereas mental health and medical…

  4. Help-Seeking among Male Employees in Japan: Influence of Workplace Climate and Distress

    PubMed Central

    Maekawa, Yumiko; Ramos-Cejudo, Juan; Kanai, Atsuko

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Although using mental health services is an effective way to cope with work-related stressors and diseases, many employees do not utilize these services despite service improvements in recent years. The present study aimed to investigate the interaction effects of workplace climate and distress on help-seeking attitudes, and elucidate the reasons for mental health service underutilization in Japan. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to 650 full-time male Japanese employees. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to investigate interaction effects of workplace climate and distress on help-seeking. Results: Results showed that the association between workplace climate and help-seeking attitudes differed depending on employee distress level. For employees experiencing low levels of distress, openness to seeking treatment increased with a higher evaluation of the mental health services available at the workplace. However, the same did not hold true for employees experiencing high levels of distress. Instead, openness to seeking treatment decreased with perceived risk for career disadvantage for high distress employees. Additionally, negative values for seeking treatment in highly distressed employees decreased only when services were perceived as valuable, and the risk to their career was perceived as low. Conclusions: Overall, these findings indicate that distress distorts the perception of social support, which may lead to underutilization of available services. Assessing employees' distress levels and tailoring adequate interventions could facilitate help-seeking in male employees. PMID:27725378

  5. Factors influencing help seeking in mentally distressed young adults: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed Central

    Biddle, Lucy; Gunnell, David; Sharp, Debbie; Donovan, Jenny L

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Young adults, especially men, are among those least likely to consult healthcare professionals when mentally distressed or suicidal. AIMS: To investigate the help-seeking behaviours of mentally distressed young adults. Design of study: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Bristol and surrounding areas, including inner-city, suburban and urban locations. METHOD: A questionnaire was sent to a sample of 3004 young adults aged 16-24 years. This assessed probable mental disorder (using the 12-item general health questionnaire [GHQ-12]), suicidal thoughts (GHQ-28 suicide subscale), and help-seeking behaviours. RESULTS: Most responders who were assessed as having probable mental disorders (GHQ "cases") had not sought help. Help seeking was more common in female GHQ cases than male cases (34.8% and 21.8%,respectively; P = 0.003) and women with suicidal thoughts more commonly sought help than men with suicidal thoughts (41.6% and 30.9%, respectively; P = 0.15). Small proportions of male and female GHQ cases (7.5% and 8.9%, respectively; P = 0.6), and less than one in five responders with suicidal thoughts, had consulted a general practitioner. In more female than male cases, help was sought from family and friends (30.7% and 18.4%, respectively; P = 0.004). GHQ score was the strongest predictor of help seeking. Men had a higher threshold of severity at which they would seek help than women. Recent experience of suicidal thoughts appeared to be a stronger predictor of formal help seeking in mentally distressed women than mentally distressed men. CONCLUSION: Distressed young adults are reluctant to seek help. Men are particularly unlikely to do so unless severely distressed and tend not to seek lay support. Sex differences in help seeking may be important in understanding the high suicide rate for men. PMID:15113490

  6. Cyber-Porn Dependence: Voices of Distress in an Italian Internet Self-Help Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaglion, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes narratives of cyber-porn users and defines major patterns of distress as self-reported by contributors to a self-help group in the Internet. It applies narrative analysis methodology to 2000 messages sent by 302 members of an Italian self-help Internet community for cyber-porn dependents ("noallapornodipendenza").…

  7. Cyber-Porn Dependence: Voices of Distress in an Italian Internet Self-Help Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaglion, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes narratives of cyber-porn users and defines major patterns of distress as self-reported by contributors to a self-help group in the Internet. It applies narrative analysis methodology to 2000 messages sent by 302 members of an Italian self-help Internet community for cyber-porn dependents ("noallapornodipendenza").…

  8. Psychological Distress and Help-Seeking among Taiwanese College Students: Role of Gender and Student Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Hsiaowen

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between psychological distress and attitudes toward seeking professional help and whether the relationship was moderated by gender and student status (traditional vs. non-traditional) among Chinese college students in Taiwan. 961 first-year university students completed standardised measures of depression,…

  9. Specific attitudes which predict psychology students' intentions to seek help for psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Susan J; Caputi, Peter; Wilson, Coralie J

    2014-03-01

    Although many postgraduate psychology programs address students' mental health, there are compelling indications that earlier, undergraduate, interventions may be optimal. We investigated specific attitudes that predict students' intentions to seek treatment for psychological distress to inform targeted interventions. Psychology students (N = 289; mean age = 19.75 years) were surveyed about attitudes and intentions to seek treatment for stress, anxiety, or depression. Less than one quarter of students reported that they would be likely to seek treatment should they develop psychological distress. Attitudes that predicted help-seeking intentions related to recognition of symptoms and the benefits of professional help, and openness to treatment for emotional problems. The current study identified specific attitudes which predict help-seeking intentions in psychology students. These attitudes could be strengthened in undergraduate educational interventions promoting well-being and appropriate treatment uptake among psychology students. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Altruism in the wild: when affiliative motives to help positive people overtake empathic motives to help the distressed.

    PubMed

    Hauser, David J; Preston, Stephanie D; Stansfield, R Brent

    2014-06-01

    Psychological theories of human altruism suggest that helping results from an evolved tendency in caregiving mammals to respond to distress or need with empathy and sympathy. However, theories from biology, economics, and social psychology demonstrate that social animals also evolved to affiliate with and help desirable social partners. These models make different predictions about the affect of those we should prefer to help. Empathic models predict a preference to help sad, distressed targets in need, while social affiliative models predict a preference for happy, positive, successful targets. We compared these predictions in 3 field studies that measured the tendency to help sad, happy, and neutral confederates in a real-world, daily context: holding the door for a stranger in public. People consistently held the door more for happy over sad or neutral targets. To allow empathic motivations to compete more strongly against social affiliative ones, a 4th study examined a more consequential form of aid for hypothetical hospital patients in clear need. These conditions enhanced the preference to help a sad over a happy patient, because sadness made the patient appear sicker and in greater need. However, people still preferred the happy patient when the aid required a direct social interaction, attesting to the strength of social affiliation motives, even for sick patients. Theories of prosocial behavior should place greater emphasis on the role of social affiliation in motivating aid, particularly in everyday interpersonal contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. A systematic review of help-seeking interventions for depression, anxiety and general psychological distress

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Depression and anxiety are treatable disorders, yet many people do not seek professional help. Interventions designed to improve help-seeking attitudes and increase help-seeking intentions and behaviour have been evaluated in recent times. However, there have been no systematic reviews of the efficacy or effectiveness of these interventions in promoting help-seeking. Therefore, this paper reports a systematic review of published randomised controlled trials targeting help-seeking attitudes, intentions or behaviours for depression, anxiety, and general psychological distress. Methods Studies were identified through searches of PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane database in November 2011. Studies were included if they included a randomised controlled trial of at least one intervention targeting help-seeking for depression or anxiety or general psychological distress, and contained extractable data on help-seeking attitudes or intentions or behaviour. Studies were excluded if they focused on problems or conditions other than the target (e.g., substance use, eating disorder). Results Six published studies of randomised controlled trials investigating eight different interventions for help-seeking were identified. The majority of trials targeted young adults. Mental health literacy content was effective (d = .12 to .53) in improving help-seeking attitudes in the majority of studies at post-intervention, but had no effect on help-seeking behaviour (d = −.01, .02). There was less evidence for other intervention types such as efforts to destigmatise or provide help-seeking source information. Conclusions Mental health literacy interventions are a promising method for promoting positive help-seeking attitudes, but there is no evidence that it leads to help-seeking behaviour. Further research investigating the effects of interventions on attitudes, intentions, and behaviour is required. PMID:22799879

  12. Polish Literature in Exile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zielinska, Marie F.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a brief historical overview of the development of Polish literature in exile with emphasis on publishing. The upheaval of World War II left many Poles outside their native land. They have created a flourishing press and literature, with 21 Polish houses outside of Poland and other active presses. (SLD)

  13. Language, Identity, and Exile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdinast-Vulcan, Daphna

    2010-01-01

    The exilic mode of being, a living on boundary-lines, produces a constant relativization of one's home, one's culture, one's language, and one's self, through the acknowledgement of otherness. It is a homesickness without nostalgia, without the desire to return to the same, to be identical to oneself. The encounter with the other which produces a…

  14. Language, Identity, and Exile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdinast-Vulcan, Daphna

    2010-01-01

    The exilic mode of being, a living on boundary-lines, produces a constant relativization of one's home, one's culture, one's language, and one's self, through the acknowledgement of otherness. It is a homesickness without nostalgia, without the desire to return to the same, to be identical to oneself. The encounter with the other which produces a…

  15. Wittgenstein as Exile: A Philosophical Topography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that Wittgenstein considered himself an exile and indeed was a self-imposed exile from his native Vienna; that this condition of exile is important for understanding Wittgenstein the man and his philosophy; and that exile as a condition has become both a central characteristic condition of late modernity (as much as alienation…

  16. Wittgenstein as Exile: A Philosophical Topography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that Wittgenstein considered himself an exile and indeed was a self-imposed exile from his native Vienna; that this condition of exile is important for understanding Wittgenstein the man and his philosophy; and that exile as a condition has become both a central characteristic condition of late modernity (as much as alienation…

  17. [Phenomenology of exile: the exiled person and his family].

    PubMed

    Serrano, J A

    1988-01-01

    The experience of exile is the result of the interaction between the protagonists of this human tragedy and the society of refuge. The ambivalence of the refugee and his family is due to the loss of the original narcissistic supports and the need to assert the new situation. The article explains the characteristics of the experience of exile, at the individual and family level, and underlines the double challenge which has to be accepted by the exile and his family as well as by the society of refuge.

  18. Help-seeking among airmen in distressed relationships: Promoting relationship well-being.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Douglas K; Balderrama-Durbin, Christina; Cigrang, Jeffrey A; Talcott, G Wayne; Slep, Amy M Smith; Heyman, Richard E

    2016-03-01

    Although a substantial proportion of service members returning from a combat deployment report individual emotional and behavioral disorders as well as intimate relationship difficulties, previous studies indicate that only a minority actually seek mental health services. Little is known about factors that predict help-seeking in this population. We first review key findings from the literature on help-seeking in military and veteran populations, including mixed findings regarding the role of perceived stigma and attitudes toward mental health treatment. We then present data from a longitudinal study of United States Air Force Security Forces following a year-long high-risk deployment to Iraq-including findings regarding who seeks help, for what problems, and from which providers. We also examine whether these findings differ for Airmen in a married or committed relationship versus nonpartnered Airmen and, for the former group, whether findings differ for those in a distressed versus nondistressed relationship. Finally, we discuss implications of these findings for extending couple-based interventions to service members and veterans, and describe a multitiered "stepped" approach for promoting relationship resiliency.

  19. Adult Attachment and Help-Seeking Intent: The Mediating Roles of Psychological Distress and Perceived Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, David L.; Wei, Meifen

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the mediating roles of perceived social support and psychological distress on the relationship between adult attachment and help-seeking intentions. Participants were 355 college students at a large Midwestern university. The structural equation model results indicated that attachment anxiety in individuals was positively…

  20. Help-Seeking Intentions among Asian American and White American Students in Psychological Distress: Application of the Health Belief Model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin E.; Zane, Nolan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Underutilization of needed mental health services continues to be the major mental health disparity affecting Asian Americans (Sue, Cheng, Saad, & Chu, 2012). The goal of the study was to apply a social psychological theoretical framework—the Health Belief Model (Rosenstock, 1966)—to understand potential reasons why Asian Americans underutilize mental health services relative to White Americans. Method Using a cross-sectional online questionnaire, this study examined how perceived severity of symptoms, perceived susceptibility to mental health problems, perceived benefits of treatment, and perceived barriers to treatment influenced intentions to seek help among a sample of 395 Asian American and 261 White American students experiencing elevated levels of psychological distress. Results Analyses using structural equation modeling indicated that Asian Americans in distress had relatively lower intentions to seek help compared to White Americans. Perceived benefits partially accounted for differences in help-seeking intentions. Although Asian Americans perceived greater barriers to help-seeking than White Americans, it did not significantly explain racial/ethnic differences in help-seeking intentions. Perceived severity and barriers were related to help-seeking intentions in both groups. Conclusions Outreach efforts that particularly emphasize the benefits of seeking mental health services may be a particularly promising approach to address underutilization. These findings have implications in help-seeking promotion and outreach. PMID:26098454

  1. Psychological Distress and Help Seeking Amongst Higher Education Students: Findings from a Mixed Method Study of Undergraduate Nursing/Midwifery and Teacher Education Students in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deasy, Christine; Coughlan, Barry; Pironom, Julie; Jourdan, Didier; Mannix-McNamara, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress as experienced by higher education students is of major concern because of its potential to adversely impact academic performance, retention, mental health and lifestyle. This paper reports a mixed method investigation of student self-reported psychological distress and help-seeking behaviour. The sample comprised all…

  2. Psychological Distress and Help Seeking Amongst Higher Education Students: Findings from a Mixed Method Study of Undergraduate Nursing/Midwifery and Teacher Education Students in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deasy, Christine; Coughlan, Barry; Pironom, Julie; Jourdan, Didier; Mannix-McNamara, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress as experienced by higher education students is of major concern because of its potential to adversely impact academic performance, retention, mental health and lifestyle. This paper reports a mixed method investigation of student self-reported psychological distress and help-seeking behaviour. The sample comprised all…

  3. Philosophical and Psychopathological Perspective of Exile: On Time and Space Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Silva Rojas, Matías; Armijo Nuñez, Julio; Nuñez Erices, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the experience of exile from an interdisciplinary perspective (philosophy and psychiatry). The main purpose is to try to understand the experience of exile by rehearsing a psychopathological perspective to address it, so it can help with the treatment of disorders that come with this experience. Furthermore, the article tries to explore the experience and reflection of philosophers and thinkers who, being exiled themselves, tried to understand and explain this radical human experience, focusing on the experience of time and space. PMID:26074825

  4. Professional Distress and Meaning in Health Care: Why Professional Empathy Can Help.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Eve; Halpern, Jodi

    2015-01-01

    For human service care providers working in hospitals, balancing the motivation for interpersonal engagement with patients alongside self-protective emotional boundaries is a familiar struggle. Empathy is a critical, although not thoroughly understood, aspect of patient care as well as an important ingredient for feeling work satisfaction and meaning. However, empathy can lead to feelings of sympathetic emotional distress and even burnout. This article uses an illustrative case study from a medical social worker in the emergency room to explore these themes of empathy, burnout, and the search for meaning in work. The discussion examines areas for further empirical study and intervention to support care-provider empathy and avoid burnout.

  5. Feasibility of a self-help web-based intervention targeting young cancer patients with sexual problems and fertility distress.

    PubMed

    Wiklander, Maria; Strandquist, Johanna; Obol, Claire Micaux; Eriksson, Lars E; Winterling, Jeanette; Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A; Sjögren Fugl-Meyer, Kerstin; Ahlgren, Johan; Ljungman, Per; Lampic, Claudia; Wettergren, Lena

    2017-07-18

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the feasibility of a self-help web-based intervention to alleviate sexual problems and fertility distress in adolescents and young adults with cancer. Twenty-three persons with cancer (19 women and 4 men, age 18-43, 1-5 years post-diagnosis of lymphoma, breast, gynecologic, central nervous system, or testicular cancer) were recruited to test a 2-month web-based program targeting sexual problems or fertility distress. The programs were organized in modules with educational and behavior change content, including texts, illustrations, exercises, and video vignettes. The program also included a discussion forum and an "ask the expert" forum. In addition, the sexuality program offered two telephone consultations. Feasibility (regarding demand, acceptability, preliminary efficacy, and functionality) was evaluated with the website system data, telephone interviews, continuous online evaluations, and study-specific measures. Fifteen participants completed four modules or more. Most of the program features were used and well accepted by these "committed users." The web-based format enabled flexible use by participants with diverse needs. Preliminary efficacy was indicated by self-reported increased knowledge and skill in handling sexual problems and fertility distress. The website was easy to use and functioned well technically. The present study indicated that this web-based intervention was feasible for adolescents and young adults with cancer. The effectiveness of the intervention in decreasing sexual problems and fertility distress will be tested in a population-based randomized controlled trial for adolescents and young adults with cancer. ISRCTN36621459.

  6. [Networks in science: the "JAE" in the exile].

    PubMed

    Orovio, Consuelo Naranjo; Puig-Samper, Miguel Angel

    2007-01-01

    Junta para Ampliación de Estudios created different academic centers and laboratories in Spain. In this way, JAE helped to create an intellectual network. These centers not only blessed interchanges, debates and the modernization of Spanish science and culture, but also contributed to establish a platform that worked as a bridge in the aftermath of the Spanish Civil War. This network made possible for republican scientists and intellectuals, to find new positions abroad, when the time for exile came.

  7. Wittgenstein as Exile: A Philosophical Topography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Exilic thought is a kind of uprooted thought developed away from "home" under conditions of displacement and uncertainty, often in a different mother tongue, language tradition and culture. Exilic thought is sometimes the self-imposed discipline of the "stranger" who develops his or her identity as an "alien" or immigrant against the conventions…

  8. Wittgenstein as Exile: A Philosophical Topography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Exilic thought is a kind of uprooted thought developed away from "home" under conditions of displacement and uncertainty, often in a different mother tongue, language tradition and culture. Exilic thought is sometimes the self-imposed discipline of the "stranger" who develops his or her identity as an "alien" or immigrant against the conventions…

  9. Relationships between Adolescents' Preferred Sources of Help and Emotional Distress, Ambivalence over Emotional Expression, and Causal Attribution of Symptoms: A Singapore Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Boon-Ooi

    2009-01-01

    Past research has shown that many adolescents with depression and anxiety disorders do not consult mental health professionals. This study examines how emotional distress, ambivalence over emotional expression, and causal attribution of depressive and anxious symptoms are related to adolescents' preferred sources of help for these symptoms. 300…

  10. Being white helps: intersections of self-concealment, stigmatization, identity formation, and psychological distress in racial and sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Shannon L; Antonucci, Erica A; Haden, Sara C

    2014-01-01

    This study had two objectives: (1) examine the impact of self-concealment on identity formation and on degree of psychological distress and (2) examine the impact of perceived stigma on identity formation and on degree of psychological distress. Analyses were conducted on a diverse sample of 166 women, ages 18-32 (white lesbian, non-white lesbian, white heterosexual, and non-white heterosexual). Findings revealed that self-concealment was positively associated with psychological distress in stigmatized women, but unrelated to psychological distress in the non-stigmatized group. Furthermore, although perceived stigma negatively impacted identity formation in the heterosexual groups, it did not impact either group of lesbians. Finally, non-white heterosexual women's perception of stigma was associated with psychological distress. Implications and specific psychological health disparities between groups are discussed.

  11. A Decade of Counseling Services in One College of Veterinary Medicine: Veterinary Medical Students' Psychological Distress and Help-Seeking Trends.

    PubMed

    Drake, Adryanna A S; Hafen, McArthur; Rush, Bonnie R

    2017-01-01

    Much has been discussed about the high prevalence of psychological distress among veterinary medical students. Studies investigating general samples of veterinary medical students indicate that, on average, depression and anxiety symptoms are present at higher rates than in comparison samples. However, little is known about veterinary medical students who seek counseling. This study intends to expand the literature on veterinary student well-being, as the first to examine a sample of veterinary medical students seeking counseling services. It offers an overview of student distress and help-seeking trends from a decade of counseling services provided in one College of Veterinary Medicine (CVM) in the US. The sample includes data from 279 participants. Results indicate a steady increase in students seeking counseling over the last decade. First-year students sought services at higher rates but second-year students experienced the greatest distress when compared to other cohorts. Students seeking counseling services experienced levels of overall distress, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and social role concerns that were, on average, above cut-off scores. Physical health was significantly associated with student distress, suggesting opportunities for intervention.

  12. A guided self-help intervention targeting psychological distress among head and neck cancer and lung cancer patients: motivation to start, experiences and perceived outcomes.

    PubMed

    Krebber, Anne-Marie H; van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F; Melissant, Heleen C; Cuijpers, Pim; van Straten, Annemieke; Becker-Commissaris, Annemarie; Leemans, C René; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M

    2017-01-01

    Recent results of a randomized clinical trial showed that a guided self-help intervention (based on problem-solving therapy) targeting psychological distress among head and neck cancer and lung cancer patients is effective. This study qualitatively explored motivation to start, experiences with and perceived outcomes of this intervention. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews of 16 patients. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed individually by two coders and coded into key issues and themes. Patients participated in the intervention for intrinsic (e.g. to help oneself) and for extrinsic reasons (e.g. being asked by a care professional or to help improve health care). Participants indicated positive and negative experiences with the intervention. Several participants appreciated participating as being a pleasant way to work on oneself, while others described participating as too confrontational. Some expressed their disappointment as they felt the intervention had brought them nothing or indicated that they felt worse temporarily, but most participants perceived positive outcomes of the intervention (e.g. feeling less distressed and having learned what matters in life). Cancer patients have various reasons to start a guided self-help intervention. Participants appreciated the guided self-help as intervention to address psychological distress, but there were also concerns. Most participants reported the intervention to be beneficial. The results suggest the need to identify patients who might benefit most from guided self-help targeting psychological distress and that interventions should be further tailored to individual cancer patients' requirements.

  13. Genograms of exile and return families in Croatia--a medical anthropological approach.

    PubMed

    Spoljar-Vrzina, S M

    2000-12-01

    This article presents the most important results of an applied anthropological long-term study of the prolonged exile and return that many families are currently undergoing in Croatia. The results are elaborated with a special reflection upon two important overlapping issues concerning the methodological approach that was applied: firstly, it discusses the crucial questions which motivated the search for a tool that will not distort the experiences, reality and suffering of exile families; and secondly, it critically describes the application of the genogram (a tool borrowed from systemic family therapy) in the exile setting. This tool was not only useful in the clinical sense of psychotherapeutically helping the families, but was also a very flexible part of the methodology orientated towards evoking family history and providing valid knowledge about different family and living circumstances.

  14. Feasibility randomised controlled trial of a self-help acceptance and commitment therapy intervention for grief and psychological distress in carers of palliative care patients.

    PubMed

    Davis, Esther L; Deane, Frank P; Lyons, Geoffrey Cb; Barclay, Gregory D; Bourne, Joan; Connolly, Vivienne

    2017-06-01

    We tested the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of an acceptance and commitment therapy self-help intervention for grief and psychological distress in carers of patients in palliative care. Carers were randomised to the control group, which received treatment as usual, or the intervention group, which received treatment as usual plus an acceptance and commitment therapy-based self-help booklet and telephone support call. Questionnaires were completed at baseline, 1-month post-allocation and 6 months post-loss. Results indicated that the intervention was generally feasible and viewed as acceptable to carers. Preliminary effectiveness analyses showed at least a small effect in acceptance, valued-living, grief and psychological distress.

  15. Cuba's exiles: portrait of a refugee migration.

    PubMed

    Pedraza-bailey, S

    1985-01-01

    "This article provides a portrait of Cuba's exiles [in the United States] that encompasses all their waves of migration, while utilizing the Cuban exodus to shed light on the broader phenomenon of refugee migration. It argues that to understand the changing social characteristics of the exiles over twenty years of migration, we need to understand the changing phases of the Cuban revolution. Utilizing the Cuban exodus as data, the article uses Egon F. Kunz's...theoretical framework for refugee migration to shed light on the refugees' varying experiences, while also using the actual Cuban refugee experience to react to Kunz's abstract model." excerpt

  16. Cuba's Exiles: Portrait of a Refugee Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedraza-Bailey, Sylvia

    1985-01-01

    Argues that to understand the changing social characteristics of Cuban exiles over 20 years of migration, one must understand the changing phases of the Cuban revolution. Explores Egon F. Kunz's theoretical framework for refugee migration in relation to Cuban exodus data. (GC)

  17. Cuba's Exiles: Portrait of a Refugee Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedraza-Bailey, Sylvia

    1985-01-01

    Argues that to understand the changing social characteristics of Cuban exiles over 20 years of migration, one must understand the changing phases of the Cuban revolution. Explores Egon F. Kunz's theoretical framework for refugee migration in relation to Cuban exodus data. (GC)

  18. The Exilic Classroom: Spaces of Subversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brogan, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the possibility of the classroom as an exilic space of subversion in which we can pursue anarchist notions of personal transformation, relationships and society. Classroom environments in higher education institutions in Britain, particularly following the introduction of the Teaching Excellence Framework in September 2016, are…

  19. Rethinking reproductive "tourism" as reproductive "exile".

    PubMed

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Patrizio, Pasquale

    2009-09-01

    Whereas reproductive "tourism" implies leisure travel, reproductive "exile" bespeaks the numerous difficulties and constraints faced by infertile patients who are "forced" to travel globally for assisted reproduction. Given this reality, it is time to rethink the language of "reproductive tourism," replacing it with more accurate and patient-centered terms.

  20. Dreaming woman: Image, place, and the aesthetics of exile.

    PubMed

    Greenspan, Rachel

    2017-03-14

    Looking closely at an Argentine dream interpretation column published in a popular women's magazine from 1948 to 1951, this article examines the role of the dream image in shaping psychoanalytic discourse on femininity and national identity. The column, 'Psychoanalysis Will Help You,' emerged during Juan Domingo Perón's first presidency, featuring verbal interpretations written under the pen name 'Richard Rest,' as well as surreal photomontages by Grete Stern, a German-born, Bauhaus-trained photographer living in exile since 1936. While the column's Jungian text encourages readers' adaptation to the external reality of their social situation, Stern's droll images emphasize the disjuncture between subject and environment, exposing tensions between the experience of exile and the Peronist mission to consolidate an Argentine national identity. Experimenting formally with European avant-garde techniques, Stern presents femininity and nation as conflictive imaginary configurations. This theme resurfaces at the 2013 Venice Biennale, where Nicola Costantino's multimedia installation Eva - Argentina: A Contemporary Metaphor was exhibited alongside Carl Jung's Red Book. Formal contrasts between Stern's use of photomontage, Costantino's projection technique, and Jung's theory of mandala symbolism indicate the divergent ways in which their artwork posits the therapeutic function of the dream image, as well as the role of aesthetic production in psychoanalytic care.

  1. Three Scales Assessing High School Students' Attitudes and Perceived Norms about Seeking Adult Help for Distress and Suicide Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; Pisani, Anthony R.; Petrova, Mariya; Wyman, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Validated measures that can be administered to school populations are needed to advance knowledge of help-seeking processes and to evaluate suicide prevention programs that target help-seeking. With 6,370 students from 22 high schools, we assessed the psychometric properties of three brief measures: Help-Seeking Acceptability at School, Adult Help…

  2. Three Scales Assessing High School Students' Attitudes and Perceived Norms about Seeking Adult Help for Distress and Suicide Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; Pisani, Anthony R.; Petrova, Mariya; Wyman, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Validated measures that can be administered to school populations are needed to advance knowledge of help-seeking processes and to evaluate suicide prevention programs that target help-seeking. With 6,370 students from 22 high schools, we assessed the psychometric properties of three brief measures: Help-Seeking Acceptability at School, Adult Help…

  3. Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tollefson, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Planning to start or expand a K-8 critical language program? Looking for support in doing so? There "may" be help at the federal level for great ideas and strong programs. While there have been various pools of federal dollars available to support world language programs for a number of years, the federal government's interest in…

  4. Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tollefson, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Planning to start or expand a K-8 critical language program? Looking for support in doing so? There "may" be help at the federal level for great ideas and strong programs. While there have been various pools of federal dollars available to support world language programs for a number of years, the federal government's interest in…

  5. Three scales assessing high school students’ attitudes and perceived norms about seeking adult help for distress and suicide concerns

    PubMed Central

    Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; Pisani, Anthony R.; Petrova, Mariya; Wyman, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Validated measures that can be administered to school populations are needed to advance knowledge of help-seeking processes and to evaluate suicide prevention programs that target help-seeking. With 6,370 students from 22 high schools, we assessed the psychometric properties of three brief measures: Help-Seeking Acceptability at School, Adult Help for Suicidal Youth, and Reject Codes of Silence. Internal consistency coefficients ranged from 0.64 – 0.84. In support of construct validity, lower scores on each scale were associated with more maladaptive coping norms; and for each one unit increase on each scale, students were one-third to one-half as likely to report suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and elevated depression. PMID:22324773

  6. Mental distress, alcohol use and help-seeking among medical and business students: a cross-sectional comparative study.

    PubMed

    Dahlin, Marie; Nilsson, Caroline; Stotzer, Emelie; Runeson, Bo

    2011-11-07

    Stress and distress among medical students are thoroughly studied and presumed to be particularly high, but comparative studies including other student groups are rare. A web-based survey was distributed to 500 medical students and 500 business students. We compared levels of study stress (HESI), burnout (OLBI), alcohol habits (AUDIT) and depression (MDI), and analysed their relationship with self-assessed mental health problems by logistic regression, with respect to gender. Medical students' response rate was 81.6% and that of business students 69.4%. Business students scored higher on several study stress factors and on disengagement. Depression (OR 0.61, CI95 0.37;0.98) and harmful alcohol use (OR 0.55, CI95 0.37; 0.75) were both less common among medical students. However, harmful alcohol use was highly prevalent among male students in both groups (medical students 28.0%, business students 35.4%), and among female business students (25.0%). Mental health problems in need of treatment were equally common in both groups; 22.1% and 19.3%, respectively, and was associated with female sex (OR 2.01, CI95 1.32;3.04), exhaustion (OR 2.56, CI95 1.60;4.10), lower commitment to studies (OR 1.95, CI95 1.09;3.51) and financial concerns (OR 1.81 CI95 1.18;2.80) Medical students may not be more stressed than other high achieving student populations. The more cohesive structure of medical school and a higher awareness of a healthy lifestyle may be beneficial factors.

  7. Mental distress, alcohol use and help-seeking among medical and business students: a cross-sectional comparative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Stress and distress among medical students are thoroughly studied and presumed to be particularly high, but comparative studies including other student groups are rare. Methods A web-based survey was distributed to 500 medical students and 500 business students. We compared levels of study stress (HESI), burnout (OLBI), alcohol habits (AUDIT) and depression (MDI), and analysed their relationship with self-assessed mental health problems by logistic regression, with respect to gender. Results Medical students' response rate was 81.6% and that of business students 69.4%. Business students scored higher on several study stress factors and on disengagement. Depression (OR 0.61, CI95 0.37;0.98) and harmful alcohol use (OR 0.55, CI95 0.37; 0.75) were both less common among medical students. However, harmful alcohol use was highly prevalent among male students in both groups (medical students 28.0%, business students 35.4%), and among female business students (25.0%). Mental health problems in need of treatment were equally common in both groups; 22.1% and 19.3%, respectively, and was associated with female sex (OR 2.01, CI95 1.32;3.04), exhaustion (OR 2.56, CI95 1.60;4.10), lower commitment to studies (OR 1.95, CI95 1.09;3.51) and financial concerns (OR 1.81 CI95 1.18;2.80) Conclusions Medical students may not be more stressed than other high achieving student populations. The more cohesive structure of medical school and a higher awareness of a healthy lifestyle may be beneficial factors. PMID:22059598

  8. Respiratory distress.

    PubMed

    Fallot, André

    2005-11-01

    Preparation for pediatric pulmonary emergencies in the office setting includes adequate training for all medical staff, properly sized and working equipment, and medications to help alleviate respiratory distress when indicated. Status asthmaticus, viral bronchiolitis, and croup account for the vast majority of respiratory emergencies encountered in the pediatric office setting. Timely application of proven approaches to assessment and treatment of these illnesses can prevent hospitalization, decrease length of hospitalizations, and save lives.

  9. Acceptance and commitment therapy as guided self-help for psychological distress and positive mental health: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Fledderus, M; Bohlmeijer, E T; Pieterse, M E; Schreurs, K M G

    2012-03-01

    In order to reduce the high prevalence of depression, early interventions for people at risk of depression are warranted. This study evaluated the effectiveness of an early guided self-help programme based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for reducing depressive symptomatology. Participants with mild to moderate depressive symptomatology were recruited from the general population and randomized to the self-help programme with extensive email support (n=125), the self-help programme with minimal email support (n=125) or to a waiting list control group (n=126). Participants completed measures before and after the intervention to assess depression, anxiety, fatigue, experiential avoidance, positive mental health and mindfulness. Participants in the experimental conditions also completed these measures at a 3-month follow-up. In the experimental conditions significant reductions in depression, anxiety, fatigue, experiential avoidance and improvements in positive mental health and mindfulness were found, compared with the waiting list condition (effect sizes Cohen's d=0.51-1.00). These effects were sustained at the 3-month follow-up. There were no significant differences between the experimental conditions on the outcome measures. The ACT-based self-help programme with minimal email support is effective for people with mild to moderate depressive symptomatology.

  10. Exile as a Means for the Meeting and Construction of Pedagogies: The Exiled Spanish Republican Teachers in Mexico in 1939

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civera, Alicia

    2011-01-01

    There has been little study of political exile as a means for transferring pedagogic ideas and models, which has been important in Latin America, especially in the case of the Spaniards exiled in Mexico after the defeat of the Second Republic at the end of the 1930s. The Mexican government's sympathy with the Second Republic allowed many teachers…

  11. Exile as a Means for the Meeting and Construction of Pedagogies: The Exiled Spanish Republican Teachers in Mexico in 1939

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civera, Alicia

    2011-01-01

    There has been little study of political exile as a means for transferring pedagogic ideas and models, which has been important in Latin America, especially in the case of the Spaniards exiled in Mexico after the defeat of the Second Republic at the end of the 1930s. The Mexican government's sympathy with the Second Republic allowed many teachers…

  12. The Soul's Legacy: A Program Designed to Help Prepare Senior Adults Cope With End-of-Life Existential Distress.

    PubMed

    Grewe, Fred

    2017-01-01

    Current innovative psychological therapies have made great progress in addressing existential suffering in dying patients but are often begun to late in the end-of-life process and often ignore religion, which for many is a major component in the meaning-making process. Therefore, this article explores how chaplains (who are familiar with various religious traditions without promoting them) can help prepare senior adults effectively cope with inevitable end-of-life existential issues. The project described in this article provides tools for chaplains to address the real issues that terrify us all, but particularly the elderly: death, isolation, and meaninglessness. It is proposed that the addition of a spiritual will or legacy of the soul added to end-of-life planning can help ameliorate existential suffering at life's end.

  13. Respiratory Distress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The University of Miami School of Medicine asked the Research Triangle Institute for assistance in improvising the negative pressure technique to relieve respiratory distress in infants. Marshall Space Flight Center and Johnson Space Center engineers adapted this idea to the lower-body negative-pressure system seals used during the Skylab missions. Some 20,000 babies succumb to respiratory distress in the U.S. each year, a condition in which lungs progressively lose their ability to oxygenate blood. Both positive and negative pressure techniques have been used - the first to force air into lungs, the second to keep infant's lungs expanded. Negative pressure around chest helps the baby expand his lungs and maintain proper volume of air. If doctors can keep the infant alive for four days, the missing substance in the lungs will usually form in sufficient quantity to permit normal breathing. The Skylab chamber and its leakproof seals were adapted for medical use.

  14. The role of psychological flexibility in a self-help acceptance and commitment therapy intervention for psychological distress in a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Fledderus, Martine; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T; Fox, Jean-Paul; Schreurs, Karlein M G; Spinhoven, Philip

    2013-03-01

    This study examined the role of psychological flexibility, as a risk factor and as a process of change, in a self-help Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) intervention for adults with mild to moderate depression and anxiety. Participants were randomized to the self-help programme with e-mail support (n=250), or to a waiting list control group (n=126). All participants completed measures before and after the intervention to assess depression, anxiety and psychological flexibility. Participants in the experimental condition also completed these measures during the intervention (after three and six weeks) and at a three-month follow-up. With multilevel modelling, it was shown that the effects of the intervention on psychological distress were stronger for participants with higher levels of psychological flexibility. Furthermore, our study showed that improved psychological flexibility mediated the effects of the ACT intervention. With a cross-lagged panel design, it was shown that especially improvements in psychological flexibility in the last three sessions of the intervention were important for further reductions in anxiety. To conclude, our study showed the importance of targeting psychological flexibility during an ACT intervention for a reduction in depressive and anxiety symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationships Among Financial Distress, Emotional Distress, and Overall Distress in Insured Patients With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meeker, Caitlin R.; Geynisman, Daniel M.; Egleston, Brian L.; Hall, Michael J.; Mechanic, Karen Y.; Bilusic, Marijo; Plimack, Elizabeth R.; Martin, Lainie P.; von Mehren, Margaret; Lewis, Bianca

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Recent studies have demonstrated increasing rates of financial toxicities and emotional distress related to cancer treatment. This study assessed and characterized the relationships among financial distress, emotional symptoms, and overall distress in patients with cancer. Methods: A cross-sectional sample of patients with cancer who visited our outpatient medical oncology and psychiatry clinics completed a pen-and-paper survey. The survey assessed demographics; cost concerns; and financial, emotional, and overall distress. Results: One hundred twenty insured patients completed the survey. Sixty-five percent reported clinically significant overall distress scores, with the same percentage reporting at least one emotional problem (worry, anxiety, depression, etc). Twenty-nine percent scored in the range of high to overwhelming financial distress. By using structural equation modeling, we found that financial distress was associated with overall distress. This association was both direct (accounting for 76% of the effect) and indirect (accounting for 24% of the effect) via mediation by emotional distress. Conclusion: This cohort of patients with cancer reported significant levels of emotional distress, financial distress, and overall distress. These factors were interrelated, with both financial and emotional distress contributing to overall distress. Interventions targeted at alleviating financial distress may help to decrease levels of overall distress. PMID:27328795

  16. Relationships Among Financial Distress, Emotional Distress, and Overall Distress in Insured Patients With Cancer.

    PubMed

    Meeker, Caitlin R; Geynisman, Daniel M; Egleston, Brian L; Hall, Michael J; Mechanic, Karen Y; Bilusic, Marijo; Plimack, Elizabeth R; Martin, Lainie P; von Mehren, Margaret; Lewis, Bianca; Wong, Yu-Ning

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated increasing rates of financial toxicities and emotional distress related to cancer treatment. This study assessed and characterized the relationships among financial distress, emotional symptoms, and overall distress in patients with cancer. A cross-sectional sample of patients with cancer who visited our outpatient medical oncology and psychiatry clinics completed a pen-and-paper survey. The survey assessed demographics; cost concerns; and financial, emotional, and overall distress. One hundred twenty insured patients completed the survey. Sixty-five percent reported clinically significant overall distress scores, with the same percentage reporting at least one emotional problem (worry, anxiety, depression, etc). Twenty-nine percent scored in the range of high to overwhelming financial distress. By using structural equation modeling, we found that financial distress was associated with overall distress. This association was both direct (accounting for 76% of the effect) and indirect (accounting for 24% of the effect) via mediation by emotional distress. This cohort of patients with cancer reported significant levels of emotional distress, financial distress, and overall distress. These factors were interrelated, with both financial and emotional distress contributing to overall distress. Interventions targeted at alleviating financial distress may help to decrease levels of overall distress. Copyright © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  17. [Growing old in exile: a double punishment or a double luck?].

    PubMed

    Griner-Abraham, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Between the situation of the exile, for whom all points of reference have been lost, and the clinical presentation of elderly patients, the symptomatology is similar. So what is the situation regarding the ageing of exiled patients? Exile is a trauma typically marked by five clinical phases. A clinical approach to exile between nostalgia, ageing and belonging: this reflection is based on an assessment of existing circumstances and on the epidemiological and clinical aspects relating to treatments.

  18. Development of a Self-Help Web-Based Intervention Targeting Young Cancer Patients With Sexual Problems and Fertility Distress in Collaboration With Patient Research Partners

    PubMed Central

    Obol, Claire Micaux; Lampic, Claudia; Eriksson, Lars E; Pelters, Britta; Wettergren, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Background The Internet should be suitable for delivery of interventions targeting young cancer patients. Young people are familiar with the technologies, and this patient group is small and geographically dispersed. Still, only few psycho-educational Web-based interventions are designed for this group. Young cancer patients consider reproductive health, including sexuality, an area of great importance and approximately 50% report sexual problems and fertility-related concerns following cancer treatment. Therefore, we set out to develop a self-help Web-based intervention, Fex-Can, to alleviate such problems. To improve its quality, we decided to involve patients and significant others as research partners. The first 18 months of our collaboration are described in this paper. The intervention will subsequently be tested in a feasibility study followed by a randomized controlled trial. Objective The study aims to describe the development of a Web-based intervention in long-term collaboration with patient research partners (PRPs). Methods Ten former cancer patients and two significant others participated in building the Web-based intervention, using a participatory design. The development process is described according to the design step in the holistic framework presented by van Gemert-Pijnen et al and evaluates the PRPs’ impact on the content, system, and service quality of the planned intervention. Results The collaboration between the research group and the PRPs mainly took place in the form of 1-day meetings to develop the key components of the intervention: educational and behavior change content, multimedia (pictures, video vignettes, and audios), interactive online activities (eg, self-monitoring), and partial feedback support (discussion forum, tailored feedback from experts). The PRPs influenced the intervention’s content quality in several ways. By repeated feedback on prototypes, the information became more comprehensive, relevant, and understandable

  19. Development of a Self-Help Web-Based Intervention Targeting Young Cancer Patients With Sexual Problems and Fertility Distress in Collaboration With Patient Research Partners.

    PubMed

    Winterling, Jeanette; Wiklander, Maria; Obol, Claire Micaux; Lampic, Claudia; Eriksson, Lars E; Pelters, Britta; Wettergren, Lena

    2016-04-12

    The Internet should be suitable for delivery of interventions targeting young cancer patients. Young people are familiar with the technologies, and this patient group is small and geographically dispersed. Still, only few psycho-educational Web-based interventions are designed for this group. Young cancer patients consider reproductive health, including sexuality, an area of great importance and approximately 50% report sexual problems and fertility-related concerns following cancer treatment. Therefore, we set out to develop a self-help Web-based intervention, Fex-Can, to alleviate such problems. To improve its quality, we decided to involve patients and significant others as research partners. The first 18 months of our collaboration are described in this paper. The intervention will subsequently be tested in a feasibility study followed by a randomized controlled trial. The study aims to describe the development of a Web-based intervention in long-term collaboration with patient research partners (PRPs). Ten former cancer patients and two significant others participated in building the Web-based intervention, using a participatory design. The development process is described according to the design step in the holistic framework presented by van Gemert-Pijnen et al and evaluates the PRPs' impact on the content, system, and service quality of the planned intervention. The collaboration between the research group and the PRPs mainly took place in the form of 1-day meetings to develop the key components of the intervention: educational and behavior change content, multimedia (pictures, video vignettes, and audios), interactive online activities (eg, self-monitoring), and partial feedback support (discussion forum, tailored feedback from experts). The PRPs influenced the intervention's content quality in several ways. By repeated feedback on prototypes, the information became more comprehensive, relevant, and understandable. The PRPs gave suggestions concerning the

  20. Searching for Love and Test-Tube Babies: Iraqi Refugee Men in Reproductive Exile on the Margins of Detroit.

    PubMed

    Inhorn, Marcia C

    2017-01-06

    In this article, I explore the reproductive health problems faced by Iraqi refugees, one of America's most rapidly growing immigrant populations. Based on anthropological research in "Arab Detroit," the "capital" of Arab America, I explore the experiences of Iraqi refugee men seeking medical help for their infertility. Most required intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), a variant of in vitro fertilization (IVF). However, in America's privatized medical system-where a single cycle can cost more than $12,000-few could possibly afford this assisted reproductive technology (ART). Although Iraqi refugees had diasporic dreams of making a test-tube baby, they were stuck in a situation of "reproductive exile"-forced out of their home country by war, but unable to access costly ARTs in the country that led to their displacement. I elaborate on the concept of reproductive exile, attempting to translate Iraqi refugee men's reproductive agency and desires, but also their profound disappointments. [Figure: see text].

  1. [Exile of Czechoslovak physicians to Sweden after 1968].

    PubMed

    Stěpán, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the situation of the Czechoslovak exile, especially the exile of physicians to Sweden. Many of Czechoslovak physicians decided to emigrate due to their political attitudes. Majority of them left Czechoslovakia after the invasion of Warsaw Pact armies in 1968. The top of the exile wave was shortly after August 1968 and during 1969. Most of the people escaped from Czechoslovakia via Austria, where they asked for political asylum. Part of the emigrants had to spend some months in the refugee camps and during this time they tried to get visa to other European or non European countries. One of target countries for medical emigrants was also Sweden. In the 60th Sweden had deficiency in physicians and the wave of Czechoslovak emigration was convenient for Swedish Ministry of Health. The group of emigrants consisted of experts from hospitals or graduated medical students. In Sweden they had to attend special courses of Swedish medical language, Swedish medical law and social medicine. If they had medical training shorter than three years, they had to attend special courses also in internal medicine, surgery and psychiatry. After one year of service in northern part of Sweden, where there was a lack of physicians, they could choose hospital, where they wanted to work. Czechoslovak physicians were very successful in the Swedish medical system and also well accepted in the Swedish society as other exulants from Czechoslovakia. Key words: Czechoslovak exile to Sweden, political asylum 1968-1968.

  2. [Freud in the journals of the German speaking exile].

    PubMed

    May, Ulrike

    2006-01-01

    Freud and psychoanalysis figure frequently in exile journals. This paper documents two letters to the editor written by Alexander Freud who denied that his brother Sigmund had been a zionist, and the recollections of the sculptor Königsberger who had made a bust of Freud in 1920.

  3. Race and Place in the Adaptation of Mariel Exiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skop, Emily H.

    2001-01-01

    The influx of lower class Cuban emigres during the 1980 Mariel Boatlift complicates the success story image of previous waves of Cuban exiles. Argues that place of incorporation should be a necessary ingredient in illuminating diverse adjustment experiences among immigrants and refugees to the United States. Concludes by discussing the Cuban…

  4. Race and Place in the Adaptation of Mariel Exiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skop, Emily H.

    2001-01-01

    The influx of lower class Cuban emigres during the 1980 Mariel Boatlift complicates the success story image of previous waves of Cuban exiles. Argues that place of incorporation should be a necessary ingredient in illuminating diverse adjustment experiences among immigrants and refugees to the United States. Concludes by discussing the Cuban…

  5. Late style as exile: De/colonising the life course.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Heike

    2016-12-01

    In the collection of essays On Late Style, Edward Said reflects on the new idiom achieved by great artists in their work near the end of their lives as "late style." Drawing on Adorno's essay on Beethoven's late style, Said also focuses on the aesthetic aspects of lateness. Defining the late works of artists as "a form of exile," however, Said moves beyond Adorno's aesthetic conception of late style. Highlighting the artist's abandonment of communication with the established social order, who achieves a contradictory, alienated relationship with it instead, Said compares artistic lateness with the experience of the subject in exile. Drawing on the analogy provided by Said, this article argues that the relationship between "self" and "other" in the different theoretical contexts of Postcolonial Studies and Age Studies can be usefully combined in the composite concept of "late style as exile." In order to explore how the concept of lateness correlates with that of exile, this contribution turns to theoretical and autobiographical texts by Edward Said. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Between Home and Exile: A Reading of the Exilic Experience of the Iraqi Poet Adnan Al-Sayegh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghena, Hana Khlaif

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at exploring the exilic experience of the Iraqi poet, Adnan Al-Sayegh whose involuntarily departure from his homeland, Iraq, in the early 1990s made him suffer a strong sense of estrangement, nostalgia, self-fragmentation and disconnection. The paper is divided into three sections and a conclusion. Section one sheds light on the…

  7. DOD’s Use of Iraqi Exiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    the Invasion and Occupation of Iraq (2006), 316. 104 Ibid. See also: Warren P. Strobel and John Walcott , "Post-War Planning Non-Existent," Knight...that he had spent 120 Warren P. Strobel and John Walcott , "Post-War Planning Non-Existent," Knight...Chalabi: Help Us Liberate Iraq," National Journal (July 13, 2002). http://www.cfr.org (accessed December 9, 2005). Strobel, Warren P. and John Walcott

  8. Newborn Respiratory Distress.

    PubMed

    Hermansen, Christian L; Mahajan, Anand

    2015-12-01

    Newborn respiratory distress presents a diagnostic and management challenge. Newborns with respiratory distress commonly exhibit tachypnea with a respiratory rate of more than 60 respirations per minute. They may present with grunting, retractions, nasal flaring, and cyanosis. Common causes include transient tachypnea of the newborn, respiratory distress syndrome, meconium aspiration syndrome, pneumonia, sepsis, pneumothorax, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, and delayed transition. Congenital heart defects, airway malformations, and inborn errors of metabolism are less common etiologies. Clinicians should be familiar with updated neonatal resuscitation guidelines. Initial evaluation includes a detailed history and physical examination. The clinician should monitor vital signs and measure oxygen saturation with pulse oximetry, and blood gas measurement may be considered. Chest radiography is helpful in the diagnosis. Blood cultures, serial complete blood counts, and C-reactive protein measurement are useful for the evaluation of sepsis. Most neonates with respiratory distress can be treated with respiratory support and noninvasive methods. Oxygen can be provided via bag/mask, nasal cannula, oxygen hood, and nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Ventilator support may be used in more severe cases. Surfactant is increasingly used for respiratory distress syndrome. Using the INSURE technique, the newborn is intubated, given surfactant, and quickly extubated to nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Newborns should be screened for critical congenital heart defects via pulse oximetry after 24 hours but before hospital discharge. Neonatology consultation is recommended if the illness exceeds the clinician's expertise and comfort level or when the diagnosis is unclear in a critically ill newborn.

  9. Exile Has Its Place: A High School Principal Reflects on School Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, T. Elijah

    2011-01-01

    Exile has its place. As an age-old human response to conflict, its potential value to the healthy maturation of students and the school community should not be discounted. Exile or ostracism goes by various names in school. Students are told: Move your desk. Leave the classroom and wait in the hall. Go to the office. Go to detention. You're…

  10. Between Exile and the Kingdom: Albert Camus and Empowering Classroom Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curzon-Hobson, Aidan

    2003-01-01

    In undertaking an analysis of the work of Camus in the context of the learning environment, this paper examines the breadth of Camus's writing with particular emphasis on the writer's final major work: "Exile and the Kingdom" (1958). It is proposed that "Exile and the Kingdom" could and should be read as an attempt by Camus to explicate in full…

  11. Between Exile and the Kingdom: Albert Camus and Empowering Classroom Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curzon-Hobson, Aidan

    2003-01-01

    In undertaking an analysis of the work of Camus in the context of the learning environment, this paper examines the breadth of Camus's writing with particular emphasis on the writer's final major work: "Exile and the Kingdom" (1958). It is proposed that "Exile and the Kingdom" could and should be read as an attempt by Camus to explicate in full…

  12. [Getting old on foreign earth: more suffering from exile].

    PubMed

    Stitou, Rajaa

    2008-03-01

    This paper, which refers to psychoanalysis and anthropology, is devoted to the clinical impact of suffering to get old on foreign earth, at the junction of singularity and culture, on psychic and social sides. It presents some elements on: the discontentment or even the misery of those called foreign workers and who, however, live more and more their retirement and their old age far from the world which contains their language and their culture; the necessity of a redevelopment of settings for listening, when confronted to a suffering whose expressive forms exceed the logic underlying the classical conceptual frames, and disturbs the social and caregiver professionals. This approach leaves place, at first, to the subjective resonance of exile without which one cannot understand what old subjects have to pass through. This exile, which cannot be reduced to emigration, and which sometimes is again actualized with violence during the passage to retirement and aging, reminds to each one his incompleteness and mortality. It disturbs the self-feeling and the relation to others, which require to pass by cultural references to feel being protected and humanized. Listening, to be efficient, should not break or emphasize their difference, but has to be attentive to the peculiar link which connects him to its culture; link which allows him to give sense in every decisive moment of existence.

  13. Living in exile when disaster strikes at home.

    PubMed

    Stige, Signe Hjelen; Sveaass, Nora

    2010-01-01

    As the number of migrants,- forced or voluntary,- increases, there is a growing need to understand how negative events in the country of origin influence those residing abroad. This issue has been actualized by the recent earthquakes in Haiti and Chile. Persons in exile have frequently been exposed to severe human rights violations and other stressors prior to emigration. The present study explored possible associations between ongoing and former stressors and mental health problems among persons living in exile as the Tsunami disaster of 2004 struck their country of origin. The contribution of former exposure and exilerelated difficulties in explaining current mental health problems was explored together with Tsunami related bereavement and social support. Following the Tsunami disaster of 2004 a questionnaire was administered to individuals of Tamil and Acehnese origin residing in Norway. The results suggest an independent contribution of exilerelated difficulties, former exposure and social support in explaining current mental health problems in this group. The study also disclosed methodological challenges involved both in relation to recruiting participants and in isolating the contribution of a particular stressor in populations with high levels of former exposure as well as ongoing stress.

  14. Prevention and Treatment of Relationship Distress

    PubMed Central

    Byers, E. Sandra

    1989-01-01

    Relationship distress is likely to be a pervasive problem among patients seen by the primary care physician. Further, it can influence the patient's mental and physical health and well-being. The physician should play a role in the prevention and the alleviation of relationship distress. The author suggests how the physician can help prevent relationship distress by providing anticipatory counselling. In addition, some guidelines for effective physician intervention in cases of mild distress and for successful referral in cases of significant distress are outlined. PMID:21249067

  15. Distress intolerance and clinical functioning in persons with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Nugent, Katie L.; Chiappelli, Joshua; Rowland, Laura M.; Daughters, Stacey B.; Hong, L. Elliot

    2014-01-01

    Impaired tolerance to distress may help explain part of the cognitive and functional impairments in schizophrenia. This project investigated distress intolerance in schizophrenia patients (SZ) as compared to controls, and whether distress intolerance represented an independent domain in relationship to symptoms, cognition, and functional capacity. Healthy controls (n=43) and SZ (n=65) completed a psychological distress challenge experiment and their levels of intolerance to distress were estimated. SZ showed increased distress intolerance such that they were significantly more likely to terminate the distress challenge session early compared to controls. Greater distress intolerance was associated with reduced functional capacity and worse cognitive performance in SZ. Mediation analyses suggested that distress intolerance had an independent effect on functional capacity, while some of this effect was mediated by cognitive performance. Our results suggest that distress intolerance is a promising domain for treatment research, and functional capacity may be improved by targeting treatments towards SZ patient’s ability to tolerate distress. PMID:25107316

  16. One in two cancer patients is significantly distressed: Prevalence and indicators of distress.

    PubMed

    Mehnert, A; Hartung, T J; Friedrich, M; Vehling, S; Brähler, E; Härter, M; Keller, M; Schulz, H; Wegscheider, K; Weis, J; Koch, U; Faller, H

    2017-05-31

    Psychological distress is common in cancer patients, and awareness of its indicators is essential. We aimed to assess the prevalence of psychological distress and to identify problems indicative of high distress. We used the distress thermometer (DT) and its 34-item problem list to measure psychological distress in 3724 cancer patients (mean age 58 years; 57% women) across major tumor entities, enrolled in an epidemiological multicenter study. To identify distress-related problems, we conducted monothetic analyses. We found high levels of psychological distress (DT ≥ 5) in 52% of patients. The most prevalent problems were fatigue (56%), sleep problems (51%), and problems getting around (47%). Sadness, fatigue, and sleep problems were most strongly associated with the presence of other problems. High distress was present in 81.4% of patients reporting all 3 of these problems (DT M = 6.4). When analyzing only the subset of physical problems, fatigue, problems getting around, and indigestion showed the strongest association with the remaining problems and 76.3% of patients with all 3 problems were highly distressed (DT M = 6.1). Our results show a high prevalence of psychological distress in cancer patients, as well as a set of problems that indicate the likely presence of other problems and high distress and can help clinicians identify distressed patients even if no routine distress screening is available. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Distress Screening in a Multidisciplinary Lung Cancer Clinic: Prevalence and Predictors of Clinically-Significant Distress

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Kristi D.; Arnold, Susanne M.; Love, Celia L.; Kirsh, Kenneth L.; Moore, Pamela G.; Passik, Steven D.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Screening for distress in cancer patients is recommended by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, and a Distress Thermometer has previously been developed and empirically-validated for this purpose. The present study sought to determine the rates and predictors of distress in a sample of patients being seen in a multidisciplinary lung cancer clinic. Consecutive patients (N = 333) were recruited from an outpatient multidisciplinary lung cancer clinic to complete the Distress Thermometer, an associated Problem Symptom List, and two questions about interest in receiving help for symptoms. Over half (61.6%) of patients reported distress at a clinically significant level, and 22.5% of patients indicated interest in receiving help with their distress and/or symptoms. Problems in the areas of family relationships, emotional functioning, lack of information about diagnosis/treatment, physical functioning, and cognitive functioning were associated with higher reports of distress. Specific symptoms of depression, anxiety, pain and fatigue were most predictive of distress. Younger age was also associated with higher levels of distress. Distress was not associated with other clinical variables, including stage of illness or medical treatment approach. Similar results were obtained when individuals who had not yet received a definitive diagnosis of lung cancer (n = 134) were excluded from analyses; however, family problems and anxiety were no longer predictive of distress. Screening for distress in a multidisciplinary lung cancer clinic is feasible and a significant number of patients can be expected to meet clinical criteria for distress. Results also highlight younger age and specific physical and psychosocial symptoms as predictive of clinically-significant distress. Identification of the presence and predictors of distress are the first steps toward appropriate referral and treatment of symptoms and problems that contribute to cancer patients’ distress. PMID

  18. The anatomist Hans Elias: A Jewish German in exile.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, S

    2012-04-01

    Hans Elias (1907 to 1985) was an anatomist, an educator, a mathematician, a cinematographer, a painter, and a sculptor. Above all, he was a German of Jewish descent, who had to leave his home country because of the policies of the National Socialist (NS) regime. He spent his life in exile, first in Italy and then in the United States. His biography is exemplary for a generation of younger expatriates from National Socialist Germany who had to find a new professional career under difficult circumstances. Elias was a greatly productive morphologist whose artistic talent led to the foundation of the new science of stereology and made him an expert in scientific cinematography. He struggled hard to fulfill his own high expectations of himself in terms of his effectiveness as a scientist, educator, and politically acting man in this world. Throughout his life this strong-willed and outspoken man never lost his great fondness for Germany and many of its people, while reserving some of his sharpest criticism for fellow anatomists who were active in National Socialist Germany, among them his friend Hermann Stieve, Max Clara, and Heinrich von Hayek. Hans Elias' life is well documented in his unpublished diaries and memoirs, and thus allows fresh insights into a time period when some anatomists were among the first victims of NS policies and other anatomists became involved in the execution of such policies.

  19. Charlotte Wolff and lesbian history: reconfiguring liminality in exile.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Toni; Hegarty, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the "liminality" of the psychologist Charlotte Wolff, MD (1897-1986). Always living openly as a lesbian since her school days in Danzig, Wolff trained as a doctor-also pursuing a parallel interest in poetry and in philosophy. As a Jewish person, she was forced to leave the Berlin Health Service and flee Germany when the Nazi regime came to power. Having moved to Great Britain in 1936 after three years in France, Wolff reconfigured "exile" beyond the literal experience of emigration and immigration, as a form of "marginality" or "liminality" always involved in artistic and scientific endeavors. In her life and work she negotiated several liminal areas-from her gender presentation to her standing in the academic and scientific community (she was a Fellow of the British Psychological Society, to which she bequeathed her papers and the copyright to her work, but at the same time she was not an eminent psychologist), to her membership of sexual minority organizations (she conducted pioneering research on lesbianism and bisexuality, but some resented her connection with the psy-professions). In the spirit of Wolff's "liminality" as a strategy and creative zone, and along the lines indicated by Morawski (1994) as regards the transformative possibilities of feminist psychology as a liminal science, we argue for a reappraisal of Wolff's life and work that, in negotiating the borderlands between lesbian history and history of psychology, could enrich both disciplines.

  20. Exiling children, creating orphans: when immigration policies hurt citizens.

    PubMed

    Zayas, Luis H; Bradlee, Mollie H

    2014-04-01

    Citizen-children born in the United States to undocumented immigrants have become collateral damage of immigration enforcement. These children suffer the effects of immigration laws designed to deport large numbers of people. In removal proceedings, parents often must decide to either leave their citizen-children behind in the care of others or take them to a country the child may have never known. Accordingly, immigration policy frequently creates two de facto classes of children: exiles and orphans. In discussing these classes, the authors offer a summary of how U.S. citizen-children come into contact with the immigration enforcement system. The article explores the impact of detention and deportation on the health, mental health, and developmental trajectories of citizen-children and argues for reforms in policy and practice that will adhere to the highest standards of child welfare practice. By integrating these children into the immigration discourse, practitioners and policymakers will be better able to understand the effects of immigration enforcement, reduce harm to children, and provide for the protection of their rights.

  1. [Respiratory distress].

    PubMed

    Galili, D; Garfunkel, A; Elad, S; Zusman, S P; Malamed, S F; Findler, M; Kaufman, E

    2002-01-01

    Dental treatment is usually conducted in the oral cavity and in very close proximity to the upper respiratory airway. The possibility of unintentionally compromising this airway is high in the dental environment. The accumulation of fluid (water or blood) near to the upper respiratory airway or the loosening of teeth fragmentations and fallen dental instruments can occur. Also, some of the drugs prescribed in the dental practice are central nervous system depressants and some are direct respiratory drive depressors. For this reason, awareness of the respiratory status of the dental patient is of paramount importance. This article focuses on several of the more common causes of respiratory distress, including airway obstruction, hyperventilation, asthma, bronchospasm, pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism and cardiac insufficiency. The common denominator to all these conditions described here is that in most instances the patient is conscious. Therefore, on the one hand, valuable information can be retrieved from the patient making diagnosis easier than when the patient is unconscious. On the other hand, the conscious patient is under extreme apprehension and stress under such situations. Respiratory depression which occurs during conscious sedation or following narcotic analgesic medication will not be dealt with in this article. Advanced pain and anxiety control techniques such as conscious sedation and general anesthesia should be confined only to operators who undergo special extended training.

  2. Ever Ready to Go: The Multiple Exiles of Leo Szilard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Tibor

    2005-06-01

    I argue that to understand the life and work of Leo Szilard (1898 1964) we have to understand, first, that he was driven by events to numerous departures, escapes, and exiles, changing his religion, his language, his country of residence, and his scientific disciplines; second, that he was a man haunted by major moral dilemmas throughout his life, burdened by a sincere and grave sense of responsibility for the fate of the world; and third, that he experienced a terrible sense of déjà vu: his excessive sensitivity and constant alertness were products of his experiences as a young student in Budapest in 1919. The mature Szilard in Berlin of 1933, and forever after, was always ready to move. I proceed as follows:After a brief introduction to his family background, youth, and education in Budapest, I discuss the impact of his army service in the Great War and of the tumultous events in Hungary in 1918 1919 on his life and psyche, forcing him to leave Budapest for Berlin in late 1919. He completed his doctoral degree under Max von Laue (1879 1960) at the University of Berlin in 1922 and his Habilitationsschrift in 1925. During the 1920s and early 1930s, he filed a number of patents, several of them jointly with Albert Einstein (1879 1955). He left Berlin in March 1933 for London where he played a leading role in the rescue operations for refugee scientists and scholars from Nazi Germany. He also carried out notable research in nuclear physics in London and Oxford before immigrating to the United States at the end of 1938. He drafted Einstein’s famous letter of August 2, 1939, to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, worked in the Manhattan Project during World War II, initiated a petition to President Harry S. Truman not to use the bomb on Japan, and immediately after the war was a leader in the scientists’ movement that resulted in civilian control of nuclear energy. In 1946 he turned to biology, in which his most significant contribution was to formulate a theory of

  3. Emojis help young people communicate.

    PubMed

    2016-10-26

    'The use of technology to support communication in therapy is an exciting development, particularly the use of mobile device emojis to help young people express, and practitioners to assess, their mental distress'.

  4. Distress in Older Patients With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hurria, Arti; Li, Daneng; Hansen, Kurt; Patil, Sujata; Gupta, Ravi; Nelson, Christian; Lichtman, Stuart M.; Tew, William P.; Hamlin, Paul; Zuckerman, Enid; Gardes, Jonathan; Limaye, Sewanti; Lachs, Mark; Kelly, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine the predictors of distress in older patients with cancer. Patients and Methods Patients age ≥ 65 years with a solid tumor or lymphoma completed a questionnaire that addressed these geriatric assessment domains: functional status, comorbidity, psychological state, nutritional status, and social support. Patients self-rated their level of distress on a scale of zero to 10 using a validated screening tool called the Distress Thermometer. The relationship between distress and geriatric assessment scores was examined. Results The geriatric assessment questionnaire was completed by 245 patients (mean age, 76 years; standard deviation [SD], 7 years; range, 65 to 95 years) with cancer (36% stage IV; 71% female). Of these, 87% also completed the Distress Thermometer, with 41% (n = 87) reporting a distress score of ≥ 4 on a scale of zero to 10 (mean score, 3; SD, 3; range, zero to 10). Bivariate analyses demonstrated an association between higher distress (≥ 4) and poorer physical function, increased comorbid medical conditions, poor eyesight, inability to complete the questionnaire alone, and requiring more time to complete the questionnaire. In a multivariate regression model based on the significant bivariate findings, poorer physical function (increased need for assistance with instrumental activities of daily living [P = .015] and lower physical function score on the Medical Outcomes Survey [P = .018]) correlated significantly with a higher distress score. Conclusion Significant distress was identified in 41% of older patients with cancer. Poorer physical function was the best predictor of distress. Further studies are needed to determine whether interventions that improve or assist with physical functioning can help to decrease distress in older adults with cancer. PMID:19652074

  5. Leader and Spokesman for a People in Exile: Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Samvit

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses Chief Joseph's surrender that marked the beginning of his diplomatic stand for justice in Indian Territory, where his tribe was forcibly exiled in accordance with American Indian policy of the time. Joseph battled for the repatriation of the Nez Perce through protests and other legal means, winning the support of the growing…

  6. Leader and Spokesman for a People in Exile: Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Samvit

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses Chief Joseph's surrender that marked the beginning of his diplomatic stand for justice in Indian Territory, where his tribe was forcibly exiled in accordance with American Indian policy of the time. Joseph battled for the repatriation of the Nez Perce through protests and other legal means, winning the support of the growing…

  7. Resisting Exile in the Homeland: He Mo'oleno No La'ie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikau, Hokulani K.

    2008-01-01

    Kanaka Maoli are under constant threat of becoming exiles in their homeland. With the steady encroachment of development such as new luxury subdivisions on Moloka'i, high-rise condominiums in Waikiki, and new multi-million-dollar homes on the beaches of all the major islands, they are being pushed off their land and replaced by new wealthy…

  8. Resisting Exile in the Homeland: He Mo'oleno No La'ie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikau, Hokulani K.

    2008-01-01

    Kanaka Maoli are under constant threat of becoming exiles in their homeland. With the steady encroachment of development such as new luxury subdivisions on Moloka'i, high-rise condominiums in Waikiki, and new multi-million-dollar homes on the beaches of all the major islands, they are being pushed off their land and replaced by new wealthy…

  9. Women's Exile and Transatlantic Epistolary Ties in the Work of Pilar de Zubiaurre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Allende, Iker

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, I analyze Pilar de Zubiaurre's experience of exile by focusing on the articles she published in the magazine "Euzko Deya" and the letters she wrote and received in Mexico. Among the letters Zubiaurre received, I study those from Maria Martos de Baeza. My main argument is that for Zubiaurre, writing became a fundamental way…

  10. Helping Kids Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiss, E. Renee

    2008-01-01

    Educators need to help kids help others so that they can help themselves. Volunteering does not involve competition or grades. This is one area where students don't have to worry about measuring up to the expectations of parents, teachers, and coaches. Students participate in charitable work to add another line to a college transcript or job…

  11. Helping Kids Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiss, E. Renee

    2008-01-01

    Educators need to help kids help others so that they can help themselves. Volunteering does not involve competition or grades. This is one area where students don't have to worry about measuring up to the expectations of parents, teachers, and coaches. Students participate in charitable work to add another line to a college transcript or job…

  12. Psychological Distress in Iranian International Students at an Australian University.

    PubMed

    Nahidi, Shizar; Blignault, Ilse; Hayen, Andrew; Razee, Husna

    2017-05-03

    This study investigated psychological distress in Iranian international students at UNSW Australia, and explored the psychosocial factors associated with high levels of distress. A total of 180 Iranian international students pursuing undergraduate and postgraduate degrees during 2012/2013 completed an email questionnaire containing socio-demographic items and five standardized and validated scales. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyse the predictors of psychological distress. Compared to domestic and international students at two other Australian universities, a significantly smaller proportion of Iranian international students scored as distressed on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Greater levels of psychological distress were associated with being female, poorer physical health, less social support, less religious involvement and spirituality, and negative attitudes towards seeking professional psychological help. Findings from this growing group of international students can help inform culturally competent mental health promotion and service provision in their host countries.

  13. Making Sure Helping Helps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartner, Audrey; Riessman, Frank

    1993-01-01

    Benefits to the helper are important to consider in a national-service program, along with the benefits to the recipient. Some suggestions are offered to ensure reciprocity in community service. Democratizing help giving, that is making it available to the widest possible audience, could help remove some of the pitfalls associated with help…

  14. Making Sure Helping Helps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartner, Audrey; Riessman, Frank

    1993-01-01

    Benefits to the helper are important to consider in a national-service program, along with the benefits to the recipient. Some suggestions are offered to ensure reciprocity in community service. Democratizing help giving, that is making it available to the widest possible audience, could help remove some of the pitfalls associated with help…

  15. A programme of mental health for political refugees: dealing with the invisible pain of political exile.

    PubMed

    Barudy, J

    1989-01-01

    Political persecution, state terrorism, torture, political assassinations, kidnapping and forced exile have become common occurrences in many parts of the world. Several researchers have tried to determine the impact of these situations on the mental health of those affected. At the same time, different types of aid programmes have been developed to prevent and treat the effects of violence on mental health. In this article we present clinical materials collected for 10 years by the Latin American Collective of Psychosocial Work [Colectivo Latinamericano de Trabajo Psicosocial (Colat)], a medical-psychosocial assistance programme for political refugees. The programme was under the academic supervision of the Catholic Universities of Leuven (KUL, ULC), Belgium. The concept of identity is the central theme of a model which tries to understand and explain the suffering of exiles. We try to identify and expose the mechanisms of political violence that have traumatized an individual's self-esteem and disordered his familial and social bonds. In the second part of this article, the central ideas which support the medical-psychosocial practice of the programme are presented. This programme seeks to heal the damage caused by repression and exile through the active participation of those affected. Only in a context of communal action is it possible to develop a therapy to promote an individual recovery. It is in this sense that the strategic goal of the programme is to permit elaboration of the suffering at an individual, familial and group level, and to facilitate group dynamics which can trigger the potential of the exiles to transform the conditions of violence that originated and maintain their pain.

  16. Moral distress and moral conflict in clinical ethics.

    PubMed

    Fourie, Carina

    2015-02-01

    Much research is currently being conducted on health care practitioners' experiences of moral distress, especially the experience of nurses. What moral distress is, however, is not always clearly delineated and there is some debate as to how it should be defined. This article aims to help to clarify moral distress. My methodology consists primarily of a conceptual analysis, with especial focus on Andrew Jameton's influential description of moral distress. I will identify and aim to resolve two sources of confusion about moral distress: (1) the compound nature of a narrow definition of distress which stipulates a particular cause, i.e. moral constraint, and (2) the distinction drawn between moral dilemma (or, more accurately, moral conflict) and moral distress, which implies that the two are mutually exclusive. In light of these concerns, I argue that the definition of moral distress should be revised so that moral constraint should not be a necessary condition of moral distress, and that moral conflict should be included as a potential cause of distress. Ultimately, I claim that moral distress should be understood as a specific psychological response to morally challenging situations such as those of moral constraint or moral conflict, or both. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Distress | Springboard Beyond Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Distress may affect your ability to cope with a cancer diagnosis or treatment. It may cause you to miss check-ups or delay treatment. Even mild distress can affect the quality of life for you and your caregivers, and may need to be treated.

  18. Moral Distress Model Reconstructed Using Grounded Theory.

    PubMed

    Ko, Hsun-Kuei; Chin, Chi-Chun; Hsu, Min-Tao

    2016-12-29

    regular pressures of moral distress in future clinical or workplace settings. Moreover, a better understanding of moral distress may help retain staff nurses.

  19. Helping Kids Help Themselves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, E. Perry

    This book explains how many of the behaviors that adults use to "help" kids are, at best, ineffective and, at worst, destructive to the adults' relationships with children. Adults traditionally believe that external cues prompt correct behavior--the premise of stimulus-response psychology. However, the ideas discussed here revolve around the…

  20. The ToT study: helping with Touch or Talk (ToT): a pilot randomised controlled trial to examine the clinical effectiveness of aromatherapy massage versus cognitive behaviour therapy for emotional distress in patients in cancer/palliative care.

    PubMed

    Serfaty, M; Wilkinson, S; Freeman, C; Mannix, K; King, M

    2012-05-01

    Distress associated with cancer often presents with symptoms of depression and/or anxiety. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) is one of the most effective psychological treatments. Complementary therapies, especially aromatherapy massage (AM), are also popular and alleviate anxiety. No studies have directly compared these two treatments. The aim of this study is to (1) test the feasibility of recruitment into a randomised controlled trial of AM versus CBT in patients with cancer; (2) test and modify the intervention; (3) determine whether changes in outcomes were consistent with published data. Patients at all stages of cancer, recruited from oncology outpatient clinics and screening eight or more for anxiety and/or depression on the HADS, were randomised to Treatment as Usual (TAU) plus up to eight sessions weekly of either AM or CBT, offered within 3 months. The POMS was collected at baseline and 3 and 6 months post baseline. Of those suitable, over 60% (39/63) participated (AM, n = 20; CBT, n = 19) and over 90% (36/39) were followed up. Both packages were well received. The preference was for AM, with more sessions were taken up; (Mean number sessions AM = 7.2 (SD 2.0) and CBT = 5.4 (SD 3.1); P<0.05). Significant improvements in POMS (Total Mood, depression and anxiety scores) occurred with both interventions. Between-group comparison showed a non-significant trend towards greater improvement in depression with CBT. Recruitment was feasible; the interventions acceptable and engagement with treatment was high. Improvements with both interventions were observed. The beneficial effects on depression with CBT appeared to be sustained. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Helping as a Function of Empathic Responses and Sociopathy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Edward L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Investigated helping as a function of empathic anxiety (anxiety in response to modeled distress) and individual differences in sociopathic tendencies. Results indicated modeled distress produces increases in anxiety which are positively associated with helping and sociopathic individuals are less likely to help than are nonsociopathic individuals.…

  2. Avian respiratory distress: etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Orosz, Susan E; Lichtenberger, Marla

    2011-05-01

    Respiratory distress is usually a life-threatening emergency in any species and this is particularly important in avian species because of their unique anatomy and physiology. In the emergency room, observation of breathing patterns, respiratory sounds, and a brief physical examination are the most important tools for the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory distress in avian patients. These tools will help the clinician localize the lesion. This discussion focuses on the 5 anatomic divisions of the respiratory system and provides clinically important anatomic and physiologic principles and diagnosis and treatment protocols for the common diseases occurring in each part. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Paradise lost: older Cuban American exiles' ambiguous loss of leaving the homeland.

    PubMed

    Perez, Rose M

    2013-01-01

    To explore the experience of leaving Cuba, 2 Cuban American émigrés interviewed 20 Cuban exiles aged 65 or older, who left Cuba between 1959 and 1971. The interviews were conducted in New York and New Jersey using a phenomenological approach (Moutsakas, 1994). Themes included feeling betrayed by the Revolution, the inevitability of leaving, the expectation of a temporary refuge, and longing for and idealizing the past. The psychological presence that participants expressed, along with an endless sense of loss, resonates with ambiguous loss theory (Boss, 2006)-themes that have yet to be explored in the literature and that have research and practice implications.

  4. Joseph Igersheimer (1879-1965): a visionary ophthalmologist and his contributions before and after exile.

    PubMed

    Namal, Arin; Reisman, Arnold

    2007-11-01

    While in forced exile from Nazi Germany between 1933 and 1939, Joseph Igersheimer was the architect of modern ophthalmology in Turkey. Earlier he was a pioneer in addressing the impact of syphilis on eyesight. He was the first to use arsphenamine in the treatment of syphilis of the eye and the first to operate on retinal detachment by closing the holes. In 1939 he joined Tufts University's Medical School and became a major contributor to America's ophthalmology. By the time of his retirement, over 2000 American ophthalmologists had listened to his lectures.

  5. Correlates and Predictors of Psychological Distress among Afghan Refugees in San Diego County

    PubMed Central

    James, Sigrid; Siddiq, Hafifa; Montgomery, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The psychological effects of war and resulting displacement continue to negatively impact Afghan refugees. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that are associated with and predict psychological distress symptoms among Afghan refugees. We analyzed data from a diverse sample of 130 Afghan refugees recruited through non-random sampling in the San Diego area. Participants completed self-report questionnaires consisting of a culturally validated measure of psychological distress, the Afghan Symptom Checklist [ASCL] alongside standardized measures of acculturation, social support, and perceived stress. In bivariate analyses, older age, older age at migration, female gender, being widowed, having lower education, being unemployed, unable to comfortably pay monthly bills, lower acculturation and social support, and higher levels of perceived stress were associated with psychological distress. However, only few variables – female gender, being widowed, unable to comfortably pay monthly bills, and perceived stress – remained significant in multivariate analysis. The findings from this study contribute to understanding the social determinants of distress that affect Afghans in exile even after long-term resettlement in the US. These reported outcomes support the need for continued research with Afghans, alongside the implementation of culturally relevant psychosocial interventions that emphasize prevention of post-resettlement stressors immediately upon resettlement. PMID:26543500

  6. Correlates and Predictors of Psychological Distress among Afghan Refugees in San Diego County.

    PubMed

    Alemi, Qais; James, Sigrid; Siddiq, Hafifa; Montgomery, Susanne

    2015-07-01

    The psychological effects of war and resulting displacement continue to negatively impact Afghan refugees. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that are associated with and predict psychological distress symptoms among Afghan refugees. We analyzed data from a diverse sample of 130 Afghan refugees recruited through non-random sampling in the San Diego area. Participants completed self-report questionnaires consisting of a culturally validated measure of psychological distress, the Afghan Symptom Checklist [ASCL] alongside standardized measures of acculturation, social support, and perceived stress. In bivariate analyses, older age, older age at migration, female gender, being widowed, having lower education, being unemployed, unable to comfortably pay monthly bills, lower acculturation and social support, and higher levels of perceived stress were associated with psychological distress. However, only few variables - female gender, being widowed, unable to comfortably pay monthly bills, and perceived stress - remained significant in multivariate analysis. The findings from this study contribute to understanding the social determinants of distress that affect Afghans in exile even after long-term resettlement in the US. These reported outcomes support the need for continued research with Afghans, alongside the implementation of culturally relevant psychosocial interventions that emphasize prevention of post-resettlement stressors immediately upon resettlement.

  7. Stigma and psychological distress in suicide survivors.

    PubMed

    Scocco, Paolo; Preti, Antonio; Totaro, Stefano; Ferrari, Alessandro; Toffol, Elena

    2017-03-01

    Suicide bereavement is frequently related to clinically significant psychological distress and affected by stigma. This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between psychological distress by psychopathological domains and stigma, in a sample of individuals bereaved by suicide (suicide survivors). The data were collected between January 2012 and December 2014 and included information on sociodemographic variables (gender, age, marital status and education level) and responses to the Stigma of Suicide Survivor scale (STOSSS) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). One hundred and fifty-five suicide survivors completed the evaluation and were included in the study. Levels of psychological distress in suicide survivors, as measured by BSI, were positively related to levels of perceived stigma toward suicide survivors, as measured by STOSSS. The association was not affected by age and gender, or by marital status, education level, days from suicide or a personal history of suicide attempt. Participants with higher scores on almost all subscales of the BSI, particularly the interpersonal sensitivity and paranoid ideation subscales, reported the highest levels of perceived stigma toward suicide survivors. Levels of distress in subjects bereaved by the suicide of a relative or friend were positively associated with levels of perceived stigma toward suicide survivors. Specific interventions dedicated to the bereavement of suicide survivors might help to alleviate not only psychological distress but also stigma towards loss by suicide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nurse moral distress: A survey identifying predictors and potential interventions.

    PubMed

    Rathert, Cheryl; May, Douglas R; Chung, Hye Sook

    2016-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas and conflicts are inherent in today's health care organizations and may lead to moral distress, which is often associated with physical and psychological symptoms. Although the existence of moral distress has been observed by scholars for decades, most of the research has been descriptive and has examined what types of health care conflicts lead to distress. This study tested a comprehensive model, underpinned by Social Cognitive Theory, that examined work environment and intrapersonal variables that may influence moral distress. We surveyed nursing staff employed in a U.S. acute care hospital (response rate=45%; n=290). More than half of the respondents reported they experience ethical dilemmas and conflicts from several times a month to daily, and nearly half reported they experience moral distress at least several times a month. Structural equation modeling analysis simultaneously examined the effects of five independent variables on moral distress and moral voice: (a) frequency of ethical dilemmas and conflicts; (b) moral efficacy; (c) ethics communication; (d) ethical environment; and (e) organizational ethics support. Results revealed significant independent effects of the frequency of ethics issues and organizational ethics support on moral distress. Bootstrapping analysis indicated that voice fully mediated the relationship between moral efficacy and moral distress, and partially mediated the relationship between organizational ethics support and distress. Supplemental analysis revealed that organizational ethics support moderated the moral efficacy-voice-moral distress relationship such that when organizational support was low, moral efficacy was negatively related to moral distress via voice. Although it may be impossible to eliminate all ethical dilemmas and conflicts, leaders and organizations may wish to help improve nurses' moral efficacy, which appears to give rise to voice, and reduced moral distress. Increasing organizational

  9. Loneliness and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Jackson, J; Cochran, S D

    1991-05-01

    Research on relationships between loneliness and psychological symptoms has generally shown significant positive associations across a wide spectrum of psychopathologies. However, such results may be artificial, to some extent, given the high intercorrelations of typical psychopathology measures. In the current study, we examined associations between psychological symptoms, assessed by the Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90; Derogatis, Lipman, & Covi, 1973) and loneliness, as measured by the UCLA-R Loneliness Scale (Russell, Peplau, & Cutrona, 1980), in college students. Using partial correlations to control for the confounding influence of generalized distress, relationships between loneliness and individual dimensions of distress were examined. Results indicate a significant association between loneliness and interpersonal sensitivity (low self-esteem) and depression. Other dimensions of distress were not significantly related to loneliness. In addition, no sex differences in patterns of association were observed. Results support the notion that self-blame and self-devaluation are strong correlates of loneliness.

  10. Physical and psychological sequelae to torture. A controlled clinical study of exiled asylum applicants.

    PubMed

    Hougen, H P

    1988-10-01

    The study comprised 24 male Lebanese refugees living in Denmark. Twelve of them alleged having been tortured in Lebanon during the period 1981-85. The remaining twelve had neither been imprisoned nor tortured and thus acted as control persons. All the testimonies were found to be valid according to a method previously used by the author. The most common forms of torture were blows against the head, body and foot soles, suspension and asphyxiation. Threats and solitary confinement were frequent, and sexual violations were also reported. At the time of examination (March-November 1986), the main complaints were headaches, various cardiopulmonary symptoms, sleep disturbances with nightmares, impaired concentration and memory, and emotional lability. Suicide attempts were reported. Prior to the torture all the probands had been healthy except for several cases of gunshot wounds. The clinical examination revealed different scars possibly related to torture in nearly all the cases. Missing or fractured teeth, peripheral nerve damage and mental depression were also found. The 12 controls had several mental and physical complaints, but significantly fewer than the probands. Almost all of them had scars from gunshot wounds. The present study clearly indicates that torture plus exilation has a more deteriorating effect on the health status than exilation alone.

  11. "Once a Soldier, a Soldier Forever": Exiled Zimbabwean Soldiers in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Maringira, Godfrey; Carrasco, Lorena Núñez

    2015-01-01

    Through military training, soldiers' bodies are shaped and prepared for war and military-related duties. In the context these former Zimbabwean soldiers find themselves--that of desertion and 'underground life' in exile in South Africa--their military-trained bodies and military skills are their only resource. In this article, we explore the ways in which former soldiers maintain and 'reuse' their military-trained bodies in South Africa for survival, in a context of high unemployment and a violent, inner-city environment. We look at their social world and practices of soldiering--a term that refers to the specific forms of their social interaction in exile, through which they keep their memories of their military past alive. By attending to their subjectivities and the endurance of their masculine military identities and bodies, we aim to contribute to the discussion on demilitarization, which has largely focused on the failure of models of intervention to assist ex-combatants in postconflict contexts.

  12. Psychological distress and patient satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Greenley, J R; Young, T B; Schoenherr, R A

    1982-04-01

    Psychologically distressed patients and clients of health care and social service organizations are found to report somewhat more dissatisfaction with services than do the nondistressed. Four explanations for this relationship are examined: 1) the psychologically distressed are generally dissatisfied; 2) service providers react negatively to the psychologically distressed; 3) psychologically distressed patients are dissatisfied when service providers do not respond to their psychological needs; and 4) patients who deny their psychological distress tend to be dissatisfied. The results show that the psychologically distressed report more dissatisfaction because of the very high levels of dissatisfaction found among patients who deny having personal problems.

  13. A community-based study of the relationship between somatic and psychological distress in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sing; Leung, Candi Mc; Kwok, Kathleen Ps; Lam Ng, King

    2015-10-01

    Although the predominantly somatic presentation of distress has been used to explain low rates of emotional illnesses and health service use in Chinese communities, this concept of somatization has not been examined by concurrently studying the profile of somatically and psychologically distressed Chinese individuals. A random population-based sample of 3014 adults underwent a structured telephone interview that examined their sociodemographic characteristics, somatic distress (Patient Health Questionnaire-15, PHQ-15), non-specific psychological distress (Kessler Scale-6, K6), health service use, and functional impairment. Four groups of individuals identified by PHQ-15 and K6 cut-off scores were compared. Results showed that PHQ-15 and K6 scores were positively correlated. The large majority of respondents (85.9%) reported both somatic and psychological distress. The proportions of Low Distress Group, Somatically Distressed Group, Psychologically Distressed Group, and Mixed Distress Group were 69.2%, 5.0%, 15.8%, and 10.0%, respectively. Specific age range, male gender, greater family income, higher education level, and retirement were associated with decreased odds of somatic and/or psychological distress. Although psychological distress best predicted impairment, somatic distress best predicted health service use. Mixed distress predicted most impairment and health service use. Thus, psychological distress and somatic distress commonly coexist across Chinese sociodemographic groups. This speaks against the conventional notion of somatization and is consistent with recent findings of a higher prevalence of emotional illnesses in Chinese people. That psychologically distressed individuals are more impaired but less inclined to seek help than somatically distressed individuals may partly explain low levels of help-seeking for mental disorders found in epidemiological studies.

  14. Tester for Distress Beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    Distress beacons on aircraft and boats checked for proper operation with aid of onboard monitor. Monitor mounted in aircraft cockpit or at wheel of boat. Connected to beacon electronics by cable. Monitor used with interface circuitry in beacon, which acts as buffer so that operation of beacon is not adversely affected if monitor is removed or if connecting cable is accidentally short circuited.

  15. Tester for Distress Beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    Distress beacons on aircraft and boats checked for proper operation with aid of onboard monitor. Monitor mounted in aircraft cockpit or at wheel of boat. Connected to beacon electronics by cable. Monitor used with interface circuitry in beacon, which acts as buffer so that operation of beacon is not adversely affected if monitor is removed or if connecting cable is accidentally short circuited.

  16. Organ sales and moral distress.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Lopez, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    The possibility that organ sales by living adults might be made legal is morally distressing to many of us. However, powerful arguments have been provided recently supporting legalisation (I consider two of those arguments: the Consequentialist Argument and the Autonomy Argument). Is our instinctive reaction against a market of organs irrational then? The aim of this paper is not to prove that legalization would be immoral, all things considered, but rather to show, first, that there are some kinds of arguments, offered in favour of legalisation, that are, in an important sense, illegitimate, and second, that even if legalisation might not be wrong all things considered, there are good reasons for our negative moral intuitions. Moreover, identifying these reasons will help highlight some features of moral decisions in non-ideal situations, which in turn might be relevant to some other moral or policy choices.

  17. Stress and distress.

    PubMed

    Selye, H

    1975-12-01

    I must ask the reader's indulgence for this article's concern with applications of the stress concept, which are distinct from, although related to clinical medicine. It has not been my object to deal with the way physicians have been aided by stress research in the practice of medicine--that information is already widely available. Rather, I have attempted to sketch briefly the history of the stress theory and to demonstrate how this information can help anyone, physician or layman, lead a more complete and satisfying life. The applications of the stress theory have been dealt with at length elsewhere. I believe that we can find within scientifically verified observations the basis of a code of behavior suited to our century. The great laws of nature that regulate the defenses of living beings against stress of any kind are essentially the same at all levels of life, from individual cells to entire complex human organisms and societies. It helps a great deal to understand the fundamental advantages and disadvantages of catatoxic and syntoxic attitudes by studying the biologic basis of self-preservation as reflected in syntoxic and catatoxic chemical mechanisms. When applied to everyday problems, this understanding should lead to choices most likely to provide us the pleasant eustress (from the Greek eu meaning good, as in euphoria) involved in achieving fulfillment and victory, thereby avoiding the self-destructive distress of frustration and failure. So the translation of the laws governing resistance of cells and organs to a code of behavior comes down to three basic precepts: 1. Find your own natural stress level. People differ with regard to the amount and kind of work they consider worth doing to meet the exigencies of daily life and to assure their future security and happiness. In this respect, all of us are influenced by hereditary predispositions and the expectations of our society. Only through planned self-analysis can we establish what we really want

  18. Girls in Distress in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Yosepha

    The typical girl in distress in Israel comes from a Jewish family of oriental origin. Her distress is partially due to the strains of immigrating to Israel from, in most cases, North Africa. Authority models in distressed girls' families feature either the role of the father as the commanding familial authority figure; the mother as the dominant…

  19. Sexual Distress and Sexual Problems During Pregnancy: Associations With Sexual and Relationship Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Vannier, Sarah A; Rosen, Natalie O

    2017-03-01

    Sexual problems are common during pregnancy, but the proportion of pregnant women who experience sexual distress is unknown. In non-pregnant samples, sexual distress is associated with lower sexual and relationship satisfaction. To identify the proportion of women experiencing sexual distress during pregnancy and to compare the sexual and relationship satisfaction of women who report sexual distress during pregnancy with that of women without distress. Two-hundred sixty-one pregnant women completed a cross-sectional online survey. Women completed validated measurements of sexual functioning (Female Sexual Function Index; score < 26.55 indicates a sexual problem), sexual distress (Female Sexual Distress Scale; score ≥ 15 indicates clinically significant distress), sexual satisfaction (Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction), and relationship satisfaction (Couples Satisfaction Index). Overall, 42% of women met the clinical cutoff for sexual distress. Of sexually active women (n = 230), 26% reported concurrent sexual problems and distress and 14% reported sexual distress in the absence of sexual problems. Sexual distress and/or problems in sexual functioning were linked to lower sexual and relationship satisfaction compared with pregnant women with lower sexual distress and fewer sexual problems. Sexual distress is common during pregnancy and associated with lower sexual and relationship satisfaction. Health care providers should ask pregnant women about feelings of sexual distress. Identifying pregnant women who experience sexual distress and referring them to appropriate resources could help minimize sexual and relationship problems during pregnancy. Vannier SA, Rosen NO. Sexual Distress and Sexual Problems During Pregnancy: Associations With Sexual and Relationship Satisfaction. J Sex Med 2017;14:387-395. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Exile of Hansen's Disease Patients to Moloka'i: A Diffusion of Innovations Perspective.

    PubMed

    Pitman Harris, Adrea; Matusitz, Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    This article analyzes the exile of patients with Hansen's disease (leprosy) to Moloka'i (Hawaii) by applying the diffusion of innovations (DoI) theory. Developed by Rogers, DoI posits that an innovation (i.e., idea, movement, or trend) is initiated within a culture. Then, it is diffused via particular channels across diverse cultures. Instead of evolving independently, innovations diffuse from one culture to another through various forms of contact and communication. In the context of this analysis, the objective is to examine how the diffusion of certain ideas, namely, abolishing the stigma associated with leprosy, could have improved the lives of Hawaiians. An important premise of this article is that the Hawaiian government barely applied the tenets of DoI, which is the reason why many people lost their lives. So, this article seeks to explore what could have been done to improve their situation and what pitfalls should be avoided in the future.

  1. Albert Eckstein (1891-1950): modernizer of Turkey's paediatrics in exile.

    PubMed

    Akar, Nejat; Reisman, Arnold; Oral, Aysu

    2007-11-01

    This paper provides a historical perspective on Ordinarius Professor Albert Eckstein. He was the architect of modern paediatrics in Turkey. The year 2005 was the 55th anniversary of Professor Albert Eckstein's death and the 60th anniversary of the founding of the Paediatric Clinics at Ankara University, where he served for five years as the founding director while in forced exile from Nazi Germany. This is a tale of an individual caught at the crossroads and in the crossfire of history. His native land was in the throes of discarding him. His life was saved because (to him) an alien country was discarding a societal culture inherited from the Ottomans. Turkey recognized the need to modernize its society. The Nazis came to power. Albert Eckstein, a noted German paediatrician, was Jewish.

  2. [Burden and capability of damaged parents--how refugee children can grow in exile].

    PubMed

    Adam, Hubertus; Walter, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    In trauma, dialectical tension arises between the inner perspective of the traumatized subject and the outside perspective (objective situation), between environmental stress and the subjective attribution of meaning, as well as between experience and behaviour. The traumatic process--the subject's endeavour to comprehend the overwhelming, often inconceivable experience and integrate it into its concepts of self and world--is understood against the backdrop of these interacting dimensions. The process phases "emerge from each other, run parallel, and permeate each other" (Fischer u. Riedesser, 2003). Problems that arise in the aftermath of trauma are rarely overcome by the victims alone. Attempts to process and self-heal have a social dimension, and family members are affected by war, persecution and flight in individual, varying ways. The impacts of violence experienced by parents from different crisis regions are examined in case studies with regard to the psychological development of indirectly impacted children growing up in exile.

  3. Idioms of distress among trauma survivors: subtypes and clinical utility.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Devon E; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2010-06-01

    In this introduction to the Special Issue on Trauma and Idioms of Distress, we provide an overview of the concept and typology of "idioms of distress," focusing particularly on their clinical utility. This includes the role of idioms as indicators of trauma exposure, of various types of psychopathology and of levels of distress, risk and functioning. It likewise includes the fact that idioms of distress may profoundly influence the personal meaning of having a trauma-related disorder, may shape the interpersonal course of the disorder and may pattern help-seeking and self-treatment. Finally, it illustrates the fact that idioms may also help clinicians understand sufferers' views of the causes of their distress, constitute key therapeutic targets and help increase therapeutic empathy and treatment adherence. This special issue focuses on the role played by idioms of distress in the local trauma ontology, the associations between the idioms and psychiatric disorders occurring in the context of trauma and the mechanisms by which the idioms profoundly influence the personal and interpersonal course of trauma-related disorders.

  4. Entering exile: trauma, mental health, and coping among Tibetan refugees arriving in Dharamsala, India.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Emily; Rosenfeld, Barry; Lhewa, Dechen; Rasmussen, Andrew; Keller, Allen

    2008-04-01

    Each year thousands of Tibetans escape Chinese-controlled Tibet. The authors present findings on the experiences, coping strategies, and psychological distress (depression, anxiety, somatization, and posttraumatic stress disorder) of 769 Tibetan refugees arriving in Dharamsala, India (2003-2004). Distress increased significantly with greater trauma exposure. However, despite a high prevalence of potentially traumatizing events, levels of psychological distress were extremely low. Coping activity (primarily religious) and subjective appraisals of trauma severity appeared to mediate the psychological effects of trauma exposure. The potential impact of other variables, including culturally determined attitudes about trauma and timing of assessment, are discussed.

  5. Emotional distress among adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    PubMed

    Oancea, S Cristina; Brinkman, Tara M; Ness, Kirsten K; Krull, Kevin R; Smith, Webb A; Srivastava, D Kumar; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M; Gurney, James G

    2014-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to estimate the prevalence of emotional distress in a large cohort of adult survivors of childhood cancer and to evaluate the interrelationship of risk factors including cancer-related late effects. Adult survivors of childhood cancer (N = 1,863), median age of 32 years at follow-up, completed comprehensive medical evaluations. Clinically relevant emotional distress was assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory 18 and was defined as T-scores ≥63. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multivariable logistic regression models to identify risk factors for distress. Path analysis was used to examine associations among identified risk factors. Elevated global distress was reported by 15.1% of survivors. Cancer-related pain was associated with elevated distress (OR 8.72; 95% CI, 5.32-14.31). Survivors who reported moderate learning or memory problems were more likely to have elevated distress than survivors who reported no learning or memory problems (OR 3.27; 95% CI, 2.17-4.93). Path analysis implied that cancer-related pain has a direct effect on distress symptoms and an indirect effect through socioeconomic status and learning or memory problems. Similar results were observed for learning or memory problems. Childhood cancer-related morbidities including pain and learning or memory problems appear to be directly and indirectly associated with elevated distress symptoms decades after treatment. Understanding these associations may help inform intervention targets for survivors of childhood cancer experiencing symptoms of distress. A subset of long-term childhood cancer survivors experience significant emotional distress. Physical and cognitive late effects may contribute to these symptoms.

  6. Emotional distress among adult survivors of childhood cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oancea, S. Cristina; Brinkman, Tara M.; Ness, Kirsten K.; Krull, Kevin R.; Smith, Webb A.; Srivastava, D. Kumar; Robison, Leslie L.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Gurney, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the prevalence of emotional distress in a large cohort of adult survivors of childhood cancer and evaluate the interrelationship of risk factors including cancer-related late effects. Methods 1,863 adult survivors of childhood cancer, median age of 32 years at follow-up, completed comprehensive medical evaluations. Clinically relevant emotional distress was assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 and was defined as T-scores ≥63. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariable logistic regression models to identify risk factors for distress. Path analysis was used to examine associations among identified risk factors. Results Elevated global distress was reported by 15.1% of survivors. Cancer-related pain was associated with elevated distress (OR 8.72; 95% CI, 5.32 – 14.31). Survivors who reported moderate learning or memory problems were more likely to have elevated distress than survivors who reported no learning or memory problems (OR 3.27; 95% CI, 2.17 – 4.93). Path analysis implied that cancer-related pain has a direct effect on distress symptoms and an indirect effect through socioeconomic status and learning or memory problems. Similar results were observed for learning or memory problems. Conclusions Childhood cancer-related morbidities including pain and learning or memory problems appear to be directly and indirectly associated with elevated distress symptoms decades after treatment. Understanding these associations may help inform intervention targets for survivors of childhood cancer experiencing symptoms of distress. Implications for cancer survivors A subset of long-term childhood cancer survivors experience significant emotional distress. Physical and cognitive late effects may contribute to these symptoms. PMID:24459073

  7. Moral Distress among Iranian Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Tabatabaei, Shahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the moral distress among Iranian registered nurses. Methods: This was a descriptive –analytic study, in which 264 out of 1000 nurses were randomly selected as a sample group and completed the questionnaire. The nurses’ moral distress was assessed using Corley’s 30-item Moral Distress Scale adapted for use in an Iranian population. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 19. Results: In this study, no correlation was found between the level of moral distress and any of the demographic data. The mean moral distress score ranged from 3.56 to 5.83, indicating moderate to high levels of moral distress. The item with the highest mean score was “working with unsafe levels of nurse staffing”. The item with the lowest mean score was “giving medication intravenously to a patient who has refused to take it”. Nurses working in EMS and NICU units had the highest levels of moral distress. Conclusion: A higher degree of moral distress is observed among nurses who work in health care systems. The results of this study highly recommend practical and research-oriented evaluation of moral distress in the medical society in Iran. Our findings suggest that Iranian version of MDS is a reliable instrument to measure moral distress in nurses. PMID:26005478

  8. Understanding persons with psychological distress in primary health care.

    PubMed

    Arvidsdotter, Tina; Marklund, Bertil; Kylén, Sven; Taft, Charles; Ekman, Inger

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain more knowledge and a deeper understanding of experiences of persons living with psychological distress who seek help in primary care. Psychological distress is a state of emotional suffering associated with stressors and demands that are difficult to cope with in daily life. The lack of effective care for and difficulty in identifying psychological distress is frustrating for patients and health professionals alike. The aim was therefore to gain more knowledge about the experience of living with psychological distress. Twelve persons (nine women and three men) aged 23-51 years were interviewed. Analyses were based on a phenomenological hermeneutic method and indicated that psychological distress may be seen as an imbalance (incongruence) between the self and the ideal self, which slowly breaks down a person's self-esteem. This imbalance was described in three dimensions: Struggling to cope with everyday life, Feeling inferior to others and Losing one's grip on life. It seems to be associated with a gradual depletion of existential capacities and lead to dissatisfaction, suffering, poor self-esteem and lack of control. As psychological distress may be a forerunner to mental, physical and emotional exhaustion, there is a need to initiate preventive or early interventions to avoid mental, physical and emotional chaos in such patients. Patients' with psychological distress need to be involved in a person-centred salutogenic dialogue with health professionals to become aware of and strengthen their own capacities to regain health and well-being.

  9. Sera-therapy, exile and Franco's regime. The survival strategy of the Ravetllat-Pla Institute in postwar Spain.

    PubMed

    Estapé Egea, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the scientific and commercial survival strategy of the Ravetllat-Pla Institute after the Spanish Civil War. Founded in 1923 by Ramon Pla (1880-1956) and Joaquim Ravetllat (1872-1923), it produced two sera: 'Hemo-antitoxin' and the 'Ravetllat-Pla serum'. When the Civil War ended and Ramon Pla was forced into exile, management of this laboratory was taken over by his daughter, Núia Pla Monseny (1918- 2011) who had to deal with an extremely difficult economic, political and commercial situation. In this paper, I analyse the means by which the Institute survived. These involved the Institute's ability to construct different political symbols from 'Hemo-antitoxin'. I study how Franco's repression influenced this survival strategy and Ramon Pla's role in exile. I also analyse the part played in this scientific and commercial process by the Institute's scientific and commercial network in Chile.

  10. Impact of ethnicity, violence and acculturation on displaced migrants: psychological distress and psychosomatic complaints among refugees in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Sundquist, J; Bayard-Burfield, L; Johansson, L M; Johansson, S E

    2000-06-01

    This study uses data collected in 1996 by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. By means of interviews with 1980 foreign-born immigrants, an attempt was made to determine the impact of a) migration status (country of birth/ethnicity), b) exposure to violence, c) Antonovsky's sense of coherence, d) acculturation status (knowledge of Swedish), e) sense of control over one's life, f) economic difficulties, and g) education, both on psychological distress (using General Health Questionnaire 12) and psychosomatic complaints (daytime fatigue, sleeping difficulties, and headache/migraine). Iranians and Chileans (age-adjusted) were at great risk for psychological distress as compared with Poles, whereas Turks and Kurds exhibited no such risk. When the independent factors were included in the model, the migration status effect decreased to insignificance (with the exception of Iranian men). A low sense of coherence, poor acculturation (men only), poor sense of control, and economic difficulties were strongly associated with the outcomes, generally accounting for a convincing link between migration status and psychological distress. Furthermore, a low sense of coherence, poor acculturation (men only), poor sense of control, and economic difficulties in exile seemed to be stronger risk factors for psychological distress in this group than exposure to violence before migration.

  11. The Global Maritime Distress and Safety System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Peter E.

    1990-08-01

    The Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) is discussed with respect to its initial planning, the communication network, and other details, including the fully automated Maritime Safety Information service and the implementation of the whole system. GMDSS is the result of international cooperation over a period of about 10 years and provides the maritime community with an integrated distress and safety communication system which significantly enhances the safety of life and property in the harsh environment of the sea. Probably the most essential element of the GMDSS is the provision of an adequate communication network which will permit ships in need of assistance to notify responsible authorities, discuss the help they need, and allow the search and rescue activities to be coordinated by the most appropriate center.

  12. Acute respiratory distress syndrome .

    PubMed

    Mason, Christopher; Dooley, Nessa; Griffiths, Mark

    2017-10-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a common cause of acute respiratory failure that is underdiagnosed both inside and outside of intensive care units. Progression to the most severe forms of the syndrome confers a mortality rate greater than 40% and is associated with often severe functional disability and psychological sequelae in survivors. While there are no disease-modifying pharmacotherapies for the syndrome, this progression may be prevented through the institution of quality improvement measures that minimise iatrogenic injury associated with acute severe illness. © Royal College of Physicians 2017. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening condition with multiple causes and a high mortality rate. Approximately 150,000 cases are reported in the United States annually, making ARDS a public health concern. Management of the condition is complex because of its severity, and medical imaging is essential for both the diagnosis and management of ARDS. This article introduces common signs, symptoms, risk factors, and causes of ARDS. Diagnostic criteria, histopathology, treatment strategies, and prognostic information also are discussed. The article explains the value of medical imaging studies of ARDS, especially radiography, computed tomography, and ultrasonography.

  14. Adult respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cutts, S; Talboys, R; Paspula, C; Prempeh, E M; Fanous, R; Ail, D

    2017-01-01

    Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has now been described as a sequela to such diverse conditions as burns, amniotic fluid embolism, acute pancreatitis, trauma, sepsis and damage as a result of elective surgery in general. Patients with ARDS require immediate intubation, with the average patient now being ventilated for between 8 and 11 days. While the acute management of ARDS is conducted by the critical care team, almost any surgical patient can be affected by the condition and we believe that it is important that a broader spectrum of hospital doctors gain an understanding of the nature of the pathology and its current treatment.

  15. Psychological distress, personality, and adjustment among nursing students.

    PubMed

    Warbah, L; Sathiyaseelan, M; Vijayakumar, C; Vasantharaj, B; Russell, S; Jacob, K S

    2007-08-01

    Psychological distress and poor adjustment among a significant number of nursing students is an important issue facing nursing education. The concerns need to be studied in detail and solutions need to be built into the nursing course in order to help students with such difficulty. This study used a cross-sectional survey design to study psychological distress, personality and adjustment among nursing students attending the College of Nursing, Christian Medical College, Vellore, India. One hundred and forty five nursing students were assessed using the General Health Questionnaire 12, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and the Bell's Adjustment Inventory to investigate psychological distress, personality profile and adjustment, respectively. Thirty participants (20.7%) of the 145 students assessed reported high scores on the General Health Questionnaire. Psychological distress was significantly associated with having neurotic personality and adjustment difficulties in different areas of functioning.

  16. Aeromagnetic connection between the Exiles Thrust and the Lanterman Fault, Oates Land, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbi, Pietro; Ferraccioli, Fausto; Armadillo, Egidio; Capponi, Giovanni; Crispini, Laura; Bozzo, Emanuele

    2014-05-01

    In Northern Victoria Land (NVL) three fault bounded terranes of Cambrian - Ordovician age are generally recognized: the Wilson Terrane, the Bowers Terrane and the Robertson Bay Terrane. These terranes are part of the Paleo- Pacific active margin of Gondwana that gave rise to the Ross Orogen. The main suture zone lies between the Wilson and the Bowers Terrane and is marked by the Lanterman Fault. Within the Wilson Terrane there are two major intra-terrane thrust faults the Wilson and Exiles thrusts. Geological studies of brittle fault arrays indicate that the inherited terrane bounding and intra-terrane fault architecture was reactivated in the Cenozoic in a dominantly right lateral strike-slip regime. The northern part of the Rennick Graben may have formed during Cenozoic reactivation of the Lanterman and other basement faults. Here we present new aeromagnetic compilations that reveal for the first time the subglacial extent of a major inferred fault that lies on strike with the Lanterman Fault. The inferred fault, crosscuts the Rennick Graben and appears to link to the Exiles Thrust system, where the prominent Matusevich aeromagnetic anomaly is observed. The broad similarity between the Matusevich anomaly and the anomalies over the northern Bowers Terrane, along the eastern flank of the Rennick Graben, is particularly intriguing as it may imply a hitherto unrecognized link between the Wilson and Bowers terranes. To explain these aeromagnetic signatures we propose a new tectonic model that involves major strike-slip movements along both the terrane bounding and intra-terrane faults. Three alternative scenarios can be put forward : 1) Strike-slip faulting occurred in an early stage of the Ross Orogen as has been identified much further south over the Transanarctic Mountains: 2) Strike-slip faulting occurred as part of a late-stage, and dominantly traspressional phase of the Ross-Orogen, which was also responsible for the development of major intra-terrane thrusting

  17. Distressed Couples and Marriage Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMaria, Rita M.

    2005-01-01

    Professionals generally believe that couples who choose to attend marriage education programs are not as distressed as are clinical couples and that distressed couples are not good candidates for marriage education. We examined these assumptions in 129 married couples who enrolled in a PAIRS, Practical Application of Intimate Relationship Skills…

  18. Moral distress and moral disempowerment.

    PubMed

    Carse, Alisa

    2013-01-01

    Moral distress can consist in anxiety or concern about one's capacity to meet challenges to one's integrity; it can also consist in the sense that one has failed to meet these challenges, betraying fundamental moral values or commitments. When the sense of moral failure is compounded by feelings of frustration or impotence, of being constrained or impeded in one's ability to act as one believes one ought, one experiences moral disempowerment. Drawing on narratives of moral distress emerging from work in the clinical context, this essay explores a distinction between cases in which moral distress does, and does not, center around the experience of moral disempowerment. When moral distress is tied to moral disempowerment, the acute personal toll is joined with broader moral costs, for effective moral agency is stymied. If we are to support individuals' resilience and effectiveness in working constructively with moral distress, we need to understand and redress the social, systemic, and institutional factors contributing to moral disempowerment.

  19. [Acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    PubMed

    Hecker, M; Weigand, M A; Mayer, K

    2012-05-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the clinical manifestation of an acute lung injury caused by a variety of direct and indirect injuries to the lung. The cardinal clinical feature of ARDS, refractory arterial hypoxemia, is the result of protein-rich alveolar edema with impaired surfactant function, due to vascular leakage and dysfunction with consequently impaired matching of ventilation to perfusion. Better understanding of the pathophysiology of ARDS has led to the development of novel therapies, pharmacological strategies, and advances in mechanical ventilation. However, protective ventilation is the only confirmed option in ARDS management improving survival, and few other therapies have translated into improved oxygenation or reduced ventilation time. The development of innovative therapy options, such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, have the potential to further improve survival of this devastating disease.

  20. Does Change in Distress Matter? Mechanisms of Change in Prolonged Exposure for PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Bluett, Ellen J.; Zoellner, Lori A.; Feeny, Norah C.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Clinically, many individuals persist in prolonged exposure therapy (PE) for chronic PTSD despite continuing distress during recounting of the trauma memory (imaginal exposure). Theorists suggest that distress reduction is necessary for successful treatment outcome (e.g., Foa & Kozak, 1986), while others suggest otherwise (e.g., Craske et al., 2008). This study examined clinically reliable changes in distress, relations to broad clinical outcomes, and whether homework adherence affected this relationship. Method In 116 patients with PTSD, first to last imaginal exposure sessions’ peak and average distress was examined, calculating reliable change in distress. Homework adherence and helpfulness were examined. At post-treatment, PTSD symptoms (re-experiencing, avoidance, hyperarousal), depression, and functioning were examined. Results Patients exhibited a lack of reliable change in distress (64.7%) more than a reliable change in distress (35.3%). Although no difference in post-treatment PTSD diagnostic status, individuals experiencing a reliable change in distress reported lower PTSD severity (re-experiencing, hyperarousal), depression, and better functioning. Further, perceived helpfulness of imaginal homework had an indirect effect on this relationship. Limitations This study did not utilize a distress tolerance self-report measure; however, examined self-reported distress during imaginal exposure. Conclusions Results are encouraging for clinicians treating PTSD with PE, arguing that lack of reliable change in distress to the trauma memory does not result in treatment failure. Patient “buy in” to homework, rather than amount completed, was related to the process of distress reduction. Results suggest that distress reduction in imaginal exposure is not a key mechanism underlying therapeutic change in PE. PMID:24091202

  1. Search Help

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Guidance and search help resource listing examples of common queries that can be used in the Google Search Appliance search request, including examples of special characters, or query term seperators that Google Search Appliance recognizes.

  2. Acute Respiratory Distress in Children: Croup and Acute Asthma.

    PubMed

    Sharma, B S; Shekhawat, Dhananjay S; Sharma, Prity; Meena, Chetan; Mohan, Hari

    2015-07-01

    Acute respiratory distress is one of the most common reason for emergency visits in children under 5 y of age. An accurate understanding of the epidemiology of these diseases, identification of risk factors and etiology is critical for successful treatment and prevention of related mortality. The cause of acute respiratory distress varies in etiology, and hence is amenable to different treatment modalities. Depending on the predominant symptoms and signs, a child presenting to the clinician can be divided into six groups, viz., stridor; cough, fever and difficulty in breathing or fast breathing; wheezing; mediastinal shift with severe respiratory distress; slow or irregular breathing in absence of any pulmonary sign; and respiratory distress with cardiac findings. A detailed history followed by a thorough clinical examination and laboratory evaluation assisted by imaging modalities if indicated, helps to establish the exact cause of respiratory distress in the child. Early recognition and prompt institution of appropriate management or referral can significantly improve the outcome of this illness. This article offers clinicians a brief update on the general management guidelines of respiratory distress in pediatric patients. Specific treatment depends on the exact cause, however croup and acute severe asthma have been discussed in this article.

  3. Underwater observations of dolphin reactions to a distressed conspecific.

    PubMed

    Kuczaj, Stan A; Frick, Erin E; Jones, Brittany L; Lea, James S E; Beecham, Dan; Schnöller, Fabrice

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the epimeletic (or "caregiving") behavior produced by members of a group of Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and the possible role of the ailing animal's distress call in eliciting such behavior. Epimeletic behavior in cetaceans most typically involves forms of support provided to a distressed, injured, or dying animal (Caldwell & Caldwell, 1966). Analyses of underwater video and corresponding acoustic recordings revealed a distressed dolphin (the DD) that frequently produced what are most likely distress calls, often paired with the emission of long bubble streams. The frequency of her whistle production was positively correlated with the frequency of the supporting behaviors the DD received from other dolphins. These helping behaviors included raft formations, lifts, and stimulating pushes that were predominantly directed toward the upper third of the DD's body, all of which appeared to be directed towards bringing the DD toward the surface so that she could breathe. This is the first documented underwater account of multiple wild bottlenose dolphins providing epimeletic care to a distressed conspecific, and highlights the possible role of distress calls in such scenarios.

  4. Prolonged Distress of Parents After Early Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Kantrowitz-Gordon, Ira; Altman, Molly R; Vandermause, Roxanne

    2016-01-01

    To examine how parents describe the distress of early preterm birth in the months and years after the infant's hospital discharge. Discourse analysis of in-depth interviews and photo elicitation. Homes or cafés in the Pacific Northwest United States. Parents of premature infants born between 24 and 30 weeks gestation (N = 10) who experienced significant distress in and out of the hospital. Parents participated in the study when their children were between 15 months and 8 years old. Participants described dealing with prematurity, emotional distress, and parenting in individual interviews and returned for second interviews in which they further described their distress using photographs. Data were analyzed using discourse analysis. Parents described preterm birth, hospitalization, and the aftermath as ongoing traumatic events. Discourses of distress included the Perfect Child, the Good Mother, and the Good Father. Parents used these discourses to reconcile the loss of an idealized birth and parenting after the birth of a premature child. Isolation and Medicalized Parenting were used to explain how parents struggled to interact within their social networks and to parent under challenging circumstances. Participants described their trauma and distress in ways not captured by psychiatric diagnoses such as depression and anxiety. Findings may help nurses be aware of the negative effects of preterm birth and respond to parents' emotional needs. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Adolescent Help-Seeking: What Do They Get Help for, and from Whom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boldero, Jennifer; Fallon, Barry

    1995-01-01

    School-aged adolescents (n=1,013) were asked to identify a recent and very distressing problem, problem type, and who or whether they asked for help. Most problems related to interpersonal relationships, education, and health. Help-seeking behavior was found to be predicted by problem type and gender but not year level or problem characteristics.…

  6. Cultural Distress: An Emerging Paradigm.

    PubMed

    DeWilde, Christine; Burton, Candace W

    2016-12-12

    Although cultural competence in practice is a common goal within the health care professions, little is known about the consequences of a lack of such competence in health and healing. We propose a novel theoretical framework of cultural distress to describe patient experiences of and reactions to care that does not incorporate attention to cultural needs. Use of the cultural distress model to guide research offers an innovative framework by which researchers may identify potential interventions such that patients never reach a level of cultural distress.

  7. The mediating effect of psychological distress on functional dependence in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Chuan; Huang, Li-Kai; Hu, Chaur-Jong; Chang, Chien-Hung; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Chi, Nai-Fang; Shyu, Meei-Ling; Chang, Hsiu-Ju

    2014-12-01

    To explore varied forms of psychological distress and to determine the mediating influence of psychological distress on functional outcomes in stroke patients. Previous studies attest to the influence of depression on poststroke functional recovery. While there is evidence for neuropathological deficits that occur after stroke to be associated with psychological distress, few studies have explored the effect of various types of psychological distress on functional recovery. A cross-sectional study was used. Data were collected from 178 first-time stroke patients. Study variables included demographic and disease characteristics (stroke location and stroke syndrome classification), psychological distress (the Chinese language version of the Emotional and Social Dysfunction Questionnaire) and functional outcome (Barthel index). Regression and mediation models were used to evaluate the effect of psychological distress on functional outcome. Results revealed that stroke patients experience various forms of mild psychological distress, including anger, helplessness, emotional dyscontrol, indifference, inertia and euphoria, after stroke. Regression and mediation analyses further confirmed that various forms of psychological distress significantly mediated the effect of severe stroke syndromes on functional dependence. The various forms of psychological distress after stroke might play a mediating role in functional recovery and explain how stroke severity affects functional dependence. By understanding the nature of various forms of psychological distress, healthcare professionals should adopt appropriate assessment instruments and design effective interventions to help improve mental and physical function of stroke patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Peritraumatic dissociation as a mediator of peritraumatic distress and PTSD: a retrospective, cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Otis, Catherine; Marchand, André; Courtois, Frédérique

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present article was to examine the mediational significance of peritraumatic dissociation in the relationship between peritraumatic distress and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A total of 71 individuals with spinal cord injuries completed interviews and questionnaires measuring PTSD symptomatology, peritraumatic dissociation, and peritraumatic distress. Peritraumatic dissociation was found to partially mediate the relationship between peritraumatic distress and PTSD symptomatology. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that peritraumatic distress and peritraumatic dissociation significantly impact PTSD severity. The findings also support the hypothesis that peritraumatic dissociation is provoked by peritraumatic distress. The results further indicate that although peritraumatic dissociation seems to be a significant risk factor for PTSD, it is not necessary for the development of PTSD; the presence of peritraumatic distress may be sufficient. These findings highlight the importance of investigating peritraumatic reactions after a traumatic event in order to identify individuals at risk for developing PTSD. Such a practice may help prevent the development of chronic conditions.

  9. Culture, Context, and the Internalizing Distress of Mexican American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polo, Antonio J.; Lopez, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    Latino youth appear to be at higher risk for depression relative to youth from other ethnic groups. This study assessed the relationship between nativity and several forms of internalizing distress among Mexican American middle school students as well as sociocultural factors that may help explain this relationship. Immigrant Mexican American…

  10. Helping Children of Alcoholic Parents: An Elementary School Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Ruth B.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes a program in the Somerville, Massachusetts, elementary schools, designed to help children cope with the emotional distress of family alcoholism and to prevent them from abusing alcohol in adolescence or adulthood. Program structure and results are discussed. (JAC)

  11. [Acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    PubMed

    Matĕjovic, M; Novák, I; Srámek, V; Rokyta, R; Hora, P; Nalos, M

    1999-04-26

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the general term used for severe acute respiratory failure of diverse aetiology. It is associated with a high morbidity, mortality (50-70%), and financial costs. Regardless of aetiology, the basic pathogenesis of ARDS is a systemic inflammatory response leading to a diffuse inflammatory process that involves both lungs, thus causing diffuse alveolar and endothelial damage with increased pulmonary capillary permeability and excessive extravascular lung water accumulation. ARDS is commonly associated with sepsis and multiple organ failure. The clinical picture involves progressive hypoxaemia, radiographic evidence of pulmonary oedema, decreased lung compliance and pulmonary hypertension. Despite the scientific and technological progress in critical care medicine, there is no specific ARDS therapy available at the moment and its management remains supportive. Therapeutic goals include resolution of underlying conditions, maintenance of acceptable gas exchange and tissue oxygenation and prevention of iatrogenic lung injury. Many new specific therapeutic strategies have been developed, however, most of them require further scientific evaluation. The paper reviews definition, basic pathogenesis and pathophysiology of ARDS and discusses current concepts of therapeutic possibilities of ARDS.

  12. Social capital and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Song, Lijun

    2011-12-01

    The author proposes a conceptual model to explain the diverse roles of social capital--resources embedded in social networks--in the social production of health. Using a unique national U.S. sample, the author estimated a path analysis model to examine the direct and indirect effects of social capital on psychological distress and its intervening effects on the relationships between other structural antecedents and psychological distress. The results show that social capital is inversely associated with psychological distress, and part of that effect is indirect through subjective social status. Social capital also acts as an intervening mechanism to link seven social factors (age, gender, race-ethnicity, education, occupational prestige, annual family income, and voluntary participation) with psychological distress. This study develops the theory of social capital as network resources and demonstrates the complex functions of social capital as a distinct social determinant of health.

  13. Understanding Distress in People with Severe Communication Difficulties: Developing and Assessing the Disability Distress Assessment Tool (DisDAT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regnard, C.; Reynolds, Joanna; Watson, Bill; Matthews, Dorothy; Gibson, Lynn; Clarke, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    Background: Meaningful communication with people with profound communication difficulties depends on the ability of carers to recognize and translate many different verbal cues. Carers appear to be intuitively skilled at identifying distress cues, but have little confidence in their observations. To help in this process, a number of pain tools…

  14. 46 CFR 28.145 - Distress signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Distress signals. 28.145 Section 28.145 Shipping COAST... VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 28.145 Distress signals. Except as provided by 28.305, each vessel must be equipped with the distress signals specified in table 28.145. Table 28.145—Distress Signals...

  15. Distress in couples approached for genetic counseling and BRCA1/2 testing during adjuvant radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Schlich-Bakker, Kathryn J; ten Kroode, Herman F J; Wárlám Rodenhuis, Carla C; Ausems, Margreet G E M; van den Bout, Jan

    2009-09-01

    Breast cancer patients mostly rely on their partners for support in dealing with their cancer diagnosis and treatment. Genetic counseling and BRCA1/2 testing during primary treatment may add to demands made on their partners. This study aimed to gain insight into the extent of psychological distress in partners of recently diagnosed patients and to find factors to help identify couples vulnerable to high psychological distress after an active approach for genetic counseling. Breast cancer patients and their partners (n=110) completed psychological distress measures (HADS and IES) prior to the approach for counseling (T0), after the approach (T1), and after leaving the genetic counseling protocol (T2). Couples not approached for counseling (n=85) completed similar questionnaires. Partners reported an equal or lower level of distress than patients, with a positive correlation between the two, although partners and patients differed in the course of their distress. Couples approached for genetic counseling did not differ in the level or course of either distress measure from not approached couples. A high baseline distress best predicts long-term high distress in patients and their partners. Younger patients were found to be particularly vulnerable. The approach for genetic counseling during adjuvant radiotherapy was not associated with extra psychological distress in partners or patients in the first year following the breast cancer diagnosis. A partner's long-term level of distress was significantly associated with that of the patient. Highly distressed patients with highly distressed partners were most likely to experience high distress in the long term.

  16. Treatment of torture survivors - influences of the exile situation on the course of the traumatic process amd therapeutic possibilities.

    PubMed

    Wenk-Ansohn, Mechthild

    2007-01-01

    Traumatized refugees often suffer from complex posttraumatic disorders with a high tendency of chronicity. This is due to severe and often repeated traumatization in the course of political persecution on one hand and uprooting and ongoing stress caused by leaving their home country and society and living under an adverse situation in exile on the other hand. This article shows how positive and negative factors going along with migration interfere with the course of the traumatic process and the therapeutic possibilities and how the therapeutic process can be adjusted to the situation.

  17. Moral Distress in Pediatric Healthcare Providers.

    PubMed

    Trotochaud, Karen; Coleman, Joyce Ramsey; Krawiecki, Nicolas; McCracken, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric providers across professions and clinical settings experience moral distress. Higher moral distress correlates with intent to leave for all professionals. Physicians as professional group had the highest moral distress. Intensive care nurses had the highest moral distress for nurses. While all providers describe distressing scenarios as disturbing, physicians report situations as occurring more frequently. The most distressing situations include requests for aggressive treatments not in child's best interest, poor team communication and lack of provider continuity. Understanding moral distress as experienced by all pediatric providers is needed to create interventions with a goal of reducing provider turnover.

  18. Moral distress among Norwegian doctors.

    PubMed

    Førde, R; Aasland, O G

    2008-07-01

    Medicine is full of value conflicts. Limited resources and legal regulations may place doctors in difficult ethical dilemmas and cause moral distress. Research on moral distress has so far been mainly studied in nurses. To describe whether Norwegian doctors experience stress related to ethical dilemmas and lack of resources, and to explore whether the doctors feel that they have good strategies for the resolution of ethical dilemmas. Postal survey of a representative sample of 1497 Norwegian doctors in 2004, presenting statements about different ethical dilemmas, values and goals at their workplace. The response rate was 67%. 57% admitted that it is difficult to criticize a colleague for professional misconduct and 51% for ethical misconduct. 51% described sometimes having to act against own conscience as distressing. 66% of the doctors experienced distress related to long waiting lists for treatment and to impaired patient care due to time constraints. 55% reported that time spent on administration and documentation is distressing. Female doctors experienced more stress that their male colleagues. 44% reported that their workplace lacked strategies for dealing with ethical dilemmas. Lack of resources creates moral dilemmas for physicians. Moral distress varies with specialty and gender. Lack of strategies to solve ethical dilemmas and low tolerance for conflict and critique from colleagues may obstruct important and necessary ethical dialogues and lead to suboptimal solutions of difficult ethical problems.

  19. [Acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    PubMed

    Estenssoro, Elisa; Dubin, Arnaldo

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an acute respiratory failure produced by an inflammatory edema secondary to increased lung capillary permeability. This causes alveolar flooding and subsequently deep hypoxemia, with intrapulmonary shunt as its most important underlying mechanism. Characteristically, this alteration is unresponsive to high FIO2 and only reverses with end-expiratory positive pressure (PEEP). Pulmonary infiltrates on CXR and CT are the hallmark, together with decreased lung compliance. ARDS always occurs within a week of exposition to a precipitating factor; most frequently pneumonia, shock, aspiration of gastric contents, sepsis, and trauma. In CT scan, the disease is frequently inhomogeneous, with gravitational infiltrates coexisting with normal-density areas and also with hyperaerated parenchyma. Mortality is high (30-60%) especially in ARDS associated with septic shock and neurocritical diseases. The cornerstone of therapy lies in the treatment of the underlying cause and in the use mechanical ventilation which, if inappropriately administered, can lead to ventilator-induced lung injury. Tidal volume = 6 ml/kg of ideal body weight to maintain an end-inspiratory (plateau) pressure = 30 cm H2O ("protective ventilation") is the only variable consistently associated with decreased mortality. Moderate-to-high PEEP levels are frequently required to treat hypoxemia, yet no specific level or titration strategy has improved outcomes. Recently, the use of early prone positioning in patients with PaO2/FIO2 = 150 was associated with increased survival. In severely hypoxemic patients, it may be necessary to use adjuvants of mechanical ventilation as recruitment maneuvers, pressure-controlled modes, neuromuscular blocking agents, and extracorporeal-membrane oxygenation. Fluid restriction appears beneficial.

  20. Helping Children Help Themselves. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

    Youth leaders and parents can use this activity oriented publication to help children six to twelve years of age become more independent by acquiring daily living skills. The publication consists of five units, each of which contains an introduction, learning activities, and lists of resource materials. Age-ability levels are suggested for…

  1. Helping Children Help Themselves. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

    Youth leaders and parents can use this activity oriented publication to help children six to twelve years of age become more independent by acquiring daily living skills. The publication consists of five units, each of which contains an introduction, learning activities, and lists of resource materials. Age-ability levels are suggested for…

  2. Help Us to Help Ourselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Local authorities have a strong tradition of supporting communities to help themselves, and this is nowhere better illustrated than in the learning they commission and deliver through the Adult Safeguarded Learning budget. The budget was set up to protect at least a minimum of provision for adult liberal education, family learning and learning for…

  3. Help Us to Help Ourselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Local authorities have a strong tradition of supporting communities to help themselves, and this is nowhere better illustrated than in the learning they commission and deliver through the Adult Safeguarded Learning budget. The budget was set up to protect at least a minimum of provision for adult liberal education, family learning and learning for…

  4. Moral sensitivity and moral distress in Iranian critical care nurses.

    PubMed

    Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Mohamadi, Elham; Ghasemi, Erfan; Hoseinabad-Farahani, Mohammad Javad

    2017-06-01

    Moral sensitivity is the foremost prerequisite to ethical performance; a review of literature shows that nurses are sometimes not sensitive enough for a variety of reasons. Moral distress is a frequent phenomenon in nursing, which may result in paradoxes in care, dealing with patients and rendering high-quality care. This may, in turn, hinder the meeting of care objectives, thus affecting social healthcare standards. The present research was conducted to determine the relationship between moral sensitivity and moral distress of nurses in intensive care units. This study is a descriptive-correlation research. Lutzen's moral sensitivity questionnaire and Corley Moral Distress Questionnaire were used to gather data. Participants and research context: A total of 153 qualified nurses working in the hospitals affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences were selected for this study. Subjects were selected by census method. Ethical considerations: After explaining the objectives of the study, all the participants completed and signed the written consent form. To conduct the study, permission was obtained from the selected hospitals. Nurses' average moral sensitivity grade was 68.6 ± 7.8, which shows a moderate level of moral sensitivity. On the other hand, nurses also experienced a moderate level of moral distress (44.8 ± 16.6). Moreover, there was no meaningful statistical relationship between moral sensitivity and moral distress (p = 0.26). Although the nurses' moral sensitivity and moral distress were expected to be high in the intensive care units, it was moderate. This finding is consistent with the results of some studies and contradicts with others. As moral sensitivity is a crucial factor in care, it is suggested that necessary training be provided to develop moral sensitivity in nurses in education and practical environments. Furthermore, removing factors that contribute to moral distress may help decrease it in nurses.

  5. Acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Pamela A; Seahorn, Thomas

    2004-04-01

    all species that we work with? What do we define as acute onset? Most human ARDS cases occur while patients are in hospital being treated for other problems, whereas many of our patients present already in respiratory distress. If we are unable to ventilate patients for economic or practical reasons, what do we use as the equivalent of the Pao2/Flo, ratio'? Reliance on the pathologist is not reasonable, because many disease processes can look similar to ARDS under the microscope. If anything, ALI and ARDS are clinical diagnoses. It is time for veterinarians to reach a consensus on the definition for ALI and ARDS in our patients. Only when we have a consensus of definition can rational prospective clinical trials of therapies be designed.

  6. Exploring the Relationship Among Moral Distress, Coping, and the Practice Environment in Emergency Department Nurses.

    PubMed

    Zavotsky, Kathleen Evanovich; Chan, Garrett K

    2016-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) nurses practice in environments that are highly charged and unpredictable in nature and can precipitate conflict between the necessary prescribed actions and the individual's sense of what is morally the right thing to do. As a consequence of multiple moral dilemmas, ED staff nurses are at risk for experiencing distress and how they cope with these challenges may impact their practice. To examine moral distress in ED nurses and its relationship to coping in that specialty group. Using survey methods approach. One hundred ninety-eight ED nurses completed a moral distress, coping, and demographic collection instruments. Advanced statistical analysis was completed to look at relationships between the variables. Data analysis did show that moral distress is present in ED nurses (M = 80.19, SD = 53.27), and when separated into age groups, the greater the age, the less the experience of moral distress. A positive relationship between moral distress and some coping mechanisms and the ED environment was also noted. This study's findings suggest that ED nurses experience moral distress and could receive some benefit from utilization of appropriate coping skills. This study also suggests that the environment in which ED nurses practice has a significant impact on the experience of moral distress. Because health care is continuing to evolve, it is critical that issues such as moral distress and coping be studied in ED nurses to help eliminate human suffering.

  7. A framework for understanding moral distress among palliative care clinicians.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Cynda H; Kaszniak, Alfred W; Halifax, Joan S

    2013-09-01

    Palliative care clinicians confront suffering as they care for people living with life-limiting conditions. When the degree of suffering becomes unjustified, moral distress can ensue. Promising work from neuroscience and social psychology has yet to be applied to clinical practice. Our objective was to expand a social psychology model focusing on empathy and compassion in response to suffering to include an ethical dimension and to examine how the interrelationships of its proposed components can assist clinicians in understanding their responses to morally distressing situations. In the clinical context, responses to distressing events are thought to include four dimensions: empathy (emotional attunement), perspective taking (cognitive attunement), memory (personal experience), and moral sensitivity (ethical attunement). These dynamically intertwined dimensions create the preconditions for how clinicians respond to a triggering event instigated by an ethical conflict or dilemma. We postulate that if the four dimensions are highly aligned, the intensity and valence of emotional arousal will influence ethical appraisal and discernment by engaging a robust view of the ethical issues, conflicts, and possible solutions and cultivating compassionate action and resilience. In contrast, if they are not, ethical appraisal and discernment will be deficient, creating emotional disregulation and potentially leading to personal and moral distress, self-focused behaviors, unregulated moral outrage, burnout, and secondary stress. The adaptation and expansion of a conceptual framework offers a promising approach to designing interventions that help clinicians mitigate the detrimental consequences of unregulated moral distress and to build the resilience necessary to sustain themselves in clinical service.

  8. Toward interventions to address moral distress: navigating structure and agency.

    PubMed

    Musto, Lynn C; Rodney, Patricia A; Vanderheide, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    The concept of moral distress has been the subject of nursing research for the past 30 years. Recently, there has been a call to move from developing an understanding of the concept to developing interventions to help ameliorate the experience. At the same time, the use of the term moral distress has been critiqued for a lack of clarity about the concepts that underpin the experience. Some researchers suggest that a closer examination of how socio-political structures influence healthcare delivery will move moral distress from being seen as located in the individual to an experience that is also located in broader healthcare structures. Informed by new thinking in relational ethics, we draw on research findings from neuroscience and attachment literature to examine the reciprocal relationship between structures and agents and frame the experience of moral distress. We posit moral distress as a form of relational trauma and subsequently point to the need to better understand how nurses as moral agents are influenced by-and influence-the complex socio-political structures they inhabit. In so doing, we identify this reciprocity as a framework for interventions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Discrimination and psychological distress: does Whiteness matter for Arab Americans?

    PubMed

    Abdulrahim, Sawsan; James, Sherman A; Yamout, Rouham; Baker, Wayne

    2012-12-01

    The white racial category in the U.S. encompasses persons who have Arab ancestry. Arab Americans, however, have always occupied a precarious position in relationship to Whiteness. This study examined differences in reporting racial/ethnic discrimination among Arab Americans. It also investigated whether and how the association between discrimination and psychological distress varies by characteristics that capture an Arab American's proximity to/distance from Whiteness. We used data from the Detroit Arab American Study (2003; n = 1016), which includes measures of discrimination and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress. A series of logistic regression models were specified to test the discrimination-psychological distress association, stratified by five measures that capture Whiteness--subjective racial identification, religion, skin color, ethnic centrality, and residence in the ethnic enclave. Discrimination was more frequently reported by Muslim Arab Americans, those who racially identify as non-white, and who live in the ethnic enclave. Conversely, the association between discrimination and psychological distress was stronger for Christian Arab Americans, those who racially identify as white, who have dark skin color, and who live outside the ethnic enclave. Even though Arab Americans who occupy an identity location close to Whiteness are less subjected to discrimination, they are more negatively affected by it. The findings illuminate the complex pathways through which discrimination associates with psychological distress among 'white' immigrants. Further research on discrimination and health among Arab Americans can help unpack the white racial category and deconstruct Whiteness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Spiritual distress and spiritual care in advanced heart failure.

    PubMed

    Gillilan, Ronald; Qawi, Sameena; Weymiller, Audrey J; Puchalski, Christina

    2017-07-24

    As patients face serious and chronic illness, they are confronted with the realities of dying. Spiritual and existential issues are particularly prominent near the end of life and can result in significant distress. It is critical that healthcare professionals know how to address patients' and families' spiritual concerns, diagnose spiritual distress and attend to the deep suffering of patients in a way that can result in a better quality of life for patients and families. Tools such as the FICA spiritual history tool help clinicians invite patients and families to share their spiritual or existential concerns as well as sources of hope and meaning which can help them cope better with their illness. This article presents ways to help clinicians listen to the whole story of the patient and support patients in their care.

  11. Perfectionism, procrastination, and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Rice, Kenneth G; Richardson, Clarissa M E; Clark, Dustin

    2012-04-01

    Using a cross-panel design and data from 2 successive cohorts of college students (N = 357), we examined the stability of maladaptive perfectionism, procrastination, and psychological distress across 3 time points within a college semester. Each construct was substantially stable over time, with procrastination being especially stable. We also tested, but failed to support, a mediational model with Time 2 (mid-semester) procrastination as a hypothesized mechanism through which Time 1 (early-semester) perfectionism would affect Time 3 (end-semester) psychological distress. An alternative model with Time 2 perfectionism as a mediator of the procrastination-distress association also was not supported. Within-time analyses revealed generally consistent strength of effects in the correlations between the 3 constructs over the course of the semester. A significant interaction effect also emerged. Time 1 procrastination had no effect on otherwise high levels of psychological distress at the end of the semester for highly perfectionistic students, but at low levels of Time 1 perfectionism, the most distressed students by the end of the term were those who were more likely to have procrastinated earlier in the semester. Implications of the stability of the constructs and their association over time, as well as the moderating effects of procrastination, are discussed in the context of maladaptive perfectionism and problematic procrastination.

  12. Machine learning methods for anticipating the psychological distress in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaolin; Xu, Jie; Zhao, Yongbo

    2006-12-01

    Recent studies proved that psychological distress is an accelerator of Alzheimer disease (AD). However, the factors that affect the psychological distress of AD patients are still unknown. The aim of this study was to predict the incidence and identify the risk factors of psychological distress in AD patients. Artificial neural networks and Machine learning models were used to predict the incidence of psychological distress in AD patients. Linear regression and decision tree models were used to identify the factors of psychological distress in AD patients. Among all models for predicting the incidence of psychological distress in AD patients, the artificial neural networks with 8 hidden neurons achieved the highest predictive accuracy of 81.92%. In the five machine learning models, the ADTree algorithm made the highest Predictive Accuracy of 77.94%. As for risk factor analysis, the Linear Regression and Decision Tree models reported similar sets of variables that affect the psychological distress of AD patients. Three variables were reported by Linear Regression to be in negative correlation with psychological distress: the use of professional care service, caregiver consuming cigarette, and caregiver consuming alcohol. The incidence of psychological distress in AD patients can be predicted by artificial neural networks with an accuracy of 81.92%. There are four main risk factors for psychological distress of AD patients: "Caregiver experiencing psychological distress", "Caregiver suffering from chronic disease or cancer", "Care recipient's health status being serious or getting worse", and "Lack of professional care service". These findings are potentially helpful for the prediction, prevention and intervention of psychological distress in AD patients.

  13. Financial Distress in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Jonas A.; Wong, Yu-Ning

    2013-01-01

    Novel diagnostic and therapeutic options offer hope to cancer patients with both localized and advanced disease. However, many of these treatments are often costly and even well-insured patients can face high out-of-pocket costs. Families may also be at risk of financial distress due to lost wages and other treatment-related expenses. Research is needed to measure and characterize financial distress in cancer patients and understand how it affects their quality of life. In addition, health care providers need to be trained to counsel patients and their families so they can make patient-centered treatment decisions that reflect their preferences and values. PMID:24349677

  14. Moral Distress, Workplace Health, and Intrinsic Harm.

    PubMed

    Weber, Elijah

    2016-05-01

    Moral distress is now being recognized as a frequent experience for many health care providers, and there's good evidence that it has a negative impact on the health care work environment. However, contemporary discussions of moral distress have several problems. First, they tend to rely on inadequate characterizations of moral distress. As a result, subsequent investigations regarding the frequency and consequences of moral distress often proceed without a clear understanding of the phenomenon being discussed, and thereby risk substantially misrepresenting the nature, frequency, and possible consequences of moral distress. These discussions also minimize the intrinsically harmful aspects of moral distress. This is a serious omission. Moral distress doesn't just have a negative impact on the health care work environment; it also directly harms the one who experiences it. In this paper, I claim that these problems can be addressed by first clarifying our understanding of moral distress, and then identifying what makes moral distress intrinsically harmful. I begin by identifying three common mistakes that characterizations of moral distress tend to make, and explaining why these mistakes are problematic. Next, I offer an account of moral distress that avoids these mistakes. Then, I defend the claim that moral distress is intrinsically harmful to the subject who experiences it. I conclude by explaining how acknowledging this aspect of moral distress should reshape our discussions about how best to deal with this phenomenon. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Helping individuals to help themselves.

    PubMed

    Costain, Lyndel; Croker, Helen

    2005-02-01

    Obesity is a serious and increasing health issue. Approximately two-thirds of adults in the UK are now overweight or obese. Recent public health reports firmly reinforce the importance of engaging individuals to look after their health, including their weight. They also spell out the need for individuals to be supported more actively, on many levels, to enable this 'engagement'. Meanwhile, national surveys indicate that approximately two-thirds of adults are concerned about weight control, with one-third actively trying to lose weight. This finding is hardly surprising considering current weight statistics, plus the plethora of popular diets on offer. Weight-loss methods include diet clubs, diet books, exercise, meal replacements, advice from healthcare professionals and following a self-styled diet. Obesity is a multi-factorial problem, and losing weight and, in particular, maintaining weight loss is difficult and often elusive. It is argued that the modern obesogenic or 'toxic' environment has essentially taken body-weight control from an instinctive 'survival' process to one that needs sustained cognitive and skill-based control. The evidence suggests that health professionals can help individuals achieve longer-term weight control by supporting them in making sustainable lifestyle changes using a range of behavioural techniques. These techniques include: assessing readiness to change; self-monitoring; realistic goal setting; dietary change; increased physical activity; stimulus control; cognitive restructuring; relapse management; establishing ongoing support. Consistently working in a client-centred way is also being increasingly advocated and incorporated into practice to help motivate and encourage, rather than hinder, the individual's progress.

  16. Psychological distress in afghan refugees: a mixed-method systematic review.

    PubMed

    Alemi, Qais; James, Sigrid; Cruz, Romalene; Zepeda, Veronica; Racadio, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Mental health problems disproportionately affect Afghan refugees and asylum seekers who continue to seek international protection with prolonged exposure to war. We performed a systematic review aimed at synthesizing peer-reviewed literature pertaining to mental health problems among Afghans resettled in industrialized nations. We used five databases to identify studies published between 1979 and 2013 that provided data on distress levels, and subjective experiences with distress. Seventeen studies met our inclusion criteria consisting of 1 mixed-method, 7 qualitative, and 9 quantitative studies. Themes from our qualitative synthesis described antecedents for distress being rooted in cultural conflicts and loss, and also described unique coping mechanisms. Quantitative findings indicated moderate to high prevalence of depressive and posttraumatic symptomatology. These findings support the need for continued mental health research with Afghans that accounts for: distress among newly resettled groups, professional help-seeking utilization patterns, and also culturally relevant strategies for mitigating distress and engaging Afghans in research.

  17. Psychological Distress in Afghan Refugees: A Mixed-Method Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Alemi, Qais; James, Sigrid; Cruz, Romalene; Zepeda, Veronica; Racadio, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Mental health problems disproportionately affect Afghan refugees and asylum seekers who continue to seek international protection with prolonged exposure to war. We performed a systematic review aimed at synthesizing peer-reviewed literature pertaining to mental health problems among Afghans resettled in industrialized nations. We used five databases to identify studies published between 1979 and 2013 that provided data on distress levels, and subjective experiences with distress. Seventeen studies met our inclusion criteria consisting of 1 mixed-method, 7 qualitative, and 9 quantitative studies. Themes from our qualitative synthesis described antecedents for distress being rooted in cultural conflicts and loss, and also described unique coping mechanisms. Quantitative findings indicated moderate to high prevalence of depressive and posttraumatic symptomatology. These findings support the need for continued mental health research with Afghans that accounts for: distress among newly resettled groups, professional help-seeking utilization patterns, and also culturally relevant strategies for mitigating distress and engaging Afghans in research. PMID:23784146

  18. Mindfulness and bodily distress.

    PubMed

    Fjorback, Lone Overby

    2012-11-01

    We have created a mindfulness approach to treat patients who experience multiple, persistent, and disabling physical symptoms that cannot be explained by a well-defined medical or surgical condition. Randomized controlled trials in this area are few, and research is hampered by the lack of clear definitions. Bodily distress syndrome (BDS) or bodily stress is an empirically defined definition unifying various conditions such as fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and somatization disorder. In the present PhD, we explored whether patients suffering from BDS may be committed to mental training in the form of mindfulness therapy, which is a mindfulness program specifically targeted patients suffering from BDS. The theoretical model for including mindfulness training in the treatment of BDS is based on identified neurobiological impairments in these patients and the neurobiological improvements that mindfulness training may offer. BDS is a major public health issue possibly associated with the pathology of the immuno-endocrine and autonomic nervous system. BDS patients are often stigmatized, and effective treatment is rarely delivered, which leaves these patients isolated, left by themselves, vulnerable to potentially harming medical and/or alternative treatments. Accordingly, there is a need for non-harming practical tools that patients can learn to master so that they can improve the ability to take responsibility for their own health and wellbeing. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a group program that employs mindfulness practice to alleviate suffering associated with physical, psychosomatic, and psychiatric disorders. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is designed to prevent depressive relapse. Paper I and II present systematic literature reviews only of randomized controlled trials on MBSR and MBCT. The effect of MBSR has been explored on fibromyalgia in three studies, none of them showed convincing results, but gave some indications as to

  19. Perfectionism, Procrastination, and Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Richardson, Clarissa M. E.; Clark, Dustin

    2012-01-01

    Using a cross-panel design and data from 2 successive cohorts of college students ( N = 357), we examined the stability of maladaptive perfectionism, procrastination, and psychological distress across 3 time points within a college semester. Each construct was substantially stable over time, with procrastination being especially stable. We also…

  20. Perfectionism, Procrastination, and Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Richardson, Clarissa M. E.; Clark, Dustin

    2012-01-01

    Using a cross-panel design and data from 2 successive cohorts of college students ( N = 357), we examined the stability of maladaptive perfectionism, procrastination, and psychological distress across 3 time points within a college semester. Each construct was substantially stable over time, with procrastination being especially stable. We also…

  1. A Conversation on Distressed Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Jack; Baldwin, Fred D.

    1998-01-01

    In 1999, 108 of Appalachia's 406 counties were "distressed," with high poverty and unemployment rates. Three experts on Appalachia (Ron Eller, Amy K. Glasmeier, Greg Bischak) discuss problems and potentials of these counties, focusing on the working poor, welfare reform, the utility of social indicators, the challenge of changing the…

  2. Emotional Distress in Ghetto Delinquents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granick, Samuel

    The research data in this report were assembled as a basis for exploring the relationship between emotional distress or disturbance in both black and white adjudicated delinquents. The focus of inquiry was, for example, the relationship between emotional disturbance and being delinquent, the difference between black and white delinquents, and the…

  3. Wavelet-aided pavement distress image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jian; Huang, Peisen S.; Chiang, Fu-Pen

    2003-11-01

    A wavelet-based pavement distress detection and evaluation method is proposed. This method consists of two main parts, real-time processing for distress detection and offline processing for distress evaluation. The real-time processing part includes wavelet transform, distress detection and isolation, and image compression and noise reduction. When a pavement image is decomposed into different frequency subbands by wavelet transform, the distresses, which are usually irregular in shape, appear as high-amplitude wavelet coefficients in the high-frequency details subbands, while the background appears in the low-frequency approximation subband. Two statistical parameters, high-amplitude wavelet coefficient percentage (HAWCP) and high-frequency energy percentage (HFEP), are established and used as criteria for real-time distress detection and distress image isolation. For compression of isolated distress images, a modified EZW (Embedded Zerotrees of Wavelet coding) is developed, which can simultaneously compress the images and reduce the noise. The compressed data are saved to the hard drive for further analysis and evaluation. The offline processing includes distress classification, distress quantification, and reconstruction of the original image for distress segmentation, distress mapping, and maintenance decision-making. The compressed data are first loaded and decoded to obtain wavelet coefficients. Then Radon transform is then applied and the parameters related to the peaks in the Radon domain are used for distress classification. For distress quantification, a norm is defined that can be used as an index for evaluating the severity and extent of the distress. Compared to visual or manual inspection, the proposed method has the advantages of being objective, high-speed, safe, automated, and applicable to different types of pavements and distresses.

  4. Predictors of Maternal Sensitivity to Infant Distress

    PubMed Central

    Leerkes, Esther M.

    2010-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective The present study was designed to examine the extent to which mothers’ emotional (i.e., empathy, negative emotions) and cognitive (i.e., accurate detection of distress, goals about infant crying, and emotion efficacy) responses to infant distress are related to maternal sensitivity in tasks designed to elicit infant distress. Mothers’ emotional and cognitive responses to distress were assessed both prenatally in response to unfamiliar infants and postnatally in response to own infant. The extent to which prenatal and postnatal measures correlated with one another and with sensitivity to distress was examined. Design One-hundred and one mothers were interviewed prenatally about their responses to videotapes of crying infants, then videotaped interacting with their own infants at 6-months postpartum in two emotionally arousing tasks during which maternal sensitivity and infant distress were rated, and participated in a video-recall interview about their thoughts and feelings during the emotionally arousing tasks. Results Mothers’ prenatal and postnatal goals in relation to infant distress and emotional reactions to infant distress were the most consistent predictors of sensitivity, but prenatal accurate detection of infant distress also predicted sensitivity. Furthermore, mothers’ goals, emotional reactions to crying, and accurate distress detection buffered maternal sensitivity from the negative effect of observed infant distress. That is, infant distress was less strongly negatively associated with sensitivity when mothers had more infant-oriented goals, reported fewer negative emotions in response to infant crying, or were skilled at detecting infant distress. Conclusions Assessing mothers’ emotional and cognitive responses to infant distress provides insights into the origins of sensitivity to infant distress. Methodological issues relevant to assessing mothers’ emotional and cognitive responses to infant distress are raised. PMID

  5. Distress management. Clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    2003-07-01

    The evaluation and treatment model expressed in the NCCN Distress Management Guidelines recommends that each new patient be rapidly assessed in the office or clinic waiting room for evidence of distress using a brief screening tool (the Distress Thermometer and Problem List) presented in Figure 1 (see page 369). A score of 5 or greater on the thermometer should trigger further evaluation and referral to a psychosocial service. The choice of which service should be determined by the problem areas specified on the Problem List. Patients with practical and psychosocial problems are referred to social work, emotional or psychological (excessive sadness, worry, nervousness) problems to mental health, and spiritual concerns to pastoral counselors. The primary oncology team members--doctor, nurse, and social worker--are central to making this model work. Team members collect information from the brief screening and problem list and expand it with the clinical evaluation. It is critical for at least one team member to be familiar with the mental health, psychosocial, and pastoral counseling resources available in the institution and the community. A list of the names and phone numbers for these resources should be kept in all oncology clinics and updated frequently. The first step in implementing this model is to establish a multidisciplinary committee in each institution or office responsible for 1) revising and modifying the standards of care to fit the particular clinical care setting and 2) implementing and monitoring the use of these standards. Because each institution has its own culture, standards must be implemented in ways that are compatible with each institution. The second step is to institute professional educational programs to ensure that staff is 1) aware that distress is under-recognized, 2) knowledgeable about the management of distress, and 3) aware of the resources available to treat it. It is important to have access to mental health professionals and

  6. Public hospitals in financial distress: Is privatization a strategic choice?

    PubMed

    Ramamonjiarivelo, Zo; Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Hearld, Larry; Menachemi, Nir; Epané, Josué Patien; O'Connor, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    As safety net providers, public hospitals operate in more challenging environments than private hospitals. Such environments put public hospitals at greater risk of financial distress, which may result in privatization and deterioration of the safety net. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether financial distress is associated with privatization among public hospitals. We used panel data merged from the American Hospital Association Annual Survey, Medicare Cost Reports, Area Resource File, and Local Area Unemployment Statistics. Our study population consisted of all U.S. nonfederal acute care public hospitals in 1997 tracked through 2009, resulting in 6,426 hospital-year observations. The dependent variable "privatization" was defined as conversion from public status to either private not-for-profit or private for-profit status. The main independent variable, "financial distress," was based on the Altman Z-score methodology. Control variables included market and organizational factors. Two random-effects logistic regression models with state and year fixed-effects were constructed. The independent and control variables were lagged by 1 year and 2 years for Models 1 and 2, respectively. Public hospitals in financial distress had greater odds of being privatized than public hospitals not in financial distress: (OR = 4.53, p < .001) for Model 1 and (OR = 3.05, p = .001) for Model 2. Privatization eases access to resources and may provide financial relief to government entities from the burden of continuously funding a hospital operating at a loss, which in turn may help keep the hospital open and preserve access to care for the community. Privatizing a financially distressed public hospital may be a better strategic alternative than closure. The Altman Z-score could be used as a managerial tool to monitor hospitals' financial condition and take corrective actions.

  7. 47 CFR 2.401 - Distress messages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Distress, Disaster, and Emergency Communications § 2.401 Distress messages. Each... aircraft in distress; shall cease all sending on frequencies which will interfere with hearing...

  8. 47 CFR 2.401 - Distress messages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Distress, Disaster, and Emergency Communications § 2.401 Distress messages. Each... aircraft in distress; shall cease all sending on frequencies which will interfere with hearing...

  9. 47 CFR 2.401 - Distress messages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Distress, Disaster, and Emergency Communications § 2.401 Distress messages. Each... aircraft in distress; shall cease all sending on frequencies which will interfere with hearing...

  10. 47 CFR 2.401 - Distress messages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Distress, Disaster, and Emergency Communications § 2.401 Distress messages. Each... aircraft in distress; shall cease all sending on frequencies which will interfere with hearing...

  11. 47 CFR 2.401 - Distress messages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Distress, Disaster, and Emergency Communications § 2.401 Distress messages. Each... aircraft in distress; shall cease all sending on frequencies which will interfere with hearing...

  12. Psychological distress, perceived stigma, and coping among caregivers of patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Hui Chien; Ibrahim, Norhayati; Wahab, Suzaily

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, family members are gradually taking on the role of full-time caregivers for patients suffering from schizophrenia. The increasing burden and tasks of caretaking can cause them psychological distress such as depression or anxiety. The aim of this study was to measure the correlation between perceived stigma and coping, and psychological distress as well as determine the predictors of psychological distress among the caregivers. Results showed that 31.5% of the caregivers experienced psychological distress. “Community rejection” was found to be positively associated with psychological distress. In case of coping subscales, psychological distress had a positive correlation with substance use, use of emotional support, behavioral disengagement, venting, and self-blame, while it was negatively correlated with “positive reframing”. Behavioral disengagement was the best predictor of psychological distress among caregivers of patients with schizophrenia, followed by positive reframing, use of emotional support, self-blame, and venting. Health practitioners can use adaptive coping strategies instead of maladaptive for caregivers to help ease their distress and prevent further deterioration of psychological disorders. PMID:27574475

  13. The patient dignity inventory: a novel way of measuring dignity-related distress in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Chochinov, Harvey Max; Hassard, Thomas; McClement, Susan; Hack, Thomas; Kristjanson, Linda J; Harlos, Mike; Sinclair, Shane; Murray, Alison

    2008-12-01

    Quality palliative care depends on a deep understanding of distress facing patients nearing death. Yet, many aspects of psychosocial, existential and spiritual distress are often overlooked. The aim of this study was to test a novel psychometric--the Patient Dignity Inventory (PDI)--designed to measure various sources of dignity-related distress among patients nearing the end of life. Using standard instrument development techniques, this study examined the face validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, factor structure and concurrent validity of the PDI. The 25-items of the PDI derive from a model of dignity in the terminally ill. To establish its basic psychometric properties, the PDI was administered to 253 patients receiving palliative care, along with other measures addressing issues identified within the Dignity Model in the Terminally Ill. Cronbach's coefficient alpha for the PDI was 0.93; the test-retest reliability was r = 0.85. Factor analysis resulted in a five-factor solution; factor labels include Symptom Distress, Existential Distress, Dependency, Peace of Mind, and Social Support, accounting for 58% of the overall variance. Evidence for concurrent validity was reported by way of significant associations between PDI factors and concurrent measures of distress. The PDI is a valid and reliable new instrument, which could assist clinicians to routinely detect end-of-life dignity-related distress. Identifying these sources of distress is a critical step toward understanding human suffering and should help clinicians deliver quality, dignity-conserving end-of-life care.

  14. Moving from conceptual ambiguity to knowledgeable action: using a critical realist approach to studying moral distress.

    PubMed

    Musto, Lynn C; Rodney, Patricia A

    2016-04-01

    Moral distress is a phenomenon that has been receiving increasing attention in nursing and other health care disciplines. Moral distress is a concept that entered the nursing literature - and subsequently the health care ethics lexicon - in 1984 as a result of the work done by American philosopher and bioethicist Andrew Jameton. Over the past decade, research into moral distress has extended beyond the profession of nursing as other health care disciplines have come to question the impact of moral constraint on individual practitioners, professional practice, and patient outcomes. Along with increased interest in the phenomenon of moral distress have come increasing critiques - critiques that in their essence point to a serious lack of conceptual clarity in the definition, study, and application of the concept. Foundational to gaining conceptual clarity in moral distress in order to develop strategies to prevent and ameliorate the experience is a careful revisiting of the epistemological assumptions underpinning our knowledge and use of the concept of moral distress. It is our contention that the conceptual challenges reveal flaws in the original understanding of moral distress that are based on an epistemological stance that holds a linear conception of cause and effect coupled with a simplistic perspective of 'constraint' and 'agency'. We need a more nuanced approach to our study of moral distress such that our ontological and epistemological stances help us to better appreciate the complexity of moral agents acting in organizational contexts. We believe that critical realism offers such a nuanced approach.

  15. Relationship of age and gender to the prevalence and correlates of psychological distress in later life.

    PubMed

    Byles, Julie E; Gallienne, Lucy; Blyth, Fiona M; Banks, Emily

    2012-06-01

    As populations age, psychological distress in late life will become of increasing public health and social importance. This study seeks to bridge the gap in information that exists about psychological distress in late life, by exploring the prevalence of psychological distress among a very large sample of older adults to determine the impact of age and gender, and the modifying effect of these factors on the associations between measures of psychological distress and sociodemographic and comorbid conditions. We analyzed self-reported data from 236,508 men and women in the New South Wales 45 and Up Study, to determine the impact of age and gender, and the modifying effects of these factors on associations between psychological distress and sociodemographic and comorbid conditions. Higher education, married status, and higher income were associated with lower risk of psychological distress. Although overall prevalence of psychological distress is lower at older ages, this increases after age 80, and is particularly associated with physical disabilities. Some older people (such as those requiring help because of disability and those with multiple comorbid health conditions) are at increased risk of psychological distress. These findings have implications for both healthcare providers and policy-makers in identifying and responding to the needs of older people in our aging society.

  16. Psychological distress among nurses caring for victims of war in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Jayawardene, Wasantha; Youssefagha, Ahmed; LaJoie, Scott; Torabi, Mohammad

    2013-06-01

    To determine prevalence and factors associated with psychological distress among nurses caring for war victims in Sri Lanka. Descriptive, cross-sectional study design was used to collect data from 241 nurses from 2 hospitals with stratified random sampling according to workstation. Self-administered 30-item General Health Questionnaire was used to detect psychological distress. The prevalence of psychological distress was 21%. Female sex was found to be the most significant predictor of psychological distress among nurses. Factors, such as being married, having children, or both, were found to be protective. High exposure to war victims, measured by the frequency with which a nurse tended to those patients, also resulted in less psychological distress. The prevalence of psychological distress is higheramong nurses in this study compared with that among the general population. Brief screening instruments, such as the General Health Questionnaire, can be used to identify individuals at risk for psychological distress. Results suggest that the presence of a social support network helped to psychologically buffer these nurses. Findings also imply the importance of promoting positive attitudes and beneficial stress (eustress) to complement a well-developed focus on distress prevention.

  17. Sources of distress among New Zealand adolescents.

    PubMed

    McGee, R; Stanton, W R

    1992-09-01

    This study examined sources of distress experienced by 15-year-old adolescents in a large sample from the general population. We identified four types of stressful life circumstances relating to problems of self-image and independence, academic and physical competence, parental conflict, and moving residence and schools. Girls reported higher levels of distress for the first three types of circumstance. Reports of distress were associated with poor family social support, maternal depression and parental separation. Both DSM-III disorder and poor social competence were associated with differential patterns of distress. Lastly, poor social competence and high distress were independent and additive predictors of mental health disorders.

  18. Sexual assault related distress and drinking: the influence of daily reports of social support and coping control.

    PubMed

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Hassija, Christina M; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-03-01

    Introduction. A history of sexual assault (SA) is often associated with increased distress and heavy drinking. One's ability to cope with the distress and seek social support has been associated with drinking more generally. However, SA-related distress, drinking, and the extent to which a woman engages in adaptive coping or seeks social support is known to vary day-to-day. The goal of the present investigation was to examine the moderating influence of perceived coping control and social support on the event-level association between SA-related distress and drinking. Methods. This study included 133 college women with a history of SA who reported recent heavy drinking. Participants provided daily reports of their SA-related distress, perceived coping control, perceived social support, and alcohol consumption every day for 30days. Results. Results of generalized estimating equation models suggest that coping control moderated the association between distress and drinking such that those with less perceived coping control drank more as their SA-related distress increased from their average. Although social support did not moderate between distress and drinking, decreases in perceived social support were associated with more drinking on that day. Conclusions. The results suggest that daily deviations in SA-related distress may influence alcohol consumption more than average levels of distress, especially among women with low coping control. Interventions for women with SA histories should help them build coping skills as well as adequate social support in order to reduce drinking.

  19. Patterns of distress in US medical students.

    PubMed

    Dyrbye, Liselotte N; Harper, William; Durning, Steven J; Moutier, Christine; Thomas, Matthew R; Massie, F Stanford; Eacker, Anne; Power, David V; Szydlo, Daniel W; Sloan, Jeff A; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2011-01-01

    How multiple forms of psychological distress coexist in individual medical students has not been formally studied. To explore the prevalence of various forms of distress in medical students and their relationship to recent suicidal ideation or serious thoughts of dropping out of school. All medical students at seven US schools were surveyed with standardized instruments to evaluate burnout, depression, stress, mental quality of life (QOL), physical QOL, and fatigue. Additional items explored recent suicidal ideation and serious thoughts of dropping out of medical school. Nearly all (1846/2246, 82%) of medical students had at least one form of distress with 1066 (58%) having ≥3 forms of distress. A dose-response relationship was found between the number of manifestations of distress and recent suicidal ideation or serious thoughts of dropping out. For example, students with 2, 4, or 6 forms of distress were 5, 15, and 24 fold, respectively, more likely to have suicidal ideation than students with no forms of distress assessed. All forms of distress were independently associated with suicidal ideation or serious thoughts of dropping out on multivariable analysis. Most medical students experience ≥1 manifestation of distress with many experiencing multiple forms of distress simultaneously. The more forms of distress experienced the greater the risk for suicidal ideation and thoughts of dropping out of medical school.

  20. Parent and child distress after war exposure.

    PubMed

    Lai, Betty S; Hadi, Fawzyiah; Llabre, Maria M

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine multiple distress symptoms (i.e., post-traumatic stress [PTS], anxiety, depression) among parents and children exposed to the Gulf Crisis in 1990-1991. Profiles of parent distress were identified, and the relationship between parent distress and specific child distress symptoms was examined. Parents and children were assessed at one time point. Participants included 151 children (Mage = 10.62 years; 51% female) and 140 parents (Mage = 40 years; 81% female). Utilizing latent profile analysis, three parallel profiles of parent distress were identified: low distress, moderate distress, and high distress. Parent distress was a risk factor for child depression, but it was not a risk factor for child PTS or anxiety. Findings support the importance of broadening the scope of research conducted after exposure to traumatic events to include the assessment of anxiety and depression, as well as PTS, among both parents and children. Additional implications for research and clinical work are discussed. Findings support the importance of screening for multiple distress symptoms among both children and parents after war exposure. Based on our findings, clinicians may want to consider including parents in therapy for children reporting psychological distress, especially depression symptoms, after exposure to traumatic events. This study was cross-sectional. Thus, we are not able to infer direction or causality. The generalizability of our study should be interpreted with caution, as findings will need to be replicated across other populations and other cultures. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Social support moderates posttraumatic stress and general distress after disaster.

    PubMed

    Arnberg, Filip K; Hultman, Christina M; Michel, Per-Olof; Lundin, Tom

    2012-12-01

    Social support buffers the negative impact of stressful events. Less, however, is known about the characteristics of this association in the context of disaster and findings have been discrepant regarding direct and buffering effects. This study tested whether the protective effects of social support differed across levels of exposure severity (i.e., buffered distress) and assessed whether the buffering effect differed between event-specific and general distress. Participants were 4,600 adult Swedish tourists (44% of invited; 55% women) repatriated within 3 weeks after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. A survey 14 months after the disaster included the Crisis Support Scale, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Social support buffered the negative impact of exposure on both outcomes. The support and distress association ranged from very small in participants with low exposure to moderate in those with high exposure (η(p)(2) = .004 to .053). The buffering effect was not found to differ between the IES-R and GHQ-12, F(2, 4589) = 0.87, p = .42. The findings suggest that social support moderates the stressor-distress relationship after disasters. This study might help explain discrepant findings and point to refinements of postdisaster interventions.

  2. Adolescent girls in distress: a high-risk intersection.

    PubMed

    Berger, R; Shechter, Y

    1989-01-01

    Adolescent girls in distress are at high risk due to their location at the intersection of three populations at risk: adolescents, females, and those in social distress. The first part of this article specifies the parameters of the population in terms of behavioral and personality features, based on empirical research in Israel as well as the United States. The second part discusses the main characteristics of each of the three populations, with special emphasis on the components of transition in each. The third part develops an integrative theoretical model that illustrates the uniqueness of this group and its problems, and that may serve as a basis for the development of diagnostic and treatment tools for helping these girls. In this model, the profiles of adolescents in general, adolescent boys, adolescent girls, and adolescent girls in distress are compared. The comparison is made in terms of physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development, interpersonal relationships, and status in the family. Comparison of the profiles reveals that adolescent girls in distress are located at the extreme end of the spectrum of the six developmental areas. Implications of the findings are discussed in terms of the inconsistency between messages on various levels: explicit versus implicit; intrafamilial versus social; and expectation versus opportunity. It is concluded that the specific needs of this group require the establishment of an appropriate policy as well as a variety of strategies, including nonconventional techniques, for creating a multidimensional intervention program.

  3. Psychological distress among university female students and their need for mental health services.

    PubMed

    Bernhardsdóttir, J; Vilhjálmsson, R

    2013-10-01

    Psychological distress among university students, especially young women, is of increasing concern. This study focuses on the prevalence of psychological distress among female university students and their need for mental health services. The analysis is based on two cross-sectional surveys, an internet survey among women students attending the University of Iceland in the spring of 2007, and a postal survey of Icelandic female adults conducted in the Fall of 2006. Psychological distress was measured with the Symptom Checklist-90 Depression and Anxiety subscales. The prevalence of above-threshold depression and anxiety among the university women students was 22.5% and 21.2% respectively. Results showed that the mean depression score was significantly lower among the students than among women of the same age in the general population. However, little less than one-third of students with elevated distress levels received any professional help. Only 1.4% of the distressed students received mental help care from nurses. The high proportion of distressed female students not receiving professional help is a challenge to the primary health-care system and the nursing profession. This also raises questions about the adequacy of the current system of health-care delivery and the potential advantages of on-campus health services, in closer proximity to the students. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Fruit and vegetable consumption and psychological distress: cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses based on a large Australian sample

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Binh; Ding, Ding; Mihrshahi, Seema

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Growing evidence suggests a link between diet and mental health. This study aimed to investigate the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and the prevalence and incidence of psychological distress in middle-aged and older Australians. Design Cross-sectional and prospective. Setting New South Wales, Australia. Methods A sample of 60 404 adults aged ≥45 years completed baseline (2006–2008) and follow-up (2010) questionnaires. Psychological distress was assessed at baseline and follow-up using the validated Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), a 10-item questionnaire measuring general anxiety and depression. Psychological distress was defined as the presence of high-to-very high levels of distress (K10 score ≥22). Usual fruit and vegetable consumption was assessed using short validated questions. The association between baseline fruit and vegetable consumption and the prevalence or incidence of psychological distress was examined using logistic regression models. Results At baseline, 5.6% reported psychological distress. After a mean 2.7 years of follow-up, 4.0% of those who did not report distress at baseline reported distress at follow-up. Baseline fruit and vegetable consumption considered separately or combined, was associated with a lower prevalence of psychological distress even after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle risk factors. Baseline fruit and vegetable consumption, measured separately or combined, was associated with a lower incidence of psychological distress in minimally adjusted models. Most of these associations remained significant at medium levels of intake but were no longer significant at the highest intake levels in fully adjusted models. Conclusions Increasing fruit and vegetable consumption may help reduce psychological distress in middle-aged and older adults. However, the association of fruit and vegetable consumption with the incidence of psychological distress

  5. Using the patients concerns inventory for distress screening in post-treatment head and neck cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Ghazali, Naseem; Roe, Brenda; Lowe, Derek; Tandon, Sank; Jones, Terry; Shaw, Richard; Risk, Janet; Rogers, Simon N

    2017-10-01

    Cancer patients can experience significant distress during their cancer trajectory, which impacts upon clinical outcomes and quality of life. Screening for distress using holistic assessments can help identify and address unmet concerns/needs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between concerns and distress, and the impact of distress on clinic outcomes in post-treatment head and neck cancer patients. 170 patients attending routine follow-up clinics were prospectively recruited. All patients completed the Patient Concerns Inventory (PCI) and the Distress thermometer (DT) at preconsultation. The rate of significant distress (i.e. DT cut-off score ≥4) was 36% (62/170). Significantly distressed patients selected more items overall than patients without distress (mean, median (QR) of 5.40, 5 (2-8) vs 2.61, 2 (0-4), p < 0.001). Significant distress was most strongly associated with Physical and Functional well-being (p < 0.001) and Psychological and Emotional well-being domains (p = 0.001). On balance, very little difference was noted between cut-off points of either ≥4 or ≥5 PCI items of concern selected. Both cut-off points demonstrated an acceptable level of sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for significant distress. Consultations were longer with increasing numbers of concerns. Just over one-third of patients are significantly distressed. They were more likely to express a higher number of concerns. A cutoff score ≥4 or ≥5 PCI items selected can identify those at risk of significant distress. Concerns causing significant distress were related to emotional/psychological issues and physical function. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Predictors of distress in female breast cancer survivors: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Syrowatka, Ania; Motulsky, Aude; Kurteva, Siyana; Hanley, James A; Dixon, William G; Meguerditchian, Ari N; Tamblyn, Robyn

    2017-09-01

    Unmanaged distress has been shown to adversely affect survival and quality of life in breast cancer survivors. Fortunately, distress can be managed and even prevented with appropriate evidence-based interventions. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review was to synthesize the published literature around predictors of distress in female breast cancer survivors to help guide targeted intervention to prevent distress. Relevant studies were located by searching MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases. Significance and directionality of associations for commonly assessed candidate predictors (n ≥ 5) and predictors shown to be significant (p ≤ 0.05) by at least two studies were summarized descriptively. Predictors were evaluated based on the proportion of studies that showed a significant and positive association with the presence of distress. Forty-two studies met the target criteria and were included in the review. Breast cancer and treatment-related predictors were more advanced cancer at diagnosis, treatment with chemotherapy, longer primary treatment duration, more recent transition into survivorship, and breast cancer recurrence. Manageable treatment-related symptoms associated with distress included menopausal/vasomotor symptoms, pain, fatigue, and sleep disturbance. Sociodemographic characteristics that increased the risk of distress were younger age, non-Caucasian ethnicity, being unmarried, and lower socioeconomic status. Comorbidities, history of mental health problems, and perceived functioning limitations were also associated. Modifiable predictors of distress were lower physical activity, lower social support, and cigarette smoking. This review established a set of evidence-based predictors that can be used to help identify women at higher risk of experiencing distress following completion of primary breast cancer treatment.

  7. Acute respiratory distress in a silversmith

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Jignesh Mukeshkumar; Dhareshwar, Shashank; Sharma, Anand; Karanth, Raghuveer; Ramkumar, V. S.; Ramaiah, Indira

    2014-01-01

    A 25-year-old young male patient presented in casualty department with severe respiratory distress on the fourth day from onset of symptoms. The patient was nonsmoker and had no antecedent medical or drug history. Prior to admission, patient had dry cough and bilateral pleuritic chest pain for the last three days. He was in severe respiratory distress with use of accessory muscles of respiration. On examination, he had heart rate of 120 beats/min, blood pressure (BP) of 150/80, respiratory rate of 48-52/min and central cyanosis present. On systemic examination, reduced intensity of breath sounds with extensive rhonchi and crepitation was found in both lung fields, with other examination being within normal limits. On pulse oximetry, oxygen saturation was 28% on room air, which increased up to 36% with the help of 4 L oxygen via nasal prongs. PaO2/FiO2 ratio was 100. Chest X-ray analysis was suggestive of non-cardiac pulmonary edema in view of bilateral fluffy opacity without cardiomegaly. In view of 2/3 positive criteria, his provisional diagnosis was Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). He required mechanical ventilatory support and was gradually weaned over a period of 10 days. The patient was treated with broad spectrum antibiotics and other supportive measures. On re-evaluation of history, we found that he was a goldsmith by occupation, smelting silver and gold for the past 8-10 years. On the day of onset of symptoms, while smelting silver he was exposed to golden yellow fumes for around 15 minutes, with the quantum of exposure more than any other day earlier. From previous experience and analysis of similar silver metals, he was able to tell us that the silver was adulterated with large amount of cadmium on that day than before. Serum level of cadmium was 2.9 μg/L 6 days after initial exposure. At the time of discharge, he had residual opacities in the chest radiograph and resting oxygen saturation was 94% on room air. PMID:25006313

  8. Shattered Shangri-la: differences in depressive and anxiety symptoms in students born in Tibet compared to Tibetan students born in exile.

    PubMed

    Evans, Dabney; Buxton, David C; Borisov, Andrey; Manatunga, Amita K; Ngodup, Dawa; Raison, Charles L

    2008-06-01

    As a result of ongoing political tensions within Tibetan regions of the People's Republic of China, several thousand Tibetans escape across the Himalayas every year to seek refuge in India and Nepal. Prior studies have found a high prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms in these refugees, many of whom are young and have been exposed to significant trauma. However, it is not known whether depressive and anxiety symptoms are more prevalent in these refugees than in ethnic Tibetans born and raised in the relative political and social stability of exile communities in North India and Nepal. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 319 students attending school at the Tibetan Children's Villages in Northern India to test the a priori hypothesis that adolescents and young adults who escaped from Tibet to India would demonstrate increased depressive and anxiety symptoms when compared to ethnic Tibetans born and raised in exile. The Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) was used to measure depressive and anxiety symptoms. In addition, demographic information on age, sex, country of birth and frequency of family contact was collected. Students born in Tibet had higher mean HSCL-25 depressive and anxiety symptom scores than did ethnic Tibetans born in exile. Female students demonstrated higher depressive and anxiety scores, as did those with limited contact with immediate family. After adjusting for sex, age and frequency of family contact, being born in Tibet was associated with increased HSCL-25 depressive and anxiety symptom scores (depression: F[2, 316] = 29.96, P < 0.0001; anxiety: F[4, 316] = 43.57, P < 0.0001). The experience of being raised in Tibet and escaping to India appears to be a risk factor for increased depressive and anxiety symptoms when compared to being born and raised within an exile community in India or Nepal.

  9. Reducing psychological distress in patients undergoing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Milanti, Ariesta; Metsälä, Eija; Hannula, Leena

    Psychological distress is a common problem among patients with cancer, yet it mostly goes unreported and untreated. This study examined the association of a psycho-educational intervention with the psychological distress levels of breast cancer and cervical cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The design of the study was quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design with a comparison group. One hundred patients at a cancer hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia, completed Distress Thermometer screening before and after chemotherapy. Fifty patients in the intervention group were given a psycho-educational video with positive reappraisal, education and relaxation contents, while receiving chemotherapy. Patients who received the psycho-educational intervention had significantly lower distress levels compared with those in the control group. Routine distress screening, followed by distress management and outcome assessment, is needed to improve the wellbeing of cancer patients.

  10. Chief Nursing Officers' Experiences With Moral Distress.

    PubMed

    Prestia, Angela S; Sherman, Rose O; Demezier, Christopher

    2017-02-01

    This study explores if moral distress and its lingering residue were experienced by chief nursing officers (CNOs). Chief nursing officers, by virtue of their position and experience, are expected to uphold their professional values and act for the benefit of others. Exploration is needed to determine if the inability to do so contributes to the moral distress of these leaders. Twenty CNOs were interviewed to determine the lived experience related to moral distress and moral residue. An interpretive phenomenological analysis approach was used. Six themes emerged describing CNO experience of moral distress including lacking psychological safety, feeling a sense of powerlessness, seeking to maintain moral compass, drawing strength from networking, moral residue, and living with the consequences. Moral distress is a common experience for CNOs. Although CNOs act with moral courage, they still experience moral distress. Further research and professional discussion are needed to support nurse executive leaders.

  11. Respiratory distress of the term newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Martin O; Kotecha, Sarah J; Kotecha, Sailesh

    2013-03-01

    Respiratory distress is recognised as any signs of breathing difficulties in neonates. In the early neonatal period respiratory distress is common, occurring in up to 7% of newborn infants, resulting in significant numbers of term-born infants being admitted to neonatal units. Many risk factors are involved; the increasing number of term infants delivered by elective caesarean section has also increased the incidence. Additionally the risk decreases with each advancing week of gestation. At 37 weeks, the chances are three times greater than at 39-40 weeks gestation. Multiple conditions can present with features of respiratory distress. Common causes in term newborn infants include transient tachypnoea of the newborn, respiratory distress syndrome, pneumonia, meconium aspiration syndrome, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate and pneumothorax. Early recognition of respiratory distress and initiation of appropriate treatment is important to ensure optimal outcomes. This review will discuss these common causes of respiratory distress in term-born infants.

  12. Pacific Islands Families Study: psychological distress among mothers of Pacific children living in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Janis; Tautolo, El-Shadan; Iusitini, Leon; Taylor, Steve

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated: 1) the prevalence of psychological distress among a cohort of mothers of Pacific children; and 2) the socio-demographic and lifestyle variables associated with psychological distress. The Pacific Islands Families (PIF) Study is a longitudinal investigation of a cohort of Pacific children born in Auckland, New Zealand, and their mothers and fathers. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) was used to assess psychological distress among mothers (N=851) at about 11 years postpartum. Current psychological distress was reported by 19% of mothers, and six explanatory variables were significantly associated with maternal psychological distress: stressful life events, postnatal depression, marital status, maternal education, ethnicity and cultural alignment. These findings suggest that the mental health of Pacific people varies by particular ethnic group and cultural alignment. This highlights the need for culturally appropriate evaluation and treatment for at-risk Pacific mothers that will break down psychological, cultural and economic barriers to accessing help for psychological distress. By learning about factors that are potentially modifiable we can begin to identify the most appropriate ways to address their impact on psychological distress among Pacific women. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  13. Toy-mediated distraction: Clarifying the role of distraction agent and preneedle distress in toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Hillgrove-Stuart, Jessica; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca; Horton, Rachel; Greenberg, Saul

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Distraction has recently gained attention as a technique that may help reduce acute pain in infants and toddlers; however, results remain equivocal. It appears that these mixed results stem from a variety of methodological differences with regard to how distraction is implemented. OBJECTIVES: To offer more definitive conclusions regarding the efficacy and mechanisms of distraction for pain management during infancy. Specifically, the goal was to examine whether the agent of distraction (ie, the specific person conducting the distraction) and preneedle distress behaviours impact the efficacy of distraction when toddlers were held by parents. METHODS: A total of 99 toddlers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (typical care, research assistant-directed distraction or parent-directed distraction). Toddler distress behaviours were assessed pre- and postneedle. Toddlers were further grouped according to distress behaviours preneedle (low/no distress versus high distress). Parental soothing behaviours were also assessed as a manipulation check. RESULTS: Toddler postneedle pain did not significantly differ among groups. However, toddlers who were distressed preneedle displayed significantly more pain postneedle, regardless of the treatment group. There were no significant interactions between treatment group and preneedle distress behaviours. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that, when being held by a parent, distraction using a toy does not result in lower pain scores in the context of immunization, regardless of who offers the distraction. Furthermore, these findings raise the notion that if clinicians ensured toddlers were regulated before attempting an immunization, postneedle pain may be significantly reduced. PMID:23936893

  14. Care givers' depression, anxiety, distress, and somatization as predictors of identical symptoms in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Padmaja, Gadiraju; Vanlalhruaii, Chhakchhuak; Rana, Suvashisa; Nandinee, Durgesh; Hariharan, Meena

    2016-01-01

    The critical condition of the cancer patient and the stringent medical procedures do not often warrant the accessibility of the patient for psychological evaluation. Therefore, the study is conceptualized to assess the psychological problems of caregivers, which in turn have their impact upon cancer patients. The objective of the study was to explore the relationships between depression, anxiety, distress, and somatization in cancer patients and their caregivers along with age, gender, and relationship; and to measure whether these psychological problems of caregivers were predictors of the identical symptoms of the cancer patients. Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire was used to measure depression, anxiety, distress, and somatization of cancer patients and their caregivers. The sample had 200 participants, with 100 patients (male = 47 and female = 53) and 100 caregivers. (male = 36 and female = 64) selected by purposive sampling method. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, product.moment correlations, simple and multiple linear regression analyses. Significant correlations were found between cancer patients' depression and anxiety, and caregivers' depression, anxiety, distress, and somatization; patients' distress and somatization, and caregivers' anxiety and age, respectively. It was also found that anxiety was a significant predictor of distress in patients, and that caregivers' depression, anxiety, distress, and somatization significantly predicted depression and anxiety in cancer patients. The association between depression, anxiety, distress, and somatization of caregivers and patients indicates the need for psychological interventions to manage these problems of caregivers, which would in turn help managing the identical symptoms in patients.

  15. A Bowen Family Systems Model of Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Romantic Relationship Distress.

    PubMed

    Priest, Jacob B

    2015-07-01

    Many individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) do not respond well to currently available treatments. Moreover, treatments are less effective when GAD is accompanied by romantic relationship distress. In order to develop effective treatments for GAD and relationship distress, it is necessary to conduct theory-based research to identify links common to both GAD and romantic relationship distress. Drawing on Bowen's family systems theory, the roles of family abuse/violence and differentiation in GAD and romantic relationship distress were examined using existing data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (n = 2,312; 2005). As predicted, family abuse/violence was directly linked to both GAD and romantic relationship distress. Differentiation mediated the relationship between family abuse/violence and GAD, and partially mediated the relationship between family abuse/violence and romantic relationship distress. Findings suggest that current and past relationship processes may help maintain chronic anxiety and that Bowen's theory may be a useful framework for developing couple therapy treatment of GAD and romantic relationship distress. © 2013 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  16. Toy-mediated distraction: clarifying the role of agent of distraction and preneedle distress in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Hillgrove-Stuart, Jessica; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca; Horton, Rachel; Greenberg, Saul

    2013-01-01

    Distraction has recently gained attention as a technique that may help reduce acute pain in infants and toddlers; however, results remain equivocal. It appears that these mixed results stem from a variety of methodological differences with regard to how distraction is implemented. To offer more definitive conclusions regarding the efficacy and mechanisms of distraction for pain management during infancy. Specifically, the goal was to examine whether the agent of distraction (i.e., the specific person conducting the distraction) and preneedle distress behaviours impact the efficacy of distraction when toddlers were held by parents. A total of 99 toddlers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (typical care, research assistant-directed distraction or parent-directed distraction). Toddler distress behaviours were assessed pre- and postneedle. Toddlers were further grouped according to distress behaviours preneedle (low⁄no distress versus high distress). Parental soothing behaviours were also assessed as a manipulation check. Toddler postneedle pain did not significantly differ among groups. However, toddlers who were distressed preneedle displayed significantly more pain postneedle, regardless of the treatment group. There were no significant interactions between treatment group and preneedle distress behaviours. These results suggest that, when being held by a parent, distraction using a toy does not result in lower pain scores in the context of immunization, regardless of who offers the distraction. Furthermore, these findings raise the notion that if clinicians ensured toddlers were regulated before attempting an immunization, postneedle pain may be significantly reduced.

  17. Moral Agency, Moral Imagination, and Moral Community: Antidotes to Moral Distress.

    PubMed

    Traudt, Terri; Liaschenko, Joan; Peden-McAlpine, Cynthia

    Moral distress has been covered extensively in the nursing literature and increasingly in the literature of other health professions. Cases that cause nurses' moral distress that are mentioned most frequently are those concerned with prolonging the dying process. Given the standard of aggressive treatment that is typical in intensive care units (ICUs), much of the existing moral distress research focuses on the experiences of critical care nurses. However, moral distress does not automatically occur in all end-of-life circumstances, nor does every critical care nurse suffer its damaging effects. What are the practices of these nurses? What specifically do they do to navigate around or through the distressing situations? The nursing literature is lacking an answer to these questions. This article reports a study that used narrative analysis to explore the reported practices of experienced critical care nurses who are skilled at and comfortable working with families and physicians regarding the withdrawal of aggressive treatment. A major finding was that these nurses did not report experiencing the damaging effects of moral distress as described in the nursing literature. The verbal communication and stated practices relevant to this finding are organized under three major themes: (1) moral agency, (2) moral imagination, and (3) moral community. Further, a total of eight subthemes are identified. The practices that constitute these themes and subthemes are further detailed and discussed in this article. Understanding these practices can help mitigate critical care nurses' moral distress. Copyright 2016 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  18. Help-Negation and Suicidal Ideation: The Role of Depression, Anxiety and Hopelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Coralie J.; Deane, Frank P.

    2010-01-01

    Help-negation is expressed behaviorally by the refusal or avoidance of available help and cognitively by the inverse relationship between self-reported symptoms of psychological distress and help-seeking intentions. The current study examined the association between suicidal ideation and intentions to seek help from friends, family and…

  19. Making punishment palatable: Belief in free will alleviates punitive distress.

    PubMed

    Clark, Cory J; Baumeister, Roy F; Ditto, Peter H

    2017-05-01

    Punishing wrongdoers is beneficial for group functioning, but can harm individual well-being. Building on research demonstrating that punitive motives underlie free will beliefs, we propose that free will beliefs help justify punitive impulses, thus alleviating the associated distress. In Study 1, trait-level punitiveness predicted heightened levels of anxiety only for free will skeptics. Study 2 found that higher state-level incarceration rates predicted higher mental health issue rates, only in states with citizens relatively skeptical about free will. In Study 3, participants who punished an unfair partner experienced greater distress than non-punishers, only when their partner did not have free choice. Studies 4 and 5 confirmed experimentally that punitive desires led to greater anxiety only when free will beliefs were undermined by an anti-free will argument. These results suggest that believing in free will permits holding immoral actors morally responsible, thus justifying punishment with diminished negative psychological consequences for punishers. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. 47 CFR 80.324 - Transmission of distress message by station not itself in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... station not itself in distress. (a) A mobile station or a land station which learns that a mobile station... has not been acknowledged. When a mobile station transmits such a distress message, it must notify...

  1. Premenstrual Distress Among Japanese High School Students: Self-Care Strategies and Associated Physical and Psychosocial Factors.

    PubMed

    Otsuka-Ono, Hiroko; Sato, Iori; Ikeda, Mari; Kamibeppu, Kiyoko

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify self-care strategies and assess physical and psychosocial factors associated with premenstrual distress among high school students. A cross-sectional survey of 217 adolescent girls aged 15 to 18 years was conducted in October 2009. Most (84.3 percent) had at least one or more symptoms of premenstrual distress. Premenstrual distress interfered with normal school activity in 51.2 percent. Most participants (57.1 percent) did not perform any self-care strategies for premenstrual distress. A hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis was conducted. Comprehension of one's own physical and mental states during premenstrual phases mediated the relationship between neuroticism and premenstrual distress. Activity restrictions due to menstrual distress mediated the relationship between the family's understanding of one's behavior during premenstrual phases and premenstrual distress. Findings suggest that, even if girls have neuroticism, it will be important to teach them to address the comprehension of one's own physical and mental states so that perceptions of both premenstruation and menstruation become more positive. Findings also suggest that the family's understanding was associated with alleviation of premenstrual distress. This study suggests the need for education to help adolescent girls and their families manage premenstrual distress and increase awareness of the benefit of managing its associated symptoms.

  2. Identifying specific interpretations and use of safety behaviours in people with distressing visual hallucinations: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Robert; Wood, Markku; Spencer, Helen; Brabban, Alison; Mosimann, Urs P; Collerton, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    Visual hallucinations (VH) are a common experience and can be distressing and disabling, particularly for people suffering from psychotic illness. However, not everyone with visual hallucinations reports the experience to be distressing. Models of VH propose that appraisals of VH as a threat to wellbeing and the use of safety seeking behaviours help maintain the distress. This study investigated whether people with distressing VH report threat appraisals and use safety behaviours. The study utilized a single group descriptive design, in which 15 participants with psychosis and VH were asked questions in order to assess the content, distress, appraisals, and behaviours associated with visual hallucinations. People who found visual hallucinations distressing (n = 13) held negative appraisals about those hallucinations and specifically saw them as a threat to their physical or psychological wellbeing. They also engaged in safety seeking behaviours that were logically related to the appraisal and served to maintain the distress. People with distressing VH regard them as a threat to their wellbeing and use safety seeking behaviours as a result of this perceived threat. These key processes are potential targets for treatments that will alleviate the distress associated with VH.

  3. Gender differences in resilience and psychological distress of patients with burns.

    PubMed

    Masood, Afsheen; Masud, Yusra; Mazahir, Shama

    2016-03-01

    This research explored the gender differences in resilience and psychological distress of patients with burns. In Pakistan, psychological states of patients with burns have not been widely studied, women making up as the neglected section of society lag far behind in availing the needful health facilities. It was hypothesized that there would be significant gender differences in resilience and psychological distress of patients with burns. The sample of the study consisted of 50 patients with burns, obtained from four different hospitals of Lahore. In order to investigate resilience and psychological distress, the State Trait Resilience Scales (Hiew, 2007) and Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (Kessler, 2001) were used. In addition to these, self-constructed demographic questionnaire was administered. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Independent sample t-test was conducted to find gender differences in resilience and psychological distress. The findings from the current research revealed that there were significant gender differences in resilience and psychological distress of patients with burns. The insightful findings from the current research carry strong implications for the clinicians, psychologists and policy makers who can help to develop and implement the rehabilitation programs for the affected population and can launch resilience promoting programs that would help them in coping with burns in effective manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical predictors of psychological distress in patients presenting for evaluation of a spinal disorder.

    PubMed

    Daubs, Michael D; Hung, Man; Adams, Jacob R; Patel, Alpesh A; Lawrence, Brandon D; Neese, Ashley M; Brodke, Darrel S

    2014-09-01

    ODI scores (>58), and those taking an antidepressant or another psychotropic medication were likely to have high levels of psychological distress. The predictive clinical factors noted in this study are readily available to most physicians treating spinal disorders and may be helpful in improving their ability to detect patients with psychological distress, counseling them on realistic outcomes, and possibly improve their treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Racial Differences in Effects of Religiosity and Mastery on Psychological Distress: Evidence from National Longitudinal Data.

    PubMed

    Oates, Gary L; Goode, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    This research engages nationally representative longitudinal data and a multipopulation LISREL model to investigate variation among black and white Americans in the impact of religiosity and mastery on psychological distress. Guided by the stress and coping perspective and prominent theorizing about how religiosity influences mental health, the model assesses not only direct effects of religiosity and mastery on distress but also the possibility of religiosity and mastery inhibiting distress indirectly (via effects on other coping resources or stressors) and attenuating the distress-inducing properties of individual stressors. Findings solidly support the endorsed proposition of religiosity's being particularly beneficial to blacks' emotional well-being and moderately support the prediction of mastery's being primarily helpful to whites'. Public religiosity substantially eclipses private and subjective religiosity as a facilitator of blacks' emotional well-being, and although main effects dominate, there are significant mediation and moderation effects of religiosity or mastery within each race.

  6. Chronic medical problems and distressful thoughts of suicide in primary care patients: mitigating role of happiness

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Jameson K.; Duberstein, Paul R.; Unützer, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Chronic medical problems might amplify suicide risk in later life. Feelings of happiness may reduce this risk. We tested the hypothesis that happiness attenuates the association between number of self-reported chronic diseases and suicidal distress. Methods A sample of 1,801 depressed, primary care patients. 60 years of age or older, entering a clinical trial, were assessed for the presence of positive emotion, suicidal distress and self-reported chronic medical problems. Results Chronic medical problems are associated with suicide ideation and, as hypothesized, happiness attenuates the relationship between self-reported diseases and suicidal distress. Conclusions Decreased risk for distressing thoughts of suicide in the context of medical illness is predicted by the presence of positive emotions. Our results suggest that treatments designed to help older primary care patients identify sources of joy and enhance happiness might decrease suicide risk. PMID:19145577

  7. Racial Differences in Effects of Religiosity and Mastery on Psychological Distress: Evidence from National Longitudinal Data

    PubMed Central

    Oates, Gary L.; Goode, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This research engages nationally representative longitudinal data and a multipopulation LISREL model to investigate variation among black and white Americans in the impact of religiosity and mastery on psychological distress. Guided by the stress and coping perspective and prominent theorizing about how religiosity influences mental health, the model assesses not only direct effects of religiosity and mastery on distress but also the possibility of religiosity and mastery inhibiting distress indirectly (via effects on other coping resources or stressors) and attenuating the distress-inducing properties of individual stressors. Findings solidly support the endorsed proposition of religiosity’s being particularly beneficial to blacks’ emotional well-being and moderately support the prediction of mastery’s being primarily helpful to whites’. Public religiosity substantially eclipses private and subjective religiosity as a facilitator of blacks’ emotional well-being, and although main effects dominate, there are significant mediation and moderation effects of religiosity or mastery within each race. PMID:23762783

  8. 47 CFR 80.325 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 80.325 Section 80... Safety Procedures § 80.325 Control of distress traffic. (a) Distress traffic consists of all messages relating to the immediate assistance required by the mobile station in distress. In distress traffic,...

  9. 47 CFR 80.325 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 80.325 Section 80... Safety Procedures § 80.325 Control of distress traffic. (a) Distress traffic consists of all messages relating to the immediate assistance required by the mobile station in distress. In distress traffic,...

  10. 47 CFR 80.325 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 80.325 Section 80... Safety Procedures § 80.325 Control of distress traffic. (a) Distress traffic consists of all messages relating to the immediate assistance required by the mobile station in distress. In distress traffic,...

  11. 47 CFR 80.325 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 80.325 Section 80... Safety Procedures § 80.325 Control of distress traffic. (a) Distress traffic consists of all messages relating to the immediate assistance required by the mobile station in distress. In distress traffic,...

  12. 47 CFR 80.325 - Control of distress traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 80.325 Section 80... Safety Procedures § 80.325 Control of distress traffic. (a) Distress traffic consists of all messages relating to the immediate assistance required by the mobile station in distress. In distress traffic,...

  13. A New Measure for Distress during Child Sexual Abuse Examinations: The Genital Examination Distress Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gully, Kevin J.; Britton, Helen; Hansen, Karen; Goodwill, Kristopher; Nope, Joni L.

    1999-01-01

    A study (n=242) investigated the effectiveness of a simple seven-item scale designed to quantify indices of emotional distress during the rectal-genital phase of a child sexual-abuse examination. The Genital Examination Distress Scale found increased distress was associated with positive physical findings. (CR)

  14. [Moral distress in nursing care].

    PubMed

    Negrisolo, Adriana; Brugnaro, Luca

    2012-01-01

    In nursing practice, the ability to make decisions regarding patients and to act on them is considered to be an expression of the professional nursing role. Problems may arise when a nurses would like to perform an action they believe morally correct but which are conflictual with the habits, organization or politics of the health structure in which they work. This inevitably produces moral distress in nurses who feel impotent to act as they feel they should. Although a certain amount of moral distress is part and parcel of the nursing profession , when it is excessive or prolonged it may become unacceptable and culminate in burn-out and the relative consequences. The aim of the study was to compare the level of moral stress in 111 Italian nurses working in different Operative Units to identify those clinical situations significantly associated with moral stress using the MDS scale. Similarly to studies performed in the USA, the level of moral stress in the 3 different work contexts was moderate, although some clinical situations were related to significant stress levels.

  15. Causes and consequences of psychological distress among orphans in eastern Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Nyamukapa, C A; Gregson, S; Wambe, M; Mushore, P; Lopman, B; Mupambireyi, Z; Nhongo, K; Jukes, M C H

    2010-08-01

    Substantial resources are invested in psychological support for children orphaned or otherwise made vulnerable in the context of HIV/AIDS (OVC). However, there is still only limited scientific evidence for greater psychological distress amongst orphans and even less evidence for the effectiveness of current support strategies. Furthermore, programmes that address established mechanisms through which orphanhood can lead to greater psychological distress should be more effective. We use quantitative and qualitative data from Eastern Zimbabwe to measure the effects of orphanhood on psychological distress and to test mechanisms for greater distress amongst orphans suggested in a recently published theoretical framework. Orphans were found to suffer greater psychological distress than non-orphans (sex- and age-adjusted co-efficient: 0.15; 95% CI 0.03-0.26; P=0.013). Effects of orphanhood contributing to their increased levels of distress included trauma, being out-of-school, being cared for by a non-parent, inadequate care, child labour, physical abuse, and stigma and discrimination. Increased mobility and separation from siblings did not contribute to greater psychological distress in this study. Over 40% of orphaned children in the sample lived in households receiving external assistance. However, receipt of assistance was not associated with reduced psychological distress. These findings and the ideas put forward by children and caregivers in the focus group discussions suggest that community-based programmes that aim to improve caregiver selection, increase support for caregivers, and provide training in parenting responsibilities and skills might help to reduce psychological distress. These programmes should be under-pinned by further efforts to reduce poverty, increase school attendance and support out-of-school youth.

  16. Causes and consequences of psychological distress among orphans in eastern Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Nyamukapa, C.A.; Gregson, S.; Wambe, M.; Mushore, P.; Lopman, B.; Mupambireyi, Z.; Nhongo, K.; Jukes, M.C.H.

    2010-01-01

    Substantial resources are invested in psychological support for children orphaned or otherwise made vulnerable in the context of HIV/AIDS (OVC). However, there is still only limited scientific evidence for greater psychological distress amongst orphans and even less evidence for the effectiveness of current support strategies. Furthermore, programmes that address established mechanisms through which orphanhood can lead to greater psychological distress should be more effective. We use quantitative and qualitative data from Eastern Zimbabwe to measure the effects of orphanhood on psychological distress and to test mechanisms for greater distress amongst orphans suggested in a recently published theoretical framework. Orphans were found to suffer greater psychological distress than non-orphans (sex- and age-adjusted co-efficient: 0.15; 95% CI 0.03–0.26; P = 0.013). Effects of orphanhood contributing to their increased levels of distress included trauma, being out-of-school, being cared for by a non-parent, inadequate care, child labour, physical abuse, and stigma and discrimination. Increased mobility and separation from siblings did not contribute to greater psychological distress in this study. Over 40% of orphaned children in the sample lived in households receiving external assistance. However, receipt of assistance was not associated with reduced psychological distress. These findings and the ideas put forward by children and caregivers in the focus group discussions suggest that community-based programmes that aim to improve caregiver selection, increase support for caregivers, and provide training in parenting responsibilities and skills might help to reduce psychological distress. These programmes should be under-pinned by further efforts to reduce poverty, increase school attendance and support out-of-school youth. PMID:20552465

  17. Personal distress and the influence of bystanders on responding to an emergency.

    PubMed

    Hortensius, Ruud; Schutter, Dennis J L G; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2016-08-01

    Spontaneous helping behavior during an emergency is influenced by the personality of the onlooker and by social situational factors such as the presence of bystanders. Here, we sought to determine the influences of sympathy, an other-oriented response, and personal distress, a self-oriented response, on the effect of bystanders during an emergency. In four experiments, we investigated whether trait levels of sympathy and personal distress predicted responses to an emergency in the presence of bystanders by using behavioral measures and single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation. Sympathy and personal distress were expected to be associated with faster responses to an emergency without bystanders present, but only personal distress would predict slower responses to an emergency with bystanders present. The results of a cued reaction time task showed that people who reported higher levels of personal distress and sympathy responded faster to an emergency without bystanders (Exp. 1). In contrast to our predictions, perspective taking but not personal distress was associated with slower reaction times as the number of bystanders increased during an emergency (Exp. 2). However, the decrease in motor corticospinal excitability, a direct physiological measure of action preparation, with the increase in the number of bystanders was solely predicted by personal distress (Exp. 3). Incorporating cognitive load manipulations during the observation of an emergency suggested that personal distress is linked to an effect of bystanders on reflexive responding to an emergency (Exp. 4). Taken together, these results indicate that the presence of bystanders during an emergency reduces action preparation in people with a disposition to experience personal distress.

  18. Adult Children of Alcoholics and Psychological Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kashubeck, Susan

    1994-01-01

    Describes investigation of relationship between parental alcoholism and psychological distress and mediating effects of social support and hardiness among undergraduates. Suggests parental alcoholism is positively related to psychological distress and higher levels of social support and hardiness are associated with lower levels of psychological…

  19. Conflict in Maritally Distressed Military Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, William A.; Morgan, Allison R.

    1988-01-01

    Investigated whether 30 maritally distressed military couples differed from 30 distressed civilian couples using marital satisfaction questionnaires. Found same-sex differences across groups, and cross-sex differences within groups. Found military wives were more likely to be physically abused than were civilian wives, and more often requested…

  20. 47 CFR 80.1111 - Distress alerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... must continue watch on the digital selective call distress calling channel until the call has been... digital selective call using a distress call format in bands used for terrestrial radio-communication or a... through a satellite either with absolute priority in general communication channels or on exclusive...

  1. 47 CFR 80.1111 - Distress alerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... distress message format, which is relayed through space stations. (b) The distress alert must be sent... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... authority of the person responsible for the ship, aircraft or other vehicle carrying the mobile station...

  2. 47 CFR 80.1111 - Distress alerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... distress message format, which is relayed through space stations. (b) The distress alert must be sent... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... authority of the person responsible for the ship, aircraft or other vehicle carrying the mobile station...

  3. 47 CFR 80.1111 - Distress alerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... distress message format, which is relayed through space stations. (b) The distress alert must be sent... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... authority of the person responsible for the ship, aircraft or other vehicle carrying the mobile station...

  4. 47 CFR 80.1111 - Distress alerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... distress message format, which is relayed through space stations. (b) The distress alert must be sent... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... authority of the person responsible for the ship, aircraft or other vehicle carrying the mobile station...

  5. 47 CFR 80.314 - Distress communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Distress communications. 80.314 Section 80.314 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety...

  6. 47 CFR 80.314 - Distress communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Distress communications. 80.314 Section 80.314 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety...

  7. 47 CFR 80.314 - Distress communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distress communications. 80.314 Section 80.314 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety...

  8. 47 CFR 80.314 - Distress communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Distress communications. 80.314 Section 80.314 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety...

  9. 47 CFR 80.314 - Distress communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Distress communications. 80.314 Section 80.314 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety...

  10. Special Populations. Distress Therapy through Leisure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, P. Kelly

    1982-01-01

    Education for leisure and stress management, combined with carefully planned recreational experiences, are the key components for distress therapy through leisure. The ultimate goal is to design and implement leisure programs, for special populations, which alleviate distress, channel stress into positive avenues, and enhance their quality of…

  11. Psychological Distress in Abused, Chemically Dependent Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaiola, Alan A.; Schiff, Matthew M.

    2000-01-01

    Study assessed whether differences exist in levels of psychological distress in abused, chemically dependent adolescents when compared to non-abused counterparts, and non-abused, non-chemically dependent adolescents. Results indicated abused adolescents demonstrated more severe levels of distress, and earlier onset of alcohol and drug use.…

  12. Racial/ethnic differences in associations between neighborhood socioeconomic status, distress, and smoking among U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Liu, Huiguo; Johnson, Renee M

    2016-01-01

    Neighborhood disadvantage may increase smoking by increasing distress, while neighborhood affluence may reduce smoking by increasing positive affect. We examined whether relationships between neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and daily smoking operated through distress and positive affect. Simultaneous multivariate path models used pooled cross-sectional data from the 2000 and 2005 National Alcohol Surveys (15,963 respondents; weighted N = 10,753) and the 2000 Decennial Census. Multiple groups analysis assessed differences by gender and race/ethnicity. Covariates included neighborhood immigrant concentration and individual-level demographics. In the full sample, neighborhood disadvantage significantly increased smoking and neighborhood affluence significantly decreased smoking, with no indirect paths through either distress or positive affect. Unique among Hispanics, affluence resulted in decreased smoking indirectly through reduced distress. Relationships between affect and smoking also varied by race/ethnicity, with no significant differences by gender. Interventions targeting neighborhood socioeconomic status and distress may help reduce smoking, particularly for racial/ethnic minorities.

  13. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: 30 years later.

    PubMed

    Lesur, O; Berthiaume, Y; Blaise, G; Damas, P; Deland, E; Guimond, J G; Michel, R P

    1999-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was first described about 30 years ago. Modern definitions and statements have recently been proposed to describe ARDS accurately, but none is perfect. Diffuse alveolar damage is the basic pathological pattern most commonly observed in ARDS, and the term includes permeability edema. The alveolar epithelium of the alveolar-capillary barrier is clearly a key component requiring repair, given its multipotent functional activity. Lung inflammation and neutrophil accumulation are essential markers of disease in ARDS, and a wide variety of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines have been described in the alveolar fluid and blood of patients. These molecules still have to prove their value as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers of ARDS. Supportive therapy in ARDS improved in the past decade; mechanical ventilation with lung protective strategies and patient positioning are gaining interest, but the indications for corticosteroids for ARDS are still debated. Nitric oxide may have a place in the treatment of one-third of patients. Novel approaches, such as surfactant replacement and liquid ventilation, may further improve supportive therapy. Innovative interventions may be on the horizon in treatments that help to resolve or modulate common pathways of ARDS, such as inflammation (eg, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor) or epithelial repair (eg, keratinocyte growth factor).

  14. [Acute respiratory distress syndrome in children].

    PubMed

    Stucki, P; Scalfaro, P; Parret, L; Wassenberg, J; Krähenbühl, J D; Curchod, P; Di Bernardo, S; Llor, J; Cotting, J

    2001-03-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) encountered in a child may be either due to a primary lung infection or may be secondary to a systemic inflammatory response of varying origin. Therapy is based on: 1) the mechanical ventilation strategy aimed at maintaining the functional residual capacity by alveolar recruitment using positive end expiratory pressure and to limit secondary pulmonary lesions by using small tidal volumes, 2) prone positioning as soon as sufficient stability is achieved; 3) optimizing tissue oxygen delivery by cardiac support; 4) correction of any other organ dysfunction. If this conventional approach is not sufficient experimental therapies may be tempted given the vital risk. For instance inhaled nitric oxide and high frequency oscillation ventilation may be a valuable support. Newer techniques, such as partial liquid ventilation, are being developed and could become useful therapeutic options. After the acute phase a close medical follow-up is mandatory. Because of the possibility of a chronic respiratory insufficiency with negative consequences on the right ventricular function, these patients may need long term oxygen therapy and diuretics. Cardiac echography helps orientation in maintaining or discontinuing this long term therapy by estimating the arterial pulmonary pressure.

  15. Piracetam for fetal distress in labour.

    PubMed

    Hofmeyr, G Justus; Kulier, Regina

    2012-06-13

    Piracetam is thought to promote the metabolism of brain cells when they are hypoxic. It has been used to prevent adverse effects of fetal distress. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of piracetam for suspected fetal distress in labour on method of delivery and perinatal morbidity. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (15 February 2012). Randomised trials of piracetam compared with placebo or no treatment for suspected fetal distress in labour. Both review authors assessed eligibility and trial quality. One study of 96 women was included. Piracetam compared with placebo was associated with a trend to reduced need for caesarean section (risk ratio 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.32 to 1.03). There were no statistically significant differences between the piracetam and placebo group for neonatal morbidity (measured by neonatal respiratory distress) or Apgar score. There is not enough evidence to evaluate the use of piracetam for fetal distress in labour.

  16. Moral distress: the state of the science.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Debra R

    2004-01-01

    Moral distress, a complex human experience, has lacked a clear, complete definition. Intuitively, clinicians know that moral distress might be occurring for patients with increasing frequency due to technological advances that alter the natural order of life and death. Yet clinicians have not been able to evaluate the presence or extent of moral distress. To date, moral distress has been investigated mainly as an occupational issue using Jameton's (1984) definition, which has been problematic for several reasons. Without an adequate definition, moral distress can be unrecognized, yet have a silent, clinically significant impact on health. The literature is discussed from several perspectives to show the current state of the science in this topical area, and its potential future.

  17. Marital Adjustment and Psychological Distress in Japan.

    PubMed

    Li, Angela; Robustelli, Briana L; Whisman, Mark A

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to examine the association between marital adjustment and psychological distress in a large, probability sample of married adults in Japan (N = 710) from the Midlife Development in Japan (MIDJA) study. Results indicate that positive and negative dimensions of marital adjustment were significantly associated with dimensional and categorical measures of psychological distress. Furthermore, the associations between marital adjustment and psychological distress remained significant when statistically controlling for neuroticism, quality of friend and family relationships, and demographic variables. These results demonstrate that the well-established association between marital adjustment and psychological distress found in European-American countries is also found in Japan. Findings support continued research on marital functioning and psychological distress in East Asian countries.

  18. Idioms of distress: alternatives in the expression of psychosocial distress: a case study from South India.

    PubMed

    Nichter, M

    1981-12-01

    This paper focuses attention on alternative modes of expressing distress and the need to analyze particular manifestations of distress in relation to personal and cultural meaning complexes as well as the availability and social implications of coexisting idioms of expression. To illustrate this point the case of South Kanarese Havik Brahmin women is presented. These women are described as having a weak social support network and limited opportunities to ventilate feelings and seek counsel outside the household. Alternative means of expressing psychosocial distress resorted to by Havik women are discussed in relation to associated Brahminic values, norms and stereotypes. Somatization is focused upon as an important idiom through which distress is communicated. Idioms of distress more peripheral to the personal or cultural behavioral repertoire of Havik women are considered as adaptive responses in circumstances where other modes of expression fail to communicate distress adequately or provide appropriate coping strategies. The importance of an 'idioms of distress' approach to psychiatric evaluation is noted.

  19. Psychological Distress and Problem Drinking.

    PubMed

    Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Roberts, Bayard; Suhrcke, Marc; McKee, Martin

    2016-03-01

    We examine the influence of harmful alcohol use on mental health using a flexible two-step instrumental variables approach and household survey data from nine countries of the former Soviet Union. Using alcohol advertisements to instrument for alcohol, we show that problem drinking has a large detrimental effect on psychological distress, with problem drinkers exhibiting a 42% increase in the number of mental health problems reported and a 15% higher chance of reporting very poor mental health. Ignoring endogeneity leads to an underestimation of the damaging effect of excessive drinking. Findings suggest that more effective alcohol policies and treatment services in the former Soviet Union may have added benefits in terms of reducing poor mental health.

  20. Understanding Gastrointestinal Distress: A Framework for Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Spiegel, Brennan M.R.; Khanna, Dinesh; Bolus, Roger; Agarwal, Nikhil; Khanna, Puja; Chang, Lin

    2014-01-01

    We describe a framework to help clinicians think about health-related quality of life in their gastrointestinal (GI) patients. We introduce “GI distress” as a clinically relevant concept and explain how it may result from physical symptoms, cognitions, and emotions. The GI distress framework suggests that providers should divide GI physical symptoms into four categories: pain, gas/bloat, altered defecation, and foregut symptoms. We describe how these physical symptoms can be amplified by maladaptive cognitions, including external locus of control, catastrophizing, and anticipation anxiety. We suggest determining the level of embarrassment from GI symptoms and asking about stigmatization. GI patients may also harbor emotional distress from their illness and may exhibit visceral anxiety marked by hypervigilance, fear, and avoidance of GI sensations. Look for signs of devitalization, indicated by inappropriate fatigue. When appropriate, screen for suicidal ideations. Finally, we provide a list of high-yield questions to screen for these maladaptive cognitions and emotions, and explain how the GI distress framework can be used in clinical practice. PMID:21378758

  1. Parent Tookit: Homework Help. Helpful Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    All Kinds of Minds, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This check list contains tips for parents to help students reinforce and build upon what children learn at school: (1) Set a consistent time each day for doing homework; (2) Encourage children to make a homework checklist; (3) Provide assistance to help get started on a task; (4) Help children make a list of all needed materials before starting…

  2. 47 CFR 80.1115 - Transmission of a distress alert by a station not itself in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-satellite service which learns that a mobile unit is in distress must initiate and transmit a distress alert relay in any of the following cases: (1) When the mobile unit in distress is not itself in a position to...

  3. 47 CFR 80.1115 - Transmission of a distress alert by a station not itself in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-satellite service which learns that a mobile unit is in distress must initiate and transmit a distress alert relay in any of the following cases: (1) When the mobile unit in distress is not itself in a position to...

  4. 47 CFR 80.1115 - Transmission of a distress alert by a station not itself in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-satellite service which learns that a mobile unit is in distress must initiate and transmit a distress alert relay in any of the following cases: (1) When the mobile unit in distress is not itself in a position to...

  5. 47 CFR 80.1115 - Transmission of a distress alert by a station not itself in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-satellite service which learns that a mobile unit is in distress must initiate and transmit a distress alert relay in any of the following cases: (1) When the mobile unit in distress is not itself in a position to...

  6. 47 CFR 80.1115 - Transmission of a distress alert by a station not itself in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-satellite service which learns that a mobile unit is in distress must initiate and transmit a distress alert relay in any of the following cases: (1) When the mobile unit in distress is not itself in a position to...

  7. Psychological Distress, Acculturation, and Mental Health-Seeking Attitudes among People of African Descent in the United States: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obasi, Ezemenari M.; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between psychological distress, acculturation, and help-seeking attitudes among people of African descent (N = 130). Psychological distress was measured using the Global Severity Index from the Brief Symptom Inventory (L. R. Derogatis & N. Melisaratos, 1983), acculturation was measured using the…

  8. Psychological Distress, Acculturation, and Mental Health-Seeking Attitudes among People of African Descent in the United States: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obasi, Ezemenari M.; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between psychological distress, acculturation, and help-seeking attitudes among people of African descent (N = 130). Psychological distress was measured using the Global Severity Index from the Brief Symptom Inventory (L. R. Derogatis & N. Melisaratos, 1983), acculturation was measured using the…

  9. War and bereavement: consequences for mental and physical distress.

    PubMed

    Morina, Nexhmedin; von Lersner, Ulrike; Prigerson, Holly G

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the long-term impact of the killing of a parent in childhood or adolescence during war on distress and disability in young adulthood. This study assessed current prevalence rates of mental disorders and levels of dysfunction among young adults who had lost their father due to war-related violence in childhood or adolescence. 179 bereaved young adults and 175 non-bereaved young adults were interviewed a decade after experiencing the war in Kosovo. Prevalence rates of Major Depressive Episode (MDE), anxiety, and substance use disorders, and current suicide risk were assessed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The syndrome of Prolonged Grief Disorder (PGD) was assessed with the Prolonged Grief Disorder Interview (PG-13). Somatic symptoms were measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire. General health distress was assessed with the General Health Questionnaire. Bereaved participants were significantly more likely to suffer from either MDE or any anxiety disorder than non-bereaved participants (58.7% vs. 40%). Among bereaved participants, 39.7% met criteria for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, 34.6% for PGD, and 22.3% for MDE. Bereaved participants with PGD were more likely to suffer from MDE, any anxiety disorder, or current suicide risk than bereaved participants without PGD. Furthermore, these participants reported significantly greater physical distress than bereaved participants without PGD. War-related loss during middle childhood and adolescence presents significant risk for adverse mental health and dysfunction in young adulthood in addition to exposure to other war-related traumatic events. Furthermore, the syndrome of PGD can help to identify those with the greatest degree of distress and dysfunction.

  10. War and Bereavement: Consequences for Mental and Physical Distress

    PubMed Central

    Morina, Nexhmedin; von Lersner, Ulrike; Prigerson, Holly G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Little is known about the long-term impact of the killing of a parent in childhood or adolescence during war on distress and disability in young adulthood. This study assessed current prevalence rates of mental disorders and levels of dysfunction among young adults who had lost their father due to war-related violence in childhood or adolescence. Methods 179 bereaved young adults and 175 non-bereaved young adults were interviewed a decade after experiencing the war in Kosovo. Prevalence rates of Major Depressive Episode (MDE), anxiety, and substance use disorders, and current suicide risk were assessed using the Mini–International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The syndrome of Prolonged Grief Disorder (PGD) was assessed with the Prolonged Grief Disorder Interview (PG-13). Somatic symptoms were measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire. General health distress was assessed with the General Health Questionnaire. Findings Bereaved participants were significantly more likely to suffer from either MDE or any anxiety disorder than non-bereaved participants (58.7% vs. 40%). Among bereaved participants, 39.7% met criteria for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, 34.6% for PGD, and 22.3% for MDE. Bereaved participants with PGD were more likely to suffer from MDE, any anxiety disorder, or current suicide risk than bereaved participants without PGD. Furthermore, these participants reported significantly greater physical distress than bereaved participants without PGD. Conclusion War-related loss during middle childhood and adolescence presents significant risk for adverse mental health and dysfunction in young adulthood in addition to exposure to other war-related traumatic events. Furthermore, the syndrome of PGD can help to identify those with the greatest degree of distress and dysfunction. PMID:21765944

  11. Prevalence and risk factors for psychological distress and functional disability in urban Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Husain, Nusrat; Chaudhry, Nasim; Jafri, Farhat; Tomenson, Barbara; Surhand, Ishaq; Mirza, Ilyas; Chaudhry, Imran B

    2014-01-01

    There is a close association between poor mental health status and both poor physical health and decreased productivity. An evidence base on the risk factors for psychological distress in low-income countries is lacking and is much needed to help develop appropriate interventions. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of psychological distress in urban Pakistan and identify associated risk factors and functional disability. This was a population-based study of 18-75-year-olds in urban Pakistan. The Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) was offered to 1000 adults to measure psychological distress. The Life Events Checklist, Oslo-3 for Social Support and Brief Disability Questionnaires were used to establish social stressors, support and functional disability. Questionnaires were completed by 880 (94%) eligible participants, of whom 41% of women and 19% of men scored 9 or more on the SRQ (possible range 0-20). Low educational status was associated with high rates of psychological distress. Women had significantly higher levels of distress than men and were less likely to receive practical support. The prevalence of psychological distress was lower in urban Karachi than that reported previously for rural Punjab province, Pakistan. However, in urban Karachi, as in rural Punjab, socioeconomic status seemed to have more of an impact on the mental health of women than that of men.

  12. Distress Intolerance and Prescription Opioid Misuse among Patients with Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, R. Kathryn; Weiss, Roger D.; Cornelius, Marise; Martel, Marc O.; Jamison, Robert N.; Edwards, Robert R.

    2016-01-01

    The risk for misuse of opioid medications is a significant challenge in the management of chronic pain. The identification of those who may be at greater risk for misusing opioids is needed to facilitate closer monitoring of high-risk subgroups, and may help to identify therapeutic targets for mitigating this risk. The aim of this study was to examine whether distress intolerance--the perceived or actual inability to manage negative emotional and somatic states--was associated with opioid misuse in those with chronic pain. A sample of 51 participants prescribed opioid analgesics for chronic back or neck pain were recruited for a one-time laboratory study. Participants completed measures of distress intolerance and opioid misuse, and a quantitative sensory testing battery. Results suggested that distress intolerance was associated with opioid misuse, even controlling for pain severity and negative affect. Distress intolerance was not associated with pain severity, threshold or tolerance, but was associated with self-reported anxiety and stress following noxious stimuli. This study found robust differences in distress intolerance between adults with chronic pain with and without opioid medication misuse. Distress intolerance may be a relevant marker of risk for opioid misuse among those with chronic pain. PMID:27058161

  13. Student distress in clinical workplace learning: differences in social comparison behaviours.

    PubMed

    Janet Raat, A N; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna; van Hell, E Ally; Kuks, Jan B M; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2015-03-01

    In medical education, student distress is known to hamper learning and professional development. To address this problem, recent studies aimed at helping students cope with stressful situations. Undergraduate students in clinical practice frequently use experiences of surrounding peers to estimate their abilities to master such challenging situations. This use of the experiences of others, known as social comparison, may affect student distress both positively and negatively. To find characteristics of a beneficial use of social comparison, we examined differences in comparison behaviours between students expressing low and high levels of distress. The participants in our study, response rate 93% (N = 301/321), were all medical students in their first year in clinical practice. They completed the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) to measure distress, and three separate questionnaires to measure: (1) orientation to comparison, (2) motive for comparison, and (3) interpretation of comparison. Differences were analysed using multivariate analysis of variance. Although all students were oriented towards social comparison, the analyses showed that this orientation was less apparent among low-distress students. Besides, the low-distress students were less inclined to use motives indicative for comparisons with peers perceived as performing worse and were less negative in the interpretations of their comparisons. As social comparison is frequently used among all students, we recommend to make them aware of their comparison behaviours and inform them about the pros and cons of the distinguished aspects of the comparison process.

  14. The Perceived Helpfulness of Rendering Emotional First Aid via Email

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilat, Itzhak; Reshef, Eyal

    2015-01-01

    The present research examined the perceived helpfulness of an increasingly widespread mode of psychological assistance, namely, emotional first aid via email. The sample comprised 62 naturally occurring email interactions between distressful clients and trained volunteers operating within the framework of the Israeli Association for Emotional…

  15. Help-Seeking by Young People with Depressive Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Michael G.; Sawyer, Alyssa C. P.; La Greca, Annette M.

    2012-01-01

    Depressive disorders commonly occur for the first time during adolescence and often become a recurring source of distress and impairment. Unfortunately, only a small proportion of adolescents with depressive disorders receive help from professional services, and there is evidence that adolescents with higher levels of depressive symptoms may be…

  16. The Perceived Helpfulness of Rendering Emotional First Aid via Email

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilat, Itzhak; Reshef, Eyal

    2015-01-01

    The present research examined the perceived helpfulness of an increasingly widespread mode of psychological assistance, namely, emotional first aid via email. The sample comprised 62 naturally occurring email interactions between distressful clients and trained volunteers operating within the framework of the Israeli Association for Emotional…

  17. The 'Distress Barometer': validation of method of combining the Distress Thermometer with a rated complaint scale.

    PubMed

    Bauwens, S; Baillon, C; Distelmans, W; Theuns, P

    2009-05-01

    Screening instruments may enhance the clinician's ability to detect elevated levels of distress in cancer patients, but these are often neither suitable nor effective for the routine of daily care for cancer patients. The newly developed Distress Barometer (DB) was intended to provide medical doctors with a convenient tool to interpret 'at single glance' the nature and the intensity of distress in ambulatory cancer patients. The DB, i.e. a combination of the Distress Thermometer (DT) and a new tool, the Colored Complaint Scale was developed to improve the specificity of distress screening without decreasing the sensitivity of the Distress Thermometer. Distress was screened in a sample of 538 out-patients, using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the new Distress Barometer (DB). The results confirm the validity of the Dutch version of the DT against the HADS as standard measure. In addition, it was found that the overall accuracy of the new DB was higher, with a sensitivity of 0.79 and a specificity of 0.81. These results indicate that the Distress Barometer, which is convenient for both patients and doctors, can be used as an acceptable, brief and sufficiently accurate method for detecting distress in cancer patients. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Finding a way back home: a spirituality of exile after Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    DeMoor, Emily Ann

    2009-03-01

    Three years ago breath took the form of Hurricane Katrina and passed through our bodies and our lives, leaving us forever changed. We all breathed her, but for those of us living on the Gulf Coast our encounter with Katrina was more intimate, our breathing more conscious, our memory more charged, our lives forever changed. My story takes me from the winds of Hurricane Katrina blasting through the Gulf Coast, through the tube of a machine that helped keep my son's lung expanded, through the Sinai dessert and the valley of the dry bones, through the in-between spaces of grounded groundlessness, to the forests and rivers of the Berskhire Mountains, where I have relocated and started my life over. My spiritual journey "home" is a dynamic story of Earth, wind, fire, water, flesh, and Spirit.

  19. Petrography, mineralogy, and chemistry of calcite-silica deposits at Exile Hill, Nevada, compared with local spring deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Vaniman, D.T.; Chipera, S.J.; Bish, D.L.

    1995-12-01

    Chemical, mineralogic, and petrographic analyses of siliceous calcretes from Exile Hill east of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, indicate that pedogenic processes alone account for the formation of the calcretes. These calcretes have been interpreted by some observers as evidence of seismically triggered eruptions of deep water. Such an origin could have important consequences if Yucca Mountain is developed as an unsaturated site for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste. At odds with this hypothesis are the absence of features that should be present at fault-fed springs (e.g., fissure-ridge mounds with microterraces) and the preservation within root casts of delicate pedogenic microfossils, such as calcified filaments and needle-fiber calcites. Mineral-chemical evidence of pedogenic origin is found in heavy-mineral concentrations, reflected in Fe and Sc enrichments. These concentrations, which occur in the most massive of the vein calcretes, require derivation of detritus from a mixture of weathered and eolian materials that occur in the overlying B soil horizons, as opposed to direct incorporation of adjacent unweathered bedrock. Carbonate and silica abundances and accumulation rates are well within the scope of pedogenic processes. Calcium is derived from rainwater or eolian sources, whereas silica is derived in part by dissolution of local volcanic glasses or from dissolution of unstable silica minerals that are abundant in the local tuffs. In contrast with local deposits that are of spring or seep origin, the siliceous calcretes at Yucca Mountain are pedogenic in origin as well as evolution and provide no evidence in support of conjectured spring activity.

  20. The relationship between food frequency and menstrual distress in high school females.

    PubMed

    Mohamadirizi, Soheila; Kordi, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition pattern is one of the important factors predicting menstrual distress, which varies among different cultures and countries. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between food frequency and menstrual distress in high school girls from Mashhad. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 using a two-stage sampling method on 407 high school female students from Mashhad who met the inclusion criteria. Subjects completed questionnaires of demographic characteristics, food frequency, and Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ) during three phases of the menstrual cycle (a week before bleeding, during menstrual bleeding period, and a week after menstruation). The collected data were analyzed by statistical tests such as Pearson correlation coefficient test, independent Student's t-test, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results showed that 87.7% of the students were at moderate economic status, 82.2% were exposed to cigarette smoke, 94.8% had mothers without university education, and 9.4% had working mothers. About 71% of the students reported minor pre-menstruation distress, 81% reported minor distress during bleeding, and 39% reported minor post-menstruation distress. In addition, the mean (SD) values for sweet-fatty foods, salty-fatty foods, fast foods, and caffeine were 3.6, 3.3, 1.3, and 10.2 per week, respectively. In addition, Pearson correlation coefficient test showed no significant correlation between total menstruation distress and food frequency (P > 0.05). With regard to the inappropriate food frequency and high intensity of menstrual distress among high school students and as health care and educational efforts for prevention and health promotion in society are among the duties of health workers, the results of this study can help the officials involved in education to emphasize on nutrition and the menstrual health of students.

  1. Life after cancer: how does public stigma increase psychological distress of childhood cancer survivors?

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Ah; Yi, Jaehee

    2014-12-01

    Public stigma is a major source of stress for cancer survivors. However, factors that buffer or exacerbate the negative effects of public stigma on psychological distress have not been elucidated. This study examined how perceived public stigma affects psychological distress as mediated by cancer disclosure, internalized reactions to stigma, and social support availability. Cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in South Korea. The study sample was 223 adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed before the age of 19 and currently between 15 and 39 years old. Psychological distress was assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory-18. Structural equation modeling was used with 1000 bootstrap samples. The goodness of model fit was acceptable. Public stigma perceived by cancer survivors influenced psychological distress via cancer disclosure, internalized shame, and social support availability. Higher levels of perceived public stigma predicted higher levels of internalized shame and self-blame and lower levels of social support availability, which subsequently increased psychological distress. Higher levels of perceived public stigma predicted lower levels of disclosure about cancer history and experiences. Cancer disclosure indirectly ameliorated psychological distress by reducing internalized shame. This study offers evidence that cognitive and social factors play important roles in mediating the effects of perceived public stigma on psychological distress in Korean cancer survivors. A greater understanding of factors that influence psychological distress may help psychosocial oncology service providers to identify childhood cancer survivors in need of psychosocial services and provide them with appropriate resources and interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pediatric Immunization Distress: A Cluster Analyses of Children's, Parents', and Nurses' Behaviors During the Anticipatory Phase.

    PubMed

    Pedro, Helga; Barros, Luísa; Pereira, Ana I

    2016-05-01

    Using cluster analysis, we aimed to identify a typology of nurses', parents', and young children's behaviors during the anticipatory phase of pediatric immunizations to explore the associations between these different typologies and to determine whether these groups differed with respect to the child's procedural distress as rated by the child and the parents and with respect to the adults' self-rated distress. Immunizations given by 23 nurses to 220 children aged 3 years and 10 months to 7 years were recorded with behaviors being scored according to Child-Adult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale-Revised, to which 3 new codes were added, and rated with a 6-point Likert scale. Parents' and nurses' ratings of their own distress and of the child's distress, in addition to children's self-rating of distress were obtained. Nine adult and 12 child behavioral codes were submitted for cluster analysis. A solution with 4 clusters for children, 5 clusters for parents, and 5 clusters for nurses was retained. Our results show high consistency between child and adult clusters. During the anticipatory phase, less distressed children, characterized by either low activity or high coping, interacted with adults who showed low activity or high coping support patterns. More distressed children, characterized by resistance and behavioral distress, interacted with adults who displayed either low activity or less efficient support behaviors, such as reassurance and criticism. The results confirm previous dimensional studies and add relevant knowledge concerning typologies of participant behaviors that may be useful in understanding such behaviors and in helping providers in their management of child immunizations.

  3. Helping Children Cope in an Increasingly Threatening World: Four Cornerstones of Emotional Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Amy

    2002-01-01

    Discusses some tools and guidelines that can be used to help parents help their children cope with the new dangers in our world. Topics include how parents can help children turn fear into resiliency, what the signs of distress are, and how to use family meetings to teach coping skills and establish a forum for open communication. (GCP)

  4. Moral distress in Iranian pediatric nurses.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Elham; Negarandeh, Reza; Janani, Leila

    2017-01-01

    Moral distress is a very common experience in the nursing profession, and it is one of the main reasons for job dissatisfaction, burnout, and quitting among nurses. For instance, morally difficult situations in taking care of child patients who are severely ill may lead to moral distress for nurses. However, most of the studies about moral distress have been conducted on nurses of special wards and adult medical centers with much focus on developed countries. Subsequently, little has been researched on this topic among nurses in other nations such as Iran, and most certainly, there has been hardly any such research involving Iranian pediatric nurses. Aim/objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate moral distress among nurses in selected pediatric hospitals in Tehran, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on eligible nurses who were selected through proportional stratified sampling and who completed demographic characteristics and the pediatric version of Moral Distress Scale-Revised questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t test, one-way analysis of variance, and Pearson correlation coefficient. Participants and research context: In total, 195 pediatric nurses working at three selected children's specialized university hospitals in Tehran participated in this study. Ethical considerations: This study was evaluated and approved by the institutional review board of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The mean and standard deviation of total score of moral distress was 106.41 ± 61.64 within a range of 10-257. Also, the difference between the mean score of moral distress of the group who had not quitted their position and those who have quit in the past was statistically significant (p = 0.043). The situation that was associated with the highest moral distress was "observing medical students performing painful procedures on patients just to gain some skill." Total score of moral distress was significantly higher among male

  5. Grandparents of children with cancer: a controlled study of distress, support, and barriers to care.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Claire E; Drew, Donna; Ellis, Sarah J; Doolan, Emma L; McLoone, Jordana K; Cohn, Richard J

    2014-08-01

    For families under stress, positive grandparental relationships provide a valued 'safety net'. However, coping with family stressors can place a heavy burden on older individuals who may be experiencing declining health/energy themselves. This mixed-methods study assessed the prevalence of distress in grandparents of children with, and without, cancer, aiming to identify predictors of grandparental distress and quantify their barriers to care. Two hundred twenty-one grandparents [87 cancer group; 134 controls; mean age 65.47 years (SD = 6.97); 33.5% male] completed self-report questionnaires assessing distress, anxiety, depression, anger, 'need for help', support use, and barriers to psychosocial care. A higher proportion of grandparents in the cancer group reported clinically relevant distress (32.9% vs. 12.7%; p < 0.001), anxiety (48.8% vs. 23.9%; p < 0.001), depression (24.4% vs. 6.0%; p < 0.001), and anger (23.5% vs. 6.8%; p = 0.001). In the cancer group, distress was higher in grandmothers and in families with fewer siblings. Grandparents rarely accessed evidence-based psychosocial support (<5% in both groups), although grandparents of children with cancer were more likely to seek religious/spiritual support. Barriers to help seeking included lack of knowledge and rurality. Grandparents of children with cancer qualitatively described undisclosed feelings of uncertainty and helplessness and provided advice to other grandparents to facilitate their coping. Grandparents of children with cancer were clearly more distressed than controls. Grandparents' capacity to support their families may be limited by their own, untreated, distress. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Student Distress in Clinical Workplace Learning: Differences in Social Comparison Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raat, A. N. Janet; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna; van Hell, E. Ally; Kuks, Jan B. M.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2015-01-01

    In medical education, student distress is known to hamper learning and professional development. To address this problem, recent studies aimed at helping students cope with stressful situations. Undergraduate students in clinical practice frequently use experiences of surrounding peers to estimate their abilities to master such challenging…

  7. Evaluation of a bibliotherapy manual for reducing psychological distress in people with depression: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Songprakun, Wallapa; McCann, Terence V

    2012-12-01

    This article reports a study to evaluate the efficacy of a self-help manual in reducing psychological distress in individuals with moderate depression. The prevalence of depression in Thailand is increasing markedly (e.g. from 56-197 per 100,000 population between 1997-2007). We conducted a randomized controlled trial with 54 outpatients with depression in Chiang Mai Province in Thailand. Participants were assigned randomly to an intervention or control group. The intervention group participants were given a self-help manual in addition to standard care and treatment while the control group received standard care and treatment. Psychological distress was measured with the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. Data were collected between October 2007-April 2008. The findings showed statistically significant differences between both groups in their levels of psychological distress (e.g. tiredness, hopelessness, restlessness). At post-test, the distress scores of the intervention group were lower than those in the control group. Between post-test and 1-month follow-up, distress scores continued to decrease steadily in the intervention group but only decreased slightly in the control group. The findings affirm the benefits of bibliotherapy or self-help therapy in book form in helping to reduce psychological distress in people with moderate depression. The approach is easy to use and can be incorporated as an adjunct to standard care and treatment. Bibliotherapy can be used by community mental health nurses and other clinicians to reduce psychological distress and promote recovery in people with moderate depression. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Help Seeking and Receiving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadler, Arie

    Although social psychology has always had an interest in helping behavior, only recently has the full complexity of helping relations begun to be researched. Help seeking and receiving in the educational setting raise many issues regarding the use and effectiveness of the help itself. Central to all helping relations is the seeking/receiving…

  9. Mind-Body Skills Training to Improve Distress Tolerance in Medical Students: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Kristen M; Luberto, Christina M; O'Bryan, Emily M; Mysinger, Erica; Cotton, Sian

    2016-01-01

    improvements in distress tolerance in the mind-body group but not in the control group. These preliminary findings provide support for the notion that improving distress tolerance through mind-body skills training might serve to protect medical students from becoming functionally impaired by psychological distress. Thus, implementing mind-body skills training into medical school education may help to improve the psychological well-being of medical students. Future studies utilizing more methodologically rigorous designs are warranted.

  10. Peer Pressure, Psychological Distress and the Urge to Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yi-Wen; Wen, Yu-Wen; Tsai, Chia-Rung; Tsai, Tzu-I

    2009-01-01

    Background: Psychology and addiction research have found that cigarette smokers react with subjective and automatic responses to stimuli associated with smoking. This study examines the association between the number of cigarettes smokers consume per month and their response to cues derived from peer and psychological distress. Methods: We studied 1,220 adult past and current smokers drawn from a national face-to-face interview survey administered in 2004. We defined two types of cues possibly triggering a smoker to have a cigarette: peer cues and psychological cues. We used ordinary least square linear regressions to analyze smoking amount and response to peer and psychological distress cues. Results: We found a positive association between amount smoked and cue response: peer cues (1.06, 95%CI: 0.74–1.38) and psychological cues (0.44, 95%CI = 0.17–0.70). Response to psychological cues was lower among male smokers (−1.62, 95%CI = −2.26–−0.98), but response to psychological cues were higher among those who had senior high school level educations (0.96, 95%CI = 0.40–1.53) and who began smoking as a response to their moods (1.25, 95%CI = 0.68–1.82). Conclusions: These results suggest that both peer cues and psychological cues increase the possibility of contingent smoking, and should, therefore, be addressed by anti-smoking policies and anti-smoking programs. More specifically, special attention can be paid to help smokers avoid or counter social pressure to smoke and to help smokers resist the use of cigarettes to relieve distress. PMID:19578461

  11. Peer pressure, psychological distress and the urge to smoke.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yi-Wen; Wen, Yu-Wen; Tsai, Chia-Rung; Tsai, Tzu-I

    2009-06-01

    Psychology and addiction research have found that cigarette smokers react with subjective and automatic responses to stimuli associated with smoking. This study examines the association between the number of cigarettes smokers consume per month and their response to cues derived from peer and psychological distress. We studied 1,220 adult past and current smokers drawn from a national face-to-face interview survey administered in 2004. We defined two types of cues possibly triggering a smoker to have a cigarette: peer cues and psychological cues. We used ordinary least square linear regressions to analyze smoking amount and response to peer and psychological distress cues. We found a positive association between amount smoked and cue response: peer cues (1.06, 95%CI: 0.74-1.38) and psychological cues (0.44, 95%CI = 0.17-0.70). Response to psychological cues was lower among male smokers (-1.62, 95%CI = -2.26-(-)0.98), but response to psychological cues were higher among those who had senior high school level education (0.96, 95%CI = 0.40-1.53) and who began smoking as a response to their moods (1.25, 95%CI = 0.68-1.82). These results suggest that both peer cues and psychological cues increase the possibility of contingent smoking, and should, therefore, be addressed by anti-smoking policies and anti-smoking programs. More specifically, special attention can be paid to help smokers avoid or counter social pressure to smoke and to help smokers resist the use of cigarettes to relieve distress.

  12. Is viewing ostracism on television distressing?

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Robinson, Simon L; Gundersen, Nicola C

    2011-01-01

    Being ostracized can be a painful and distressing experience and can lead to subsequent aggression by the victim. However, it is unknown whether watching someone else be ostracized either in real life or on television is similarly distressing. The purpose of the current study was to examine what type of distress (if any) is induced after viewing ostracism on television. The study consisted of 50 participants, half who viewed a movie clip containing ostracism and half who viewed a control clip. Physiological and self-report data revealed that viewing ostracism was distressing to participants. In particular, participants who viewed the ostracism clip reported a lower sense of belonging, self esteem, and mood, and a greater increase in heart rate and skin conductivity than those who viewed the control clip.

  13. Capital management helps hospitals face hard times.

    PubMed

    Harris, J; Pitts, K

    1989-03-01

    Financial officers of healthcare organizations in severe financial distress must map out an effective capital management strategy to help their institutions avoid disaster. An executive's plan of action should include streamlining and restructuring the organization, studying long- and short-term assets to improve cash flow, and investigating ways to refinance debt. Healthcare organizations must develop warning signals for impending financial difficulties and contingency plans that address operating and capital responses to such a crisis. Learning to guide an organization through financial difficulties may be an executive's most important financial skill in the decade to come.

  14. Helping Parents Help Their Children Toward Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, G. Jeane

    A practicum was designed to help parents of kindergartners in a low income area help their children develop literacy. The primary goal was to secure the active involvement of parents in their children's learning experiences. Other goals included improving kindergarten teachers' communication skills and expanding their strategies for reaching out…

  15. Behavioral Intervention to Reduce Child and Parent Distress during Venipuncture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manne, Sharon L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated behavioral intervention to control child distress during invasive cancer treatment. Children (n=23) requiring physical restraint to complete venipuncture were alternately assigned to behavioral intervention or attention control condition. Observed child distress, parent-rated child distress, and parent ratings of own distress were…

  16. 33 CFR 175.130 - Visual distress signals accepted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... red flare (160.024 or 160.036) meets both day and night requirements. Three hand held orange smoke... Smoke Distress Signals Day Only 3 160.024 Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals Day and Night 1 3 160.036... Orange Smoke Distress Signals Day Only 3 160.057 Floating Orange Smoke Distress Signals Day Only 3...

  17. 47 CFR 80.1113 - Transmission of a distress alert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission of a distress alert. 80.1113... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1113 Transmission of a distress alert. (a) The... stations that a ship is in distress. These alerts are based on the use of transmissions via...

  18. 47 CFR 80.1113 - Transmission of a distress alert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission of a distress alert. 80.1113... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1113 Transmission of a distress alert. (a) The... stations that a ship is in distress. These alerts are based on the use of transmissions via...

  19. 47 CFR 80.1113 - Transmission of a distress alert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission of a distress alert. 80.1113... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1113 Transmission of a distress alert. (a) The... coast earth stations that a ship is in distress. These alerts are based on the use of transmissions...

  20. 47 CFR 80.1113 - Transmission of a distress alert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission of a distress alert. 80.1113... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1113 Transmission of a distress alert. (a) The... coast earth stations that a ship is in distress. These alerts are based on the use of transmissions...

  1. 47 CFR 80.1113 - Transmission of a distress alert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission of a distress alert. 80.1113... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1113 Transmission of a distress alert. (a) The... stations that a ship is in distress. These alerts are based on the use of transmissions via...

  2. Behavioral Intervention to Reduce Child and Parent Distress during Venipuncture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manne, Sharon L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated behavioral intervention to control child distress during invasive cancer treatment. Children (n=23) requiring physical restraint to complete venipuncture were alternately assigned to behavioral intervention or attention control condition. Observed child distress, parent-rated child distress, and parent ratings of own distress were…

  3. Counseling Needs of Students Who Seek Help at a University Counseling Center: A Closer Look at Gender and Multicultural Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Margaretha S.; Berkel, LaVerne A.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated psychological distress and vocational problems presented by university students seeking help at a university counseling center (N = 597, 68% female, 12% African American, 9% Asian American, 58% White). All students reported distress in several areas, but African American students in particular perceived barriers when pursuing their…

  4. Alternatives to Pyrotechnic Distress Signals; Supplemental Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    project effort that developed a specification for a light -emitting diode (LED) signal characteristic as an alternative to pyrotechnic, maritime...of the two-color visual distress signal so as to provide a night- vision imaging system user a signal, conspicuous against certain lighting conditions...Visual Distress Signal Device (VDSD), Light Emitting Diode (LED), characteristic, conspicuity, infrared, night-vision imaging system (NVIS), duty

  5. Non lineal respiratory systems mechanics simulation of acute respiratory distress syndrome during mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Madorno, Matias; Rodriguez, Pablo O

    2010-01-01

    Model and simulation of biological systems help to better understand these systems. In ICUs patients often reach a complex situation where supportive maneuvers require special expertise. Among them, mechanical ventilation in patients suffering from acuter respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is specially challenging. This work presents a model which can be simulated and use to help in training of physicians and respiratory therapists to analyze the respiratory mechanics in this kind of patients. We validated the model in 2 ARDS patients.

  6. [Exploring moral distress among clinical nurses].

    PubMed

    Lovato, Sabrina; Lovato, Liliana; Cunico, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Moral distress in nursing practice is described as a suffering situation that arises when the nurse is unable to act her/his ethical choices, when institutional constraints interfere with acting in the way she/he believes to be right. The aim is to describe nursing practice situations causing moral distress resulting from the recognition of the ethical appropriate actions combined with the impossibility to pursue it; to describe how nurses manage moral distress situations and the strategies to cope with them. A focus group was conducted in three wards of a large teaching-hospital in the north of Italy. In another ward the nurses were asked to write a moral distress experience. A total of 40 nurses were involved and 50 experiences collected. The experiences' analysis has shown 5 source areas of moral distress: 1) clinical decision; 2) nursing competences; 3) nurse-physician collaboration; 4) organization of care; 5) safe care. For each area the most frequent themes were highlighted.Areas of clinical decision, nursing competences, nurse-physician collaboration involve nurse leaders in identification and implementation of strategies for managing moral distress.

  7. Moral distress: tensions as springboards for action.

    PubMed

    Varcoe, Colleen; Pauly, Bernadette; Webster, George; Storch, Janet

    2012-03-01

    In the previous four papers in this series, individual versus structural or contextual factors have informed various understandings of moral distress. In this final paper, we summarize some of the key tensions raised in previous papers and use these tensions as springboards to identify directions for action among practitioners, educators, researchers, policymakers and others. In particular, we recognize the need to more explicitly politicize the concept of moral distress in order to understand how such distress arises from competing values within power dynamics across multiple interrelated contexts from interpersonal to international. We propose that the same socio-political values that tend to individualize and blame people for poor health without regard for social conditions in which health inequities proliferate, hold responsible, individualize and even blame health care providers for the problem of moral distress. Grounded in a critical theoretical perspective of context, definitions of moral distress are re-examined and refined. Finally, recommendations for action that emerge from a re-conceptualized understanding of moral distress are provided.

  8. Maternal hurricane exposure and fetal distress risk.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Sammy; Snodgrass, Jeffrey G; Peek, Lori; Weiler, Stephan

    2010-10-01

    Logistic regression and spatial analytic techniques are used to model fetal distress risk as a function of maternal exposure to Hurricane Andrew. First, monthly time series compare the proportion of infants born distressed in hurricane affected and unaffected areas. Second, resident births are analyzed in Miami-Dade and Broward counties, before, during, and after Hurricane Andrew. Third, resident births are analyzed in all Florida locales with 100,000 or more persons, comparing exposed and unexposed gravid females. Fourth, resident births are analyzed along Hurricane Andrew's path from southern Florida to northeast Mississippi. Results show that fetal distress risk increases significantly with maternal exposure to Hurricane Andrew in second and third trimesters, adjusting for known risk factors. Distress risk also correlates with the destructive path of Hurricane Andrew, with higher incidences of fetal distress found in areas of highest exposure intensity. Hurricane exposed African-American mothers were more likely to birth distressed infants. The policy implications of in utero costs of natural disaster exposure are discussed. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Detained and Distressed: Persistent Distressing Symptoms in a Population of Older Jail Inmates.

    PubMed

    Bolano, Marielle; Ahalt, Cyrus; Ritchie, Christine; Stijacic-Cenzer, Irena; Williams, Brie

    2016-11-01

    Distressing symptoms are associated with poor function, acute care use, and mortality in older adults. The number of older jail inmates is increasing rapidly, prompting calls to develop systems of care to meet their healthcare needs, yet little is known about multidimensional symptom burden in this population. This cross-sectional study describes the prevalence and factors associated with distressing symptoms and the overlap between different forms of symptom distress in 125 older jail inmates in an urban county jail. Physical distress was assessed using the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. Several other forms of symptom distress were also examined, including psychological (Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire), existential (Patient Dignity Inventory), and social (Three Item Loneliness Scale). Information was collected on participant sociodemographic characteristics, multimorbidity, serious mental illness (SMI), functional impairment, and behavioral health risk factors through self-report and chart review. Chi-square tests were used to identify factors associated with physical distress. Overlap between forms of distress was evaluated using set theory analysis. Overall, many participants (74%) reported distressing symptoms, including having one or more physical (44%), psychological (37%), existential (54%), or social (45%) symptoms. Physical distress was associated with poor health (multimorbidity, functional impairment, SMI) and low income. Of the 93 participants with any symptom, 49% reported three or more forms of distress. These findings suggest that an optimal model of care for this population would include a geriatrics-palliative care approach that integrates the management of all forms of symptom distress into a comprehensive treatment paradigm stretching from jail to the community.

  10. Barriers, facilitators, and survival strategies for GPs seeking treatment for distress: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Spiers, Johanna; Buszewicz, Marta; Chew-Graham, Carolyn A; Gerada, Clare; Kessler, David; Leggett, Nick; Manning, Chris; Taylor, Anna Kathryn; Thornton, Gail; Riley, Ruth

    2017-10-01

    GPs are under increasing pressure due to a lack of resources, a diminishing workforce, and rising patient demand. As a result, they may feel stressed, burnt out, anxious, or depressed. To establish what might help or hinder GPs experiencing mental distress as they consider seeking help for their symptoms, and to explore potential survival strategies. The authors recruited 47 GP participants via e-mails to doctors attending a specialist service, adverts to local medical committees (LMCs) nationally and in GP publications, social media, and snowballing. Participants self-identified as either currently living with mental distress, returning to work following treatment, off sick or retired early as a result of mental distress, or without experience of mental distress. Interviews were conducted face to face or over the telephone. Transcripts were uploaded to NVivo 11 and analysed using thematic analysis. Barriers and facilitators were related to work, stigma, and symptoms. Specifically, GPs discussed feeling a need to attend work, the stigma surrounding mental ill health, and issues around time, confidentiality, and privacy. Participants also reported difficulties accessing good-quality treatment. GPs also talked about cutting down or varying work content, or asserting boundaries to protect themselves. Systemic changes, such as further information about specialist services designed to help GPs, are needed to support individual GPs and protect the profession from further damage. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  11. Pathobiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sapru, Anil; Flori, Heidi; Quasney, Michael W; Dahmer, Mary K

    2015-06-01

    The unique characteristics of pulmonary circulation and alveolar-epithelial capillary-endothelial barrier allow for maintenance of the air-filled, fluid-free status of the alveoli essential for facilitating gas exchange, maintaining alveolar stability, and defending the lung against inhaled pathogens. The hallmark of pathophysiology in acute respiratory distress syndrome is the loss of the alveolar capillary permeability barrier and the presence of protein-rich edema fluid in the alveoli. This alteration in permeability and accumulation of fluid in the alveoli accompanies damage to the lung epithelium and vascular endothelium along with dysregulated inflammation and inappropriate activity of leukocytes and platelets. In addition, there is uncontrolled activation of coagulation along with suppression of fibrinolysis and loss of surfactant. These pathophysiological changes result in the clinical manifestations of acute respiratory distress syndrome, which include hypoxemia, radiographic opacities, decreased functional residual capacity, increased physiologic deadspace, and decreased lung compliance. Resolution of acute respiratory distress syndrome involves the migration of cells to the site of injury and re-establishment of the epithelium and endothelium with or without the development of fibrosis. Most of the data related to acute respiratory distress syndrome, however, originate from studies in adults or in mature animals with very few studies performed in children or juvenile animals. The lack of studies in children is particularly problematic because the lungs and immune system are still developing during childhood and consequently the pathophysiology of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome may differ in significant ways from that seen in acute respiratory distress syndrome in adults. This article describes what is known of the pathophysiologic processes of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome as we know it today while also presenting the much

  12. Association between weight perception and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Atlantis, E; Ball, K

    2008-04-01

    Obesity is a well-known cause of cardiovascular disease burden and premature death, but effects on depressive symptoms remain equivocal. Depressive symptoms may be more common among the obese individuals who perceive themselves as overweight, rather than those who perceive themselves as having an acceptable weight. Our aim was to determine whether weight status and weight perceptions are independently associated with psychological distress. We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the Australian National Health Survey 2004-2005 (N=17 253). All variables were collected by self-report. Adjusted multinomial logistic regression analysis was conducted to generate prevalence odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for medium (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) scores of 20-29) and high (K10 scores of 30-50) psychological distress (compared with K10 scores of 10-19 as the reference) associated with weight status (standard body mass index (BMI) cutoffs for underweight, overweight and obesity vs normal weight), weight perception (perceived underweight and overweight vs acceptable weight) and weight misperception (incorrect with BMI vs correct with BMI) adjusting for numerous important covariates. Overweight and underweight perception increased the odds of medium (40 and 50%) and high (50 and 120%) psychological distress, whereas weight status and weight misperception were not associated with psychological distress in adjusted analysis. Gender, alcohol consumed per week and post-school education were not significant covariates (at P<0.10 level). Overweight and underweight perception rather than weight status or weight misperception are significant risk factors associated with medium and high psychological distress prevalence and effects appear to be uniform for men and women. Well-designed prospective studies are still needed to determine whether weight perceptions cause psychological distress, and if so, whether symptoms are significantly

  13. 47 CFR 80.324 - Transmission of distress message by station not itself in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.324 Transmission of distress message by... or on any other available frequency on which attention might be attracted. (c) Transmission of the... transmitting station, sent three times. (2) When radiotelephony is used: (i) The signal MAYDAY RELAY, spoken...

  14. 47 CFR 80.324 - Transmission of distress message by station not itself in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission of distress message by station not itself in distress. 80.324 Section 80.324 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements...

  15. 47 CFR 80.324 - Transmission of distress message by station not itself in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission of distress message by station not itself in distress. 80.324 Section 80.324 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements...

  16. 47 CFR 80.324 - Transmission of distress message by station not itself in distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission of distress message by station not itself in distress. 80.324 Section 80.324 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements...

  17. Specific Associations between Anxiety Sensitivity Dimensions and Fear and Distress Dimensions of Emotional Distress Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Nicholas P.; Norr, Aaron M.; Capron, Daniel W.; Raines, Amanda M.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS) comprises three lower-order dimensions, physical concerns, cognitive concerns, and social concerns, all of which are related to unipolar mood and anxiety disorders (emotional distress disorders). The pattern of these relations suggests that AS cognitive concerns might be best classified as associated with emotional distress disorders clustered together as distress disorders whereas AS physical concerns might be best classified as associated with emotional distress disorders clustered together as fear disorders. In contrast, AS social concerns appears to be generally associated with both fear and distress disorders. To test the specificity of lower-order AS dimensions, structural equation modeling was employed in a sample of 579 individuals (M age = 36.87 years, SD = 13.47; 51.6% male) constituting a sample at risk for psychopathology as these individuals were seeking smoking cessation treatment. AS physical concerns was associated with the fear disorders dimension, even when controlling for negative affect (NA). AS cognitive concerns was associated with the distress disorder dimension, only when the effects of NA were not included. Finally, AS social concerns demonstrated non-specific relations with both the distress and fear disorders dimensions. Given that measures of AS and psychopathology were collected concurrently, these findings cannot address the role of lower-order AS dimensions as risk factors for specific psychopathology clusters. These results provide further support for the hierarchical model of emotional distress disorders as well as implicate AS cognitive and physical concerns as important variables at the intermediate level of this model. PMID:25937702

  18. The relationship between coping style and psychological distress in people with head and neck cancer: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Morris, Nicolle; Moghaddam, Nima; Tickle, Anna; Biswas, Sanchia

    2017-07-27

    Individuals diagnosed with head and neck cancer (HNC) are at elevated risk of psychological distress and reduced quality of life. This review aimed to systematically examine and critically assess the quality of empirical evidence for associations between coping mechanisms and psychological distress among people with HNC. CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and Web of Science were searched. Studies were included if they used reliable and valid measures to investigate the relationship between coping style and psychological distress. Study quality was assessed according to pre-set criteria. Twelve studies (8 cross-sectional and 4 longitudinal designs) involving 1281 patients were reviewed. There was considerable heterogeneity in study samples and coping measures. Moderate-to-large associations between disengagement coping mechanisms (eg, avoidance) and psychological distress were observed. Engagement coping strategies (eg, direct action) were not consistently associated with psychological distress. Several studies observed a significant relationship between coping styles aimed at disengaging and distancing from cancer and increased psychological distress in people with HNC. To understand directionality of these associations and develop understanding of temporal features of the relationship between coping styles and distress, longitudinal designs could be used. This would enable evidence-based recommendations regarding psychological interventions (eg, encouraging helpful coping strategies) for individuals along their HNC care pathway. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Self systems, cultural idioms of distress, and the psycho-bodily consequences of childhood suffering.

    PubMed

    Hollan, Douglas

    2004-03-01

    In this article, I examine the effects of childhood suffering in two cases--one from my anthropological fieldwork in the central highlands of Sulawesi in Indonesia and one from my psychotherapeutic practice in Los Angeles. I argue that although people will always carry with them the psycho-bodily signature of their past social experience, these signatures are affected by the cultural idioms of distress into which they are woven and from which psycho-bodily attention is channeled and given meaning (or not). However, I also suggest that past social experiences are related to life trajectories in very complicated ways. For example, while the enactment of a cultural idiom of distress may help to resolve or give meaning to a form of illness or distress, it also may cause or exacerbate other forms of suffering--depending on how it is used and articulated by any given individual.

  20. The Impact of Miscarriage and Parity on Patterns of Maternal Distress in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Woods-Giscombé, Cheryl L.; Lobel, Marci; Crandell, Jamie L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine patterns of state anxiety and pregnancy-specific distress across pregnancy in a diverse sample of women with (n = 113) and without (n = 250) prior miscarriage. For both groups, state anxiety and pregnancy-specific distress were highest in the first trimester and decreased significantly over the course of pregnancy. Compared to women without prior miscarriage, women with prior miscarriage experienced greater state anxiety in the second and third trimesters. Having a living child did not buffer state anxiety in women with a prior miscarriage. Attention to patterns of distress can contribute to delivery of appropriate support resources to women experiencing pregnancy after miscarriage and may help reduce risk for stress-related outcomes. PMID:20544819

  1. Relationship of Genetic Variants With Procedural Pain, Anxiety, and Distress in Children.

    PubMed

    Ersig, Anne L; Schutte, Debra L; Standley, Jennifer; Leslie, Elizabeth; Zimmerman, Bridget; Kleiber, Charmaine; Hanrahan, Kirsten; Murray, Jeffrey C; McCarthy, Ann Marie

    2017-05-01

    This study used a candidate gene approach to examine genomic variation associated with pain, anxiety, and distress in children undergoing a medical procedure. Children aged 4-10 years having an IV catheter insertion were recruited from three Midwestern children's hospitals. Self-report measures of pain, anxiety, and distress were obtained as well as an observed measure of distress. Samples were collected from children and biological parents for analysis of genomic variation. Genotyped variants had known or suspected association with phenotypes of interest. Analyses included child-only association and family-based transmission disequilibrium tests. Genotype and phenotype data were available from 828 children and 376 family trios. Children were 50% male, had a mean age of 7.2 years, and were 84% White/non-Hispanic. In family-based analysis, one single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs1143629, interleukin ( IL1B) 1β) was associated with observed child distress at Bonferroni-corrected levels of significance ( p = .00013), while two approached significance for association with high state anxiety (rs6330 Nerve Growth Factor, Beta Subunit, [ NGFB]) and high trait anxiety (rs6265 brain-derived neurotrophic factor [ BDNF]). In the child-only analysis, multiple SNPs showed nominal evidence of relationships with phenotypes of interest. rs6265 BDNF and rs2941026 cholecystokinin B receptor had possible relationships with trait anxiety in child-only and family-based analyses. Exploring genomic variation furthers our understanding of pain, anxiety, and distress and facilitates genomic screening to identify children at high risk of procedural pain, anxiety, and distress. Combined with clinical observations and knowledge, such explorations could help guide tailoring of interventions to limit procedure-related distress and identify genes and pathways of interest for future genotype-phenotype studies.

  2. The prospective effects of perceived and laboratory indices of distress tolerance on cannabis use following a self-guided quit attempt.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Nadeem S; Babson, Kimberly A; Banducci, Anne N; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2015-12-01

    The majority of individuals who attempt to quit using cannabis do not seek formalized treatment. To better understand which malleable factors contribute to cannabis use following a self-guided quit attempt, we concurrently examined 2 measures of distress tolerance (DT) as prospective predictors of cannabis use post quit attempt. We hypothesized that veterans with higher in relation to lower levels of DT would be less likely to use cannabis following a self-guided quit attempt. In this study, we included 103 cannabis-dependent veterans (Mage = 50, 95% male, 37% White, 36% Black, 14% Hispanic, 14% other) who reported being motivated to quit using cannabis. Veterans completed 2 measures of DT, the Distress Tolerance Scale (perceived distress tolerance) and the Mirror-Tracing Persistence Task (laboratory analogue of distress tolerance). Findings indicated that veterans with greater perceived distress tolerance used less cannabis over the quit period than did veterans with less perceived distress tolerance. However, contrary to expectations, baseline performance on a laboratory analogue of distress tolerance was not related to cannabis use over the quit period. Results suggest that veterans' perceived ability to tolerate distress is an important predictor of cannabis use following a self-guided quit attempt. Thus, the Distress Tolerance Scale could serve as an important tool for helping to identify veterans at risk for cannabis use postquit.

  3. Race and Psychological Distress: The South African Stress and Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Pamela Braboy; Williams, David R.; Stein, Dan J.; Herman, Allen; Williams, Stacey L.; Redmond, Deidre L.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze data from the South African Stress and Health Study, a nationally representative in-person psychiatric epidemiologic survey of 4,351 adults conducted as part of the World Mental Health Survey Initiative between January 2002 and June 2004. All blacks (Africans, Coloreds, and Indians) initially report higher levels of non-specific distress and anger/hostility than whites. Access to socioeconomic resources helps explain differences in non-specific distress between Coloreds and whites and Indians and whites. However, only when social stressors are considered do we find few differences in psychological distress (i.e., non-specific distress and anger/hostility) between Africans and whites. In addition, self-esteem and mastery have independent effects on non-specific distress and anger/hostility, but differences between Coloreds and whites in feelings of anger/hostility are not completely explained by self-esteem and mastery. The findings contribute to the international body of work on social stress theory, challenge underlying assumptions of the minority status perspective, and raise a series of questions regarding mental health disparities among South Africans. PMID:21131621

  4. Relationship between moral distress and ethical climate with job satisfaction in nurses.

    PubMed

    Asgari, Sharareh; Shafipour, Vida; Taraghi, Zohreh; Yazdani-Charati, Jamshid

    2017-01-01

    Moral distress and ethical climate are important issues in the workplace that appear to affect people's quality of work life. This study was conducted to determine the relationship of moral distress and ethical climate to job satisfaction in critical care nurses. This descriptive-correlation study was conducted on 142 critical care nurses, selected from five social security hospitals in north Iran through census sampling. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, the Moral Distress Scale-Revised, the Olson's Hospital Ethical Climate Survey, and the Brayfield and Rothe Job Satisfaction index. Ethical considerations: The research project was approved by the Ethics Committee of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences and the Medical Deputy of the Social Security Organization. The mean scores obtained by the critical care nurses for moral distress, ethical climate, and job satisfaction were 87.02 ± 44.56, 3.51 ± 0.53, and 62.64 ± 9.39, respectively. Although no significant relationships were observed between moral distress and job satisfaction, the relationship between ethical climate and job satisfaction was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Identifying ethical stressors in the workplace and giving proper feedback to the authorities to eliminate these factors and improve the ethical climate in these workplaces can help enhance job satisfaction in nurses and lead to higher quality care.

  5. Community perceptions of mental distress in a post-conflict setting: a qualitative study in Burundi.

    PubMed

    Familiar, Itziar; Sharma, Sonali; Ndayisaba, Herman; Munyentwari, Norbert; Sibomana, Seleus; Bass, Judith K

    2013-01-01

    There is scant documentation of the mental health characteristics of low-income communities recovering from armed conflict. To prepare for quantitative health surveys and health service planning in Burundi, we implemented a qualitative study to explore concepts related to mental distress and coping among adults. Mental distress was defined as problems related to feelings, thinking, behaviour and physical stress. Using free listing and key informant interviews with a range of community members, we triangulated data to identify salient issues. Thirty-eight free list respondents and 23 key informants were interviewed in 5 rural communities in Burundi using 2 interview guides from the WHO Toolkit for Mental Health Assessment in Humanitarian Settings. Based on these interviews, we identified four locally defined idioms/terms relating to mental distress: ihahamuka (anxiety spectrum illnesses), ukutiyemera (a mix of depression and anxiety-like syndrome), akabonge (depression/grief-like syndrome) and kwamana ubwoba burengeje (anxiety-like syndrome). Mental distress terms were perceived as important problems impacting community development. Affected individuals sought help from several sources within the community, including community leaders and traditional healers. We discuss how local expressions of distress can be used to tailor health research and service integration from the bottom up.

  6. Emotional distress and psychosocial resources in patients recovering from severe burn injury.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Hanna; Renneberg, Babette; Ripper, Sabine; Germann, Günter; Wind, Gerhard; Jester, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Emotional distress as well as psychosocial resources in 55 patients with burn injuries was assessed during acute and follow-up treatment. Results showed significantly greater values of emotional distress among patients when compared with norms of the general population. As well as higher levels of general psychopathology, particularly prevalent were anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic symptoms. However, patients also reported high levels of resources such as general optimism, self-efficacy, and perceived social support. Within the sample, no significant correlation between severity of emotional distress and severity of burn injury was found. By psychological assessments a subgroup of highly distressed patients was identified. These patients were highly emotionally distressed while having objective injury severity comparable with the other patients in the sample. Reactions to burn accidents vary individually. The results demonstrate the importance of routine screenings of psychological symptoms. An early identification of patients at-risk allows for tailored psychotherapeutic interventions and can thus help to improve quality of life and general well-being of burn patients on a long-term basis.

  7. Social class and gender patterning of insomnia symptoms and psychiatric distress: a 20-year prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Green, Michael J; Espie, Colin A; Benzeval, Michael

    2014-05-25

    experience distress at age 57. This overall association for gender, but not the interaction with social class, was explained after adjusting for insomnia symptoms. Sensitivity analyses supported these findings. Gender and socioeconomic inequalities in psychiatric distress are strongly associated with inequalities in insomnia symptoms. Treatment of insomnia or measures to promote healthier sleeping may therefore help alleviate inequalities in psychiatric distress.

  8. Distress and job satisfaction after robbery assaults: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Giorgi, G; Leon Perez, J M; Montani, F; Courcy, F; Arcangeli, G

    2015-06-01

    External/intrusive violence at work can result in psychological distress and can be an important risk to employee health and safety. However, the vast majority of workplace violence studies have employed cross-sectional and correlational research, designed to examine immediate reactions after being assaulted at work. To explore whether exposure to robbery as a traumatic event may contribute to the onset of typical symptoms of psychological distress (anxiety depression, dysphoria and loss of confidence) and job dissatisfaction over time. We collected data by using a two-wave panel design, in which employees working the days of bank robberies, in an Italian bank, filled in a questionnaire between 48h and 1 week after the robbery (T1) and 2 months after the robbery (T2). We performed structural equation models to evaluate the fit of different models to our data. There were 513 participants at T1 (58% women) and 175 (34%) participants at T2 (62% women). There was a simultaneous association in which psychological distress leads to job dissatisfaction both following robbery and 2 months later. Our findings support a synchronous effects model and suggest that interventions after suffering physical assaults, apart from helping employees to recover their health, should consider restoring their trust and confidence in the organization. This study contributes to understanding the dynamic relationships between a robbery at work and its outcomes over time, by addressing several methodological deficiencies in previous longitudinal studies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Do ravens show consolation? Responses to distressed others.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Orlaith N; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2010-05-12

    Bystander affiliation (post-conflict affiliation from an uninvolved bystander to the conflict victim) may represent an expression of empathy in which the bystander consoles the victim to alleviate the victim's distress ("consolation"). However, alternative hypotheses for the function of bystander affiliation also exist. Determining whether ravens spontaneously offer consolation to distressed partners may not only help us to understand how animals deal with the costs of aggressive conflict, but may also play an important role in the empathy debate. This study investigates the post-conflict behavior of ravens, applying the predictive framework for the function of bystander affiliation for the first time in a non-ape species. We found weak evidence for reconciliation (post-conflict affiliation between former opponents), but strong evidence for both bystander affiliation and solicited bystander affiliation (post-conflict affiliation from the victim to a bystander). Bystanders involved in both interactions were likely to share a valuable relationship with the victim. Bystander affiliation offered to the victim was more likely to occur after intense conflicts. Renewed aggression was less likely to occur after the victim solicited affiliation from a bystander. Our findings suggest that in ravens, bystanders may console victims with whom they share a valuable relationship, thus alleviating the victims' post-conflict distress. Conversely victims may affiliate with bystanders after a conflict in order to reduce the likelihood of renewed aggression. These results stress the importance of relationship quality in determining the occurrence and function of post-conflict interactions, and show that ravens may be sensitive to the emotions of others.

  10. Do Ravens Show Consolation? Responses to Distressed Others

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Orlaith N.; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Background Bystander affiliation (post-conflict affiliation from an uninvolved bystander to the conflict victim) may represent an expression of empathy in which the bystander consoles the victim to alleviate the victim's distress (“consolation”). However, alternative hypotheses for the function of bystander affiliation also exist. Determining whether ravens spontaneously offer consolation to distressed partners may not only help us to understand how animals deal with the costs of aggressive conflict, but may also play an important role in the empathy debate. Methodology/Principal findings This study investigates the post-conflict behavior of ravens, applying the predictive framework for the function of bystander affiliation for the first time in a non-ape species. We found weak evidence for reconciliation (post-conflict affiliation between former opponents), but strong evidence for both bystander affiliation and solicited bystander affiliation (post-conflict affiliation from the victim to a bystander). Bystanders involved in both interactions were likely to share a valuable relationship with the victim. Bystander affiliation offered to the victim was more likely to occur after intense conflicts. Renewed aggression was less likely to occur after the victim solicited affiliation from a bystander. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that in ravens, bystanders may console victims with whom they share a valuable relationship, thus alleviating the victims' post-conflict distress. Conversely victims may affiliate with bystanders after a conflict in order to reduce the likelihood of renewed aggression. These results stress the importance of relationship quality in determining the occurrence and function of post-conflict interactions, and show that ravens may be sensitive to the emotions of others. PMID:20485685

  11. A guest in the house: nursing instructors' experiences of the moral distress felt by students during inpatient psychiatric clinical rotations.

    PubMed

    Wojtowicz, Bernadine; Hagen, Brad

    2014-07-23

    Significant research has been done on the impact of moral distress among nurses, particularly in acute and intensive care settings. However, little research to date has investigated the experiences that nursing students have with moral distress. Additionally, there is a dearth of research on the role of nursing instructors' perceptions of their responsibilities to their students when encountering morally distressing situations. This manuscript describes a qualitative study conducted with eight mental health nursing instructors who acknowledged a responsibility for helping students deal with moral distress and ethical issues, but who also struggled with ways to do so. Additionally, instructors expressed frustration with their "guest" status on inpatient psychiatric units and their powerlessness to effect moral change in a medical model of psychiatric care.

  12. Psychological distress with direct-to-consumer genetic testing: a case report of an unexpected BRCA positive test result.

    PubMed

    Dohany, Lindsay; Gustafson, Shanna; Ducaine, Whitney; Zakalik, Dana

    2012-06-01

    We report a case of a client who discovered she had a BRCA mutation following direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing in the absence of genetic counseling. After testing she presented for genetic counseling with anxiety, distress, and a deficit of knowledge about what the DTC genetic testing revealed. Genetic counseling helped alleviate distress while empowering the client to apply the results of testing to improve medical management. Despite recent studies demonstrating no negative psychological impact of DTC genetic testing on the consumer, this case illustrates that significant psychological distress and confusion can occur as a result of DTC genetic testing for highly penetrant single gene disorders. Pre- and post-test genetic counseling in conjunction with DTC genetic testing may alleviate consumers' distress and empower clients to proactively utilize their result information.

  13. Moral repugnance, moral distress, and organ sales.

    PubMed

    Taylor, James Stacey

    2015-06-01

    Many still oppose legalizing markets in human organs on the grounds that they are morally repugnant. I will argue in this paper that the repugnance felt by some persons towards sales of human organs is insufficient to justify their prohibition. Yet this rejection of the view that markets in human organs should be prohibited because some persons find them to be morally repugnant does not imply that persons' feelings of distress at the possibility of organ sales are irrational. Eduardo Rivera-Lopez argues that such instinctive distress is an appropriate response to the (rationally defensible) perception that certain kinds of arguments that are offered in favor of legalizing organ sales are "in an important sense, illegitimate." Having argued that repugnance should not ground the prohibition of markets in human organs, I will also argue that the moral distress that some feel towards certain arguments that favor such markets is not rationally defensible, either.

  14. Relating pavement distress to serviceability and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, W. R.; Finn, F. N.; Pedigo, R. D.; Roberts, F. L.

    1981-02-01

    Regression analyses, Markov processes, Bayesian analysis, and utility theory were examined as analytical tools useful in relating distress to performance. Several specific performance models of limited applicability are reported, along with some generally applicable techniques and recommended methods. It is shown that useful relationships can be obtained from existing data and are, in fact, being used in several states and other highway agencies. In each case, however, it is shown that significant improvements in the distress performance relationships are needed which can only be obtained through the conscientious observation of distress and performance of pavements under a variety of environmental and load conditions for a reasonable period of time, e.g., (approximately ten years).

  15. Distress among young adults from divorced families.

    PubMed

    Laumann-Billings, L; Emery, R E

    2000-12-01

    Researchers find that most children from divorced families function normally, but some clinicians assert that young people are disturbed even many years after a divorce. These accounts may be less discrepant than they appear, because research typically focuses on notably problematic behavior (disorder), whereas case studies emphasize more subtle inner turmoil (distress). In Study 1 college students reported painful feelings, beliefs, and memories about their parents divorce on a reliable new measure, but they also reported accepting the divorce and having few psychological symptoms. Distress about family life was greater among students from divorced than from married families. Study 2 replicated these findings in a community sample of young people from low-income divorced families. In both studies, greater distress was associated with children's residence, frequency of contact with fathers, interparental conflict, and psychological symptoms.

  16. A pavement Moisture Accelerated Distress (MAD) identification system, volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, S. H.; Darter, M. I.; Dempsey, B. J.

    1981-09-01

    A users manual is designed which provides the engineer with a rational method of examining a pavement and determining rehabilitation needs that are related to the causes of the existing distress, particularly moisture related distress. The key elements in this procedure are the MAD Index developed in Volume 1, the Pavement Condition Index (PCI) and the Moisture Distress Index (MDI). Step by step procedures are presented for calculating each parameter. Complete distress identification manuals are included for asphalt surfaced highways and jointed reinforced concrete highways with pictures and descriptions of all major distress types. Descriptions of the role moisture plays in the development of each distress type are included.

  17. Helping for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuringer, Allen; Oleson, Kathryn C.

    2010-01-01

    In "Helping for Change," Allen Neuringer and Kathryn Oleson describe another strategy that individuals can use to achieve their green goals. You might ask, "How can helping someone else help me change when I'm in the habit of not fulfilling my own promises?" The authors answer that question by explaining how the social reinforcement in a helping…

  18. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Help! It's Hair Loss! KidsHealth > For Kids > Help! It's Hair Loss! A A A What's in ... a better look at what's going on to help decide what to do next. For a fungal ...

  19. Help with Hives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Help With Hives KidsHealth > For Kids > Help With Hives A A A What's in this ... about what happened. The doctor can try to help figure out what might be causing your hives, ...

  20. Primary ciliary dyskinesia and neonatal respiratory distress.

    PubMed

    Mullowney, Tara; Manson, David; Kim, Raymond; Stephens, Derek; Shah, Vibhuti; Dell, Sharon

    2014-12-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare inherited disease affecting motile cilia lining the respiratory tract. Despite neonatal respiratory distress as an early feature, diagnosis is typically delayed until late childhood. Our objective was to identify characteristics that differentiate PCD from common causes of term neonatal respiratory distress. This was a case-control study. Patients with PCD born after 1994 attending a regional PCD clinic who had a history of neonatal respiratory distress (n = 46) were included. Controls (n = 46), term neonates with respiratory distress requiring a chest radiograph, were randomly selected from hospital birth records and matched on gender, birth month/year, and mode of delivery. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the association between neonatal characteristics and PCD diagnosis. The diagnostic performance of the best predictive variables was estimated by calculating sensitivity and specificity. PCD cases required more oxygen therapy (39 cases, 29 controls, P = .01), longer duration of oxygen therapy (PCD mean = 15.2 days, control mean = 0.80 days, P < .01), had later onset of neonatal respiratory distress (PCD median = 12 hours, control median = 1 hour, P < .001), and higher frequency of lobar collapse and situs inversus (PCD = 70% and 48% respectively, control = 0% for both, P < .001). Situs inversus, lobar collapse, or oxygen need for >2 days had 87% (95% confidence interval: 74-94) sensitivity and 96% (95% confidence interval: 85-99) specificity for PCD. When encountering term neonates with unexplained respiratory distress, clinicians should consider PCD in those with lobar collapse, situs inversus, and/or prolonged oxygen therapy (>2 days). Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia and Neonatal Respiratory Distress

    PubMed Central

    Mullowney, Tara; Manson, David; Kim, Raymond; Stephens, Derek; Shah, Vibhuti

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare inherited disease affecting motile cilia lining the respiratory tract. Despite neonatal respiratory distress as an early feature, diagnosis is typically delayed until late childhood. Our objective was to identify characteristics that differentiate PCD from common causes of term neonatal respiratory distress. METHODS: This was a case-control study. Patients with PCD born after 1994 attending a regional PCD clinic who had a history of neonatal respiratory distress (n = 46) were included. Controls (n = 46), term neonates with respiratory distress requiring a chest radiograph, were randomly selected from hospital birth records and matched on gender, birth month/year, and mode of delivery. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the association between neonatal characteristics and PCD diagnosis. The diagnostic performance of the best predictive variables was estimated by calculating sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: PCD cases required more oxygen therapy (39 cases, 29 controls, P = .01), longer duration of oxygen therapy (PCD mean = 15.2 days, control mean = 0.80 days, P < .01), had later onset of neonatal respiratory distress (PCD median = 12 hours, control median = 1 hour, P < .001), and higher frequency of lobar collapse and situs inversus (PCD = 70% and 48% respectively, control = 0% for both, P < .001). Situs inversus, lobar collapse, or oxygen need for >2 days had 87% (95% confidence interval: 74–94) sensitivity and 96% (95% confidence interval: 85–99) specificity for PCD. CONCLUSIONS: When encountering term neonates with unexplained respiratory distress, clinicians should consider PCD in those with lobar collapse, situs inversus, and/or prolonged oxygen therapy (>2 days). PMID:25422025

  2. Couples with Intimate Partner Violence Seeking Relationship Help: Associations and Implications for Self-Help and Online Interventions.

    PubMed

    Roddy, McKenzie K; Georgia, Emily J; Doss, Brian D

    2017-04-20

    In-person conjoint treatments for relationship distress are effective at increasing relationship satisfaction, and newly developed online programs are showing promising results. However, couples reporting even low levels intimate partner violence (IPV) are traditionally excluded from these interventions. To improve the availability of couple-based treatment for couples with IPV, the present study sought to determine whether associations with IPV found in community samples generalized to couples seeking help for their relationship and whether web-based interventions for relationship distressed worked equally well for couples with IPV. In the first aim, in a sample of 2,797 individuals who were seeking online help for their relationship, the levels and correlates of both low-intensity and clinically significant IPV largely matched what is found in community samples. In the second aim, in a sample of 300 couples who were randomly assigned to a web-based intervention or a waitlist control group, low-impact IPV did not moderate the effects of the intervention for relationship distress. Therefore, web-based interventions may be an effective (and easily accessible) intervention for relationship distress for couples with low-intensity IPV. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  3. Solzhenitsyn's Second Exile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericson, Edward E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    When Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn entered the world stage in the 1960s, the West interpreted him without preconceptions. Then the West turned against him with a vengeance. The great exception to this turn was France--"France!"--where virtually all of his writings appeared in translation and where intellectuals took instruction from him on the…

  4. Solzhenitsyn's Second Exile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericson, Edward E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    When Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn entered the world stage in the 1960s, the West interpreted him without preconceptions. Then the West turned against him with a vengeance. The great exception to this turn was France--"France!"--where virtually all of his writings appeared in translation and where intellectuals took instruction from him on the…

  5. Does education buffer the impact of disability on psychological distress?

    PubMed

    Mandemakers, Jornt J; Monden, Christiaan W S

    2010-07-01

    This paper investigates whether education buffers the impact of physical disability on psychological distress. It further investigates what makes education helpful, by examining whether cognitive ability and occupational class can explain the buffering effect of education. Two waves of the 1958 British National Child Development Study are used to test the hypothesis that the onset of a physical disability in early adulthood (age 23 to 33) has a smaller effect on psychological distress among higher educated people. In total 423 respondents (4.6%) experienced the onset of a physical disability between the ages of 23 and 33. We find that a higher educational level cushions the psychology impact of disability. Cognitive ability and occupational class protect against the effect of a disability too. The education buffer arises in part because individuals with a higher level of education have more cognitive abilities, but the better social position of those with higher levels of education appears to be of greater importance. Implications of these findings for the social gradient in health are discussed.

  6. Psychological distress in survivors of the 2010 Haiti earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Guimaro, Melissa Simon; Steinman, Milton; Kernkraut, Ana Merzel; dos Santos, Oscar Fernando Pavão; Lacerda, Shirley Silva

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the presence of depression and anxiety symptoms in survivors of the Haiti earthquake who were assisted by a healthcare team from the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, and to evaluate the impact that losing a family member during this catastrophe could have on the development of these symptoms. Methods: Forty survivors of the Haiti earthquake who were assisted by the healthcare team between February and March of 2010 were included in this study. All subjects underwent a semi-structured interview. The group was divided into Group A (individuals who had some death in the family due to the disaster) and Group B (those who did not lose any family member). Results: A total of 55% of the subjects had depression symptoms whereas 40% had anxiety symptoms. The individuals who lost a family member were five times more likely to develop anxiety and depression symptoms than those who did not. Conclusion: Catastrophe victims who lost at least one family member due to the disaster were more likely to develop anxiety and depression symptoms. To these individuals, as well as others showing psychological distress, should be offered early mental health care to help them cope with the great emotional distress inherent in these situations. PMID:23579738

  7. Telephone Crisis Support Workers' Psychological Distress and Impairment.

    PubMed

    Kitchingman, Taneile A; Wilson, Coralie J; Caputi, Peter; Wilson, Ian; Woodward, Alan

    2017-03-24

    In order to respond to crises with appropriate intervention, crisis workers are required to manage their own needs as well as the needs of those they respond to. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to examine whether telephone crisis support workers experience elevated symptoms of psychological distress and are impaired by elevated symptoms. Studies were identified in April 2015 by searching three databases, conducting a gray literature search, and forward and backward citation chaining. Of 113 identified studies, seven were included in the review. Results suggest that that telephone crisis support workers experience symptoms of vicarious traumatization, stress, burnout, and psychiatric disorders, and that they may not respond optimally to callers when experiencing elevated symptoms of distress. However, definitive conclusions cannot be drawn due to the paucity and methodological limitations of available data. While the most comprehensive search strategy possible was adopted, resource constraints meant that conference abstracts were not searched and authors were not contacted for additional unpublished information. There is an urgent need to identify the impact of telephone crisis support workers' role on their well-being, the determinants of worker well-being in the telephone crisis support context, and the extent to which well-being impacts their performance and caller outcomes. This will help inform strategies to optimize telephone crisis support workers' well-being and their delivery of support to callers.

  8. Religiosity, Spirituality, and Help-Seeking among Filipino Americans: Religious Clergy or Mental Health Professionals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abe-Kim, Jennifer; Gong, Fang; Takeuchi, David

    2004-01-01

    Data from structured interviews with 2,285 respondents for the Filipino American Community Epidemiological Survey (FACES) were used to examine help-seeking for emotional distress among Filipino Americans. The influence of religious affiliation, religiosity, and spirituality upon help-seeking from religious clergy and mental health professionals…

  9. Racial and Ethnic Minority College Students' Stigma Associated with Seeking Psychological Help: Examining Psychocultural Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Hsiu-Lan; Kwan, Kwong-Liem Karl; Sevig, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Many college students underuse professional psychological help for mental health difficulties. The stigma associated with seeking such help appears to be one of the reasons for this underuse. Levels of psychological distress and past use of counseling/psychotherapy have been found to be important correlates of stigma associated with seeking…

  10. Impact of Attitudes and Suicidal Ideation on Adolescents' Intentions To Seek Professional Psychological Help.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton, Pamela A.; Deane, Frank P.

    2000-01-01

    New Zealand high school students (N=221) completed a questionnaire that examined the relationship among factors associated with professional psychological help-seeking behavior. Suicidal ideation, attitudes, psychological distress, treatment fears, and gender were some predictors accounting for 23% of students' self-rated help-seeking intentions.…

  11. Understanding Undergraduate Student Perceptions of Mental Health, Mental Well-Being and Help-Seeking Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laidlaw, Anita; McLellan, Julie; Ozakinci, Gozde

    2016-01-01

    Despite relatively high levels of psychological distress, many students in higher education do not seek help for difficulties. This study explored undergraduate student understanding of the concepts of mental health and mental well-being and where undergraduate students would seek help for mental well-being difficulties. Semi-structured interviews…

  12. Understanding Undergraduate Student Perceptions of Mental Health, Mental Well-Being and Help-Seeking Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laidlaw, Anita; McLellan, Julie; Ozakinci, Gozde

    2016-01-01

    Despite relatively high levels of psychological distress, many students in higher education do not seek help for difficulties. This study explored undergraduate student understanding of the concepts of mental health and mental well-being and where undergraduate students would seek help for mental well-being difficulties. Semi-structured interviews…

  13. Help-Seeking Behavior among a Diverse Sample of Black Men and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Veronica G.; And Others

    This is a report on help-seeking behavior among a diverse sample of 451 black adults residing in Richmond, Virginia. The report defines "help-seeking behavior" as any communication about a problem or troublesome event that is directed toward obtaining support, advice or assistance in times of distress. The use of two types of…

  14. Racial and Ethnic Minority College Students' Stigma Associated with Seeking Psychological Help: Examining Psychocultural Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Hsiu-Lan; Kwan, Kwong-Liem Karl; Sevig, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Many college students underuse professional psychological help for mental health difficulties. The stigma associated with seeking such help appears to be one of the reasons for this underuse. Levels of psychological distress and past use of counseling/psychotherapy have been found to be important correlates of stigma associated with seeking…

  15. Predictors of enduring clinical distress in women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lo-Fo-Wong, Deborah N N; de Haes, Hanneke C J M; Aaronson, Neil K; van Abbema, Doris L; den Boer, Mathilda D; van Hezewijk, Marjan; Immink, Marcelle; Kaptein, Ad A; Menke-Pluijmers, Marian B E; Reyners, Anna K L; Russell, Nicola S; Schriek, Manon; Sijtsema, Sieta; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Sprangers, Mirjam A G

    2016-08-01

    To date, little is known about enduring clinical distress as measured with the commonly used distress thermometer. We therefore used the distress thermometer to examine: (a) the prevalence of enduring clinical distress, distress-related problems, and subsequent wish for referral of women with breast cancer, and (b) sociodemographic, clinical, and psychosocial predictors of enduring clinical distress. The study had a multicenter, prospective, observational design. Patients with primary breast cancer completed a questionnaire at 6 and 15 months postdiagnosis. Medical data were retrieved from chart reviews. Enduring clinical distress was defined as heightened distress levels over time. The prevalence of enduring clinical distress, problems, and wish for referral was examined with descriptive analyses. Associations between predictors and enduring clinical distress were examined with multivariate analyses. One hundred sixty-four of 746 patients (22 %) reported having enduring clinical distress at 6 and 15 months postdiagnosis. Of these, 10 % wanted to be referred for care. Fatigue was the most frequently reported problem by patients with and without clinical distress, at both time points. Lack of muscle strength (OR = 1.82, 95 % CI 1.12-2.98), experience of a low level of life satisfaction (OR = 0.77, 95 % CI 0.67-0.89), more frequent cancer worry (OR = 1.40, 95 % CI 1.05-1.89), and neuroticism (OR = 1.09, 95 % CI 1.00-1.18) were predictors of enduring clinical distress. In conclusion, one in five women with breast cancer develops enduring clinical distress. Oncologists, nurse practitioners, and cancer nurses are advised to use single-item questions about distress and distress-related problems to ensure timely detection of high-risk patients. Providers should also routinely assess fatigue and its causes, as fatigue is the most frequently reported distress-related problem over time.

  16. Music to reduce pain and distress in the pediatric emergency department: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hartling, Lisa; Newton, Amanda S; Liang, Yuanyuan; Jou, Hsing; Hewson, Krista; Klassen, Terry P; Curtis, Sarah

    2013-09-01

    Many medical procedures aimed at helping children cause them pain and distress, which can have long-lasting negative effects. Music is a form of distraction that may alleviate some of the pain and distress experienced by children while undergoing medical procedures. To compare music with standard care to manage pain and distress. Randomized clinical trial conducted in a pediatric emergency department with appropriate sequence generation and adequate allocation concealment from January 1, 2009, to March 31, 2010. Individuals assessing the primary outcome were blind to treatment allocation. A total of 42 children aged 3 to 11 years undergoing intravenous placement were included. Music (recordings selected by a music therapist via ambient speakers) vs standard care. The primary outcome was behavioral distress assessed blinded using the Observational Scale of Behavioral Distress-Revised. The secondary outcomes included child-reported pain, heart rate, parent and health care provider satisfaction, ease of performing the procedure, and parental anxiety. With or without controlling for potential confounders, we found no significant difference in the change in behavioral distress from before the procedure to immediately after the procedure. When children who had no distress during the procedure were removed from the analysis, there was a significantly less increase in distress for the music group (standard care group = 2.2 vs music group = 1.1, P < .05). Pain scores among children in the standard care group increased by 2 points, while they remained the same in the music group (P = .04); the difference was considered clinically important. The pattern of parent satisfaction with the management of children's pain was different between groups, although not statistically significant (P = .07). Health care providers reported that it was easier to perform the procedure for children in the music group (76% very easy) vs the standard care group (38% very easy

  17. Development of the 'Perceived Sexual Distress Scale-Hindi' for measuring sexual distress following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Paneri, V; Aikat, R

    2014-09-01

    Clinimetric study. To develop the Perceived Sexual Distress Scale (PSDS) in Hindi language (that is, PSDS-H) for persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), and to establish its content validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability. New Delhi, India. Following a comprehensive literature review and semi-structured interviews, a 43-item questionnaire was drafted. Each item was rated on a 5-point scale. Content validity was established both qualitatively and quantitatively. Inter-item, item total correlations, internal consistency and test-retest reliability were calculated. Expert panel opinion and content validity ratio (CVR) validated the content of the PSDS-H. Five items were dropped because of low CVR, resulting in a 38-item questionnaire. Internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha) was 0.965. The test-retest reliability was 0.647. The PSDS-H is a valid, self/interviewer-rated tool that can help inform the rehabilitation team about the level of an individual's perceived sexual distress post SCI. It also provides an outcome measure to evaluate the efficacy of interventions related to sexuality post injury.

  18. [Expert reconstruction of the true circumstances of the shooting of the Emperor Nikolai II, members of his family, and those who accompanied them into exile at Ekaterinburg].

    PubMed

    Kovalev, A V; Kolkutin, V V

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the materials of the criminal case, historical, archive, and forensic medical documents permitted for the first time to reconstruct the circumstances of the shooting of Emperor Nikolai II, members of the royal family, and those who chose to accompany them into exile in the house of the engineer N.N. Ipatiev, Ekaterinburg, on the night of 16-17th July (Grigorian calendar) 1918. The results of the study allowed the true picture of the assassination to be reconstructed including the mutual positions of the victims and the executors in the semi-basement room No 2, the total number of participants, the number and direction of shots, the types of the weapons used, and the sequence of actions of each person involved in the event. It was shown, that in the beginning most shots had been fired at the emperor and tsarevich Alexei.

  19. Impact of attitudes and suicidal ideation on adolescents' intentions to seek professional psychological help.

    PubMed

    Carlton, P A; Deane, F P

    2000-02-01

    Few adolescents who experience significant psychological distress seek professional psychological help, a finding particularly pertinent in New Zealand which has one of the highest youth suicide rates in the world. In the present study, 221 New Zealand high school students completed a questionnaire which examined the relationship between a variety of approach and avoidance factors associated with professional psychological help-seeking. Suicidal ideation, attitudes, psychological distress, treatment fears, gender and prior help-seeking were significant predictors accounting for approximately 23% of students', self-rated help-seeking intentions. Contrary to expectations, higher levels of suicidal ideation led to lower levels of help-seeking intentions for suicidal thoughts. This findings is discussed in relation to the process of help-negation which has been identified in clinical suicidal samples. The implications of these findings for interventions that increase appropriate professional psychological help-seeking in adolescents are also discussed. Copyright 2000 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.

  20. The outcomes of children with pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome: proceedings from the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference.

    PubMed

    Quasney, Michael W; López-Fernández, Yolanda M; Santschi, Miriam; Watson, R Scott

    2015-06-01

    To provide additional details and evidence behind the recommendations for outcomes assessment of patients with pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome from the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference. Consensus conference of experts in pediatric acute lung injury. A panel of 27 experts met over the course of 2 years to develop a taxonomy to define pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome and to make recommendations regarding treatment and research priorities. The outcomes subgroup comprised four experts. When published data were lacking, a modified Delphi approach emphasizing strong professional agreement was used. The Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference experts developed and voted on a total of 151 recommendations addressing the topics related to pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome, seven of which related to outcomes after pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome. All seven recommendations had strong agreement. Children with acute respiratory distress syndrome continue to have a high mortality, specifically, in relation to certain comorbidities and etiologies related to pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome. Comorbid conditions, such as an immunocompromised state, increase the risk of mortality even further. Likewise, certain etiologies, such as non-pulmonary sepsis, also place children at a higher risk of mortality. Significant long-term effects were reported in adult survivors of acute respiratory distress syndrome: diminished lung function and exercise tolerance, reduced quality of life, and diminished neurocognitive function. Little knowledge of long-term outcomes exists in children who survive pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome. Characterization of the longer term consequences of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome in children is vital to help identify opportunities for improved therapeutic and rehabilitative strategies that will lessen the long-term burden of pediatric acute

  1. Healing war wounds and perfuming exile: the use of vegetal, animal, and mineral products for perfumes, cosmetics, and skin healing among Sahrawi refugees of Western Sahara.

    PubMed

    Volpato, Gabriele; Kourková, Pavlína; Zelený, Václav

    2012-12-27

    Over the past decade, there has been growing interest within ethnobiology in the knowledge and practices of migrating people. Within this, scholars have given relatively less attention to displaced people and refugees: to the loss, maintenance, and adaptation of refugees' ethnobiological knowledge, and to its significance for refugees' wellbeing. This study focuses on cosmetics and remedies used to heal skin afflictions that are traditionally used by Sahrawi refugees displaced in South Western Algerian refugee camps. The research methods included a structured survey carried out with 37 refugee households, semi-structured interviews with 77 refugees, 24 retrospective interviews with refugees and other knowledgeable informants, and a voucher specimen collection of the plants and products cited. We recorded the use of 55 plant species, nine animal species, and six mineral products used within the three main use categories discussed in this paper: 1) Remedies for health issues that are typical of the desert environment where the Sahrawi once lived as nomads and now live as refugees (e.g. eye afflictions); 2) Remedies for wounds that are influenced by the Sahrawi's recent history of guerrilla warfare; and 3) Cosmetics and products used for body care, decoration and perfuming (e.g. hair care, teeth cleansing, henna use) and for aromatizing the air inside of tents and which are widely used in everyday life and social practices. We discuss the changes that have occurred in the patterns of use and procurement of these products with exile and sedentarization in refugee camps, and conclude that refugees are not simply passive recipients of national and international aid, but rather struggle to maintain and recover their traditional ethnobiological practices in exile. Finally, we suggest further research into the ethnobiological practices and knowledge of displaced populations.

  2. Happiness and Death Distress: Two Separate Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between happiness and death distress (death anxiety, death depression, and death obsession) in 275 volunteer Kuwaiti undergraduates. They responded to the Oxford Happiness Inventory, the Death Anxiety Scale, the Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety, the Death Depression Scale-Revised, and the…

  3. Intrusive Cognitive Content and Postdeployment Distress.

    PubMed

    Shipherd, Jillian C; Salters-Pedneault, Kristalyn; Matza, Alexis

    2016-08-01

    Although intrusive cognitions (ICs) are common posttrauma, little is known about trauma-related IC content, or associations between IC content and posttraumatic adjustment. A mixed-method cross-sectional approach was used in a secondary analysis of IC content and postdeployment distress. Participants were 1,521 U.S. Army soldiers 3-12 months postdeployment reporting their most distressing postdeployment ICs (mean number of ICs reported was 1.20). ICs were transcribed and content was categorized by 13 emergent themes. The most commonly reported ICs were of injury or death (48.2%) and combat (43.5%), and soldiers with probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n = 187) were more likely to report the presence of these ICs, χ(2) s(1) = 35.27, ps < .001, φs < .16 than those without probable PTSD (n = 1,331). Other domains also emerged frequently, including ICs about friends (31.0%), family (15.8%), and leadership concerns (13.8%). IC content was a small, but significant correlate of distress after adjusting for combat exposure (ΔR(2) ≥ .02, ps ≤ .001). The presence of ICs of injury or death, combat, military sexual trauma, health, leadership, and family (βs > .06, ps < .02) were unique correlates of distress. Results suggested that ICs about a wide range of topics should be addressed in postdeployment interventions. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  4. Substance Use, Distress, and Adolescent School Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Jane D.; Uemura, Ryotaro

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the associations of substance use, psychological distress, and mental health services receipt with the structure and content of adolescent school-based networks. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we found that substance use was associated with receiving more, but making fewer, peer…

  5. Religion and Psychological Distress in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roemer, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces data from a new random sample of Japanese adults. Findings show that reporting of distress symptoms are: (1. positively associated with a religious coping index (i.e., beliefs that religion or supernatural beings provide comfort, support or protection), (2. associated in different directions with ownership of different…

  6. Religion and Psychological Distress in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roemer, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces data from a new random sample of Japanese adults. Findings show that reporting of distress symptoms are: (1. positively associated with a religious coping index (i.e., beliefs that religion or supernatural beings provide comfort, support or protection), (2. associated in different directions with ownership of different…

  7. Acute respiratory distress caused by Neosartorya udagawae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We describe the first reported case of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) attributed to Neosartorya infection. The mold grew rapidly in culture of both sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from a previously healthy 43-year-old woman with ARDS, which developed as the culmination of a...

  8. Differences Between Experienced and Anticipatory Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowa, Claudia J.; Barsanti, Anne, N.

    1986-01-01

    Examined differences between distress ratings of anticipated and experienced life events in 168 college students. Found gender differences and significant differences between perceived and experienced aversion across events predicting symptoms of stress, depression, anxiety, and somatic discomfort in occupational, social and familial situations.…

  9. Discrimination Distress among Chinese American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Jennifer M.; Liang, Belle

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses contradictions between common perceptions of Asian Americans as a "model minority" and growing evidence of discrimination and its negative psychological implications for this group. The current study examined Chinese American early adolescents' distress from experiences of discrimination, its relationship with mental health…

  10. Terrorism, the Media, and Distress in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfefferbaum, Rose L.; Gurwitch, Robin H.; Robertson, Madeline J.; Brandt, Edward N., Jr.; Pfefferbaum, Betty

    2003-01-01

    Following the 1995 bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, the authors examined emotional distress among youth who were not physically present at the disaster site. This research continued even two years after the bombing as the trial of Timothy McVeigh was beginning. The authors found an association between…

  11. Disordered Eating and Psychological Distress among Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali

    2011-01-01

    The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.…

  12. [Acute respiratory distress revealing severe pulmonary leptospirosis].

    PubMed

    Sekkach, Y; Qaçif, H; Jira, M; El Qatni, M; El omri, N; Ghafir, D

    2007-01-01

    We return a clinical case of leptospirose revelated by a complicated febrile harp pneumopathie of a sharp respiratory distress syndrome having required a transfer in resuscitation. The goal of our article is to recall that it is necessary to think systematically about a pulmonary shape of leptospirose facing an atypical pneumopahie.

  13. 46 CFR 28.145 - Distress signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., 3-50 miles from the coastline; or more than 3 miles from the coastline on the Great Lakes 3....021; plus 3 smoke signals, approval series 160.122, 160.022, or 160.037. Coastal waters, excluding the Great Lakes; or within 3 miles of the coastline on the Great Lakes Night visual distress...

  14. 46 CFR 28.145 - Distress signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Area Devices required Ocean, more than 50 miles from coastline 3 parachute flares, approval series 160..., 3-50 miles from the coastline; or more than 3 miles from the coastline on the Great Lakes 3... Great Lakes; or within 3 miles of the coastline on the Great Lakes Night visual distress...

  15. Substance Use, Distress, and Adolescent School Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Jane D.; Uemura, Ryotaro

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the associations of substance use, psychological distress, and mental health services receipt with the structure and content of adolescent school-based networks. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we found that substance use was associated with receiving more, but making fewer, peer…

  16. Psychological Distress and Emotional Expression on Facebook.

    PubMed

    Bazarova, Natalya N; Choi, Yoon Hyung; Whitlock, Janis; Cosley, Dan; Sosik, Victoria

    2017-03-01

    Social network sites (SNS) are a novel social environment for college students with psychological distress to connect with their peers, but the nature and effects of these interactions are not well understood. This study reports findings from a Facebook study among 238 college students reporting nonspecific psychological distress using the K-6 scale. Behavioral data included Facebook status updates containing affect words written by participants within the past 60 days and the number of responses (comments and likes) each update received. The updates were also coded for depression symptoms. Self-report data included participants' self-presentational concerns, the affective valence of each post, effects of responses on mood, and satisfaction with the responses to and outcome of each status update. Higher psychological distress was associated with displaying depression language on Facebook, with higher self-presentational concerns, and with less satisfaction with audiences' responses and less overall satisfaction with the outcome of the interaction. These results offer a unique glimpse into the social world of college students with psychological distress through their everyday use of Facebook, and how the interplay of this novel environment and students' mental health impacts their social behaviors and interaction meaning-making on Facebook.

  17. Discrimination Distress among Chinese American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Jennifer M.; Liang, Belle

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses contradictions between common perceptions of Asian Americans as a "model minority" and growing evidence of discrimination and its negative psychological implications for this group. The current study examined Chinese American early adolescents' distress from experiences of discrimination, its relationship with mental health…

  18. Once Distressed, Jackson County Moves On.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    1998-01-01

    In 1981, Jackson County, North Carolina, appeared on the first list of "distressed counties" in Appalachia. Since then, the rural county has made significant improvements by investing in its physical infrastructure (which also promotes tourism); fostering economic-development partnerships among governments, small businesses, and local…

  19. Disordered Eating and Psychological Distress among Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali

    2011-01-01

    The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.…

  20. Relief and Distress after Marital Separation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanier, Graham B.; Thompson, Linda

    1983-01-01

    Examined relief and distress as responses to the termination of marriage in a study of 205 individuals soon after their final separation. Results showed that relief is a frequent response to marital separation. Group differences in response were associated with the rewards and costs of ending a marriage. (JAC)

  1. Once Distressed, Jackson County Moves On.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    1998-01-01

    In 1981, Jackson County, North Carolina, appeared on the first list of "distressed counties" in Appalachia. Since then, the rural county has made significant improvements by investing in its physical infrastructure (which also promotes tourism); fostering economic-development partnerships among governments, small businesses, and local…

  2. Interpersonal Relationships and Emotional Distress in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Rachel; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine positive and negative qualities in adolescents' interpersonal relationships and their relative importance in predicting emotional distress. Participants were 260 students from three schools in the Dublin area (119 girls; 141 boys), aged 12-18 years (M = 15.32, SD = 1.91). Students completed questionnaires…

  3. [Acute respiratory distress syndrome: a review of the Berlin definition].

    PubMed

    de Luis Cabezón, N; Sánchez Castro, I; Bengoetxea Uriarte, U X; Rodrigo Casanova, M P; García Peña, J M; Aguilera Celorrio, L

    2014-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is due to many causes. The absence of a universal definition up until now has led to a series of practical problems for a definitive diagnosis. The incidences of ARDS and Acute Lung Injury (ALI) vary widely in the current literature. The American-European Consensus Conference definition has been applied since its publication in 1994 and has helped to improve knowledge about ARDS. However, 18 years later, in 2011, the European Intensive Medicine Society, requested a team of international experts to meet in Berlin to review the ARDS definition. The purpose of the Berlin definition is not to use it as a prognostic tool, but to improve coherence between research and clinical practice.

  4. Culture, context, and the internalizing distress of Mexican American youth.

    PubMed

    Polo, Antonio J; López, Steven R

    2009-03-01

    Latino youth appear to be at higher risk for depression relative to youth from other ethnic groups. This study assessed the relationship between nativity and several forms of internalizing distress among Mexican American middle school students as well as sociocultural factors that may help explain this relationship. Immigrant Mexican American youth (n = 78) reported significantly higher social anxiety and loneliness than U.S.-born Mexican American youth (n = 83). Acculturation stress and English proficiency were identified as significant mediators of these nativity differences. Although internalizing problems and depression symptoms did not vary across nativity groups, both were related to lower affiliative obedience. The findings point to cultural socialization values and contextual influences as important variables in the mental health of youth in immigrant families.

  5. Help Design Software Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-30

    design principles in their online help. * Help Evaluation System to assist developers and end users in diagnosing the strengths and weakness of any...I I I Reference Principles Guidelines Model Help (browse) (browse) (browse) System Screen-Specific Design Principles Examples Guidelines Reference...basically points out the important features of the screen to more specific principles and other examples of those principles , and finally to detailed

  6. The contribution of self-esteem and self-concept in psychological distress in women at risk of hereditary breast cancer.

    PubMed

    den Heijer, Mariska; Seynaeve, Caroline; Vanheusden, Kathleen; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Vos, Joël; Bartels, Carina C M; Menke-Pluymers, Marian B E; Tibben, Aad

    2011-11-01

    Clarification of the role of several aspects of self-concept regarding psychological distress in women at risk of hereditary breast cancer will help to target counselling and psychosocial interventions more appropriately. In this study, we aimed (1) to examine the role of general self-esteem and specific aspects of self-concept (i.e. stigma, vulnerability, and mastery) in psychological distress in women at risk of hereditary breast cancer and (2) to compare the relative importance of these self-concept aspects in psychological distress in women with low versus high self-esteem. General and breast-cancer-specific distress, self-esteem, self-concept, and demographics were assessed in 246 women being at risk of hereditary breast cancer, who opted either for regular breast surveillance or prophylactic surgery. In the total study group, self-esteem was negatively associated with general distress. Furthermore, feeling stigmatized was strongly associated with more breast-cancer-specific distress, and to a lesser degree with general distress. In women with low-self esteem, feelings of stigmatization were strongly associated with higher levels of both breast-cancer-specific and general distress, while a sense of mastery was associated with less general distress. For women with high self-esteem, feelings of both stigmatization and vulnerability were associated with more breast-cancer-specific distress, whereas there were no significant associations with general distress. Psychosocial interventions or support groups for women at risk of hereditary breast cancer should focus on self-esteem and feelings of stigmatization and isolation, and consequently tailor the interventions on specific items for respective women. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Regulating and coping with distress during police interviews of traumatized victims.

    PubMed

    Risan, Patrick; Binder, Per-Einar; Milne, Rebecca

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to qualitatively explore approaches to police interviewing of traumatized victims experiencing distress. Specifically, we examined the research question: What do police investigators regard as useful approaches to regulating distress, maintaining rapport and promoting the well-being of the interviewee? To explore processes relevant to the research objective, 21 semistructured interviews were conducted of police investigators who interviewed survivors following the Utøya massacre on July 22, 2011 in Norway. To examine the relationship between the research question and the material, we used thematic analysis based on a reflexive hermeneutic-phenomenological epistemology. Following the analysis, 3 main themes emerged: (1) becoming aware of the interviewees' capacity to cope with distress by attending to nonverbal cues, (2) interviewers communicating acceptance and modeling how to cope with painful emotions, and, (3) regulating distress by responding to the interviewees' emotional needs, helping them to feel safe and promoting the positive. The findings of the study show the importance of relational processes in investigative interviewing of traumatized interviewees, particularly with regard to coping with emotions. The results suggest that if the police investigator who is conducting an investigative interview can offer a trusting, safe and compassionate relationship, or if he or she steers the relational dynamics toward safety in the present moment when distress arises, he or she may facilitate the regulation of distress. We propose that if the interviewee's emotions are managed in this way during the police interview, it may lead to increased rapport and promote psychological health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. beta-Endorphin immunoreactivity and acute behavioral distress in children with leukemia.

    PubMed

    Katz, E R; Sharp, B; Kellerman, J; Marston, A R; Hershman, J M; Siegel, S E

    1982-02-01

    Endogenous opiates have been implicated in pain and stress experiences. In order to directly assess the relationship between endorphin activity and acute behavioral distress, beta-endorphin immunoreactivity (beta-EPI) was measured by radioimmunoassay in cerebrospinal fluid of 75 children with acute leukemia undergoing routine lumbar puncture. These data were related to four measures of behavioral distress collected during the procedure. For children 4 years of age and above, beta-EPI correlated inversely with age (r = -.31,p less than or equal to .05). All behavioral measures also inversely correlated with age (r = -.26 to -.67,p less than or equal to .05 to .001). Females had a significantly lower mean beta-EPI than males (p less than or equal to .01), and exhibited greater behavioral distress. beta-EPI and behavioral measures interacted with the use of specific antileukemia agents. L-Asparaginase was associated with lower beta-EPI (p less than or equal to .05), while prednisone was associated with lower behavioral distress on three of the four measures (p less than or equal to .05 to .01). After controlling for age, sex, and chemotherapy, beta-EPI and nurse ratings of anxiety were positively correlated (partial correlation coefficient = .31, p less than or equal to .05). Correlations between beta-EPI and other behavioral measures demonstrated positive trends. Results of this study are interpreted as support for the reactive nature of beta-EPI in cerebrospinal fluid to acute distress, and may help explain documented sex differences in distress behavior. Potential clinical implications and directions for further research are discussed.

  9. The importance of mindfulness in psychosocial distress and quality of life in dermatology patients.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, K; Norman, P; Messenger, A G; Thompson, A R

    2016-11-01

    Mindfulness, defined as purposively and nonjudgementally paying attention in the present moment, could be used within psychosocial interventions to reduce the distress associated with social anxiety and avoidance found in many skin conditions. However, little is known about the relationship between naturally occurring levels of mindfulness and distress in dermatology patients. To examine the relationship between mindfulness and psychosocial distress in a dermatological population. It was hypothesized that higher levels of mindfulness would be associated with lower levels of social anxiety, anxiety, depression and skin shame, and with better quality of life. Adult dermatology outpatients (n = 120) from one hospital completed items assessing subjective severity, skin shame, fear of negative evaluation, anxiety and depression, quality of life, and levels of mindfulness. Considering depression, 14% reported mild, 5% moderate and 2·5% severe symptoms. For anxiety, 22% reported mild, 23% moderate and 6% severe symptoms. In addition, 33·4% reported clinically significant social anxiety. After controlling for subjective severity, mindfulness explained an additional 19% of the variance in depression, 39% in anxiety, 41% in social anxiety, 13% in skin shame and 6% in dermatological quality of life. One specific facet of mindfulness (acting with awareness) was found to be the most consistent predictor of distress. The findings indicate that higher levels of mindfulness are associated with lower distress. This suggests that facilitating mindfulness may be helpful in reducing distress in dermatology patients, and the use of mindfulness techniques warrants further investigation. © 2016 The Authors. British Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Association of Dermatologists.

  10. Child Affected by Parental Relationship Distress.

    PubMed

    Bernet, William; Wamboldt, Marianne Z; Narrow, William E

    2016-07-01

    A new condition, "child affected by parental relationship distress" (CAPRD), was introduced in the DSM-5. A relational problem, CAPRD is defined in the chapter of the DSM-5 under "Other Conditions That May Be a Focus of Clinical Attention." The purpose of this article is to explain the usefulness of this new terminology. A brief review of the literature establishing that children are affected by parental relationship distress is presented. To elaborate on the clinical presentations of CAPRD, four common scenarios are described in more detail: children may react to parental intimate partner distress; to parental intimate partner violence; to acrimonious divorce; and to unfair disparagement of one parent by another. Reactions of the child may include the onset or exacerbation of psychological symptoms, somatic complaints, an internal loyalty conflict, and, in the extreme, parental alienation, leading to loss of a parent-child relationship. Since the definition of CAPRD in the DSM-5 consists of only one sentence, the authors propose an expanded explanation, clarifying that children may develop behavioral, cognitive, affective, and physical symptoms when they experience varying degrees of parental relationship distress, that is, intimate partner distress and intimate partner violence, which are defined with more specificity and reliability in the DSM-5. CAPRD, like other relational problems, provides a way to define key relationship patterns that appear to lead to or exacerbate adverse mental health outcomes. It deserves the attention of clinicians who work with youth, as well as researchers assessing environmental inputs to common mental health problems. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Adolescents' Subjective Distress over Their Emotional/Behavioral Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phares, Vicky; Compas, Bruce E.

    1990-01-01

    Among 151 seventh and eighth graders, self-reports of occurrence of behaviors were significantly but moderately correlated with subjects' distress about behaviors. Adolescents rated externalizing behaviors as more distressing to parents than to adolescents; internalizing behaviors as more distressing to self than to parents. Ratings of subjective…

  12. Education and Community Renewal: Assessment of Need in Distressed Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    This report describes a preliminary methodology by which distressed communities may be identified using school districts as the basic unit for the presentation of data. Distress consists of a concentration of the following types of need: (1) economic; (2) social; and (3) educational. Distress was measured by an index that determined a district's…

  13. 46 CFR 117.68 - Distress flares and smoke signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distress flares and smoke signals. 117.68 Section 117.68... AND ARRANGEMENTS Emergency Communications § 117.68 Distress flares and smoke signals. (a) Oceans... hand orange smoke distress signals approved in accordance with § 160.037 in subchapter Q of this...

  14. 46 CFR 180.68 - Distress flares and smoke signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distress flares and smoke signals. 180.68 Section 180.68... TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Emergency Communications § 180.68 Distress flares and smoke... Commandant; and (2) Six hand orange smoke distress signals approved in accordance with § 160.037 in...

  15. 46 CFR 117.68 - Distress flares and smoke signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Distress flares and smoke signals. 117.68 Section 117.68... AND ARRANGEMENTS Emergency Communications § 117.68 Distress flares and smoke signals. (a) Oceans... hand orange smoke distress signals approved in accordance with § 160.037 in subchapter Q of this...

  16. 46 CFR 180.68 - Distress flares and smoke signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Distress flares and smoke signals. 180.68 Section 180.68... TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Emergency Communications § 180.68 Distress flares and smoke... Commandant; and (2) Six hand orange smoke distress signals approved in accordance with § 160.037 in...

  17. 46 CFR 180.68 - Distress flares and smoke signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Distress flares and smoke signals. 180.68 Section 180.68... TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Emergency Communications § 180.68 Distress flares and smoke... Commandant; and (2) Six hand orange smoke distress signals approved in accordance with § 160.037...

  18. 47 CFR 80.312 - Priority of distress transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Priority of distress transmissions. 80.312..., Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.312 Priority of distress transmissions. The distress call has absolute priority over all other transmissions. All stations which hear it must immediately cease any...

  19. 47 CFR 80.312 - Priority of distress transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Priority of distress transmissions. 80.312..., Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.312 Priority of distress transmissions. The distress call has absolute priority over all other transmissions. All stations which hear it must immediately cease any...

  20. 47 CFR 80.312 - Priority of distress transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Priority of distress transmissions. 80.312..., Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.312 Priority of distress transmissions. The distress call has absolute priority over all other transmissions. All stations which hear it must immediately cease any...

  1. 47 CFR 80.312 - Priority of distress transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Priority of distress transmissions. 80.312..., Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.312 Priority of distress transmissions. The distress call has absolute priority over all other transmissions. All stations which hear it must immediately cease any...

  2. 47 CFR 80.312 - Priority of distress transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Priority of distress transmissions. 80.312..., Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.312 Priority of distress transmissions. The distress call has absolute priority over all other transmissions. All stations which hear it must immediately cease any...

  3. Predictors of Psychological Distress among Infertility Clinic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Kelly A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated predictors of psychological distress among infertility clinic patients. Analyses indicated that infertile men and women reported greater psychological distress than the general population. Self-blame and avoidance coping significantly predicted psychological distress among men and women. Increased age and childlessness added to…

  4. Trauma and Psychological Distress among Ethnically Diverse Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edman, Jeanne L.; Watson, Susan B.; Patron, David J.

    2016-01-01

    An association has been found between traumatic experiences and psychological distress; however, the impact of ethnicity on psychological distress is less clear. The present study examined the relationship between traumatic experiences and measures of psychological distress among a multiethnic sample of community college students. A total of 389…

  5. 33 CFR 175.130 - Visual distress signals accepted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... night requirements. Examples—the combination of two hand held red flares (160.021), and one parachute... Smoke Distress Signals Day Only 3 160.024 Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals Day and Night 1 3 160.036 Hand-Held Rocket-Propelled Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals Day and Night 3 160.037 Hand-Held...

  6. 33 CFR 175.130 - Visual distress signals accepted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... night requirements. Examples—the combination of two hand held red flares (160.021), and one parachute... Smoke Distress Signals Day Only 3 160.024 Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals Day and Night 1 3 160.036 Hand-Held Rocket-Propelled Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals Day and Night 3 160.037 Hand-Held...

  7. 33 CFR 175.130 - Visual distress signals accepted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... night requirements. Examples—the combination of two hand held red flares (160.021), and one parachute... Smoke Distress Signals Day Only 3 160.024 Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals Day and Night 1 3 160.036 Hand-Held Rocket-Propelled Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals Day and Night 3 160.037 Hand-Held...

  8. Predictors of Psychological Distress among Infertility Clinic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Kelly A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated predictors of psychological distress among infertility clinic patients. Analyses indicated that infertile men and women reported greater psychological distress than the general population. Self-blame and avoidance coping significantly predicted psychological distress among men and women. Increased age and childlessness added to…

  9. Negative Emotions and Behaviors are Markers of Breakup Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    Method: University students who experienced a recent romantic breakup were given several self-report measures and were then divided into high versus low breakup distress groups. Results: The high breakup distress versus the low breakup distress groups had higher scores on negative emotions scales including depression, anxiety and anger and…

  10. Negative Emotions and Behaviors are Markers of Breakup Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    Method: University students who experienced a recent romantic breakup were given several self-report measures and were then divided into high versus low breakup distress groups. Results: The high breakup distress versus the low breakup distress groups had higher scores on negative emotions scales including depression, anxiety and anger and…

  11. 33 CFR 175.110 - Visual distress signals required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Visual distress signals required... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS Visual Distress Signals § 175.110 Visual distress signals... signals selected from the list in § 175.130 or the alternatives in § 175.135, in the number required, are...

  12. 33 CFR 175.110 - Visual distress signals required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visual distress signals required... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS Visual Distress Signals § 175.110 Visual distress signals... signals selected from the list in § 175.130 or the alternatives in § 175.135, in the number required, are...

  13. 33 CFR 83.37 - Distress signals (Rule 37).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distress signals (Rule 37). 83.37... NAVIGATION RULES RULES Sound and Light Signals § 83.37 Distress signals (Rule 37). When a vessel is in distress and requires assistance she shall use or exhibit the signals described in Annex IV to these Rules. ...

  14. 33 CFR 175.110 - Visual distress signals required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Visual distress signals required... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS Visual Distress Signals § 175.110 Visual distress signals... signals selected from the list in § 175.130 or the alternatives in § 175.135, in the number required, are...

  15. 46 CFR 25.25-19 - Visual distress signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Visual distress signals. 25.25-19 Section 25.25-19... Other Lifesaving Equipment § 25.25-19 Visual distress signals. Each uninspected passenger vessel must meet the visual distress signal requirements of 33 CFR part 175 applicable to the vessel. ...

  16. 33 CFR 175.110 - Visual distress signals required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Visual distress signals required... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS Visual Distress Signals § 175.110 Visual distress signals... signals selected from the list in § 175.130 or the alternatives in § 175.135, in the number required, are...

  17. 46 CFR 169.553 - Pyrotechnic distress signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pyrotechnic distress signals. 169.553 Section 169.553... Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Additional Lifesaving Equipment § 169.553 Pyrotechnic distress signals. (a) All pyrotechnic distress signals must be of an approved type. (b) Replacement must be made no...

  18. 33 CFR 83.37 - Distress signals (Rule 37).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Distress signals (Rule 37). 83.37... NAVIGATION RULES RULES Sound and Light Signals § 83.37 Distress signals (Rule 37). When a vessel is in distress and requires assistance she shall use or exhibit the signals described in Annex IV to these Rules. ...

  19. 33 CFR 83.37 - Distress signals (Rule 37).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Distress signals (Rule 37). 83.37... NAVIGATION RULES RULES Sound and Light Signals § 83.37 Distress signals (Rule 37). When a vessel is in distress and requires assistance she shall use or exhibit the signals described in Annex IV to these Rules. ...

  20. 46 CFR 169.553 - Pyrotechnic distress signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pyrotechnic distress signals. 169.553 Section 169.553... Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Additional Lifesaving Equipment § 169.553 Pyrotechnic distress signals. (a) All pyrotechnic distress signals must be of an approved type. (b) Replacement must be made no...

  1. 33 CFR 83.37 - Distress signals (Rule 37).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Distress signals (Rule 37). 83.37... NAVIGATION RULES RULES Sound and Light Signals § 83.37 Distress signals (Rule 37). When a vessel is in distress and requires assistance she shall use or exhibit the signals described in Annex IV to these Rules. ...

  2. 46 CFR 169.553 - Pyrotechnic distress signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pyrotechnic distress signals. 169.553 Section 169.553... Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Additional Lifesaving Equipment § 169.553 Pyrotechnic distress signals. (a) All pyrotechnic distress signals must be of an approved type. (b) Replacement must be made no...

  3. 46 CFR 25.25-19 - Visual distress signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Visual distress signals. 25.25-19 Section 25.25-19... Other Lifesaving Equipment § 25.25-19 Visual distress signals. Each uninspected passenger vessel must meet the visual distress signal requirements of 33 CFR part 175 applicable to the vessel. ...

  4. 46 CFR 25.25-19 - Visual distress signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Visual distress signals. 25.25-19 Section 25.25-19... Other Lifesaving Equipment § 25.25-19 Visual distress signals. Each uninspected passenger vessel must meet the visual distress signal requirements of 33 CFR part 175 applicable to the vessel. ...

  5. 33 CFR 175.110 - Visual distress signals required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Visual distress signals required... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS Visual Distress Signals § 175.110 Visual distress signals... signals selected from the list in § 175.130 or the alternatives in § 175.135, in the number required, are...

  6. 33 CFR 83.37 - Distress signals (Rule 37).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Distress signals (Rule 37). 83.37... NAVIGATION RULES RULES Sound and Light Signals § 83.37 Distress signals (Rule 37). When a vessel is in distress and requires assistance she shall use or exhibit the signals described in Annex IV to these Rules. ...

  7. 46 CFR 25.25-19 - Visual distress signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Visual distress signals. 25.25-19 Section 25.25-19... Other Lifesaving Equipment § 25.25-19 Visual distress signals. Each uninspected passenger vessel must meet the visual distress signal requirements of 33 CFR part 175 applicable to the vessel. ...

  8. 47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.1114 Section 80.1114 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Operating Procedures for Distress and...

  9. 47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.1114 Section 80.1114 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Operating Procedures for Distress and...

  10. 47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.1114 Section 80.1114 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Operating Procedures for Distress and...

  11. 47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.1114 Section 80.1114 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Operating Procedures for Distress and...

  12. 47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.1114 Section 80.1114 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Operating Procedures for Distress and...

  13. 46 CFR 169.553 - Pyrotechnic distress signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pyrotechnic distress signals. 169.553 Section 169.553... Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Additional Lifesaving Equipment § 169.553 Pyrotechnic distress signals. (a) All pyrotechnic distress signals must be of an approved type. (b) Replacement must be made no...

  14. 46 CFR 169.553 - Pyrotechnic distress signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pyrotechnic distress signals. 169.553 Section 169.553... Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Additional Lifesaving Equipment § 169.553 Pyrotechnic distress signals. (a) All pyrotechnic distress signals must be of an approved type. (b) Replacement must be made no...

  15. Trauma and Psychological Distress among Ethnically Diverse Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edman, Jeanne L.; Watson, Susan B.; Patron, David J.

    2016-01-01

    An association has been found between traumatic experiences and psychological distress; however, the impact of ethnicity on psychological distress is less clear. The present study examined the relationship between traumatic experiences and measures of psychological distress among a multiethnic sample of community college students. A total of 389…

  16. 13 CFR 301.3 - Economic distress levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Economic distress levels. 301.3 Section 301.3 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Economic Distress Criteria § 301.3 Economic distress...

  17. Sexual Assault Disclosure Recipients' Experiences: Emotional Distress and Changes in the Relationship With the Victim.

    PubMed

    Milliken, Jennifer; Paul, Lisa A; Sasson, Sapir; Porter, Abigail; Hasulube, Jemi

    2016-01-01

    Sexual assault victims are more likely to disclose their experience to friends and family than formal support sources (e.g., police, counselors). As such, disclosure receipt is a relatively common occurrence, but little is known about the recipients' disclosure experience. This study examined predictors of recipient emotional distress and positive and negative changes in the victim-recipient relationship postdisclosure among 69 female undergraduates at 3 universities. Predictors of distress included greater self-rated closeness to the victim and greater confusion about how to help. Positive changes were predicted by greater closeness and less responsibility attributed to the victim, and negative changes were predicted by less closeness, greater assigned responsibility, and greater perceived ineffectiveness of one's help. Implications for improving the disclosure experience via psychoeducational interventions are presented.

  18. It’s Not What You Think, It’s How You Relate to It: Dispositional Mindfulness Moderates the Relationship Between Psychological Distress and the Cortisol Awakening Response

    PubMed Central

    Daubenmier, Jennifer; Hayden, Dara; Chang, Vickie; Epel, Elissa

    2014-01-01

    Objective The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is a natural metabolic response that can be potentiated by negative cognitive-emotional processes, including stress appraisals, negative affect, and rumination. Psychological distress and the CAR are not consistently related, however. Individual differences in aspects of dispositional mindfulness which reflect how people relate to negative thoughts and emotions may help explain such inconsistencies. We tested whether the tendency to 1) label and describe inner experiences and 2) accept negative thoughts and feelings without judgment moderated the association between psychological distress and the CAR. Methods Self-reported dispositional mindfulness, perceived stress, anxiety, negative affect, and rumination, and the CAR were assessed among overweight/obese women. Regression analyses were conducted to examine whether dispositional mindfulness moderated the relationship between indicators of psychological distress and the CAR. Results While psychological distress was consistently positively related to the CAR, these associations were qualified by significant interactions with both components of dispositional mindfulness. Psychological distress was associated with the CAR at lower levels of dispositional mindfulness but not at higher levels. Conclusion These findings support the idea that the tendency to describe and accept distressing experiences may buffer the impact of psychological distress on physiological arousal. These metacognitive processes may be important moderators in unraveling the complex relationship between psychological distress and physiological stress reactivity. Further research is recommended to replicate this approach in other populations. PMID:24971591

  19. Communication, support and psychosocial work environment affecting psychological distress among working women aged 20 to 39 years in Japan.

    PubMed

    Honda, Ayumi; Date, Yutaka; Abe, Yasuyo; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Honda, Sumihisa

    2016-01-01

    When compared with their older counterparts, younger women are more likely to have depressive symptoms because they more often experience interrupted work history and a heavy childrearing burden. The purposes of the present study were 1) to investigate the possible association of psychosocial work environment with psychological distress and 2) to examine the way by which communication and support in the workplace affect to psychological distress among young women. We studied 198 women aged 20 to 39 yr in a cross-sectional study. The Kessler Scale-10 (K10 Scale) was used to examine psychological distress. In employees who experienced interpersonal conflict, those who had little or no conversations with their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 4.2), and those who received little or no support from their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 3.8) compared to those who had more frequent communication and received more support. Harmonious communication in the workplace can help prevent psychological distress among employees, which in turn may enable them to be satisfied with their work.

  20. Identification of risk factors for moral distress in nurses: basis for the development of a new assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Rafaela; Zoboli, Elma Lourdes Campos Pavone; Vieira, Margarida

    2016-12-01

    This article proposes to identify risk factors for moral distress from the literature, validate them through expert analysis and provide the basis for a new tool to assess the risk of moral distress among nurses. Moral distress is related to the psychological, emotional and physiological aspects of nursing. It arises from constraints caused by various circumstances and can lead to significant negative consequences. A scoping review and validation through expert analysis were used. The research question guiding this study was as follows: What is known about risk factors for moral distress in nursing? The research was conducted using multiple sources including electronic databases and lists of references from relevant literature. The final sample consisted of 38 studies. A validation analysis was conducted by experts during December 2014 and June 2015. To exclude a risk factor item, at least 80% of the experts had to agree with the exclusion. In total, 53 risk factors for moral distress were identified, reviewed by the experts and grouped to form a new instrument that may help to identify risk for moral distress and to address its consequences. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Psychological Distress in Jordanian Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Positive Reappraisal Coping.

    PubMed

    Rayan, Ahmad; Ahmad, Muayyad

    2017-02-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently report poor psychological well-being. Positive reappraisal coping (PRC) is a coping strategy which offers a protective effect from anxiety and depression. However, the association between PRC and the psychological distress in parents of children with ASD has yet to be established. This study examines the association between PRC and the psychological distress in parents of children with ASD. In this descriptive correlational study, 104 parents of children with ASD completed measures of psychological distress and PRC. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to examine the association between PRC and the psychological distress in parents after controlling the influence of parental age and gender. The PRC was associated with the psychological distress in parents above and beyond the variance accounted for by parental age and gender. After controlling for parental age and gender, PRC had significant negative correlation with the levels of anxiety, stress, and depression in parents (Anxiety: β=-0.36, p<0.001; Stress: β=-0.21, p=0.03; Depression: β=- 0.37, p<0.001). Using positive reappraisal coping strategy may help to reduce psychological distress in parents of children with ASD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Distressed and looking for help: Internet intervention support for arthritis self-management.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kiana R; Fuchs, Erika; Horvath, Keith J; Scal, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Focusing on youth with juvenile arthritis (JA), this study investigates eHealth interventions as a means to develop services to improve the health of youth with chronic conditions. Internet use and preferences for Internet-based interventions were compared among youth with high and low psychosocial quality of life (PS-QL) scores. Youth with JA (n = 134; high PS-QL, n = 67; low PS-QL, n = 67) completed the MyRheum online survey, which assessed physical functioning, psychosocial health, Internet usage, and amount of time spent using social networking Web sites. Youth indicated their choice, interest, and preferences in using a Web site for youth with JA. The t tests, chi-squared tests, and Fisher exact tests were used to assess significance between high and low PS-QL groups. Youth with lower PS-QL reported greater intrusiveness of their condition across life's activities than did youth with higher PS-QL. Low PS-QL was associated with spending more than 1 hour per day using social networking sites and having used the Internet to find information on various health and substance use topics. Youth with lower PS-QL expressed more interest in messaging others, online forums, building personal profiles, and networking with other teens than did youth with higher PS-QL. Both those with high and low PS-QL preferred online to in-person support groups. Many youth with JA report low PS-QL and identify interest in Internet-based supportive interventions. The next generation of eHealth interventions for youth with JA, and possibly other chronic conditions, may better address their needs by recognizing the diversity of experiences and tailoring intervention strategies accordingly. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Handi Helps, 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handi Helps, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The eight issues of Handi Helps presented in this document focus on specific issues of concern to the disabled, parents, and those working with the disabled. The two-page handi help fact sheets focus on the following topics: child abuse, leukemia, arthritis, Tourette Syndrome, hemophilia, the puppet program "Meet the New Kids on the…

  4. Handi Helps, 1985

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handi Helps, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The six issues of Handi Helps presented here focus on specific issues of concern to the disabled, parents, and those working with the disabled. The two-page handi help fact sheets focus on the following topics: child sexual abuse prevention, asthma, scoliosis, the role of the occupational therapist, kidnapping, and muscular dystrophy. Each handi…

  5. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Real Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches Help! It's Hair Loss! KidsHealth > For Kids > Help! It's Hair Loss! Print A A A What's in ... part above the skin, is dead. (That's why it doesn't hurt to get a haircut!) This ...

  6. Handi Helps, 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handi Helps, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The eight issues of Handi Helps presented in this document focus on specific issues of concern to the disabled, parents, and those working with the disabled. The two-page handi help fact sheets focus on the following topics: child abuse, leukemia, arthritis, Tourette Syndrome, hemophilia, the puppet program "Meet the New Kids on the…

  7. Home Is for Helping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Des Moines Public Schools, IA.

    This booklet for parents offers ideas for utilizing everyday situations in the home to help children improve in school, primarily in reading and mathematics skills. General suggestions are given for helping children to do their best by talking to them, reading to them, listening to them, praising them, watching television with them, keeping them…

  8. Helping America's Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Laura

    2005-01-01

    As First Lady of the United States, Laura Bush is leading the Helping America's Youth initiative of the federal government. She articulates the goal of enlisting public and volunteer resources to foster healthy growth by early intervention and mentoring of youngsters at risk. Helping America's Youth will benefit children and teenagers by…

  9. Handi Helps, 1985

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handi Helps, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The six issues of Handi Helps presented here focus on specific issues of concern to the disabled, parents, and those working with the disabled. The two-page handi help fact sheets focus on the following topics: child sexual abuse prevention, asthma, scoliosis, the role of the occupational therapist, kidnapping, and muscular dystrophy. Each handi…

  10. Helping Our Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polk, Sophie

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Ikaiyurluki Mikelnguut (Helping Our Children) project in the Yukon Kuskokwim Delta of Alaska where trained natural helpers are helping Yup'ik Eskimo villagers to cope with crisis situations--notably teenage suicide and drug and alcohol abuse. (Author/BB)

  11. Helping America's Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Laura

    2005-01-01

    As First Lady of the United States, Laura Bush is leading the Helping America's Youth initiative of the federal government. She articulates the goal of enlisting public and volunteer resources to foster healthy growth by early intervention and mentoring of youngsters at risk. Helping America's Youth will benefit children and teenagers by…

  12. Caring for people with eating disorders: factors associated with psychological distress and negative caregiving appraisals in carers of people with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Jenna; Haigh, Rachel; Weinman, John; Treasure, Janet

    2007-11-01

    Carers of people with eating disorders (ED) have high levels of distress, but little is known about the contributing factors. The aim of this study was to examine predictors of carers' distress and caregiving appraisals using a model of caregiving adapted from the previous literature. A cross-sectional design was used. A sample of 115 individuals currently caring for someone with an ED participated in the study. Carers completed self-report assessments of psychological distress (GHQ-12; Goldberg & Williams, 1988), experience of caregiving (Szmukler et al., 1996), illness representations (IPQ-SCV; Barrowclough, Lobban, Hatton, & Quinn, 2001) and caregiving needs (CaNAM; Haigh & Treasure, 2003). Simple and multiple hierarchical regressions were conducted. Approximately 36% (39/109) of carers had scores on the GHQ which indicated mental health difficulties, with 17% (19/109) experiencing high psychological distress. A negative experience of caregiving was associated with carers' distress. The dependency of the individual with the ED and stigma associated with the illness were most highly predictive of carers' distress. Shorter illness duration, higher levels of needs (lower levels of support) and perceptions of high illness consequences contributed to greater negative caregiving appraisals. The belief that the illness was attributable to the sufferers' personality was related to fewer positive appraisals. Adjusting to the impact of a family member experiencing an ED is problematic, as suggested by the relationship between shorter illness duration and greater negative appraisals of caregiving. Interventions to help reduce dependency and alleviate stigma may help to decrease carers' distress.

  13. Does screening high school students for psychological distress, deliberate self-harm, or suicidal ideation cause distress--and is it acceptable? An Australian-based study.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jo; Pan Yuen, Hok; Martin, Cathy; Hughes, Ally; Baksheev, Gennady N; Dodd, Simon; Bapat, Swagata; Schwass, Wayne; McGorry, Patrick; Yung, Alison R

    2011-01-01

    Programs designed to detect students at risk of depression and suicidality have shown success (Shaffer et al., 2004). The current study sought to examine whether or not such a program was acceptable to participants and whether or not it caused distress. Participants were boys aged 14 to 16. Participants were assessed using an on-line questionnaire; acceptability was measured via postal questionnaire. Of 272 participants, 31 (11.4%) were considered at-risk; 13 required ongoing support, 8 of whom had not previously sought help. Overall screening did not appear to cause significant undue distress, although some differences were evident between at-risk and not at-risk students. All participants found the program acceptable. When conducted carefully, early detection programs can be an effective and acceptable method of identifying at-risk adolescents.

  14. Systematic screening for distress in oncology practice using the Distress Barometer: the impact on referrals to psychosocial care.

    PubMed

    Bauwens, Sabien; Baillon, Catherine; Distelmans, Willem; Theuns, Peter

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluates how patterns of psychosocial referral of patients with elevated distress differ in a 'systematic screening for distress' condition versus a 'usual practice' condition in ambulatory oncology practice. The psychosocial referral process in a 2-week usual practice (N=278) condition was compared with a 2-week 'using the Distress Barometer as a screening instrument' (N=304) condition in an outpatient clinic with seven consulting oncologists. Out of all distressed patients in the usual practice condition, only 5.5% of patients detected with distress were actually referred to psychosocial counselling, compared with 69.1% of patients detected with distress in the condition with systematic screening using the Distress Barometer. Only 3.7% of patients detected with distress in the usual practice condition finally accepted this referral, compared with 27.6% of patients detected with distress in the screening condition. Using the Distress Barometer as a self-report screening instrument prior to oncological consultation optimises detection of elevated distress in patients, and this results in a higher number of performed and accepted referrals, but cannot by itself guarantee actual psychosocial referral or acceptance of referral. There is not only a problem of poor detection of distress in cancer patients but also a need for better decision-making and communication between oncologists and patients about this issue. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Socioeconomic disparities in psychological distress in a nationally representative sample of Japanese adolescents: A time trend study.

    PubMed

    Kachi, Yuko; Abe, Aya; Ando, Emiko; Kawada, Tomoyuki

    2017-03-01

    Socioeconomic status as a determinant of mental health problems has received scant attention in Japan, which has long been considered an egalitarian society. This study examined the association between socioeconomic status and psychological distress and its trends over 6 years among Japanese adolescents. We used data from a nationally representative sample of 9491 adolescents aged 12-18 years who participated in three repeated cross-sectional surveys between 2007 and 2013. The K6 scale was used to assess psychological distress. Socioeconomic status indicators included household income, parental education, parental working status and household structure. Psychological distress prevalence decreased significantly from 2007 (10.7%) to 2013 (7.6%). However, the socioeconomic status patterns of psychological distress were consistent through the study period. Adolescents living in both lower (odds ratio = 1.61; 95% confidence interval = [1.27, 2.05]) and higher income households (odds ratio = 1.30; 95% confidence interval = [1.03, 1.62]) were more likely to report psychological distress than their middle-income counterparts. Adolescents with low household income were more likely to feel stress from interpersonal relationships and less likely to have help-seeking behaviors, while those with high household income were more likely to feel stress about school achievement. Psychological distress was also associated with parental poor education and single parenthood. Socioeconomic status disparities in adolescent psychological distress were evident and consistent during the 6-year period. There is a unique U-shaped relationship between household income and psychological distress among adolescents in Japan, unlike those from other countries. However, the underlying mechanisms may differ by income status. Future prevention efforts should consider socioeconomic status as a determinant of adolescent mental health problems.

  16. Secondary Traumatic Stress and Burnout in Child Welfare Workers: A Comparative Analysis of Occupational Distress across Professional Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprang, Ginny; Craig, Carlton; Clark, James

    2011-01-01

    This study describes predictors of secondary traumatic stress and burnout in a national sample of helping professionals, with a specific focus on the unique responses of child welfare (CW) workers. Specific worker and exposure characteristics are examined as possible predictors of these forms of occupational distress in a sample of 669…

  17. Secondary Traumatic Stress and Burnout in Child Welfare Workers: A Comparative Analysis of Occupational Distress across Professional Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprang, Ginny; Craig, Carlton; Clark, James

    2011-01-01

    This study describes predictors of secondary traumatic stress and burnout in a national sample of helping professionals, with a specific focus on the unique responses of child welfare (CW) workers. Specific worker and exposure characteristics are examined as possible predictors of these forms of occupational distress in a sample of 669…

  18. Early Childhood Adversity and its Associations With Anxiety, Depression, and Distress in Women With Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Daniel C; Andreotti, Charissa; Harris, Kirk; Mandeli, John; Tiersten, Amy; Holland, Jimmie

    2016-01-01

    Certain vulnerability factors have been found to place patients at risk for depression and anxiety, especially within the context of medical illness. We sought to describe the relationships among early childhood adversity (ECA) and anxiety, depression and distress in patients with breast cancer. Patients with breast cancer (stages 0-IV) were assessed for ECA (i.e., the Risky Families Questionnaire subscales include Abuse/Neglect/Chaotic Home Environment), distress (i.e., Distress Thermometer and Problem List), anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety), depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression), meeting standardized cut-off thresholds for distress (Distress Thermometer and Problem List ≥4 or ≥7)/anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety ≥8)/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression ≥8) and demographic factors. A total of 125 participants completed the study (78% response rate). ECA was associated with depression (p <0.001), anxiety (p = 0.001), and distress (p = 0.006), meeting cut-off threshold criteria for distress (p = 0.024), anxiety (p = 0.048), and depression (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, only depression (p = 0.04) and emotional issues (i.e., component of Distress Thermometer and Problem List) (p = 0.001) were associated with ECA. Neglect, but not Abuse and Chaotic Home Environment, was associated with depression (β = 0.442, p < 0.001), anxiety (β = 0.342, p = 0.002), and self-identified problems with family (β = 0.288, p = 0.022), emotion (β = 0.345, p = 0.004), and physical issues (β = 0.408, p < 0.001). ECA and neglect are associated with multiple psychologic symptoms, but most specifically depression in the setting of breast cancer. ECA contributes to psychologic burden as a vulnerability factor. ECA may help to explain individual patient trajectories and influence the provision of patient-centered care for psychologic symptoms in patients with breast cancer. Copyright

  19. Psychological distress associated with cancer screening: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chad-Friedman, Emma; Coleman, Sarah; Traeger, Lara N; Pirl, William F; Goldman, Roberta; Atlas, Steven J; Park, Elyse R

    2017-10-15

    Current national cancer screening recommendations include the potential risk of psychological harm related to screening. However, data on the relation of psychological distress to cancer screening is limited. The authors conducted a systematic review to assess psychological distress associated with cancer screening procedures. Studies that administered measures of psychological distress between 2 weeks before and 1 month after the screening procedure were included. In total, 22 eligible studies met criteria for review, including 13 observational trials and 9 randomized controlled trials. Eligible studies used a broad range of validated and unvalidated measures. Anxiety was the most commonly assessed construct and was measured using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory. Studies included breast, colorectal, prostate, lung, and cervical screening procedures. Distress was low across procedures, with the exception of colorectal screening. Distress did not vary according to the time at which distress was measured. None of the studies were conducted exclusively with the intention of assessing distress at the time of screening. Evidence of low distress during the time of cancer screening suggests that distress might not be a widespread barrier to screening among adults who undergo screening. However, more studies are needed using validated measures of distress to further understand the extent to which screening may elicit psychological distress and impede adherence to national screening recommendations. Cancer 2017;123:3882-94. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  20. Prenatal distress in Turkish pregnant women and factors associated with maternal prenatal distress.

    PubMed

    Yuksel, Fatma; Akin, Semiha; Durna, Zehra

    2014-01-01

    To assess: (1) the prenatal distress level in Turkish pregnant women and (2) to examine the association between prenatal maternal distress and personal and pregnancy-specific factors. Pregnant women experience stress originating from a variety of pregnancy-specific issues, including physical symptoms and changes, changes in body image, physiological, social and emotional changes, parenting concerns, changes in relationships with significant others, medical problems, anxiety about labour and delivery, concerns about birth and the baby's health. A descriptive cross-sectional study. This study was conducted at a gynaecology clinic of a private hospital in Istanbul, Turkey within a 12-month period. The study sample comprised 522 pregnant women continuing their regular visits for prenatal care. Pregnancy Description Form and Turkish Version of Revised Version of Prenatal Distress Questionnaire [(NUPDQ)-17 Item Version] were used for data collection. Study sample was moderately distressed. Turkish pregnant women were mostly distressed and concerned about premature delivery, having an unhealthy baby, labour and delivery, feeling tired and having low energy during pregnancy. Prenatal distress in Turkish pregnant women was associated with personal and pregnancy-related characteristics. This study found that pregnant women need to be supported emotionally, physically and socially. A better understanding of prenatal maternal distress could assist in informing healthcare professionals about the provision of physically, emotionally, socially and behaviourally appropriate support for achieving a healthy pregnancy. It is crucial for pregnant women to be regularly assessed and educated for dealing successfully with concerns and fears about prenatal period, birth and postnatal period and about difficulties that women may encounter during their pregnancy. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Distress in patients with cancer: definition, assessment, and suggested interventions.

    PubMed

    Vitek, Leesa; Rosenzweig, Margaret Quinn; Stollings, Susan

    2007-06-01

    Distress in patients with cancer impacts their quality of life. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) created a distress thermometer and a problem checklist to aid in recognizing distress. The thermometer measures distress on a 0-10 scale, and the problem checklist identifies more specific etiologies of distress, such as practical, spiritual, physical, emotional, and family problems. Oncology nurses play a key role in the success of the distress-screening tool because they have the most patient contact. The NCCN guidelines suggest that patients complete the screening tools at each visit and clinicians review the outcome. NCCN has provided clinical pathways for treating the etiologies of distress using a multidisciplinary approach, including members from social work, pastoral services, mental health, and oncology.

  2. Support Service Use and Interest in Support Services among Distressed Family Caregivers of Lung Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mosher, Catherine E.; Champion, Victoria L.; Hanna, Nasser; Jalal, Shadia I.; Fakiris, Achilles J.; Birdas, Thomas J.; Okereke, Ikenna C.; Kesler, Kenneth A.; Einhorn, Lawrence H.; Given, Barbara A.; Monahan, Patrick O.; Ostroff, Jamie S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examined support service use and interest in support services among distressed family caregivers of patients recently entering a comprehensive cancer care facility. Methods Primary family caregivers of lung cancer patients (N = 83) were recruited from three medical centers within 12 weeks of the patient’s new visit to the oncology clinic. All family caregivers were screened for psychological distress and those reporting significant anxiety or depressive symptoms were eligible for this study. Caregivers completed a baseline assessment of support service use (i.e., use of mental health services and complementary and alternative medicine [CAM]) and interest in support services. Support service use was also assessed three months later. Results Although all caregivers reported clinically meaningful distress, only 26% used mental health and 39% used CAM services during the 3-month study period. Patients’ receipt of chemotherapy was positively associated with caregivers’ mental health service use, whereas greater education and receiving assistance with caregiving tasks were associated with CAM use. Forty percent of caregivers who did not use CAM at baseline were interested in CAM. In addition, 29% of caregivers who did not receive mental health services at baseline were interested in professional psychosocial support, and 29% of caregivers who did not receive staff assistance with practical needs at baseline were interested in this service. Conclusions Findings suggest that distressed family caregivers of lung cancer patients underuse mental health services and that a sizable minority are interested in professional help with psychosocial and practical needs. PMID:22941782

  3. The dynamic financial distress prediction method of EBW-VSTW-SVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jie; Li, Hui; Chang, Pei-Chann; He, Kai-Yu

    2016-07-01

    Financial distress prediction (FDP) takes important role in corporate financial risk management. Most of former researches in this field tried to construct effective static FDP (SFDP) models that are difficult to be embedded into enterprise information systems, because they are based on horizontal data-sets collected outside the modelling enterprise by defining the financial distress as the absolute conditions such as bankruptcy or insolvency. This paper attempts to propose an approach for dynamic evaluation and prediction of financial distress based on the entropy-based weighting (EBW), the support vector machine (SVM) and an enterprise's vertical sliding time window (VSTW). The dynamic FDP (DFDP) method is named EBW-VSTW-SVM, which keeps updating the FDP model dynamically with time goes on and only needs the historic financial data of the modelling enterprise itself and thus is easier to be embedded into enterprise information systems. The DFDP method of EBW-VSTW-SVM consists of four steps, namely evaluation of vertical relative financial distress (VRFD) based on EBW, construction of training data-set for DFDP modelling according to VSTW, training of DFDP model based on SVM and DFDP for the future time point. We carry out case studies for two listed pharmaceutical companies and experimental analysis for some other companies to simulate the sliding of enterprise vertical time window. The results indicated that the proposed approach was feasible and efficient to help managers improve corporate financial management.

  4. Examining behavioural coping strategies as mediators between work-family conflict and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Aazami, Sanaz; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Akmal, Syaqirah

    2015-01-01

    We examined the mediating role of behavioral coping strategies in the association between work-family conflict and psychological distress. In particular, we examined the two directions of work-family conflict, namely, work interference into family and family interference into work. Furthermore, two coping styles in this study were adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 Malaysian working women using self-reported data. The results of mediational analysis in the present study showed that adaptive coping strategy does not significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. However, maladaptive coping strategies significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. These results show that adaptive coping strategies, which aimed to improve the stressful situation, are not effective in managing stressor such as work-family conflict. We found that experiencing interrole conflict steers employees toward frequent use of maladaptive coping strategies which in turn lead to psychological distress. Interventions targeted at improvement of coping skills which are according to individual's needs and expectation may help working women to balance work and family demands. The important issue is to keep in mind that effective coping strategies are to control the situations not to eliminate work-family conflict.

  5. Examining Behavioural Coping Strategies as Mediators between Work-Family Conflict and Psychological Distress

    PubMed Central

    Shamsuddin, Khadijah

    2015-01-01

    We examined the mediating role of behavioral coping strategies in the association between work-family conflict and psychological distress. In particular, we examined the two directions of work-family conflict, namely, work interference into family and family interference into work. Furthermore, two coping styles in this study were adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 Malaysian working women using self-reported data. The results of mediational analysis in the present study showed that adaptive coping strategy does not significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. However, maladaptive coping strategies significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. These results show that adaptive coping strategies, which aimed to improve the stressful situation, are not effective in managing stressor such as work-family conflict. We found that experiencing interrole conflict steers employees toward frequent use of maladaptive coping strategies which in turn lead to psychological distress. Interventions targeted at improvement of coping skills which are according to individual's needs and expectation may help working women to balance work and family demands. The important issue is to keep in mind that effective coping strategies are to control the situations not to eliminate work-family conflict. PMID:25695097

  6. Neglect and perceived stigmatization impact psychological distress of orphans in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Hermenau, Katharin; Eggert, Ina; Landolt, Markus A.; Hecker, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Background Research has shown that orphans in sub-Saharan Africa are at increased risk for mental health problems. Exposure to maltreatment and HIV/AIDS-related stigmatization are related to orphans’ psychological distress. Yet, researchers stress the need for more research in low-income countries to identify which factors of being an orphan may lead to psychological distress. Objectives The present study aims to systematically investigate orphans’ experiences of maltreatment and stigmatization to identify factors that relate to their psychological distress. Methods In total, 89 Tanzanian children who had lost at least one parent were compared to 89 matched non-orphans (mean age: 11 years; 51% boys). We measured exposure to maltreatment and perceived stigmatization as an orphan. Mental health was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Children's Depression Inventory, the UCLA PTSD Index for Children, and the Reactive–Proactive Questionnaire. Results Orphans reported significantly more experiences of neglect, but not of abuse. A group comparison revealed more depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and aggressive behavior among orphans. Neglect, abuse, and stigmatization correlated with orphans’ internalizing and externalizing problems, yet only neglect and stigmatization were related to orphans’ depression severity. Perceived stigmatization moderated the relationship between neglect and depression. Conclusions Our findings suggest that orphans in Tanzania are at increased risk of experiencing neglect. Maltreatment and perceived stigmatization may play a role in orphans’ psychological distress. Culturally appropriate and evidence-based interventions may help to prevent maltreatment and stigmatization of orphans. PMID:26589257

  7. Exploring Sources of Emotional Distress among People Living with Scleroderma: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Gumuchian, Stephanie T.; Peláez, Sandra; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Carrier, Marie-Eve; Jewett, Lisa R.; El-Baalbaki, Ghassan; Fortune, Catherine; Hudson, Marie; Impens, Ann; Körner, Annett; Persmann, Jennifer; Kwakkenbos, Linda; Bartlett, Susan J.; Thombs, Brett D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Systemic sclerosis, or scleroderma, is a chronic and rare connective tissue disease with negative physical and psychological implications. Sources of emotional distress and the impact they have on the lives of people with scleroderma are not well understood. Objectives To gain an in-depth understanding of the emotional experiences and sources of emotional distress for women and men living with scleroderma through focus group discussions. Methods Three semi-structured focus group discussions were conducted (two in English, one in French) with a total of 22 people with scleroderma recruited through the Scleroderma Society of Ontario in Hamilton, Ontario and a scleroderma clinic in Montreal, Canada. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and then coded for emerging themes using thematic inductive analysis. Results Core themes representing sources of emotional distress were identified, including: (a) facing a new reality; (b) the daily struggle of living with scleroderma; (c) handling work, employment and general financial burden; (d) changing family roles; (e) social interactions; and (f) navigating the health care system. Collectively, these themes refer to the stressful journey of living with scleroderma including the obstacles faced and the emotional experiences beginning prior to receiving a diagnosis and continuing throughout the participants’ lives. Conclusion Scleroderma was portrayed as being an unpredictable and overwhelming disease, resulting in many individuals experiencing multiple sources of emotional distress. Interventions and supportive resources need to be developed to help individuals with scleroderma and people close to them manage and cope with the emotional aspects of the disease. PMID:27008209

  8. The Association of Metacognitive Beliefs With Emotional Distress After Diagnosis of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Emotional distress after a diagnosis of cancer is normal and, for most people, will diminish over time. However, a significant minority of patients with cancer experience persistent or recurrent symptoms of emotional distress for which they need help. A model developed in mental health, the self-regulatory executive function model (S-REF), specifies that maladaptive metacognitive beliefs and processes, including persistent worry, are key to understanding why such emotional problems persist. This cross-sectional study explored, for the first, time whether metacognitive beliefs were associated with emotional distress in a cancer population, and whether this relationship was mediated by worry, as predicted by the S-REF model. Method: Two hundred twenty-nine participants within 3 months of diagnosis of, and before treatment for, primary breast or prostate cancer completed self-report questionnaires measuring anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, metacognitive beliefs, worry, and illness perceptions. Results: Regression analysis showed that metacognitive beliefs were associated with symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD, and explained additional variance in these outcomes after controlling for age, gender, and illness perceptions. Structural equation modeling was consistent with cross-sectional hypotheses derived from the theory that metacognitive beliefs cause and maintain distress both directly and indirectly by driving worry. Conclusions: The findings provide promising first evidence that the S-REF model may be usefully applied in cancer. Further study is required to establish the predictive and clinical utility of these findings. PMID:25133826

  9. The association of metacognitive beliefs with emotional distress after diagnosis of cancer.

    PubMed

    Cook, Sharon A; Salmon, Peter; Dunn, Graham; Holcombe, Chris; Cornford, Philip; Fisher, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Emotional distress after a diagnosis of cancer is normal and, for most people, will diminish over time. However, a significant minority of patients with cancer experience persistent or recurrent symptoms of emotional distress for which they need help. A model developed in mental health, the self-regulatory executive function model (S-REF), specifies that maladaptive metacognitive beliefs and processes, including persistent worry, are key to understanding why such emotional problems persist. This cross-sectional study explored, for the first, time whether metacognitive beliefs were associated with emotional distress in a cancer population, and whether this relationship was mediated by worry, as predicted by the S-REF model. Two hundred twenty-nine participants within 3 months of diagnosis of, and before treatment for, primary breast or prostate cancer completed self-report questionnaires measuring anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, metacognitive beliefs, worry, and illness perceptions. Regression analysis showed that metacognitive beliefs were associated with symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD, and explained additional variance in these outcomes after controlling for age, gender, and illness perceptions. Structural equation modeling was consistent with cross-sectional hypotheses derived from the theory that metacognitive beliefs cause and maintain distress both directly and indirectly by driving worry. The findings provide promising first evidence that the S-REF model may be usefully applied in cancer. Further study is required to establish the predictive and clinical utility of these findings. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Psychological distress of marital and cohabitation breakups.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Lara Patrício; Aassve, Arnstein

    2013-11-01

    Using data from a large survey, the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS), this paper explores the extent to which marital and cohabiting unions differ with respect to the short-term effects of union dissolution on mental health. We compare married individuals who divorced or separated with cohabitors whose first union ended and test the hypothesis that married individuals experience larger negative effects. Results show that initial differences are not statistically significant once the presence of children is controlled for, suggesting that the presence of children is a particularly significant source of increased psychological distress in union dissolutions. However, parenthood does not explain serious psychological distress, which appears to be associated with enduring traits (the personality trait neuroticism). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Predicting pavement distress in oil field areas

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.M.; Scullion, T.; Stampley, B.E.

    1983-05-01

    A study on oil field traffic characteristics was performed and a procedure was developed for assessing current and future effects of oil field truck traffic on surface-treated (stage construction type) pavements. A computer program calculates several types of pavement distress and serviceability parameters to evaluate pavement performance under various axle load repetitions. Stepwise regression analysis of 132 surface-treated pavement sections led to the development of individual distress equations for rutting, raveling, flushing, alligator cracking, patching, longitudinal and transverse cracking, and failures (potholes). The versatility of the program provides a means of anticipating early pavement failures due to increased axle load repetitions. The program also provides the basic framework for computing the effects of other ''special-use'' truck traffic demands.

  12. Predicting pavement distress in oil field areas

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.M.; Scullion, T.; Stampley, B.E.

    1984-05-01

    A study on oil field traffic characteristics was performed and a procedure was developed for assessing current and future effects of oil field truck traffic on surface-treated (stage construction type) pavements. A computer program calculates several types of pavement distress and serviceability parameters to evaluate pavement performance under various axle load repetitions. Stepwise regression analysis of 132 surface-treated pavement sections led to the development of individual distress equations for rutting, raveling, flushing, alligator cracking, patching, longitudinal and transverse cracking, and failures (potholes). The versatility of the program provides a means of anticipating early pavement failures due to increased axle load repetitions. The program also provides the basic framework for computing the effects of other ''special-use'' truck traffic demands.

  13. Miliary tuberculosis and adult respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Piqueras, A R; Marruecos, L; Artigas, A; Rodriguez, C

    1987-01-01

    Although, miliary tuberculosis is an unusual cause of severe acute respiratory failure, we describe nine patients with miliary tuberculosis who developed adult respiratory distress syndrome. This complication occurred in seven patients despite treatment with antituberculous drugs. In two patients who developed the syndrome, miliary tuberculosis was diagnosed only at postmortem. The presence of pulmonary hypertension in all cases and disseminated intravascular coagulation in seven cases suggests a possible pathophysiologic relationship with severe pulmonary vascular damage. The high mortality rate (88.8%) was associated with nonpulmonary organ system failure. Miliary tuberculosis should be considered in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome of unknown etiology, and simple diagnostic procedures such as sputum, bronchial brushing, and gastric examination should be followed by invasive diagnostic procedures to confirm this etiology. Since untreated miliary tuberculosis is usually fatal, early recognition of this disease is of great importance, and specific therapy may play a lifesaving role.

  14. Help for Mental Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... If you or someone you know has a mental illness, there are ways to get help. Use these ... Support Alliance Mental Health America National Alliance on Mental Illness University or medical school-affiliated programs may offer ...

  15. Can Reading Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Ponders the effect of September 11th on teenagers. Proposes that reading books can help teenagers sort out complicated issues. Recommends young adult novels that offer hope for overcoming tragedy. Lists 50 short story collections worth reading. (PM)

  16. Grandparents Can Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieper, Elizabeth

    1976-01-01

    Although grandparents may have difficulty in accepting their handicapped grandchild due to such factors as the notion of "bad blood," they can be helpful to parents by drawing from their experience to give new perspectives to complex problems. (SB)

  17. Can Reading Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Ponders the effect of September 11th on teenagers. Proposes that reading books can help teenagers sort out complicated issues. Recommends young adult novels that offer hope for overcoming tragedy. Lists 50 short story collections worth reading. (PM)

  18. Hooked on Helping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longhurst, James; McCord, Joan

    2014-01-01

    In this article, teens presenting at a symposium on peer-helping programs describe how caring for others fosters personal growth and builds positive group cultures. Their individual thoughts and opinions are expressed.

  19. Helping Parents Say No.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duel, Debra K.

    1988-01-01

    Provides some activities that are designed to help students understand some of the reasons why parents sometimes refuse to let their children have pets. Includes mathematics and writing lessons, a student checklist, and a set of tips for parents. (TW)

  20. Help! Where to Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneer, Marian E.

    1984-01-01

    Developing and maintaining effective physical education programs requires that teachers continually update their knowledge and skills. Books and journals, conferences, professional organizations, and consultants provide information to help teachers develop effective programs. (DF)

  1. Hooked on Helping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longhurst, James; McCord, Joan

    2014-01-01

    In this article, teens presenting at a symposium on peer-helping programs describe how caring for others fosters personal growth and builds positive group cultures. Their individual thoughts and opinions are expressed.

  2. Petition Preparation Help

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Preparing a part 75 Petition provides useful information and answers to common questions that will help the designated representative for a unit subject to part 75 prepare and submit a complete petition under §75.66.

  3. Helping Teens Cope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jami I.

    2003-01-01

    Considers the role of school library media specialists in helping teens cope with developmental and emotional challenges. Discusses resiliency research, and opportunities to develop programs and services especially for middle school and high school at-risk teens. (LRW)

  4. Always a burden? Healthcare providers' perspectives on moral distress.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Trisha M; Gillam, Lynn; Davis, Peter G; Janvier, Annie

    2017-09-29

    Current conceptualisations of moral distress largely portray a negative phenomenon that leads to burnout, reduced job satisfaction and poor patient care. To explore clinical experiences, perspectives and perceptions of moral distress in neonatology. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to medical and nursing providers within two tertiary level neonatal intensive care units (NICUs)-one surgical and one perinatal-seeking their understanding of the term and their experience of it. Open-ended questions were analysed using qualitative methodology. A total of 345 healthcare providers from two NICUs participated (80% response rate): 286 nurses and 59 medical providers. Moral distress was correctly identified as constrained moral judgement resulting in distress by 93% of participants. However, in practice the term moral distress was also used as an umbrella term to articulate different forms of distress. Moral distress was experienced by 72% of providers at least once a month. Yet despite the negative sequelae of moral distress, few (8% medical, 21% nursing providers) thought that moral distress should be eliminated from the NICU. Open-ended responses revealed that while interventions were desired to decrease the negative impacts of moral distress, moral distress was also viewed as an essential component of the caring profession that prompts robust discussion and acts as an impetus for medical decision-making. Moral distress remains prevalent within NICUs. While the harmful aspects of moral distress need to be mitigated, moral distress may have a positive role in advocating for and promoting the interests of the neonatal population. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Patterns of Psychological Distress in Mothers of Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Hudson; Levy, Janet; White-Traut, Rosemary; O’Shea, T. Michael; Geraldo, Victoria; David, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Mothers of preterm infants experience significant psychological distress, with elevated levels of inter-correlated depressive symptoms, stress, anxiety and post-traumatic stress symptoms. In a sample of racially and ethnically diverse mothers of preterm infants, we identified differing patterns of psychological distress during infant hospitalization and examined the effect of these psychological distress patterns on longitudinal trajectories of each psychological distress measure and on maternal perceptions of the child over the first year of the infant’s life. Mothers of preterm infants (N = 232) completed five questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms, anxiety, post-traumatic stress symptoms, stress due to infant appearance, and stress due to parental role alteration during enrollment in the neonatal hospitalization, discharge, and at 2, 6, and 12 months of age adjusted for prematurity. Latent class analysis on the enrollment psychological distress variables allowed us to identify five sub-groups of mothers exhibiting similar patterns of psychological distress, differing primarily in degree and type: low distress, moderate distress, high NICU-related distress, high depressive and anxiety symptoms, and extreme distress. These classes continued to show different longitudinal trajectories for the psychological distress measures through 12 months corrected age. Mothers in the extreme distress class and, to a lesser degree, mothers in the high depressive and anxiety symptom class remained at risk of significant psychological distress one year after discharge and had less positive perceptions of their child (greater worry and higher perceptions of child vulnerability). In conclusion, distinctive subgroups of mothers during hospitalization had different patterns of psychological distress throughout the 12-month period and may require different interventions in the NICU. PMID:26495909

  6. Prediction of surface distress using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdi, Hadiwardoyo, Sigit P.; Correia, A. Gomes; Pereira, Paulo; Cortez, Paulo

    2017-06-01

    Road infrastructures contribute to a healthy economy throughout a sustainable distribution of goods and services. A road network requires appropriately programmed maintenance treatments in order to keep roads assets in good condition, providing maximum safety for road users under a cost-effective approach. Surface Distress is the key element to identify road condition and may be generated by many different factors. In this paper, a new approach is aimed to predict Surface Distress Index (SDI) values following a data-driven approach. Later this model will be accordingly applied by using data obtained from the Integrated Road Management System (IRMS) database. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are used to predict SDI index using input variables related to the surface of distress, i.e., crack area and width, pothole, rutting, patching and depression. The achieved results show that ANN is able to predict SDI with high correlation factor (R2 = 0.996%). Moreover, a sensitivity analysis was applied to the ANN model, revealing the influence of the most relevant input parameters for SDI prediction, namely rutting (59.8%), crack width (29.9%) and crack area (5.0%), patching (3.0%), pothole (1.7%) and depression (0.3%).

  7. Psychological Distress in Twins with Urological Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Lisa Johnson; Noonan, Carolyn; Ahumada, Sandra; Rodríguez, María Ángeles Bullones; Buchwald, Dedra; Afari, Niloofar

    2010-01-01

    Objective Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) is a chronic pain condition with unclear underlying etiology. Our objectives were to determine if psychological distress was higher in twins with urological symptoms commonly found in IC/PBS than twins without, and if so, did familial influences contribute to this association. Method Data from 1,165 female twins in a community-based sample were used. Urological symptoms, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and perceived stress were assessed with standardized questionnaires. Generalized estimating equation regression models were used to examine the relationship between psychological distress and urological symptoms. Results Compared to unaffected twins, twins with urological symptoms were more likely to report PTSD symptoms (OR = 3.9; CI = 2.6-5.8), depression (OR = 3.1; CI = 2.0-5.0), anxiety (OR = 3.4; CI = 2.3-5.2), and perceived stress (OR = 3.2; CI = 2.1-4.9). After adjusting for familial influences, the within-pair effects remained significant for PTSD symptoms (OR = 2.2; CI = 1.2-3.8) and perceived stress (OR = 2.2; CI = 1.2-3.8). Conclusion Familial influences partially explained the relationship between indicators of psychological distress and urological symptoms. Future research should examine shared environmental and genetic mechanisms that may further explain this relationship and improve diagnosis and treatment of this unexplained clinical condition. PMID:20430229

  8. Emotional distress in junior house officers.

    PubMed Central

    Firth-Cozens, J

    1987-01-01

    In a study of 170 junior house officers who were followed up from their fourth year in medical school mean levels of stress were higher than in other reported occupational groups, and the estimated prevalence of emotional disturbance was 50%, with 28% of the subjects showing evidence of depression. Nearly a fifth of the subjects reported occasional or frequent bouts of heavy drinking, a quarter took drugs for physical illness, and a few took drugs for recreation. Those who were emotionally distressed at the initial study and the follow up were more empathetic and more self critical than those who had low levels of stress on both occasions. Overwork was the most stressful aspect of their jobs, though the number of hours worked was not related to stress levels, unlike diet and sleep. The more stressed they were the more unfavourably they viewed aspects of their jobs. The incidence of distress is unacceptably high in junior house officers, and both they and the hospitals need to deal with the causes of the distress. PMID:3117213

  9. Supporting staff to care for people with dementia who experience distress reactions.

    PubMed

    Elliot, Victoria; Williams, Angelena; Meyer, Julienne

    2014-08-01

    This article outlines the development of distress reaction training in a large care home charity, provided by directly employed My Home Life Admiral nurses, who are mental health nurses specialising in dementia. Reference is made to the limitations of a person-centred approach to care, and the importance of relationship-centred care, which underpins the My Home Life social movement for quality improvement in care homes. The authors argue that relationship-centred care is a more helpful approach to improve the lived experience and wellbeing of residents, relatives and staff. Potentially, it might also help to address high staff turnover in the care home sector.

  10. Moral distress and burnout in internal medicine residents

    PubMed Central

    Sajjadi, Sharareh; Norena, Monica; Wong, Hubert; Dodek, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background Residents frequently encounter situations in their workplace that may induce moral distress or burnout. The objective of this study was to measure overall and rotation-specific moral distress and burnout in medical residents, and the relationship between demographics and moral distress and burnout. Methods The revised Moral Distress Scale and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (Human Service version) were administered to Internal Medicine residents in the 2013–2014 academic year at the University of British Columbia. Results Of the 88 residents, 45 completed the surveys. Participants (mean age 30+/−3; 46% male) reported a median moral distress score (interquartile range) of 77 (50–96). Twenty-six percent of residents had considered quitting because of moral distress, 21% had a high level of burnout, and only 5% had a low level of burnout. Moral distress scores were highest during Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and Clinical Teaching Unit (CTU) rotations, and lowest during elective rotations (p<0.0001). Women reported higher emotional exhaustion. Moral distress was associated with depersonalization (p=0.01), and both moral distress and burnout were associated with intention to leave the job. Conclusion Internal Medicine residents report moral distress that is greatest during ICU and CTU rotations, and is associated with burnout and intention to leave the job. PMID:28344714

  11. Moral distress related to ethical dilemmas among Spanish podiatrists.

    PubMed

    Losa Iglesias, Marta Elena; Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo, Ricardo; Salvadores Fuentes, Paloma

    2010-05-01

    To describe the distress experienced by Spanish podiatrists related to ethical dilemmas, organisational matters, and lack of resources. A 2008 email survey of a representative sample of 485 Spanish podiatrists presenting statements about different ethical dilemmas, values and goals at the workplace. The response rate was 44.8%. Of all the respondents, 57% described sometimes having to act against their own conscience as distressing. Time constraints is the main cause of moral distress (67%) and 58% of respondents said that they found it distressing that patients have long waits for treatment. Distress related to inadequate treatment due to economical constraints or ineffectiveness was described by 60% of the podiatrists. Another 51% reported that time spent on administration and documentation is distressing. Female doctors experienced more distress than their male colleagues. Last, 36% of respondents reported that their workplace lacked strategies for dealing with ethical dilemmas. These study results identify moral distress among Spanish podiatrists mainly related to time constraints, patient demands and lack of resources. Moral distress varies with sex and age. Organisational strategies such as moral deliberation and responsive evaluation offer the potential to address moral distress.

  12. Severity of psychological distress among adults with and without disabilities.

    PubMed

    Okoro, Catherine A; Dhingra, Satvinder S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine psychological distress and its individual symptoms between adults with and without disabilities, and among adults with disabilities, to examine whether an association exists between severity of distress and health-related factors. Cross-sectional data from the 2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used for this study. Severity of psychological distress was assessed using the Kessler 6 scale of nonspecific psychological distress. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate predicted marginals and prevalence ratios. Nine percent of adults had mild to moderate psychological distress and 3.9% had serious psychological distress. The adjusted mean Kessler 6 total scores and individual item scores were higher for adults with disabilities, as was the average number of days that a mental health condition interfered with activities in the past 30 days. Among adults with disabilities, mild to moderate and serious psychological distress were particularly high among those who were unemployed or unable to work. Those who had either mild to moderate or serious psychological distress were significantly more likely than those with no psychological distress to be physically inactive, to smoke, and to report fair or poor health, life dissatisfaction, and inadequate social support. A dose-response relationship exists between categorical severity of psychological distress and examined health-related factors. These findings may inform the design of targeted public health strategies that aim to eliminate health disparities between people with and without disabilities.

  13. Impact of imagery rehearsal treatment on distressing dreams, psychological distress, and sleep parameters in nightmare patients.

    PubMed

    Germain, Anne; Nielsen, Tore

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the impact of imagery rehearsal treatment (IRT) on nightmare frequency, psychological distress, and sleep quality using polysomnography (PSG). 12 chronic nightmare patients completed prospective dream logs, measures of psychological distress, and underwent PSG prior to and 8.5 weeks following a single IRT session. Post-treatment, significant reductions were observed in retrospective nightmare frequency (d = 1.06, p = .007), prospective bad dream frequency (d = 0.53, p = .03), and anxiety scores (d = 1.01, p = .004). Minimal sleep alterations were found post-IRT, and varied as a function of nightmare etiology. The results independently replicate the efficacy of IRT for alleviating disturbing dreams and psychological distress. Sleep improvement may occur later in the recovery process.

  14. Helping patients stop smoking.

    PubMed

    Ferentz, K S; Valente, C M

    1994-01-01

    As more patients seek treatment for nicotine addiction, physicians must become adept at counseling patients on how to quit. Several simple behavioral modification techniques are available to help patients stop smoking, and these techniques can be incorporated into any busy practice. Any patient encounter can be used to inform patients of the dangers of smoking and to tell them to quit. Patients can be offered nicotine replacement therapy, although the long-term benefit is still unknown. Helping patients to quit is a rewarding process.

  15. Help seeking and mental health service utilization among college students with a history of suicide ideation.

    PubMed

    Arria, Amelia M; Winick, Emily R; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M; Vincent, Kathryn B; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Wilcox, Holly C; O'Grady, Kevin E

    2011-12-01

    This study examined help seeking among 158 college students with a lifetime history of suicide ideation. Students were interviewed about episodes of psychological distress, formal treatment, and informal help seeking during adolescence and college. Of the 151 students reporting any lifetime episodes of distress, 62% experienced the first episode in adolescence, and 54% had episodes in both adolescence and young adulthood. Overall, 87% received informal help, 73% received formal treatment, and 61% received both. Among the 149 who ever sought help or treatment, the most commonly reported sources of help were family (65%), friends (54%), psychiatrists (38%), and psychologists (33%). Of the 94 individuals who experienced suicide ideation in college, 44% did not seek treatment during young adulthood. Treatment barriers reflected ambivalence about treatment need or effectiveness, stigma, and financial concerns. Most students had some contact with treatment, but family and friends might be important gatekeepers for facilitating treatment access.

  16. Evaluation of Youth Mental Health First Aid USA: A program to assist young people in psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Aakre, Jennifer M; Lucksted, Alicia; Browning-McNee, Lea Ann

    2016-05-01

    Youth Mental Health First Aid USA (YMHFA) is a manualized training program designed to educate members of the public on common emotional problems and psychological disorders among youth and to provide trainees with tools anyone can use to assist young people in psychological distress. The present study used a pre versus post design to assess the ability of social service employees to generate appropriate strategies to use in hypothetical situations featuring a young person in distress, before versus after participation in the 8-hr YMHFA training. Trainee responses demonstrated significant overall improvement (M = 1.32, SD = 0.80 pretraining vs. M = 1.87, SD = 1.1 posttraining, t = 6.6, p < .001) by including four of the five central YMHFA strategies significantly more often after training. Increased confidence in, likelihood of, and comfort with helping a young person in emotional distress or crisis were also reported posttraining compared to pretraining (all p ≤ .001). Results suggest that individuals participating in YMHFA training are better informed regarding when to assess for risk of suicide, listen nonjudgmentally, encourage appropriate professional help, and encourage self-help strategies with young people in psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Early Childhood Adversity and Its Associations with Anxiety, Depression, and Distress in Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Daniel C; Andreotti, Charissa; Harris, Kirk; Mandeli, John; Tiersten, Amy; Holland, Jimmie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Certain vulnerability factors have been found to place patients at risk for depression and anxiety, especially within the context of medical illness. Early childhood adversity (ECA) primes adults to become more vulnerable to depression by enhancing their reactivity to stress; this relationship is not adequately described in patients with breast cancer. Methods Breast cancer patients (Stage 0-IV) were assessed for ECA (i.e., the Risky Families Questionnaire [RFQ]-subscales include Abuse/Neglect/Chaotic Home Environment), distress (i.e., Distress Thermometer and Problem List [DT&PL]), anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety [HADS-A]), depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression [HADS-D]), meeting standardized cut-off thresholds for distress (DT&PL ≥4 or ≥7)/anxiety (HADS-A ≥8)/depression (HADS-D ≥8), and demographic factors. Results One hundred twenty-five participants completed the study (78% response rate). ECA was associated with depression (p<.001), anxiety (p=.001), and distress (p=.006) and with meeting cut-off threshold criteria for distress (p=.024), anxiety (p=.048), and depression (p=.001). On Multivariate analysis, only depression (p=.04) and emotional issues (i.e, component of DT&PL)(p=.001) were associated with ECA. Neglect, but not Abuse and Chaotic Home Environment, was associated with depression (β=.442, p<.001), anxiety (β=.342, p=.002), and self-identified problems with family (β−.288, p=.022), emotion (β=.345, p=.004), and physical issues (β=.408, p<.001). Conclusion ECA and neglect are associated with multiple psychological symptoms but most specifically depression in the setting of breast cancer. ECA contributes to psychological burden as a vulnerability factor. ECA may help to explain individual patient trajectories and influence the provision of patient centered care for psychological symptoms in patients with breast cancer. PMID:26876888

  18. Reducing children's pain and distress towards flu vaccinations: a novel and effective application of humanoid robotics.

    PubMed

    Beran, Tanya N; Ramirez-Serrano, Alex; Vanderkooi, Otto G; Kuhn, Susan

    2013-06-07

    Millions of children in North America receive an annual flu vaccination, many of whom are at risk of experiencing severe distress. Millions of children also use technologically advanced devices such as computers and cell phones. Based on this familiarity, we introduced another sophisticated device - a humanoid robot - to interact with children during their vaccination. We hypothesized that these children would experience less pain and distress than children who did not have this interaction. This was a randomized controlled study in which 57 children (30 male; age, mean±SD: 6.87±1.34 years) were randomly assigned to a vaccination session with a nurse who used standard administration procedures, or with a robot who was programmed to use cognitive-behavioral strategies with them while a nurse administered the vaccination. Measures of pain and distress were completed by children, parents, nurses, and researchers. Multivariate analyses of variance indicated that interaction with a robot during flu vaccination resulted in significantly less pain and distress in children according to parent, child, nurse, and researcher ratings with effect sizes in the moderate to high range (Cohen's d=0.49-0.90). This is the first study to examine the effectiveness of child-robot interaction for reducing children's pain and distress during a medical procedure. All measures of reduction were significant. These findings suggest that further research on robotics at the bedside is warranted to determine how they can effectively help children manage painful medical procedures. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Using a personality inventory to identify risk of distress and burnout among early stage medical students.

    PubMed

    Bughi, Stephanie A; Lie, Desiree A; Zia, Stephanie K; Rosenthal, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Distress and burnout are common among medical students and negatively impact students' physical, mental, and emotional health. Personality inventories such as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), used in medical education, may have a role in identifying burnout risk early. The authors conducted a cross-sectional survey study among 185 1st year medical students with the MBTI, the general well-being schedule (GWB), and Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS). Descriptive statistics and one-way MANOVAs were used to identify the prevalence and differences in MBTI preferences and distress/burnout risk. Response rate was 185/185 (100%). Distress (GWB) was reported by 84/185 (45.4%). High scores on exhaustion were reported by 118/182 (64.8%), cynicism by 76/182 (41.8%), and decreased professional efficacy by 38/182 (20.9%) for the three dimensions of the MBI-SS. Only 21/182 (11.5%) of respondents had high scores on all three dimensions of burnout. Students with MBTI preferences for extraversion reported greater positive well-being (P < 0.05), self-control (P < 0.05), professional efficacy (P < 0.01), and lower levels of depression (P < 0.01) compared with those with introversion preference. Distress and burnout are prevalent early in medical training. The significant difference between extraversion and introversion in relation to distress and burnout deserves further study. Use of a personality inventory may help identify students at risk of burnout and allow appropriate early stress management.

  20. Anxiety, depression and distress among irritable bowel syndrome and their subtypes: An epidemiological population based study

    PubMed Central

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Bidaki, Ehsan Zare; Hasanzadeh-Keshteli, Ammar; Daghaghzade, Hamed; Afshar, Hamid; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Background: Psychiatric disorders are common in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We conducted this study to investigate the relationship of IBS and their subtypes with some of psychological factors. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed among 4763 staff of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2011. Modified ROME III questionnaire and Talley Bowel Disease Questionnaire were used to evaluate IBS symptoms. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and 12-item General Health Questionnaire were utilized to assess anxiety, depression and psychological distress. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association of psychological states and IBS in the total subject and both genders. Results: About, 4763 participants with mean age 36/58 ± 8/09 were included the 2106 males and 2657 females. Three thousand and seven hundred and seventy-six (81.2%) and 2650 (57.2%) participants were married and graduated respectively. Subtype analysis of IBS and its relationship with anxiety, depression and distress comparing the two genders can be observed that: IBS and clinically-significant IBS have higher anxiety, depression symptoms, and distress than the subject without IBS (P < 0.001). Women with IBS, have higher scores than men (P < 0.001). Compared to other subtypes, mixed IBS subtype has a higher anxiety, depression, and distress score. Conclusion: A high prevalence of anxiety, depression symptoms and distress in our subjects emphasize the importance of the psychological evaluation of the patients with IBS, in order to better management of the patients and may also help to reduce the burden of health care costs. PMID:28028523