Science.gov

Sample records for existing application modes

  1. MOF thin films: existing and future applications.

    PubMed

    Shekhah, O; Liu, J; Fischer, R A; Wöll, Ch

    2011-02-01

    The applications and potentials of thin film coatings of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) supported on various substrates are discussed in this critical review. Because the demand for fabricating such porous coatings is rather obvious, in the past years several synthesis schemes have been developed for the preparation of thin porous MOF films. Interestingly, although this is an emerging field seeing a rapid development a number of different applications on MOF films were either already demonstrated or have been proposed. This review focuses on the fabrication of continuous, thin porous films, either supported on solid substrates or as free-standing membranes. The availability of such two-dimensional types of porous coatings opened the door for a number of new perspectives for functionalizing surfaces. Also for the porous materials themselves, the availability of a solid support to which the MOF-films are rigidly (in a mechanical sense) anchored provides access to applications not available for the typical MOF powders with particle sizes of a few μm. We will also address some of the potential and applications of thin films in different fields like luminescence, QCM-based sensors, optoelectronics, gas separation and catalysis. A separate chapter has been devoted to the delamination of MOF thin films and discusses the potential to use them as free-standing membranes or as nano-containers. The review also demonstrates the possibility of using MOF thin films as model systems for detailed studies on MOF-related phenomena, e.g. adsorption and diffusion of small molecules into MOFs as well as the formation mechanism of MOFs (101 references).

  2. 28 CFR 0.32 - Applicability of existing departmental regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability of existing departmental regulations. 0.32 Section 0.32 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Community Relations Service § 0.32 Applicability of existing departmental...

  3. Existence of multisite intrinsic localized modes in one-dimensional Debye crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Koukouloyannis, V.; Kourakis, I.

    2007-07-15

    The existence of highly localized multisite oscillatory structures (discrete multibreathers) in a nonlinear Klein-Gordon chain which is characterized by an inverse dispersion law is proven and their linear stability is investigated. The results are applied in the description of vertical (transverse, off-plane) dust grain motion in dusty plasma crystals, by taking into account the lattice discreteness and the sheath electric and/or magnetic field nonlinearity. Explicit values from experimental plasma discharge experiments are considered. The possibility for the occurrence of multibreathers associated with vertical charged dust grain motion in strongly coupled dusty plasmas (dust crystals) is thus established. From a fundamental point of view, this study aims at providing a rigorous investigation of the existence of intrinsic localized modes in Debye crystals and/or dusty plasma crystals and, in fact, suggesting those lattices as model systems for the study of fundamental crystal properties.

  4. 46 CFR 117.15 - Applicability to existing vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability to existing vessels. 117.15 Section 117.15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS General Provisions...

  5. 46 CFR 117.15 - Applicability to existing vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicability to existing vessels. 117.15 Section 117.15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS General Provisions...

  6. 46 CFR 117.15 - Applicability to existing vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability to existing vessels. 117.15 Section 117.15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS General Provisions...

  7. 40 CFR 35.937-11 - Applicability to existing contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability to existing contracts. 35.937-11 Section 35.937-11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water...

  8. Adding Pluggable and Personalized Natural Control Capabilities to Existing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lamberti, Fabrizio; Sanna, Andrea; Carlevaris, Gilles; Demartini, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in input device and sensor technologies led to the evolution of the traditional human-machine interaction paradigm based on the mouse and keyboard. Touch-, gesture- and voice-based interfaces are integrated today in a variety of applications running on consumer devices (e.g., gaming consoles and smartphones). However, to allow existing applications running on desktop computers to utilize natural interaction, significant re-design and re-coding efforts may be required. In this paper, a framework designed to transparently add multi-modal interaction capabilities to applications to which users are accustomed is presented. Experimental observations confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed framework and led to a classification of those applications that could benefit more from the availability of natural interaction modalities. PMID:25635410

  9. Expanded mode lasers for telecommunications applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lealman, Ian F.

    This thesis describes the development of a long wavelength (1.55 μm) expanded mode semiconductor laser. The increased spot size of the laser improves both the coupling efficiency to cleaved fibre and fibre alignment tolerances and reduces packaging cost. In this type of device the strength of the waveguide is gradually reduced towards the front facet allowing the mode to adiabatically expand so that the laser mode is better matched in size to that of a cleaved fibre. This can be achieved by either reducing the refractive index of the guide or reducing the amount of material in the core. The structure chosen was a buried heterostructure laser that utilised a twin guide consisting of an upper higher refractive index guide (the active region of the laser) above a weak passive guide. The width of the active region was reduced along part of the device allowing the mode to expand into the weak underlying guide. The guide structure was optimised using a variable grid finite difference mode solver, and the taper length calculated by an approximation to Love's method. Detailed results are presented for the measured light-current characteristic, farfield and coupling loss to cleaved fibre. These coupling losses were compared to the calculated data thus allowing the waveguide design to be optimised. Several iterations in the design of the device were undertaken, with the aim of reducing the coupling loss to cleaved single mode fibre without significantly compromising the laser performance. The final device design had extremely low coupling losses as low as 1.2 dB to cleaved fibre. Finally, the positive impact this device had on passive alignment using a silicon motherboard is examined, and the application this technology to a range of other optoelectronic components is discussed.

  10. Dielectric elastomers: generator mode fundamentals and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelrine, Ron; Kornbluh, Roy D.; Eckerle, Joseph; Jeuck, Philip; Oh, Seajin; Pei, Qibing; Stanford, Scott

    2001-07-01

    Dielectric elastomers have shown great promise as actuator materials. Their advantages in converting mechanical to electrical energy in a generator mode are less well known. If a low voltage charge is placed on a stretched elastomer prior to contraction, the contraction works against the electrostatic field pressure and raises the voltage of the charge, thus generating electrical energy. This paper discusses the fundamentals of dielectric elastomer generators, experimental verification of the phenomenon, practical issues, and potential applications. Acrylic elastomers have demonstrated an estimated 0.4 J/g specific energy density, greater than that of piezoelectric materials. Much higher energy densities, over 1 J/g, are predicted. Conversion efficiency can also be high, theoretically up to 80-90%; the paper discusses the operating conditions and materials required for high efficiency. Practical considerations may limit the specific outputs and efficiencies of dielectric elastomeric generators, tradeoffs between electronics and generator material performance are discussed. Lastly, the paper describes work on potential applications such as an ongoing effort to develop a boot generator based on dielectric elastomers, as well as other applications such as conventional power generators, backpack generators, and wave power applications.

  11. Dual mode nuclear rocket system applications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boretz, J. E.; Bell, J. M.; Plebuch, R. K.; Priest, C. C.

    1972-01-01

    Mission areas where the dual-mode nuclear rocket system is superior to nondual-mode systems are demonstrated. It is shown that the dual-mode system is competitive with the nondual-mode system even for those specific missions and particular payload configurations where it does not have a clear-cut advantage.

  12. Dual mode stereotactic localization method and application

    DOEpatents

    Keppel, Cynthia E.; Barbosa, Fernando Jorge; Majewski, Stanislaw

    2002-01-01

    The invention described herein combines the structural digital X-ray image provided by conventional stereotactic core biopsy instruments with the additional functional metabolic gamma imaging obtained with a dedicated compact gamma imaging mini-camera. Before the procedure, the patient is injected with an appropriate radiopharmaceutical. The radiopharmaceutical uptake distribution within the breast under compression in a conventional examination table expressed by the intensity of gamma emissions is obtained for comparison (co-registration) with the digital mammography (X-ray) image. This dual modality mode of operation greatly increases the functionality of existing stereotactic biopsy devices by yielding a much smaller number of false positives than would be produced using X-ray images alone. The ability to obtain both the X-ray mammographic image and the nuclear-based medicine gamma image using a single device is made possible largely through the use of a novel, small and movable gamma imaging camera that permits its incorporation into the same table or system as that currently utilized to obtain X-ray based mammographic images for localization of lesions.

  13. Research of application mode for FTTX technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhong; Yun, Xiang; Huang, Wei

    2009-08-01

    With rapid development of Internet and broadband access network, the technologies of xDSL, FTTx+LAN, WLAN have more applications, new network service emerges in endless stream, especially the increase of network game, meeting TV, video on demand, etc. FTTH supports all present and future service with enormous bandwidth, including traditional telecommunication service, traditional data service and traditional TV service, and the future digital TV and VOD. With huge bandwidth of FTTH, it wins the final solution of broadband network, becomes the final goal of development of optical access network. In this paper, technique theory of EPON is introduced at first. At the same time, MAC frame structure, automatic detection and ranging of MPCP, DBA,and multi-LLID of EPON is analyzed. Then, service development ability, cost advantage and maintenance superiority based on EPON technology are carried out. At last,with Cost comparison between FTTH / FTTB building model and the traditional model, FTTB + LAN mode which is suitable for the newadding residential users in general areas and FTTN + DSL mode which is suitable for the old city and rural access network transformation are built up in detail. And FTTN + DSL project of rural information in rural areas and FTTH broadband HOUSE project on service solutions program are analyzed. comparing to the traditional access technologies, EPON technology has the obvious advantages, such as distance transmission, high or wide band, saving line resources, service abilities, etc. These are the qualities which not only be served for home users, but solve more access problems for us effectively.

  14. Existence of two MHD reconnection modes in a solar 3D magnetic null point topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pariat, Etienne; Antiochos, Spiro; DeVore, C. Richard; Dalmasse, Kévin

    2012-07-01

    Magnetic topologies with a 3D magnetic null point are common in the solar atmosphere and occur at different spatial scales: such structures can be associated with some solar eruptions, with the so-called pseudo-streamers, and with numerous coronal jets. We have recently developed a series of numerical experiments that model magnetic reconnection in such configurations in order to study and explain the properties of jet-like features. Our model uses our state-of-the-art adaptive-mesh MHD solver ARMS. Energy is injected in the system by line-tied motion of the magnetic field lines in a corona-like configuration. We observe that, in the MHD framework, two reconnection modes eventually appear in the course of the evolution of the system. A very impulsive one, associated with a highly dynamic and fully 3D current sheet, is associated with the energetic generation of a jet. Before and after the generation of the jet, a quasi-steady reconnection mode, more similar to the standard 2D Sweet-Parker model, presents a lower global reconnection rate. We show that the geometry of the magnetic configuration influences the trigger of one or the other mode. We argue that this result carries important implications for the observed link between observational features such as solar jets, solar plumes, and the emission of coronal bright points.

  15. Earth resources survey applications of the space shuttle sortie mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, R. D.; Smith, W. L.; Thomson, F. J.

    1973-01-01

    The use of the shuttle sortie mode for earth observation applications was investigated and its feasibility for applied research and instrument development was appraised. The results indicate that the shuttle sortie missions offer unique advantages and that specific aspects of earth applications are particularly suited to the sortie mode.

  16. Condition for the existence of complex modes in a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate with a highly quantized vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mine, Makoto; Fukuyama, Eriko; Okumura, Masahiko; Sunaga, Tomoka; Yamanaka, Yoshiya

    2008-03-01

    We consider a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) with a highly quantized vortex. For the BEC with a doubly, triply, or quadruply quantized vortex, the numerical calculations have shown that the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations, which describe the fluctuation of the condensate, have complex eigenvalues. In this talk, we show the analytic expression of the condition for the existence of complex modes, using the method developed by Rossignoli and Kowalski^1 for the small coupling constant. To derive it, we make the two-mode approximation. With the derived analytic formula, we can identify the quantum numbers of the complex modes for each winding number of the vortex^2. Our result is consistent with those obtained by the numerical calculation in the case that the winding number is two, three, or four. We prove that the complex modes always exist when the condensate has a highly quantized vortex^2. ^1 R. Rossignoli and A. M. Kowalski, Phys. Rev. A 72, 032101 (2005). ^2 E. Fukuyama, M. Mine, M. Okumura, T. Sunaga and Y. Yamanaka, Phys. Rev. A 76, 043608 (2007).

  17. Cusps and cuspidal edges at fluid interfaces: Existence and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krechetnikov, R.

    2015-04-01

    One of the intriguing questions in fluid dynamics is on the interrelation between dynamic singularities in the solutions of fluid dynamic equations - unboundedness of the velocity field in an appropriate norm - and the geometric ones - divergence of curvature at fluid interfaces. The present work focuses on two generic interfacial singularities - genuine cusps and cuspidal edges - found here in both two and three dimensions thus establishing a relation between real fluid interfaces and geometric singularity theory. The key finding is the necessary condition for the existence of geometric singularities, which is a variation of surface tension. It is also established here that the dynamic and geometric singularities entail each other only in the case of three-dimensional cusps. Explicit asymptotic solutions for the flow field and interface shape near steady-state singularities at fluid interfaces are developed as well. The practical motivation for the present study comes from the fundamental role interfacial singularities play in sustaining self-driven conversion of chemical into mechanical energy.

  18. Cusps and cuspidal edges at fluid interfaces: existence and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krechetnikov, Rouslan

    2015-11-01

    One of the intriguing questions in fluid dynamics is on the interrelation between dynamic singularities in the solutions of fluid dynamic equations - unboundedness of the velocity field in an appropriate norm - and the geometric ones - divergence of curvature at fluid interfaces. The present talk focuses on two generic interfacial singularities - genuine cusps and cuspidal edges - found here in both two and three dimensions thus establishing a relation between real fluid interfaces and geometric singularity theory. The key new finding is the necessary condition for the existence of geometric singularities, which is a variation of surface tension. It is also established here that the dynamic and geometric singularities entail each other only in the case of three-dimensional cusps. Explicit asymptotic solutions for the flow field and interface shape near steady-state singularities at fluid interfaces are developed as well. The practical motivation for the present study comes from the fundamental role interfacial singularities play in sustaining self-driven conversion of chemical into mechanical energy.

  19. 40 CFR 125.61 - Existence of and compliance with applicable water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... applicable water quality standards. 125.61 Section 125.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Water Act § 125.61 Existence of and compliance with applicable water quality standards. (a) There must exist a water quality standard or standards applicable to the pollutant(s) for which a section...

  20. 40 CFR 125.61 - Existence of and compliance with applicable water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... applicable water quality standards. 125.61 Section 125.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Water Act § 125.61 Existence of and compliance with applicable water quality standards. (a) There must exist a water quality standard or standards applicable to the pollutant(s) for which a section...

  1. 40 CFR 125.61 - Existence of and compliance with applicable water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... applicable water quality standards. 125.61 Section 125.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Water Act § 125.61 Existence of and compliance with applicable water quality standards. (a) There must exist a water quality standard or standards applicable to the pollutant(s) for which a section...

  2. 40 CFR 125.61 - Existence of and compliance with applicable water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... applicable water quality standards. 125.61 Section 125.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Water Act § 125.61 Existence of and compliance with applicable water quality standards. (a) There must exist a water quality standard or standards applicable to the pollutant(s) for which a section...

  3. Sliding mode control application in ABWR plant pressure regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhengyu; Edwards, Robert M.

    2002-07-01

    A sliding mode controller is designed for an ABWR nuclear power plant turbine throttle pressure regulation. To avoid chattering problem, which is common to conventional sliding mode controllers, and estimation of uncertainties and disturbances, the recursive-form sliding mode control algorithm is developed. To apply the sliding mode control technique, the original plant's 11.-order dynamics model is first transformed to a canonical form differential equation of a relative order of 2 for turbine throttle pressure's dynamics. Simulation results show that the design objectives are achieved and the resulting controller is superior to the existing PI controller in many aspects, including settling time, overshoot/undershoot in response to setpoint step input and fluctuation amplitude in the presence of external disturbances. (authors)

  4. Resonant mode controllers for launch vehicle applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiner, Ken E.; Roth, Mary Ellen

    1992-01-01

    Electro-mechanical actuator (EMA) systems are currently being investigated for the National Launch System (NLS) as a replacement for hydraulic actuators due to the large amount of manpower and support hardware required to maintain the hydraulic systems. EMA systems in weight sensitive applications, such as launch vehicles, have been limited to around 5 hp due to system size, controller efficiency, thermal management, and battery size. Presented here are design and test data for an EMA system that competes favorably in weight and is superior in maintainability to the hydraulic system. An EMA system uses dc power provided by a high energy density bipolar lithium thionyl chloride battery, with power conversion performed by low loss resonant topologies, and a high efficiency induction motor controlled with a high performance field oriented controller to drive a linear actuator.

  5. 23 CFR 633.203 - Applicability of existing laws, regulations, and directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of existing laws, regulations, and...) § 633.203 Applicability of existing laws, regulations, and directives. The provisions of title 23 U.S.C..., respectively, to the development highway system and the local access roads. In addition, the Regulations...

  6. Discrete sliding mode control for robust tracking of higher order delay time systems with experimental application.

    PubMed

    Khandekar, A A; Malwatkar, G M; Patre, B M

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a discrete time sliding mode controller (DSMC) is proposed for higher order plus delay time (HOPDT) processes. A sliding mode surface is selected as a function of system states and error and the tuning parameters of sliding mode controller are determined using dominant pole placement strategy. The condition for the existence of stable sliding mode is obtained by using Lyapunov function. The proposed method is applicable to HOPDT processes with oscillatory and integrating behavior, open loop instability or non-minimum phase characteristics and works satisfactory under the effect of parametric uncertainty. The method does not require reduced order model and provides simple way to design the controllers. The simulation and experimentation results show that the proposed method ensures desired tracking dynamics.

  7. Second-order sliding mode control with experimental application.

    PubMed

    Eker, Ilyas

    2010-07-01

    In this article, a second-order sliding mode control (2-SMC) is proposed for second-order uncertain plants using equivalent control approach to improve the performance of control systems. A Proportional + Integral + Derivative (PID) sliding surface is used for the sliding mode. The sliding mode control law is derived using direct Lyapunov stability approach and asymptotic stability is proved theoretically. The performance of the closed-loop system is analysed through an experimental application to an electromechanical plant to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed second-order sliding mode control and factors involved in the design. The second-order plant parameters are experimentally determined using input-output measured data. The results of the experimental application are presented to make a quantitative comparison with the traditional (first-order) sliding mode control (SMC) and PID control. It is demonstrated that the proposed 2-SMC system improves the performance of the closed-loop system with better tracking specifications in the case of external disturbances, better behavior of the output and faster convergence of the sliding surface while maintaining the stability.

  8. Existence of travelling wave solutions for a Fisher-Kolmogorov system with biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte-Beitia, Juan

    2016-07-01

    We consider a Fisher-Kolmogorov system with applications in oncology Pérez-García et al. (2015). Of interest is the question of the existence of travelling front solutions of the system. When the speed of the travelling wave is sufficiently large, existence of such fronts is shown using singular geometric perturbation theory.

  9. 78 FR 13089 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... Safety and Health Administration Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Section 101(c) of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 and 30 CFR Part 44 govern the application,...

  10. 77 FR 14430 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... modify the application of any mandatory safety standard to a coal or other mine if the Secretary of Labor... protection afforded the miner by the standard. Docket Number: M-2012-008-C. Petitioner: Arch Coal, Hazard... Safety and Health Administration Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory...

  11. 77 FR 38667 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ...Section 101(c) of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 and 30 CFR part 44 govern the application, processing, and disposition of petitions for modification. This notice is a summary of petitions for modification submitted to the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) by the parties listed below to modify the application of existing mandatory safety standards codified in Title......

  12. 77 FR 19722 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ...Section 101(c) of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 and 30 CFR Part 44 govern the application, processing, and disposition of petitions for modification. This notice is a summary of petitions for modification submitted to the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) by the parties listed below to modify the application of existing mandatory safety standards codified in Title......

  13. 77 FR 37926 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ...Section 101(c) of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 and 30 CFR Part 44 govern the application, processing, and disposition of petitions for modification. This notice is a summary of petitions for modification submitted to the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) by the parties listed below to modify the application of existing mandatory safety standards codified in Title......

  14. Injection seeded single mode alexandrite ring laser for lidar applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, H. Sang; Notari, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    Along with many spectroscopic applications, atmospheric lidar measurements require a tunable, narrow band laser with a very high degree of spectral purity. A standing wave pulsed alexandrite laser tuned by injection seeding with an AlGaAs laser diode has demonstrated high stability. The standing wave cavity, however, poses several difficulties in light of the single mode operation and efficient seeding beam into the cavity. In order to overcome these problems and to operate the high power alexandrite laser in a single axial mode with a high spectral purity, a new ring laser system is being developed. The design features of the ring laser and some measurements of the laser characteristics are presented.

  15. Existence and comparison results for fixed points of multifunctions with applications to normal-form games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkila, S.

    2007-08-01

    In this paper we apply generalized iteration methods to prove comparison results which show how fixed points of a multifunction can be bounded by least and greatest fixed points of single-valued functions. As an application we prove existence and comparison results for fixed points of multifunctions. These results are applied to normal-form games, by proving existence and comparison results for pure and mixed Nash equilibria and their utilities.

  16. Splitting of the zero-bias conductance peak as smoking gun evidence for the existence of the Majorana mode in a superconductor-semiconductor nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das Sarma, S.; Sau, Jay D.; Stanescu, Tudor D.

    2012-12-01

    Recent observations of a zero-bias conductance peak in tunneling transport measurements in superconductor-semiconductor nanowire devices provide evidence for the predicted zero-energy Majorana modes, but not the conclusive proof of their existence. We establish that direct observation of a splitting of the zero-bias conductance peak can serve as the smoking gun evidence for the existence of the Majorana mode. We show that the splitting has an oscillatory dependence on the Zeeman field (chemical potential) at fixed chemical potential (Zeeman field). By contrast, when the density is constant rather than the chemical potential—the likely situation in the current experimental setups—the splitting oscillations are generically suppressed. Our theory predicts the conditions under which the splitting oscillations can serve as the smoking gun for the experimental confirmation of the elusive Majorana mode.

  17. NEW APPLICATIONS IN THE INVERSION OF ACOUSTIC FULL WAVEFORM LOGS - RELATING MODE EXCITATION TO LITHOLOGY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Cheng, C.H.; Meredith, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Existing techniques for the quantitative interpretation of waveform data have been based on one of two fundamental approaches: (1) simultaneous identification of compressional and shear velocities; and (2) least-squares minimization of the difference between experimental waveforms and synthetic seismograms. Techniques based on the first approach do not always work, and those based on the second seem too numerically cumbersome for routine application during data processing. An alternative approach is tested here, in which synthetic waveforms are used to predict relative mode excitation in the composite waveform. Synthetic waveforms are generated for a series of lithologies ranging from hard, crystalline rocks (Vp equals 6. 0 km/sec. and Poisson's ratio equals 0. 20) to soft, argillaceous sediments (Vp equals 1. 8 km/sec. and Poisson's ratio equals 0. 40). The series of waveforms illustrates a continuous change within this range of rock properties. Mode energy within characteristic velocity windows is computed for each of the modes in the set of synthetic waveforms. The results indicate that there is a consistent variation in mode excitation in lithology space that can be used to construct a unique relationship between relative mode excitation and lithology.

  18. Integrating Existing Applications in Hypermedia Learning Material (General Issues & Experiences with OLE Technology).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borst Pauwels, H. W. J.; And Others

    The integration of existing applications in hypermedia environments is a promising approach towards more flexible and user-friendly hypermedia learning materials. A hypermedia courseware editor, called HyDE (Hypermedia Document Editor) was developed using Microsoft Windows TM OLE technology. OLE (object Linking and Embedding) stands for an…

  19. 40 CFR 63.1422 - Compliance dates and relationship of this rule to existing applicable rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pressure relief device monitoring requirements of § 63.1434(c)(3) by March 27, 2017. New affected sources... existing applicable rules. (a) (b) New affected sources that commence construction or reconstruction after... by June 1, 1999, whichever is later. New affected sources that commenced construction...

  20. 26 CFR 20.2045-1 - Applicability to pre-existing transfers or interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Applicability to pre-existing transfers or interests. 20.2045-1 Section 20.2045-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Gross...

  1. 26 CFR 20.2045-1 - Applicability to pre-existing transfers or interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability to pre-existing transfers or interests. 20.2045-1 Section 20.2045-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Gross...

  2. 26 CFR 20.2045-1 - Applicability to pre-existing transfers or interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applicability to pre-existing transfers or interests. 20.2045-1 Section 20.2045-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Gross...

  3. 26 CFR 20.2045-1 - Applicability to pre-existing transfers or interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Applicability to pre-existing transfers or interests. 20.2045-1 Section 20.2045-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Gross...

  4. 26 CFR 20.2045-1 - Applicability to pre-existing transfers or interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Applicability to pre-existing transfers or interests. 20.2045-1 Section 20.2045-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Gross...

  5. Flexible Modes Control Using Sliding Mode Observers: Application to Ares I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shtessel, Yuri B.; Hall, Charles E.; Baev, Simon; Orr, Jeb S.

    2010-01-01

    The launch vehicle dynamics affected by bending and sloshing modes are considered. Attitude measurement data that are corrupted by flexible modes could yield instability of the vehicle dynamics. Flexible body and sloshing modes are reconstructed by sliding mode observers. The resultant estimates are used to remove the undesirable dynamics from the measurements, and the direct effects of sloshing and bending modes on the launch vehicle are compensated by means of a controller that is designed without taking the bending and sloshing modes into account. A linearized mathematical model of Ares I launch vehicle was derived based on FRACTAL, a linear model developed by NASA/MSFC. The compensated vehicle dynamics with a simple PID controller were studied for the launch vehicle model that included two bending modes, two slosh modes and actuator dynamics. A simulation study demonstrated stable and accurate performance of the flight control system with the augmented simple PID controller without the use of traditional linear bending filters.

  6. On the existence of Weibel instability in a magnetized plasma. II. Perpendicular wave propagation: The ordinary mode

    SciTech Connect

    Ibscher, D.; Lazar, M.; Schlickeiser, R.

    2012-07-15

    In a magnetized plasma with a temperature anisotropy T{sub ||}>T{sub Up-Tack} (where || and Up-Tack denote directions with respect to the uniform magnetic field B{sub 0}), the nonresonant Weibel instability can develop and destabilize purely growing, ordinary plasma modes (k=k{sub Up-Tack }). This paper presents a rigorous extended analysis of this instability on the basis of a new threshold b{sub 0}(k), which enables to determine the instability conditions as well as the upper limits of the growth rates. Accurate analytical forms of the threshold conditions are provided here for the first time and for the full physical range of the temperature anisotropy and the parallel plasma beta. The marginal and threshold conditions for the plasma parameters, which directly lead to an instability of the ordinary mode, are explicitly derived numerically and analytically. The new analytical tools developed here provide premises for a comprehensive investigation of the interplay of this instability with the firehose instability, as they both can develop in the same conditions.

  7. MHD-model for low-frequency waves in a tokamak with toroidal plasma rotation and problem of existence of global geodesic acoustic modes

    SciTech Connect

    Lakhin, V. P.; Sorokina, E. A. E-mail: vilkiae@gmail.com; Ilgisonis, V. I.; Konovaltseva, L. V.

    2015-12-15

    A set of reduced linear equations for the description of low-frequency perturbations in toroidally rotating plasma in axisymmetric tokamak is derived in the framework of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. The model suitable for the study of global geodesic acoustic modes (GGAMs) is designed. An example of the use of the developed model for derivation of the integral conditions for GGAM existence and of the corresponding dispersion relation is presented. The paper is dedicated to the memory of academician V.D. Shafranov.

  8. Applicability study on existing dosimetry systems to high-power Bremsstrahlung irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Kishor; Kojima, Takuji; Sunaga, Hiromi

    2003-12-01

    Applicability of the existing dosimetry systems to high-power Bremsstrahlung irradiation was investigated through a dose intercomparison study, where several dosimeters were irradiated in the dose range 4-12 kGy in identical polyethylene phantoms in a Bremsstrahlung beam obtained from a 5-MeV electron accelerator. Included in the study were alanine dosimeters molded by three different binders, three types of liquid dosimeters—ceric-cerous, dichromate and ethanol-chlorobenzen (ECB), and glutamine powder. The dosimeter responses for Bremsstrahlung radiation were analyzed at the issuing laboratories, and the dose values determined using calibration based on cobalt-60 gamma-ray irradiation. Dose values for all the three dose levels for all dosimetry systems were in good agreement—better than 3%. The results of the study demonstrate that these existing dosimetry systems have a potential for application to high-power Bremsstrahlung irradiation.

  9. Strategy Guideline: Application of a Construction Quality Process to Existing Home Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Mallay, D.; Del Bianco, M.

    2013-08-01

    The Home Innovation Research Labs developed a construction quality process for new and existing high performance homes (HPH) in which high performance goals are established, specifications to meet those goals are defined, and construction monitoring points are added to the construction schedule so that critical energy efficiency details are systematically reviewed, documented, and tested in a timely manner. This report follows the evolution of the construction quality process from its development for new homes, to its application in the construction of a high performance home with enhanced specifications, and its application in a crawlspace renovation.

  10. Strategy Guideline. Application of a Construction Quality Process to Existing Home Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Mallay, D.; Del Bianco, M.

    2013-08-01

    The Partnership for Home Innovation developed a construction quality process for new and existing high performance homes (HPH) in which high performance goals are established, specifications to meet those goals are defined, and construction monitoring points are added to the construction schedule so that critical energy efficiency details are systematically reviewed, documented, and tested in a timely manner. This report follows the evolution of the construction quality process from its development for new homes, to its application in the construction of a high performance home with enhanced specifications, and its application in a crawlspace renovation.

  11. Feasibility study of the application of existing techniques to remotely monitor hydrochloric acid in the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwick, H.; Ward, V.; Beaudette, L.

    1973-01-01

    A critical evaluation of existing optical remote sensors for HCl vapor detection in solid propellant rocket plumes is presented. The P branch of the fundamental vibration-rotation band was selected as the most promising spectral feature to sense. A computation of transmittance for HCl vapor, an estimation of interferent spectra, the application of these spectra to computer modelled remote sensors, and a trade-off study for instrument recommendation are also included.

  12. Nanotube Films and Their Application For Mode-Locked Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozhin, Alex G.; Ferrar, A. C.

    2009-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exhibit strong saturable absorption, i.e. they become transparent under sufficiently intense light. This has great potential for applications in photonics. By tuning the nanotube diameter it is easy to tune the saturable absorption in a broad optical range of interest for telecommunications, medicine and military applications. The performance of CNTs based saturable absorbers depends on concentration, bundle size, and transparency of the matrix where CNTs are dispersed. CNT saturable absorbers can be produced by cheap wet chemistry and can be easily integrated into polymer photonic systems. Here, we review the fabrication and characterization of saturable absorber based on CNT-polymer optical composites [1,2,3]. We use strong ultrasonication to obtain CNT solutions. Such solutions with different nanotube bundle sizes are then studied by photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy [4]. We find that exciton energy transfer between semiconducting CNTs is an efficient carrier relaxation channel in the bundles [4]. This fingerprints and quantifies the presence of small bundles and allows us to optimize the solutions used for composites preparation. We demonstrate picosecond pulse generation in a nanotube mode-locked waveguide laser [5], as well as 125 fs generation in an erbium doped fiber laser. We also report a novel SWNT- polycarbonate polymer composite, with a absorption maximum at 1550 nm and a bandwidth of about 300 nm [6]. This has strong saturable absorption with saturation intensity of 7 MW/cm^2. We demonstrate the first SWNT-mode-locked widely tunable fibre ring laser [7]. This is achieved through the control of amplification at the specific transitions of the Er^3+ gain medium by placing a band-pass filter in a laser cavity [7]. [1] A. G. Rozhin et al. Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 243, 3551 (2006). [2] V. Scardaci et al. Physica E 37, 115 (2007) [3] T. Hasan et al. J. Phys. Chem C 111, 12549 (2007) [4] P. H. Tan et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 99

  13. Polymer based whispering gallery mode laser for biosensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, Alexandre; Riesen, Nicolas; Ji, Hong; Afshar V., Shahraam; Monro, Tanya M.

    2015-01-01

    Whispering gallery mode lasers are of interest for a wide range of applications and especially biological sensing, exploiting the dependence of the resonance wavelengths on the surrounding refractive index. Upon lasing, the Q factors of the resonances are greatly improved, enabling measurements of wavelength shifts with increased accuracy. A way forward to improve the performance of the refractive index sensing mechanism is to reduce the size of the optical resonator, as the refractive index sensitivity is inversely proportional to the resonator dimensions. However, as the lasing threshold is believed to depend on the Q factor among other parameters, and the reduction of the microresonator size results in lower Q, this poses additional challenges for reaching the lasing threshold. In this letter, we demonstrate lasing in 10 μm diameter dye doped polystyrene microspheres in aqueous solution, the smallest polystyrene microsphere lasers ever reported in these conditions. We also investigate the dependence of the lasing threshold on the Q factor by changing the refractive index surrounding the sphere, highlighting a much stronger dependency than initially reported.

  14. Acoustic mode coupling induced by nonlinear internal waves: evaluation of the mode coupling matrices and applications.

    PubMed

    Yang, T C

    2014-02-01

    This paper applies the mode coupling equation to calculate the mode-coupling matrix for nonlinear internal waves appearing as a train of solitons. The calculation is applied to an individual soliton up to second order expansion in sound speed perturbation in the Dyson series. The expansion is valid so long as the fractional sound speed change due to a single soliton, integrated over range and depth, times the wavenumber is smaller than unity. Scattering between the solitons are included by coupling the mode coupling matrices between the solitons. Acoustic fields calculated using this mode-coupling matrix formulation are compared with that obtained using a parabolic equation (PE) code. The results agree very well in terms of the depth integrated acoustic energy at the receivers for moving solitary internal waves. The advantages of using the proposed approach are: (1) The effects of mode coupling can be studied as a function of range and time as the solitons travel along the propagation path, and (2) it allows speedy calculations of sound propagation through a packet or packets of solitons saving orders of magnitude computations compared with the PE code. The mode coupling theory is applied to at-sea data to illustrate the underlying physics.

  15. Application of intrawell testing of RCRA groundwater monitoring data when no upgradient well exists.

    PubMed

    Chou, C J; O'Brien, R F; Barnett, D B

    2001-09-01

    A statistical quality control approach to detect changes in groundwater quality from a regulated waste unit is described. The approach applies the combined Shewhart-CUSUM control chart methodology for intrawell comparison of analyte concentrations over time and does not require an upgradient well. A case study from the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site is used for illustration purposes. This method is broadly applicable in groundwater monitoring programs where there is no clearly defined upgradient location, the groundwater flow rate is exceptionally slow, or where a high degree of spatial variability exists in parameter concentrations. This study also indicates that the use of the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process can assist in designing an efficient and cost-effective groundwater monitoring plan to achieve the optimum goal of both low false positive and low false negative rates (high power). PMID:11589498

  16. MageComet—web application for harmonizing existing large-scale experiment descriptions

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Vincent; Burdett, Tony; Lukk, Margus; Taylor, Julie; Brazma, Alvis; Parkinson, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Meta-analysis of large gene expression datasets obtained from public repositories requires consistently annotated data. Curation of such experiments, however, is an expert activity which involves repetitive manipulation of text. Existing tools for automated curation are few, which bottleneck the analysis pipeline. Results: We present MageComet, a web application for biologists and annotators that facilitates the re-annotation of gene expression experiments in MAGE-TAB format. It incorporates data mining, automatic annotation, use of ontologies and data validation to improve the consistency and quality of experimental meta-data from the ArrayExpress Repository. Availability and implementation: Source and tutorials for MageComet are openly available at goo.gl/8LQPR under the GNU GPL v3 licenses. An implementation can be found at goo.gl/IdCuA Contact: parkinson@ebi.ac.uk or xue.vin@gmail.com PMID:22474121

  17. An architecture for standardized terminology services by wrapping and integration of existing applications.

    PubMed

    Cornet, Roland; Prins, Antoon K

    2003-01-01

    Research on terminology services has resulted in development of applications and definition of standards, but has not yet led to widespread use of (standardized) terminology services in practice. Current terminology services offer functionality both for concept representation and lexical knowledge representation, hampering the possibility of combining the strengths of dedicated (concept and lexical) services. We therefore propose an extensible architecture in which concept-related and lexicon-related components are integrated and made available through a uniform interface. This interface can be extended in order to conform to existing standards, making it possible to use dedicated (third-party) components in a standardized way. As a proof of concept and a reference implementation, a SOAP-based Java implementation of the terminology service is being developed, providing wrappers for Protégé and UMLS Knowledge Source Server. Other systems, such as the Description Logic-based reasoner RACER can be easily integrated by implementation of an appropriate wrapper.

  18. Application of intrawell testing of RCRA groundwater monitoring data when no upgradient well exists.

    PubMed

    Chou, C J; O'Brien, R F; Barnett, D B

    2001-09-01

    A statistical quality control approach to detect changes in groundwater quality from a regulated waste unit is described. The approach applies the combined Shewhart-CUSUM control chart methodology for intrawell comparison of analyte concentrations over time and does not require an upgradient well. A case study from the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site is used for illustration purposes. This method is broadly applicable in groundwater monitoring programs where there is no clearly defined upgradient location, the groundwater flow rate is exceptionally slow, or where a high degree of spatial variability exists in parameter concentrations. This study also indicates that the use of the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process can assist in designing an efficient and cost-effective groundwater monitoring plan to achieve the optimum goal of both low false positive and low false negative rates (high power).

  19. Detrending with Empirical Mode Decomposition (DEMD): Theory, Evaluation, and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolch, Michael Adam

    measurements from ˜18 m s -1 to ˜55 m s-1 over a stable marine boundary layer (MBL). Another set of observations studies HOP and tower data, using the Duke University Mobile Micrometeorological Station (MMS) over an MBL, and concludes that HOP sensible heat (SH), latent heat (LE), and carbon dioxide (F CO2) fluxes align well with MMS findings. The HOP sensors provide ABL data at 40 Hz, as well as a real-time display of theta for in-flight ABL height estimation. Sensor calibration and alignment procedures indicate usable ABL measurements. HOP data are especially susceptible to the spurious influence of platform motion on ABL data, largely due to the low-altitude and low-airspeed capabilities of the HOP. For example, HOP altitude motion in the presence of a lapse rate can cause spurious T fluctuations. Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) can separate HOP data into a set of adaptive and unique intrinsic mode functions (IMFs), often with physical meaning. DEMD aims to correct for spurious contributions to HOP data, while merging EMD with a correlation analysis to adjust data without eliminating relevant ABL dynamics. To evaluate DEMD efficacy, two-dimensional synthetic T fields with simulated turbulence over a prescribed lapse rate are sampled with altitude fluctuations similar to HOP flights, and with a wide range of T perturbation and sampling path parameter variations. DEMD recovers the prescribed lapse rate within 1% on average for the 552 test cases passing the filtering criteria. The method is further evaluated via application to vertical cross sections taken from the Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Model (OLAM) large-eddy simulation (LES) results, where DEMD shows improved accuracy of SH recovery. DEMD is applied to three low-altitude HOP flight legs flown on 19 June 2007 during the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC), both as an example of practical application and to compare DEMD to the initially proposed method (Holder et al. 2011, hereafter H11). H11 dictates

  20. Applicability of the Existing CVD Risk Assessment Tools to Type II Diabetics in Oman: A Review.

    PubMed

    Al-Rawahi, Abdulhakeem; Lee, Patricia

    2015-09-01

    Patients with type II diabetes (T2DM) have an elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and it is considered to be a leading cause of morbidity and premature mortality in these patients. Many traditional risk factors such as age, male sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, glycemic control, diabetes duration, renal dysfunction, obesity, and smoking have been studied and identified as independent factors for CVD. Quantifying the risk of CVD among diabetics using the common risk factors in order to plan the treatment and preventive measures is important in the management of these patients as recommended by many clinical guidelines. Therefore, several risk assessment tools have been developed in different parts of the world for this purpose. These include the tools that have been developed for general populations and considered T2DM as a risk factor, and the tools that have been developed for T2DM populations specifically. However, due to the differences in sociodemographic factors and lifestyle patterns, as well as the differences in the distribution of various CVD risk factors in different diabetic populations, the external applicability of these tools on different populations is questionable. This review aims to address the applicability of the existing CVD risk models to the Omani diabetic population.

  1. Possible confirmation of the existence of the ergoregion by the Kerr quasinormal mode in gravitational waves from a Population III massive black hole binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinugawa, Tomoya; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    The existence of the ergoregion of the Kerr space-time has not yet been confirmed observationally. We show that the confirmation would be possible by observing the quasinormal mode in gravitational waves. As an example, using the recent population synthesis results of Population III (Pop III) binary black holes, we find that the peak of the final merger mass (M_f) is about 50 M_{⊙}, while the fraction of the final spin q_f = a_f/M_f > 0.7 needed for the confirmation of a part of the ergoregion is {˜ }77%. To confirm the frequency of the quasinormal mode, SNR > 35 is needed. The standard model of Pop III population synthesis tells us that the event rate for the confirmation of more than 50% of the ergoregion by second generation gravitational wave detectors is {˜ }2.3 events yr^{-1 (SFR_p/(10^{-2.5} M_⊙ yr^{-1} Mpc^{-3}))} \\cdot ([f_b/(1+f_b)]/0.33), where SFR_p and f_b are the peak value of the Pop III star formation rate and the fraction of binaries, respectively.

  2. Few-mode fiber based sensor in biomedical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing

    2015-05-01

    A novel few-mode fiber based sensor for monitoring the vital signs of pulse (heart rate), and breathing rate (respiratory rate) was developed. The sensor was applied in non-invasive measurement of pulse and breathing rates. The pulse, breathing and even body movement affected the sensor's output as the strain on the few-mode fiber changed with these activities. This sensor has simple structure and easy to fabricate. Its signal is easy to monitor. It can be used in the medical equipment in what situation non-invasive realtime monitoring and measurement of pulse rate, and respiratory/body movement pattern of healthy subjects are required.

  3. Application of partial sliding mode in guidance problem.

    PubMed

    Shafiei, M H; Binazadeh, T

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, the problem of 3-dimensional guidance law design is considered and a new guidance law based on partial sliding mode technique is presented. The approach is based on the classification of the state variables within the guidance system dynamics with respect to their required stabilization properties. In the proposed law by using a partial sliding mode technique, only trajectories of a part of states variables are forced to reach the partial sliding surfaces and slide on them. The resulting guidance law enables the missile to intercept highly maneuvering targets within a finite interception time. Effectiveness of the proposed guidance law is demonstrated through analysis and simulations.

  4. Mode-matching without root-finding: application to a dissipative silencer.

    PubMed

    Lawrie, Jane B; Kirby, Ray

    2006-04-01

    This article presents an analytic mode-matching approach suitable for modelling the propagation of sound in a two-dimensional, three-part, ducting system. The approach avoids the need to find roots of the characteristic equation for the middle section of the duct (the component) and is readily applicable to a broad class of problems. It is demonstrated that the system of equations, derived via analytic mode-matching, exhibits certain features which ensure that they can be recast into a form that is independent of the roots of the characteristic equation for the component. The precise details of the component are irrelevant to the procedure; it is required only that there exists an orthogonality relation, or similar, for the eigenmodes corresponding to the propagating wave forms in this region. The method is applied here to a simple problem involving acoustic transmission through a dissipative silencer of the type commonly found in heating ventilation and air-conditioning ducts. With reference to this example, the silencer transmission loss is computed, and the power balance for the silencer is investigated and is shown to be an identity that is necessarily satisfied by the system of equations, regardless of the level of truncation.

  5. Testing existing software for safety-related applications. Revision 7.1

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J.A.; Lawrence, J.D.

    1995-12-01

    The increasing use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software products in digital safety-critical applications is raising concerns about the safety, reliability, and quality of these products. One of the factors involved in addressing these concerns is product testing. A tester`s knowledge of the software product will vary, depending on the information available from the product vendor. In some cases, complete source listings, program structures, and other information from the software development may be available. In other cases, only the complete hardware/software package may exist, with the tester having no knowledge of the internal structure of the software. The type of testing that can be used will depend on the information available to the tester. This report describes six different types of testing, which differ in the information used to create the tests, the results that may be obtained, and the limitations of the test types. An Annex contains background information on types of faults encountered in testing, and a Glossary of pertinent terms is also included. This study is pertinent for safety-related software at reactors.

  6. Models for 31-Mode PVDF Energy Harvester for Wearable Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jingjing; You, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Currently, wearable electronics are increasingly widely used, leading to an increasing need of portable power supply. As a clean and renewable power source, piezoelectric energy harvester can transfer mechanical energy into electric energy directly, and the energy harvester based on polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) operating in 31-mode is appropriate to harvest energy from human motion. This paper established a series of theoretical models to predict the performance of 31-mode PVDF energy harvester. Among them, the energy storage one can predict the collected energy accurately during the operation of the harvester. Based on theoretical study and experiments investigation, two approaches to improve the energy harvesting performance have been found. Furthermore, experiment results demonstrate the high accuracies of the models, which are better than 95%. PMID:25114981

  7. Models for 31-mode PVDF energy harvester for wearable applications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingjing; You, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Currently, wearable electronics are increasingly widely used, leading to an increasing need of portable power supply. As a clean and renewable power source, piezoelectric energy harvester can transfer mechanical energy into electric energy directly, and the energy harvester based on polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) operating in 31-mode is appropriate to harvest energy from human motion. This paper established a series of theoretical models to predict the performance of 31-mode PVDF energy harvester. Among them, the energy storage one can predict the collected energy accurately during the operation of the harvester. Based on theoretical study and experiments investigation, two approaches to improve the energy harvesting performance have been found. Furthermore, experiment results demonstrate the high accuracies of the models, which are better than 95%. PMID:25114981

  8. Models for 31-mode PVDF energy harvester for wearable applications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingjing; You, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Currently, wearable electronics are increasingly widely used, leading to an increasing need of portable power supply. As a clean and renewable power source, piezoelectric energy harvester can transfer mechanical energy into electric energy directly, and the energy harvester based on polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) operating in 31-mode is appropriate to harvest energy from human motion. This paper established a series of theoretical models to predict the performance of 31-mode PVDF energy harvester. Among them, the energy storage one can predict the collected energy accurately during the operation of the harvester. Based on theoretical study and experiments investigation, two approaches to improve the energy harvesting performance have been found. Furthermore, experiment results demonstrate the high accuracies of the models, which are better than 95%.

  9. Highly polarizing single-mode optical fiber for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chih-Hao; Jacobsen, Bill; Bolte, David; Fournier, Paula; Mayfield, Jeffrey; Soufiane, Abdel

    2009-10-01

    We demonstrate a highly manufacturable, low-cost, compatible Single-Polarization Fiber (PZF), which offers the widest polarization bandwidth ever reported in commercial fibers, combined with superior polarization extinction ratio and performance consistency. The principle of the design is discussed in this paper and the full spectral attenuation results shown. We demonstrate the exceptional performance of the fiber for different fiber lengths and layouts. Experimental results show that the Single-Polarization fiber of this study exhibits a Polarization Extinction Ratio (PER) greater than 40dB, and a polarizing bandwidth wider than 200nm, measured on fiber lengths as short as four meters. In addition, PZF is designed with a circular mode field, which makes it low-loss and highly compatible with standard single mode fiber systems and devices.

  10. Longitudinal Modes along Thin Piezoelectric Waveguides for Liquid Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Caliendo, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    The propagation of longitudinally polarized acoustic modes along thin piezoelectric plates (BN, ZnO, InN, AlN and GaN) is theoretically studied, aiming at the design of high frequency electroacoustic devices suitable for work in liquid environments. The investigation of the acoustic field profile across the plate revealed the presence of longitudinally polarized Lamb modes, travelling at velocities close to that of the longitudinal bulk acoustic wave propagating in the same direction. Such waves are suitable for the implementation of high-frequency, low-loss electroacoustic devices operating in liquid environments. The time-averaged power flow density, the phase velocity and the electroacoustic coupling coefficient K2 dispersion curves were studied, for the first (S0) and four higher order (S1, S2, S3, S4) symmetrical modes for different electrical boundary conditions. Two electroacoustic coupling configurations were investigated, based on interdigitated transducers, with or without a metal floating electrode at the opposite plate surface. Enhanced performances, such as a K2 as high as 8.5% and a phase velocity as high as 16,700 m/s, were demostrated for the ZnO- and BN-based waveguides, as an example. The relative velocity changes, and the inertial and viscous sensitivities of the first symmetric and anti-symmetric mode, S0 and A0, propagating along thin plates bordered by a viscous liquid were derived using the perturbation approach. The present study highlights the feasibility of the piezoelectric waveguides to the development of high-frequency, integrated-circuits compatible electroacoustic devices suitable for working in liquid environment. PMID:26043174

  11. Application of impedance measurement techniques to accelerating cavity mode characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, S. M.; Stefan, P. M.

    1993-11-01

    Impedance measurements, using a central wire to simulate the electron beam, were performed on a 52 MHz accelerating cavity at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). This cavity was recently installed in the X-ray storage ring at the NSLS as a part of an upgrade of the ring. To damp higher-order modes (HOM) in this cavity, damping antennas have been installed. We implemented the impedance measurement technique to characterize the cavity modes up to 1 GHz and confirm the effectiveness of the damping antennas. Scattering parameters were measured using a network analyzer (HP 8510B) with a personal computer as a controller. Analysis based on S and T parameters for the system was used to solve for the cavity impedance, Z( ω), as a function of the measured transmission response, S21( ω). Search techniques were used to find the shunt resistance Rsh, and Q from the calculated Z( ω) for different modes. Our results for {R}/{Q} showed good agreement with URMEL simulations. The values of Q were compared with other independent Q measurement techniques. Our analytical technique offers an alternative approach for cases where full thru-reflection-line (TRL) calibration is not feasible and a more time-effective technique for obtaining {R}/{Q}, compared with the bead-pull method.

  12. Comparison of mode estimation methods and application in molecular clock analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedges, S. Blair; Shah, Prachi

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Distributions of time estimates in molecular clock studies are sometimes skewed or contain outliers. In those cases, the mode is a better estimator of the overall time of divergence than the mean or median. However, different methods are available for estimating the mode. We compared these methods in simulations to determine their strengths and weaknesses and further assessed their performance when applied to real data sets from a molecular clock study. RESULTS: We found that the half-range mode and robust parametric mode methods have a lower bias than other mode methods under a diversity of conditions. However, the half-range mode suffers from a relatively high variance and the robust parametric mode is more susceptible to bias by outliers. We determined that bootstrapping reduces the variance of both mode estimators. Application of the different methods to real data sets yielded results that were concordant with the simulations. CONCLUSION: Because the half-range mode is a simple and fast method, and produced less bias overall in our simulations, we recommend the bootstrapped version of it as a general-purpose mode estimator and suggest a bootstrap method for obtaining the standard error and 95% confidence interval of the mode.

  13. Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade laser for high resolution spectroscopic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysocki, G.; Curl, R. F.; Tittel, F. K.; Maulini, R.; Bulliard, J. M.; Faist, J.

    2005-10-01

    An external cavity (EC) quantum cascade laser (QCL) configuration with the thermoelectrically cooled gain medium fabricated using a bound-to-continuum design and operating in continuous wave at ˜5.2 μm is reported. The EC architecture employs a piezo-activated cavity mode tracking system for mode-hop free operation suitable for high resolution spectroscopic applications and multiple species trace-gas detection. The performance of the EC-QCL exhibits coarse single mode tuning over 35 cm-1 and a continuous mode-hop free fine tuning range of ˜1.2 cm-1.

  14. Advanced high pressure engine study for mixed-mode vehicle applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luscher, W. P.; Mellish, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    High pressure liquid rocket engine design, performance, weight, envelope, and operational characteristics were evaluated for a variety of candidate engines for use in mixed-mode, single-stage-to-orbit applications. Propellant property and performance data were obtained for candidate Mode 1 fuels which included: RP-1, RJ-5, hydrazine, monomethyl-hydrazine, and methane. The common oxidizer was liquid oxygen. Oxygen, the candidate Mode 1 fuels, and hydrogen were evaluated as thrust chamber coolants. Oxygen, methane, and hydrogen were found to be the most viable cooling candidates. Water, lithium, and sodium-potassium were also evaluated as auxiliary coolant systems. Water proved to be the best of these, but the system was heavier than those systems which cooled with the engine propellants. Engine weight and envelope parametric data were established for candidate Mode 1, Mode 2, and dual-fuel engines. Delivered engine performance data were also calculated for all candidate Mode 1 and dual-fuel engines.

  15. Identification of standing MHD modes in MHD simulations of planetary magnetospheres. Application to Mercury.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griton, Léa; Pantellini, Filippo; Moncuquet, Michel

    2016-04-01

    We present 3D simulations of the interaction of the solar wind with Mercury's magnetosphere using the magnetohydrodynamic code AMRVAC. A procedure for the identification of standing MHD modes has been applied to these simulations showing that large scale standing slow mode structures may exist in Mercury's magnetosheath. The identification is mostly based on relatively simple approximate analytical solutions to the old problem of determining the family of all standing linear plane MHD waves in a flowing plasma. The question of the identification of standing slow mode structures using in situ measurements such as the future BepiColombo MMO mission to Mercury will be discussed as well.

  16. Mode of existence and seasonality of midge larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae) in man-made lakes in the Coachella Valley, southern California.

    PubMed

    Lothrop, B B; Mulla, M S

    1995-03-01

    Over the past 2 decades, numerous man-made ponds and lakes constructed in country clubs and on golf courses in the Coachella Valley have become ideal habitats for various chironomid species. Large numbers of adult midges emerging from these water bodies pose nuisance and economic problems. During 1992 and 1993 we initiated comprehensive studies on the nature and scope of the nuisance midge problem in the valley. We sampled on a biweekly basis 2 lakes supplied with well water, 2 supplied with tertiary effluent water, and one supplied with a mixture of these 2 sources, to determine the midge larval fauna and the mode of existence, seasonal abundance, and population trends of these midges. Climbers, clingers, portable sand tube builders, and tube builders on plants predominated in well-water habitats with submerged vegetation and detritus bottoms. Tube builders and burrowers predominated in the tertiary water, which characteristically had a detritus bottom, devoid of vegetation. Habitats holding a mixture of the 2 water types with sandy bottoms supported midge larvae known to be sprawlers.

  17. Transmission Phase Holography: Spatial-Mode Filter Design for Quantum Information Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillmer, Rachel; Barreiro, Julio; Kwiat, Paul

    2007-03-01

    Photon spatial modes offer access to promising new applications in quantum information because they provide a higher-dimensional basis set than the usual two-dimensional one associated with polarization. Downconversion experiments have demonstrated spatial-mode entanglement [1], and even hyperentanglement in polarization and spatial mode [2]. However optical elements currently lack the refinement necessary to perform efficient, high-fidelity operations using spatial modes. Holographic filters for Laguerre-Gaussian and Hermite-Gaussian laser modes can act as modes converters, and have long been studied (under the terms ``modans'' and ``kinoforms'') for use in electrical engineering applications [3,4]. Her we present analytical refinements and optimizations of these techniques, with predicted mode fidelities over 95% and diffraction efficiencies up to 98%. Results of our experimental implementions of these solutions are presented. [1] Walborn, S.P, et al, ``Entanglement and conservation of orbital angular momentum in spontaneous parametric down-conversion,'' Phys. Rev. A 69, 023811 (2004); [2] Barreiro, J.T. et al, ``Generation of Hyperentangled Photon Pairs,'' Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 260501 (2005); [3] Soifer, V.A., ``Methods of Computer Design of Diffractive Optical Elements,'' John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2002; [4] Golub, M. and Soifer, V., ``Laser Beam Mode Selection by Computer Generated Holograms,'' CRC Press, Inc., 1994.

  18. An investigation of accelerating mode and decelerating mode constant-momentum mass spectrometry and their application to a residual gas analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Y. S.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of constant momentum mass spectrometry was made. A maximum resolving power for the decelerating mode constant momentum mass spectrometer was shown theoretically to exist for a beam of ions of known energy. A vacuum system and an electron beam ionization source was constructed. Supporting electronics for a residual gas analyzer were built. Experimental investigations of various types of accelerating and decelerating impulsive modes of a constant momentum mass spectrometer as applied to a residual gas analyzer were made. The data indicate that the resolving power for the decelerating mode is comparable to that of the accelerating mode.

  19. Sliding mode control of magnetic suspensions for precision pointing and tracking applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misovec, Kathleen M.; Flynn, Frederick J.; Johnson, Bruce G.; Hedrick, J. Karl

    1991-01-01

    A recently developed nonlinear control method, sliding mode control, is examined as a means of advancing the achievable performance of space-based precision pointing and tracking systems that use nonlinear magnetic actuators. Analytic results indicate that sliding mode control improves performance compared to linear control approaches. In order to realize these performance improvements, precise knowledge of the plant is required. Additionally, the interaction of an estimating scheme and the sliding mode controller has not been fully examined in the literature. Estimation schemes were designed for use with this sliding mode controller that do not seriously degrade system performance. The authors designed and built a laboratory testbed to determine the feasibility of utilizing sliding mode control in these types of applications. Using this testbed, experimental verification of the authors' analyses is ongoing.

  20. Divertor pumping and other reactor application issues for H-mode

    SciTech Connect

    Stambaugh, R.D.; Brooks, N.H.; Allen, S.L.

    1994-01-01

    We summarize results from DIII-D in regard to issues for reactor application of H-mode. Recently, DIII-D has begun to operate a cryopump (D{sub 2} pumping speed = 31,000 {ell}/s at a pressure of 2 mTorr). Initial results are very favorable for density control in H-mode. The plasma density could be reduced by 50%. Energy confinement is unchanged so the temperature rises in proportion to the density drop. Ability to access these less collisional plasmas in H-mode is favorable to current drive application. With the all-graphite wall, impurity accumulation has been eliminated. The exceedingly good confinement of VH-mode offers the possibility of retaining good confinement while radiating copious power from the plasma edge using injected noble gas impurities.

  1. On the application of frequency selective common mode feedback for multifrequency EIT.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Peter J; Wu, Yu; Bayford, Richard H; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Common mode voltages are frequently a problem in electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and other bioimpedance applications. To reduce their amplitude common mode feedback is employed. Formalised analyses of both current and voltage feedback is presented in this paper for current drives. Common mode effects due to imbalances caused by the current drives, the electrode connections to the body load and the introduction of the body impedance to ground are considered. Frequency selective narrowband common mode feedback previously proposed to provide feedback stability is examined. As a step towards multifrequency applications the use of narrowband feedback is experimentally demonstrated for two simultaneous current drives. Measured results using standard available components show a reduction of 62 dB for current feedback and 31 dB for voltage feedback. Frequencies ranged from 50 kHz to 1 MHz.

  2. Limitations of Geiger-mode arrays for Flash LADAR applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, George M., Jr.

    2010-04-01

    It is shown through physics-based Monte Carlo simulations of avalanche photodiode (APD) LADAR receivers that under typical operating scenarios, Geiger-mode APD (GmAPD) flash LADAR receivers may often be ineffective. These results are corroborated by analysis of the signal photon detection efficiency and signal-to-noise ratio metrics. Due to their ability to detect only one pulse per laser shot, the target detection efficiency of GmAPD receivers, as measured by target signal events detected compared to those present at the receiver's optical aperture, is shown to be highly particular and respond nonlinearly to the specific LADAR conditions including range, laser power, detector efficiency, and target occlusion, which causes the GmAPD target detection capabilities to vary unpredictably over standard mission conditions. In the detection of partially occluded targets, GmAPD LADAR receivers perform optimally within only a narrow operating window of range, detector efficiency, and laser power; outside this window performance degrades sharply. Operating at both short and long standoff ranges, GmAPD receivers most often cannot detect partially occluded targets, and with an increased number of detector dark noise events, e.g. resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation, the probability that a GmAPD device is armed and able to detect target signal returns approaches zero. Even when multiple pulses are accumulated or contrived operational scenarios are employed, and even in weak-signal scenarios, GmAPDs most often perform inefficiently in their detection of target signal events at the aperture. It is concluded that the inability of the GmAPD to detect target signal present at the receiver's aperture may lead to a loss of operational capability, may have undesired implications for the equivalent optical aperture, laser power, and/or system complexity, and may incur other costs deleterious to operational efficacy.

  3. 78 FR 69135 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... of the existing standard to permit 12 gallons of bottled water to be stored inside the refuge chamber... mentioned in 30 CFR 71.602(a) and (b). (4) Bottled water would be just as safe if not safer than a waterline... respectively requesting a variance of 30 CFR 57.11052(d) so that bottled water may be stored for use in...

  4. 24 CFR 888.111 - Fair market rents for existing housing: Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fair market rents for existing... HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS PROGRAM-FAIR MARKET RENTS AND CONTRACT RENT ANNUAL ADJUSTMENT FACTORS Fair Market Rents § 888.111 Fair market rents...

  5. 24 CFR 888.111 - Fair market rents for existing housing: Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fair market rents for existing... HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS PROGRAM-FAIR MARKET RENTS AND CONTRACT RENT ANNUAL ADJUSTMENT FACTORS Fair Market Rents § 888.111 Fair market rents...

  6. 76 FR 22152 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... entire cable, observing the insulation, the integrity of splices, nicks and abrasions. The petitioner... trailing cables and cords). Modification Request: The petitioner requests a modification of the existing standard to permit the use of extended trailing cables on Mobile Bridge Conveyors, Dual Boom Roof...

  7. 77 FR 4835 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... existing standard to permit alcohol slow-fermented from starch, bearing an alcohol content of less than 10 percent alcohol by volume (ABV), commonly called ``beer,'' to be used at the Lompoc Plant for chemical..., including beer, will be prohibited and persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics will not...

  8. 78 FR 19021 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... County, Indiana. Regulation Affected: 30 CFR 75.1700 (Oil and gas wells). Modification Request: The petitioner requests a modification of the existing standard to permit oil and gas wells to be plugged using... placement of at least 200 feet of expanding cement below the base of the Indiana 5 coal seam. (2)...

  9. 78 FR 49774 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... plugging or replugging oil or gas wells to the surface: (1) Pump expanding cement slurry down the well to... Affected: 30 CFR 75.1700 (Oil and gas wells). Modification Request: The petitioner requests a modification of the existing standard to permit an alternative method of compliance with respect to oil and...

  10. 76 FR 64384 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... modification will provide an equal degree of safety in that the supply of oxygen and drinking water would be...) (Deluge-type water spray system). Modification Request: The petitioner requests a modification of the existing standard to eliminate the use of blow-off dust covers for the spray nozzles of a deluge-type...

  11. A Kind of New Three-Mode Coherent-Entangled State and Its Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong-Qi; Ren, Ting-Qi; Zhang, Yun-Hai; Xu, Xing-Lei

    2011-11-01

    A kind of new continuous variable three-mode coherent-entangled state (CV-CES) is proposed in Fock space by the technique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP), which exhibits both the properties of coherent state and entangled state, and spans a complete and orthonormal representation. The conjugate state of CV-CES is derived by Fourier transformation. Moreover, the simple experimental protocol of generating a CV-CES is proposed by beam-splitters. As applications of this CV-CES, a three-mode entangled state and a three-mode squeezing-Fresnel operator are constructed.

  12. Some properties and applications of biphoton states of three-mode light

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbachev, V. N.; Kulik, S. P. Trubilko, A. I.

    2008-09-15

    Statistical properties, generation, and applications of three-mode biphoton fields with no more than one photon in each mode are discussed. Such field states have sub-Poissonian photon statistics and can be squeezed and entangled. The modes that simultaneously exhibit these properties in measurements are indicated. Two setups for generating such states via spontaneous parametric down-conversion are described. It is shown that the field states discussed in this study provide a quantum channel for teleportation, dense coding, and quantum key distribution.

  13. 23 CFR 633.203 - Applicability of existing laws, regulations, and directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...., that are applicable to the construction and maintenance of Federal-aid primary and secondary highways..., respectively, to the development highway system and the local access roads. In addition, the Regulations...

  14. Comparative Application of Capacity Models for Seismic Vulnerability Evaluation of Existing RC Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Faella, C.; Lima, C.; Martinelli, E.; Nigro, E.

    2008-07-08

    Seismic vulnerability assessment of existing buildings is one of the most common tasks in which Structural Engineers are currently engaged. Since, its is often a preliminary step to approach the issue of how to retrofit non-seismic designed and detailed structures, it plays a key role in the successful choice of the most suitable strengthening technique. In this framework, the basic information for both seismic assessment and retrofitting is related to the formulation of capacity models for structural members. Plenty of proposals, often contradictory under the quantitative standpoint, are currently available within the technical and scientific literature for defining the structural capacity in terms of force and displacements, possibly with reference to different parameters representing the seismic response. The present paper shortly reviews some of the models for capacity of RC members and compare them with reference to two case studies assumed as representative of a wide class of existing buildings.

  15. Existing and new applications of micropellet injection (MPI) in magnetic fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhehui; Lunsford, Robert; Mansfield, Dennis K.; Nichols, Jacob H.

    2016-04-01

    > The intense heat and energetic particle fluxes expected in ITER and future magnetic fusion reactors pose prohibitive problems to the design, selection and maintenance of the first wall and divertor. Micropellet injection (MPI) technologies can offer some innovative solutions to the material and extreme heat challenges. Basic physics of micropellet motion, ablation and interactions with high-temperature plasmas and energetic particles are presented first. We then discuss MPI technology options and applications. In addition to plasma diagnostic applications, controlled injection of micropellets of different sizes, velocities and injection frequencies will offer several possibilities: (1) better assessment of the core plasma cooling due to dust produced in situ; (2) better understanding of the plasma-material interaction physics near the wall; (3) new methods for plasma fuelling and impurity control; and (4) techniques for edge cooling with minimal impact on the plasma core. Dedicated small-scale laboratory experiments will complement major fusion experiments in development and applications of MPI.

  16. 40 CFR 63.481 - Compliance dates and relationship of this subpart to existing applicable rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... paragraph (e)(3). (f) Table 1 of this subpart specifies the provisions of subpart A that apply and those... of this subpart, Table 3 of subpart F is not applicable. (g) Table 2 of this subpart summarizes the... source subject to this subpart that is also subject to the provisions of 40 CFR part 63, subpart I,...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1422 - Compliance dates and relationship of this rule to existing applicable rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Table 1 of this subpart specifies the requirements in 40 CFR part 63, subpart A (the General Provisions... subpart. For the purposes of this subpart, Table 3 of 40 CFR part 63, subpart F is not applicable. (g) Table 2 of this subpart summarizes the provisions of 40 CFR part 63, subparts F, G, and H...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1422 - Compliance dates and relationship of this rule to existing applicable rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Table 1 of this subpart specifies the requirements in 40 CFR part 63, subpart A (the General Provisions... subpart. For the purposes of this subpart, Table 3 of 40 CFR part 63, subpart F is not applicable. (g) Table 2 of this subpart summarizes the provisions of 40 CFR part 63, subparts F, G, and H...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1422 - Compliance dates and relationship of this rule to existing applicable rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Table 1 of this subpart specifies the requirements in 40 CFR part 63, subpart A (the General Provisions... subpart. For the purposes of this subpart, Table 3 of 40 CFR part 63, subpart F is not applicable. (g) Table 2 of this subpart summarizes the provisions of 40 CFR part 63, subparts F, G, and H...

  20. 40 CFR 125.61 - Existence of and compliance with applicable water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provisions of State law including water quality standards. This determination shall include a discussion of... applicable water quality standards. 125.61 Section 125.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS CRITERIA AND STANDARDS FOR THE NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE...

  1. 78 FR 78390 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine... Standards AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Section 101(c) of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 and 30 CFR Part 44 govern the application,...

  2. 77 FR 14426 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine... Standards AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Section 101(c) of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 and 30 CFR Part 44 govern the application,...

  3. 77 FR 77113 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine... Standards AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Section 101(c) of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 and 30 CFR part 44 govern the application,...

  4. 78 FR 70321 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine... Standards AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Section 101(c) of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 and 30 CFR Part 44 govern the application,...

  5. 78 FR 23308 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine... Standards AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Section 101(c) of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 and 30 CFR part 44 govern the application,...

  6. Tahoe subsea completion -- A successful application of existing and new technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Clegg, W.K.; Orr, K.

    1995-12-31

    The Tahoe subsea satellite tieback (VK783) demonstrates how existing and new subsea technologies can be combined to achieve a cost effective yet technically significant subsea project. A used Green Canyon 29 subsea Xmas tree was refurbished and modified to implement more recent first-end layaway techniques for both the flowline and umbilical. The diverless completion was made in 1,500 ft. of water and tied back approximately 12 miles to a platform in 275 feet of water (Main Pass 252). The flowline system consisted of dual nominal 4-in. lines comprising both flexible and rigid pipes. The control system was multiplexed electrohydraulic with signal-on power umbilical transmission. Both downhole and Xmas tree temperature and pressure measurements were employed. The techniques used in the Tahoe subsea system can be applied to other projects to help improve cost, schedule, and reliability of subsea tiebacks.

  7. Moisture characteristics of water-repellent consolidants and their applicability to existing buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iba, Chiemi; Fukui, Kazuma; Hokoi, Shuichi

    2016-07-01

    Water-repellent agents are considered an effective measure of preventing moisture damage in building materials. However, data on the moisture transfer characteristics of repellent materials are insufficient. This study focused on the transfer of liquid water in a porous building material and quantitatively evaluated the applicability of a water-repellent consolidant as a protection agent via water infiltration experiments and numerical analysis. The experimental results could be reproduced by treating the water-repellent consolidant as having two layers with different water conductivities.

  8. Planar air-bearing microgravity simulators: Review of applications, existing solutions and design parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybus, Tomasz; Seweryn, Karol

    2016-03-01

    All devices designed to be used in space must be thoroughly tested in relevant conditions. For several classes of devices the reduced gravity conditions are the key factor. In early stages of development and later due to financial reasons, the tests need to be done on Earth. However, in Earth conditions it is impossible to obtain a different gravity field independent on all linear and rotational spatial coordinates. Therefore, various test-bed systems are used, with their design driven by the device's specific needs. One of such test-beds are planar air-bearing microgravity simulators. In such an approach, the tested objects (e.g., manipulators intended for on-orbit operations or vehicles simulating satellites in a close formation flight) are mounted on planar air-bearings that allow almost frictionless motion on a flat surface, thus simulating microgravity conditions in two dimensions. In this paper we present a comprehensive review of research activities related to planar air-bearing microgravity simulators, demonstrating achievements of the most active research groups and describing newest trends and ideas, such as tests of landing gears for low-g bodies. Major design parameters of air-bearing test-beds are also reviewed and a list of notable existing test-beds is presented.

  9. Fit for purpose application of currently existing animal models in the discovery of novel epilepsy therapies.

    PubMed

    Löscher, Wolfgang

    2016-10-01

    Animal seizure and epilepsy models continue to play an important role in the early discovery of new therapies for the symptomatic treatment of epilepsy. Since 1937, with the discovery of phenytoin, almost all anti-seizure drugs (ASDs) have been identified by their effects in animal models, and millions of patients world-wide have benefited from the successful translation of animal data into the clinic. However, several unmet clinical needs remain, including resistance to ASDs in about 30% of patients with epilepsy, adverse effects of ASDs that can reduce quality of life, and the lack of treatments that can prevent development of epilepsy in patients at risk following brain injury. The aim of this review is to critically discuss the translational value of currently used animal models of seizures and epilepsy, particularly what animal models can tell us about epilepsy therapies in patients and which limitations exist. Principles of translational medicine will be used for this discussion. An essential requirement for translational medicine to improve success in drug development is the availability of animal models with high predictive validity for a therapeutic drug response. For this requirement, the model, by definition, does not need to be a perfect replication of the clinical condition, but it is important that the validation provided for a given model is fit for purpose. The present review should guide researchers in both academia and industry what can and cannot be expected from animal models in preclinical development of epilepsy therapies, which models are best suited for which purpose, and for which aspects suitable models are as yet not available. Overall further development is needed to improve and validate animal models for the diverse areas in epilepsy research where suitable fit for purpose models are urgently needed in the search for more effective treatments.

  10. Fit for purpose application of currently existing animal models in the discovery of novel epilepsy therapies.

    PubMed

    Löscher, Wolfgang

    2016-10-01

    Animal seizure and epilepsy models continue to play an important role in the early discovery of new therapies for the symptomatic treatment of epilepsy. Since 1937, with the discovery of phenytoin, almost all anti-seizure drugs (ASDs) have been identified by their effects in animal models, and millions of patients world-wide have benefited from the successful translation of animal data into the clinic. However, several unmet clinical needs remain, including resistance to ASDs in about 30% of patients with epilepsy, adverse effects of ASDs that can reduce quality of life, and the lack of treatments that can prevent development of epilepsy in patients at risk following brain injury. The aim of this review is to critically discuss the translational value of currently used animal models of seizures and epilepsy, particularly what animal models can tell us about epilepsy therapies in patients and which limitations exist. Principles of translational medicine will be used for this discussion. An essential requirement for translational medicine to improve success in drug development is the availability of animal models with high predictive validity for a therapeutic drug response. For this requirement, the model, by definition, does not need to be a perfect replication of the clinical condition, but it is important that the validation provided for a given model is fit for purpose. The present review should guide researchers in both academia and industry what can and cannot be expected from animal models in preclinical development of epilepsy therapies, which models are best suited for which purpose, and for which aspects suitable models are as yet not available. Overall further development is needed to improve and validate animal models for the diverse areas in epilepsy research where suitable fit for purpose models are urgently needed in the search for more effective treatments. PMID:27505294

  11. Application of Existing Streamflow Gauge Networks and Remote Sensing for use in Paired Watershed Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bart, R.; Hope, A.; Hawtree, D.

    2008-12-01

    Drawing general conclusions about the effect of land-cover change on river flows in a region using paired watershed experiments tends to be limited by the lack of replicates in the experimental design. Paired watershed studies are expensive, require monitoring for many years and are usually based on small experimental watersheds. The possibility of exploiting existing gauged watersheds (e.g., from the U.S. Geological Survey network) for land-cover change studies has been proposed for a project that is being conducted in large semi-arid shrubland watersheds in Southern California and the Western Cape Region of South Africa. Satellite data are used to assess the stability of land-cover during the calibration phase of experiments and to quantify the magnitude of change following disturbance (e.g., fire, deforestation). The primary limitation of this approach was found to be the availability of control watersheds. Even with a large number of candidate watersheds, undisturbed watersheds were uncommon. Despite substantial distance between some watershed pairs, along with considerable fluctuation in the LAI's of the control and test watersheds, the streamflow calibration relationships were found to be good. However, it is uncertain whether this is sufficient to ensure meaningful analyses of land-cover change effects on river flow volumes. The analyses included two approaches, the use of prediction bounds and the widely used dummy variable method. No conclusive change in streamflow was evident from the paired watershed analyses in both regions, despite substantial land-cover change in some of the watersheds (e.g., 100 percent burnt). Large watersheds in Mediterranean-type Ecosystems appear to be resilient to land-cover change in terms of streamflow response.

  12. Application of the coupled-mode theory to a specialized graded-index optical fiber coupler.

    PubMed

    Kahn, W K; Saleh, S A

    1992-05-20

    A specialized coupler formed by two identical multimode graded-index slab fibers is described. This special coupler can be used to examine the tilt or the roughness of a surface through the reflected beam. It may also find applications as a mode filter, an alignment sensor, or a feed component of an optical monopulse tracking radar. Coupled-mode theory is generalized for this application. The coupling length for maximum power transfer of the higher-order modes from the excited to the coupled fiber, leaving as much power of the lowest mode as possible to continue in the excited fiber, is computed. The fields are computed at the output of the system for incident optical beams with different axial displacements and beams launched on axis with tilted wavefronts. This desired coupling length is shown to be substantially independent of characteristics of the incident light beam. To compute the fields propagated through the tapered section introduced to separate the slab fibers, the stairwise approximation is used, and mode matching is used to connect the fields at the junctions between the successive segments. An optimum taper to separate the coupled fibers, with minimal perturbation of the fields, is present at the right-hand end of the coupling section. PMID:20725210

  13. Optimal orientations of LiTaO3 for application in plate mode resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumenko, Natalya F.

    2015-07-01

    Optimal cuts of LiTaO3 for application in plate mode resonators were found via rigorous numerical investigations of zero- and higher-order plate modes propagating parallel or normal to the X-axis in rotated Y-cuts of LiTaO3; the plates were tested with a periodic metal grating on top of the plate and metal electrode present or absent on the plate bottom. In some cuts, high electromechanical coupling coefficients up to 20% could be combined with low or even zero temperature coefficients of frequency (TCF). Other cuts ensured moderate coupling of 12%-14% and low TCF in addition to high velocity of a higher-order plate mode up to 20 000 m/s. Metallization of a plate bottom helped to enhance coupling of certain modes. Interaction of a plate mode with electrodes of an interdigital transducer or with periodic metal gratings used for its excitation and reflection in resonators is illustrated by examples of dispersion plots. The nature of the analyzed modes was studied via visualization of the mechanical displacements accompanying wave propagation.

  14. A Review and Analysis of Existing Mobile Phone Applications for HAI Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Schnall, Rebecca; Iribarren, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Background The expanding number of mobile health applications (apps) holds tremendous potential to reduce and eliminate healthcare associated infections (HAIs) in clinical practice. The purpose of this review was to identify and provide an overview of the apps available to support prevention of HAIs and to assess their functionality and potential uses in clinical care. Methods We searched three online mobile app stores using the following terms: infection prevention, prevention, hand hygiene, hand washing, and specific HAI terms (catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI), surgical site infection, and ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP)). Results Search queries yielded a total of 2,646 potentially relevant apps, of which 17 met our final inclusion criteria. The areas of focus were: CAUTI (n=1, 5.9%), VAP (n=1, 5.9%), environmental monitoring (n=2, 11.8%), hand hygiene (n=2, 11.8%), and the remainder (n=11, 64.7%) were focused on more than one area (e.g., multiple infection prevention bundles or infection prevention guidelines). Conclusion Mobile apps may help reduce HAI by providing easy access to guidelines, hand hygiene monitoring support, or step-by-step procedures aimed at reducing infections at the point of clinical care. Given the dearth of available apps, and the lack of functionality with those that are available, there is a need for further development of mobile apps for HAI prevention at the point of care. PMID:25748924

  15. Smartphone applications for communicating avalanche risk information - a review of existing practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charrière, M. K. M.; Bogaard, T. A.

    2015-11-01

    Every year, in all mountainous regions, people are victims of avalanches. One way to decrease those losses is believed to be informing about danger levels. The paper presents a study on current practices in the development of smartphones applications that are dedicated to avalanche risk communication. The analysis based on semi-structured interviews with developers of smartphone apps highlights the context of their development, how choices of content and visualization were made as well as how their effectiveness is evaluated. It appears that although the communicators agree on the message to disseminate, its representation triggers debate. Moreover, only simple evaluation processes are conducted but there is a clear awareness that further scientific efforts are needed to analyze the effectiveness of the smartphone apps. Finally, the current or planned possibility for non-experts users to report feedback on the snow and avalanches conditions open the doors to a transition of these apps from one-way communication tools to two-ways communication platforms. This paper also indicates the remaining challenges that avalanche risk communication is facing, although it is disputably the most advanced and standardized practice compared to other natural hazards. Therefore, this research is of interest for the entire field of natural hazards related risk communication.

  16. Instantaneous mode contamination and parametric combination instability of spinning cyclically symmetric ring structures with expanding application to planetary gear ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shiyu; Sun, Wenjia; Wang, Yaoyao

    2016-08-01

    This work addresses the free and parametric elastic vibrations of the spinning cyclically symmetric ring structures. The focus is on the instantaneous mode contamination, parametric combination instability and their connections. An analytical model is developed by using the Hamilton's principle for the in-plane bending deflection, the distinction of which is in the arbitrary distributions of the attached mass and stiffness. A special case with equally-spaced discrete mass particles and spinning springs is detailed. The uneven tangential force and the time-invariant deflection caused by the mass particles are formulated. The results imply that the order of such deflection is equal to the number of the mass particles. The instantaneous mode contamination and parametric combination instability are captured by the perturbation and superposition mode shapes of the stationary smooth ring by introducing complex coefficients. The contamination rule is similar to that of the stationary structure but the contamination strength is time-variant due to the spinning springs. New analytical results and quantitative explanations on the contamination and instability especially their connections are presented. As an application of the proposed method, the free and parametric vibrations of the planetary gear ring are formulated. Main results are demonstrated by means of the numerical simulations and compared with the existing studies.

  17. Progressive phase conjugation and its application in reconfigurable spatial-mode extraction and conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Atsushi; Maeda, Tomohiro; Hirasaki, Yuki; Tomita, Akihisa; Sato, Kunihiro

    2014-05-01

    We develop a new technology, which is referred to as progressive phase conjugation (PPC), in which phase conjugation is electrically performed without requiring a coherent reference beam by fusion using a reference-free spatial phase detection and spatial phase modulation. This method enables remote setting of a phase detector from the signal transmitter without an additional transmission line for the reference beam. It also enables realization of high-speed and dynamic wavefront compensation owing to its open-loop architecture using the single-shot phase detection method. Therefore, the PPC is applicable to a wide range of optical communication technologies, including the reconfigurable spatial-mode extraction and conversion of mode transmission in a multi-mode fiber (MMF). In our experiment, spatial modes are generated by directing a laser beam into a MMF with a 50-micron core diameter. At the output side of the optical fiber, the phase distributions of the spatial modes are detected using the reference-free phase detector constructed by combining a spatial filtering method with holographic diversity interferometry using two CCD imagers. Then, the phase conjugate distribution of the detected phase pattern is displayed on a LCOS-type SLM. We confirm that the PPC system can extract a specific mode pattern with a considerably low crosstalk of less than 1% by displaying the corresponding phase-conjugation pattern on the SLM. In addition, we demonstrated a reconfigurable spatial-mode conversion by the phase control technology using the SLM. By applying the spatial phase modulation to an optical beam incident on the SLM, the spatial mode of the output beam is flexibly changed.

  18. Valuing patients' experiences of healthcare processes: towards broader applications of existing methods.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Mandy; Kinghorn, Philip; Entwistle, Vikki A; Francis, Jill J

    2014-04-01

    Healthcare policy leaders internationally recognise that people's experiences of healthcare delivery are important, and invest significant resources to monitor and improve them. However, the value of particular aspects of experiences of healthcare delivery - relative to each other and to other healthcare outcomes - is unclear. This paper considers how economic techniques have been and might be used to generate quantitative estimates of the value of particular experiences of healthcare delivery. A recently published conceptual map of patients' experiences served to guide the scope and focus of the enquiry. The map represented both what health services and staff are like and do and what individual patients can feel like, be and do (while they are using services and subsequently). We conducted a systematic search for applications of economic techniques to healthcare delivery. We found that these techniques have been quite widely used to estimate the value of features of healthcare systems and processes (e.g. of care delivery by a nurse rather than a doctor, or of a consultation of 10 minutes rather than 15 minutes), but much less to estimate the value of the implications of these features for patients personally. To inform future research relating to the valuation of experiences of healthcare delivery, we organised a workshop for key stakeholders. Participants undertook and discussed 'exercises' that explored the use of different economic techniques to value descriptions of healthcare delivery that linked processes to what patients felt like and were able to be and do. The workshop identified a number of methodological issues that need careful attention, and highlighted some important concerns about the ways in which quantitative estimates of the value of experiences of healthcare delivery might be used. However the workshop confirmed enthusiasm for efforts to attend directly to the implications of healthcare delivery from patients' perspectives, including in terms of

  19. Nonwork and off-peak trips by transit, walk and bicycle modes: An understanding of existing and potential markets. Final report, 1 August 1996--28 February 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Soeoet, S.; Sen, A.; Yang, D.; Dirks, L.; Sternberg, T.

    1999-03-01

    The study identifies the characteristics of neighborhoods that contribute to off-peak transit, walk or bike use. The emphasis is on off-peak and nonwork trips and how to promote modes other than the automobile. By producing thirty maps illustrating socioeconomic and travel behavior patterns in the Chicago area, the potential for stabilizing and then increasing the utilization of these modes is examined. Substantial amounts of data were processed and reported. For example, off-peak trips, accounting for 48% of daily travel, are shorter than trips during the peak (in miles and minutes) for travel by both public transit and by private vehicle. Regionally, walking trips vary from 42% of all trips made by Chicago CBD residents (mainly to shop and work), 17% in the rest of the city and less than 5% in suburban Chicago. Bicycle ownership is related to the number of vehicles in the household, household income, household size and distance from the Chicago CBD. These data and field observations of three case-study neighborhoods revealed that differences in modes used are related to the land-use patterns and the socioeconomic characteristics of the resident population. While areas with low automobile ownership rates might suggest walking and bicycling, these nonmotorized modes are more common in affluent neighborhoods with a large number of nearby commercial and recreational destinations.

  20. Compact Si photonic multimode interference-based optical circuit for mode division multiplexing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sabban, Salwa; Khalil, Diaa

    2016-07-01

    A design for a compact Si photonic two mode demultiplexer for mode division multiplexing (MDM) applications is presented. The design uses the self-imaging in multimode interference structures to achieve MDM with an insertion loss less than 0.5 dB and a cross talk better than 20 dB over the C band. The imaging is achieved within a length that is half the length reported in the literature, and its overall dimensions are 42 μm×3 μm. The minimum cross talk is affected by the structure geometry. The tolerance of the design to variations in the dimensions is also studied.

  1. Current-mode ambient light sensor for ultralow-power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Tsung-Yu; King, Ya-Chin; Lin, Chrong-Jung

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we present a novel ultralow-power ambient light sensor for distributed sensor node application. The sensor features a minimum supply voltage (<1 V) for meeting the low power requirement by a successive approximation register logic combined with progressive sizing current mirrors for analog-to-digital conversion (ADC). The current-mode operation simplifies the ADC circuit design by eliminating the capacitor array, which enables low power consumption. Furthermore, an adjustable dynamic range for indoor or outdoor sensing can be obtained by clock frequency control. This current mode sensor provides a promising solution for distributed environmental sensing modules with tight energy budget.

  2. Application of empirical mode decomposition in removing fidgeting interference in doppler radar life signs monitoring devices.

    PubMed

    Mostafanezhad, Isar; Boric-Lubecke, Olga; Lubecke, Victor; Mandic, Danilo P

    2009-01-01

    Empirical Mode Decomposition has been shown effective in the analysis of non-stationary and non-linear signals. As an application in wireless life signs monitoring in this paper we use this method in conditioning the signals obtained from the Doppler device. Random physical movements, fidgeting, of the human subject during a measurement can fall on the same frequency of the heart or respiration rate and interfere with the measurement. It will be shown how Empirical Mode Decomposition can break the radar signal down into its components and help separate and remove the fidgeting interference.

  3. Polarisation effects in twin-core fibre: Application for mode locking in a fibre laser

    SciTech Connect

    Lobach, I A; Kablukov, S I; Podivilov, Evgenii V; Babin, Sergei A; Apolonski, A A

    2012-09-30

    We report the first measurements of the longitudinal power distribution in a twin-core optical fibre at different input light polarisations. Experimental evidence is presented that, because of the difference in birefringence between the cores, the power in them depends on which core the beam is launched into. Experimental data are interpreted in terms of a modified polarisation model for mode coupling in twin-core fibres which takes into account the birefringence of the cores. In addition, we demonstrate for the first time the use of the polarisation properties of a twincore fibre for mode locking in a fibre laser. (optical fibres, lasers and amplifiers. properties and applications)

  4. Applicability and economic efficiency of earthquake retrofit measures on existing buildings in Bucharest, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostenaru, M.

    2009-04-01

    The research discussed in this contribution contains two aspects: on one side the economic efficiency of seismic retrofit measures, and on the other their applicability. The research was limited to housing buildings. Bucharest, the capital of Romania, was the object of the research. Strong earthquakes affect Bucharest about three times in a century, the damaging earthquakes of the 20th century being in 1940 and 1977. Other strong earthquakes occurred in 1986 and 1990. Since it is a broad topic, first the building type was determined, which should serve further research. For this scope the building types of the 20th century, which are common in Bucharest, Romania, were investigated. For each building type reports have been written, which comprised the earthquake resilient features, the seismic defficiencies, the damage patterns and the retrofit measures. Each of these features was listed for elements of the building. A first result of the research was an integrated system in order to include latter aspects in the planning in the first steps. So already at the building survey attention has to be paid on how a building is subdivided in order to be able to determine the economic efficiency of the planned action. So were defined the `retrofit elements`. In a first step the characteristics were defined, through which these retrofit elements (for example column, wall part between two windows) can be recognised in the building survey. In a further one, which retrofit measures can be connected to these. Diagrams were built, in order to visualise these findings. For each retrofit element and the corresponding measure the costs were calculated. Also, these retrofit elements and the measures connected to them were modelled for the simulation with the structural software, so that the benefit of the measures could be determined. In the part which regarded the economic efficiency, benefits and costs of retrofit measures had to be compared, so the improvement in the rigidity

  5. Application of Sliding Mode Methods to the Design of Reconfigurable Flight Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Scott R.

    2002-01-01

    Observer-based sliding mode control is investigated for application to aircraft reconfigurable flight control. A comprehensive overview of reconfigurable flight control is given, including, a review of the current state-of-the-art within the subdisciplines of fault detection, parameter identification, adaptive control schemes, and dynamic control allocation. Of the adaptive control methods reviewed, sliding mode control (SMC) appears very promising due its property of invariance to matched uncertainty. An overview of sliding mode control is given and its remarkable properties are demonstrated by example. Sliding mode methods, however, are difficult to implement because unmodeled parasitic dynamics cause immediate and severe instability. This presents a challenge for all practical applications with limited bandwidth actuators. One method to deal with parasitic dynamics is the use of an asymptotic observer in the feedback path. Observer-based SMC is investigated, and a method for selecting observer gains is offered. An additional method for shaping the feedback loop using a filter is also developed. It is shown that this SMC prefilter is equivalent to a form of model reference hedging. A complete design procedure is given which takes advantage of the sliding mode boundary layer to recast the SMC as a linear control law. Frequency domain loop shaping is then used to design the sliding manifold. Finally, three aircraft applications are demonstrated. An F-18/HARV is used to demonstrate a SISO pitch rate tracking controller. It is also used to demonstrate a MIMO lateral-directional roll rate tracking controller. The last application is a full linear six degree-of-freedom advanced tailless fighter model. The observer-based SMC is seen to provide excellent tracking with superior robustness to parameter changes and actuator failures.

  6. Study of Rotating-Wave Electromagnetic Modes for Applications in Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velazco, J. E.

    2016-08-01

    Rotating waves are circularly polarized electromagnetic wave fields that behave like traveling waves but have discrete resonant frequencies of standing waves. In JPL's Communications Ground Systems Section (333), we are making use of this peculiar type of electromagnetic modes to develop a new generation of devices and instruments for direct applications in space exploration. In this article, we present a straightforward analysis about the phase velocity of these wave modes. A derivation is presented for the azimuthal phase velocity of transverse magnetic rotating modes inside cylindrical cavity resonators. Computer simulations and experimental measurements are also presented that corroborate the theory developed. It is shown that the phase velocity of rotating waves inside cavity resonators increases with radial position within the cavity and decreases when employing higher-order operating modes. The exotic features of rotating modes, once better understood, have the potential to enable the implementation of a plethora of new devices that range from amplifiers and frequency multipliers to electron accelerators and ion thrusters.

  7. Application and Evaluation of Control Modes for Risk-Based Engine Performance Enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yuan; Litt, Jonathan S.; Sowers, T. Shane; Owen, A. Karl; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The engine control system for civil transport aircraft imposes operational limits on the propulsion system to ensure compliance with safety standards. However, during certain emergency situations, aircraft survivability may benefit from engine performance beyond its normal limits despite the increased risk of failure. Accordingly, control modes were developed to improve the maximum thrust output and responsiveness of a generic high-bypass turbofan engine. The algorithms were designed such that the enhanced performance would always constitute an elevation in failure risk to a consistent predefined likelihood. This paper presents an application of these risk-based control modes to a combined engine/aircraft model. Through computer and piloted simulation tests, the aim is to present a notional implementation of these modes, evaluate their effects on a generic airframe, and demonstrate their usefulness during emergency flight situations. Results show that minimal control effort is required to compensate for the changes in flight dynamics due to control mode activation. The benefits gained from enhanced engine performance for various runway incursion scenarios are investigated. Finally, the control modes are shown to protect against potential instabilities during propulsion-only flight where all aircraft control surfaces are inoperable.

  8. Application and Evaluation of Control Modes for Risk-Based Engine Performance Enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yuan; Litt, Jonathan S.; Sowers, T. Shane; Owen, A. Karl (Compiler); Guo, Ten-Huei

    2014-01-01

    The engine control system for civil transport aircraft imposes operational limits on the propulsion system to ensure compliance with safety standards. However, during certain emergency situations, aircraft survivability may benefit from engine performance beyond its normal limits despite the increased risk of failure. Accordingly, control modes were developed to improve the maximum thrust output and responsiveness of a generic high-bypass turbofan engine. The algorithms were designed such that the enhanced performance would always constitute an elevation in failure risk to a consistent predefined likelihood. This paper presents an application of these risk-based control modes to a combined engine/aircraft model. Through computer and piloted simulation tests, the aim is to present a notional implementation of these modes, evaluate their effects on a generic airframe, and demonstrate their usefulness during emergency flight situations. Results show that minimal control effort is required to compensate for the changes in flight dynamics due to control mode activation. The benefits gained from enhanced engine performance for various runway incursion scenarios are investigated. Finally, the control modes are shown to protect against potential instabilities during propulsion-only flight where all aircraft control surfaces are inoperable.

  9. Adapting an existing visualization application for browser-based deployment: A case study from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Owen A.

    2013-02-01

    THOR, the Tool for High-resolution Observation Review, is a data viewer for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and the upcoming Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission. THOR began as a desktop application, but now it can be accessed with a web browser, making THOR one of the first online tools for visualizing TRMM satellite data (http://pps.gsfc.nasa.gov/thor). In this effort, the reuse of the existing visualization code was maximized and the complexity of new code was minimized by avoiding unnecessary functionality, frameworks, or libraries. The simplicity of this approach makes it potentially attractive to researchers wishing to adapt their visualization applications for online deployment. To enable THOR to run within a web browser, three new pieces of code are written. First, the graphical user interface (GUI) of the desktop application is translated into HTML, JavaScript, and CSS. Second, a simple communication mechanism is developed over HTTP. Third, a virtual GUI is created on the server that interfaces with the image-generating routines of the existing desktop application so that these routines do not need to be modified for online use. While the basic functionality of THOR is now available online, prototyping is ongoing for enhanced 3D imaging and other aspects of both THOR Desktop and THOR Online. Because TRMM data products are complex and periodically reprocessed with improved algorithms, having a tool such as THOR is important to analysts at the Precipitation Processing System where the algorithms are tested and the products generated, stored, and distributed. Researchers also have found THOR useful for taking a first look at individual files before writing their own software to perform specialized calculations and analyses.

  10. 40 CFR 63.5798 - What if I want to use, or I manufacture, an application technology (new or existing) whose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacture, an application technology (new or existing) whose organic HAP emissions characteristics are not... technology (new or existing) whose organic HAP emissions characteristics are not represented by the equations in Table 1 to this subpart? If you wish to use a resin or gel coat application technology (new...

  11. Overview and Applications of UAVSAR's Multi-Squint Polarimetric Imaging Mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott Hensley; Chen, Curtis; Michel, Thierry; Jones, Cathleen; Chapman, Bruce; Muellerschoen, Ron

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has developed a reconfigurable polarimetric L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR), specifically designed to acquire airborne repeat track interferometric (RTI) SAR data for application to monitoring surface deformation and vegetation structure measurements. The system employs a precision autopilot developed by NASA Dryden that allows the plane to fly precise trajectories usually within a 5 m tube. Also required for robust repeat pass applications is the ability to point the antenna in the same direction on repeat passes to a fraction of an azimuth beamwidth (8? for UAVSAR). This precise pointing is achieved using an electronically scanned antenna whose pointing is based on inertial navigation unit (INU) attitude angle data. The radar design is fully polarimetric with an 80 MHz bandwidth (2 m range resolution) and has a greater than 20 km range swath when flying at its nominal altitude of 12500 m. The ability to electronically steer the beam on a pulse-to-pulse basis has allowed a new mode of SAR data acquisition whereby the radar beam is steered to different squint angles on successive pulses thereby simultaneously generating images at multiple squint angles. This mode offers the possibility of generating vector deformation measurements with a single pair of repeat passes and to obtain greater kz diversity for vegetation studies with a reduced number of passes. This paper will present an overview of the mode, discuss its potential for deformation and vegetation, and show some examples using UAVSAR data.

  12. Application of AirCell Cellular AMPS Network and Iridium Satellite System Dual Mode Service to Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.

    2004-01-01

    The AirCell/Iridium dual mode service is evaluated for potential applications to Air Traffic Management (ATM) communication needs. The AirCell system which is largely based on the Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) technology, and the Iridium FDMA/TDMA system largely based on the Global System for Mobile Communications(GSM) technology, can both provide communication relief for existing or future aeronautical communication links. Both have a potential to serve as experimental platforms for future technologies via a cost effective approach. The two systems are well established in the entire CONUS and globally hence making it feasible to utilize in all regions, for all altitudes, and all classes of aircraft. Both systems have been certified for air usage. The paper summarizes the specifications of the AirCell/Iridium system, as well as the ATM current and future links, and application specifications. the paper highlights the scenarios, applications, and conditions under which the AirCell/Iridium technology can be suited for ATM Communication.

  13. Small Externally-fueled Heat Pipe Thermionic Reactor (SEHPTR) for dual mode applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloy, John; Jacox, Michael; Zubrin, Robert

    1992-07-01

    The Small Externally Fueled Heat-Pipe Thermionic Reactor (SEHPTR) is described in the context of applications as a dual-mode nuclear power source for satellites. The SEHPTR is a thermionic power system based on a reactor with modular fuel elements around cylindrical thermionic heat-pipe modules with diodes for heat rejection. The SEHPTR concept is theorized to be suitable for directly heating hydrogen gas in the core to increase propulsion and reduce orbit-transfer times. The advantages of dual-mode operation of the SEHPTR are listed including enhanced mission safety and performance at relatively low costs. The SEHPTR could provide direct thermal thrust and an integrated stage that symbiotically utilizes electric power, direct thrust, and hydrogen arcjets. The system is argued to be more effective than a nuclear power system designed solely for electrical power production.

  14. Small Externally-fueled Heat Pipe Thermionic Reactor (SEHPTR) for dual mode applications

    SciTech Connect

    Malloy, J.; Jacox, M.; Zubrin, R. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls Martin Marietta Astronautics Group, Denver, CO )

    1992-07-01

    The Small Externally Fueled Heat-Pipe Thermionic Reactor (SEHPTR) is described in the context of applications as a dual-mode nuclear power source for satellites. The SEHPTR is a thermionic power system based on a reactor with modular fuel elements around cylindrical thermionic heat-pipe modules with diodes for heat rejection. The SEHPTR concept is theorized to be suitable for directly heating hydrogen gas in the core to increase propulsion and reduce orbit-transfer times. The advantages of dual-mode operation of the SEHPTR are listed including enhanced mission safety and performance at relatively low costs. The SEHPTR could provide direct thermal thrust and an integrated stage that symbiotically utilizes electric power, direct thrust, and hydrogen arcjets. The system is argued to be more effective than a nuclear power system designed solely for electrical power production. 7 refs.

  15. Ultrasonic elastic modes in solid bars: an application of the plane wave expansion method.

    PubMed

    Manzanares-Martinez, Betsabe; Ramos-Mendieta, Felipe; Baltazar, Arturo

    2010-06-01

    Ultrasonic elastic modes in solid bars are investigated theoretically and experimentally using the plane wave expansion method to calculate the dispersion curves k=k(omega) for longitudinal, torsional, and flexural waves. The plane wave extension method allows to consider rods of circular and square cross sections. The technique, which has received attention in the study of photonic and phononic crystals, is adapted in order to identify the various types of modes. Results are compared with predictions from semi-analytical models. The numerical approximation is validated with the experimental determination of the time-frequency dispersion curves. The technique based on the plane wave expansion method presented here could be a numerical alternative used to determine the wave propagation and modal vibration with high precision in structures like bars and cylinders. Practical applications of this study could include the inspection of long-span engineering systems with bar or cylinder like characteristics.

  16. Derivation of continuous wave mode output power from burst mode measurements in high-intensity ultrasound applications.

    PubMed

    Haller, Julian; Wilkens, Volker

    2014-03-01

    Measurement of the acoustic output power of transducers in burst mode and derivation of the results to the continuous wave (CW) case reduces heating problems during power measurements with radiation force balances and absorbing targets at high power levels, but requires the knowledge of an "effective duty factor," DReff. In this work, an alternative method for determining DReff is presented that allows the determination at any input voltage amplitude as it can be calculated from the input voltage rf signal in burst mode. Thus with this method, it is not necessary to apply CW signals at all.

  17. The effective degeneracy of protein normal modes.

    PubMed

    Na, Hyuntae; Song, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Normal modes are frequently computed and used to portray protein dynamics and interpret protein conformational changes. In this work, we investigate the nature of normal modes and find that the normal modes of proteins, especially those at the low frequency range (0-600 cm(-1)), are highly susceptible to degeneracy. Two or more modes are degenerate if they have the same frequency and consequently any orthogonal transformation of them also is a valid representation of the mode subspace. Thus, degenerate modes can no longer characterize unique directions of motions as regular modes do. Though the normal modes of proteins are usually of different frequencies, the difference in frequency between neighboring modes is so small that, under even slight structural uncertainty that unavoidably exists in structure determination, it can easily vanish and as a result, a mode becomes effectively degenerate with its neighboring modes. This can be easily observed in that some modes seem to disappear and their matching modes cannot be found when the structure used to compute the modes is modified only slightly. We term this degeneracy the effective degeneracy of normal modes. This work is built upon our recent discovery that the vibrational spectrum of globular proteins is universal. The high density of modes observed in the vibrational frequency spectra of proteins renders their normal modes highly susceptible to degeneracy, under even the smallest structural uncertainty. Indeed, we find the degree of degeneracy of modes is proportional to the density of modes in the vibrational spectrum. This means that for modes at the same frequency, degeneracy is more severe for larger proteins. Degeneracy exists also in the modes of coarse-grained models, but to a much lesser extent than those of all-atom models. In closing, we discuss the implications of the effective degeneracy of normal modes: how it may significantly affect the ways in which normal modes are used in various normal modes

  18. Applications of a single-longitudinal-mode alexandrite laser for diagnostics of parameters of combustion interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. S.; Afzelius, M.; Zetterberg, J.; Aldén, M.

    2004-10-01

    We report on the applications of a single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) pulsed alexandrite laser system for diagnostics of parameters of flow/combustion interest. The laser system is characterized by its narrow linewidth, high peak power, and broad tunablity. The absolute frequency of the laser output was monitored by a wavelength diagnostic system, which included a high-resolution confocal etalon and a molecular iodine laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection system. Different nonlinear frequency conversion schemes were used to cover a large frequency range from the infrared to the deep UV. The versatility of the laser system for flow/combustion diagnostics is demonstrated in three applications, namely filtered Rayleigh scattering, high-resolution Doppler-free two-photon LIF of CO, and infrared LIF and polarization spectroscopy of CO2. The potential impacts of using this SLM laser system in laser flow/combustion diagnostic applications are discussed.

  19. Existence and inter-decadal changes of the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave during the last 142 years and its relationship to large scale modes of variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerrone, Dario; Fusco, Giannetta; Cotroneo, Yuri; Simmonds, Ian; Budillon, Giorgio

    2016-04-01

    The Southern Ocean is the region of the world ocean bordering on Antarctica over which important exchanges between the atmosphere, the ocean and the sea ice take place. Here, the strong and nearly unhindered eastward flow of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) plays an important control on mean global climate as it transmits climate anomalies around the globe. Features of interannual variability have been often observed to propagate eastward around the Southern Ocean with the circumpolar flow in form of a system of coupled anomalies, known as the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave (ACW). In the present study, using a 142-year series of a composite dataset (850hPa geopotential height, sea level pressure, sea surface temperature, surface meridional wind, surface air temperature) spanning from 1871-2012, the presence of ACWs was investigated. Results show the presence of the ACW before the mid-1950s and interdecadal changes in its variability. Modifications in strength and speed of circumpolar wave have also been observed in connection with large-scale climate changes. CEOF analyses on the same period confirmed that the ACW becomes apparent when there is a constructive combination between the Pacific-South America pattern and the subantarctic zonal wavenumber-3 (ZW3). The analyses also quantify the role played by El-Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) teleconnections for the appearance of the ACW. The composite dataset and various climate indices have been also used to diagnose interactions among the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), ENSO and ZW3 circulation patterns on interannual and sub-decadal scales. Results show that SAM and ENSO patterns interact with each other modulating ACW anomalies in the western and central south Pacific Ocean on interannual scale.

  20. Dual-Mode Encoded Magnetic Composite Microsphere Based on Fluorescence Reporters and Raman Probes as Covert Tag for Anticounterfeiting Applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruimin; Zhang, Yuting; Tan, Jing; Wan, Jiaxun; Guo, Jia; Wang, Changchun

    2016-04-13

    Utilizing fluorescence reporters and SERS probes as the security labels, a series of dual-mode encoded magnetic composite microspheres with micrometer size was designed and prepared for anticounterfeiting applications. At first, the micro-meter-sized melamine formaldehyde microspheres with different fluorescence molecules (FMF) were prepared by precipitation polymerization, and then the magnetite composite microspheres (FMF/MNPs) were fabricated by direct immobilization of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) onto the surface of FMF microspheres. After deposition of Ag nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) onto FMF/MNPs microspheres, the SERS probes were absorbed onto the surface of Ag-NPs, and then a protection layer of silica was coated on the composite microspheres by Stöber method. The combination of different fluorescence reporters and SERS probes greatly increased the encoding complexity and volume for high-level anticounterfeiting. The structure of the dual-encoded FMF/MNPs/Ag-NPs/SiO2 composite microspheres was characterized by FESEM, TEM, FLS(fluorescence spectrometer), XRD, VSM, UV-vis and EDS. The embedded magnetic nanoparticles enable the composite microspheres to be quickly isolated from the marked latex paint by magnet at the concentration of as low as 1 ppm, and the covert tag information can be read out even from one composite microsphere. In addition, the covert security information in the marked coating film can be also read out in situ and the existence of the composite microspheres does not influence the visible appearance of the coating film. All the above outstanding properties will make these dual-mode encoded composite microspheres as advanced security tags for next-generation anticounterfeiting applications.

  1. Recent Advances In Structural Vibration And Failure Mode Control In Mainland China: Theory, Experiments And Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hui; Ou Jinping

    2008-07-08

    A number of researchers have been focused on structural vibration control in the past three decades over the world and fruit achievements have been made. This paper introduces the recent advances in structural vibration control including passive, active and semiactive control in mainland China. Additionally, the co-author extends the structural vibration control to failure mode control. The research on the failure mode control is also involved in this paper. For passive control, this paper introduces full scale tests of buckling-restrained braces conducted to investigate the performance of the dampers and the second-editor of the Code of Seismic Design for Buildings. For active control, this paper introduces the HMD system for wind-induced vibration control of the Guangzhou TV tower. For semiactive control, the smart damping devices, algorithms for semi-active control, design methods and applications of semi-active control for structures are introduced in this paper. The failure mode control for bridges is also introduced.

  2. Application of Failure Mode and Effects Analysis to Intraoperative Radiation Therapy Using Mobile Electron Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Ciocca, Mario; Cantone, Marie-Claire; Veronese, Ivan; Cattani, Federica; Pedroli, Guido; Molinelli, Silvia; Vitolo, Viviana; Orecchia, Roberto

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) represents a prospective approach for risk assessment. A multidisciplinary working group of the Italian Association for Medical Physics applied FMEA to electron beam intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) delivered using mobile linear accelerators, aiming at preventing accidental exposures to the patient. Methods and Materials: FMEA was applied to the IORT process, for the stages of the treatment delivery and verification, and consisted of three steps: 1) identification of the involved subprocesses; 2) identification and ranking of the potential failure modes, together with their causes and effects, using the risk probability number (RPN) scoring system, based on the product of three parameters (severity, frequency of occurrence and detectability, each ranging from 1 to 10); 3) identification of additional safety measures to be proposed for process quality and safety improvement. RPN upper threshold for little concern of risk was set at 125. Results: Twenty-four subprocesses were identified. Ten potential failure modes were found and scored, in terms of RPN, in the range of 42-216. The most critical failure modes consisted of internal shield misalignment, wrong Monitor Unit calculation and incorrect data entry at treatment console. Potential causes of failure included shield displacement, human errors, such as underestimation of CTV extension, mainly because of lack of adequate training and time pressures, failure in the communication between operators, and machine malfunctioning. The main effects of failure were represented by CTV underdose, wrong dose distribution and/or delivery, unintended normal tissue irradiation. As additional safety measures, the utilization of a dedicated staff for IORT, double-checking of MU calculation and data entry and finally implementation of in vivo dosimetry were suggested. Conclusions: FMEA appeared as a useful tool for prospective evaluation of patient safety in radiotherapy. The

  3. 13 CFR 120.837 - SBA decision on application for a new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations. 120.837 Section 120.837 Business Credit...) Extending A Cdc's Area of Operations § 120.837 SBA decision on application for a new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations. The processing District Office must solicit the comments of...

  4. 13 CFR 120.837 - SBA decision on application for a new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations. 120.837 Section 120.837 Business Credit...) Extending A Cdc's Area of Operations § 120.837 SBA decision on application for a new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations. The processing District Office must solicit the comments of...

  5. 13 CFR 120.837 - SBA decision on application for a new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations. 120.837 Section 120.837 Business Credit...) Extending A Cdc's Area of Operations § 120.837 SBA decision on application for a new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations. The processing District Office must solicit the comments of...

  6. 13 CFR 120.837 - SBA decision on application for a new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations. 120.837 Section 120.837 Business Credit...) Extending A Cdc's Area of Operations § 120.837 SBA decision on application for a new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations. The processing District Office must solicit the comments of...

  7. 13 CFR 120.837 - SBA decision on application for a new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations. 120.837 Section 120.837 Business Credit...) Extending A Cdc's Area of Operations § 120.837 SBA decision on application for a new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations. The processing District Office must solicit the comments of...

  8. Single-mode interband cascade laser sources for mid-infrared spectroscopic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheuermann, J.; von Edlinger, M.; Weih, R.; Becker, S.; Nähle, L.; Fischer, M.; Koeth, J.; Kamp, M.; Höfling, S.

    2016-05-01

    Compared to the near infrared, many technologically and industrially relevant gas species have more than an order of magnitude higher absorption features in the mid-infrared (MIR) wavelength range. These species include for example important hydrocarbons (methane, acetylene), nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. Tunable laser absorption spectroscopy (TLAS) has proven to be a versatile tool for gas sensing applications with significant advantages compared to other techniques. These advantages include real time measurement, standoff detection and ruggedness of the sensor. We present interband cascade lasers (ICLs), which have evolved into important laser sources for the MIR spectral range from 3 to 7 μm. ICLs achieve high efficiency by cascading optically active zones whilst using interband transitions, so they combine common diode laser as well as quantum cascade laser based technologies. Our application grade singlemode distributed feedback devices operate continuous wave at room temperature and are offering several features especially useful for high performance TLAS applications like: side mode suppression ratio of > 30 dB, continuous tuning ranges up to 30 nm, low threshold power densities and low overall power consumption. The devices are typically integrated in a thermoelectrically cooled TO-style package, hermetically sealed using a cap with anti-reflection coated window. This low power consumption as well as the compact size and ruggedness of the fabricated laser sources makes them perfectly suited for battery powered portable solutions for in field spectroscopy applications.

  9. Robotic tele-existence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tachi, Susumu; Arai, Hirohiko; Maeda, Taro

    1989-01-01

    Tele-existence is an advanced type of teleoperation system that enables a human operator at the controls to perform remote manipulation tasks dexterously with the feeling that he or she exists in the remote anthropomorphic robot in the remote environment. The concept of a tele-existence is presented, the principle of the tele-existence display method is explained, some of the prototype systems are described, and its space application is discussed.

  10. Autoresonant control of nonlinear mode in ultrasonic transducer for machining applications.

    PubMed

    Babitsky, V I; Astashev, V K; Kalashnikov, A N

    2004-04-01

    Experiments conducted in several countries have shown that the improvement of machining quality can be promoted through conversion of the cutting process into one involving controllable high-frequency vibration at the cutting zone. This is achieved through the generation and maintenance of ultrasonic vibration of the cutting tool to alter the fracture process of work-piece material cutting to one in which loading of the materials at the tool tip is incremental, repetitive and controlled. It was shown that excitation of the high-frequency vibro-impact mode of the tool-workpiece interaction is the most effective way of ultrasonic influence on the dynamic characteristics of machining. The exploitation of this nonlinear mode needs a new method of adaptive control for excitation and stabilisation of ultrasonic vibration known as autoresonance. An approach has been developed to design an autoresonant ultrasonic cutting unit as an oscillating system with an intelligent electronic feedback controlling self-excitation in the entire mechatronic system. The feedback produces the exciting force by means of transformation and amplification of the motion signal. This allows realisation for robust control of fine resonant tuning to bring the nonlinear high Q-factor systems into technological application. The autoresonant control provides the possibility of self-tuning and self-adaptation mechanisms for the system to keep the nonlinear resonant mode of oscillation under unpredictable variation of load, structure and parameters. This allows simple regulation of intensity of the process whilst keeping maximum efficiency at all times. An autoresonant system with supervisory computer control was developed, tested and used for the control of the piezoelectric transducer during ultrasonically assisted cutting. The system has been developed as combined analog-digital, where analog devices process the control signal, and parameters of the devices are controlled digitally by computer. The

  11. Application of failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) to pretreatment phases in tomotherapy.

    PubMed

    Broggi, Sara; Cantone, Marie Claire; Chiara, Anna; Di Muzio, Nadia; Longobardi, Barbara; Mangili, Paola; Veronese, Ivan

    2013-09-06

    The aim of this paper was the application of the failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) approach to assess the risks for patients undergoing radiotherapy treatments performed by means of a helical tomotherapy unit. FMEA was applied to the preplanning imaging, volume determination, and treatment planning stages of the tomotherapy process and consisted of three steps: 1) identification of the involved subprocesses; 2) identification and ranking of the potential failure modes, together with their causes and effects, using the risk probability number (RPN) scoring system; and 3) identification of additional safety measures to be proposed for process quality and safety improvement. RPN upper threshold for little concern of risk was set at 125. A total of 74 failure modes were identified: 38 in the stage of preplanning imaging and volume determination, and 36 in the stage of planning. The threshold of 125 for RPN was exceeded in four cases: one case only in the phase of preplanning imaging and volume determination, and three cases in the stage of planning. The most critical failures appeared related to (i) the wrong or missing definition and contouring of the overlapping regions, (ii) the wrong assignment of the overlap priority to each anatomical structure, (iii) the wrong choice of the computed tomography calibration curve for dose calculation, and (iv) the wrong (or not performed) choice of the number of fractions in the planning station. On the basis of these findings, in addition to the safety strategies already adopted in the clinical practice, novel solutions have been proposed for mitigating the risk of these failures and to increase patient safety.

  12. Single mode tapered fiber-optic interferometer based refractive index sensor and its application to protein sensing.

    PubMed

    Yadav, T K; Narayanaswamy, R; Abu Bakar, M H; Kamil, Y Mustapha; Mahdi, M A

    2014-09-22

    We demonstrate refractive index sensors based on single mode tapered fiber and its application as a biosensor. We utilize this tapered fiber optic biosensor, operating at 1550 nm, for the detection of protein (gelatin) concentration in water. The sensor is based on the spectroscopy of mode coupling based on core modes-fiber cladding modes excited by the fundamental core mode of an optical fiber when it transitions into tapered regions from untapered regions. The changes are determined from the wavelength shift of the transmission spectrum. The proposed fiber sensor has sensitivity of refractive index around 1500 nm/RIU and for protein concentration detection, its highest sensitivity is 2.42141 nm/%W/V. PMID:25321749

  13. 40 CFR 63.5798 - What if I want to use, or I manufacture, an application technology (new or existing) whose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... this subpart? If you wish to use a resin or gel coat application technology (new or existing), whose... description of the resin or gel coat application technology and supporting organic HAP emissions test data... range of resin or gel coat HAP contents to demonstrate the effectiveness of the technology under...

  14. 47 CFR 1.533 - Application forms for authority to construct a new station or make changes in an existing station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application forms for authority to construct a new station or make changes in an existing station. 1.533 Section 1.533 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Requirements § 1.533 Application forms for authority to construct a new station or make changes in an...

  15. High-order face-shear modes of relaxor-PbTiO3 crystals for piezoelectric motor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ci, Penghong; Liu, Guoxi; Chen, Zhijiang; Zhang, Shujun; Dong, Shuxiang

    2014-06-01

    The face-shear vibration modes of [011] poled Zt ± 45° cut relaxor-PT crystals and their applications for linear piezoelectric motors were investigated. Unlike piezoelectric ceramics, the rotated crystal was found to exhibit asymmetric face-shear deformations, and its two high-order face-shear modes degraded into two non-isomorphic modes. As an application example, a standing wave ultrasonic linear motor (10 × 10 × 2 mm3) operating in high-order face-shear vibration modes was developed. The motor exhibits a large driving force (1.5 N) under a low driving voltage (22 Vpp). These findings could provide guidance for design of crystal resonance devices.

  16. Application of Normal Mode Expansion to AE Waves in Finite Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorman, M. R.; Prosser, W. H.

    1997-01-01

    Breckenridge et al. (1975), Hsu (1985) and Pao (1978) adapted approaches from seismology to calculate the response at the surface of an infinite half-space and an infinite plate. These approaches have found use in calibrating acoustic emission (AE) transducers. However, it is difficult to extend this theoretical approach to AE testing of practical structures. Weaver and Pao (1982) considered a normal mode solution to the Lamb equations. Hutchinson (1983) pointed out the potential relevance of Mindlin's plate theory (1951) to AE. Pao (1982) reviewed Medick s (1961) classical plate theory for a point source, but rejected it as useful for AE and no one seems to have investigated its relevance to AE any further. Herein, a normal mode solution to the classical plate bending equation was investigated for its applicability to AE. The same source-time function chosen by Weaver and Pao is considered. However, arbitrary source and receiver positions are chosen relative to the boundaries of the plate. This is another advantage of the plate theory treatment in addition to its simplicity. The source does not have to be at the center of the plate as in the axisymmetric treatment. The plate is allowed to remain finite and reflections are predicted. The importance of this theory to AE is that it can handle finite plates, realistic boundary conditions, and can be extended to composite materials.

  17. Mechanically induced long period fiber gratings on single mode tapered optical fiber for structure sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido-Navarro, María. G.; Marrujo-García, Sigifredo; Álvarez-Chávez, José A.; Velázquez-González, Jesús S.; Martínez-Piñón, Fernando; Escamilla-Ambrosio, Ponciano J.

    2015-08-01

    The modal characteristics of tapered single mode optical fibers and its strain sensing characteristics by using mechanically induced long period fiber gratings are presented in this work. Both Long Period Fiber Gratings (LPFG) and fiber tapers are fiber devices that couple light from the core fiber into the fiber cladding modes. The mechanical LPFG is made up of two plates, one flat and the other grooved. For this experiment the grooved plate was done on an acrylic slab with the help of a computer numerical control machine. The manufacturing of the tapered fiber is accomplished by applying heat using an oxygen-propane flame burner and stretching the fiber, which protective coating has been removed. Then, a polymer-tube-package is added in order to make the sensor sufficiently stiff for the tests. The mechanical induced LPFG is accomplished by putting the tapered fiber in between the two plates, so the taper acquires the form of the grooved plate slots. Using a laser beam the transmission spectrum showed a large peak transmission attenuation of around -20 dB. The resultant attenuation peak wavelength in the transmission spectrum shifts with changes in tension showing a strain sensitivity of 2pm/μɛ. This reveals an improvement on the sensitivity for structure monitoring applications compared with the use of a standard optical fiber. In addition to the experimental work, the supporting theory and numerical simulation analysis are also included.

  18. EFFECTS OF AZADIRACHTIN ON CUTICULAR PROTEINS OF SPODOPTERA LITURA (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE) VIS-A-VIS THE MODES OF APPLICATION.

    PubMed

    Yooboon, T; Pluempanupat, W; Koul, Opender; Bullangpoti, V

    2015-01-01

    Azadirachtin is a known botanical insecticide with multiple modes of action. Whether these effects have any relation with the modes of application, specifically during ecdysis process, has been the objective of the present study and accordingly the impairment, if any, among cuticular proteins of Spodoptera litura (Fab.) was determined. Azadirachtin was applied topically, via injection or oral administration. Azadirachtin administered via injection and topical applications severely impaired the ecdysis by 86.67 and 80.0%, respectively. However, this impairment via oral administration was significantly lower (73.33%). Using SDS-PAGE, the cuticular proteins were determined for treated insects under all the three modes of application. In all cases 6 protein bands (MW 9-34 kDa) were identified using markers as standard. In all treatments 3 induced proteins (MW. ~16, 20 and 23 kDa) and 1 reduced protein (~19 kDa) were observed. In case of the topical treatment a different induced protein of ~18 kDa was identified. The change in cuticular proteins, their possible role in ecdysis impairment vis-a-vis the mode of application of azadirachtin is being correlated. This will help in understanding the mode-of-action at cuticular level and also will allow developing a suitable application strategy under field conditions in insect pest management. PMID:27145582

  19. Optimization of mode numbers of VCSELs for small-cell backhaul applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, I.-Cheng; Wei, Chia-Chien; Shi, Jin-Wei; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Tsai, Sheng-Fan; Hsu, Dar-Zu; Wei, Zhi-Rui; Wun, Jhih-Min; Chen, Jyehong

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission using 850 nm Zn-diffusion Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) and multimode fiber (MMF) for small-cell backhaul applications. We also investigated the influence of side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) on the performance of OFDM modulation. By further optimizing the Zn-diffusion conditions and oxide aperture size, a high-power (6.7 mW) SM (SMSR>30 dB) VCSEL is demonstrated. By using OFDM modulation and bit-loading algorithm, record-high BRDP (91 Gb/s km) at 26 Gb/s transmission under FEC threshold (bit error rate (BER)<3.8×10-3) across 3.5 km OM4 fiber has been successfully demonstrated.

  20. Second-order integral sliding-mode control with experimental application.

    PubMed

    Furat, Murat; Eker, İlyas

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, a second-order sliding-mode controller is proposed for single-input single-output (SISO) uncertain real systems. The proposed controller successively overcomes the variations caused by the uncertainties and external load disturbances although an approximate model of the system is used in the design procedure. An integral type sliding surface is used and the stability and robustness properties of the proposed controller are proved by means of Lyapunov stability theorem. The chattering phenomenon is significantly reduced adopting the switching gain with the known parameters of the system. Thus, the proposed controller is suitable for long-term application to the real systems. The performance of the proposed control scheme is validated by a real system experiments and the results are compared with the similar controllers presented in the literature.

  1. Dosimetric properties of an amorphous-silicon EPID used in continuous acquisition mode for application to dynamic and arc IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    McCurdy, B. M. C.; Greer, P. B.

    2009-07-15

    -IMRT tests revealed that all examples compared to within 2% of maximum dose for more than 95% of in-field pixels. The continuous acquisition mode is suited to time-resolved dosimetry applications including arc-IMRT and dynamic IMRT, giving comparable dose results to the well-studied integrated acquisition mode, although caution should be used in low MU applications. Time-resolved EPID dose information also compared well to time-resolved ion-chamber measurements.

  2. Saturation of the f -mode instability in neutron stars. II. Applications and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pnigouras, Pantelis; Kokkotas, Kostas D.

    2016-07-01

    We present the first results on the saturation of the f -mode instability in neutron stars due to nonlinear mode coupling. Emission of gravitational waves drives the f -mode (fundamental mode) unstable in fast-rotating, newborn neutron stars. The initial growth phase of the mode is followed by its saturation, because of energy leaking to other modes of the star. The saturation point determines the strain of the generated gravitational-wave signal, which can then be used to extract information about the neutron star's equation of state. The parent (unstable) mode couples via parametric resonances with pairs of daughter modes, with the triplets' evolution exhibiting a rich variety of behaviors. We study both supernova- and merger-derived neutron stars, simply modeled as polytropes in a Newtonian context, and show that the parent may couple to many different daughter pairs during the star's evolution through the instability window, with the saturation amplitude changing by orders of magnitude.

  3. Complementary HFET technology for low-power mixed-mode applications

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, A.G.; Sherwin, M.E.; Zolper, J.C.; Dubbert, D.F.; Hietala, V.M.; Shul, R.J.; Sloan, L.R.; Hafich, M.J.

    1996-06-01

    Development of a complementary heterostructure field effect transistor (CHFET) technology for low-power, mixed-mode digital-microwave applications is presented. An earlier digital CHFET technology with independently optimizable transistors which operated with 319 ps loaded gate delays at 8.9 fJ is reviewed. Then work demonstrating the applicability of the digital nJFET device as a low-power microwave transistor in a hybrid microwave amplifier without any modification to the digital process is presented. A narrow band amplifier with a 0.7 {times} 100 {micro}m nJFET as the active element was designed, constructed, and tested. At 1 mW operating power, the amplifier showed 9.7 dB of gain at 2.15 GHz and a minimum noise figure of 2.5 dB. In addition, next generation CHFET transistors with sub 0.5 {micro}m gate lengths were developed. Cutoff frequencies, f{sub t} of 49 GHz and 11.5 GHz were achieved for n- and p-channel FETs with 0.3 and 0.4 {micro}m gates, respectively. These FETs will enable both digital and microwave circuits with enhanced performance.

  4. Temporal patterns of methane emissions from wetland rice fields treated by different modes of N application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wassmann, R.; Neue, H. U.; Lantin, R. S.; Aduna, J. B.; Alberto, M. C. R.; Andales, M. J.; Tan, M. J.; van der Gon, H. A. C. Denier; Hoffmann, H.; Papen, H.; Rennenberg, H.; Seiler, W.

    1994-08-01

    Methane emission rates from wetland rice fields were determined in Los Baños (Philippines) using an automatic system that allows continuous measurements over time. Methane emission was monitored in an irrigated Aquandic Epiaqualf planted to rice cultivar IR72. Urea fertilizer was applied using four modes: (1) broadcast 10 days after transplanting, (2) broadcast at transplanting, (3) broadcast and incorporated at final harrowing, and (4) deep placement as sulfur-coated granules. The treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. Measurements were done in the 1991 wet season, 1992 dry season (four treatments), and the 1992 wet season (only treatment 3). Methane emission rates from the experimental plots showed pronounced seasonal and diel variations. The diel pattern of methane emission rates followed a consistent pattern, with highest rates observed in the early afternoon and lowest rates in the early morning. Methane emission rate was generally highest at the ripening stage. The average methane emission rate during the 1992 dry season (190 mg CH4 m-2 d-1) exceeded the average flux rates of the 1992 wet season (79 mg CH4 m-2 d-1) by a factor of 2.4. The total methane emitted from these flooded rice fields amounted to 19 g CH4 m-2 in the dry season with rice yields of 5.2-6.3 t ha-1 and 7 g CH4 m-2 in the wet season with rice yields of 2.4-3.3 t ha-1 regardless of the mode of N application. Significant amounts corresponding to 20% of the methane released under waterlogged conditions were released when the soil was drained after harvest. Emission rates increased sharply when the floodwater receded and macropores started to drain. Emission of methane stopped only when the soil became fully aerated.

  5. Application of coupled mode theory and coherent superposition theory to phase-shift measurements on optical microresonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Jack A.; Loock, Hans-Peter

    2016-10-01

    Several mathematical models exist in the literature to describe the properties of optical resonators. Here, coupled mode theory and coherent superposition theory are compared and their consistency is demonstrated as they are applied to phase-shift cavity ring-down measurements in optical (micro-)cavities. In the particular case of a whispering gallery mode in a microsphere cavity these models are applied to transmission measurements and backscattering measurements through the fiber taper that couples light into the microresonator. It is shown that both models produce identical relations when applied to these traveling wave cavities.

  6. Surgical hand disinfection using alcohol: the effects of alcohol type, mode and duration of application.

    PubMed

    Suchomel, M; Gnant, G; Weinlich, M; Rotter, M

    2009-03-01

    Due to their strong antimicrobial activity, rapid action, good dermal tolerance and ease of application, alcohol-based hand rubs are recommended for pre-operative preparation of the surgical team's hands. Using the EN 12791 protocol, three commercial products containing either mixtures of propan-1-ol and propan-2-ol or ethanol at total alcohol concentrations (w/w) between 73% (propanols) and 78.2% (ethanol), as the main active agents, were tested with a shortened application of 1.5 min rather than the usual 3 min. Preparation A containing 30% propan-1-ol and 45% propan-2-ol not only passed the test at this short application but even exceeded, though not significantly, the efficacy of the reference disinfection procedure in EN 12791 when applied for 3 min. Preparation B containing 45% propan-1-ol and 28% propan-2-ol fulfilled the required standard whereas the ethanol (78.2%)-based product C did not (P<0.1). This demonstrates that some, but not all, alcohol-based hand rubs pass the test even within 1.5 min, emphasising the importance of validation before a product is introduced into clinical practice. In another series with both preparation A and 60% v/v propan-1-ol, it was demonstrated that the additional inclusion of the forearms into the disinfection procedure, not required by EN 12791 but normal practice in surgical hand disinfection, does not significantly interfere with the antimicrobial efficacy of either hand rub. Therefore, the mode of test procedure in EN 12791 does not need specific adaptation for hand disinfection by surgical teams.

  7. Application of attachment modes in the control of large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Roy R., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Various ways are examined to obtain reduced order mathematical models of structures for use in dynamic response analyses and in controller design studies. Attachment modes are deflection shapes of a structure subjected to specified unit load distributions. Attachment modes are frequently employed to supplement free-interface normal modes to improve the modeling of components (structures) employed in component mode synthesis analyses. Deflection shapes of structures subjected to generalized loads of some specified distribution and of unit magnitude can also be considered to be attachment modes. Several papers which were written under this contract are summarized herein.

  8. An Innovative Structural Mode Selection Methodology: Application for the X-33 Launch Vehicle Finite Element Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hidalgo, Homero, Jr.

    2000-01-01

    An innovative methodology for determining structural target mode selection and mode selection based on a specific criterion is presented. An effective approach to single out modes which interact with specific locations on a structure has been developed for the X-33 Launch Vehicle Finite Element Model (FEM). We presented Root-Sum-Square (RSS) displacement method computes resultant modal displacement for each mode at selected degrees of freedom (DOF) and sorts to locate modes with highest values. This method was used to determine modes, which most influenced specific locations/points on the X-33 flight vehicle such as avionics control components, aero-surface control actuators, propellant valve and engine points for use in flight control stability analysis and for flight POGO stability analysis. Additionally, the modal RSS method allows for primary or global target vehicle modes to also be identified in an accurate and efficient manner.

  9. Programmable surface deformation: thickness-mode electroactive polymer actuators and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prahlad, Harsha; Pelrine, Ron; Kornbluh, Roy; von Guggenberg, Philip; Chhokar, Surjit; Eckerle, Joseph; Rosenthal, Marcus; Bonwit, Neville

    2005-05-01

    Many different actuator configurations based on SRI International"s dielectric elastomer (DE) type of electroactive polymer (EAP) have been developed for a variety of applications. These actuators have shown excellent actuation properties including maximum actuation strains of up to 380% and energy densities of up to 3.4 J/g, using the planar mode of actuation. Recently, SRI has investigated different configurations of DE actuators that allow complex changes in surface shape and thus the creation of active surface texture. In this configuration, the "active" polymer film is bonded or coated with a thicker passive layer, such that changes in the polymer thickness during actuation of the DE device are at least partially transferred to (and often amplified by) the passive layer. Although the device gives out-of-plane motion, it can nonetheless be fabricated using two-dimensional patterning. The result is a rugged, flexible, and conformal skin that can be spatially actuated by subjecting patterned electrodes on a polymer substrate to an electric field. Using thickness-mode DE, we have demonstrated thickness changes of the order of 0.5 - 2 mm by laminating a passive elastomeric layer to a DE polymer that is only 60 μm in thickness. Such thickness changes would otherwise require a very large number of stacked layers of the DE film to produce comparable surface deformations. Preliminary pressures of 4.2 kPa (0.6 psi) in a direction normal to the plane of the DE film have been measured. However, theoretical calculations indicate that pressures of the order of 100 kPa are feasible using a single layer of DE film. Stacking multiple layers of DE film can lead to a further increase in achievable actuation pressures. Even with current levels of thickness change and actuation pressures, potential applications of such surface texture change are numerous. A thin, compliant pad made from these actuators can have a massaging or sensory augmentation function, and can be incorporated

  10. Development of a Conceptual Structure for Aquatic Education and Its Application to Existing Aquatic Curricula and Needed Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J.

    1984-01-01

    Northern Minnesota secondary teachers (N=55) were surveyed on their knowledge of a priority for selected water topics. Teachers' assessment of these topic areas provide: (1) a suggested structure for marine education; (2) the evaluation of existing curricula; and (3) needs analysis to determine areas of future curriculum development. (BC)

  11. When the New Application Smell Is Gone: Traditional Intranet Best Practices and Existing Web 2.0 Intranet Infrastructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoose, Becky

    2010-01-01

    With the growth of Web 2.0 library intranets in recent years, many libraries are leaving behind legacy, first-generation intranets. As Web 2.0 intranets multiply and mature, how will traditional intranet best practices--especially in the areas of planning, implementation, and evaluation--translate into an existing Web 2.0 intranet infrastructure?…

  12. Single-Mode, High Repetition Rate, Compact Ho:YLF Laser for Space-Borne Lidar Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, Yingxin; Yu, Jirong; Wong, Teh-Hwa; Chen, Songsheng; Petros, Mulugeta; Singh, Upendra N.

    2014-01-01

    A single transverse/longitudinal mode, compact Q-switched Ho:YLF laser has been designed and demonstrated for space-borne lidar applications. The pulse energy is between 34-40 mJ for 100-200 Hz operation. The corresponding peak power is >1 MW.

  13. In Vivo Application and Localization of Transcranial Focused Ultrasound Using Dual-Mode Ultrasound Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Haritonova, Alyona; Liu, Dalong; Ebbini, Emad S.

    2015-01-01

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) has been proposed for a variety of transcranial applications, including neuromodulation, tumor ablation, and blood brain barrier opening. A flurry of activity in recent years has generated encouraging results demonstrating its feasibility in these and other applications. To date, monitoring of FUS beams have been primarily accomplished using MR guidance, where both MR thermography and elastography have been used. The recent introduction of real-time dual-mode ultrasound array (DMUA) systems offers a new paradigm in transcranial focusing. In this paper, we present first experimental results of ultrasound-guided transcranial FUS (tFUS) application in a rodent brain, both ex vivo and in vivo. DMUA imaging is used for visualization of the treatment region for placement of the focal spot within the brain. This includes the detection and localization of pulsating blood vessels at or near the target point(s). In addition, DMUA imaging is used to monitor and localize the FUS-tissue interactions in real-time. In particular, a concave (40-mm radius of curvature), 32-element, 3.5 MHz DMUA prototype was used for imaging and tFUS application in ex vivo and in vivo rat model. The ex vivo experiments were used to evaluate the point spread function (psf) of the transcranial DMUA imaging at various points within the brain. In addition, DMUA-based transcranial ultrasound thermography measurements were compared with thermocouple measurements of subtherapeutic tFUS heating in rat brain ex vivo. The ex vivo setting was also used to demonstrate the DMUA capability to produce localized thermal lesions. The in vivo experiments were designed to demonstrate the ability of the DMUA to apply, monitor, and localize subtherapeutic tFUS patterns that could be beneficial in transient blood brain barrier opening. The results show that, while the DMUA focus is degraded due to the propagation through the skull, it still produces localized heating effects within sub

  14. In Vivo application and localization of transcranial focused ultrasound using dual-mode ultrasound arrays.

    PubMed

    Haritonova, Alyona; Liu, Dalong; Ebbini, Emad S

    2015-12-01

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) has been proposed for a variety of transcranial applications, including neuromodulation, tumor ablation, and blood-brain barrier opening. A flurry of activity in recent years has generated encouraging results demonstrating its feasibility in these and other applications. To date, monitoring of FUS beams has been primarily accomplished using MR guidance, where both MR thermography and elastography have been used. The recent introduction of real-time dual-mode ultrasound array (DMUA) systems offers a new paradigm in transcranial focusing. In this paper, we present first experimental results of ultrasound-guided transcranial FUS (tFUS) application in a rodent brain, both ex vivo and in vivo. DMUA imaging is used for visualization of the treatment region for placement of the focal spot within the brain. This includes the detection and localization of pulsating blood vessels at or near the target point(s). In addition, DMUA imaging is used to monitor and localize the FUS-tissue interactions in real time. In particular, a concave (40 mm radius of curvature), 32-element, 3.5-MHz DMUA prototype was used for imaging and tFUS application in ex vivo and in vivo rat models. The ex vivo experiments were used to evaluate the point spread function of the transcranial DMUA imaging at various points within the brain. In addition, DMUA-based transcranial ultrasound thermography measurements were compared with thermocouple measurements of subtherapeutic tFUS heating in rat brain ex vivo. The ex vivo setting was also used to demonstrate the capability of DMUA to produce localized thermal lesions. The in vivo experiments were designed to demonstrate the ability of the DMUA to apply, monitor, and localize subtherapeutic tFUS patterns that could be beneficial in transient blood-brain barrier opening. The results show that although the DMUA focus is degraded due to the propagation through the skull, it still produces localized heating effects within a sub

  15. In Vivo application and localization of transcranial focused ultrasound using dual-mode ultrasound arrays.

    PubMed

    Haritonova, Alyona; Liu, Dalong; Ebbini, Emad S

    2015-12-01

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) has been proposed for a variety of transcranial applications, including neuromodulation, tumor ablation, and blood-brain barrier opening. A flurry of activity in recent years has generated encouraging results demonstrating its feasibility in these and other applications. To date, monitoring of FUS beams has been primarily accomplished using MR guidance, where both MR thermography and elastography have been used. The recent introduction of real-time dual-mode ultrasound array (DMUA) systems offers a new paradigm in transcranial focusing. In this paper, we present first experimental results of ultrasound-guided transcranial FUS (tFUS) application in a rodent brain, both ex vivo and in vivo. DMUA imaging is used for visualization of the treatment region for placement of the focal spot within the brain. This includes the detection and localization of pulsating blood vessels at or near the target point(s). In addition, DMUA imaging is used to monitor and localize the FUS-tissue interactions in real time. In particular, a concave (40 mm radius of curvature), 32-element, 3.5-MHz DMUA prototype was used for imaging and tFUS application in ex vivo and in vivo rat models. The ex vivo experiments were used to evaluate the point spread function of the transcranial DMUA imaging at various points within the brain. In addition, DMUA-based transcranial ultrasound thermography measurements were compared with thermocouple measurements of subtherapeutic tFUS heating in rat brain ex vivo. The ex vivo setting was also used to demonstrate the capability of DMUA to produce localized thermal lesions. The in vivo experiments were designed to demonstrate the ability of the DMUA to apply, monitor, and localize subtherapeutic tFUS patterns that could be beneficial in transient blood-brain barrier opening. The results show that although the DMUA focus is degraded due to the propagation through the skull, it still produces localized heating effects within a sub

  16. A review of existing gas-cooled reactor circulators with application of the lessons learned to the new production reactor circulators

    SciTech Connect

    White, L.S.

    1990-07-01

    This report presents the results of a study of the lessons learned during the design, testing, and operation of gas-cooled reactor coolant circulators. The intent of this study is to identify failure modes and problem areas of the existing circulators so this information can be incorporated into the design of the circulators for the New Production Reactor (NPR)-Modular High-Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (MHTGR). The information for this study was obtained primarily from open literature and includes data on high-pressure, high-temperature helium test loop circulators as well as the existing gas cooled reactors worldwide. This investigation indicates that trouble free circulator performance can only be expected when the design program includes a comprehensive prototypical test program, with the results of this test program factored into the final circulator design. 43 refs., 7 tabs.

  17. A 2013 Survey on Pressure Monitoring in Adult Cardiopulmonary Bypass Circuits: Modes and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Rigg, Laura; Searles, Bruce; Darling, Edward Morse

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Pressure data acquired from multiple sites of extracorporeal circuits can be an important parameter to monitor for the safe conduct of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Although previous surveys demonstrate that CPB circuit pressure monitoring is widely used, there are very little data cataloging specific applications of this practice. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to survey the perfusion community to catalog 1) primary CPB circuit site pressure monitoring locations; 2) type of manometers used; 3) pressure monitoring interface and servoregulation with pump console; and 4) the rationale and documentation associated with pressure monitoring during CPB. In June 2013, a validated 27-question online survey was sent directly through an e-mail link to the chief perfusionists in the northeast United States. Completed surveys were received from 75 of 117 surveys deployed yielding a 64% response rate. Arterial line pressure monitoring during CPB is reported by 99% with six distinct circuit site locations identified. Cardioplegia system pressure was monitored by 95% of the centers. For vacuum-assisted venous drainage (VAVD) users, the venous pressure was measured by 72% of the responding centers. Arterial line pressure servoregulation of the arterial pump was indicated by 61% of respondents and 75% of centers record arterial line pressure in their perfusion record. Most centers (77%) report the use of a transducer that is integrated into the pump console providing a digital pressure display, whereas 20% combine an aneroid gauge manometer with the integrated digital transducer. This study demonstrates that the practice of arterial line pressure monitoring during CPB is nearly universal. However, the selection of the pressure monitoring site on the circuit, modes of monitoring pressure, and their applications are highly variable across the perfusion community. PMID:26357797

  18. Combining whispering gallery mode lasers and microstructured optical fibers for in-vivo biosensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, A.; Rowland, K. J.; Reynolds, T.; Nicholls, S. J.; Monro, T. M.

    2013-10-01

    Whispering Gallery Modes (WGMs) have been widely studied for the past 20 years for various applications, including biological sensing. While the different WGM-based sensing approaches reported in the literature enable useful sensor characteristics, at present this technology is not yet mature, mainly for practical reasons. Our work has been focused on developing a simple, yet efficient, WGM-based sensing platform capable of being used as a dip sensor for in-vivo biosensing applications. We recently demonstrated that a dye-doped polymer microresonator, supporting WGMs, positioned onto the tip of a suspended core Microstructured Optical Fiber can be used as a dip sensor. In this architecture, the resonator is located on an air hole next to the fiber core at the fiber's tip, enabling a significant portion of the sphere to overlap with the guided light emerging from the fiber tip. This architecture offers significant benefits that have never been reported in the literature in terms of radiation efficiency, compared to the standard freestanding resonators, which arise from breaking the symmetry of the resonator. In addition to providing the remote excitation and collection of the WGMs' signal, the fiber also allows easy manipulation of the microresonator and the use this sensor in a dip sensing architecture, alleviating the need for a complex microfluidic interface. Here, we present our recent results on the microstructured fiber tip WGM-based sensor, including its lasing behavior and enhancement of the radiation efficiency as a function of the position of the resonator on the fiber tip. We also show that this platform can be used for clinical diagnostics and applying this technology to the detection of Troponin T, an acute myocardial infarction biomarker, down to a concentration of 7.4 pg/mL.

  19. Annealing of linear birefringence in single-mode fiber coils - Application to optical fiber current sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Dingding; Rose, A. H.; Day, G. W.; Etzel, Shelley M.

    1991-01-01

    Annealing procedures that greatly reduce linear birefringence in single-mode fiber coils are described. These procedures have been successfully applied to coils ranging from 5 mm to 10 cm in diameter and up to 200 or more turns. They involve temperature cycles that last 3-4 days and reach maximum temperatures of about 850 C. The residual birefringence and induced loss are minimized by proper selection of fiber. The primary application of these coils is optical fiber current sensors, where they yield small sensors that are more stable than those achieved by other techniques. A current sensor with a temperature stability of 8.4 x 10 to the -5th/K over the range from -75 to 145 C has been demonstrated. This is approximately 20 percent greater than the temperature dependence of the Verdet constant. Packaging degrades the stability, but a packaged sensor coil with a temperature stability of about 1.6 + 10 to the -4th/K over the range from -20 to 120 C has also been demonstrated.

  20. Forward Modeling of Standing Kink Modes in Coronal Loops. II. Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ding; Van Doorsselaere, Tom

    2016-04-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic waves are believed to play a significant role in coronal heating, and could be used for remote diagnostics of solar plasma. Both the heating and diagnostic applications rely on a correct inversion (or backward modeling) of the observables into the thermal and magnetic structures of the plasma. However, due to the limited availability of observables, this is an ill-posed issue. Forward modeling is designed to establish a plausible mapping of plasma structuring into observables. In this study, we set up forward models of standing kink modes in coronal loops and simulate optically thin emissions in the extreme ultraviolet bandpasses, and then adjust plasma parameters and viewing angles to match three events of transverse loop oscillations observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly. We demonstrate that forward models could be effectively used to identify the oscillation overtone and polarization, to reproduce the general profile of oscillation amplitude and phase, and to predict multiple harmonic periodicities in the associated emission intensity and loop width variation.

  1. Simulation and Application of Dynamic Inspection Modes Using Ultrasonic Phased Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaut, Steve; Chatillon, Sylvain; Raillon-Picot, Raphaële; Calmon, Pierre

    2004-02-01

    NDT techniques using phased arrays are more and more applied in different industrial contexts. Their main advantage is the adaptability to the testing configuration : ability to steer and to focus the beam inside the inspected component taking account the geometry and the constitutive materials, high acquisition rates without raster scanning pattern of the probe using electronic commutation, sectorial scanning inspection to fully insonify the specimen, etc. Optimal use of phased arrays requires simulation tools accounting for the actual testing configuration. For several years, such tools have been developed at the French Atomic Energy Commission. Delay laws, beam forming and echo formation (interaction of the beam with defects or specimen boundaries) models are used to design the arrays, to conceive and to evaluate the performances of methods in realistic and complex configurations. Recently, works have been made to extend the simulation skills to advanced inspection modes : electronic commutation with separate Transmission/Reception patterns, non-symmetric Transmit/Receive delay laws, sectorial scanning inspections. This paper presents some examples of simulation and application of such inspections carried out over complex specimen. These examples demonstrate the interest for simulation tools in terms of prediction, optimization and interpretation of phased arrays techniques.

  2. Beam Mode Expansion of Corrugated Conical Horns with Phase Correcting Lens: Application to Radioastronomy Receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, E.; de Haro, L.; O'Sullivan, C.; Cahill, G.; López Fernández, J. A.; Tercero, F.; Galocha, B.; Besada, J. L.

    2003-06-01

    A classical radioastronomy receiver is fed with a corrugated horn and an independent lens, both placed in a cryostat to lower the noise temperature. The beam is focused and directed using a combination of elliptical and plane mirrors. This paper proposes modifying the initial feeding system by placing the lens onto the horn aperture, thereby allowing a size reduction of the horn and lens, and a simplification of their mechanical design. The profiled lens is shaped to correct the phase error on the horn aperture. A quasi-optical model of the horn-plus-lens system has been developed using a Beam Mode Expansion (BME). Results using both a hyperbolic-planar lens and a spherical-elliptical lens, as well as results obtained by using Geometrical Optics (GO) with a Kirchoff Huygens integration to get the far-field pattern, have been compared with measurements. As a direct application, a full focusing system for the new 40-m radiotelescope at the “Centro Astronómico de Yebes” is presented for the 22, 30 and 45 GHz bands. This paper has developed a QO model for a corrugated conical horn with a phase-correcting lens.

  3. Wave Mode Processing Algorithms, Product Validation and Assimilation Wave Retrievals and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collard, Fabrice; Johnsen, Harald; Lotfi, Aouf; Chapron, Bertrand

    2013-03-01

    The fourth SAR oceanography workshop, SEASAR 2012 , entitled "Advances in SAR Oceanography", was held in Tromsø, 18th to 22th June 2012. Among the topics highlighted at SEASAR 2012 were ”Wave mode processing algorithms, product validation and assimilation” and ”Wave retrievals and applications”. The last decade of SAR wave research has brought high level of consensus on the various approaches for deriving wave information from SAR images. The main new achievements have been within advance applications of SAR wave derived information such as;1) the investigation of extreme sea states in intense storms; 2) the study of individual exceptional wave states, such as freak (monster) waves; 3) the extension of numerical wave models in the general context of Earth System modelling, including the improved representation of wave-current interactions, air-sea fluxes, and second-order spectral quantities related to infra-gravity and microseism generation, and; 4) improved assimilation of wave data in NWP models. This paper presents a summary of achievements and way forward within these fields since the previous white paper of SeaSAR2003 (ESA SP-565, 2004).

  4. 40 CFR 63.5798 - What if I want to use, or I manufacture, an application technology (new or existing) whose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... represented by the equations in Table 1 to this subpart? 63.5798 Section 63.5798 Protection of Environment... in Table 1 to this subpart? If you wish to use a resin or gel coat application technology (new or existing), whose emission characteristics are not represented by the equations in Table 1 to this...

  5. ESTABLISHMENT OF ASSESSMENT RULE OF DEBRIS FLOW TORRENT APPLICABLE TO DEGREE OF DISASTER RISK BY UTILIZING OF THE EXISTING DATA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hiroki; Sugihara, Shigemitsu; Ohishi, Hiroyuki; Araki, Yoshinori; Furukawa, Kohei

    In this study, the authors have experimentally established an assessment rule of debris flow torrents applicable to degree of disaster risk. For the first trial, the representing hazard data were selected by eliminating surrounding noises as much as possible by means of SVM method. Second, the disaster risks were classified respectively by using separating hyperplane constructed by the selected representing hazard data. Then, each hazard rank was studied and analyzed by application of rough set theory, so that the assessment rule has been established. The rule through this process has high versatility, and has a good consistency with actual events of disaster occurrence or non-occurrence. From the method above mentioned, the results of this study, show that the most appropriate rule can be selected from survey data of any debris flow torrents and the system can be applicable to utilize for the judgment of hazard rank, as well.

  6. a Reformulation of Coupled Mode Theory for Multimode Guides with Application to a Specialized Graded-Index Optical Fiber Coupler.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Salama Abul-Seoud

    Coupled mode theory for parallel dielectric waveguides is reformulated for the case of a multimode multiwaveguide system. This theory is derived on the basis of a generalized reciprocity theorem. Analytical relations among the coupling coefficients are derived and applied to the coupled mode equations. It is found that even for lossless identical fibers the coupling coefficients from the m^ {th} mode in fiber "a" to the n ^{th} mode in fiber "b" and from the n^{th} mode in fiber "b" to the m^{th} mode in fiber "a" described by K_sp{rm m,n}{rm(a,b)} and K _sp{rm n,m}{rm (b,a)} , respectively, are not related simply as complex conjugates. With the appropriate use of the overlap integrals, the new theory satisfies both the reciprocity and the power conservation relations exactly. The symmetric (hermitian) orthogonality of the supermode eigenvectors with a weighting matrix given by the overlap intergrals matrix is demonstrated in the lossy (and lossless) case. A system consisting of two identical coupled graded -index slab fibers is studied. The coupling length for maximum power transfer of the higher order modes from the excited to the coupled fiber, leaving as much power of the lowest mode as possible to continue in the excited fiber, is computed for different graded-index slab fibers. This desired coupling length is shown to be independent of the incident light beam. To achieve control of the effective coupling length between the two fibers, special means for separating them at some point are needed for some applications. For this purpose, a tapered section is introduced. The stairwise approximation is used to compute the fields propagated through the tapered section, and mode matching method is used to connect the fields at the junctions between the successive segments. Both linear and curved tapers are considered. The electric fields are computed at the output of the system for incident optical beams with different axial displacements and beams launched on axis

  7. Case studies: Application of SEA in provincial level expressway infrastructure network planning in China - Current existing problems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Kaiyi; Sheate, William R.

    2011-11-15

    Since the Law of the People's Republic of China on Environmental Impact Assessment was enacted in 2003 and Huanfa 2004 No. 98 was released in 2004, Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) has been officially being implemented in the expressway infrastructure planning field in China. Through scrutinizing two SEA application cases of China's provincial level expressway infrastructure (PLEI) network plans, it is found that current SEA practice in expressway infrastructure planning field has a number of problems including: SEA practitioners do not fully understand the objective of SEA; its potential contributions to strategic planning and decision-making is extremely limited; the employed application procedure and prediction and assessment techniques are too simple to bring objective, unbiased and scientific results; and no alternative options are considered. All these problems directly lead to poor quality SEA and consequently weaken SEA's effectiveness.

  8. The Psychoanalytic Mode of Thought and its Application To the Non-Normative Analysis of Sexuality and Gender.

    PubMed

    Kloppenberg, Brian

    2016-02-01

    Freud's psychoanalytic mode of thought, especially as interpreted by William Grossman, functions as an inherently non-normative means of analyzing both the psychic life of the individual and various historical and cultural phenomena. Application of this mode of thought to particular characterizations of gender and sexuality makes possible an essential critique of trait psychology and static formulations of human development, as restricting both clinical practice and theory building. An exploration of the complexities of sexuality and gender in gay men shows how Freud's insistence on variability lends conceptual power at the intersection of classical psychoanalysis, with its problematic history, and the many clinical and theoretical manifestations of contemporary psychoanalysis. The non-normative psychoanalytic mode of thought developed by Freud must be integrated with more recent formulations about gender and sexuality in order to conduct a psychoanalysis. PMID:26819349

  9. 980 nm diode laser with automatic power control mode for dermatological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, Andrey V.; Gelfond, Mark L.; Shatilova, Ksenia V.; Sosenkova, Svetlana A.; Lazareva, Anastasia A.

    2015-07-01

    Results of nevus, papilloma, dermatofibroma, and basal cell skin cancer removal by a 980+/-10 nm diode laser with "blackened" tip operating in continuous (CW) mode and automatic power control (APC) mode are compared. It was demonstrated that using APC mode decreases the width of collateral damage at removing of these nosological neoplasms of human skin. The mean width of collateral damage reached 0.846+/-0.139 mm for patient group with nevus removing by 980 nm diode laser operating in CW mode, papilloma - 0.443+/-0.312 mm, dermatofibroma - 0.923+/-0.271 mm, and basal cell skin cancer - 0.787+/-0.325 mm. The mean width of collateral damage reached 0.592+/-0.197 mm for patient group with nevus removing by 980 nm diode laser operating in APC mode, papilloma - 0.191+/-0.162 mm, dermatofibroma - 0.476+/-0.366 mm, and basal cell skin cancer - 0.517+/-0.374 mm. It was found that the percentage of laser wounds with collateral damage less than 300 μm of quantity of removed nosological neoplasms in APC mode is 50%, that significantly higher than the percentage of laser wounds obtained using CW mode (13.4%).

  10. Application of divertor cryopumping to H-mode density control in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Mahdavi, M.A.; Ferron, J.R.; Hyatt, A.W.

    1993-11-01

    In this paper we describe the method and the results of experiments where a unique in-vessel cryopump-baffle system was used to control density of H-mode plasmas. We were able to independently regulate current and density of ELMing H-mode plasmas, each over a range of factor two, and measure the H-mode confinement scaling with plasma density and current. With a modest pumping speed of {approx}40 kl/s, particle exhaust rates as high as 2 {times} 10{sup 22} atom/s{sup {minus}1} have been observed.

  11. Failure mode analysis using state variables derived from fault trees with application

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholomew, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is used extensively to assess both the qualitative and quantitative reliability of engineered nuclear power systems employing many subsystems and components. FTA is very useful, but the method is limited by its inability to account for failure mode rate-of-change interdependencies (coupling) of statistically independent failure modes. The state variable approach (using FTA-derived failure modes as states) overcomes these difficulties and is applied to the determination of the lifetime distribution function for a heat pipe-thermoelectric nuclear power subsystem. Analyses are made using both Monte Carlo and deterministic methods and compared with a Markov model of the same subsystem.

  12. Extension of the broadband single-mode integrated optical waveguide technique to the ultraviolet spectral region and its applications.

    PubMed

    Wiederkehr, Rodrigo S; Mendes, Sergio B

    2014-03-21

    We report here the fabrication, characterization, and application of a single-mode integrated optical waveguide (IOW) spectrometer capable of acquiring optical absorbance spectra of surface-immobilized molecules in the visible and ultraviolet spectral region down to 315 nm. The UV-extension of the single-mode IOW technique to shorter wavelengths was made possible by our development of a low-loss single-mode dielectric waveguide in the UV region based on an alumina film grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) over a high quality fused silica substrate, and by our design/fabrication of a broadband waveguide coupler formed by an integrated diffraction grating combined with a highly anamorphic optical beam of large numerical aperture. As an application of the developed technology, we report here the surface adsorption process of bacteriochlorophyll a on different interfaces using its Soret absorption band centred at 370 nm. The effects of different chemical compositions at the solid-liquid interface on the adsorption and spectral properties of bacteriochlorophyll a were determined from the polarized UV-Vis IOW spectra acquired with the developed instrumentation. The spectral extension of the single-mode IOW technique into the ultraviolet region is an important advance as it enables extremely sensitive studies in key characteristics of surface molecular processes (e.g., protein unfolding and solvation of aromatic amino-acid groups under surface binding) whose spectral features are mainly located at wavelengths below the visible spectrum.

  13. Sliding mode control with PID sliding surface and experimental application to an electromechanical plant.

    PubMed

    Eker, Ilyas

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a sliding mode control system with a proportional+integral+derivative (PID) sliding surface is adopted to control the speed of an electromechanical plant. A robust sliding mode controller is derived so that the actual trajectory tracks the desired trajectory despite uncertainty, nonlinear dynamics, and external disturbances. The proposed sliding mode controller is chosen to ensure the stability of overall dynamics during the reaching phase and sliding phase. The stability of the system is guaranteed in the sense of the Lyapunov stability theorem. The chattering problem is overcome using a hyperbolic function for the sliding surface. Experimental results that are compared with the results of conventional PID verify that the proposed sliding mode controller can achieve favorable tracking performance, and it is robust with regard to uncertainties and disturbances.

  14. A novel adaptive sliding mode control with application to MEMS gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Fei, Juntao; Batur, Celal

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new adaptive sliding mode controller for MEMS gyroscope; an adaptive tracking controller with a proportional and integral sliding surface is proposed. The adaptive sliding mode control algorithm can estimate the angular velocity and the damping and stiffness coefficients in real time. A proportional and integral sliding surface, instead of a conventional sliding surface is adopted. An adaptive sliding mode controller that incorporates both matched and unmatched uncertainties and disturbances is derived and the stability of the closed-loop system is established. The numerical simulation is presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. It is shown that the proposed adaptive sliding mode control scheme offers several advantages such as the consistent estimation of gyroscope parameters including angular velocity and large robustness to parameter variations and external disturbances.

  15. Radiation patterns of multi-moded corrugated horns for far-IR space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, J. Anthony; Colgan, Ruth; O'Sullivan, Creidhe; Maffei, Bruno; Ade, Peter

    2001-12-01

    Multi-moded horn antennas are now being proposed for far-IR space imaging systems in which diffraction limited resolution is not required (e.g. the High-Frequency Instrument (HFI) on the ESA PLANCK Surveyor). In such systems individual modes in the waveguide filter section feeding the horn can couple independently to an overmoded detector (such as a bolometer in an integrating cavity). The number of modes is chosen to optimize the coupling efficiency to the source without compromising any spillover losses. We consider in detail the case of a cylindrically symmetric corrugated configuration, presenting two alternative techniques for modelling such few-moded systems. The first approach is based on a mode-matching description of propagation in a non-uniform waveguide structure, while the second approach makes use of hybrid mode solutions for a waveguide with corrugated walls assuming a uniform but non-isotropic impedance. We present practical examples comparing the radiation patterns predicted by both models.

  16. Normal mode determination of perovskite crystal structures with octahedral rotations: theory and applications.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad A; Rondinelli, James M; Spanier, Jonathan E

    2013-05-01

    Nuclear site analysis methods are used to enumerate the normal modes of ABX3 perovskite polymorphs with octahedral rotations. We provide the modes of the 14 subgroups of the cubic aristotype describing the Glazer octahedral tilt patterns, which are obtained from rotations of the BX6 octahedra with different sense and amplitude about high-symmetry axes. We tabulate all normal modes of each tilt system and specify the contribution of each atomic species to the mode displacement pattern, elucidating the physical meaning of the symmetry unique modes. We have systematically generated 705 schematic atomic displacement patterns for the normal modes of all 15 (14 rotated + 1 unrotated) Glazer tilt systems. We show through some illustrative examples how to use these tables to identify the octahedral rotations, symmetric breathing, and first-order Jahn-Teller anti-symmetric breathing distortions of the BX6 octahedra, and the associated Raman selection rules. We anticipate that these tables and schematics will be useful in understanding the lattice dynamics of bulk perovskites and could serve as a reference point in elucidating the atomic origins of a wide range of physical properties of synthetic perovskite thin films and superlattices. PMID:23567868

  17. The PERC{trademark} process: Existing and potential applications for induction coupled plasma technology in hazardous and radioactive waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Blutke, A.S.; Vavruska, J.S.; Serino, J.F.

    1996-12-31

    Plasma Technology, Inc. (PTI), a Santa Fe, New Mexico corporation has developed the Plasma Energy Recycle and Conversion (PERC){trademark} treatment process as a safe and environmentally clean alternative to conventional thermal destruction technologies. The PERC{trademark} treatment process uses as its heat source an advanced Induction Coupled Plasma (ICP) torch connected to a reaction chamber system with an additional emission control system. For example, organic-based gas, liquid, slurry, and/or solid waste streams can be converted into usable or even salable products while residual emissions are reduced to an absolute minimum. In applications for treatment of hazardous and radioactive waste streams, the PERC system could be used for destruction of the hazardous organic constituents and/or significant waste volume reduction while capturing the radioactive fraction in a non-leachable form. Like Direct Current (DC) and Alternating Current (AC) arc plasma systems, ICP torches offer sufficient energy to decompose, melt and/or vitrify any waste stream. The decision for an arc plasma or an IC plasma system has to be made on a case by case evaluation and is highly dependent on the specific waste stream`s form and composition. Induction coupled plasma technology offers one simple, but significant difference compared to DC or AC arc plasma systems: the ICP torch is electrodeless. To date, enormous research effort has been spent to improve the lifetime of electrodes and the effectiveness of related cooling systems. Arc plasma systems are established in research laboratories worldwide and are approaching a broad use in commercial applications. ICP technology has been improved relatively recently, but nowadays offers complete new and beneficial approaches in the field of waste conversion and treatment.

  18. Characterization of Single-mode Chalcogenide Optical Fiber for Mid-Infrared Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnaswami, Kannan; Qiao, Hong; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Anheier, Norman C.

    2009-04-01

    Chalcogenide fibers display a wide transmission window ranging from 2-10.6 μm, ideally suited to the development of passive and active mid-infrared (MIR) sensors. They are essential building blocks for the integration and miniaturization of laser-based MIR optical systems for terrestrial, airborne and space-based sensing platforms. Single-mode chalcogenide fibers have only recently become commercially available and therefore performance data and standard reproducible processing techniques have not been widely reported. In this paper we present a method for producing high quality facets on commercial single-mode As-Se fibers with core and cladding diameters of 28.1 and 169.9μm respectively. The emitted beam profile from these fibers, using the 9.4μm line of a tunable CO2 laser, showed the presence of leaky cladding modes due to waveguiding conditions created by the protective acrylate jacket. These undesirable cladding modes were easily suppressed by applying a gallium coating on the cladding near both input and output facets. We provide experimental data of efficient mode suppression and the emission of a circular near-perfect Gaussian beam profile from the fiber. A model to determine appropriate placement of gallium coatings to minimize processing while maximizing cladding mode suppression is currently underway. Furthermore, analyses of the beam, acquired by scanning an HgCdTe detector, yielded a 1/e2 numerical aperture of 0.11 with a full width half maximum divergence of 11° for these fibers. The availability of single-mode MIR fibers, in conjunction with recent advances in room temperature quantum cascade lasers (QCL), could provide compact and light-weight transmitter solutions for several critical defense and nuclear non-proliferation needs.

  19. The use of mindfulness in obsessive compulsive disorder: suggestions for its application and integration in existing treatment.

    PubMed

    Fairfax, Hamilton

    2008-01-01

    Treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a standard activity of psychologists, particularly those in Community Mental Health Teams (CMHT). In 2005, NICE published guidelines recommending Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) with Exposure and Response Prevention (ER-P) as the evidence-based psychological treatments of choice. In recent years there have been significant developments within cognitive behavioural theory, including what has been referred to as the 'Third Wave'. This paper explores the contribution of mindfulness; a practice that has previously been integrated into other CBT models of treatment, to cognitive interventions in OCD, suggesting that in complements both CBT and ER-However it had previously been suggested by Freeston that mindfulness may prevent successful ER-P by becoming a neutralising technique. Examples of the application of a mindfulness-based approach are explored (MOCD), including reference to an OCD group run by the author, and areas of potential overlap are identified, in particular thought-action Fusion. It is concluded that if applied properly, mindfulness not only complements traditional CBT interventions, but could also increase their efficacy and perhaps prevent relapse.

  20. Measurement and reliability issues in resonant mode cantilever for bio-sensing application in fluid medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathel, G.; Shajahan, M. S.; Bhadra, P.; Prabhakar, A.; Chadha, A.; Bhattacharya, E.

    2016-09-01

    Cantilevers immersed in liquid experience viscous damping and hydrodynamic loading. We report on the use of such cantilevers, operating in the dynamic mode with, (i) frequency sweeping and (ii) phase locked loop methods. The solution to reliability issues such as random drift in the resonant peak values, and interference of spurious modes in the resonance frequency spectrum, are explained based on the actuation signal provided and laser spot size. The laser beam spot size and its position on the cantilever were found to have an important role, on the output signal and resonance frequency. We describe a method to distinguish the normal modes from the spurious modes for a cantilever. Uncertainties in the measurements define the lower limit of mass detection (m min). The minimum detection limits of the two measurement methods are investigated by measuring salt adsorption from phosphate buffer solution, as an example, a mass of 14 pg was measured using the 14th transverse mode of a 500~μ m  ×  100 μm  ×  1 μm silicon cantilever. The optimized measurement was used to study the interaction between antibody and antigen.

  1. Application of failure mode and effect analysis in an assisted reproduction technology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Intra, Giulia; Alteri, Alessandra; Corti, Laura; Rabellotti, Elisa; Papaleo, Enrico; Restelli, Liliana; Biondo, Stefania; Garancini, Maria Paola; Candiani, Massimo; Viganò, Paola

    2016-08-01

    Assisted reproduction technology laboratories have a very high degree of complexity. Mismatches of gametes or embryos can occur, with catastrophic consequences for patients. To minimize the risk of error, a multi-institutional working group applied failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) to each critical activity/step as a method of risk assessment. This analysis led to the identification of the potential failure modes, together with their causes and effects, using the risk priority number (RPN) scoring system. In total, 11 individual steps and 68 different potential failure modes were identified. The highest ranked failure modes, with an RPN score of 25, encompassed 17 failures and pertained to "patient mismatch" and "biological sample mismatch". The maximum reduction in risk, with RPN reduced from 25 to 5, was mostly related to the introduction of witnessing. The critical failure modes in sample processing were improved by 50% in the RPN by focusing on staff training. Three indicators of FMEA success, based on technical skill, competence and traceability, have been evaluated after FMEA implementation. Witnessing by a second human operator should be introduced in the laboratory to avoid sample mix-ups. These findings confirm that FMEA can effectively reduce errors in assisted reproduction technology laboratories.

  2. Performance comparison of Rayleigh and STW modes on quartz crystal for strain sensor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Chen; Lee, Ki Jung; Eun, Kyongtae; Choa, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Keekeun; Yang, Sang Sik

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we compare two kinds of strain sensors based on Rayleigh wave and surface transverse wave (STW) modes, respectively. First, we perform a strain-and-stress analysis using the finite element method, and we consider the contribution to a surface acoustic wave (SAW) velocity shift. Prior to fabrication, we use a coupling-of-modes model to simulate and optimize two-port SAW resonators for both modes. We use a network analyzer to measure and characterize the two devices. Further, we perform an experiment using a strain-testing system with a tapered cross-section cantilever beam. The experimental results show that the ratio of the frequency shift to the strain for the Rayleigh wave mode is -1.124 ppm/μɛ in the parallel direction and 0.109 ppm/μɛ in the perpendicular direction, while the corresponding values for the STW mode are 0.680 ppm/μɛ and 0.189 ppm/μɛ, respectively.

  3. Application of failure mode and effect analysis in an assisted reproduction technology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Intra, Giulia; Alteri, Alessandra; Corti, Laura; Rabellotti, Elisa; Papaleo, Enrico; Restelli, Liliana; Biondo, Stefania; Garancini, Maria Paola; Candiani, Massimo; Viganò, Paola

    2016-08-01

    Assisted reproduction technology laboratories have a very high degree of complexity. Mismatches of gametes or embryos can occur, with catastrophic consequences for patients. To minimize the risk of error, a multi-institutional working group applied failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) to each critical activity/step as a method of risk assessment. This analysis led to the identification of the potential failure modes, together with their causes and effects, using the risk priority number (RPN) scoring system. In total, 11 individual steps and 68 different potential failure modes were identified. The highest ranked failure modes, with an RPN score of 25, encompassed 17 failures and pertained to "patient mismatch" and "biological sample mismatch". The maximum reduction in risk, with RPN reduced from 25 to 5, was mostly related to the introduction of witnessing. The critical failure modes in sample processing were improved by 50% in the RPN by focusing on staff training. Three indicators of FMEA success, based on technical skill, competence and traceability, have been evaluated after FMEA implementation. Witnessing by a second human operator should be introduced in the laboratory to avoid sample mix-ups. These findings confirm that FMEA can effectively reduce errors in assisted reproduction technology laboratories. PMID:27282213

  4. The application of low frequency longitudinal guided wave mode for the inspection of multi-hole steel floral pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. H.; Xie, X. D.; Wu, B.; Li, Y. H.; He, C. F.

    2012-03-01

    Shed-pipe grouting technology, an effective advanced supporting method, is often used in the excavation of soft strata. Steel floral pipes are one of the key load-carrying components of shed-pipe grouting supporting structures. Guided waves are a very attractive methodology to inspect multi-hole steel floral pipes as they offer long range inspection capability, mode and frequency tuning, and cost effectiveness. In this contribution, preliminary experiments are described for the inspection of steel floral pipes using a low frequency longitudinal guided wave mode, L(0,2). The relation between the number of grouting holes and the peak-to-peak amplitude of the first end-reflected signal was obtained. The effect of the grouting holes in steel floral pipes on the propagation velocity of the L(0,2) mode at 30 kHz was analyzed. Experimental results indicate that the typical grouting holes in steel floral pipe have no significant effect on the propagation of this mode. As a result, low frequency longitudinal guided wave modes have potential for the non-destructive long range inspection of multi-hole steel floral pipes. Furthermore, the propagation velocity of the investigated L(0,2) mode at 30 kHz decreases linearly with the increase of the number of grouting holes in a steel floral pipe. It is also noticeable that the effect of the grouting holes cumulates along with the increase in the number of grouting holes and subsequent increase in reflection times of longitudinal guided waves in the steel floral pipe. The application potential of the low frequency longitudinal guided wave technique for the inspection of embedded steel floral pipes is discussed.

  5. Design and experiment of a cross-shaped mode converter for high-power microwave applications.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shengren; Yuan, Chengwei; Zhong, Huihuang; Fan, Yuwei

    2013-12-01

    A compact mode converter, which is capable of converting a TM01 mode into a circularly polarized TE11 mode, was developed and experimentally studied with high-power microwaves. The converter, consisting of two turnstile junctions, is very short along the wave propagation direction, and therefore is suitable for designing compact and axially aligned high-power microwave radiation systems. In this paper, the principle of a converter working at 1.75 GHz is demonstrated, as well as the experimental results. The experimental and simulation results are in good agreement. At the center frequency, the conversion efficiency is more than 95%, the measured axial ratio is about 0.4 dB, and the power-handing capacity is excess of 1.9 GW.

  6. Design and experiment of a cross-shaped mode converter for high-power microwave applications

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Shengren Yuan, Chengwei; Zhong, Huihuang; Fan, Yuwei

    2013-12-15

    A compact mode converter, which is capable of converting a TM{sub 01} mode into a circularly polarized TE{sub 11} mode, was developed and experimentally studied with high-power microwaves. The converter, consisting of two turnstile junctions, is very short along the wave propagation direction, and therefore is suitable for designing compact and axially aligned high-power microwave radiation systems. In this paper, the principle of a converter working at 1.75 GHz is demonstrated, as well as the experimental results. The experimental and simulation results are in good agreement. At the center frequency, the conversion efficiency is more than 95%, the measured axial ratio is about 0.4 dB, and the power-handing capacity is excess of 1.9 GW.

  7. Image characterization by fractal descriptors in variational mode decomposition domain: Application to brain magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahmiri, Salim

    2016-08-01

    The main purpose of this work is to explore the usefulness of fractal descriptors estimated in multi-resolution domains to characterize biomedical digital image texture. In this regard, three multi-resolution techniques are considered: the well-known discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and the empirical mode decomposition (EMD), and; the newly introduced; variational mode decomposition mode (VMD). The original image is decomposed by the DWT, EMD, and VMD into different scales. Then, Fourier spectrum based fractal descriptors is estimated at specific scales and directions to characterize the image. The support vector machine (SVM) was used to perform supervised classification. The empirical study was applied to the problem of distinguishing between normal and abnormal brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) affected with Alzheimer disease (AD). Our results demonstrate that fractal descriptors estimated in VMD domain outperform those estimated in DWT and EMD domains; and also those directly estimated from the original image.

  8. Target tracking using range-only measurements: application to ISAR mode of Ingara radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristic, Branko; Arulampalam, Sanjeev; McCarthy, James

    2001-11-01

    The problem is on-line target state estimation from range and range-rate measurements. The motivation for this work comes from the need to track a target in the ISAR mode of the DSTO Ingara Multi-Mode Radar during an extended data collection. The paper makes three main contributions. First, the theoretical Cramér-Rao bound for the performance of an unbiased range-only tracking algorithm is derived. Second, three algorithms are developed and compared to the theoretical bounds of performance. Third, the developed techniques are applied to real data collected in the recent trials with the Ingara radar.

  9. Triple-Mode Emission of Carbon Dots: Applications for Advanced Anti-Counterfeiting.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kai; Zhang, Ling; Lu, Junfeng; Xu, Chunxiang; Cai, Congzhong; Lin, Hengwei

    2016-06-13

    Photoluminescence (PL), up-conversion PL (UCPL), and phosphorescence are three kinds of phenomena common to light-emitting materials, but it is very difficult to observe all of them simultaneously when they are derived from a single material at room temperature. For the first time, triple-mode emission (that is, PL, UCPL, and room temperature phosphorescence (RTP)) is reported, which relies on a composite of the luminescent carbon dots (CDs) prepared from m-phenylenediamine and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). Moreover, the CDs-PVA aqueous dispersion is nearly colorless and demonstrates promise as a triple-mode emission ink in the field of advanced anti-counterfeiting. PMID:27135645

  10. Development and applications of two computational procedures for determining the vibration modes of structural systems. [aircraft structures - aerospaceplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    Two computational procedures for analyzing complex structural systems for their natural modes and frequencies of vibration are presented. Both procedures are based on a substructures methodology and both employ the finite-element stiffness method to model the constituent substructures. The first procedure is a direct method based on solving the eigenvalue problem associated with a finite-element representation of the complete structure. The second procedure is a component-mode synthesis scheme in which the vibration modes of the complete structure are synthesized from modes of substructures into which the structure is divided. The analytical basis of the methods contains a combination of features which enhance the generality of the procedures. The computational procedures exhibit a unique utilitarian character with respect to the versatility, computational convenience, and ease of computer implementation. The computational procedures were implemented in two special-purpose computer programs. The results of the application of these programs to several structural configurations are shown and comparisons are made with experiment.

  11. Comparing Binding Modes of Analogous Fragments Using NMR in Fragment-Based Drug Design: Application to PRDX5

    PubMed Central

    Guichou, Jean-François; Cala, Olivier; Krimm, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Fragment-based drug design is one of the most promising approaches for discovering novel and potent inhibitors against therapeutic targets. The first step of the process consists of identifying fragments that bind the protein target. The determination of the fragment binding mode plays a major role in the selection of the fragment hits that will be processed into drug-like compounds. Comparing the binding modes of analogous fragments is a critical task, not only to identify specific interactions between the protein target and the fragment, but also to verify whether the binding mode is conserved or differs according to the fragment modification. While X-ray crystallography is the technique of choice, NMR methods are helpful when this fails. We show here how the ligand-observed saturation transfer difference (STD) experiment and the protein-observed 15N-HSQC experiment, two popular NMR screening experiments, can be used to compare the binding modes of analogous fragments. We discuss the application and limitations of these approaches based on STD-epitope mapping, chemical shift perturbation (CSP) calculation and comparative CSP sign analysis, using the human peroxiredoxin 5 as a protein model. PMID:25025339

  12. Application of shuttle EVA systems to payloads. Volume 1: EVA systems and operational modes description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Descriptions of the EVA system baselined for the space shuttle program were provided, as well as a compendium of data on available EVA operational modes for payload and orbiter servicing. Operational concepts and techniques to accomplish representative EVA payload tasks are proposed. Some of the subjects discussed include: extravehicular mobility unit, remote manipulator system, airlock, EVA translation aids, restraints, workstations, tools and support equipment.

  13. Metal-organic frameworks as stationary phases for mixed-mode separation applications.

    PubMed

    Hawes, Chris S; Nolvachai, Yada; Kulsing, Chadin; Knowles, Gregory P; Chaffee, Alan L; Marriott, Philip J; Batten, Stuart R; Turner, David R

    2014-04-11

    Polymorphic metal-organic framework (MOF) materials offer a platform for small-scale separation of complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polar compounds. Retention factors show dependence on both analyte dimensions and polarity, suggesting mixed-mode separation, allowing complete resolution of some analytes from multi-component mixtures.

  14. Application of the H-Mode, a Design and Interaction Concept for Highly Automated Vehicles, to Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Flemisch, Frank O.; Schutte, Paul C.; Williams, Ralph A.

    2006-01-01

    Driven by increased safety, efficiency, and airspace capacity, automation is playing an increasing role in aircraft operations. As aircraft become increasingly able to autonomously respond to a range of situations with performance surpassing human operators, we are compelled to look for new methods that help us understand their use and guide their design using new forms of automation and interaction. We propose a novel design metaphor to aid the conceptualization, design, and operation of highly-automated aircraft. Design metaphors transfer meaning from common experiences to less familiar applications or functions. A notable example is the "Desktop metaphor" for manipulating files on a computer. This paper describes a metaphor for highly automated vehicles known as the H-metaphor and a specific embodiment of the metaphor known as the H-mode as applied to aircraft. The fundamentals of the H-metaphor are reviewed followed by an overview of an exploratory usability study investigating human-automation interaction issues for a simple H-mode implementation. The envisioned application of the H-mode concept to aircraft is then described as are two planned evaluations.

  15. Rigid Body Modes Influence On Microvibration Analysis-Application To Swarm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laduree, G.; Fransen, S.; Baldesi, G.; Pflieger, I.

    2012-07-01

    Microvibrations are defined as low level mechanical disturbances affecting payload performance, generated by mobile parts or mechanism operating on-board the spacecraft, like momentum or reaction wheels, pointing mechanism, cryo-coolers or thrusters. The disturbances caused by these sources are transmitted through the spacecraft structure and excite modes of that structure or elements of the payload impacting its performance (e.g. Line of sight rotations inducing some image quality degradation). The dynamic interaction between these three elements (noise source, spacecraft structure and sensitive receiver) makes the microvibration prediction a delicate problem. Microvibration sources are generally of concern in the frequency range from a few Hz to 1000 Hz. However, in some specific cases, high stability at lower frequencies might be requested. This is the case of the SWARM mission, whose objectives are to provide the best ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution as well as supplementary information for studying the interaction of the magnetic field with other physical quantities describing the Earth system (e.g. ocean circulation). Among its instruments, SWARM is embarking a very sensitive 6-axis accelerometer in the low frequency range (10-8 m/s2 or rad/s2 between 10-4 and 0.1 Hz) located at its Centre of Gravity and an Absolute Scalar Magnetometer located at the tip of a boom far from the spacecraft body. The ASM performs its measurements by rotating an alternative magnetic field around its main axis thanks to a piezo-electric motor. This repeated disturbance might generate some pollution of the accelerometer science data. The objective of this work is to focus on the interaction of the rigid body mode calculation method with the elastic contribution of the normal modes excited by the noise source frequency content. It has indeed been reported in the past that NASTRAN Lanczos rigid body modes may lead to inaccurate rigid-body accelerations

  16. Plasmon modes of circular cylindrical double-layer graphene.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tao; Hu, Min; Zhong, Renbin; Chen, Xiaoxing; Zhang, Ping; Gong, Sen; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Shenggang

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a theoretical investigation on plasmon modes in a circular cylindrical double-layer graphene structure is presented. Due to the interlayer electromagnetic interaction, there exist two branches of plasmon modes, the optical plasmon mode and the acoustic plasmon mode. The characteristics of these two modes, such as mode pattern, effective mode index and propagation loss, are analyzed. The modal behaviors can be effectively tuned by changing the distance between two graphene layers, the chemical potential of graphene and the permittivity of interlayer dielectric. Importantly, the breakup of tradeoff between mode confinement and propagation loss is discovered in the distance-dependent modal behavior, which originates from the unique dispersion properties of a double-layer graphene system. As a consequence, both strong mode confinement and longer propagation length can be achieved. Our results may provide good opportunities for developing applications based on graphene plasmonics in circular cylindrical structure. PMID:27607651

  17. Plasmon modes of circular cylindrical double-layer graphene.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tao; Hu, Min; Zhong, Renbin; Chen, Xiaoxing; Zhang, Ping; Gong, Sen; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Shenggang

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a theoretical investigation on plasmon modes in a circular cylindrical double-layer graphene structure is presented. Due to the interlayer electromagnetic interaction, there exist two branches of plasmon modes, the optical plasmon mode and the acoustic plasmon mode. The characteristics of these two modes, such as mode pattern, effective mode index and propagation loss, are analyzed. The modal behaviors can be effectively tuned by changing the distance between two graphene layers, the chemical potential of graphene and the permittivity of interlayer dielectric. Importantly, the breakup of tradeoff between mode confinement and propagation loss is discovered in the distance-dependent modal behavior, which originates from the unique dispersion properties of a double-layer graphene system. As a consequence, both strong mode confinement and longer propagation length can be achieved. Our results may provide good opportunities for developing applications based on graphene plasmonics in circular cylindrical structure.

  18. Integrating Anatomic and Functional Dual-Mode Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Design and Applicability of a Bifunctional Contrast Agent.

    PubMed

    Ni, Dalong; Shen, Zhiwei; Zhang, Jiawen; Zhang, Chen; Wu, Renhua; Liu, Jianan; Yi, Meizhi; Wang, Jing; Yao, Zhenwei; Bu, Wenbo; Shi, Jianlin

    2016-03-22

    In recent decades, extensive attention has been paid to developing anatomic and functional imaging contrast agents that could provide a wealth of complementary bioimaging information. Among them, dual-mode nanoprobes that combine anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with functional fluorescent imaging have been mostly used for separated imaging. However, the lack of a machine for simultaneous dual-mode imaging greatly limits further clinical application. One effective strategy is to rationally design MRI contrast agents that own both anatomic and functional MR imaging capability on a single MRI machine, which is highly attractive but remains a great challenge. Herein, ultrasmall NaGdF4@PLL nanodots (NDs) were developed as a novel class of MR contrast agent, which offers a high longitude relaxivity (6.42 mM(-1) s(-1)) for T1-weighted MRI and an excellent sensitive chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) effect for pH mapping (at +3.7 ppm). Further in vivo animal experiments show the feasibility of NaGdF4@PLL NDs as contrast agents for efficient kidney and brain tumor diagnosis and pH mapping, which will undoubtedly enhance the diagnosis accuracy and is beneficial for disease precaution and prognosis. Different from other complex dual-mode nanoprobes, the as-constructed NaGdF4@PLL NDs enable both anatomic and functional imaging on a single MR machine, which is a simple and cost-effective new approach to realize dual-mode MR imaging and holds great potential for future clinical application. PMID:26910513

  19. Failure mode diagram of rubble pile asteroids: Application to (25143) asteroid Itokawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirabayashi, Masatoshi; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Proposing a diagram which shows the variation in asteroidal failure as a function of a spin period, later called the failure mode diagram, this paper considers the failure modes and conditions of asteroid (25143) Itokawa. This diagram is useful to describe when and where failure occurs in an asteroid. Assuming that Itokawa is homogeneous, we use a plastic finite element code to obtain the diagram for this object. The results show that if the bulk cohesive strength is less than 0.1 Pa, Itokawa experiences compressional failure on the neck surface at the current spin period 12.1 hours. At a spin period shorter than 4.5 hours, tension across the neck causes this asteroid to split into two components. It is also found that if the breakup spin period is longer than 5.2 hours, their motion is bounded. This implies that once Itokawa splits, the components may escape from one another.

  20. Neuro-sliding mode control with its applications to seesaw systems.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chun-Hsien; Chung, Hung-Yuan; Yu, Fang-Ming

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach of cooperative control that is based on the concept of combining neural networks and the methodology of sliding mode control (SMC). The main purpose is to eliminate the chattering phenomenon. Next, the system performance can be improved by using the method of SMC. In the present approach, two parallel Neural Networks are utilized to realize a neuro-sliding mode control (NSMC), where the equivalent control and the corrective control are the outputs of neural network 1 and neural network 2, respectively. Based on expressions of the SMC, the weight adaptations of neural network can be determined. Furthermore, the gradient descent method is used to minimize the control force so that the chattering phenomenon can be eliminated. Finally, experimental results are given to show the effectiveness and feasibility of the approach.

  1. System and methods for determining masking signals for applying empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and for demodulating intrinsic mode functions obtained from application of EMD

    DOEpatents

    Senroy, Nilanjan; Suryanarayanan, Siddharth

    2011-03-15

    A computer-implemented method of signal processing is provided. The method includes generating one or more masking signals based upon a computed Fourier transform of a received signal. The method further includes determining one or more intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) of the received signal by performing a masking-signal-based empirical mode decomposition (EMD) using the at least one masking signal.

  2. Application of the linear/exponential hybrid force field scaling scheme to the bond length alternation modes of polyacetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shujiang; Kertesz, Miklos

    2006-12-01

    The two bond length alternation related backbone carbon-carbon stretching Raman active normal modes of polyacetylene are notoriously difficulty to predict theoretically. We apply our new linear/exponential scaled quantum mechanical force field scheme to tackle this problem by exponentially adjusting the decay of the coupling force constants between backbone stretchings based on their distance which extends over many neighbors. With transferable scaling parameters optimized by least squares fitting to the experimental vibrational frequencies of short oligoenes, the scaled frequencies of trans-polyacetylene and its isotopic analogs agree very well with experiments. The linear/exponential scaling scheme is also applicable to the cis-polyacetylene case.

  3. Generalized empirical mode decomposition and its applications to rolling element bearing fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jinde; Cheng, Junsheng; Yang, Yu

    2013-10-01

    As an adaptive time-frequency-energy representation analysis method, empirical mode decomposition (EMD) has the attractive feature of robustness in the presence of nonlinear and non-stationary data. It is evident that an appropriate definition of baseline (or called mean curve) of data plays a crucial role in EMD scheme. By defining several baselines, an adaptive data-driven analysis approach called generalized empirical mode decomposition (GEMD) is proposed in this paper. In the GEMD method, different baselines are firstly defined and separately subtracted from the original data, and then different pre-generated intrinsic mode functions (pre-GIMFs) are obtained. The GIMF component is defined as the optimal pre-GIMF among the obtained ones with the smallest rate of frequency bandwidth to center frequency. Next, the GIMF is subtracted from the original data and a residue is obtained, which is further regarded as the original data to repeat the sifting process until a constant or monotonic residue is derived. Since the GIMF in each frequency-band is the best among different pre-GIMFs derived from EMD and other EMD like methods, the GEMD results are best as well. Besides, a demodulating method called empirical envelope demodulation (EED) is introduced and employed to analyze the GIMFs in time-frequency domain. Furthermore, GEMD and EED are contrasted with the original Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) by analyzing simulation and rolling bearing vibration signals. The analysis results indicate that the proposed method consisting of GEMD and EED is superior to the original HHT at least in restraining the boundary effect, gaining a better frequency resolution and more accurate components and time frequency distribution.

  4. Exploring the Frequency Stability Limits of Whispering Gallery Mode Resonators for Metrological Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chembo, Yanne K.; Baumgartel, Lukas; Grudinin, Ivan; Strekalov, Dmitry; Thompson, Robert; Yu, Nan

    2012-01-01

    Whispering gallery mode resonators are attracting increasing interest as promising frequency reference cavities. Unlike commonly used Fabry-Perot cavities, however, they are filled with a bulk medium whose properties have a significant impact on the stability of its resonance frequencies. In this context that has to be reduced to a minimum. On the other hand, a small monolithic resonator provides opportunity for better stability against vibration and acceleration. this feature is essential when the cavity operates in a non-laboratory environment. In this paper, we report a case study for a crystalline resonator, and discuss the a pathway towards the inhibition of vibration-and acceleration-induced frequency fluctuations.

  5. New multicore low mode noise scrambling fiber for applications in high-resolution spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, Dionne M.; Gris-Sanchez, Itandehui; Ehrlich, Katjana; Birks, Tim A.; Giannone, Domenico; Haynes, Roger

    2014-07-01

    We present a new type of multicore fiber (MCF) and photonic lantern that consists of 511 individual cores designed to operate over a broadband visible wavelength range (380-860nm). It combines the coupling efficiency of a multimode fiber with modal stability intrinsic to a single mode fibre. It is designed to provide phase and amplitude scrambling to achieve a stable near field and far field illumination pattern during input coupling variations; it also has low modal noise for increased photometric stability. Preliminary results are presented for the new MCF as well as current state of the art octagonal fiber for comparison.

  6. 10 kWe dual-mode space nuclear power system for military and scientific applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloy, John; Westerman, Kurt; Rochow, Richard; Scoles, Stephen

    The Small Externally-fueled Heat Pipe Thermionic Reactor concept is used as the basis of a 10 kWe dual-mode space power system scheme that generates both arcjet propulsion system power and direct (hydrogen propellant-heating) thrust. This direct-thrust feature allows the nuclear-power system to move a payload from LEO to GEO in less than one month, using half as much propellant as a cryogenic-fuel chemical rocket. The nuclear reactor uses 36 thermionic heat-pipe modules, which produce electricity within the reactor and remove waste heat.

  7. Evanescent-wave coupled right angled buried waveguide: Applications in carbon nanotube mode-locking

    SciTech Connect

    Mary, R.; Thomson, R. R.; Kar, A. K.; Brown, G.; Popa, D.; Sun, Z.; Torrisi, F.; Hasan, T.; Milana, S.; Bonaccorso, F.; Ferrari, A. C.

    2013-11-25

    We present an evanescent-field device based on a right-angled waveguide. This consists of orthogonal waveguides, with their points of intersection lying along an angled facet of the chip. Light guided along one waveguide is incident at the angled dielectric-air facet at an angle exceeding the critical angle, so that the totally internally reflected light is coupled into the second waveguide. By depositing a nanotube film on the angled surface, the chip is then used to mode-lock an Erbium doped fiber ring laser with a repetition rate of 26 MHz, and pulse duration of 800 fs.

  8. A coarse-grained normal mode approach for macromolecules: an efficient implementation and application to Ca(2+)-ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guohui; Cui, Qiang

    2002-01-01

    A block normal mode (BNM) algorithm, originally proposed by Tama et al., (Proteins Struct. Func. Genet. 41:1-7, 2000) was implemented into the simulation program CHARMM. The BNM approach projects the hessian matrix into local translation/rotation basis vectors and, therefore, dramatically reduces the size of the matrix involved in diagonalization. In the current work, by constructing the atomic hessian elements required in the projection operation on the fly, the memory requirement for the BNM approach has been significantly reduced from that of standard normal mode analysis and previous implementation of BNM. As a result, low frequency modes, which are of interest in large-scale conformational changes of large proteins or protein-nucleic acid complexes, can be readily obtained. Comparison of the BNM results with standard normal mode analysis for a number of small proteins and nucleic acids indicates that many properties dominated by low frequency motions are well reproduced by BNM; these include atomic fluctuations, the displacement covariance matrix, vibrational entropies, and involvement coefficients for conformational transitions. Preliminary application to a fairly large system, Ca(2+)-ATPase (994 residues), is described as an example. The structural flexibility of the cytoplasmic domains (especially domain N), correlated motions among residues on domain interfaces and displacement patterns for the transmembrane helices observed in the BNM results are discussed in relation to the function of Ca(2+)-ATPase. The current implementation of the BNM approach has paved the way for developing efficient sampling algorithms with molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo for studying long-time scale dynamics of macromolecules. PMID:12414680

  9. Normal modes of symmetric protein assemblies. Application to the tobacco mosaic virus protein disk.

    PubMed Central

    Simonson, T; Perahia, D

    1992-01-01

    We use group theoretical methods to study the molecular dynamics of symmetric protein multimers in the harmonic or quasiharmonic approximation. The method explicitly includes the long-range correlations between protein subunits. It can thus address collective dynamic effects, such as cooperativity between subunits. The n lowest-frequency normal modes of each individual subunit are combined into symmetry coordinates for the entire multimer. The Hessian of the potential energy is thereby reduced to a series of blocks of order n or 2n. In the quasiharmonic approximation, the covariance matrix of the atomic oscillations is reduced to the same block structure by an analogous set of symmetry coordinates. The method is applied to one layer of the tobacco mosaic virus protein disk in vacuo, to gain insight into the role of conformational fluctuations and electrostatics in tobacco mosaic virus assembly. The system has 78,000 classical, positional, degrees of freedom, yet the calculation is reduced by symmetry to a problem of order 4,600. Normal modes in the 0-100 cm-1 range were calculated. The calculated correlations extend mainly from each subunit to its nearest neighbors. The network of core helices has weak correlations with the rest of the structure. Similarly, the inner loops 90-108 are uncorrelated with the rest of the structure. Thus, the model predicts that the dielectric response in the RNA-binding region is mainly due to the loops alone. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:1547329

  10. Application of the empirical mode decomposition method to the analysis of respiratory mechanomyographic signals.

    PubMed

    Torres, Abel; Fiz, José A; Jané, Raimon; Galdiz, Juan B; Gea, Joaquim; Morera, Josep

    2007-01-01

    The study of the mechanomyographic (MMG) signals during dynamic contractions requires a criterion to separate the low frequency (LF) component (basically due to gross movement of the muscle or of the body) and the high frequency (HF) component (related with the vibration of the muscle fibers during contraction). In this study, we propose to use the Empirical Mode Decomposition method in order to analyze the Intrinsic Mode Functions of MMG signals of the diaphragm muscle, acquired by means of a capacitive accelerometer applied on the costal wall. This signal, as the MMG signals during dynamic contractions, has a LF component that is related with the movement of the thoracic cage, and a HF component that could be related with the vibration of diaphragm muscle fibers during contraction. The method was tested on an animal model, with two incremental respiratory protocols performed by two non anesthetized mongrel dogs. The results show that the proposed EMD based method provides very good results for the cancellation of low frequency component of MMG signals. The obtained correlation coefficients between respiratory and MMG parameters were higher than the ones obtained with a Wavelet multiresolution decomposition method utilized in a previous work. PMID:18002269

  11. 27 MHz hybrid evanescent-mode applicators (HEMA) with flexible heating field for deep and safe subcutaneous hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Franconi, C; Vrba, J; Montecchia, F

    1993-01-01

    A new class of low-frequency electromagnetic applicators for hyperthermic treatment of superficial and subcutaneous tissues is described. These applicators employ an air-filled waveguide segment which is operating below the cut-off frequency, the evanescent modes of which are energized by suitable exciters to produce model field components. Direct radiators are integrated into the waveguide to generate additional direct field components. All field components may be combined in different power level ratio, phase, and orientation, to provide a composite heating field exhibiting a large variety of field sizes, shapes, and penetration features. The composite field emerging from the waveguide aperture propagates within the tissue to be heated through a non-critical air-gap. These versatile heating devices appear of potential interest to heat a variety of deep and localized subcutaneous tissues to therapeutic temperatures without injury to access fat layers of substantial thickness.

  12. Nonaxisymmetric Dynamic Instabilities of Rotating Polytropes. II. Torques, Bars, and Mode Saturation with Applications to Protostars and Fizzlers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imamura, James N.; Durisen, Richard H.; Pickett, Brian K.

    2000-01-01

    Dynamic nonaxisymmetric instabilities in rapidly rotating stars and protostars have a range of potential applications in astrophysics, including implications for binary formation during protostellar cloud collapse and for the possibility of aborted collapse to neutron star densities at late stages of stellar evolution (``fizzlers''). We have recently presented detailed linear analyses for polytropes of the most dynamically unstable global modes, the barlike modes. These produce bar distortions in the regions near the rotation axis but have trailing spiral arms toward the equator. In this paper, we use our linear eigenfunctions to predict the early nonlinear behavior of the dynamic instability and compare these ``quasi-linear'' predictions with several fully nonlinear hydrodynamics simulations. The comparisons demonstrate that the nonlinear saturation of the barlike instability is due to the self-interaction gravitational torques between the growing central bar and the spiral arms, where angular momentum is transferred outward from bar to arms. We also find a previously unsuspected resonance condition that accurately predicts the mass of the bar regions in our own simulations and in those published by other researchers. The quasi-linear theory makes other accurate predictions about consequences of instability, including properties of possible end-state bars and increases in central density, which can be large under some conditions. We discuss in some detail the application of our results to binary formation during protostellar collapse and to the formation of massive rotating black holes.

  13. The implementation of HPGR mills in existing grinding circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Patzelt, N.; Knecht, J.; Longhurst, D.

    1996-12-31

    High pressure grinding mills have been successfully introduced in the industry. They offer the possibilities for capacity increase of existing plants and reduction of operating costs. The plants in operation are running in different applications and modes of operation. They can be installed in a combination with SAG and ball mills or in a stand-alone mode. In combination with other grinding mills, it has to be investigated how the HPGR can be installed to reach the full efficiency. This paper describes the possibilities of implementing high pressure grinding rolls and shows by case studies the potential of savings which could be reached.

  14. Dynamic Theory of Relativistic Electrons Stochastic Heating by Whistler Mode Waves with Application to the Earth Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Tel'nikhin, A. A.; Kronberg, T. K.

    2006-01-01

    In the Hamiltonian approach an electron motion in a coherent packet of the whistler mode waves propagating along the direction of an ambient magnetic field is studied. The physical processes by which these particles are accelerated to high energy are established. Equations governing a particle motion by group symmetries of the problem were transformed in to a closed pair of nonlinear difference equations. The solutions of these equations have shown there exists the energetic threshold below that the electron motion is regular, and when the initial energy is above the threshold an electron moves stochastically. It is proved that the upper boundary of particle stochastic heating is conditioned by intrinsic property of the particle chaotic motion. Particle energy spectra and pitch angle electron scattering are described by the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equations. It is shown that significant pitch angle diffusion occurs for the Earth radiation belt electrons with energies from a few keV up to a few MeV.

  15. Dynamic Theory of Relativistic Electrons Stochastic Heating by Whistler Mode Waves with Application to the Earth Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Tel'nikhin, A. A.; Kronberg, T. K.

    2007-01-01

    In the Hamiltonian approach an electron motion in a coherent packet of the whistler mode waves propagating along the direction of an ambient magnetic field is studied. The physical processes by which these particles are accelerated to high energy are established. Equations governing a particle motion were transformed in to a closed pair of nonlinear difference equations. The solutions of these equations have shown there exists the energetic threshold below that the electron motion is regular, and when the initial energy is above the threshold an electron moves stochastically. Particle energy spectra and pitch angle electron scattering are described by the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equations. Calculating the stochastic diffusion of electrons due to a spectrum of whistler modes is presented. The parametric dependence of the diffusion coefficients on the plasma particle density, magnitude of wave field, and the strength of magnetic field is studies. It is shown that significant pitch angle diffusion occurs for the Earth radiation belt electrons with energies from a few keV up to a few MeV.

  16. Denoising traffic collision data using ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and its application for constructing continuous risk profile (CRP).

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam-Seog; Chung, Koohong; Ahn, Seongchae; Yu, Jeong Whon; Choi, Keechoo

    2014-10-01

    Filtering out the noise in traffic collision data is essential in reducing false positive rates (i.e., requiring safety investigation of sites where it is not needed) and can assist government agencies in better allocating limited resources. Previous studies have demonstrated that denoising traffic collision data is possible when there exists a true known high collision concentration location (HCCL) list to calibrate the parameters of a denoising method. However, such a list is often not readily available in practice. To this end, the present study introduces an innovative approach for denoising traffic collision data using the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) method which is widely used for analyzing nonlinear and nonstationary data. The present study describes how to transform the traffic collision data before the data can be decomposed using the EEMD method to obtain set of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs) and residue. The attributes of the IMFs were then carefully examined to denoise the data and to construct Continuous Risk Profiles (CRPs). The findings from comparing the resulting CRP profiles with CRPs in which the noise was filtered out with two different empirically calibrated weighted moving window lengths are also documented, and the results and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  17. Linear Mode HgCdTe Avalanche Photodiodes for Photon Counting Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, William, III; Beck, Jeffrey; Scritchfield, Richard; Skokan, Mark; Mitra, Pradip; Sun, Xiaoli; Abshire, James; Carpenter, Darren; Lane, Barry

    2015-01-01

    An overview of recent improvements in the understanding and maturity of linear mode photon counting with HgCdTe electron-initiated avalanche photodiodes is presented. The first HgCdTe LMPC 2x8 format array fabricated in 2011 with 64 micron pitch was a remarkable success in terms of demonstrating a high single photon signal to noise ratio of 13.7 with an excess noise factor of 1.3-1.4, a 7 ns minimum time between events, and a broad spectral response extending from 0.4 micron to 4.2 micron. The main limitations were a greater than 10x higher false event rate than expected of greater than 1 MHz, a 5-7x lower than expected APD gain, and a photon detection efficiency of only 50% when greater than 60% was expected. This paper discusses the reasons behind these limitations and the implementation of their mitigations with new results.

  18. Adaptive-projection intrinsically transformed multivariate empirical mode decomposition in cooperative brain-computer interface applications.

    PubMed

    Hemakom, Apit; Goverdovsky, Valentin; Looney, David; Mandic, Danilo P

    2016-04-13

    An extension to multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD), termed adaptive-projection intrinsically transformed MEMD (APIT-MEMD), is proposed to cater for power imbalances and inter-channel correlations in real-world multichannel data. It is shown that the APIT-MEMD exhibits similar or better performance than MEMD for a large number of projection vectors, whereas it outperforms MEMD for the critical case of a small number of projection vectors within the sifting algorithm. We also employ the noise-assisted APIT-MEMD within our proposed intrinsic multiscale analysis framework and illustrate the advantages of such an approach in notoriously noise-dominated cooperative brain-computer interface (BCI) based on the steady-state visual evoked potentials and the P300 responses. Finally, we show that for a joint cognitive BCI task, the proposed intrinsic multiscale analysis framework improves system performance in terms of the information transfer rate. PMID:26953174

  19. On the sensitivity of protein data bank normal mode analysis: an application to GH10 xylanases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirion, Monique M.

    2015-12-01

    Protein data bank entries obtain distinct, reproducible flexibility characteristics determined by normal mode analyses of their three dimensional coordinate files. We study the effectiveness and sensitivity of this technique by analyzing the results on one class of glycosidases: family 10 xylanases. A conserved tryptophan that appears to affect access to the active site can be in one of two conformations according to x-ray crystallographic electron density data. The two alternate orientations of this active site tryptophan lead to distinct flexibility spectra, with one orientation thwarting the oscillations seen in the other. The particular orientation of this sidechain furthermore affects the appearance of the motility of a distant, C terminal region we term the mallet. The mallet region is known to separate members of this family of enzymes into two classes.

  20. A model for the multiplex dynamics of two-mode and one-mode networks, with an application to employment preference, friendship, and advice.

    PubMed

    Snijders, Tom A B; Lomi, Alessandro; Torló, Vanina Jasmine

    2013-05-01

    We propose a new stochastic actor-oriented model for the co-evolution of two-mode and one-mode networks. The model posits that activities of a set of actors, represented in the two-mode network, co-evolve with exchanges and interactions between the actors, as represented in the one-mode network. The model assumes that the actors, not the activities, have agency. The empirical value of the model is demonstrated by examining how employment preferences co-evolve with friendship and advice relations in a group of seventy-five MBA students. The analysis shows that activity in the two-mode network, as expressed by number of employment preferences, is related to activity in the friendship network, as expressed by outdegrees. Further, advice ties between students lead to agreement with respect to employment preferences. In addition, considering the multiplexity of advice and friendship ties yields a better understanding of the dynamics of the advice relation: tendencies to reciprocation and homophily in advice relations are mediated to an important extent by friendship relations. The discussion pays attention to the implications of this study in the broader context of current efforts to model the co-evolutionary dynamics of social networks and individual behavior. PMID:23690653

  1. Evaluation of the applicability of existing nuclear power plant regulatory requirements in the U.S. to advanced small modular reactors.

    SciTech Connect

    LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Wheeler, Timothy A.; Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Middleton, Bobby D.; Jordan, Sabina Erteza; Duran, Felicia Angelica; Baum, Gregory A.

    2013-05-01

    The current wave of small modular reactor (SMR) designs all have the goal of reducing the cost of management and operations. By optimizing the system, the goal is to make these power plants safer, cheaper to operate and maintain, and more secure. In particular, the reduction in plant staffing can result in significant cost savings. The introduction of advanced reactor designs and increased use of advanced automation technologies in existing nuclear power plants will likely change the roles, responsibilities, composition, and size of the crews required to control plant operations. Similarly, certain security staffing requirements for traditional operational nuclear power plants may not be appropriate or necessary for SMRs due to the simpler, safer and more automated design characteristics of SMRs. As a first step in a process to identify where regulatory requirements may be met with reduced staffing and therefore lower cost, this report identifies the regulatory requirements and associated guidance utilized in the licensing of existing reactors. The potential applicability of these regulations to advanced SMR designs is identified taking into account the unique features of these types of reactors.

  2. Application of ISO 22000 and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) for industrial processing of salmon: a case study.

    PubMed

    Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Varzakas, Theodoros H

    2008-05-01

    The Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) model was applied for risk assessment of salmon manufacturing. A tentative approach of FMEA application to the salmon industry was attempted in conjunction with ISO 22000. Preliminary Hazard Analysis was used to analyze and predict the occurring failure modes in a food chain system (salmon processing plant), based on the functions, characteristics, and/or interactions of the ingredients or the processes, upon which the system depends. Critical Control points were identified and implemented in the cause and effect diagram (also known as Ishikawa, tree diagram and fishbone diagram). In this work, a comparison of ISO 22000 analysis with HACCP is carried out over salmon processing and packaging. However, the main emphasis was put on the quantification of risk assessment by determining the RPN per identified processing hazard. Fish receiving, casing/marking, blood removal, evisceration, filet-making cooling/freezing, and distribution were the processes identified as the ones with the highest RPN (252, 240, 210, 210, 210, 210, 200 respectively) and corrective actions were undertaken. After the application of corrective actions, a second calculation of RPN values was carried out resulting in substantially lower values (below the upper acceptable limit of 130). It is noteworthy that the application of Ishikawa (Cause and Effect or Tree diagram) led to converging results thus corroborating the validity of conclusions derived from risk assessment and FMEA. Therefore, the incorporation of FMEA analysis within the ISO 22000 system of a salmon processing industry is anticipated to prove advantageous to industrialists, state food inspectors, and consumers. PMID:18464031

  3. Application of ISO 22000 and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) for industrial processing of salmon: a case study.

    PubMed

    Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Varzakas, Theodoros H

    2008-05-01

    The Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) model was applied for risk assessment of salmon manufacturing. A tentative approach of FMEA application to the salmon industry was attempted in conjunction with ISO 22000. Preliminary Hazard Analysis was used to analyze and predict the occurring failure modes in a food chain system (salmon processing plant), based on the functions, characteristics, and/or interactions of the ingredients or the processes, upon which the system depends. Critical Control points were identified and implemented in the cause and effect diagram (also known as Ishikawa, tree diagram and fishbone diagram). In this work, a comparison of ISO 22000 analysis with HACCP is carried out over salmon processing and packaging. However, the main emphasis was put on the quantification of risk assessment by determining the RPN per identified processing hazard. Fish receiving, casing/marking, blood removal, evisceration, filet-making cooling/freezing, and distribution were the processes identified as the ones with the highest RPN (252, 240, 210, 210, 210, 210, 200 respectively) and corrective actions were undertaken. After the application of corrective actions, a second calculation of RPN values was carried out resulting in substantially lower values (below the upper acceptable limit of 130). It is noteworthy that the application of Ishikawa (Cause and Effect or Tree diagram) led to converging results thus corroborating the validity of conclusions derived from risk assessment and FMEA. Therefore, the incorporation of FMEA analysis within the ISO 22000 system of a salmon processing industry is anticipated to prove advantageous to industrialists, state food inspectors, and consumers.

  4. New bipartite coherent-entangled state in two-mode Fock space and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiang-Guo; Wang, Ji-Suo; Fan, Hong-Yi

    2011-04-01

    A new bipartite coherent-entangled state (CES) is found which exhibits both coherent state and entangled state properties. The set of CESs constitute a complete and partly nonorthogonal representation. Using an asymmetric beamsplitter a experimental scheme to produce the CES is proposed. Applications of CESs in quantum optics are also presented.

  5. Challenges and implementation aspects of switched-mode power supplies with digital control for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quenzer-Hohmuth, Samuel; Rosahl, Thoralf; Ritzmann, Steffen; Wicht, Bernhard

    2016-09-01

    Switched-mode power supplies (SMPS) convert an input DC-voltage into a higher or lower output voltage. In automotive, analog control is mostly used in order to keep the required output voltages constant and resistant to disturbances. The design of robust analog control for SMPS faces parameter variations of integrated and external passive components. Using digital control, parameter variations can be eliminated and the required area for the integrated circuit can be reduced at the same time. Digital control design bears challenges like the prevention of limit cycle oscillations and controller-wind-up. This paper reviews how to prevent these effects. Digital control loops introduce new sources for dead times in the control loop, for example the latency of the analog-to-digital-converter (ADC). Dead times have negative influence on the stability of the control loop, because they lead to phase delays. Consequently, low latency is one of the key requirements for analog-to-digital-converters in digitally controlled SMPS. Exploiting the example of a 500 kHz-buck converter with a crossover frequency of 70 kHz, this paper shows that the 5 µs-latency of a ΔΣ-analog-to-digital-converter leads to a reduction in phase margin of 126°. The latency is less critical for boost converters because of their inherent lower crossover frequencies. Finally, the paper shows a comparison between analog and digital control of SMPS with regard to chip area and test costs.

  6. Development and Application of Benchmark Examples for Mode II Static Delamination Propagation and Fatigue Growth Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    The development of benchmark examples for static delamination propagation and cyclic delamination onset and growth prediction is presented and demonstrated for a commercial code. The example is based on a finite element model of an End-Notched Flexure (ENF) specimen. The example is independent of the analysis software used and allows the assessment of the automated delamination propagation, onset and growth prediction capabilities in commercial finite element codes based on the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT). First, static benchmark examples were created for the specimen. Second, based on the static results, benchmark examples for cyclic delamination growth were created. Third, the load-displacement relationship from a propagation analysis and the benchmark results were compared, and good agreement could be achieved by selecting the appropriate input parameters. Fourth, starting from an initially straight front, the delamination was allowed to grow under cyclic loading. The number of cycles to delamination onset and the number of cycles during delamination growth for each growth increment were obtained from the automated analysis and compared to the benchmark examples. Again, good agreement between the results obtained from the growth analysis and the benchmark results could be achieved by selecting the appropriate input parameters. The benchmarking procedure proved valuable by highlighting the issues associated with choosing the input parameters of the particular implementation. Selecting the appropriate input parameters, however, was not straightforward and often required an iterative procedure. Overall the results are encouraging, but further assessment for mixed-mode delamination is required.

  7. Application of the J integral to fracture under mixed-mode loading. [MMJINT; 4330V steel

    SciTech Connect

    Riddle, R.A.

    1981-06-01

    The calculation of the J integral proved to be a successful method for characterizing the stress and displacement fields around a crack tip under mixed mode loading. A computer program was written to determine the symmetric and antisymmetric J integral quantities. The stress intensity factors from these J integral calculations were in excellent agreement with other calculations. The compact shear specimen used contains three loading holes, the load applied at the center hole being the opposite direction to the load applied at the two outer holes. For 7075-T6 aluminum, K/sub IIc/ was 1.9 times larger than K/sub Ic/. In the brittle photoelastic material K/sub IIc/ was less than K/sub Ic/. Failure of the 4330V steel compact shear specimens came as a result of the average shear stress in the region ahead of the crack tip exceeding the material flow shear stress. The experimental results suggest that the angle of crack growth is best predicted by the maximum tangential stress theory.

  8. Some applications of a new coherent-entangled state in two-mode Fock space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiang-Guo; Wang, Ji-Suo; Liang, Bao-Long

    2011-05-01

    Using the technique of integration within an ordered product of operators, we find a new kind of coherent-entangled state (CES), which exhibits both coherent and entangled state properties. The set of CESs makes up a complete and partly nonorthogonal representation. Using a beam splitter, we propose a simple experimental scheme to produce the CES. Finally, we present some applications of CESs in quantum optics.

  9. Classification, mode of action and production strategy of xylanase and its application for biofuel production from water hyacinth.

    PubMed

    Uday, Uma Shankar Prasad; Choudhury, Payel; Bandyopadhyay, Tarun Kanti; Bhunia, Biswanath

    2016-01-01

    Xylanases are classified under glycoside hydrolase families which represent one of the largest groups of commercial enzymes. Depolymerizing xylan molecules into monomeric pentose units involves the synergistic action of mainly two key enzymes which are endo-β-xylanase and β-xylosidase. Xylanases are different with respect to their mode of action, substrate specificities, biochemical properties, 3D structure and are widely produced by a spectrum of bacteria and fungi. Currently, large scale production of xylanase can be produced through the application of genetic engineering tool which allow fast identification of novel xylanase genes and their genetic variations makes it an ideal enzymes. Due to depletion of fossil fuel, there is urgent need to find out environment friendly and sustainable energy sources. Therefore, utilisation of cheap lignocellulosic materials along with proper optimisation of process is most important for cost efficient ethanol production. Among, various types of lignocellulosic substances, water hyacinth, a noxious aquatic weed, has been found in many tropical. Therefore, the technological development for biofuel production from water hyacinth is becoming commercially worthwhile. In this review, the classification and mode of action of xylanase including genetic regulation and strategy for robust xylanase production have been critically discussed from recent reports. In addition various strategies for cost effective biofuel production from water hyacinth including chimeric proteins design has also been critically evaluated. PMID:26529189

  10. Classification, mode of action and production strategy of xylanase and its application for biofuel production from water hyacinth.

    PubMed

    Uday, Uma Shankar Prasad; Choudhury, Payel; Bandyopadhyay, Tarun Kanti; Bhunia, Biswanath

    2016-01-01

    Xylanases are classified under glycoside hydrolase families which represent one of the largest groups of commercial enzymes. Depolymerizing xylan molecules into monomeric pentose units involves the synergistic action of mainly two key enzymes which are endo-β-xylanase and β-xylosidase. Xylanases are different with respect to their mode of action, substrate specificities, biochemical properties, 3D structure and are widely produced by a spectrum of bacteria and fungi. Currently, large scale production of xylanase can be produced through the application of genetic engineering tool which allow fast identification of novel xylanase genes and their genetic variations makes it an ideal enzymes. Due to depletion of fossil fuel, there is urgent need to find out environment friendly and sustainable energy sources. Therefore, utilisation of cheap lignocellulosic materials along with proper optimisation of process is most important for cost efficient ethanol production. Among, various types of lignocellulosic substances, water hyacinth, a noxious aquatic weed, has been found in many tropical. Therefore, the technological development for biofuel production from water hyacinth is becoming commercially worthwhile. In this review, the classification and mode of action of xylanase including genetic regulation and strategy for robust xylanase production have been critically discussed from recent reports. In addition various strategies for cost effective biofuel production from water hyacinth including chimeric proteins design has also been critically evaluated.

  11. Mode identification using stochastic hybrid models with applications to conflict detection and resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naseri Kouzehgarani, Asal

    2009-12-01

    Most models of aircraft trajectories are non-linear and stochastic in nature; and their internal parameters are often poorly defined. The ability to model, simulate and analyze realistic air traffic management conflict detection scenarios in a scalable, composable, multi-aircraft fashion is an extremely difficult endeavor. Accurate techniques for aircraft mode detection are critical in order to enable the precise projection of aircraft conflicts, and for the enactment of altitude separation resolution strategies. Conflict detection is an inherently probabilistic endeavor; our ability to detect conflicts in a timely and accurate manner over a fixed time horizon is traded off against the increased human workload created by false alarms---that is, situations that would not develop into an actual conflict, or would resolve naturally in the appropriate time horizon-thereby introducing a measure of probabilistic uncertainty in any decision aid fashioned to assist air traffic controllers. The interaction of the continuous dynamics of the aircraft, used for prediction purposes, with the discrete conflict detection logic gives rise to the hybrid nature of the overall system. The introduction of the probabilistic element, common to decision alerting and aiding devices, places the conflict detection and resolution problem in the domain of probabilistic hybrid phenomena. A hidden Markov model (HMM) has two stochastic components: a finite-state Markov chain and a finite set of output probability distributions. In other words an unobservable stochastic process (hidden) that can only be observed through another set of stochastic processes that generate the sequence of observations. The problem of self separation in distributed air traffic management reduces to the ability of aircraft to communicate state information to neighboring aircraft, as well as model the evolution of aircraft trajectories between communications, in the presence of probabilistic uncertain dynamics as well

  12. Application of Tapping-Mode Scanning Probe Electrospray Ionization to Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Additives in Polymer Films

    PubMed Central

    Shimazu, Ryo; Yamoto, Yoshinari; Kosaka, Tomoya; Kawasaki, Hideya; Arakawa, Ryuichi

    2014-01-01

    We report the application of tapping-mode scanning probe electrospray ionization (t-SPESI) to mass spectrometry imaging of industrial materials. The t-SPESI parameters including tapping solvent composition, solvent flow rate, number of tapping at each spot, and step-size were optimized using a quadrupole mass spectrometer to improve mass spectrometry (MS) imaging of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and additives in polymer films. Spatial resolution of approximately 100 μm was achieved by t-SPESI imaging mass spectrometry using a fused-silica capillary (50 μm i.d., 150 μm o.d.) with the flow rate set at 0.2 μL/min. This allowed us to obtain discriminable MS imaging profiles of three dyes separated by TLC and the additive stripe pattern of a PMMA model film depleted by UV irradiation. PMID:26819894

  13. Leaky-mode assisted fluorescence extraction: application to fluorescence enhancement biosensors.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Nikhil; Block, Ian D; Mathias, Patrick C; Zhang, Wei; Chow, Edmond; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Cunningham, Brian T

    2008-12-22

    Efficient recovery of light emitted by fluorescent molecules by employing photonic structures can result in high signal-to-noise ratio detection for biological applications including DNA microarrays, fluorescence microscopy and single molecule detection. By employing a model system comprised of colloidal quantum dots, we consider the physical basis of the extraction effect as provided by photonic crystals. Devices with different lattice symmetry are fabricated ensuring spectral and spatial coupling of quantum dot emission with leaky eigenmodes and the emission characteristics are studied using angle-resolved and angle-integrated measurements. Comparison with numerical calculations and lifetime measurements reveals that the enhancement occurs via resonant redirection of the emitted radiation. Comparison of various lattices reveals differences in the enhancement factor with a maximum enhancement factor approaching 220. We also demonstrate the first enhanced extraction biosensor that allows for over 20-fold enhancement of the fluorescence signal in detection of the cytokine TNF-alpha by a fluorescence sandwich immunoassay.

  14. Deep optical access on multi-core and multi-mode fiber for integrated wireless applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorente, Roberto; Morant, Maria; Beltrán, Marta; Macho, Andrés.

    2015-01-01

    Deep integrated optical access networks target to provide great capillarity and multiple ONTs for cost- and energy-efficient pervasive connectivity seamless supporting integrated wireless. Several key optical technologies are herein reported supporting integrated deep optical access: Bundled radio-over-fiber transmission is proposed and demonstrated for the provision of quintuple-play services achieving 125 km SSMF optical reach. Bend-insensitive fiber in-building distribution is also proposed and demonstrated supporting joint legacy coaxial transmission. Multimode POF is also proposed and demonstrated suitable for joint in-building distribution of MATV and SMATV broadcasting signals. Optical comb technology us is also demonstrated suitable for mm-wave radio generation of multiband OFDM wireless signals. Finally, multicore fiber transmission is also proposed and demonstrated suitable for the transmission of LTE and WIMAX in wireless fronthaul applications in a minimized inter-core crosstalk penalty configuration.

  15. The Cyclic Antibacterial Peptide Enterocin AS-48: Isolation, Mode of Action, and Possible Food Applications

    PubMed Central

    Grande Burgos, María José; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; López Aguayo, María del Carmen; Gálvez, Antonio; Lucas, Rosario

    2014-01-01

    Enterocin AS-48 is a circular bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus. It contains a 70 amino acid-residue chain circularized by a head-to-tail peptide bond. The conformation of enterocin AS-48 is arranged into five alpha-helices with a compact globular structure. Enterocin AS-48 has a wide inhibitory spectrum on Gram-positive bacteria. Sensitivity of Gram-negative bacteria increases in combination with outer-membrane permeabilizing treatments. Eukaryotic cells are bacteriocin-resistant. This cationic peptide inserts into bacterial membranes and causes membrane permeabilization, leading ultimately to cell death. Microarray analysis revealed sets of up-regulated and down-regulated genes in Bacillus cereus cells treated with sublethal bacteriocin concentration. Enterocin AS-48 can be purified in two steps or prepared as lyophilized powder from cultures in whey-based substrates. The potential applications of enterocin AS-48 as a food biopreservative have been corroborated against foodborne pathogens and/or toxigenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica) and spoilage bacteria (Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, Bacillus spp., Paenibacillus spp., Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Staphylococcus carnosus, Lactobacillus sakei and other spoilage lactic acid bacteria). The efficacy of enterocin AS-48 in food systems increases greatly in combination with chemical preservatives, essential oils, phenolic compounds, and physico-chemical treatments such as sublethal heat, high-intensity pulsed-electric fields or high hydrostatic pressure. PMID:25493478

  16. Explosive reconnection of the double tearing mode in relativistic plasmas with application to the Crab nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pétri, J.; Takamoto, M.; Baty, H.; Zenitani, S.

    2015-01-01

    The Crab pulsar and its surrounding nebula is a well-known relic of a massive star that exploded in 1054 AD. The Crab nebula was generally believed to be a good standard candle in gamma rays. Recently, this view has been challenged by sudden increases in the gamma-ray flux in a narrow spectral band within a few hundred MeV. These flares are short but powerful; their duration is between a few hours and up to several days with a rising/falling time of a few hours/days. To date it is neither clear what mechanism powers these flares nor where exactly in the nebula they should be located. However, recent models seem to favor emission sites inside the nebula. In the present work, we study the magneto-hydrodynamic tearing instability occurring in a double current sheet configuration with application to the Crab flares. This is investigated by means of resistive relativistic magneto-hydrodynamic simulations. These put some constraints on the maximum Lorentz factor of the striped wind, Γ≲150 and on the localization of the emission region, r ≈ 50 rL where rL = c/Ω is the light-cylinder radius, c is the speed of light and Ω is the rotation speed of the pulsar. Sites close to but outside the light-cylinder are favored in our model.

  17. The Cyclic Antibacterial Peptide Enterocin AS-48: Isolation, Mode of Action, and Possible Food Applications.

    PubMed

    Grande Burgos, María José; Pulido, Rubén Pérez; Del Carmen López Aguayo, María; Gálvez, Antonio; Lucas, Rosario

    2014-01-01

    Enterocin AS-48 is a circular bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus. It contains a 70 amino acid-residue chain circularized by a head-to-tail peptide bond. The conformation of enterocin AS-48 is arranged into five alpha-helices with a compact globular structure. Enterocin AS-48 has a wide inhibitory spectrum on Gram-positive bacteria. Sensitivity of Gram-negative bacteria increases in combination with outer-membrane permeabilizing treatments. Eukaryotic cells are bacteriocin-resistant. This cationic peptide inserts into bacterial membranes and causes membrane permeabilization, leading ultimately to cell death. Microarray analysis revealed sets of up-regulated and down-regulated genes in Bacillus cereus cells treated with sublethal bacteriocin concentration. Enterocin AS-48 can be purified in two steps or prepared as lyophilized powder from cultures in whey-based substrates. The potential applications of enterocin AS-48 as a food biopreservative have been corroborated against foodborne pathogens and/or toxigenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica) and spoilage bacteria (Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, Bacillus spp., Paenibacillus spp., Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Staphylococcus carnosus, Lactobacillus sakei and other spoilage lactic acid bacteria). The efficacy of enterocin AS-48 in food systems increases greatly in combination with chemical preservatives, essential oils, phenolic compounds, and physico-chemical treatments such as sublethal heat, high-intensity pulsed-electric fields or high hydrostatic pressure. PMID:25493478

  18. Assessing the application and downstream effects of pulsed mode ultrasound as a pre-treatment for alum coagulation.

    PubMed

    Al-Juboori, Raed A; Aravinthan, Vasantha; Yusaf, Talal; Bowtell, Leslie

    2016-07-01

    The application of pulsed mode ultrasound (PMU) as a pre-treatment for alum coagulation was investigated at various alum dosages and pH levels. The effects of the treatments on turbidity and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal and residual Al were evaluated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to optimize the operating conditions of the applied treatments. The results showed that PMU pre-treatment increased turbidity and DOC removal percentages from maximum of 96.6% and 43% to 98.8% and 52%, respectively. It also helped decrease the minimum residual Al from 0.100 to 0.094 ppm. The multiple response optimization was carried out using the desirability function. A desirability value of >0.97 estimated respective turbidity removal, DOC removal and Al residual of 89.24%, 45.66% and ∼ 0.1 ppm for coagulation (control) and 90.61%, >55% and ∼ 0 for coagulation preceded by PMU. These figures were validated via confirmatory experiments. PMU pre-treatment increased total coliform removal from 80% to >98% and decreased trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) from 250 to 200 ppb CH3Cl. Additionally, PMU application prior to coagulation improved the settleability of sludge due to the degassing effects. The results of this study confirms that PMU pre-treatment can significantly improve coagulation performance. PMID:26964919

  19. [Effects of irrigation mode and N application rate on cotton field fertilizer N use efficiency and N losses].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Juan; Wei, Chang-Zhou; Zhang, Jun; Dong, Peng; Wang, Juan; Zhu, Qi-Chao; Wang, Jin-Xin

    2012-10-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different irrigation modes (drip irrigation and furrow irrigation) and different N application rates (0, 240, 360 and 480 kg N x hm(-2)) on the fertilizer N use efficiency and N losses in a cotton field in Xinjiang, Northwest China. The main N cycling pathways, such as the N uptake by cotton plant, NO3(-)-N residual in soil, NH3 volatilization, NO3(-)-N leaching, and nitrification-denitrification, were quantitatively monitored. Compared with furrow irrigation, drip irrigation increased the seed cotton yield, plant N uptake, and fertilizer N use efficiency significantly. The NO3(-)-N residual in soil was significantly greater under furrow irrigation than under drip irrigation. With the application of fertilizer N, the N loss from NH3 volatilization under drip irrigation occupied 0.06% -0.14% of applied N, and was significantly greater than that under furrow irrigation. The N loss from NO3(-)-N leaching under drip irrigation and furrow irrigation was 4.4% and 8.8% of the applied N, respectively. Compared with furrow irrigation, drip irrigation could significantly decrease the NO3(-)-N leakage rate in leakage water. The nitrification-dinetrification loss under drip irrigation and furrow irrigation was 17.9% and 16.8% of the applied N, respectively. It was suggested that NO3(-)-N leaching and nitrification-denitrification were the main N losses in the cotton fields of Xinjiang.

  20. Transmission mode adaptive beamforming for planar phased arrays and its application to 3D ultrasonic transcranial imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapoori, Kiyanoosh; Sadler, Jeffrey; Wydra, Adrian; Malyarenko, Eugene; Sinclair, Anthony; Maev, Roman G.

    2013-03-01

    A new adaptive beamforming method for accurately focusing ultrasound behind highly scattering layers of human skull and its application to 3D transcranial imaging via small-aperture planar phased arrays are reported. Due to its undulating, inhomogeneous, porous, and highly attenuative structure, human skull bone severely distorts ultrasonic beams produced by conventional focusing methods in both imaging and therapeutic applications. Strong acoustical mismatch between the skull and brain tissues, in addition to the skull's undulating topology across the active area of a planar ultrasonic probe, could cause multiple reflections and unpredictable refraction during beamforming and imaging processes. Such effects could significantly deflect the probe's beam from the intended focal point. Presented here is a theoretical basis and simulation results of an adaptive beamforming method that compensates for the latter effects in transmission mode, accompanied by experimental verification. The probe is a custom-designed 2 MHz, 256-element matrix array with 0.45 mm element size and 0.1mm kerf. Through its small footprint, it is possible to accurately measure the profile of the skull segment in contact with the probe and feed the results into our ray tracing program. The latter calculates the new time delay patterns adapted to the geometrical and acoustical properties of the skull phantom segment in contact with the probe. The time delay patterns correct for the refraction at the skull-brain boundary and bring the distorted beam back to its intended focus. The algorithms were implemented on the ultrasound open-platform ULA-OP (developed at the University of Florence).

  1. Application of Benchmark Examples to Assess the Single and Mixed-Mode Static Delamination Propagation Capabilities in ANSYS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    The application of benchmark examples for the assessment of quasi-static delamination propagation capabilities is demonstrated for ANSYS. The examples are independent of the analysis software used and allow the assessment of the automated delamination propagation in commercial finite element codes based on the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT). The examples selected are based on two-dimensional finite element models of Double Cantilever Beam (DCB), End-Notched Flexure (ENF), Mixed-Mode Bending (MMB) and Single Leg Bending (SLB) specimens. First, the quasi-static benchmark examples were recreated for each specimen using the current implementation of VCCT in ANSYS . Second, the delamination was allowed to propagate under quasi-static loading from its initial location using the automated procedure implemented in the finite element software. Third, the load-displacement relationship from a propagation analysis and the benchmark results were compared, and good agreement could be achieved by selecting the appropriate input parameters. The benchmarking procedure proved valuable by highlighting the issues associated with choosing the input parameters of the particular implementation. Overall the results are encouraging, but further assessment for three-dimensional solid models is required.

  2. High resolution scanning electron microscopy in biology: artefacts caused by the nature and mode of application of the coating material.

    PubMed

    Bråten, T

    1978-05-01

    Results of high resolution secondary electron observations of the haemocyanin molecule from the marine whelk Buccinum undatum are given. The choice of metal used for surface coating of the sample (gold, gold--palladium or carbon/gold--palldium) and the mode of application of this metal (thermal vacuum evaporation or diode sputtering) were both found to be of utmost importance when working at high magnifications in the scanning electron microscope. Sputter coating with gold gives poor results because of a granular and cracked appearance of the surface film. The haemocyanin molecules were difficult to recognize in these preparations. Best results were obtained by a thermal vacuum evaporation of gold--palladium. It is suggested that the inferior results seen after sputter coating may be due to the high temperatures wihch the specimen experiences during the sputtering, even when cooling of the specimen stage is carried out. Other specimens (diatom valves and latex spheres) were also studied at high magnification giving the same results as the haemocyanin molecules.

  3. Exploring Existence Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madariaga, Bruce; McConnell, Kenneth E.

    1987-05-01

    The notion that individuals value the preservation of water resources independent of their own use of these resources is discussed. Issues in defining this value, termed "existence value," are explored. Economic models are employed to assess the role of existence value in benefit-cost analysis. The motives underlying existence value are shown to matter to contingent valuation measurement of existence benefits. A stylized contingent valuation experiment is used to study nonusers' attitudes regarding projects to improve water quality in the Chesapeake Bay. Survey results indicate that altruism is one of the motives underlying existence value and that goods other than environmental and natural resources may provide existence benefits.

  4. Single-Mode Channel Waveguide Cutoff Modulators/modulator Arrays in Lithium Niobate and Gallium Arsenide and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Retzon U.

    This dissertation consists of two parts. In the first part, electrooptic modulators built on proton-exchanged LiNbO_3 channel waveguides are studied theoretically and experimentally. The proton exchange (PE) technique is introduced first. Two new types of electrooptic modulators are constructed. The first utilizes the coherent depolarization scattering phenomenon associated with PE Y-cut LiNbO_3 guides. A theoretical calculation was made to predict the control of the phase matching condition through a combination of thermal annealing and an external electric field. Experimental observations verifying the theoretical prediction have also been obtained. The second type of modulator is the thermally annealed proton exchanged channel waveguide cutoff modulator and modulator array. Experimental results for a single channel device and modulator array are presented. A detailed theory is provided which explains the operation of cutoff modulator. The increase in the device's dynamic range induced by appropriate heat treatment is quantitatively explained. This improvement is due to a proper combination of the coupling condition and the attenuation coefficient induced by the electric field and perturbed by the heat-treatment. A modulator array with 333 channels/cm packing density and 3.2 Gbit/sec bit rate is experimentally demonstrated. Further applications of the cutoff modulator array, such as addition and subtraction of two numbers and optical logic gate operations are also realized. In the second part, an index-reduction mode cutoff modulator and modulator array on a GaAs-GaAlAs heterostructure have been investigated. A Schottky contact electrode was employed to facilitate the injection of the microwave signal. The linear electrooptic effect was used for intensity modulation. A ten-channel cutoff modulator array was made with a packing density of 500 channel/cm. An optimization of the ridge channel waveguide dimension for 1.3 and 1.55mu m optical wavelengths, to minimize

  5. Application of filter method for detection of secondary electron emission in the auto-oscillating mode of beam plasma discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balovnev, A. V.; Vizgalov, I. V.; Salahutdinov, G. H.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we studied the non-self mode of the auto-oscillation secondary- emission discharge (ASED) in a longitudinal magnetic field with autonomous electron gun to ignite the primary beam-plasma discharge (PPD).

  6. Applicability of Healthcare Failure Mode and Effects Analysis to healthcare epidemiology: evaluation of the sterilization and use of surgical instruments.

    PubMed

    Linkin, Darren R; Sausman, Caroline; Santos, Lilly; Lyons, Clarence; Fox, Catherine; Aumiller, Linda; Esterhai, John; Pittman, Beverly; Lautenbach, Ebbing

    2005-10-01

    Healthcare Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (HFMEA) is a methodology for correcting latent system errors before they lead to adverse events. We examined the utility of HFMEA in evaluating the sterilization and use of surgical instruments. First, a multidisciplinary team graphed the process in a flow diagram. A hazard analysis was then used to examine potential failure modes (i.e., ways in which a process can fail) and their causes and to score the severity and other factors for each failure mode cause. Actions were then planned to address the selected failure mode causes. Flow charts were created for 3 foci: sterilization process, reading of biologicals, and use of equipment. Information was gathered through interviews and a review of the literature. Multiple clinically significant system errors were identified, and actions to correct them were developed. The HFMEA methodology facilitated the detection of previously unrecognized system errors, demonstrating its potential utility in addressing healthcare epidemiology-related adverse events.

  7. A wearable ECG-HR detector and its application to automatic assist-mode selection of an electrically assisted bicycle.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Akinori; Miyashita, Osamu; Yoshida, Toshiya; Yamamoto, Junichi; Lataire, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Recently, an electrically assisted bicycle has been widely used in daily life and becomes very popular. The user selects the stepwise assist-mode to determine the assistive torque for pleasurable running. From the viewpoint of improvement of health by exercise, the electrically assisted bicycle can be an exercise machine like a treadmill. The heart rate (HR) is regarded as an indication of exercise load. This paper presents an automatic assist-mode selection system based on the HR of the bicycle user. The HR is obtained from the R-waves measured by the proposed wearable electrocardiograph on the user. The mode-selection system is simply implemented by a personal computer, USB-connected interface, and some electronic switching circuits. The running experiments confirm that the proposed assist-mode selection method has practicability. PMID:22255925

  8. A Rationale for Organization and its Application to Existing and Proposed Structures for Advanced Education in Alberta. Alternative Futures. Master Planning Monograph 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosetti, R. A.

    This paper was prepared in response to a need for a rational basis upon which to analyse and appraise existing and proposed organizational structures for advanced education in Alberta, Canada. The Rationale for Organization developed in Chapter 1 is based on a humanistic philosophy that views man as free and capable of infinite perfectability…

  9. Adaptive Batch Mode Active Learning.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Shayok; Balasubramanian, Vineeth; Panchanathan, Sethuraman

    2015-08-01

    Active learning techniques have gained popularity to reduce human effort in labeling data instances for inducing a classifier. When faced with large amounts of unlabeled data, such algorithms automatically identify the exemplar and representative instances to be selected for manual annotation. More recently, there have been attempts toward a batch mode form of active learning, where a batch of data points is simultaneously selected from an unlabeled set. Real-world applications require adaptive approaches for batch selection in active learning, depending on the complexity of the data stream in question. However, the existing work in this field has primarily focused on static or heuristic batch size selection. In this paper, we propose two novel optimization-based frameworks for adaptive batch mode active learning (BMAL), where the batch size as well as the selection criteria are combined in a single formulation. We exploit gradient-descent-based optimization strategies as well as properties of submodular functions to derive the adaptive BMAL algorithms. The solution procedures have the same computational complexity as existing state-of-the-art static BMAL techniques. Our empirical results on the widely used VidTIMIT and the mobile biometric (MOBIO) data sets portray the efficacy of the proposed frameworks and also certify the potential of these approaches in being used for real-world biometric recognition applications.

  10. Systems Biology & Mode of Action Based Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of systems biology for risk assessment of environmental chemicals is a national extension of its use in pharmaceutical research. The basis for this is the concept of a key event network that builds on existing mode of action frameworks for risk assessment. The a...

  11. Photon Temporal Modes: A Complete Framework for Quantum Information Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecht, B.; Reddy, Dileep V.; Silberhorn, C.; Raymer, M. G.

    2015-10-01

    Field-orthogonal temporal modes of photonic quantum states provide a new framework for quantum information science (QIS). They intrinsically span a high-dimensional Hilbert space and lend themselves to integration into existing single-mode fiber communication networks. We show that the three main requirements to construct a valid framework for QIS—the controlled generation of resource states, the targeted and highly efficient manipulation of temporal modes, and their efficient detection—can be fulfilled with current technology. We suggest implementations of diverse QIS applications based on this complete set of building blocks.

  12. Decomposition of the complex system into nonlinear spatio-temporal modes: algorithm and application to climate data mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigin, Alexander; Gavrilov, Andrey; Loskutov, Evgeny; Mukhin, Dmitry

    2015-04-01

    Proper decomposition of the complex system into well separated "modes" is a way to reveal and understand the mechanisms governing the system behaviour as well as discover essential feedbacks and nonlinearities. The decomposition is also natural procedure that provides to construct adequate and concurrently simplest models of both corresponding sub-systems, and of the system in whole. In recent works two new methods of decomposition of the Earth's climate system into well separated modes were discussed. The first method [1-3] is based on the MSSA (Multichannel Singular Spectral Analysis) [4] for linear expanding vector (space-distributed) time series and makes allowance delayed correlations of the processes recorded in spatially separated points. The second one [5-7] allows to construct nonlinear dynamic modes, but neglects delay of correlations. It was demonstrated [1-3] that first method provides effective separation of different time scales, but prevent from correct reduction of data dimension: slope of variance spectrum of spatio-temporal empirical orthogonal functions that are "structural material" for linear spatio-temporal modes, is too flat. The second method overcomes this problem: variance spectrum of nonlinear modes falls essentially sharply [5-7]. However neglecting time-lag correlations brings error of mode selection that is uncontrolled and increases with growth of mode time scale. In the report we combine these two methods in such a way that the developed algorithm allows constructing nonlinear spatio-temporal modes. The algorithm is applied for decomposition of (i) multi hundreds years globally distributed data generated by the INM RAS Coupled Climate Model [8], and (ii) 156 years time series of SST anomalies distributed over the globe [9]. We compare efficiency of different methods of decomposition and discuss the abilities of nonlinear spatio-temporal modes for construction of adequate and concurrently simplest ("optimal") models of climate systems

  13. Application of strongly overcoupled resonant modes of long-period fiber gratings to measure the adulteration of olive oil.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Palas; Basumallick, Nandini; Dasgupta, Kamal; Ghosh, Ajay; Bandyopadhyay, Somnath

    2016-07-01

    We have shown that strongly overcoupled resonant modes of long-period fiber gratings (LPFGs) can be used to assess the adulteration of olive oil. In this background, we investigate the response characteristics of strongly overcoupled resonant modes of different orders to a surrounding medium, the refractive index (RI) of which is greater than that of the fiber cladding, and in the range where a precise refractive index measurement is immensely useful for inspecting the quality of olive oils and other edible oils. A theoretical simulation that would help in designing a sensor with suitable sensitivity and range of measurement has been presented in detail and also validated with experimental results. It was interesting to observe that in a high RI surrounding, a lower order overcoupled resonant mode is much more sensitive as compared to a higher-order one having a similar coupling coefficient. A quantitative analysis demonstrates that for a particular LPFG, the sensitivity of a strongly overcoupled LP06 mode was found to be ∼2000  dB/RIU, while that of the LP07 mode having similar coupling strength was ∼550  dB/RIU in the surrounding refractive index range from 1.458 to 1.520. The results have been validated experimentally. PMID:27409199

  14. Experimental entanglement of 60 modes of the quantum optical frequency comb and application to generating hypercubic-lattice cluster states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfister, Olivier; Chen, Moran; Wang, Pei; Fan, Wenjiang; Menicucci, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    In the race to build a practical quantum computer in the laboratory, the ability to create very large quantum registers and entangle them is paramount, along with the ability to address the issue of decoherence. With particular regard to scalability, the field-based, continuous-variable (CV) flavor of quantum optics offers notable promise, in particular by enabling ``top down,'' rather than ``bottom up,'' entangling approaches of quantum field modes. It is also important to note the relevance of continuous variables to universal quantum computing, with the recent discovery of a fault tolerance threshold for quantum computing with CV cluster states and nonGaussian error correction. In 2011, some of us generated simultaneously 15 independent 4-mode cluster states over 60 modes of the quantum optical frequency comb (QOFC) of a single optical parametric oscillator (OPO). In this work, we used a single OPO to generate a 60-mode dual-rail cluster state, which is the largest entangled system to date whose subsystems are all simultaneously available. Using the exact same setup, we also generated two copies of a 30-mode dual-rail cluster state. We will then present a new proposal to ``weave'' such massively scalable continuous-variable cluster states into hypercubic-lattice quantum graphs Work supported by NSF grants PHY-0855632 and PHY-1206029.

  15. A modified mode-matching technique and its application to a class of quasi-planar transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Vhldieck, R.; Bronemann, J.

    1985-10-01

    A rigorous and versatile hybrid-mode analysis is presented to determine the normalized propagation constants in a class of quasi-planar transmission-line structures. The method is accurate and covers the finite metallization thickness, mounting grooves, and an arbitrary number of dielectric subregions. Utilizing a modified mode-matching technique, one can derive discontinuity and transmission-line matrices for each homogeneous subregion. Successively multiplying matrix equations of all subregions leads to the characteristic matrix system. This procedure makes it possible to create a modularized computer program which can be conveniently extended to a wide spectrum of conceivable configurations simply by inserting the matrix equations of additional subregions in the multiplication process. To demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method, dispersion characteristics of dominant and next higher order hybrid modes in earthed and insulated finlines, suspended microstrips, and coupled striplines with tuning septa, are given as examples.

  16. A regularized relaxed ordered subset list-mode reconstruction algorithm and its preliminary application to undersampling PET imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xiaoqing; Xie, Qingguo; Xiao, Peng

    2015-01-01

    List mode format is commonly used in modern positron emission tomography (PET) for image reconstruction due to certain special advantages. In this work, we proposed a list mode based regularized relaxed ordered subset (LMROS) algorithm for static PET imaging. LMROS is able to work with regularization terms which can be formulated as twice differentiable convex functions. Such a versatility would make LMROS a convenient and general framework for fulfilling different regularized list mode reconstruction methods. LMROS was applied to two simulated undersampling PET imaging scenarios to verify its effectiveness. Convex quadratic function, total variation constraint, non-local means and dictionary learning based regularization methods were successfully realized for different cases. The results showed that the LMROS algorithm was effective and some regularization methods greatly reduced the distortions and artifacts caused by undersampling.

  17. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Applicability of General Provisions to New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....1 Applicability Yes. 63.2 Definitions Yes. 63.3 Units and abbreviations Yes. 63.4 Prohibited activities Yes. 63.5 Construction/reconstruction Yes. 63.6(a)-(g) Compliance with standards and maintenance requirements Yes. 63.6(h) Opacity and visible emissions standards Yes. 63.6(i)(i)-(j) Compliance extension...

  18. Performance evaluation of a prototype multi-bounce time-of-flight mass spectrometer in linear mode and applications in space science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hässig, M.; Libardoni, M.; Mandt, K.; Miller, G.; Blase, R.

    2015-11-01

    Mass spectrometry is a powerful tool to measure the composition of volatile and semi volatile gases. The necessity to accurately identify and quantify unknown species lead to the requirements of a mass spectrometer as the detector of choice in most separation science and direct sample analysis situations. Advantages of time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) are the high mass resolution, high mass range, and the measurement of the entire mass range in each extraction. The multi-bounce time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MBTOF) described in this work, takes advantage of a small footprint without sacrificing mass resolution. To achieve this, the MBTOF prototype uses a linear flight path with dual lens stacks. Ions are bounced in between the mirrors for a specified duration whereby increasing their flight time and resolution. The number of bounces can tune the resolution of the instrument. To show the minimum capabilities of the instrument and further applications of it, MBTOF was operated in linear mode. The instrument is designed for a multibounce passage of the ion optics and the focal point of the ion optics is optimized for this application, therefore the resolution in linear mode is limited. However, even in linear mode of operation, the mass resolution meets or exceeds that of a quadrupole mass spectrometer with limited power supplies required for operations. The measurements presented here are based on lab measurements of the early lab prototype MBTOF operated in a linear flight mode with low ion source extraction fields. A detailed evaluation including filament characterization, dynamic range and resolution are investigated. Further discussion involving applications on planetary missions for rocket science, coupling of MBTOF with laser thermal desorption or gas chromatography for potential organic determination in deep space are included.

  19. A contour-mode film bulk acoustic resonator of high quality factor in a liquid environment for biosensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wencheng; Choi, Seokheun; Chae, Junseok

    2010-02-01

    This letter reports an acoustic resonator of high quality factors (Qs) operating in liquid media. The film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) is made of a ring-shaped piezoelectric aluminum nitride thin film, and is excited in a contour mode. By having a low motional resistance upon coupling with liquids, the contour mode FBAR achieved Qs up to 189, more than 12× over the state-of-the-art FBARs in liquids. The resonator was characterized by an aptamer—thrombin binding pair for a biosensor and showed a mass resolution of 1.78 ng/cm2.

  20. Lamping process and application of ultra small U-shaped, whispery gallery mode (WGM) based optic fiber sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yuan Cheng; Chiang, Chia Chin

    2015-07-01

    This study success to smaller and control the diameter of single mode optical fiber whispery gallery mode (WGM) to diameter 0.8 mm nonetching and nontaping treated. The sensitivity of this type ultra-small U-shape WGM strengthens neither etching nor taping fibre. The sensitivity we apply to thermo test depends on wavelength shift from 40 ~ 96°C (R2 = 0.99 ). The specially characteristics of the optical fiber could be tested for temperature, refraction, vibration, concussion, and CO2 detection.

  1. Evaluation and application of a mixed-mode chromatographic stationary phase in two-dimensional liquid chromatography for the separation of traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhishen; Fu, Qing; Cai, Jianfeng; Huan, Liyun; Zhao, Jianchao; Shi, Hui; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao

    2016-06-01

    In this study, two mixed-mode chromatography stationary phases (C8SAX and C8SCX) were evaluated and used to establish a two-dimensional liquid chromatography system for the separation of traditional Chinese medicine. The chromatographic properties of the mixed-mode columns were systematically evaluated by comparing with other three columns of C8, strong anion exchanger, and strong cation exchanger. The result showed that C8SAX and C8SCX had a mixed-mode retention mechanism including electrostatic interaction and hydrophobic interaction. Especially, they were suitable for separating acidic and/or basic compounds and their separation selectivities could be easily adjusted by changing pH value. Then, several off-line 2D-LC systems based on the C8SAX in the first dimension and C8SAX, C8SCX, or C8 columns in the second dimension were developed to analyze a traditional Chinese medicine-Uncaria rhynchophylla. The two-dimensional liquid chromatography system of C8SAX (pH 3.0) × C8SAX (pH 6.0) exhibited the most effective peak distribution. Finally, fractions of U. rhynchophylla prepared from the first dimension were successfully separated on the C8SAX column with a gradient pH. Thus, the mixed-mode stationary phase could provide a platform to separate the traditional Chinese medicine in practical applications.

  2. Reutilizing Existing Library Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Marlys Cresap

    1987-01-01

    This discussion of the reutilization of existing library space reviews the decision process and considerations for implementation. Two case studies of small public libraries which reassigned space to better use are provided, including floor plans. (1 reference) (MES)

  3. Potential-based and non-potential-based cohesive zone formulations under mixed-mode separation and over-closure-Part II: Finite element applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Máirtín, Éamonn Ó.; Parry, Guillaume; Beltz, Glenn E.; McGarry, J. Patrick

    2014-02-01

    does not correctly penalise mixed-mode over-closure at the stent-coating interface, significantly altering the stress state in the coating and preventing the prediction of buckling. Case study 3: Application of a displacement to the base of a bi-layered composite arch results in a symmetric sinusoidal distribution of normal and tangential traction at the arch interface. The traction defined mode mixity at the interface ranges from pure mode II at the base of the arch to pure mode I at the top of the arch. It is demonstrated that predicted debonding patterns are highly sensitive to normal-tangential coupling terms in a CZM. The NP2, XN, and BSG models exhibit a strong bias towards mode I separation at the top of the arch, while the NP1 model exhibits a bias towards mode II debonding at the base of the arch. Only the SMC model provides mode-independent behaviour in the early stages of debonding. This case study provides a practical example of the importance of the behaviour of CZMs under conditions of traction controlled mode mixity, following from the theoretical analysis presented in Part I of this study.

  4. Application of the trajectory coordinate system and the moving modes method approach to railroad dynamics using Krylov subspaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recuero, Antonio M.; Escalona, José L.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a procedure that makes use of a particular formulation based on the trajectory coordinate system (TCS) approach, which is specific of ground vehicles, to describe the track deformation by means of a suitable set of mode shapes. The inertia terms of the track elastic displacements are derived using the TCS arc length to couple the system dynamics. The selection of the track modes of deformation is carried out from a finite element model by using Krylov subspaces as the model-order reduction technique. The modes of deformation move along the track fixed to the TCS using the moving modes method (MMM), avoiding the issue concerning the spatial convergence of the load (wheels) on the track and preserving their vertical frequency contents whose accuracy can be chosen beforehand. An unsuspended wheelset with an induced hunting motion moving on flexible and rigid tangent tracks and a vehicle model are simulated using rail defects as excitations sources such that the performance of this procedure using a fully 3D contact algorithm is shown and analyzed.

  5. Experiences in the Application of Project-Based Learning in a Switching-Mode Power Supplies Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamar, D. G.; Miaja, P. F.; Arias, M.; Rodriguez, A.; Rodriguez, M.; Vazquez, A.; Hernando, M. M.; Sebastian, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the introduction of problem-based learning (PBL) in a power electronics course at the University of Oviedo, Gijon, Spain, by means of two practical projects: the design and construction of a switching-mode power supply (SMPS) prototype and the static study of a dc-dc converter topology. The goal of this innovation was for…

  6. Development and Application of Benchmark Examples for Mixed-Mode I/II Quasi-Static Delamination Propagation Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    The development of benchmark examples for quasi-static delamination propagation prediction is presented and demonstrated for a commercial code. The examples are based on finite element models of the Mixed-Mode Bending (MMB) specimen. The examples are independent of the analysis software used and allow the assessment of the automated delamination propagation prediction capability in commercial finite element codes based on the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT). First, quasi-static benchmark examples were created for the specimen. Second, starting from an initially straight front, the delamination was allowed to propagate under quasi-static loading. Third, the load-displacement relationship from a propagation analysis and the benchmark results were compared, and good agreement could be achieved by selecting the appropriate input parameters. Good agreement between the results obtained from the automated propagation analysis and the benchmark results could be achieved by selecting input parameters that had previously been determined during analyses of mode I Double Cantilever Beam and mode II End Notched Flexure specimens. The benchmarking procedure proved valuable by highlighting the issues associated with choosing the input parameters of the particular implementation. Overall the results are encouraging, but further assessment for mixed-mode delamination fatigue onset and growth is required.

  7. Application of orthogonality-relation for the separation of Lamb modes at a plate edge: numerical and experimental predictions.

    PubMed

    Ratassepp, M; Klauson, A; Chati, F; Léon, F; Décultot, D; Maze, G; Fritzsche, M

    2015-03-01

    In this study the orthogonality relation-based method for post-processing finite element (FE) predictions and experimental measurements is applied in order to separate Lamb modes at a plate edge at normal incidence. The scattered wave field from the free edge is assumed to be a superposition of all the eigenmodes of an infinite plate. The eigenmode amplitudes of the reflected wave field are determined by implementing the orthogonality-based method on the measured plate edge displacements. Overlapping wavepackets of Lamb modes at a plate edge are simulated by using the FE model and the experiment in the case of an incident S0 mode in a plate with a notch. In the experiment a 3D Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer (3D SLDV) (Johansmann and Sauer, 2005) is used to measure 3 dimensional vibrations and thus the edge two-dimensional displacement components simultaneously. It is demonstrated that it is possible to extract signals of various propagating and non-propagating modes in time-domain. The influences of the errors in practical measurements on the extraction procedure have also been studied.

  8. Cogeneration for existing alfalfa processing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This study is designed to look at the application of gas-turbine generator cogeneration to a typical Nebraska alfalfa processing mill. The practicality is examined of installing a combustion turbine generator at a plant site and modifying existing facilities for generating electricity, utilizing the electricity generated, selling excess electricity to the power company and incorporating the turbine exhaust flow as a drying medium for the alfalfa. The results of this study are not conclusive but the findings are summarized.

  9. Effect of the existing form of Cu element on the mechanical properties, bio-corrosion and antibacterial properties of Ti-Cu alloys for biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Erlin; Wang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Mian; Hou, Bing

    2016-12-01

    Ti-Cu alloys have exhibited strong antibacterial ability, but Ti-Cu alloys prepared by different processes showed different antibacterial ability. In order to reveal the controlling mechanism, Ti-Cu alloys with different existing forms of Cu element were prepared in this paper. The effects of the Cu existing form on the microstructure, mechanical, corrosion and antibacterial properties of Ti-Cu alloys have been systematically investigated. Results have shown that the as-cast Ti-Cu alloys showed a higher hardness and mechanical strength as well as a higher antibacterial rate (51-64%) but a relatively lower corrosion resistance than pure titanium. Treatment at 900°C/2h (T4) significantly increased the hardness and the strength, improved the corrosion resistance but had little effect on the antibacterial property. Treatment at 900°C/2h+400°C/12h (T6) increased further the hardness and the mechanical strength, improved the corrosion resistance and but also enhanced the antibacterial rate (>90%) significantly. It was demonstrated that the Cu element in solid solution state showed high strengthening ability but low antibacterial property while Cu element in Ti2Cu phase exhibited strong strengthening ability and strong antibacterial property. Ti2Cu phase played a key role in the antibacterial mechanism. The antibacterial ability of Ti-Cu alloy was strongly proportional to the Cu content and the surface area of Ti2Cu phase. High Cu content and fine Ti2Cu phase would contribute to a high strength and a strong antibacterial ability. PMID:27612819

  10. Effect of the existing form of Cu element on the mechanical properties, bio-corrosion and antibacterial properties of Ti-Cu alloys for biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Erlin; Wang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Mian; Hou, Bing

    2016-12-01

    Ti-Cu alloys have exhibited strong antibacterial ability, but Ti-Cu alloys prepared by different processes showed different antibacterial ability. In order to reveal the controlling mechanism, Ti-Cu alloys with different existing forms of Cu element were prepared in this paper. The effects of the Cu existing form on the microstructure, mechanical, corrosion and antibacterial properties of Ti-Cu alloys have been systematically investigated. Results have shown that the as-cast Ti-Cu alloys showed a higher hardness and mechanical strength as well as a higher antibacterial rate (51-64%) but a relatively lower corrosion resistance than pure titanium. Treatment at 900°C/2h (T4) significantly increased the hardness and the strength, improved the corrosion resistance but had little effect on the antibacterial property. Treatment at 900°C/2h+400°C/12h (T6) increased further the hardness and the mechanical strength, improved the corrosion resistance and but also enhanced the antibacterial rate (>90%) significantly. It was demonstrated that the Cu element in solid solution state showed high strengthening ability but low antibacterial property while Cu element in Ti2Cu phase exhibited strong strengthening ability and strong antibacterial property. Ti2Cu phase played a key role in the antibacterial mechanism. The antibacterial ability of Ti-Cu alloy was strongly proportional to the Cu content and the surface area of Ti2Cu phase. High Cu content and fine Ti2Cu phase would contribute to a high strength and a strong antibacterial ability.

  11. Mode decomposition evolution equations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Guo-Wei; Yang, Siyang

    2011-01-01

    Partial differential equation (PDE) based methods have become some of the most powerful tools for exploring the fundamental problems in signal processing, image processing, computer vision, machine vision and artificial intelligence in the past two decades. The advantages of PDE based approaches are that they can be made fully automatic, robust for the analysis of images, videos and high dimensional data. A fundamental question is whether one can use PDEs to perform all the basic tasks in the image processing. If one can devise PDEs to perform full-scale mode decomposition for signals and images, the modes thus generated would be very useful for secondary processing to meet the needs in various types of signal and image processing. Despite of great progress in PDE based image analysis in the past two decades, the basic roles of PDEs in image/signal analysis are only limited to PDE based low-pass filters, and their applications to noise removal, edge detection, segmentation, etc. At present, it is not clear how to construct PDE based methods for full-scale mode decomposition. The above-mentioned limitation of most current PDE based image/signal processing methods is addressed in the proposed work, in which we introduce a family of mode decomposition evolution equations (MoDEEs) for a vast variety of applications. The MoDEEs are constructed as an extension of a PDE based high-pass filter (Europhys. Lett., 59(6): 814, 2002) by using arbitrarily high order PDE based low-pass filters introduced by Wei (IEEE Signal Process. Lett., 6(7): 165, 1999). The use of arbitrarily high order PDEs is essential to the frequency localization in the mode decomposition. Similar to the wavelet transform, the present MoDEEs have a controllable time-frequency localization and allow a perfect reconstruction of the original function. Therefore, the MoDEE operation is also called a PDE transform. However, modes generated from the present approach are in the spatial or time domain and can be

  12. Application of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), cause and effect analysis, and Pareto diagram in conjunction with HACCP to a corn curl manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Varzakas, Theodoros H; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S

    2007-01-01

    The Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) model has been applied for the risk assessment of corn curl manufacturing. A tentative approach of FMEA application to the snacks industry was attempted in an effort to exclude the presence of GMOs in the final product. This is of crucial importance both from the ethics and the legislation (Regulations EC 1829/2003; EC 1830/2003; Directive EC 18/2001) point of view. The Preliminary Hazard Analysis and the Fault Tree Analysis were used to analyze and predict the occurring failure modes in a food chain system (corn curls processing plant), based on the functions, characteristics, and/or interactions of the ingredients or the processes, upon which the system depends. Critical Control points have been identified and implemented in the cause and effect diagram (also known as Ishikawa, tree diagram, and the fishbone diagram). Finally, Pareto diagrams were employed towards the optimization of GMOs detection potential of FMEA.

  13. Application of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), cause and effect analysis, and Pareto diagram in conjunction with HACCP to a corn curl manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Varzakas, Theodoros H; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S

    2007-01-01

    The Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) model has been applied for the risk assessment of corn curl manufacturing. A tentative approach of FMEA application to the snacks industry was attempted in an effort to exclude the presence of GMOs in the final product. This is of crucial importance both from the ethics and the legislation (Regulations EC 1829/2003; EC 1830/2003; Directive EC 18/2001) point of view. The Preliminary Hazard Analysis and the Fault Tree Analysis were used to analyze and predict the occurring failure modes in a food chain system (corn curls processing plant), based on the functions, characteristics, and/or interactions of the ingredients or the processes, upon which the system depends. Critical Control points have been identified and implemented in the cause and effect diagram (also known as Ishikawa, tree diagram, and the fishbone diagram). Finally, Pareto diagrams were employed towards the optimization of GMOs detection potential of FMEA. PMID:17457722

  14. Sliding mode observer based incipient sensor fault detection with application to high-speed railway traction device.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kangkang; Jiang, Bin; Yan, Xing-Gang; Mao, Zehui

    2016-07-01

    This paper considers incipient sensor fault detection issue for a class of nonlinear systems with "observer unmatched" uncertainties. A particular fault detection sliding mode observer is designed for the augmented system formed by the original system and incipient sensor faults. The designed parameters are obtained using LMI and line filter techniques to guarantee that the generated residuals are robust to uncertainties and that sliding motion is not destroyed by faults. Then, three levels of novel adaptive thresholds are proposed based on the reduced order sliding mode dynamics, which effectively improve incipient sensor faults detectability. Case study of on the traction system in China Railway High-speed is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed incipient senor faults detection schemes. PMID:27156675

  15. Sliding mode observer based incipient sensor fault detection with application to high-speed railway traction device.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kangkang; Jiang, Bin; Yan, Xing-Gang; Mao, Zehui

    2016-07-01

    This paper considers incipient sensor fault detection issue for a class of nonlinear systems with "observer unmatched" uncertainties. A particular fault detection sliding mode observer is designed for the augmented system formed by the original system and incipient sensor faults. The designed parameters are obtained using LMI and line filter techniques to guarantee that the generated residuals are robust to uncertainties and that sliding motion is not destroyed by faults. Then, three levels of novel adaptive thresholds are proposed based on the reduced order sliding mode dynamics, which effectively improve incipient sensor faults detectability. Case study of on the traction system in China Railway High-speed is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed incipient senor faults detection schemes.

  16. Application of ISO22000 and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (fmea) for Industrial Processing of Poultry Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varzakas, Theodoros H.; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S.

    Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) model has been applied for the risk assessment of poultry slaughtering and manufacturing. In this work comparison of ISO22000 analysis with HACCP is carried out over poultry slaughtering, processing and packaging. Critical Control points and Prerequisite programs (PrPs) have been identified and implemented in the cause and effect diagram (also known as Ishikawa, tree diagram and fishbone diagram).

  17. An adaptively fast ensemble empirical mode decomposition method and its applications to rolling element bearing fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Xiaoming; Zhou, Jianzhong; Xu, Yanhe; Zhu, Wenlong; Li, Chaoshun

    2015-10-01

    Ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) represents a significant improvement over the original empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method for eliminating the mode mixing problem. However, the added white noises generate some tough problems including the high computational cost, the determination of the two critical parameters (the amplitude of the added white noise and the number of ensemble trials), and the contamination of the residue noise in the signal reconstruction. To solve these problems, an adaptively fast EEMD (AFEEMD) method combined with complementary EEMD (CEEMD) is proposed in this paper. In the proposed method, the two critical parameters are respectively fixed as 0.01 times standard deviation of the original signal and two ensemble trials. Instead, the upper frequency limit of the added white noise is the key parameter which needs to be prescribed beforehand. Unlike the original EEMD method, only two high-frequency white noises are added to the signal to be investigated with anti-phase in AFEEMD. Furthermore, an index termed relative root-mean-square error is employed for the adaptive selection of the proper upper frequency limit of the added white noises. Simulation test and vibration signals based fault diagnosis of rolling element bearing under different fault types are utilized to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. The analysis results indicate that the AFEEMD method represents a sound improvement over the original EEMD method, and has strong practicability.

  18. Closed-loop ARS mode for scanning ion conductance microscopy with improved speed and stability for live cell imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Jung, Goo-Eun; Noh, Hanaul; Shin, Yong Kyun; Kahng, Se-Jong; Baik, Ku Youn; Kim, Hong-Bae; Cho, Nam-Joon; Cho, Sang-Joon

    2015-07-01

    Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) is an increasingly useful nanotechnology tool for non-contact, high resolution imaging of live biological specimens such as cellular membranes. In particular, approach-retract-scanning (ARS) mode enables fast probing of delicate biological structures by rapid and repeated approach/retraction of a nano-pipette tip. For optimal performance, accurate control of the tip position is a critical issue. Herein, we present a novel closed-loop control strategy for the ARS mode that achieves higher operating speeds with increased stability. The algorithm differs from that of most conventional (i.e., constant velocity) approach schemes as it includes a deceleration phase near the sample surface, which is intended to minimize the possibility of contact with the surface. Analysis of the ion current and tip position demonstrates that the new mode is able to operate at approach speeds of up to 250 μm s(-1). As a result of the improved stability, SICM imaging with the new approach scheme enables significantly improved, high resolution imaging of subtle features of fixed and live cells (e.g., filamentous structures & membrane edges). Taken together, the results suggest that optimization of the tip approach speed can substantially improve SICM imaging performance, further enabling SICM to become widely adopted as a general and versatile research tool for biological studies at the nanoscale level.

  19. Closed-loop ARS mode for scanning ion conductance microscopy with improved speed and stability for live cell imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Goo-Eun; Noh, Hanaul; Shin, Yong Kyun; Kahng, Se-Jong; Baik, Ku Youn; Kim, Hong-Bae; Cho, Nam-Joon; Cho, Sang-Joon

    2015-06-01

    Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) is an increasingly useful nanotechnology tool for non-contact, high resolution imaging of live biological specimens such as cellular membranes. In particular, approach-retract-scanning (ARS) mode enables fast probing of delicate biological structures by rapid and repeated approach/retraction of a nano-pipette tip. For optimal performance, accurate control of the tip position is a critical issue. Herein, we present a novel closed-loop control strategy for the ARS mode that achieves higher operating speeds with increased stability. The algorithm differs from that of most conventional (i.e., constant velocity) approach schemes as it includes a deceleration phase near the sample surface, which is intended to minimize the possibility of contact with the surface. Analysis of the ion current and tip position demonstrates that the new mode is able to operate at approach speeds of up to 250 μm s-1. As a result of the improved stability, SICM imaging with the new approach scheme enables significantly improved, high resolution imaging of subtle features of fixed and live cells (e.g., filamentous structures & membrane edges). Taken together, the results suggest that optimization of the tip approach speed can substantially improve SICM imaging performance, further enabling SICM to become widely adopted as a general and versatile research tool for biological studies at the nanoscale level.

  20. Development and Application of Benchmark Examples for Mixed-Mode I/II Quasi-Static Delamination Propagation Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    The development of benchmark examples for quasi-static delamination propagation prediction is presented. The example is based on a finite element model of the Mixed-Mode Bending (MMB) specimen for 50% mode II. The benchmarking is demonstrated for Abaqus/Standard, however, the example is independent of the analysis software used and allows the assessment of the automated delamination propagation prediction capability in commercial finite element codes based on the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT). First, a quasi-static benchmark example was created for the specimen. Second, starting from an initially straight front, the delamination was allowed to propagate under quasi-static loading. Third, the load-displacement as well as delamination length versus applied load/displacement relationships from a propagation analysis and the benchmark results were compared, and good agreement could be achieved by selecting the appropriate input parameters. The benchmarking procedure proved valuable by highlighting the issues associated with choosing the input parameters of the particular implementation. Overall, the results are encouraging, but further assessment for mixed-mode delamination fatigue onset and growth is required.

  1. Does Unconscious Racism Exist?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quillian, Lincoln

    2008-01-01

    This essay argues for the existence of a form of unconscious racism. Research on implicit prejudice provides good evidence that most persons have deeply held negative associations with minority groups that can lead to subtle discrimination without conscious awareness. The evidence for implicit attitudes is briefly reviewed. Criticisms of the…

  2. Understanding existing exposure situations.

    PubMed

    Lecomte, J-F

    2016-06-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 103 removed the distinction between practices and interventions, and introduced three types of exposure situation: existing, planned, and emergency. It also emphasised the optimisation principle in connection with individual dose restrictions for all controllable exposure situations. Existing exposure situations are those resulting from sources, natural or man-made, that already exist when a decision on control has to be taken. They have common features to be taken into account when implementing general recommendations, such as: the source may be difficult to control; all exposures cannot be anticipated; protective actions can only be implemented after characterisation of the exposure situation; time may be needed to reduce exposure below the reference level; levels of exposure are highly dependent on individual behaviour and present a wide spread of individual dose distribution; exposures at work may be adventitious and not considered as occupational exposure; there is generally no potential for accident; many stakeholders have to be involved; and many factors need to be considered. ICRP is currently developing a series of reports related to the practical implementation of Publication 103 to various existing exposure situations, including exposure from radon, exposure from cosmic radiation in aviation, exposure from processes using naturally occurring radioactive material, and exposure from contaminated sites due to past activities. PMID:26975365

  3. Application of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) and cause and effect analysis in conjunction with ISO 22000 to a snails (Helix aspersa) processing plant; A case study.

    PubMed

    Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Varzakas, Theodoros H

    2009-08-01

    Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) has been applied for the risk assessment of snails manufacturing. A tentative approach of FMEA application to the snails industry was attempted in conjunction with ISO 22000. Preliminary Hazard Analysis was used to analyze and predict the occurring failure modes in a food chain system (snails processing plant), based on the functions, characteristics, and/or interactions of the ingredients or the processes, upon which the system depends. Critical Control points have been identified and implemented in the cause and effect diagram (also known as Ishikawa, tree diagram, and fishbone diagram). In this work a comparison of ISO22000 analysis with HACCP is carried out over snails processing and packaging. However, the main emphasis was put on the quantification of risk assessment by determining the RPN per identified processing hazard. Sterilization of tins, bioaccumulation of heavy metals, packaging of shells and poisonous mushrooms, were the processes identified as the ones with the highest RPN (280, 240, 147, 144, respectively) and corrective actions were undertaken. Following the application of corrective actions, a second calculation of RPN values was carried out leading to considerably lower values (below the upper acceptable limit of 130). It is noteworthy that the application of Ishikawa (Cause and Effect or Tree diagram) led to converging results thus corroborating the validity of conclusions derived from risk assessment and FMEA. Therefore, the incorporation of FMEA analysis within the ISO22000 system of a snails processing industry is considered imperative. PMID:19582641

  4. Application of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) and cause and effect analysis in conjunction with ISO 22000 to a snails (Helix aspersa) processing plant; A case study.

    PubMed

    Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Varzakas, Theodoros H

    2009-08-01

    Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) has been applied for the risk assessment of snails manufacturing. A tentative approach of FMEA application to the snails industry was attempted in conjunction with ISO 22000. Preliminary Hazard Analysis was used to analyze and predict the occurring failure modes in a food chain system (snails processing plant), based on the functions, characteristics, and/or interactions of the ingredients or the processes, upon which the system depends. Critical Control points have been identified and implemented in the cause and effect diagram (also known as Ishikawa, tree diagram, and fishbone diagram). In this work a comparison of ISO22000 analysis with HACCP is carried out over snails processing and packaging. However, the main emphasis was put on the quantification of risk assessment by determining the RPN per identified processing hazard. Sterilization of tins, bioaccumulation of heavy metals, packaging of shells and poisonous mushrooms, were the processes identified as the ones with the highest RPN (280, 240, 147, 144, respectively) and corrective actions were undertaken. Following the application of corrective actions, a second calculation of RPN values was carried out leading to considerably lower values (below the upper acceptable limit of 130). It is noteworthy that the application of Ishikawa (Cause and Effect or Tree diagram) led to converging results thus corroborating the validity of conclusions derived from risk assessment and FMEA. Therefore, the incorporation of FMEA analysis within the ISO22000 system of a snails processing industry is considered imperative.

  5. Application of ISO22000, failure mode, and effect analysis (FMEA) cause and effect diagrams and pareto in conjunction with HACCP and risk assessment for processing of pastry products.

    PubMed

    Varzakas, Theodoros H

    2011-09-01

    The Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) model has been applied for the risk assessment of pastry processing. A tentative approach of FMEA application to the pastry industry was attempted in conjunction with ISO22000. Preliminary Hazard Analysis was used to analyze and predict the occurring failure modes in a food chain system (pastry processing plant), based on the functions, characteristics, and/or interactions of the ingredients or the processes, upon which the system depends. Critical Control points have been identified and implemented in the cause and effect diagram (also known as Ishikawa, tree diagram, and fishbone diagram). In this work a comparison of ISO22000 analysis with HACCP is carried out over pastry processing and packaging. However, the main emphasis was put on the quantification of risk assessment by determining the Risk Priority Number (RPN) per identified processing hazard. Storage of raw materials and storage of final products at -18°C followed by freezing were the processes identified as the ones with the highest RPN (225, 225, and 144 respectively) and corrective actions were undertaken. Following the application of corrective actions, a second calculation of RPN values was carried out leading to considerably lower values (below the upper acceptable limit of 130). It is noteworthy that the application of Ishikawa (Cause and Effect or Tree diagram) led to converging results thus corroborating the validity of conclusions derived from risk assessment and FMEA. Therefore, the incorporation of FMEA analysis within the ISO22000 system of a pastry processing industry is considered imperative.

  6. A detailed analysis of the energy levels configuration existing in the band gap of supersaturated silicon with titanium for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, E.; Dueñas, S.; Castán, H.; García, H.; Bailón, L.; Montero, D.; García-Hernansanz, R.; García-Hemme, E.; Olea, J.; González-Díaz, G.

    2015-12-01

    The energy levels created in supersaturated n-type silicon substrates with titanium implantation in the attempt to create an intermediate band in their band-gap are studied in detail. Two titanium ion implantation doses (1013 cm-2 and 1014 cm-2) are studied in this work by conductance transient technique and admittance spectroscopy. Conductance transients have been measured at temperatures of around 100 K. The particular shape of these transients is due to the formation of energy barriers in the conduction band, as a consequence of the band-gap narrowing induced by the high titanium concentration. Moreover, stationary admittance spectroscopy results suggest the existence of different energy level configuration, depending on the local titanium concentration. A continuum energy level band is formed when titanium concentration is over the Mott limit. On the other hand, when titanium concentration is lower than the Mott limit, but much higher than the donor impurity density, a quasi-continuum energy level distribution appears. Finally, a single deep center appears for low titanium concentration. At the n-type substrate, the experimental results obtained by means of thermal admittance spectroscopy at high reverse bias reveal the presence of single levels located at around Ec-425 and Ec-275 meV for implantation doses of 1013 cm-2 and 1014 cm-2, respectively. At low reverse bias voltage, quasi-continuously distributed energy levels between the minimum of the conduction bands, Ec and Ec-450 meV, are obtained for both doses. Conductance transients detected at low temperatures reveal that the high impurity concentration induces a band gap narrowing which leads to the formation of a barrier in the conduction band. Besides, the relationship between the activation energy and the capture cross section values of all the energy levels fits very well to the Meyer-Neldel rule. As it is known, the Meyer-Neldel rule typically appears in processes involving multiple excitations, like

  7. A detailed analysis of the energy levels configuration existing in the band gap of supersaturated silicon with titanium for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pérez, E.; Dueñas, S.; Castán, H.; García, H.; Bailón, L.; Montero, D.; García-Hernansanz, R.; García-Hemme, E.; González-Díaz, G.; Olea, J.

    2015-12-28

    The energy levels created in supersaturated n-type silicon substrates with titanium implantation in the attempt to create an intermediate band in their band-gap are studied in detail. Two titanium ion implantation doses (10{sup 13 }cm{sup -2} and 10{sup 14 }cm{sup -2}) are studied in this work by conductance transient technique and admittance spectroscopy. Conductance transients have been measured at temperatures of around 100 K. The particular shape of these transients is due to the formation of energy barriers in the conduction band, as a consequence of the band-gap narrowing induced by the high titanium concentration. Moreover, stationary admittance spectroscopy results suggest the existence of different energy level configuration, depending on the local titanium concentration. A continuum energy level band is formed when titanium concentration is over the Mott limit. On the other hand, when titanium concentration is lower than the Mott limit, but much higher than the donor impurity density, a quasi-continuum energy level distribution appears. Finally, a single deep center appears for low titanium concentration. At the n-type substrate, the experimental results obtained by means of thermal admittance spectroscopy at high reverse bias reveal the presence of single levels located at around E{sub c}-425 and E{sub c}-275 meV for implantation doses of 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −2} and 10{sup 14 }cm{sup −2}, respectively. At low reverse bias voltage, quasi-continuously distributed energy levels between the minimum of the conduction bands, E{sub c} and E{sub c}-450 meV, are obtained for both doses. Conductance transients detected at low temperatures reveal that the high impurity concentration induces a band gap narrowing which leads to the formation of a barrier in the conduction band. Besides, the relationship between the activation energy and the capture cross section values of all the energy levels fits very well to the Meyer-Neldel rule. As it is known

  8. Preparation, characterization and application of a reversed phase liquid chromatography/hydrophilic interaction chromatography mixed-mode C18-DTT stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Long, Yao; Yao, Lin; Xu, Li; Shi, Zhi-Guo; Xu, Lanying

    2016-01-01

    A mixed-mode chromatographic stationary phase, C18-DTT (dithiothreitol) silica (SiO2) was prepared through "thiol-ene" click chemistry. The obtained material was characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscope, nitrogen adsorption analysis and contact angle analysis. Chromatographic performance of the C18-DTT was systemically evaluated by studying the effect of acetonitrile content, pH, buffer concentration of the mobile phase and column temperature. It was demonstrated that the novel stationary phase possessed reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC)/hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) mixed-mode property. The stop-flow test revealed that C18-DTT exhibited excellent compatibility with 100% aqueous mobile phase. Additionally, the stability and column-to-column reproducibility of the C18-DTT material were satisfactory, with relative standard deviations of retention factor of the tested analytes (verapamil, fenbufen, guanine, tetrandrine and nicotinic acid) in the range of 1.82-3.72% and 0.85-1.93%, respectively. Finally, the application of C18-DTT column was demonstrated in the separation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, aromatic carboxylic acids, alkaloids, nucleo-analytes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. It had great resolving power in the analysis of various compounds in HILIC and RPLC chromatographic conditions and was a promising RPLC/HILIC mixed-mode stationary phase. PMID:26695288

  9. Preparation, characterization and application of a reversed phase liquid chromatography/hydrophilic interaction chromatography mixed-mode C18-DTT stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Long, Yao; Yao, Lin; Xu, Li; Shi, Zhi-Guo; Xu, Lanying

    2016-01-01

    A mixed-mode chromatographic stationary phase, C18-DTT (dithiothreitol) silica (SiO2) was prepared through "thiol-ene" click chemistry. The obtained material was characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscope, nitrogen adsorption analysis and contact angle analysis. Chromatographic performance of the C18-DTT was systemically evaluated by studying the effect of acetonitrile content, pH, buffer concentration of the mobile phase and column temperature. It was demonstrated that the novel stationary phase possessed reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC)/hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) mixed-mode property. The stop-flow test revealed that C18-DTT exhibited excellent compatibility with 100% aqueous mobile phase. Additionally, the stability and column-to-column reproducibility of the C18-DTT material were satisfactory, with relative standard deviations of retention factor of the tested analytes (verapamil, fenbufen, guanine, tetrandrine and nicotinic acid) in the range of 1.82-3.72% and 0.85-1.93%, respectively. Finally, the application of C18-DTT column was demonstrated in the separation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, aromatic carboxylic acids, alkaloids, nucleo-analytes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. It had great resolving power in the analysis of various compounds in HILIC and RPLC chromatographic conditions and was a promising RPLC/HILIC mixed-mode stationary phase.

  10. Pulsed and CW adjustable 1942 nm single-mode all-fiber Tm-doped fiber laser system for surgical laser soft tissue ablation applications.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yize; Jivraj, Jamil; Zhou, Jiaqi; Ramjist, Joel; Wong, Ronnie; Gu, Xijia; Yang, Victor X D

    2016-07-25

    A surgical laser soft tissue ablation system based on an adjustable 1942 nm single-mode all-fiber Tm-doped fiber laser operating in pulsed or CW mode with nitrogen assistance is demonstrated. Ex vivo ablation on soft tissue targets such as muscle (chicken breast) and spinal cord (porcine) with intact dura are performed at different ablation conditions to examine the relationship between the system parameters and ablation outcomes. The maximum laser average power is 14.4 W, and its maximum peak power is 133.1 W with 21.3 μJ pulse energy. The maximum CW power density is 2.33 × 106 W/cm2 and the maximum pulsed peak power density is 2.16 × 107 W/cm2. The system parameters examined include the average laser power in CW or pulsed operation mode, gain-switching frequency, total ablation exposure time, and the input gas flow rate. The ablation effects were measured by microscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT) to evaluate the ablation depth, superficial heat-affected zone diameter (HAZD) and charring diameter (CD). Our results conclude that the system parameters can be tailored to meet different clinical requirements such as ablation for soft tissue cutting or thermal coagulation for future applications of hemostasis. PMID:27464121

  11. Pulsed and CW adjustable 1942 nm single-mode all-fiber Tm-doped fiber laser system for surgical laser soft tissue ablation applications.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yize; Jivraj, Jamil; Zhou, Jiaqi; Ramjist, Joel; Wong, Ronnie; Gu, Xijia; Yang, Victor X D

    2016-07-25

    A surgical laser soft tissue ablation system based on an adjustable 1942 nm single-mode all-fiber Tm-doped fiber laser operating in pulsed or CW mode with nitrogen assistance is demonstrated. Ex vivo ablation on soft tissue targets such as muscle (chicken breast) and spinal cord (porcine) with intact dura are performed at different ablation conditions to examine the relationship between the system parameters and ablation outcomes. The maximum laser average power is 14.4 W, and its maximum peak power is 133.1 W with 21.3 μJ pulse energy. The maximum CW power density is 2.33 × 106 W/cm2 and the maximum pulsed peak power density is 2.16 × 107 W/cm2. The system parameters examined include the average laser power in CW or pulsed operation mode, gain-switching frequency, total ablation exposure time, and the input gas flow rate. The ablation effects were measured by microscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT) to evaluate the ablation depth, superficial heat-affected zone diameter (HAZD) and charring diameter (CD). Our results conclude that the system parameters can be tailored to meet different clinical requirements such as ablation for soft tissue cutting or thermal coagulation for future applications of hemostasis.

  12. Nonlinear mode coupling in whispering-gallery-mode resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Aguanno, Giuseppe; Menyuk, Curtis R.

    2016-04-01

    We present a first-principles derivation of the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations that govern the interaction between two families of modes with different transverse profiles in a generic whispering-gallery-mode resonator. We find regions of modulational instability and the existence of trains of bright solitons in both the normal and the anomalous dispersion regime.

  13. Application of Empirical Mode Decomposition for Identification and Characterization of Long-Run Persistence in California Reservoir Inflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCullum, A. J. K.; Haddad, B.; Kidson, R.

    2015-12-01

    This research quantified long-run hydrological persistence in two important regions for the California water supply system using a relatively new approach in hydrology, Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD). EMD is a user-adaptive method that identifies non-stationary persistence, as Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs), prevalent in hydrological data but often not represented in current water supply modeling. The primary objectives of this research included: 1) examination of variability, patterns of persistence, and the degree of cross-correlations among annual and monthly inflows in these two regions, 2) identification of potential sources of persistence in inflows, particularly modes of climate variability, and 3) to provide water supply managers with suggestions to incorporate these methods into water supply modeling. Results indicate that inflows are highly variable, highly cross-correlated within each region and between the two regions, and moderately correlated to long-run patterns of persistence. Average annual IMF periodicities of >10 years contributed to a considerable amount of variance in annual inflows for the two regions (27.05% and 14.92% for the Oroville and Shasta/Trinity inflows, respectively) and exhibited the strongest moderate (on average 0.50) correlations to climate IMFs of similar length. Monthly correlations of inflows to climate indices were generally weak, but also exhibited the strongest correlations in IMFs with average periodicities of >10 years. This research underscores the need to utilize uncorrelated sources of water, such as desalination, into water management plans and to incorporate long-run persistence into water supply scenario modeling to increase reliability, especially during prolonged periods of hydrologic downturns. The EMD analytical method is a powerful and approachable tool that can be adapted for water supply managers to use as a precursor to this future scenario modeling.

  14. Application of Multi-port Bidirectional DC-DC Converter to Fuel Cell Vehicle Driving in JC08 Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Katsunori; Katayama, Noboru; Kogoshi, Sumio; Fukada, Takafumi; Ogawa, Makoto

    A fuel cell-EDLC hybrid power system with a multi-port bidirectional DC-DC converter has been recently proposed for extending lifetime of a fuel cell due to smoothing the output current of the fuel cell. This paper studies the performance of the hybrid power system when a fuel cell vehicle drives in the JC08 mode using a simulation model. The simulation results indicate that even if the load current fluctuates, the output current of the fuel cell could be maintained at almost constant values with an assist from the EDLC although small spikes are observed.

  15. Review and Analysis of Existing Mobile Phone Apps to Support Heart Failure Symptom Monitoring and Self-Care Management Using the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS)

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Mathew S; Reading, Meghan; Hiraldo, Grenny; Hickey, Kathleen T; Iribarren, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Background Heart failure is the most common cause of hospital readmissions among Medicare beneficiaries and these hospitalizations are often driven by exacerbations in common heart failure symptoms. Patient collaboration with health care providers and decision making is a core component of increasing symptom monitoring and decreasing hospital use. Mobile phone apps offer a potentially cost-effective solution for symptom monitoring and self-care management at the point of need. Objective The purpose of this review of commercially available apps was to identify and assess the functionalities of patient-facing mobile health apps targeted toward supporting heart failure symptom monitoring and self-care management. Methods We searched 3 Web-based mobile app stores using multiple terms and combinations (eg, “heart failure,” “cardiology,” “heart failure and self-management”). Apps meeting inclusion criteria were evaluated using the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS), IMS Institute for Healthcare Informatics functionality scores, and Heart Failure Society of America (HFSA) guidelines for nonpharmacologic management. Apps were downloaded and assessed independently by 2-4 reviewers, interclass correlations between reviewers were calculated, and consensus was met by discussion. Results Of 3636 potentially relevant apps searched, 34 met inclusion criteria. Most apps were excluded because they were unrelated to heart failure, not in English or Spanish, or were games. Interrater reliability between reviewers was high. AskMD app had the highest average MARS total (4.9/5). More than half of the apps (23/34, 68%) had acceptable MARS scores (>3.0). Heart Failure Health Storylines (4.6) and AskMD (4.5) had the highest scores for behavior change. Factoring MARS, functionality, and HFSA guideline scores, the highest performing apps included Heart Failure Health Storylines, Symple, ContinuousCare Health App, WebMD, and AskMD. Peer-reviewed publications were identified

  16. Simultaneous spectral and temporal analyses of kinetic energies in nonequilibrium systems: theory and application to vibrational relaxation of O-D stretch mode of HOD in water.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jonggu; Lim, Joon Hyung; Kim, Seongheun; Kim, Heejae; Cho, Minhaeng

    2015-05-28

    A time series of kinetic energies (KE) from classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation contains fundamental information on system dynamics. It can also be analyzed in the frequency domain through Fourier transformation (FT) of velocity correlation functions, providing energy content of different spectral regions. By limiting the FT time span, we have previously shown that spectral resolution of KE evolution is possible in the nonequilibrium situations [Jeon and Cho, J. Chem. Phys. 2011, 135, 214504]. In this paper, we refine the method by employing the concept of instantaneous power spectra, extending it to reflect an instantaneous time-correlation of velocities with those in the future as well as with those in the past, and present a new method to obtain the instantaneous spectral density of KE (iKESD). This approach enables the simultaneous spectral and temporal resolution of KE with unlimited time precision. We discuss the formal and novel properties of the new iKESD approaches and how to optimize computational methods and determine parameters for practical applications. The method is specifically applied to the nonequilibrium MD simulation of vibrational relaxation of the OD stretch mode in a hydrated HOD molecule by employing a hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) potential. We directly compare the computational results with the OD band population relaxation time profiles extracted from the IR pump-probe measurements for 5% HOD in water. The calculated iKESD yields the OD bond relaxation time scale ∼30% larger than the experimental value, and this decay is largely frequency-independent if the classical anharmonicity is accounted for. From the integrated iKESD over intra- and intermolecular bands, the major energy transfer pathways were found to involve the HOD bending mode in the subps range, then the internal modes of the solvent until 5 ps after excitation, and eventually the solvent intermolecular modes. Also, strong hydrogen

  17. Fast particle destabilization of TAE modes

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.Z.; Gorelenkov, N.N.; Hsu, C.T.

    1995-09-01

    High-n TAE modes are studied based on a kinetic model that includes full thermal ion finite Larmor radius effects, trapped electron collisions and fast particle instability drive. Lower KTAE modes are shown to be non-existent. Like TAE modes, upper KTAE modes are shown to exist due to thermal ion FLR effects in the dissipationless limit. Dissipation effects on the stability of both TAE and upper KTAE modes can be treated perturbatively. However, due to their extended mode structure in the ballooning space, upper KTAE modes usually remain stable or weakly unstable even with large fast particle free energy. On the other hand, TAE modes can be strongly destabilized. A new resonant TAE mode (RTAE) can be excited when the fast particle drive is significantly large. The RTAE mode is a beam-like mode with its frequency determined mainly by the wave-particle resonance condition. The frequency of the RTAE mode can be much less than the TAE gap frequency and may be interpreted as the BAE observed in DIII-D experiments. As plasma {beta} increases, the TAE, RTAE and kinetic ballooning modes strongly couple; the TAE mode changes into the RTAE mode and eventually connects to the kinetic ballooning mode. Numerical results and analytical analysis on the stability of the RTAE and KTAE modes will be presented and compared with the TAE mode stability.

  18. Joint application of a statistical optimization process and Empirical Mode Decomposition to Magnetic Resonance Sounding Noise Cancelation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanati, Reza; Fallahsafari, Mahdi; Hafizi, Mohammad Kazem

    2014-12-01

    The signal quality of Magnetic Resonance Sounding (MRS) measurements is a crucial criterion. The accuracy of the estimation of the signal parameters (i.e. E0 and T2*) strongly depends on amplitude and conditions of ambient electromagnetic interferences at the site of investigation. In this paper, in order to enhance the performance in the noisy environments, a two-step noise cancelation approach based on the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and a statistical method is proposed. In the first stage, the noisy signal is adaptively decomposed into intrinsic oscillatory components called intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by means of the EMD algorithm. Afterwards based on an automatic procedure the noisy IMFs are detected, and then the partly de-noised signal is reconstructed through the no-noise IMFs. In the second stage, the signal obtained from the initial section enters an optimization process to cancel the remnant noise, and consequently, estimate the signal parameters. The strategy is tested on a synthetic MRS signal contaminated with Gaussian noise, spiky events and harmonic noise, and on real data. By applying successively the proposed steps, we can remove the noise from the signal to a high extent and the performance indexes, particularly signal to noise ratio, will increase significantly.

  19. Application of high-resolution linear Radon transform for Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy imaging and mode separating

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Liu, J.; Xu, Y.; Liu, Q.

    2008-01-01

    Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) analysis is an efficient tool to obtain the vertical shear-wave profile. One of the key steps in the MASW method is to generate an image of dispersive energy in the frequency-velocity domain, so dispersion curves can be determined by picking peaks of dispersion energy. In this paper, we image Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy and separate multimodes from a multichannel record by high-resolution linear Radon transform (LRT). We first introduce Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy imaging by high-resolution LRT. We then show the process of Rayleigh-wave mode separation. Results of synthetic and real-world examples demonstrate that (1) compared with slant stacking algorithm, high-resolution LRT can improve the resolution of images of dispersion energy by more than 50% (2) high-resolution LRT can successfully separate multimode dispersive energy of Rayleigh waves with high resolution; and (3) multimode separation and reconstruction expand frequency ranges of higher mode dispersive energy, which not only increases the investigation depth but also provides a means to accurately determine cut-off frequencies.

  20. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: Design and application of a depletion-mode NJFET in a high-voltage BiCMOS process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Liu; Zhaohuan, Tang; Zhikuan, Wang; Yonghui, Yang; Weidong, Yang; Yonggui, Hu

    2010-08-01

    A novel depletion-mode NJFET compatible high-voltage BiCMOS process is proposed and experimentally demonstrated with a four-branch 12-bit DAC (digital-to-analog converter). With this process, an NJFET with a pinch-off voltage of about-1.5 V and a breakdown voltage of about 16 V, an NLDDMOS (N-type lightly-dosed-drain in MOS) with a turn-on voltage of about 1.0 V and a breakdown voltage of about 35 V, and a Zener diode with a reverse voltage of about 5.6 V were obtained. Measurement results showed that the converter had a reference temperature coefficient of less than ±25 ppm/°C, a differential coefficient error of less than ±0.3 LSB, and a linear error of less than ±0.5 LSB. The depletion-mode NJFET and its compatible process can also be widely used for high-voltage ADCs or DACs.

  1. Techniques for application of roughness for manipulation of second-mode waves on a flared cone at Mach 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luersen, Ryan P. K.

    Experimental validation of physics-based transition models is essential to improving the state of the art of hypersonic vehicle design. This research focuses on one aspect of this problem, which is the effect of surface roughness on the non-linear breakdown of second-mode waves in hypersonic boundary layers. A flared cone was designed to allow non-linear growth of second-mode waves to sufficient amplitudes to lead to transition under quiet flow in the Boeing/AFOSR Mach 6 Quiet Tunnel. The non-linear breakdown process is characterized by a set of streamwise streaks of increased heating, followed by the onset of turbulence. The location of the streaks is related to small amounts of upstream surface roughness. Techniques for applying and fabricating surface roughness were developed. These are to be used to manipulate this breakdown process. While certain types of roughness have been used to introduce streamwise vorticity in other flows at low speeds, it was unknown what types of roughness would work in the present case. The effects of the new roughness types were analyzed through pressure measurements and global heat transfer visualization using temperature sensitive paint. None of the new roughness types was able to directly control the spanwise periodicity of the streaks, but two types were identified as good candidates for future testing. More work is required to develop a suitable technique for fabricating and applying small roughness.

  2. Electromagnetic resonance modes on a two-dimensional tandem grating and its application for broadband absorption in the visible spectrum.

    PubMed

    Han, Sunwoo; Lee, Bong Jae

    2016-01-25

    In this work, we numerically investigate the electromagnetic resonances on two-dimensional tandem grating structures. The base of a tandem grating consists of an opaque Au substrate, a SiO(2) spacer, and a Au grating (concave type); that is, a well-known fishnet structure forming Au/SiO(2)/Au stack. A convex-type Au grating (i.e., topmost grating) is then attached on top of the base fishnet structure with or without additional SiO(2) spacer, resulting in two types of tandem grating structures. In order to calculate the spectral reflectance and local magnetic field distribution, the finite-difference time-domain method is employed. When the topmost Au grating is directly added onto the base fishnet structure, the surface plasmon and magnetic polariton in the base structure are branched out due to the geometric asymmetry with respect to the SiO(2) spacer. If additional SiO(2) spacer is added between the topmost Au grating and the base fishnet structure, new magnetic resonance modes appear due to coupling between two vertically aligned Au/SiO(2)/Au stacks. With the understanding of multiple electromagnetic resonance modes on the proposed tandem grating structures, we successfully design a broadband absorber made of Au and SiO(2) in the visible spectrum.

  3. Application of the empirical mode decomposition to the extraction of features from EEG signals for mental task classification.

    PubMed

    Diez, Pablo F; Mut, Vicente; Laciar, Eric; Torres, Abel; Avila, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    In this work, it is proposed a technique for the feature extraction of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals for classification of mental tasks which is an important part in the development of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI). The Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) is a method capable to process nonstationary and nonlinear signals as the EEG. This technique was applied in EEG signals of 7 subjects performing 5 mental tasks. For each mode obtained from the EMD and each EEG channel were computed six features: Root Mean Square (RMS), Variance, Shannon Entropy, Lempel-Ziv Complexity Value, and Central and Maximum Frequencies, obtaining a feature vector of 180 components. The Wilks' lambda parameter was applied for the selection of the most important variables reducing the dimensionality of the feature vector. The classification of mental tasks was performed using Linear Discriminate Analysis (LD) and Neural Networks (NN). With this method, the average classification over all subjects in database was 91+/-5% and 87+/-5% using LD and NN, respectively. It was concluded that the EMD allows getting better performances in the classification of mental tasks than the obtained with other traditional methods, like spectral analysis.

  4. Waveform modelling using locked-mode synthetic and differential seismograms: application to determination of the structure of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, J.S.; Masters, T. Guy

    1988-01-01

    We have developed algorithms for modelling seismic waveforms to constrain regional Earth structure. The seismogram is represented as a sum of locked-mode travelling waves in a layered medium. This representation is convenient as it allows us to model structures with slowly varying heterogeneity and to construct differential seismograms. Describes the techniques we have implemented that enable us to compute synthetic and differential seismograms in an efficient and stable manner. The computational methods are sufficiently rapid that many modes can be included and in some cases the entire seismogram may be modified. These algorithms are applied to model a set of seismograms of southern Mexican earthquakes recorded in northern Mexico. The frequency bandwidth of these data is centred at 0.067 Hz and we demonstrate that even at these relatively high frequencies, many features of the seismogram can be successfully modelled. Our results suggest that the structure within the recording array in northern Mexico is resolvably different from that to the south. We find that the average shear velocity of the lower lithosphere of southern Mexico is very low, approximately 4.3 km s-1. If the low-velocity region is confined to the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt, the shear velocities between 20-80 km depth are approximately 3.3 km s-1. This may be correlated with partial melt and is consistent with the active volcanism and high heat flow found in the region. -Authors

  5. Finding elementary flux modes in metabolic networks based on flux balance analysis and flux coupling analysis: application to the analysis of Escherichia coli metabolism.

    PubMed

    Tabe-Bordbar, Shayan; Marashi, Sayed-Amir

    2013-12-01

    Elementary modes (EMs) are steady-state metabolic flux vectors with minimal set of active reactions. Each EM corresponds to a metabolic pathway. Therefore, studying EMs is helpful for analyzing the production of biotechnologically important metabolites. However, memory requirements for computing EMs may hamper their applicability as, in most genome-scale metabolic models, no EM can be computed due to running out of memory. In this study, we present a method for computing randomly sampled EMs. In this approach, a network reduction algorithm is used for EM computation, which is based on flux balance-based methods. We show that this approach can be used to recover the EMs in the medium- and genome-scale metabolic network models, while the EMs are sampled in an unbiased way. The applicability of such results is shown by computing “estimated” control-effective flux values in Escherichia coli metabolic network.

  6. Applicability of NASA contract quality management and failure mode effect analysis procedures to the USGS Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas lease management program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, M. K.; Little, D. G.; Hoard, E. G.; Taylor, A. C.; Campbell, R.

    1972-01-01

    An approach that might be used for determining the applicability of NASA management techniques to benefit almost any type of down-to-earth enterprise is presented. A study was made to determine the following: (1) the practicality of adopting NASA contractual quality management techniques to the U.S. Geological Survey Outer Continental Shelf lease management function; (2) the applicability of failure mode effects analysis to the drilling, production, and delivery systems in use offshore; (3) the impact on industrial offshore operations and onshore management operations required to apply recommended NASA techniques; and (4) the probable changes required in laws or regulations in order to implement recommendations. Several management activities that have been applied to space programs are identified, and their institution for improved management of offshore and onshore oil and gas operations is recommended.

  7. SU-E-I-23: Design and Clinical Application of External Marking Body in Multi- Mode Medical Images Registration and Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z; Gong, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To design an external marking body (EMB) that could be visible on computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR), positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images and to investigate the use of the EMB for multiple medical images registration and fusion in the clinic. Methods: We generated a solution containing paramagnetic metal ions and iodide ions (CT'MR dual-visible solution) that could be viewed on CT and MR images and multi-mode image visible solution (MIVS) that could be obtained by mixing radioactive nuclear material. A globular plastic theca (diameter: 3–6 mm) that mothball the MIVS and the EMB was brought by filling MIVS. The EMBs were fixed on the patient surface and CT, MR, PET and SPECT scans were obtained. The feasibility of clinical application and the display and registration error of EMB among different image modalities were investigated. Results: The dual-visible solution was highly dense on CT images (HU>700). A high signal was also found in all MR scanning (T1, T2, STIR and FLAIR) images, and the signal was higher than subcutaneous fat. EMB with radioactive nuclear material caused a radionuclide concentration area on PET and SPECT images, and the signal of EMB was similar to or higher than tumor signals. The theca with MIVS was clearly visible on all the images without artifact, and the shape was round or oval with a sharp edge. The maximum diameter display error was 0.3 ± 0.2mm on CT and MRI images, and 1.0 ± 0.3mm on PET and SPECT images. In addition, the registration accuracy of the theca center among multi-mode images was less than 1mm. Conclusion: The application of EMB with MIVS improves the registration and fusion accuracy of multi-mode medical images. Furthermore, it has the potential to ameliorate disease diagnosis and treatment outcome.

  8. Existence of hyperbolic calorons

    PubMed Central

    Sibner, Lesley; Sibner, Robert; Yang, Yisong

    2015-01-01

    Recent work of Harland shows that the SO(3)-symmetric, dimensionally reduced, charge-N self-dual Yang–Mills calorons on the hyperbolic space H3×S1 may be obtained through constructing N-vortex solutions of an Abelian Higgs model as in the study of Witten on multiple instantons. In this paper, we establish the existence of such minimal action charge-N calorons by constructing arbitrarily prescribed N-vortex solutions of the Witten type equations. PMID:27547084

  9. Plasma Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubin, D. H. E.

    This chapter explores several aspects of the linear electrostatic normal modes of oscillation for a single-species non-neutral plasma in a Penning trap. Linearized fluid equations of motion are developed, assuming the plasma is cold but collisionless, which allow derivation of the cold plasma dielectric tensor and the electrostatic wave equation. Upper hybrid and magnetized plasma waves in an infinite uniform plasma are described. The effect of the plasma surface in a bounded plasma system is considered, and the properties of surface plasma waves are characterized. The normal modes of a cylindrical plasma column are discussed, and finally, modes of spheroidal plasmas, and finite temperature effects on the modes, are briefly described.

  10. Constraining primordial vector mode from B-mode polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Saga, Shohei; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Shiraishi, Maresuke E-mail: maresuke.shiraishi@pd.infn.it

    2014-10-01

    The B-mode polarization spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) may be the smoking gun of not only the primordial tensor mode but also of the primordial vector mode. If there exist nonzero vector-mode metric perturbations in the early Universe, they are known to be supported by anisotropic stress fluctuations of free-streaming particles such as neutrinos, and to create characteristic signatures on both the CMB temperature, E-mode, and B-mode polarization anisotropies. We place constraints on the properties of the primordial vector mode characterized by the vector-to-scalar ratio r{sub v} and the spectral index n{sub v} of the vector-shear power spectrum, from the Planck and BICEP2 B-mode data. We find that, for scale-invariant initial spectra, the ΛCDM model including the vector mode fits the data better than the model including the tensor mode. The difference in χ{sup 2} between the vector and tensor models is Δχ{sup 2} = 3.294, because, on large scales the vector mode generates smaller temperature fluctuations than the tensor mode, which is preferred for the data. In contrast, the tensor mode can fit the data set equally well if we allow a significantly blue-tilted spectrum. We find that the best-fitting tensor mode has a large blue tilt and leads to an indistinct reionization bump on larger angular scales. The slightly red-tilted vector mode supported by the current data set can also create O(10{sup -22})-Gauss magnetic fields at cosmological recombination. Our constraints should motivate research that considers models of the early Universe that involve the vector mode.

  11. Fiber powered sensing system for a long reach single mode fiber link and non-continuous applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosolem, J. B.; Bassan, F. R.; Pereira, F. R.; Penze, R. S.; Leonardi, A. A.; Nascimento, C. A. M.

    2014-05-01

    This work describes a non-continuous sensor operating technique in order to achieve a long reach sensing system, using power over fiber (PoF) in single mode fiber (SMF). Due to the use of super-capacitors and logical circuits in the sensor unit, the energy provided by PoF can be stored and used in an appropriated time. We demonstrated this approach with a micro video camera sensor powered by a 4.4-km SMF link in laboratory and by a 1.6-km link using optical ground wire cable (OPWG), installed between an electrical power substation and a tower of 138-kV overhead transmission line (OTL).

  12. Excitation of dark plasmonic modes in symmetry broken terahertz metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Dibakar Roy; Su, Xiaofang; Zeng, Yong; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Taylor, Antoinette J; Azad, Abul

    2014-08-11

    Plasmonic structures with high symmetry, such as double-identical gap split ring resonators, possess dark eigenmodes. These dark eigenmodes are dominated by magnetic dipole and/or higher-order multi-poles such as electric quadrapoles. Consequently these dark modes interact very weakly with the surrounding environment, and can have very high quality factors (Q). In this work, we have studied, experimentally as well as theoretically, these dark eigenmodes in terahertz metamaterials. Theoretical investigations with the help of classical perturbation theory clearly indicate the existence of these dark modes in symmetric plasmonic metamaterials. However, these dark modes can be excited experimentally by breaking the symmetry within the constituting metamaterial resonators cell, resulting in high quality factor resonance mode. The symmetry broken metamaterials with such high quality factor can pave the way in realizing high sensitivity sensors, in addition to other applications.

  13. SU-C-BRD-02: A Team Focused Clinical Implementation and Failure Mode and Effects Analysis of HDR Skin Brachytherapy Using Valencia and Leipzig Surface Applicators

    SciTech Connect

    Sayler, E; Harrison, A; Eldredge-Hindy, H; Dinome, J; Munro, S; Anne, R; Comber, E; Lockamy, V

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: and Leipzig applicators (VLAs) are single-channel brachytherapy surface applicators used to treat skin lesions up to 2cm diameter. Source dwell times can be calculated and entered manually after clinical set-up or ultrasound. This procedure differs dramatically from CT-based planning; the novelty and unfamiliarity could lead to severe errors. To build layers of safety and ensure quality, a multidisciplinary team created a protocol and applied Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) to the clinical procedure for HDR VLA skin treatments. Methods: team including physicists, physicians, nurses, therapists, residents, and administration developed a clinical procedure for VLA treatment. The procedure was evaluated using FMEA. Failure modes were identified and scored by severity, occurrence, and detection. The clinical procedure was revised to address high-scoring process nodes. Results: Several key components were added to the clinical procedure to minimize risk probability numbers (RPN): -Treatments are reviewed at weekly QA rounds, where physicians discuss diagnosis, prescription, applicator selection, and set-up. Peer review reduces the likelihood of an inappropriate treatment regime. -A template for HDR skin treatments was established in the clinical EMR system to standardize treatment instructions. This reduces the chances of miscommunication between the physician and planning physicist, and increases the detectability of an error during the physics second check. -A screen check was implemented during the second check to increase detectability of an error. -To reduce error probability, the treatment plan worksheet was designed to display plan parameters in a format visually similar to the treatment console display. This facilitates data entry and verification. -VLAs are color-coded and labeled to match the EMR prescriptions, which simplifies in-room selection and verification. Conclusion: Multidisciplinary planning and FMEA increased delectability and

  14. Application of ISO22000, failure mode, and effect analysis (FMEA) cause and effect diagrams and pareto in conjunction with HACCP and risk assessment for processing of pastry products.

    PubMed

    Varzakas, Theodoros H

    2011-09-01

    The Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) model has been applied for the risk assessment of pastry processing. A tentative approach of FMEA application to the pastry industry was attempted in conjunction with ISO22000. Preliminary Hazard Analysis was used to analyze and predict the occurring failure modes in a food chain system (pastry processing plant), based on the functions, characteristics, and/or interactions of the ingredients or the processes, upon which the system depends. Critical Control points have been identified and implemented in the cause and effect diagram (also known as Ishikawa, tree diagram, and fishbone diagram). In this work a comparison of ISO22000 analysis with HACCP is carried out over pastry processing and packaging. However, the main emphasis was put on the quantification of risk assessment by determining the Risk Priority Number (RPN) per identified processing hazard. Storage of raw materials and storage of final products at -18°C followed by freezing were the processes identified as the ones with the highest RPN (225, 225, and 144 respectively) and corrective actions were undertaken. Following the application of corrective actions, a second calculation of RPN values was carried out leading to considerably lower values (below the upper acceptable limit of 130). It is noteworthy that the application of Ishikawa (Cause and Effect or Tree diagram) led to converging results thus corroborating the validity of conclusions derived from risk assessment and FMEA. Therefore, the incorporation of FMEA analysis within the ISO22000 system of a pastry processing industry is considered imperative. PMID:21838557

  15. Decoherence and mode-hopping in spin-torque oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muduli, Pranaba

    2013-03-01

    A Spin Torque Oscillator (STO) is a nano-sized magneto-resistive device that can produce microwave signals in the GHz range as a result of spin transfer torque- a phenomena which is receiving increasing importance in contemporary spintronics research both for fundamental spin physics as well as a number of possible microwave applications e.g., oscillator, detectors and modulators. A very important question, both for fundamental physics as well for applications, is what limits the coherence time of the STO. This is a subject of significant interest recently. Until now theoretical studies have investigated decoherence through thermal noise assuming that only a single mode is excited. On the other hand, experiments clearly show both the existence of multiple modes and persistent mode-hopping between several modes. The impact on coherence time of such mode-hopping has been largely unexplored and a theoretical study of its origin is entirely lacking. In this work, we will present first ever systematic experimental investigations of mode hopping, and its impact on the coherence time in a magnetic tunnel junction based spin torque oscillator. We will discuss micromagnetic simulations and a theoretical treatment to show that the non-conservative fields due to finite damping-either positive or negative (spin torque) -couple individual modes and, in the presence of thermal noise, govern the experimentally observed mode-hopping. Using quantitative analysis of both coherence and dwell times, we will show that mode-hopping could be a limiting factor for STO coherence. Finally we show how our theoretical treatment can be extended to the case of a metallic nanocontact based STO, where anomalous temperature dependence of linewidth is found as result of the mode coupling. and Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi-110016, India

  16. Supersymmetric mode converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Matthias; Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Stützer, Simon; Nolte, Stefan; Szameit, Alexander; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, the ever-increasing demand for high-capacity transmission systems has driven remarkable advances in technologies that encode information on an optical signal. Mode-division multiplexing makes use of individual modes supported by an optical waveguide as mutually orthogonal channels. The key requirement in this approach is the capability to selectively populate and extract specific modes. Optical supersymmetry (SUSY) has recently been proposed as a particularly elegant way to resolve this design challenge in a manner that is inherently scalable, and at the same time maintains compatibility with existing multiplexing strategies. Supersymmetric partners of multimode waveguides are characterized by the fact that they share all of their effective indices with the original waveguide. The crucial exception is the fundamental mode, which is absent from the spectrum of the partner waveguide. Here, we demonstrate experimentally how this global phase-matching property can be exploited for efficient mode conversion. Multimode structures and their superpartners are experimentally realized in coupled networks of femtosecond laser-written waveguides, and the corresponding light dynamics are directly observed by means of fluorescence microscopy. We show that SUSY transformations can readily facilitate the removal of the fundamental mode from multimode optical structures. In turn, hierarchical sequences of such SUSY partners naturally implement the conversion between modes of adjacent order. Our experiments illustrate just one of the many possibilities of how SUSY may serve as a building block for integrated mode-division multiplexing arrangements. Supersymmetric notions may enrich and expand integrated photonics by versatile optical components and desirable, yet previously unattainable, functionalities.

  17. Renewable Energy Applications for Existing Buildings: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Hayter, S. J.; Kandt, A.

    2011-08-01

    This paper introduces technical opportunities, means, and methods for incorporating renewable energy (RE) technologies into building designs and operations. It provides an overview of RE resources and available technologies used successfully to offset building electrical and thermal energy loads. Methods for applying these technologies in buildings and the role of building energy efficiency in successful RE projects are addressed along with tips for implementing successful RE projects.

  18. Does metapsychology still exist?

    PubMed

    Modell, A H

    1981-01-01

    Metapsychology has been under attack from two principal directions: from those who believe that metapsychology is no longer congruent with observations; and from those who see metapsychology as irrelevant, as they no longer share Freud's belief that psychoanalysis is a form of natural science. In addition there is no shared agreement as to the definition of metapsychology itself. The author observes three different functions of metapsychology: a selection of psychological phenomena that could be termed universal in the sense that they are characteristic of the human species; secondly a set of assumptions upon which a psychological system can be founded and made explicit; and thirdly metapsychology functions as a modelling device, an imaginary entity, an experiment in thinking. When we refer to metapsychology we are not describing a single entity but a broad heading that contains at least these three distinct functions. We believe that psychoanalysis is a unique discipline in that it shares with the hermeneutic disciplines the use of empathy as a mode of observation, viewing man from the inside, but subjects these observations to the organizing functions of metapsychology which views man from the outside. It is characteristic of psychoanalysis that there are rapid shifts from the I-Thou (empathic identification) to the I-It (naturalist observer) position. For this reason psychoanalysis cannot be fitted into any ready made epistemology. Any attempt to replace metapsychology by action theory or by the organizing principles of the structure of language are announcements of programmes yet to be realized and there is reason to doubt whether such programmes are realizable. There are, however, empiric discrepancies which require a modification but not the elimination of metapsychology. Our newer observations of narcissistic character disorders, especially the mirroring function, suggest that maturation is not necessarily equated with internalization - that a "fitting in

  19. Autophagic cell death exists

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Peter G.H.; Puyal, Julien

    2012-01-01

    The term autophagic cell death (ACD) initially referred to cell death with greatly enhanced autophagy, but is increasingly used to imply a death-mediating role of autophagy, as shown by a protective effect of autophagy inhibition. In addition, many authors require that autophagic cell death must not involve apoptosis or necrosis. Adopting these new and restrictive criteria, and emphasizing their own failure to protect human osteosarcoma cells by autophagy inhibition, the authors of a recent Editor’s Corner article in this journal argued for the extreme rarity or nonexistence of autophagic cell death. We here maintain that, even with the more stringent recent criteria, autophagic cell death exists in several situations, some of which were ignored by the Editor’s Corner authors. We reject their additional criterion that the autophagy in ACD must be the agent of ultimate cell dismantlement. And we argue that rapidly dividing mammalian cells such as cancer cells are not the most likely situation for finding pure ACD. PMID:22652592

  20. A reversed-phase/hydrophilic interaction mixed-mode C18-Diol stationary phase for multiple applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Ye, Mao; Xu, Li; Shi, Zhi-guo

    2015-08-12

    A mixed-mode chromatographic packing material, C18 and diol groups modified silica (C18-Diol), was prepared with controllable hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity. It demonstrated excellent aqueous compatibility and stability in aqueous mobile phase; compared to the traditional C18 column, improved peak shape of basic analytes was also obtained. Additionally, it exhibited both reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (RPLC) and hydrophilic interaction chromatographic (HILIC) performance; the analyte separation scope was thus enlarged, demonstrated by simultaneous separation of twenty acids, bases and neutrals. More interestingly, a novel on-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography on the single column (2D-LC-1C) was established by modifying the high performance liquid chromatographic instrument only with the addition of an extra six-port two-position valve. The early co-eluted components of the extract of Lonicera japonica on the 1st-dimension (RPLC) were collected for the online re-injection to the 2nd-dimension (HILIC) by conveniently varying the mobile phase components. Six more peaks were obtained. The established system was simple, easy operation and low cost, which had advantages in analyzing complicated samples. PMID:26320974

  1. Liquid Microjunction Surface Sampling Probe Fluid Dynamics: Characterization and Application of an Analyte Plug Formation Operational Mode

    SciTech Connect

    ElNaggar, Mariam S; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2011-01-01

    The recently discovered sample plug formation and injection operational mode of a continuous flow, coaxial tube geometry, liquid microjunction surface sampling probe (LMJ-SSP) (J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom, 2011) was further characterized and applied for concentration and mixing of analyte extracted from multiple areas on a surface and for nanoliter-scale chemical reactions of sampled material. A transparent LMJ-SSP was constructed and colored analytes were used so that the surface sampling process, plug formation, and the chemical reactions could be visually monitored at the sampling end of the probe before being analyzed by mass spectrometry of the injected sample plug. Injection plug peak widths were consistent for plug hold times as long as the 8 minute maximum attempted (RSD below 1.5%). Furthermore, integrated injection peak signals were not significantly different for the range of hold times investigated. The ability to extract and completely mix individual samples within a fixed volume at the sampling end of the probe was demonstrated and a linear mass spectral response to the number of equivalent analyte spots sampled was observed. Using the color and mass changing chemical reduction of the redox dye 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol with ascorbic acid, the ability to sample, concentrate, and efficiently run reactions within the same plug volume within the probe was demonstrated.

  2. Liquid Microjunction Surface Sampling Probe Fluid Dynamics: Characterization and Application of an Analyte Plug Formation Operational Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elnaggar, Mariam S.; van Berkel, Gary J.

    2011-10-01

    The recently discovered sample plug formation and injection operational mode of a continuous flow, coaxial tube geometry, liquid microjunction surface sampling probe (LMJ-SSP) was further characterized and applied for concentration and mixing of analyte extracted from multiple areas on a surface and for nanoliter-scale chemical reactions of sampled material. A transparent LMJ-SSP was constructed and colored analytes were used so that the surface sampling process, plug formation, and the chemical reactions could be visually monitored at the sampling end of the probe before being analyzed by mass spectrometry of the injected sample plug. Injection plug peak widths were consistent for plug hold times as long as the 8 min maximum attempted (RSD below 1.5%). Furthermore, integrated injection peak signals were not significantly different for the range of hold times investigated. The ability to extract and completely mix individual samples within a fixed volume at the sampling end of the probe was demonstrated and a linear mass spectral response to the number of equivalent analyte spots sampled was observed. Using the color and mass changing chemical reduction of the redox dye 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol with ascorbic acid, the ability to sample, concentrate, and efficiently run reactions within the same plug volume within the probe was demonstrated.

  3. Application of a dual deposition mode model to evaluate transport of Escherichia coli D21 in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2006-12-01

    Controlled laboratory-scale column deposition experiments were conducted using a well-characterized mutant of the Escherichia coli (E. coli) K12 strain to obtain insight into the mechanisms that give rise to the observed deviation from classical colloid filtration theory (CFT). Both the suspended effluent bacteria concentration and the spatial distribution of retained bacteria were systematically measured over a wide range of solution conditions using columns packed with spherical glass beads. Calculations of Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) interaction energies based on measured cell zeta potentials indicated that the bacteria should experience considerable repulsive interaction forces when approaching the glass bead surface. In spite of these predictions, bacterial adhesion was observed even at the lowest solution ionic strength investigated (3 mM) and increased with solution salt concentration. Comparison of these results with measurements obtained using model colloidal particles (polystyrene latex microspheres) and a different microbe (Cryptosporidium parvum) suggested that another non-DLVO-type interaction may be contributing to the observed deposition behavior. Furthermore, predictions based on a discrete dual deposition mode (DDM) model disagreed with measured fractions of released cells. Taken together, the experimental and modeling results suggest that the deposition behavior of bacteria in saturated porous media is influenced by additional interaction mechanism(s) or factors not considered in classical DLVO theory, such as local charge heterogeneities of the cell membrane and surface biomolecule-specific interactions.

  4. Stable, tunable, and single-mode operation of an erbium-doped fibre laser system using a saturable absorber for gas spectroscopy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsad, Norhana; Stewart, George

    2009-02-01

    We present an erbium doped fibre ring laser system to realize single frequency lasing by incorporating a reflector with ~2m of un-pumped polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fibre to act as a saturable absorber. Depending on the particular requirements, the fibre reflector may be a fibre Bragg grating (FBG), loop mirror (LM) or a reflective coating on the fibre end. In this way, a transient grating is formed in the saturable absorber which acts as a narrow-band optical filter, reducing the number of modes over which the laser can operate and hence suppressing mode hopping in the cavity. Polarization-maintaining (PM) components are used throughout the system, except for the EDFA, and a polarization controller is used for enhancing stability and to ensure that the state of polarization is properly aligned. With this system we have observed a long period of stable, narrow line-width and single mode operation, tuneable over 30nm. The intended application is for gas spectroscopy using wavelength scanning and pump modulation. A Sagnac loop filter (SLF) can be used to scan the centre wavelength over a gas absorption line while the pump modulation produces an amplitude modulated signal on the output, suitable for detection by a lock-in (phase-sensitive) amplifier. The method is useful for the recovery of absorption line-shapes in the near-IR where the overtone absorption lines are weak. Compared with the use of a traditional DFB laser source, the fibre laser offers the advantages of a much broader tuning range and recovery of distortion-free line-shapes since wavelength and amplitude modulation may be performed independently.

  5. The construction, properties and applications of a new bipartite coherent-entangled state in the two-mode Fock space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiang-Guo; Wang, Ji-Suo; Liang, Bao-Long

    2011-02-01

    Using the technique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of operators, we find a new kind of bipartite coherent-entangled state (CES) that exhibits both coherent state and entangled state properties. The set of CESs makes up a complete and partly nonorthogonal representation. Using an asymmetric beamsplitter we propose a simple experimental scheme for producing the CES. Finally, we present some new quantum states related to the CES and some applications of the CES to quantum optics.

  6. Artemisinin-based antimalarial research: application of biotechnology to the production of artemisinin, its mode of action, and the mechanism of resistance of Plasmodium parasites.

    PubMed

    Muangphrom, Paskorn; Seki, Hikaru; Fukushima, Ery Odette; Muranaka, Toshiya

    2016-07-01

    Malaria is a worldwide disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. A sesquiterpene endoperoxide artemisinin isolated from Artemisia annua was discovered and has been accepted for its use in artemisinin-based combinatorial therapies, as the most effective current antimalarial treatment. However, the quantity of this compound produced from the A. annua plant is very low, and the availability of artemisinin is insufficient to treat all infected patients. In addition, the emergence of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium has been reported recently. Several techniques have been applied to enhance artemisinin availability, and studies related to its mode of action and the mechanism of resistance of malaria-causing parasites are ongoing. In this review, we summarize the application of modern technologies to improve the production of artemisinin, including our ongoing research on artemisinin biosynthetic genes in other Artemisia species. The current understanding of the mode of action of artemisinin as well as the mechanism of resistance against this compound in Plasmodium parasites is also presented. Finally, the current situation of malaria infection and the future direction of antimalarial drug development are discussed. PMID:27250562

  7. Magnetometer Application for GAMMA-400 Telescope Switching into the Mode with Increased Low Energy Charged Particles Intensity Registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khyzhniak, E. V.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Chasovikov, E. N.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Topchiev, N. P.

    GAMMA-400 is an international project of a high apogee orbital astrophysical observatory for studying the characteristics of high-energy gamma-emission, electrons/positrons and light nuclei fluxes. The energy range for γ-rays and electrons/positrons registration in the main aperture is from ∼0.1 GeV to ∼3.0 TeV. Also, this aperture allows high energy light nuclei fluxes characteristics investigation. Moreover, special aperture configuration allows registering of gamma-quanta, electrons (positrons) and light nuclei from the lateral directions too. The spacecraft GAMMA-400 orbit will be located in the Earth's magnetosphere and will pass front shock wave from magnetosphere interaction with the solar wind, turbulent-transition region, magnetopause and so on. During the satellite's movement through various Earth's magnetosphere regions its anticoincidence detectors will register high intensity fluxes of low energy charged particles captured by the magnetic field. The working area sections of GAMMA-400 detector systems used as anticoincidence shield are about 1 m2 each. The high intensity low energy charged particles flux influence on anticoincidence detectors should be taken into account during particle identification. This article presents a comparison between Earth's magnetosphere theoretical model according to SPENVIIS package and real data measured by detectors onboard THEMIS series satellites. The differences between these two datasets indicate that the calculated data are not sufficient to make short time predictions of variations of magnetic induction in the outer magnetosphere. A special trigger marker flag will be produced by GAMMA-400 counting and triggers signals formation system accordingly to the data of two onboard magnetometers. This flag's presence leads to special algorithms execution start, putting the plastic detectors into a dedicated working mode taking into account possible high count rates of external detector layers.

  8. Plumes Do Not Exist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, W. B.; Anderson, D. L.; Foulger, G. R.; Winterer, E. L.

    conjectures are made ever more complex and implausible to encompass contrary data, and have no predictive value. The inescapable conclusion is that deep-mantle thermal plumes not only are unneces- sary but that they do not exist.

  9. STiC — a mixed mode silicon photomultiplier readout ASIC for time-of-flight applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harion, T.; Briggl, K.; Chen, H.; Fischer, P.; Gil, A.; Kiworra, V.; Ritzert, M.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Shen, W.; Stankova, V.

    2014-02-01

    STiC is an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for the readout of silicon photomultipliers. The chip has been designed to provide a very high timing resolution for time-of-flight applications in medical imaging and particle physics. It is dedicated in particular to the EndoToFPET-US project, which is developing an endoscopic PET detector combined with ultrasound imaging for early pancreas and prostate cancer detection. This PET system aims to provide a spatial resolution of 1 mm and a time-of-flight resolution of 200 ps FWHM. The analog frontend of STiC can use either a differential or single ended connection to the SiPM. The time and energy information of the detector signal is encoded into two time stamps. A special linearized time-over-threshold method is used to obtain a linear relation between the signal charge and the measured signal width, improving the energy resolution. The trigger signals are digitized by an integrated TDC module with a resolution of less than 20 ps. The TDC data is stored in an internal memory and transfered over a 160 MBit/s serial link using 8/10 bit encoding. First coincidence measurements using a 3.1 × 3.1 × 15 mm3 LYSO crystal and a S10362-33-50 Hamamtsu MPPC show a coincidence time resolution of less than 285 ps. We present details on the chip design as well as first characterization measurements.

  10. Straightening: existence, uniqueness and stability

    PubMed Central

    Destrade, M.; Ogden, R. W.; Sgura, I.; Vergori, L.

    2014-01-01

    One of the least studied universal deformations of incompressible nonlinear elasticity, namely the straightening of a sector of a circular cylinder into a rectangular block, is revisited here and, in particular, issues of existence and stability are addressed. Particular attention is paid to the system of forces required to sustain the large static deformation, including by the application of end couples. The influence of geometric parameters and constitutive models on the appearance of wrinkles on the compressed face of the block is also studied. Different numerical methods for solving the incremental stability problem are compared and it is found that the impedance matrix method, based on the resolution of a matrix Riccati differential equation, is the more precise. PMID:24711723

  11. Broadband mode conversion via gradient index metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Wang, HaiXiao; Xu, YaDong; Genevet, Patrice; Jiang, Jian-Hua; Chen, HuanYang

    2016-04-21

    We propose a design for broadband waveguide mode conversion based on gradient index metamaterials (GIMs). Numerical simulations demonstrate that the zeroth order of transverse magnetic mode or the first order of transverse electric mode (TM0/TE1) can be converted into the first order of transverse magnetic mode or the second order of transverse electric mode (TM1/TE2) for a broadband of frequencies. As an application, an asymmetric propagation is achieved by integrating zero index metamaterials inside the GIM waveguide.

  12. Air-Cooled Stack Freeze Tolerance Freeze Failure Modes and Freeze Tolerance Strategies for GenDriveTM Material Handling Application Systems and Stacks Final Scientific Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, David, W.

    2012-02-14

    Air-cooled stack technology offers the potential for a simpler system architecture (versus liquid-cooled) for applications below 4 kilowatts. The combined cooling and cathode air allows for a reduction in part count and hence a lower cost solution. However, efficient heat rejection challenges escalate as power and ambient temperature increase. For applications in ambient temperatures below freezing, the air-cooled approach has additional challenges associated with not overcooling the fuel cell stack. The focus of this project was freeze tolerance while maintaining all other stack and system requirements. Through this project, Plug Power advanced the state of the art in technology for air-cooled PEM fuel cell stacks and related GenDrive material handling application fuel cell systems. This was accomplished through a collaborative work plan to improve freeze tolerance and mitigate freeze-thaw effect failure modes within innovative material handling equipment fuel cell systems designed for use in freezer forklift applications. Freeze tolerance remains an area where additional research and understanding can help fuel cells to become commercially viable. This project evaluated both stack level and system level solutions to improve fuel cell stack freeze tolerance. At this time, the most cost effective solutions are at the system level. The freeze mitigation strategies developed over the course of this project could be used to drive fuel cell commercialization. The fuel cell system studied in this project was Plug Power's commercially available GenDrive platform providing battery replacement for equipment in the material handling industry. The fuel cell stacks were Ballard's commercially available FCvelocity 9SSL (9SSL) liquid-cooled PEM fuel cell stack and FCvelocity 1020ACS (Mk1020) air-cooled PEM fuel cell stack.

  13. Stopbands in the existence domains of acoustic solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Nsengiyumva, F. Hellberg, M. A. Mace, R. L.; Verheest, F.

    2014-10-15

    A fully nonlinear Sagdeev pseudopotential approach is used to study the existence domain of fast mode ion-acoustic solitons in a three-species plasma composed of cold and warm adiabatic positive ion species and Boltzmann electrons. It is shown that for appropriate values of the cold-to-warm ion charge-to-mass ratio, μ, and the effective warm ion-to-electron temperature ratio, τ, there is a range in cold to warm ion charge density ratio, f, over which a stopband in soliton speed exists. Solitons do not propagate in the stopband, although they can occur for both higher and lower speeds. The stopbands are associated with a limiting curve of the existence domain that is double-valued in speed for a range of values of f. Analytical estimates of the upper and lower limits of τ and μ that support stopbands are found. It is suggested that, inter alia, the analysis should be applicable to the solar wind plasma.

  14. What is Local Mode (LM)? Global Mode (GM)? Calibration Mode?

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-12-08

    ... measurement in Global Mode (GM), Local Mode (LM), and Calibration. Global Mode is the normal acquisition with pole to pole coverage ... targets approximately 300 km in length Calibration Implemented bi-monthly Spectralon solar ...

  15. Secondary Instability of Second Modes in Hypersonic Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Chang, Chau-Lyan; White, Jeffery A.

    2012-01-01

    Second mode disturbances dominate the primary instability stage of transition in a number of hypersonic flow configurations. The highest amplification rates of second mode disturbances are usually associated with 2D (or axisymmetric) perturbations and, therefore, a likely scenario for the onset of the three-dimensionality required for laminar-turbulent transition corresponds to the parametric amplification of 3D secondary instabilities in the presence of 2D, finite amplitude second mode disturbances. The secondary instability of second mode disturbances is studied for selected canonical flow configurations. The basic state for the secondary instability analysis is obtained by tracking the linear and nonlinear evolution of 2D, second mode disturbances using nonlinear parabolized stability equations. Unlike in previous studies, the selection of primary disturbances used for the secondary instability analysis was based on their potential relevance to transition in a low disturbance environment and the effects of nonlinearity on the evolution of primary disturbances was accounted for. Strongly nonlinear effects related to the self-interaction of second mode disturbances lead to an upstream shift in the upper branch neutral location. Secondary instability computations confirm the previously known dominance of subharmonic modes at relatively small primary amplitudes. However, for the Purdue Mach 6 compression cone configuration, it was shown that a strong fundamental secondary instability can exist for a range of initial amplitudes of the most amplified second mode disturbance, indicating that the exclusive focus on subharmonic modes in the previous applications of secondary instability theory to second mode primary instability may not have been fully justified.

  16. Systems Biology and Mode of Action Based Risk Assessment (BioIT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of systems biology for risk assessment of environmental chemicals is a natural extension of its use in pharmaceutical research. The basis for this is the concept of a key event network that builds on existing mode of action frameworks for risk assessment. The ap...

  17. Effect of the Mode of Application of Cryopreserved Human Amniotic Membrane on Adhesion Formation after Abdomino-Pelvic Surgery in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Nassif, Joseph; Abbasi, Sehrish A.; Kechli, Mohamad Karim; Boutary, Suzan S.; Ghulmiyyah, Labib; Khalifeh, Ibrahim; Abou Ghaddara, Hussein; Nassar, Anwar H.

    2016-01-01

    Adhesions after abdomino-pelvic surgery are a cause of morbidity and reoperations. The use of human amniotic membrane (HAM) for adhesion prevention has given controversial results. The mode of administration of the amniotic membrane has not been well studied. This study assessed the efficacy of two modes of application of cryopreserved HAM, patch or fragmented in Lactated Ringer (LR) solution, for the prevention of pelvic adhesion formation postabdomino-pelvic surgery in a mice model. After a midline laparotomy incision, a small cautery lesion was done on each side of the abdominal wall peritoneum in mice. In Group A (control; n = 42), the abdomen was closed directly, Group B (n = 42) received 2.5 ml of LR prior to closure. In Groups C (n = 42) and D (n = 42), a 2 cm × 2 cm patch of HAM and another one fragmented and dispersed in 2.5 ml of LR were applied prior to closure, respectively. Two weeks later, a laparotomy was performed, and gross and pathological evaluation of adhesions, fibrosis, angiogenesis, and inflammation were conducted. Group D exhibited a significantly lower rate of gross adhesion formation. Fibrosis was significantly lowest in Group C as compared to the control. Group B had the lowest vascular formation in the adhesions. The use of HAM fragmented in LR solution is associated with a significantly lower incidence of postoperative adhesions in mice when compared to LR alone, HAM patch, or control. The mechanism of action of this reduction needs to be elucidated by future studies. PMID:27066485

  18. Low-power low-noise mixed-mode VLSI ASIC for infinite dynamic range imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchetta, Renato; Hu, Y.; Zinzius, Y.; Colledani, C.; Loge, A.

    1998-11-01

    Solid state solutions for imaging are mainly represented by CCDs and, more recently, by CMOS imagers. Both devices are based on the integration of the total charge generated by the impinging radiation, with no processing of the single photon information. The dynamic range of these devices is intrinsically limited by the finite value of noise. Here we present the design of an architecture which allows efficient, in-pixel, noise reduction to a practically zero level, thus allowing infinite dynamic range imaging. A detailed calculation of the dynamic range is worked out, showing that noise is efficiently suppressed. This architecture is based on the concept of single-photon counting. In each pixel, we integrate both the front-end, low-noise, low-power analog part and the digital part. The former consists of a charge preamplifier, an active filter for optimal noise bandwidth reduction, a buffer and a threshold comparator, and the latter is simply a counter, which can be programmed to act as a normal shift register for the readout of the counters' contents. Two different ASIC's based on this concept have been designed for different applications. The first one has been optimized for silicon edge-on microstrips detectors, used in a digital mammography R and D project. It is a 32-channel circuit, with a 16-bit binary static counter.It has been optimized for a relatively large detector capacitance of 5 pF. Noise has been measured to be equal to 100 + 7*Cd (pF) electron rms with the digital part, showing no degradation of the noise performances with respect to the design values. The power consumption is 3.8mW/channel for a peaking time of about 1 microsecond(s) . The second circuit is a prototype for pixel imaging. The total active area is about (250 micrometers )**2. The main differences of the electronic architecture with respect to the first prototype are: i) different optimization of the analog front-end part for low-capacitance detectors, ii) in- pixel 4-bit comparator

  19. Mode control and mode conversion in nonlinear aluminum nitride waveguides.

    PubMed

    Stegmaier, Matthias; Pernice, Wolfram H P

    2013-11-01

    While single-mode waveguides are commonly used in integrated photonic circuits, emerging applications in nonlinear and quantum optics rely fundamentally on interactions between modes of different order. Here we propose several methods to evaluate the modal composition of both externally and device-internally excited guided waves and discuss a technique for efficient excitation of arbitrary modes. The applicability of these methods is verified in photonic circuits based on aluminum nitride. We control modal excitation through suitably engineered grating couplers and are able to perform a detailed study of waveguide-internal second harmonic generation. Efficient and broadband power conversion between orthogonal polarizations is realized within an asymmetric directional coupler to demonstrate selective excitation of arbitrary higher-order modes. Our approach holds promise for applications in nonlinear optics and frequency up/down-mixing in a chipscale framework.

  20. CRADA Final Report: Application of Dual-Mode Invertor Control to Commercially Available Radial-Gap Permanent Magnet Motors - Vol. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lawler, J.S.; McKeever, J.W.; Downing, M.E.; Stahlhut, R.D; Bremmer, R.; Shoemaker, J.M.; Seksarian, A.K.; Poore, B.; Lutz, J.

    2006-05-01

    John Deere and Company (Deere), their partner, UQM Technologies, Inc. (UQM), and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) recently completed work on the cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) Number ORNL 04-0691 outlined in this report. CRADA 04-0691 addresses two topical issues of interest to Deere: (1) Improved characterization of hydrogen storage and heat-transfer management; and (2) Potential benefits from advanced electric motor traction-drive technologies. This report presents the findings of the collaborative examination of potential operational and cost benefits from using ORNL/PEEMRC dual-mode inverter control (DMIC) to drive permanent magnet (PM) motors in applications of interest to Deere. DMIC was initially developed and patented by ORNL to enable PM motors to be driven to speeds far above base speed where the back-electromotive force (emf) equals the source voltage where it is increasingly difficult to inject current into the motor. DMIC is a modification of conventional phase advance (CPA). DMIC's dual-speed modes are below base speed, where traditional pulse-width modulation (PWM) achieves maximum torque per ampere (amp), and above base speed, where six-step operation achieves maximum power per amp. The modification that enables DMIC adds two anti-parallel thyristors in each of the three motor phases, which consequently adds the cost of six thyristors. Two features evaluated in this collaboration with potential to justify the additional thyristor cost were a possible reduction in motor cost and savings during operation because of higher efficiency, both permitted because of lower current. The collaborative analysis showed that the reduction of motor cost and base cost of the inverter was small, while the cost of adding six thyristors was greater than anticipated. Modeling the DMIC control displayed inverter efficiency gains due to reduced current, especially under

  1. Identification of multiple damage in beams based on robust curvature mode shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Maosen; Radzieński, Maciej; Xu, Wei; Ostachowicz, Wiesław

    2014-06-01

    Multiple damage identification in beams using curvature mode shape has become a research focus of increasing interest during the last few years. On this topic, most existing studies address the sensitivity of curvature mode shape to multiple damage. A noticeable deficiency of curvature mode shape, however, is its susceptibility to measurement noise, easily impairing its advantage of sensitivity to multiple damage. To overcome this drawback, the synergy between a wavelet transform (WT) and a Teager energy operator (TEO) is explored, with the aim of ameliorating the curvature mode shape. The improved curvature mode shape, termed the TEO-WT curvature mode shape, has inherent capabilities of immunity to noise and sensitivity to multiple damage. The efficacy of the TEO-WT curvature mode shape is analytically verified by identifying multiple cracks in cantilever beams, with particular emphasis on its ability to locate multiple damage in noisy conditions; the applicability of the proposed curvature mode shape is experimentally validated by detecting multiple fairly thin slots in steel beams with mode shapes acquired by a scanning laser vibrometer. The proposed curvature mode shape appears sensitive to multiple damage and robust against noise, and therefore is well suited to identification of multiple damage in beams in noisy environments.

  2. The quest for the solar g modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appourchaux, T.; Belkacem, K.; Broomhall, A.-M.; Chaplin, W. J.; Gough, D. O.; Houdek, G.; Provost, J.; Baudin, F.; Boumier, P.; Elsworth, Y.; García, R. A.; Andersen, B. N.; Finsterle, W.; Fröhlich, C.; Gabriel, A.; Grec, G.; Jiménez, A.; Kosovichev, A.; Sekii, T.; Toutain, T.; Turck-Chièze, S.

    2010-02-01

    Solar gravity modes (or g modes)—oscillations of the solar interior on which buoyancy acts as the restoring force—have the potential to provide unprecedented inference on the structure and dynamics of the solar core, inference that is not possible with the well-observed acoustic modes (or p modes). The relative high amplitude of the g-mode eigenfunctions in the core and the evanesence of the modes in the convection zone make the modes particularly sensitive to the physical and dynamical conditions in the core. Owing to the existence of the convection zone, the g modes have very low amplitudes at photospheric levels, which makes the modes extremely hard to detect. In this article, we review the current state of play regarding attempts to detect g modes. We review the theory of g modes, including theoretical estimation of the g-mode frequencies, amplitudes and damping rates. Then we go on to discuss the techniques that have been used to try to detect g modes. We review results in the literature, and finish by looking to the future, and the potential advances that can be made—from both data and data-analysis perspectives—to give unambiguous detections of individual g modes. The review ends by concluding that, at the time of writing, there is indeed a consensus amongst the authors that there is currently no undisputed detection of solar g modes.

  3. Comparison of the SRTM DEM for the Olympic Mountains to Existing DEMs of Varying Resolutions: Results and General Implications for Application of SRTM data to Models of Hillslope and Fluvial Processes in Mountainous Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, D. R.; Aalto, R.

    2001-12-01

    Predicting the spatial patterns and rates of many geomorphic processes such as hillslope erosion and down-valley sediment transport requires an accurate representation of the land surface at a scale appropriate to the particular process model. Until now, Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) throughout much of the world were of very coarse resolution (1 km) and inconsistent quality (a number of elevation sources were often quilted together to form starkly heterogeneous products). A much-anticipated solution to this problem, SRTM provides a high-resolution global DEM derived using a single instrument and standardized techniques. To explore the quality and significance of SRTM for geomorphic process models of mountainous regions, we compare the SRTM DEM to an existing suite of DEMs of varying resolutions (10 - 1,000 m) for the Olympic Mountains, Washington State. As an accessible and familiar region with prior geomorphic analysis of a wide range of DEMs of known quality, the Olympics provide an ideal locality for early application and comparison of SRTM to existing geomorphic models. We first present the similarities and differences between the three-arc-second and one-arc-second SRTM and the 100-meter and 30-meter USGS DEMs for a variety of important geomorphic parameters, including: elevation and relief, hillslope gradients, curvature, valley slope, ridge and valley volumes, and drainage area per unit contour length. We also discuss the implications of the greater SRTM resolution for modeling geomorphic processes in areas previously covered by only lower-resolution DEMs. We motivate this discussion by comparing geomorphic models for hillslope stability and wetness, as calculated with the SRTM and conventional DEMs at varying resolutions. We conclude with a summary of the benefits of SRTM and enhanced DEM resolution for modeling geomorphic processes in the Olympics, and, by extension, in other mountainous regions throughout the world.

  4. Enantioselective analysis of triazole fungicide myclobutanil in cucumber and soil under different application modes by chiral liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dong, Fengshou; Cheng, Li; Liu, Xingang; Xu, Jun; Li, Jing; Li, Yuanbo; Kong, Zhiqiang; Jian, Qiu; Zheng, Yongquan

    2012-02-29

    A sensitive and enantioselective method was developed and validated for the determination of myclobutanil enantiomers by chiral liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The separation and determination were performed using reversed-phase chromatography on a Chiralcel OD-RH column, with ACN-water (70/30, v/v) as the mobile phase under isocratic conditions at 0.5 mL/min flow rate. The matrix effect, linearity, precision, accuracy, and stability were evaluated. The proposed method then was successfully applied to the study of enantioselective degradation of rac-myclobutanil in cucumber and soil under different application modes. The results showed that the preferential degradation of (+)-myclobutanil resulted in an enrichment of the (-)-myclobutanil residue in plant and soil. Moreover, in cucumber, the stereoselective intensity of myclobutanil under root douche treatment was stronger than that under foliar spraying treatment, whereas in soil, the intensity was exactly opposite. The probable reasons underlying these enantioselective effects were also discussed. This study highlighted the importance of examining the fate of both enantiomers in the greenhouse system for the correct use of chiral pesticides. PMID:22288843

  5. 2-μm high-power multiple-frequency single-mode Q-switched Ho:YLF laser for DIAL application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibert, Fabien; Edouart, Dimitri; Cénac, Claire; Le Mounier, Florian

    2014-09-01

    We report on the development and the demonstration of a two-wavelength single-frequency laser oscillator based on Ho:YLF crystal. This laser is especially suitable for application as a transmitter in differential absorption lidar (DIAL)/integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) using the R30 CO2 absorption line at 2,050.967 nm. The oscillator consists in a fiber-coupled and free-space solid-state hybrid system and can be used in high-energy middle-rate or moderate-energy high-rate configurations. The latter produced On and Off sequentially single-frequency laser pulses with 13 mJ of energy at a repetition rate of 2 kHz and pulse duration of 42 ns. The pulse energy and frequency stabilities are specially documented in free-running, single-frequency and two-frequency seeding single-mode operations. Standard deviation is 7.7 % for pulse energy and 2 MHz for frequency stability for the two-wavelength seeding operation. Allan variance plot shows that frequency fluctuations are reduced below 70 kHz for 10 s of averaging which is suitable for accurate CO2 DIAL or IPDA measurements.

  6. Application of the U.S. EPA Mode of Action Framework for Purposes of Guiding Future Research: A Case Study Involving the Oral Carcinogenicity of Hexavalent Chromium

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Chad M.; Haws, Laurie C.; Harris, Mark A.; Gatto, Nicole M.; Proctor, Deborah M.

    2011-01-01

    Mode of action (MOA) analysis provides a systematic description of key events leading to adverse health effects in animal bioassays for the purpose of informing human health risk assessment. Uncertainties and data gaps identified in the MOA analysis may also be used to guide future research to improve understanding of the MOAs underlying a specific toxic response and foster development of toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic models. An MOA analysis, consistent with approaches outlined in the MOA Framework as described in the Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment, was conducted to evaluate small intestinal tumors observed in mice chronically exposed to relatively high concentrations of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in drinking water. Based on review of the literature, key events in the MOA are hypothesized to include saturation of the reductive capacity of the upper gastrointestinal tract, absorption of Cr(VI) into the intestinal epithelium, oxidative stress and inflammation, cell proliferation, direct and/or indirect DNA modification, and mutagenesis. Although available data generally support the plausibility of these key events, several unresolved questions and data gaps were identified, highlighting the need for obtaining critical toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic data in the target tissue and in the low-dose range. Experimental assays that can address these data gaps are discussed along with strategies for comparisons between responsive and nonresponsive tissues and species. This analysis provides a practical application of MOA Framework guidance and is instructive for the design of studies to improve upon the information available for quantitative risk assessment. PMID:20947717

  7. One-pot preparation of a mixed-mode organic-silica hybrid monolithic capillary column and its application in determination of endogenous gibberellins in plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheng; Hao, Yan-Hong; Ding, Jun; Xu, Sheng-Nan; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2015-10-16

    A newly improved one-pot method, based on "thiol-ene" click chemistry and sol-gel approach in microemulsion system, was developed for the preparation of C8/PO(OH)2-silica hybrid monolithic capillary column. The prepared monolith possesses large specific surface area, narrow mesopore size distribution and high column efficiency. The monolithic column was demonstrated to have cation exchange/reversed-phase (CX/RP) mixed-mode retention for analytes on nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC). On the basis of the developed nano-LC system with MS detector coupled to pipette tip solid phase extraction (PT-SPE) and derivatization process, we then realized simultaneous determination of 10 gibberellins (GAs) with low limits of detection (LODs, 0.003-0.025 ng/mL). Furthermore, 6 endogenous GAs in only 5mg rice leaves (fresh weight) were successfully detected and quantified. The developed PT-SPE-nano-LC-MS strategy may offer promising applications in the determination of low abundant bioactive molecules from complex matrix.

  8. Single "click" synthesis of a mixed-mode silica sorbent and application in matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction of β-agonists from porcine liver.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuling; Yang, Siwen; Chen, Gang; Xing, Jun

    2014-08-01

    A single "click" strategy is proposed for the preparation of a reversed-phase/weak cation-exchange mixed-mode silica-based sorbent (silica-WCX). Upon this strategy, both 1-dodecyne and 5-hexynoic acid were simultaneously immobilized onto azide-silica in varied ratio via Cu (I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition click reaction. The chemical compositions of silica-WCXs were characterized by elemental analysis, acid-base titration and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. The results indicated that the actual mole ratio of n-dodecyl to carboxylic group on the sorbent is almost the same as the reactant ratio of 1-dodecyne to 5-hexynoic acid, and the repeatability of synthesis method is good. After that, two β-agonists, clenbuterol and ractopamine, were selected as model drug residues to evaluate the applicability of silica-WCX in matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction for the determination of basic drug residues in porcine liver by HPLC/UV. In comparison with some commercial sorbents, silica-WCX exhibited higher recoveries and better purification capability. Under the optimized conditions, linearity ranges were between 0.04 and 8.0μg/g for both analytes with coefficients of determination (R(2)) higher than 0.9997. The average recoveries at three spiked levels ranged from 92.5% to 105.0% with RSDs less than 6.6%.

  9. Reduction of mode partition noise of FP-LD by using Mach-Zehnder interferometer for RSOA-based DWDM applications.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sang-Hwa; Moon, Sang-Rok; Kye, Myeonggyun; Lee, Chang-Hee

    2016-06-27

    We investigate reduction of mode partition noise of a spectrally sliced Fabry-Perot laser diode (FP-LD) for application to seeded DWDM systems. The proposed scheme for the noise reduction incorporates a fiber-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) and a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA). The MZI enables to reduce a relative intensity noise (RIN) more than 3 dB with better noise distributions. Experimental results of 10-Gb/s signal transmission exhibit a considerable bit-error-rate (BER) reduction by three orders of magnitude at the given received power. After the noise reduction, the FP-LD is applied to a 10-Gb/s DWDM system as a seed-light-source. In a local-seeding scheme, return-to-zero (RZ) and carrier-suppressed (CS)-RZ signal formats are compared as a function of transmission distance. Furthermore, a back-reflection induced impairment is evaluated in a remote-seeding scheme. We also count the number of useable channels to show the feasibility of DWDM transmission. PMID:27410602

  10. Helicon modes in uniform plasmas. I. Low m modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia, J. M.; Stenzel, R. L.

    2015-09-01

    Helicons are whistler modes with azimuthal wave numbers. They arise in bounded gaseous and solid state plasmas, but the present work shows that very similar modes also exist in unbounded uniform plasmas. The antenna properties determine the mode structure. A simple antenna is a magnetic loop with dipole moment aligned either along or across the ambient background magnetic field B0. For such configurations, the wave magnetic field has been measured in space and time in a large and uniform laboratory plasma. The observed wave topology for a dipole along B0 is similar to that of an m = 0 helicon mode. It consists of a sequence of alternating whistler vortices. For a dipole across B0, an m = 1 mode is excited which can be considered as a transverse vortex which rotates around B0. In m = 0 modes, the field lines are confined to each half-wavelength vortex while for m = 1 modes they pass through the entire wave train. A subset of m = 1 field lines forms two nested helices which rotate in space and time like corkscrews. Depending on the type of the antenna, both m = + 1 and m = -1 modes can be excited. Helicons in unbounded plasmas also propagate transverse to B0. The transverse and parallel wave numbers are about equal and form oblique phase fronts as in whistler Gendrin modes. By superimposing small amplitude fields of several loop antennas, various antenna combinations have been created. These include rotating field antennas, helical antennas, and directional antennas. The radiation efficiency is quantified by the radiation resistance. Since helicons exist in unbounded laboratory plasmas, they can also arise in space plasmas.

  11. Cost effective designs for integrating new electronic turbine control systems into existing steam power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, T.V.

    1996-10-01

    Different cost-effective approaches have been developed for integrating new digital turbine control systems into existing power plants. The devices under consideration range from self contained actuators which replace the existing hydraulic and mechanical servomotor components, linear proportional actuators, which mechanically drive the original servomotor pilot relays, to electro-hydraulic converters which provide a control pressure to the existing hydraulic servomotor pilot relays. These devices significantly reduce the implementation cost, while still providing most of the benefits that can be gained through greater utilization of the new electronic control capabilities. These three design approaches are analyzed for control performance, failure modes, long-term maintenance issues, and applicability to specific turbine configurations.

  12. Zero-frequency and slow elastic modes in phononic monolayer granular membranes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Li-Yang; Pichard, Hélène; Tournat, Vincent; Theocharis, Georgios; Gusev, Vitalyi

    2016-07-01

    We theoretically study the dispersion properties of elastic waves in hexagonal and honeycomb monolayer granular membranes with either out-of-plane or in-plane particle motion. The particles interact predominantly via normal and transverse contact rigidities. When rotational degrees of freedom are taken into account, the bending and torsional rigidities of the intergrain contacts can control some of the phononic modes. The existence of zero-frequency modes, zero-group-velocity modes and their transformation into slow propagating phononic modes due to weak bending and torsional intergrain interactions are investigated. We also study the formation and manipulation of Dirac cones and multiple degenerated modes. This could motivate variety of potential applications in elastic waves control by manipulating the contact rigidities in granular phononic crystals. PMID:26607105

  13. Separation of crack extension modes in composite delamination problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuth, Jack L.

    1994-01-01

    This work concerns fracture mechanics modeling of composite delamination problems. In order to predict delamination resistance, an applied stress intensity factor, K, or energy release rate, G, must be compared to a mode-dependent critical value of K or G from experiment. In the interfacial fracture analysis of most applications and some tests, the mode of crack extension is not uniquely defined. It is instead a function of distance from the crack tip due to the oscillating singularity existing at the tip. In this work, a consistent method is presented of extracting crack extension modes in such cases. In particular, use of the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT) to extract modes of crack extension is studied for cases of a crack along the interface between two in-plane orthotropic materials. Modes of crack extension extracted from oscillatory analyses using VCCT are a function of the virtual crack extension length, delta. Most existing efforts to obtain delta-independent modes of crack extension involve changing the analysis in order to eliminate its oscillatory nature. One such method involves changing one or more properties of the layers to make the oscillatory exponent parameter, epsilon, equal zero. Standardized application of this method would require consistent criteria for identifying which properties can be altered without changing the physical aspects of the problem. Another method involves inserting a thin homogeneous layer (typically referred to as a resin interlayer) along the interface and placing the crack within it. The drawbacks of this method are that it requires increased modeling effort and introduces the thickness of the interlayer as an additional length parameter. The approach presented here does not attempt to alter the interfacial fracture analysis to eliminate its oscillatory behavior. Instead, the argument is made that the oscillatory behavior is non-physical and that if its effects were separated from VCCT quantities, then consistent

  14. Multiple omnidirectional defect modes and nonlinear magnetic-field effects in metamaterial photonic superlattices with a polaritonic defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles-Uriza, A. X.; Reyes Gómez, F.; Mejía-Salazar, J. R.

    2016-09-01

    We report the existence of multiple omnidirectional defect modes in the zero-nbar gap of photonic stacks, made of alternate layers of conventional dielectric and double-negative metamaterial, with a polaritonic defect layer. In the case of nonlinear magnetic metamaterials, the optical bistability phenomenon leads to switching from negligible to perfect transmission around these defect modes. We hope these findings have potential applications in the design and development of multichannel optical filters, power limiters, optical-diodes and optical-transistors.

  15. Degradation mechanisms in high-power multi-mode InGaAs-AlGaAs strained quantum well lasers for high-reliability applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sin, Yongkun; Presser, Nathan; Brodie, Miles; Lingley, Zachary; Foran, Brendan; Moss, Steven C.

    2015-03-01

    Laser diode manufacturers perform accelerated multi-cell lifetests to estimate lifetimes of lasers using an empirical model. Since state-of-the-art laser diodes typically require a long period of latency before they degrade, significant amount of stress is applied to the lasers to generate failures in relatively short test durations. A drawback of this approach is the lack of mean-time-to-failure data under intermediate and low stress conditions, leading to uncertainty in model parameters (especially optical power and current exponent) and potential overestimation of lifetimes at usage conditions. This approach is a concern especially for satellite communication systems where high reliability is required of lasers for long-term duration in the space environment. A number of groups have studied reliability and degradation processes in GaAs-based lasers, but none of these studies have yielded a reliability model based on the physics of failure. The lack of such a model is also a concern for space applications where complete understanding of degradation mechanisms is necessary. Our present study addresses the aforementioned issues by performing long-term lifetests under low stress conditions followed by failure mode analysis (FMA) and physics of failure investigation. We performed low-stress lifetests on both MBE- and MOCVD-grown broad-area InGaAs- AlGaAs strained QW lasers under ACC (automatic current control) mode to study low-stress degradation mechanisms. Our lifetests have accumulated over 36,000 test hours and FMA is performed on failures using our angle polishing technique followed by EL. This technique allows us to identify failure types by observing dark line defects through a window introduced in backside metal contacts. We also investigated degradation mechanisms in MOCVD-grown broad-area InGaAs-AlGaAs strained QW lasers using various FMA techniques. Since it is a challenge to control defect densities during the growth of laser structures, we chose to

  16. Atmospheric Excitation of Planetary Normal Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanimoto, Toshiro

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) understand the phenomenon of continuous free oscillations of the Earth and (2) examine the idea of using this phenomenon for planetary seismology. We first describe the results on (1) and present our evaluations of the idea (2) in the final section. In 1997, after almost forty years since the initial attempt by Benioff et al, continuous free oscillations of the Earth were discovered. Spheroidal fundamental modes between 2 and 7 millihertz are excited continuously with acceleration amplitudes of about 0.3-0.5 nanogals. The signal is now commonly found in virtually all data recorded by STS-1 type broadband seismometers at quiet sites. Seasonal variation in amplitude and the existence of two coupled modes between the atmosphere and the solid Earth support that these oscillations are excited by the atmosphere. Stochastic excitation due to atmospheric turbulence is a favored mechanism, providing a good match between theory and data. The atmosphere has ample energy to support this theory because excitation of these modes require only 500-10000 W whereas the atmosphere contains about 117 W of kinetic energy. An application of this phenomenon includes planetary seismology, because other planets may be oscillating due to atmospheric excitation. The interior structure of planets could be learned by determining the eigenfrequencies in the continuous free oscillations. It is especially attractive to pursue this idea for tectonically quiet planets, since quakes may be too infrequent to be recorded by seismic instruments.

  17. Inter-comb synchronization by mode-to-mode locking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Byung Jae; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2016-08-01

    Two combs of fiber femtosecond lasers are synchronized through the optical frequency reference created by injection-locking of a diode laser to a single comb mode. Maintaining a mHz-level narrow linewidth, the optical frequency reference permits two combs to be stabilized by mode-to-mode locking with a relative stability of 1.52  ×  10‑16 at 10 s with a frequency slip of 2.46 mHz. This inter-comb synchronization can be utilized for applications such as dual-comb spectroscopy or ultra-short pulse synthesis without extra narrow-linewidth lasers.

  18. Identifying predictors of survey mode preference.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Jolene D; Olson, Kristen; Millar, Morgan M

    2014-11-01

    To increase the likelihood of response, many survey organizations attempt to provide sample members with a mode they are thought to prefer. Mode assignment is typically based on conventional wisdom or results from mode choice studies that presented only limited options. In this paper we draw heavily on research and theory from the mode effects and the survey participation literatures to develop a framework for understanding what characteristics should predict mode preferences. We then test these characteristics using data from two different surveys. We find that measures of familiarity with and access to a mode are the strongest predictors of mode preference and measures of safety concerns, physical abilities, and normative concerns are unexpectedly weak predictors. Our findings suggest that variables that may exist on sample frames can be used to inform the assignment of "preferred" modes to sample members.

  19. Mode of action of fluoride: application of new techniques and test methods to the examination of the mechanism of action of topical fluoride.

    PubMed

    White, D J; Nelson, D G; Faller, R V

    1994-07-01

    Modern techniques in dental research continue to assist in the study of the mode of (anticaries) action of topical fluorides. The Plaque Glycolysis and Regrowth Model (PGRM) facilitates the standardized assessments of antimicrobial effects on plaque following use of test formulations in vivo without complications arising from coincident mineral reactivity. In vivo plaque glycolysis testing demonstrates that topically applied fluoride, at conventional levels found in dentifrices, has only modest effects on the metabolic (acid-producing) activity of dental plaque. Any 'plaque' contribution to fluoride efficacy must come from more subtle effects on plaque acidogenicity than those measured in PGRM. The 19-FMAS NMR (Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) technique provides unambiguous measures of the reaction products of F-enamel interactions. Studies have revealed a new 'reaction product' of fluoride-enamel interactions--designated as Non-Specifically-Adsorbed Fluoride, NSAF. This species, along with FAP (fluoroapatite), FHAP (fluorohydroxyapatite), and CaF2 (calcium fluoride), contributes to the remineralization/demineralization benefits of fluoride. pH cycling and in situ denture chip studies permit quantitative assessments to be made of the relative benefits of fluoride in promoting remineralization and in inhibiting demineralization. Results from pH cycling/in situ experiments are strongly supportive of Koulourides' 'Acquired Acid Resistance' concept, describing fluoride's decay-preventive effects. The continued application of new analytical/physical techniques and testing regimens to the study of fluoride anticaries mechanisms may lead to the development of improved fluoride agents/treatment modalities for the prevention of dental caries.

  20. Fast and sensitive method to determine parabens by capillary electrophoresis using automatic reverse electrode polarity stacking mode: application to hair samples.

    PubMed

    Sako, Alysson V F; Dolzan, Maressa D; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes a fast and sensitive method for the determination of methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butylparaben in hair samples by capillary electrophoresis using automatic reverse electrode polarity stacking mode. In the proposed method, solutions are injected using the flush command of the analysis software (940 mbar) and the polarity switching is carried out automatically immediately after the sample injection. The advantages compared with conventional stacking methods are the increased analytical frequency, repeatability, and inter-day precision. All analyses were performed in a fused silica capillary (50 cm, 41.5 cm in effective length, 50 μm i.d.), and the background electrolyte was composed of 20 mmol L(-1) sodium tetraborate in 10 % of methanol, pH 9.3. For the reverse polarity, -25 kV/35 s was applied followed by application of +30 kV for the electrophoretic run. Temperature was set at 20 °C, and all analytes were monitored at 297 nm. The method showed acceptable linearity (r (2) > 0.997) in the studied range of 0.1-5.0 mg L(-1), limits of detection below 0.017 mg L(-1), and inter-day, intra-day, and instrumental precision better than 6.2, 3.6, and 4.6 %, respectively. Considering parabens is widely used as a preservative in many products and the reported possibility of damage to the hair and also to human health caused by these compounds, the proposed method was applied to evaluate the adsorption of parabens in hair samples. The results indicate that there is a greater adsorption of methylparaben compared to the other parabens tested and also dyed hairs had a greater adsorption capacity for parabens than natural hairs.

  1. Mode 2 fatigue crack growth specimen development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzard, R. J.; Gross, B.; Srawley, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    A Mode II test specimen was developed which has potential application in understanding phemonena associated with mixed mode fatigue failures in high performance aircraft engine bearing races. The attributes of the specimen are: it contains one single ended notch, which simplifiers data gathering and reduction; the fatigue crack grous in-line with the direction of load application; a single axis test machine is sufficient to perform testing; and the Mode I component is vanishingly small.

  2. Adaptive mode control of a few-mode fiber by real-time mode decomposition.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liangjin; Leng, Jinyong; Zhou, Pu; Guo, Shaofeng; Lü, Haibin; Cheng, Xiang'ai

    2015-10-19

    A novel approach to adaptively control the beam profile in a few-mode fiber is experimentally demonstrated. We stress the fiber through an electric-controlled polarization controller, whose driven voltage depends on the current and target modal content difference obtained with the real-time mode decomposition. We have achieved selective excitations of LP01 and LP11 modes, as well as significant improvement of the beam quality factor, which may play crucial roles for high-power fiber lasers, fiber based telecommunication systems and other fundamental researches and applications. PMID:26480466

  3. Dissipative double-well potential: Nonlinear stationary and pulsating modes

    SciTech Connect

    Zezyulin, Dmitry A.; Konotop, Vladimir V.; Alfimov, Georgy L.

    2010-11-15

    The analysis of nonlinear modes in a complex absorbing double-well potential supported by linear gain is presented. Families of the nonlinear modes and their bifurcations are found numerically by means of the properly modified 'shooting' method. Linear stability and dynamics of the modes are studied. It is shown that no stable modes exist in the case of attractive nonlinearity, while stable modes, including nonsymmetric ones, are found when the nonlinearity is repulsive. Varying a control parameter (e.g., the height of barrier between the wells) results in switching from one mode to another. Apart from stationary modes we have found pulsating solutions emergent from unstable modes.

  4. Localized acoustic surface modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat, Mohamed; Chen, Pai-Yen; Bağcı, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    We introduce the concept of localized acoustic surface modes. We demonstrate that they are induced on a two-dimensional cylindrical rigid surface with subwavelength corrugations under excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. Our results show that the corrugated rigid surface is acoustically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with uniform mass density that can be represented using a Drude-like model. This, indeed, suggests that plasmonic-like acoustic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including sensing, imaging, and cloaking.

  5. Exploring anti-reflection modes in disordered media.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moonseok; Choi, Wonjun; Yoon, Changhyeong; Kim, Guang Hoon; Kim, Seung-hyun; Yi, Gi-Ra; Park, Q-Han; Choi, Wonshik

    2015-05-18

    Sensing and manipulating targets hidden under scattering media are universal problems that take place in applications ranging from deep-tissue optical imaging to laser surgery. A major issue in these applications is the shallow light penetration caused by multiple scattering that reflects most of incident light. Although advances have been made to eliminate image distortion by a scattering medium, dealing with the light reflection has remained unchallenged. Here we present a method to minimize reflected intensity by finding and coupling light into the anti-reflection modes of a scattering medium. In doing so, we achieved more than a factor of 3 increase in light penetration. Our method of controlling reflected waves makes it readily applicable to in vivo applications in which detector sensors can only be positioned at the same side of illumination and will therefore lay the foundation of advancing the working depth of many existing optical imaging and treatment technologies.

  6. Experimental investigation on flow modes of electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Ting; Li, Guang-Bin; Chen, Xing-Xing; Tian, Rui-Jun; Yin, Xie-Zhen

    2012-06-01

    Electrospinning experiments are performed by using a set of experimental apparatus, a stroboscopic system is adopted for capturing instantaneous images of the conejet configuration. The cone and the jet of aqueous solutions of polyethylene oxide (PEO) are formed from an orifice of a capillary tube under the electric field. The viscoelastic constitutive relationship of the PEO solution is measured and discussed. The phenomena owing to the jet instability are described, five flow modes and corresponding structures are obtained with variations of the fluid flow rate Q, the electric potential U and the distance h from the orifice of the capillary tube to the collector. The flow modes of the cone-jet configuration involves the steady bending mode, the rotating bending mode, the swinging rotating mode, the blurring bending mode and the branching mode. Regimes in the Q-U plane of the flow modes are also obtained. These results may provide the fundamentals to predict the operating conditions expected in practical applications.

  7. Effect of dosage and application mode of L-carnitine on plasma lipid and egg-yolk cholesterol of turkeys, hatchability of eggs and post-hatch growth of their offsprings.

    PubMed

    Oso, A O; Fafiolu, A O; Adeleke, M A; Ladokun, O A; Sobayo, R A; Jegede, A V; Peters, S O; Oyebamiji, O A; Akinsola, J

    2014-08-01

    The effect of dosage and application mode of L-carnitine on plasma lipid and egg-yolk cholesterol of breeder turkeys, hatchability of eggs and post-hatch growth response was investigated using 180 breeder hens. The hens were assigned to six dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangements of two application modes of L-carnitine (diet and drinking water) supplemented at 0, 50 and 100 ppm (mg/kg or mg/l) levels, respectively. Each treatment was replicated five times with six hens per replicate. Dietary inclusion of 50 ppm L-carnitine showed the lowest (p < 0.01) plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein concentration (LDL). Breeder hens offered 50 ppm L-carnitine with no regard to application mode recorded the highest (p < 0.01) plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Hens offered 50 and 100 ppm L-carnitine irrespective of application mode also showed reduced (p < 0.01) egg-yolk TC concentration at 32 weeks of age. Dietary supplementation of 50 ppm L-carnitine for breeder turkeys recorded the lowest (p < 0.01) egg-yolk triglyceride (TG) at 40 weeks of age. Hens offered 50 ppm L-carnitine irrespective of application mode recorded the highest (p < 0.05) hen-day egg production. Incidence of dead-in-shell also reduced (p < 0.05) with increasing dosage of L-carnitine. Dietary supplementation of 50 ppm and oral application in drinking water of 100 ppm L-carnitine for breeder turkeys resulted in highest (p < 0.05) egg fertility. Offsprings from breeder hens fed diets supplemented with L-carnitine recorded no post-hatch mortality. Highest (p < 0.05) post-hatch final live weight and weight gain was obtained with poults obtained from hens fed diet supplemented with 50 ppm L-carnitine. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of 50 ppm L-carnitine for turkey hens showed improved serum lipid profile, egg fertility, reduced dead-in-shell, egg-yolk cholesterol and resulted in improved post-hatch growth performance.

  8. Global Alfven modes: Theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Turnbull, A.D.; Strait, E.J.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Chu, M.S.; Duong, H.H.; Greene, J.M.; Lao, L.L.; Taylor, T.S.; Thompson, S.J. )

    1993-07-01

    It is shown that the theoretical predictions and experimental observations of toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE's) are now in good agreement, with particularly detailed agreement in the mode frequencies. Calculations of the driving and damping rates predict the importance of continuum damping for low toroidal mode numbers and this is confirmed experimentally. However, theoretical calculations in finite-[beta], shaped discharges predict the existence of other global Alfven modes, in particular the ellipticity-induced Alfven eigenmode (EAE) and a new mode, the beta-induced Alfven eigenmode (BAE). The BAE mode is calculated to be in or below the same frequency range as the TAE mode and may contribute to the experimental observations at high [beta]. Experimental evidence and complementary analyses are presented confirming the presence of the EAE mode at higher frequencies.

  9. Broadband mode conversion via gradient index metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, HaiXiao; Xu, YaDong; Genevet, Patrice; Jiang, Jian-Hua; Chen, HuanYang

    2016-01-01

    We propose a design for broadband waveguide mode conversion based on gradient index metamaterials (GIMs). Numerical simulations demonstrate that the zeroth order of transverse magnetic mode or the first order of transverse electric mode (TM0/TE1) can be converted into the first order of transverse magnetic mode or the second order of transverse electric mode (TM1/TE2) for a broadband of frequencies. As an application, an asymmetric propagation is achieved by integrating zero index metamaterials inside the GIM waveguide. PMID:27098456

  10. Maximum thrust mode evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.

    1995-01-01

    Measured reductions in acceleration times which resulted from the application of the F-15 performance seeking control (PSC) maximum thrust mode during the dual-engine test phase is presented as a function of power setting and flight condition. Data were collected at altitudes of 30,000 and 45,000 feet at military and maximum afterburning power settings. The time savings for the supersonic acceleration is less than at subsonic Mach numbers because of the increased modeling and control complexity. In addition, the propulsion system was designed to be optimized at the mid supersonic Mach number range. Recall that even though the engine is at maximum afterburner, PSC does not trim the afterburner for the maximum thrust mode. Subsonically at military power, time to accelerate from Mach 0.6 to 0.95 was cut by between 6 and 8 percent with a single engine application of PSC, and over 14 percent when both engines were optimized. At maximum afterburner, the level of thrust increases were similar in magnitude to the military power results, but because of higher thrust levels at maximum afterburner and higher aircraft drag at supersonic Mach numbers the percentage thrust increase and time to accelerate was less than for the supersonic accelerations. Savings in time to accelerate supersonically at maximum afterburner ranged from 4 to 7 percent. In general, the maximum thrust mode has performed well, demonstrating significant thrust increases at military and maximum afterburner power. Increases of up to 15 percent at typical combat-type flight conditions were identified. Thrust increases of this magnitude could be useful in a combat situation.

  11. High-mode spoof SPP of periodic metal grooves for ultra-sensitive terahertz sensing.

    PubMed

    Yao, Haizi; Zhong, Shuncong

    2014-10-20

    We report terahertz surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing based on prism-coupling to the spoof surface plasmon polariton (SSPP) mode existing on periodically grooved metal films. It was demonstrated that, except for the fundamental mode of the SSPP, there was also a higher mode SSPP wave when the depth of groove was larger. Both fundamental and high-order modes of SSPP could be used for terahertz sensing. We compared the performance of different modes of SSPP on the sensing sensitivity using both reflection amplitude and phase-jump information. The results indicated that the gap distance between the prism base and the metal film had a significant influence on the reflectivity of SPR sensing by affecting the coupling efficiency of an evanescent wave to an SSPP wave; also, high-order mode SSPP-based sensing had a high sensitivity of up to 2.27 THz/RIU, which nearly doubled the sensitivity of the fundamental mode. The application of high-mode SSPP has enormous potential for ultra-sensitive SPR sensing in the terahertz regime. PMID:25401547

  12. CRADA Final Report: Application of Dual-Mode Inverter Control to Commercially Available Radial-Gap Mermanent Magnet Motors - Vol. I

    SciTech Connect

    McKeever, John W; Lawler, Jack; Downing, Mark; Stahlhut, Ronnie D; Bremmer, R.; Shoemaker, J. M.; Seksarian, A. K.; Poore, B.; Lutz, Jon F

    2006-05-01

    John Deere and Company (Deere), their partner, UQM Technologies, Inc. (UQM), and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) recently completed work on the cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) Number ORNL 04-0691 outlined in this report. CRADA 04-0691 addresses two topical issues of interest to Deere: (1) Improved characterization of hydrogen storage and heat-transfer management; and (2) Potential benefits from advanced electric motor traction-drive technologies. This report presents the findings of the collaborative examination of potential operational and cost benefits from using ORNL/PEEMRC dual-mode inverter control (DMIC) to drive permanent magnet (PM) motors in applications of interest to Deere. DMIC was initially developed and patented by ORNL to enable PM motors to be driven to speeds far above base speed where the back-electromotive force (emf) equals the source voltage where it is increasingly difficult to inject current into the motor. DMIC is a modification of conventional phase advance (CPA). DMIC's dual-speed modes are below base speed, where traditional pulse-width modulation (PWM) achieves maximum torque per ampere (amp), and above base speed, where six-step operation achieves maximum power per amp. The modification that enables DMIC adds two anti-parallel thyristors in each of the three motor phases, which consequently adds the cost of six thyristors. Two features evaluated in this collaboration with potential to justify the additional thyristor cost were a possible reduction in motor cost and savings during operation because of higher efficiency, both permitted because of lower current. The collaborative analysis showed that the reduction of motor cost and base cost of the inverter was small, while the cost of adding six thyristors was greater than anticipated. Modeling the DMIC control displayed inverter efficiency gains due to reduced current, especially under

  13. Multi-layered mode structure of locked-tearing-modes after unlocking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okabayashi, Michio; Logan, N.; Tobias, B.; Wang, Z.; Budny, B.; Nazikian, R.; Strait, E.; La Haye, R.; Paz-Soldan, C. J.; Ferraro, N.; Shiraki, D.; Hanson, J.; Zanca, P.; Paccagnella, R.

    2015-11-01

    Prevention of m/n=2/1 tearing modes (TM) by electro-magnetic torque injection has been successful in DIII-D and RFX-mod where plasma conditions and plasma shape are completely different. Understanding the internal structure in the post-unlocked phase is a pre-requisite to its application to reactor relevant plasmas such as in ITER. Ti and toroidal rotation perturbations show there exist several radially different TM layers. However, the phase shift between the applied field and the plasma response is rather small from plasma edge to the q ~3 domain, indicating that a kink-like response prevails. The biggest threat for sustaining an unlocked 2/1 mode is sudden distortion of the rotational profile due to the internal mode reconnection. Possible TM layer structure will be discussed with numerical MHD codes and TRANSP. This work is supported in part by the US Department of Energy under DE-AC02-09CH11466, DE-FG02-99ER54531, DE-SC0003913, and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  14. Application of mixed-mode, solid-phase extraction in environmental and clinical chemistry. Combining hydrogen-bonding, cation-exchange and Van der Waals interactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mills, M.S.; Thurman, E.M.; Pedersen, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Silica- and styrene-divinylbenzene-based mixed-mode resins that contain C8, C18 and sulphonated cation-exchange groups were compared for their efficiency in isolation of neutral triazine compounds from water and of the basic drug, benzoylecgonine, from urine. The triazine compounds were isolated by a combination of Van der Waals and hydrogen-bonding interactions, and benzoylecgonine was isolated by Van der Waals interactions and cation exchange. All analytes were eluted with a polar organic solvent contaning 2% ammonium hydroxide. Larger recoveries (95%) were achieved on copolymerized mixed-mode resins where C18 and sulfonic acid are in closer proximity than on 'blended' mixed-mode resins (60-70% recovery).

  15. Transient analysis mode participation for modal survey target mode selection using MSC/NASTRAN DMAP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Alan R.; Ibrahim, Omar M.; Sullivan, Timothy L.; Goodnight, Thomas W.

    1994-01-01

    Many methods have been developed to aid analysts in identifying component modes which contribute significantly to component responses. These modes, typically targeted for dynamic model correlation via a modal survey, are known as target modes. Most methods used to identify target modes are based on component global dynamic behavior. It is sometimes unclear if these methods identify all modes contributing to responses important to the analyst. These responses are usually those in areas of hardware design concerns. One method used to check the completeness of target mode sets and identify modes contributing significantly to important component responses is mode participation. With this method, the participation of component modes in dynamic responses is quantified. Those modes which have high participation are likely modal survey target modes. Mode participation is most beneficial when it is used with responses from analyses simulating actual flight events. For spacecraft, these responses are generated via a structural dynamic coupled loads analysis. Using MSC/NASTRAN DMAP, a method has been developed for calculating mode participation based on transient coupled loads analysis results. The algorithm has been implemented to be compatible with an existing coupled loads methodology and has been used successfully to develop a set of modal survey target modes.

  16. Force characteristics of a modular squeeze mode magneto-rheological element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craft, Michael J.; Ahmadian, Mehdi; Farjoud, Alireza; Burke, William C. T.; Nagode, Clement

    2010-04-01

    While few publications exist on the behavior of Magneto-Rheological (MR) fluid in squeeze mode, devices using squeeze mode may take advantage of the very large range of adjustment that squeeze mode offers. Based on results obtained through modeling and testing MR fluid in a squeeze mode rheometer, a novel compression-adjustable element has been fabricated and tested, which utilizes MR fluid in squeeze mode. While shear and valve modes have been used exclusively for MR fluid damping applications, recent modeling and testing with MR fluid has revealed that much larger adjustment ranges are achievable in squeeze mode. Utilizing squeeze mode, a compression element, or MR Pouch, was developed consisting of a flexible cylindrical membrane with each end fastened to a steel endplate (pole plates). The silicone rubber pouch material was molded in the required shape for use in the squeeze mode rheometer. This flexible membrane allows for the complete self-containment of MR fluid and because the pouch compensates for volume changes, there is no need for dynamic seals and associated surface finish treatments on the steel components. An electromagnet incorporated in the rheometer passes an adjustable magnetic field axially through the pole plates and MR fluid. Test results show the device was capable of varying the compression force from less than 8lbs to greater than 1000lbs when the pole plates were 0.050" apart. Simulations were compared against test data with good correlation. Possible applications of this technology include primary suspension components, auxiliary suspension bump stops, and other vibration isolation components, as MR Pouches are scalable depending on the application and force requirements.

  17. Single-Mode VISAR

    SciTech Connect

    Krauter, Kerry

    2007-11-28

    High energy-density physics (HEDP) experiments examine the properties of materials under extreme conditions. These experiments rely on the measurement of one or two velocities. These velocities are used to obtain Hugoniot relationships and thermodynamic equations of state. This methodology is referred to as 'velocimetry' and an instrument used to measure the shock wave is called a 'velocimeter' or a '(velocity) diagnostic'. The two most-widely used existing velocity diagnostics are; photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) and velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR). PDV's advantages are a fast rise-time and ease of implementation but PDV has an upper velocity limit. Traditional implementations of VISAR have a rise time 10 times slower than PDV and are not easily implemented but are capable of measuring any velocity produced during HEDP experiments. This thesis describes a novel method of combining the positive attributes of PDV and VISAR into a more cost effective diagnostic called a Single-Mode VISAR (SMV). The new diagnostic will consist of PDV parts in a VISAR configuration. This configuration will enable the measurement of any velocity produced during shock physics experiments while the components used to build the diagnostic will give the diagnostic a fast rise time and make it easy to use. This thesis describes the process of building and testing the first single-mode VISAR. The tests include verifying the performance of the components and the diagnostic as a whole.

  18. Specific Energy as an Index to Identify the Critical Failure Mode Transition Depth in Rock Cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xianqun; Xu, Chaoshui

    2016-04-01

    Rock cutting typically involves driving a rigid cutter across the rock surface at certain depth of cut and is used to remove rock material in various engineering applications. It has been established that there exist two distinct failure modes in rock cutting, i.e. ductile mode and brittle mode. The ductile mode takes precedence when the cut is shallow and the increase in the depth of cut leads to rock failure gradually shifted to brittle-dominant mode. The threshold depth or the critical transition depth, at which rock failure under cutting changes from the ductile to the brittle mode, is associated with not only the rock properties but also the cutting operational parameters and the understanding of this threshold is important to optimise the tool design and operational parameters. In this study, a new method termed the specific cutting energy transition model is proposed from an energy perspective which is demonstrated to be much more effective in identifying the critical transition depth compared with existing approaches. In the ductile failure cutting mode, the specific cutting energy is found to be independent of the depth of cut; but in the brittle failure cutting mode, the specific cutting energy is found to be dependent on the depth of cut following a power-law relationship. The critical transition depth is identified as the intersection point between these two relationships. Experimental tests on two types of rocks with different combinations of cutting velocity, depth of cut and back rake angle are conducted and the application of the proposed model on these cutting datasets has demonstrated that the model can provide a very effective tool to analyse the cutting mechanism and to identify the critical transition depth.

  19. Application of the Pseudo Wigner-Ville Distribution to the Measurement of the Dispersion of Lamb Modes in Graphite/Epoxy Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, W. H.; Seale, M. D.; Smith, B. T.

    1997-01-01

    Acoustic waves propagate in thin plates as guided or Lamb modes. The velocities of these modes are dispersive in that they depend not only on the material elastic properties and density, but also on the frequency. Accurate characterization of Lamb wave dispersion is important in many acoustic based nondestructive evaluation techniques. It is necessary for ultrasonic measurements in thin plates to determine elastic properties and for flaw detection and localization. In acoustic emission (AE) testing, if not taken into account, highly dispersive Lamb mode propagation can lead to large errors in source location. In this study, the pseudo Wigner-Ville distribution (PWVD) was used for measurement of group velocity dispersion of Lamb waves in a unidirectional graphite/epoxy (AS4/3502) laminate. The PWVD is one of a number of transforms which provide a time-frequency representation of a digitized time series. Broad band acoustic waves were generated by a pencil lead fracture (Hsu-Neilsen source) and were detected with broad band ultrasonic transducers. The arrival times for the lowest order symmetric (S(sub 0)) and antisymmetric (A(sub 0)) Lamb modes were determined from measurements of the time at which the respective peak amplitudes occurred in the PWVD. Measurements were made at several source-to-detector distances and a least squares fit used to calculate the velocity. Results are presented for propagation along, and perpendicular to, the fiber direction. Theoretical dispersion curves were also calculated and a comparison between theory and experiment demonstrates good agreement.

  20. LDEF data: Comparisons with existing models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coombs, Cassandra R.; Watts, Alan J.; Wagner, John D.; Atkinson, Dale R.

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between the observed cratering impact damage on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) versus the existing models for both the natural environment of micrometeoroids and the man-made debris was investigated. Experimental data was provided by several LDEF Principal Investigators, Meteoroid and Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG) members, and by the Kennedy Space Center Analysis Team (KSC A-Team) members. These data were collected from various aluminum materials around the LDEF satellite. A PC (personal computer) computer program, SPENV, was written which incorporates the existing models of the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. This program calculates the expected number of impacts per unit area as functions of altitude, orbital inclination, time in orbit, and direction of the spacecraft surface relative to the velocity vector, for both micrometeoroids and man-made debris. Since both particle models are couched in terms of impact fluxes versus impactor particle size, and much of the LDEF data is in the form of crater production rates, scaling laws have been used to relate the two. Also many hydrodynamic impact computer simulations were conducted, using CTH, of various impact events, that identified certain modes of response, including simple metallic target cratering, perforations and delamination effects of coatings.

  1. Development of ac corona discharge modes at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    El-Koramy, Reda Ahmed; Yehia, Ashraf; Omer, Mohamed

    2011-02-15

    Corona discharges in gases exist under several distinctive forms. In this paper, a survey study has been made of ac corona discharge modes generated in some different gases fed in a wire-duct reactor with a constant rate of flowing at atmospheric pressure. The properties of different corona modes are analyzed under some condition transitions from Trichel pulses to a steady glow. In the course of the presented experimental work, numerous apparent contradictions with earlier observations necessitated further study and are given to provide more information on the physical mechanisms of the ac corona discharges. Furthermore, we have gained insight into some new technologies and applications of the environmentally friendly corona and plasma discharges.

  2. Ideal ballooning modes, shear flow and the stable continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. B.

    2012-11-01

    There is a well-established theory of ballooning modes in a toroidal plasma. The cornerstone of this is a local eigenvalue λ on each magnetic surface—which also depends on the ballooning phase angle k. In stationary plasmas, λ(k) is required only near its maximum, but in rotating plasmas its average over k is required. Unfortunately in many cases λ(k) does not exist for some range of k, because the spectrum there contains only a stable continuum. This limits the application of the theory, and raises the important question of whether this ‘stable interval’ gives rise to significant damping. This question is re-examined using a new, simplified, model—which leads to the conclusion that there is no appreciable damping at small shear flow. In particular, therefore, a small shear flow should not affect ballooning mode stability boundaries.

  3. List mode multichannel analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Archer, Daniel E.; Luke, S. John; Mauger, G. Joseph; Riot, Vincent J.; Knapp, David A.

    2007-08-07

    A digital list mode multichannel analyzer (MCA) built around a programmable FPGA device for onboard data analysis and on-the-fly modification of system detection/operating parameters, and capable of collecting and processing data in very small time bins (<1 millisecond) when used in histogramming mode, or in list mode as a list mode MCA.

  4. Application of normal mode theory to seismic source and structure problems: Seismic investigations of upper mantle lateral heterogeneity. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okal, E. A.

    1978-01-01

    The theory of the normal modes of the earth is investigated and used to build synthetic seismograms in order to solve source and structural problems. A study is made of the physical properties of spheroidal modes leading to a rational classification. Two problems addressed are the observability of deep isotropic seismic sources and the investigation of the physical properties of the earth in the neighborhood of the Core-Mantle boundary, using SH waves diffracted at the core's surface. Data sets of seismic body and surface waves are used in a search for possible deep lateral heterogeneities in the mantle. In both cases, it is found that seismic data do not require structural differences between oceans and continents to extend deeper than 250 km. In general, differences between oceans and continents are found to be on the same order of magnitude as the intrinsic lateral heterogeneity in the oceanic plate brought about by the aging of the oceanic lithosphere.

  5. Observer-based higher order sliding mode control of power factor in three-phase AC/DC converter for hybrid electric vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianxing; Laghrouche, Salah; Wack, Maxime

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, a full-bridge boost power converter topology is studied for power factor control, using output higher order sliding mode control. The AC/DC converters are used for charging the battery and super-capacitor in hybrid electric vehicles from the utility. The proposed control forces the input currents to track the desired values, which can control the output voltage while keeping the power factor close to one. Super-twisting sliding mode observer is employed to estimate the input currents and load resistance only from the measurement of output voltage. Lyapunov analysis shows the asymptotic convergence of the closed-loop system to zero. Multi-rate simulation illustrates the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed controller in the presence of measurement noise.

  6. Dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber laser based on inverse-Gaussian apodized fiber Bragg grating and its application in microwave generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Bo; Tjin, Swee Chuan; Zhang, Han; Tang, Dingyuan; Liang, Sheng; Hao, Jianzhong; Dong, Bo

    2011-03-01

    We propose a simple erbium-doped fiber ring laser. It consists of an inverse-Gaussian apodized fiber Bragg grating filter which has two ultra-narrow transmission bands, and an unpumped erbium-doped fiber as a saturable absorber. Stable dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode lasing with a wavelength separation of approximately 0.082 nm is achieved. A microwave signal at 10.502 GHz is demonstrated by beating the dual wavelengths at a photodetector.

  7. Dual mode green fluorescence from Tb{sup 3+}:Ca{sub 12}Al{sub 14}O{sub 33} and its applicability as delayed fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, R.K.; Kaur, G.; Rai, A.; Rai, S.B.

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► Synthesis of Yb{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+} co-doped Ca{sub 12}Al{sub 14}O{sub 33} phosphor. ► Dual mode emission in green area on excitation with 976 nm and 266 nm. ► Delayed fluorescence on excitation of 266 nm. ► Effect of time on delayed fluorescence. -- Abstract: A Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} doped calcium aluminate phosphor has been synthesized using well known combustion synthesis. The structural characterization and morphology has been studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The characteristic luminescence of Tb{sup 3+} in both upconversion and down-conversion modes, i.e. dual mode luminescence has been recorded on excitation with 976 nm and 266 nm radiation. The Stokes emission observed on 266 nm excitation also shows a characteristic of delayed fluorescence. The delayed fluorescence has been measured as a function of time and pump power. It has been correlated to the white light emission (broad continuum emission) from the host. The possible reason of association of electron hole trapping to the defect level as well as in crystal potential is suggested.

  8. Dual-mode T1 and T2 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent based on ultrasmall mixed gadolinium-dysprosium oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and in vivo application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegafaw, Tirusew; Xu, Wenlong; Wasi Ahmad, Md; Baeck, Jong Su; Chang, Yongmin; Bae, Ji Eun; Chae, Kwon Seok; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Gang Ho

    2015-09-01

    A new type of dual-mode T1 and T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent based on mixed lanthanide oxide nanoparticles was synthesized. Gd3+ (8S7/2) plays an important role in T1 MRI contrast agents because of its large electron spin magnetic moment resulting from its seven unpaired 4f-electrons, and Dy3+ (6H15/2) has the potential to be used in T2 MRI contrast agents because of its very large total electron magnetic moment: among lanthanide oxide nanoparticles, Dy2O3 nanoparticles have the largest magnetic moments at room temperature. Using these properties of Gd3+ and Dy3+ and their oxide nanoparticles, ultrasmall mixed gadolinium-dysprosium oxide (GDO) nanoparticles were synthesized and their potential to act as a dual-mode T1 and T2 MRI contrast agent was investigated in vitro and in vivo. The D-glucuronic acid coated GDO nanoparticles (davg = 1.0 nm) showed large r1 and r2 values (r2/r1 ≈ 6.6) and as a result clear dose-dependent contrast enhancements in R1 and R2 map images. Finally, the dual-mode imaging capability of the nanoparticles was confirmed by obtaining in vivo T1 and T2 MR images.

  9. Dual-mode T1 and T2 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent based on ultrasmall mixed gadolinium-dysprosium oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and in vivo application.

    PubMed

    Tegafaw, Tirusew; Xu, Wenlong; Ahmad, Md Wasi; Baeck, Jong Su; Chang, Yongmin; Bae, Ji Eun; Chae, Kwon Seok; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Gang Ho

    2015-09-11

    A new type of dual-mode T1 and T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent based on mixed lanthanide oxide nanoparticles was synthesized. Gd(3+) ((8)S7/2) plays an important role in T1 MRI contrast agents because of its large electron spin magnetic moment resulting from its seven unpaired 4f-electrons, and Dy(3+) ((6)H15/2) has the potential to be used in T2 MRI contrast agents because of its very large total electron magnetic moment: among lanthanide oxide nanoparticles, Dy2O3 nanoparticles have the largest magnetic moments at room temperature. Using these properties of Gd(3+) and Dy(3+) and their oxide nanoparticles, ultrasmall mixed gadolinium-dysprosium oxide (GDO) nanoparticles were synthesized and their potential to act as a dual-mode T1 and T2 MRI contrast agent was investigated in vitro and in vivo. The D-glucuronic acid coated GDO nanoparticles (davg = 1.0 nm) showed large r1 and r2 values (r2/r1 ≈ 6.6) and as a result clear dose-dependent contrast enhancements in R1 and R2 map images. Finally, the dual-mode imaging capability of the nanoparticles was confirmed by obtaining in vivo T1 and T2 MR images.

  10. Dual-mode T1 and T2 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent based on ultrasmall mixed gadolinium-dysprosium oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and in vivo application.

    PubMed

    Tegafaw, Tirusew; Xu, Wenlong; Ahmad, Md Wasi; Baeck, Jong Su; Chang, Yongmin; Bae, Ji Eun; Chae, Kwon Seok; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Gang Ho

    2015-09-11

    A new type of dual-mode T1 and T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent based on mixed lanthanide oxide nanoparticles was synthesized. Gd(3+) ((8)S7/2) plays an important role in T1 MRI contrast agents because of its large electron spin magnetic moment resulting from its seven unpaired 4f-electrons, and Dy(3+) ((6)H15/2) has the potential to be used in T2 MRI contrast agents because of its very large total electron magnetic moment: among lanthanide oxide nanoparticles, Dy2O3 nanoparticles have the largest magnetic moments at room temperature. Using these properties of Gd(3+) and Dy(3+) and their oxide nanoparticles, ultrasmall mixed gadolinium-dysprosium oxide (GDO) nanoparticles were synthesized and their potential to act as a dual-mode T1 and T2 MRI contrast agent was investigated in vitro and in vivo. The D-glucuronic acid coated GDO nanoparticles (davg = 1.0 nm) showed large r1 and r2 values (r2/r1 ≈ 6.6) and as a result clear dose-dependent contrast enhancements in R1 and R2 map images. Finally, the dual-mode imaging capability of the nanoparticles was confirmed by obtaining in vivo T1 and T2 MR images. PMID:26291827

  11. 3-D Mixed Mode Delamination Fracture Criteria - An Experimentalist's Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeder, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Many delamination failure criteria based on fracture toughness have been suggested over the past few decades, but most only covered the region containing mode I and mode II components of loading because that is where toughness data existed. With new analysis tools, more 3D analyses are being conducted that capture a mode III component of loading. This has increased the need for a fracture criterion that incorporates mode III loading. The introduction of a pure mode III fracture toughness test has also produced data on which to base a full 3D fracture criterion. In this paper, a new framework for visualizing 3D fracture criteria is introduced. The common 2D power law fracture criterion was evaluated to produce unexpected predictions with the introduction of mode III and did not perform well in the critical high mode I region. Another 2D criterion that has been shown to model a wide range of materials well was used as the basis for a new 3D criterion. The new criterion is based on assumptions that the relationship between mode I and mode III toughness is similar to the relation between mode I and mode II and that a linear interpolation can be used between mode II and mode III. Until mixed-mode data exists with a mode III component of loading, 3D fracture criteria cannot be properly evaluated, but these assumptions seem reasonable.

  12. Assessment of buccal marginal alveolar peri-implant and periodontal defects using a cone beam CT system with and without the application of metal artefact reduction mode

    PubMed Central

    Kamburoğlu, K; Kolsuz, E; Murat, S; Eren, H; Yüksel, S; Paksoy, C S

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the accuracy of cone beam CT (CBCT) images obtained with and without artefact reduction (AR) in detecting simulated buccal peri-implant and buccal periodontal defects. Methods: 42 implants inserted into edentulous mandibles, and 38 teeth present in dry mandibles were used. Simulated buccal peri-implant defects (n = 22) and buccal periodontal defects (n = 22) were prepared. 20 implants and 18 teeth without simulated defects were the control group. Images of the mandibles were obtained using a Planmeca ProMax® 3D Max CBCT unit (Planmeca Oy, Helsinki, Finland). Image reconstructions were prepared without and with low, medium and high AR modes. Images were viewed randomly by six observers twice for the presence of defects. Kappa coefficient was calculated. F2_LD_F1 design for non-parametric analysis of longitudinal data was used. Area under curves (AUCs) were calculated for each observer. Significance level was taken as α = 0.05. Results: Intraobserver kappa ranged from 0.140 to 0.792 for peri-implant and from 0.189 to 1.0 for periodontal defects. All factors were statistically significant (p < 0.001), except for image mode and implant brand. Pairwise interactions were found between periodontal defects and peri-implant defects (p < 0.001), observers (p < 0.001), observer and image mode (p < 0.001), defect model and observer (p < 0.001) and defect model, image mode and observer (p = 0.04). AUC values ranged from 0.39 to 0.52 for peri-implant and from 0.45 to 0.71 for periodontal defects. Higher AUC values were found for periodontal defects than for peri-implant defects. Conclusions: Buccal peri-implant defects were more difficult to detect than buccal periodontal defects. No difference was found among CBCT images obtained with and without AR modes. PMID:23956236

  13. Mode coupling in hybrid square-rectangular lasers for single mode operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiu-Wen; Huang, Yong-Zhen; Yang, Yue-De; Xiao, Jin-Long; Weng, Hai-Zhong; Xiao, Zhi-Xiong

    2016-08-01

    Mode coupling between a square microcavity and a Fabry-Pérot (FP) cavity is proposed and demonstrated for realizing single mode lasers. The modulations of the mode Q factor as simulation results are observed and single mode operation is obtained with a side mode suppression ratio of 46 dB and a single mode fiber coupling loss of 3.2 dB for an AlGaInAs/InP hybrid laser as a 300-μm-length and 1.5-μm-wide FP cavity connected to a vertex of a 10-μm-side square microcavity. Furthermore, tunable single mode operation is demonstrated with a continuous wavelength tuning range over 10 nm. The simple hybrid structure may shed light on practical applications of whispering-gallery mode microcavities in large-scale photonic integrated circuits and optical communication and interconnection.

  14. Nonaxisymmetric viscous lower branch modes in axisymmetric supersonic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duck, Peter W.; Hall, Philip

    1988-01-01

    In a previous paper, the weakly nonlinear interaction of a pair of axisymmetric lower branch Tollmien-Schlichting instabilities in cylindrical supersonic flows was considered. Here the possibility that nonaxisymmetric modes might also exist is investigated. In fact, it is found that such modes do exist and, on the basis of linear theory, it appears that these modes are the most important. The nonaxisymmetric modes are found to exist for flows around cylinders with nondimensional radius alpha less than some critical value alpha sub c. This critical value alpha sub c is found to increase monotonically with the azimuthal wavenumber nu of the disturbance and it is found that unstable modes always occur in pairs. It is also shown that, in general, instability in the form of lower branch Tollmien-Schlichting waves will occur first for nonaxisymmetric modes and that in the unstable regime the largest growth rates correspond to the latter modes.

  15. Single-mode squeezing in arbitrary spatial modes.

    PubMed

    Semmler, Marion; Berg-Johansen, Stefan; Chille, Vanessa; Gabriel, Christian; Banzer, Peter; Aiello, Andrea; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    As the generation of squeezed states of light has become a standard technique in laboratories, attention is increasingly directed towards adapting the optical parameters of squeezed beams to the specific requirements of individual applications. It is known that imaging, metrology, and quantum information may benefit from using squeezed light with a tailored transverse spatial mode. However, experiments have so far been limited to generating only a few squeezed spatial modes within a given setup. Here, we present the generation of single-mode squeezing in Laguerre-Gauss and Bessel-Gauss modes, as well as an arbitrary intensity pattern, all from a single setup using a spatial light modulator (SLM). The degree of squeezing obtained is limited mainly by the initial squeezing and diffractive losses introduced by the SLM, while no excess noise from the SLM is detectable at the measured sideband. The experiment illustrates the single-mode concept in quantum optics and demonstrates the viability of current SLMs as flexible tools for the spatial reshaping of squeezed light. PMID:27137050

  16. Demonstration of simultaneous mode conversion and demultiplexing for mode and wavelength division multiplexing systems based on tilted few-mode fiber Bragg gratings.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ya; Sun, Junqiang; Chen, Guodong; Sima, Chaotan

    2015-04-20

    We experimentally demonstrate mode conversion by exploiting optical reflection of tilted few-mode fiber Bragg grating (FM-FBG). Mode conversions from LP(01) mode to higher symmetric and asymmetric modes are achieved, and more than 99.5% conversion efficiency from LP(01) to LP(11) mode is obtained using a 1.6°-tilted FM-FBG. Influences of the weakly tilted FM-FBG parameters on the property of mode conversion is analyzed and discussed. A simultaneous mode conversion and demultiplexing scheme for 4-mode × 3-wavelength multiplexing transmission is proposed and the modal crosstalk is analyzed based on the transmission spectra of the tilted FM-FBGs. The proposed approach shows potential applications in mode and wavelength division multiplexing communication systems. PMID:25969037

  17. Demonstration of simultaneous mode conversion and demultiplexing for mode and wavelength division multiplexing systems based on tilted few-mode fiber Bragg gratings.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ya; Sun, Junqiang; Chen, Guodong; Sima, Chaotan

    2015-04-20

    We experimentally demonstrate mode conversion by exploiting optical reflection of tilted few-mode fiber Bragg grating (FM-FBG). Mode conversions from LP(01) mode to higher symmetric and asymmetric modes are achieved, and more than 99.5% conversion efficiency from LP(01) to LP(11) mode is obtained using a 1.6°-tilted FM-FBG. Influences of the weakly tilted FM-FBG parameters on the property of mode conversion is analyzed and discussed. A simultaneous mode conversion and demultiplexing scheme for 4-mode × 3-wavelength multiplexing transmission is proposed and the modal crosstalk is analyzed based on the transmission spectra of the tilted FM-FBGs. The proposed approach shows potential applications in mode and wavelength division multiplexing communication systems.

  18. Wake Modes of Rotationally Oscillating Cylinders at low Re

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellappan, Prabu; Pottebaum, Tait

    2011-11-01

    Vortex shedding from bluff bodies is important in various engineering applications because the wake can have many effects, including exciting vibrations in structures and altering convective heat transfer. While vortex shedding from cylinders in cross-flow and cylinders undergoing transverse and in-line oscillations has been studied extensively, only limited data is available for rotational oscillations and is mainly limited to spectral analysis of the wake. Water tunnel experiments were carried out at Re = 150 to investigate the wake of a rotationally oscillating cylinder for oscillation frequencies from 0.67 to 3.5 times the natural shedding frequency and peak-to-peak oscillation amplitudes up to 320°. DPIV was used to study both the near and far wake within this parameter space. Well-defined patterns of wake vortices were observed in distinct regions of the parameter space, similar to the wake modes of transversely oscillating cylinders in cross-flow. In portions of the parameter space for which information exists in the literature the wake modes are well-related to spectral data. Variants of modes in previously unexplored regions are explained in terms of harmonics. The initial application of these results to understanding heat transfer enhancement from rotationally oscillating cylinders will also be addressed.

  19. Single-mode cylindrical graphene plasmon waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianfeng; Yang, Jingjing; Huang, Ming

    2016-08-01

    A cylindrical graphene plasmon waveguide (CGPW) which consists of two rolled graphene ribbons, a dielectric core and a dielectric interlayer is proposed. An analytical model for the single-mode condition and cutoff frequency of high-order graphene surface plasmon (GSP) modes is presented and verified by finite element method (FEM) simulations. Single-mode operation region of CGPW is identified in the frequency-radius space. By varying the separation between two graphene sheets and the Fermi level of graphene, a large tunability of the mode behavior is also demonstrated. The proposed structure may provide a new freedom to manipulate GSPs, and would lead to novel applications in optics.

  20. Streamlining workflow using existing technology.

    PubMed

    Corkery, Terry S

    2007-01-01

    Processing rehabilitation admissions and case management records in a three-person office in a major academic medical center had become cumbersome and redundant due to multiple information management approaches and requirements from various sources. Simple questionnaires and brief, casual meetings with pertinent personnel defined what was working well and what was problematic and helped establish a foundation for change management. Analysis of the existing paper system revealed more than 300 data items used more than once throughout the departmental processes. A simple timing trial, based on selected segments of a workflow diagram, revealed the potential to save 3 to 3(1/2) hours per case by revising a departmental database, decreasing work redundancy, and creating an electronic case file. Because the work environment utilized Microsoft Office and Access databases, a plan was developed to utilize these resources to streamline the workflow and eliminate duplication of effort in the admission/case management documentation processes.

  1. Does the polystomatic gland exist?

    PubMed

    Imai, M; Shibata, T; Moriguchi, K; Kinbara, M

    1989-03-01

    According to the P.N.A., the N.A.J. and some scholars, the sublingual gland has the ductus sublingualis major and ductus sublinguales minores. This means that the gland is a polystomatic gland. We intended to determine whether the so-called polystomatic gland exists or not. 1. According to the P.N.A., the N.A.J. and some scholars, the gl. sublingualis has the ductus sublingualis major and ductus sublinguales minores. This means the gland is a polystomatic gland. However, the formation of one gland with plural excretory ducts is embryologically impossible, in other words, the polystomatic gland does not exist. 2. Many scholars described that the gl. sublingualis was composed of the gl. sublingualis major and g11. sublinguales minores. However, they are completely different kinds of glands. Accordingly, we suggest the terms for these glands: the g1. sublingualis and its ductus sublingualis ("major" is useless), the g11. sublinguales minores and their ductus sublinguales minores. 3. The N.A.V.J. and some scholars use the term g1. sublingualis polystomatica or parvicanalaris. However, this is a group of a number of independent glands each of which has its own excretory duct. Such a gland should not be regarded as a single gland. We suggest that the term g11. sublinguales minores and their excretory ducts should be replaced with the term the ductus sublinguales minores. 4. The g1. lingualis anterior, g1. retromolaris and g1. lacrimalis are not single glands but a group of several independent glands each of which has its own excretory duct. Accordingly, they should be termed the g11. linguales anteriores, g11. retromolares and g11. lacrimales such as the g11. labiales, g11. buccales and g11. palatinae.

  2. 40 CFR 57.108 - Comparable existing SIP provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Comparable existing SIP provisions. 57... (CONTINUED) PRIMARY NONFERROUS SMELTER ORDERS General § 57.108 Comparable existing SIP provisions... subject under the applicable EPA-approved State Implementation Plan (SIP) for sulfur dioxide in lieu...

  3. 40 CFR 57.108 - Comparable existing SIP provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Comparable existing SIP provisions. 57... (CONTINUED) PRIMARY NONFERROUS SMELTER ORDERS General § 57.108 Comparable existing SIP provisions... subject under the applicable EPA-approved State Implementation Plan (SIP) for sulfur dioxide in lieu...

  4. 30 CFR 780.12 - Operation plan: Existing structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... structure was begun and completed; and (4) A showing, including relevant monitoring data or other evidence... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Operation plan: Existing structures. 780.12... PLAN § 780.12 Operation plan: Existing structures. (a) Each application shall contain a description...

  5. 30 CFR 784.12 - Operation plan: Existing structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... structure was begun and completed; and (4) A showing, including relevant monitoring data or other evidence... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation plan: Existing structures. 784.12... PLAN § 784.12 Operation plan: Existing structures. (a) Each application shall contain a description...

  6. 30 CFR 784.12 - Operation plan: Existing structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... structure was begun and completed; and (4) A showing, including relevant monitoring data or other evidence... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Operation plan: Existing structures. 784.12... PLAN § 784.12 Operation plan: Existing structures. (a) Each application shall contain a description...

  7. 30 CFR 784.12 - Operation plan: Existing structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... structure was begun and completed; and (4) A showing, including relevant monitoring data or other evidence... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Operation plan: Existing structures. 784.12... PLAN § 784.12 Operation plan: Existing structures. (a) Each application shall contain a description...

  8. 30 CFR 784.12 - Operation plan: Existing structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... structure was begun and completed; and (4) A showing, including relevant monitoring data or other evidence... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Operation plan: Existing structures. 784.12... PLAN § 784.12 Operation plan: Existing structures. (a) Each application shall contain a description...

  9. 30 CFR 780.12 - Operation plan: Existing structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... structure was begun and completed; and (4) A showing, including relevant monitoring data or other evidence... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Operation plan: Existing structures. 780.12... PLAN § 780.12 Operation plan: Existing structures. (a) Each application shall contain a description...

  10. 30 CFR 780.12 - Operation plan: Existing structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... structure was begun and completed; and (4) A showing, including relevant monitoring data or other evidence... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Operation plan: Existing structures. 780.12... PLAN § 780.12 Operation plan: Existing structures. (a) Each application shall contain a description...

  11. 30 CFR 780.12 - Operation plan: Existing structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... structure was begun and completed; and (4) A showing, including relevant monitoring data or other evidence... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation plan: Existing structures. 780.12... PLAN § 780.12 Operation plan: Existing structures. (a) Each application shall contain a description...

  12. Adaptive backstepping slide mode control of pneumatic position servo system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Haipeng; Fan, Juntao

    2016-06-01

    With the price decreasing of the pneumatic proportional valve and the high performance micro controller, the simple structure and high tracking performance pneumatic servo system demonstrates more application potential in many fields. However, most existing control methods with high tracking performance need to know the model information and to use pressure sensor. This limits the application of the pneumatic servo system. An adaptive backstepping slide mode control method is proposed for pneumatic position servo system. The proposed method designs adaptive slide mode controller using backstepping design technique. The controller parameter adaptive law is derived from Lyapunov analysis to guarantee the stability of the system. A theorem is testified to show that the state of closed-loop system is uniformly bounded, and the closed-loop system is stable. The advantages of the proposed method include that system dynamic model parameters are not required for the controller design, uncertain parameters bounds are not need, and the bulk and expensive pressure sensor is not needed as well. Experimental results show that the designed controller can achieve better tracking performance, as compared with some existing methods.

  13. Periodic density functional theory study on the interaction mode and mechanism of typical additives with TiO2 substrates for dye-sensitized solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Lin; Wu, Meng; Ding, Jie; Li, Ze-Sheng; Sun, Ke-Ning

    2014-01-01

    Five typical additives N-Butylbenzimidazole (NBB), N-Methylbenzimidazole (NMBI), 3-Methoxypropionitrile (MPN), 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP) and Guanidinium thiocyanate (GNCS) are selected to investigate the diverse interactions with TiO2 anatase (101), (100) and (001) surfaces in vacuum and acetonitrile conditions, respectively, by means of the analyses of adsorption mode and electronic structure based on a periodic density functional theory method. Five additives are adsorbed more strongly in the order (101) < (100) < (001). The defects that appear in the upmost TiO2 (001) surface induced by additive adsorption affect bonding greatly. GNCS possesses the maximum adsorption energy due to special multidentate and dissociative adsorption modes, while MPN has the minimum adsorption energy, no matter which surface is used. Positive Fermi energy shift (i.e. negative potential shift) is in the order (100) < (001) < (101) for every additive adsorption. The larger shift results in the higher open-circuit photovoltage of dye-sensitized solar cells. Acetonitrile addition reduces the adsorption energy but improves the shift trend of Fermi energy except TBP-TiO2 (100) and (001) systems. There should be a critical point of adsorption density for MPN and TBP adsorption on the TiO2 (100) and (001) surfaces, changing Fermi energy shift from negative to positive value.

  14. Sensitivity comparison of fast integrated die-to-die T+R pattern inspection, standard database inspection, and STARlight2 contamination mode for application in mask production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalfuss, Heiko; Schulmeyer, Thomas; Heumann, Jan; Lang, Michael; Sier, Jean-Paul

    2007-10-01

    'Fast Integrated Die-to-Die T+R' pattern inspection (DDTR), reflected tritone database inspection (DBRt) and STARlight2 TM (SL2) contamination inspection are employed by mask makers in order to detect pattern defects and contamination defects on photomasks for in process inspection steps. In this paper we compare the detection capabilities of these modes on real production masks with a representative set of contamination and pattern defects. Currently, SL2 inspection is used to find contamination defects and die-to-die and die-to-database are used for pattern defects. In this paper we will show that the new introduced 'Fast Integrated Die-to-Die T+R' pattern inspection (DDTR)1 in combination with the DBRt can be used in production environment, instead of SL2 without any loss in the sensitivity. During the study, we collected and analyzed inspection data on critical layers such as lines & spaces and contact holes. Besides, performance of the modes on product plates characterization was done using a test mask with programmed defects.

  15. Simultaneous determination of carisoprodol and aspirin in human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in polarity switch mode: application to a human pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasulu, Vudagandla; Ramesh, Mullangi; Kumar, Inamadugu Jaswanth; Babu, Ravi Vasu; Pilli, Nageswara Rao; Krishnaiah, Abburi

    2013-02-01

    A simple, sensitive and rapid LC-MS/MS-ESI method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of the carisoprodol and aspirin in human plasma. Carisoprodol was detected in positive ion mode, whereas aspirin was detected in negative ion mode. Carbamazepine and furosemide were used as internal standards (IS) for quantification of carisoprodol and aspirin, respectively. The extraction procedure involves a liquid-liquid extraction method with ter-butyl methyl ether. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Zorbax XDB-Phenyl (4.6 × 75 mm, 3.5 µm) column using an isocratic mobile phase (5 mm ammonium acetate:methanol, 20:80, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min with a total run time of 2.2 min. A detailed method validation was performed as per the FDA guidelines. The standard curves found to be linear in the range of 25.5-4900 and 15.3-3000 ng/mL for carisoprodol and aspirin, respectively. The results met the acceptance criteria. Carisoprodol and aspirin were found to be stable in various stability studies. The validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study following co-administration of carisoprodol (250 mg) and aspirin (75 mg) tablets by oral route to human volunteers. PMID:22674769

  16. The identification and quantification of a high molecular weight light stabilizer in polycarbonate by application of an online coupling of size exclusion chromatography in stopped flow mode with pyrolysis gas chromatography time of flight mass spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Brander, Eric; Wold, Christian

    2014-10-01

    The identification and quantification of a high molecular weight light stabilizer (Uvinul 3030™) in an unknown polycarbonate sample was achieved through the application of SEC-Py-TOF-GCMS. A size exclusion column optimized to achieve resolution in the lower mass range was applied to allow the fractionation of an individual additive peak. A commercially available sampling interface was operated in stop flow mode and fractions were pyrolyzed to allow chromatographic separation of the fragments of the otherwise non-volatile stabilizer. After identification on the basis of accurate mass and elemental composition of the additive the quantification was compared using the available SEC-UV and SEC-PY-GC-TOFMS data. The resulting method provided a high degree of certainty in identification and flexibility in quantification expected to be applicable to other additives of similar volatilities or functional class.

  17. Influencing factors on the mode transition in a dual-mode scramjet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhang; Bing, Chen; Gang, Liu; Baoxi, Wei; Xu, Xu

    2014-10-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to characterize the effects of fuel type, injector configuration, inflow total temperature and fuel injection distribution on the mode transition in a dual-mode scramjet combustor. High enthalpy vitiated air was heated to three total temperatures by the hydrogen-oxygen combustion, entering the isolator entrance at a Mach number of 2.0. Fuel was injected through a four-hole aero-ramp or transverse injector, and ignited by a gas-pilot flame. At an inflow stagnation condition of P0=0.85 MPa and T0=1200 K, three combustion modes, namely Pure Scram Mode, Dual-Mode Scram Mode and Dual-Mode Ram Mode, were classified through the wall pressure distributions, one-dimensional performance analysis, and optical visualization. Two critical fuel equivalence ratios were selected to divide three combustion modes. At the lower transition point, ERlc, the transition from Pure Scram Mode to Dual-Mode Scram Mode occurred corresponding to a normalized wall pressure at x/H=2.5 of 0.23; while at the upper transition point, ERuc, the transition from Dual-Mode Scram Mode to Dual-Mode Ram Mode occurred corresponding to a normalized wall pressure at x/H=2.5 of 0.34. The transition width, ERw, was defined as the difference of two transition points. In this limited range, the combustor was operating in the Dual-Mode Scram Mode. The ERuc was estimated based on the Rayleigh flow relation, and the applicability of the analytic equation was testified through a series of experiments with different boundary conditions. The experimental results showed that two transition points in the ethylene case were higher in ER than in the hydrogen case, and the measured ERuc of two fuels were all 2.5 times larger than the predicted values. However, two fuels had little difference on the transition width. Due to the angled injection, two transition points in the aero-ramp case were higher in ER than in the transverse injector case; while the influence of injector

  18. Does occupational health nursing exist in India?

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Rajnarayan R.; Sharma, Anjali; Zodpey, Sanjay P.; Khandare, Shobha M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Occupational health services are important to develop healthy and productive work forces, which should be delivered through occupational health team. Occupational health nurse (OHN) is an important member of this team and is required to apply nursing principles in conserving the health of workers in occupational settings. Purpose: This article attempts to map the occupational health nursing courses in India and design competencies and curriculum for such a course. Materials and Methods: Information through the Internet, printed journals, and perspectives of the key stakeholders were the principal sources of data. Discussion: In India, there is a need to initiate a course on occupational health nursing to provide occupational health services for the organized and unorganized sector workforce. A certificate course for occupational health nursing for 3–4 months duration offered through contact session mode can be an opportune beginning. However, to cater employed nurses an online course can be another effective alternative. The theoretical part should essentially include modules on occupational diseases, industrial hygiene, and occupational health legislation, whereas the modules on practical aspects can include visits to industries. Taking into account the existing norms of Indian Factories Act for hazardous units of organized sector an estimated 1,34,640 OHNs are required. Conclusion: There is a need–supply gap in the number of occupational health nursing manpower in India, which can be attributed to the absence of any course to train such manpower. PMID:25598615

  19. Whispering gallery mode sensors

    PubMed Central

    Foreman, Matthew R.; Swaim, Jon D.; Vollmer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive overview of sensor technology exploiting optical whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonances. After a short introduction we begin by detailing the fundamental principles and theory of WGMs in optical microcavities and the transduction mechanisms frequently employed for sensing purposes. Key recent theoretical contributions to the modeling and analysis of WGM systems are highlighted. Subsequently we review the state of the art of WGM sensors by outlining efforts made to date to improve current detection limits. Proposals in this vein are numerous and range, for example, from plasmonic enhancements and active cavities to hybrid optomechanical sensors, which are already working in the shot noise limited regime. In parallel to furthering WGM sensitivity, efforts to improve the time resolution are beginning to emerge. We therefore summarize the techniques being pursued in this vein. Ultimately WGM sensors aim for real-world applications, such as measurements of force and temperature, or alternatively gas and biosensing. Each such application is thus reviewed in turn, and important achievements are discussed. Finally, we adopt a more forward-looking perspective and discuss the outlook of WGM sensors within both a physical and biological context and consider how they may yet push the detection envelope further. PMID:26973759

  20. Interchange mode excited by trapped energetic ions

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Seiya

    2015-07-15

    The kinetic energy principle describing the interaction between ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes with trapped energetic ions is revised. A model is proposed on the basis of the reduced ideal MHD equations for background plasmas and the bounce-averaged drift-kinetic equation for trapped energetic ions. The model is applicable to large-aspect-ratio toroidal devices. Specifically, the effect of trapped energetic ions on the interchange mode in helical systems is analyzed. Results show that the interchange mode is excited by trapped energetic ions, even if the equilibrium states are stable to the ideal interchange mode. The energetic-ion-induced branch of the interchange mode might be associated with the fishbone mode in helical systems.

  1. Large mode radius resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Michael R.

    1987-01-01

    Resonator configurations permitting operation with large mode radius while maintaining good transverse mode discrimination are considered. Stable resonators incorporating an intracavity telescope and unstable resonator geometries utilizing an output coupler with a Gaussian reflectivity profile are shown to enable large radius single mode laser operation. Results of heterodyne studies of pulsed CO2 lasers with large (11mm e sup-2 radius) fundamental mode sizes are presented demonstrating minimal frequency sweeping in accordance with the theory of laser-induced medium perturbations.

  2. Coupled-mode equation of polarization modes of twisted birefringent fibers in a unified coordinate.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zujie; Yang, Fei; Cai, Haiwen; Qu, Ronghui

    2013-01-20

    A coupled-mode equation (CME) of twisted birefringent fiber is presented in this paper, which uses the degenerate polarization modes of single-mode fibers as eigenmodes in a unified coordinate. The inconsistency between the coordinate and the rotating principal axis, existing in the previous CME, is solved by conversion to the lab coordinate. The CME gives self-consistent results for fibers with high birefringence or low birefringence and for single-mode fibers as well. Analyses and simulations show the CME gives characteristics of twisted birefringent fiber coincident with the property of polarization-maintaining fibers.

  3. Does Metabolically Healthy Obesity Exist?

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Garach, Araceli; Cornejo-Pareja, Isabel; Tinahones, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between obesity and other metabolic diseases have been deeply studied. However, there are clinical inconsistencies, exceptions to the paradigm of “more fat means more metabolic disease”, and the subjects in this condition are referred to as metabolically healthy obese (MHO).They have long-standing obesity and morbid obesity but can be considered healthy despite their high degree of obesity. We describe the variable definitions of MHO, the underlying mechanisms that can explain the existence of this phenotype caused by greater adipose tissue inflammation or the different capacity for adipose tissue expansion and functionality apart from other unknown mechanisms. We analyze whether these subjects improve after an intervention (traditional lifestyle recommendations or bariatric surgery) or if they stay healthy as the years pass. MHO is common among the obese population and constitutes a unique subset of characteristics that reduce metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors despite the presence of excessive fat mass. The protective factors that grant a healthier profile to individuals with MHO are being elucidated. PMID:27258304

  4. Measurement equivalence in mixed mode surveys.

    PubMed

    Hox, Joop J; De Leeuw, Edith D; Zijlmans, Eva A O

    2015-01-01

    Surveys increasingly use mixed mode data collection (e.g., combining face-to-face and web) because this controls costs and helps to maintain good response rates. However, a combination of different survey modes in one study, be it cross-sectional or longitudinal, can lead to different kinds of measurement errors. For example, respondents in a face-to-face survey or a web survey may interpret the same question differently, and might give a different answer, just because of the way the question is presented. This effect of survey mode on the question-answer process is called measurement mode effect. This study develops methodological and statistical tools to identify the existence and size of mode effects in a mixed mode survey. In addition, it assesses the size and importance of mode effects in measurement instruments using a specific mixed mode panel survey (Netherlands Kinship Panel Study). Most measurement instruments in the NKPS are multi-item scales, therefore confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) will be used as the main analysis tool, using propensity score methods to correct for selection effects. The results show that the NKPS scales by and large have measurement equivalence, but in most cases only partial measurement equivalence. Controlling for respondent differences on demographic variables, and on scale scores from the previous uni-mode measurement occasion, tends to improve measurement equivalence, but not for all scales. The discussion ends with a review of the implications of our results for analyses employing these scales.

  5. Measurement equivalence in mixed mode surveys

    PubMed Central

    Hox, Joop J.; De Leeuw, Edith D.; Zijlmans, Eva A. O.

    2015-01-01

    Surveys increasingly use mixed mode data collection (e.g., combining face-to-face and web) because this controls costs and helps to maintain good response rates. However, a combination of different survey modes in one study, be it cross-sectional or longitudinal, can lead to different kinds of measurement errors. For example, respondents in a face-to-face survey or a web survey may interpret the same question differently, and might give a different answer, just because of the way the question is presented. This effect of survey mode on the question-answer process is called measurement mode effect. This study develops methodological and statistical tools to identify the existence and size of mode effects in a mixed mode survey. In addition, it assesses the size and importance of mode effects in measurement instruments using a specific mixed mode panel survey (Netherlands Kinship Panel Study). Most measurement instruments in the NKPS are multi-item scales, therefore confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) will be used as the main analysis tool, using propensity score methods to correct for selection effects. The results show that the NKPS scales by and large have measurement equivalence, but in most cases only partial measurement equivalence. Controlling for respondent differences on demographic variables, and on scale scores from the previous uni-mode measurement occasion, tends to improve measurement equivalence, but not for all scales. The discussion ends with a review of the implications of our results for analyses employing these scales. PMID:25699002

  6. Integrated mode converter for mode division multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Galacho, Diego; Alonso-Ramos, Carlos Alberto; Marris-Morini, Delphine; Vakarin, Vladyslav; Le Roux, Xavier; Ortega-Moñux, Alejandro; Wangüemert-Perez, Juan Gonzalo; Vivien, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    The ever growing demands of bandwidth in optical communication systems are making traditional Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) based systems to reach its limit. In order to cope with future bandwidth demand is necessary to use new levels of orthogonality, such as the waveguide mode or the polarization state. Mode Division Multiplexing (MDM) has recently attracted attention as a possible solution to increase aggregate bandwidth. In this work we discuss the proposition a of mode converter that can cover the whole C-Band of optical communications. The Mode Converter is based on two Multimode Interference (MMI) couplers and a phase shifter. Insertion loss (IL) below 0.2 dB and Extinction ratio (ER) higher than 20 dB in a broad bandwidth range of 1.5 μm to 1.6 μm have been estimated. The total length of the device is less than 30 μm.

  7. Few-mode fibers for mode division multiplexing transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Hirokazu; Morioka, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    A study is presented of the fiber properties needed to achieve 10-mode multiplexing transmission. A combination of MIMO processing with optical LP mode separation is proposed to prevent the need for massive MIMO computation. The impact of mode crosstalk, differential mode delay, and the mode dependent loss of the few-mode fibers on mode multiplexing are discussed.

  8. [Method of existence analytic psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Längle, A

    1990-01-01

    Introducing questions of individual purpose and meaning into psychotherapy was an important contribution of Viktor Frankl and a necessary supplement to traditional psychotherapy. V. Frankls "Logotherapy" (logos = meaning) however has found its main application in counselling (especially bereavement and grief processes) and prophylactic endeavours (e.g. pedagogics). Suffering from meaninglessness, on the other hand, showed up to be a respectively rare indication for psychotherapeutic interventions in its proper sense. Thus the question was arising how to apply Frankl's valuable meaning-centered concept of man (which he called "Existential Analysis") in a genuine way to other neurosis and to personality disorders, so far "unspecific indications" to Logotherapy. This paper gives an outline and methodological foundation of "Existential Analysis Psychotherapy". A case study finally is illustrating its phenomenological proceeding. PMID:2251867

  9. [Method of existence analytic psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Längle, A

    1990-01-01

    Introducing questions of individual purpose and meaning into psychotherapy was an important contribution of Viktor Frankl and a necessary supplement to traditional psychotherapy. V. Frankls "Logotherapy" (logos = meaning) however has found its main application in counselling (especially bereavement and grief processes) and prophylactic endeavours (e.g. pedagogics). Suffering from meaninglessness, on the other hand, showed up to be a respectively rare indication for psychotherapeutic interventions in its proper sense. Thus the question was arising how to apply Frankl's valuable meaning-centered concept of man (which he called "Existential Analysis") in a genuine way to other neurosis and to personality disorders, so far "unspecific indications" to Logotherapy. This paper gives an outline and methodological foundation of "Existential Analysis Psychotherapy". A case study finally is illustrating its phenomenological proceeding.

  10. Surface modes at the interface with left-handed electromagnetic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmanyan, Sergei; Neviére, M.; Zakhidov, Anvar

    2003-03-01

    Left handed electromagnetic meta-materials (LHM) have attracted an explosion of interest, after first encouraging observations [2-4], due to tremendous perspectives for applications, such as new lenses and other microwave and optical devices. The experiments of San Diego group have proved experimentally that negative refraction can be achieved by split-ring resonator (SRR) arrays embedded into metallic meshes. In this presentation we address the problem of surface waves at LHM: surface p- and s-polarized stationary waves propagating along the interface between left-handed electromagnetic meta-material (LHM) with three types of conventional materials: metals, dielectrics, and magnetic media with negative m(w)<0 ) are studied. The constraints for the existence of surface modes in each case are identified and analyzed. It is shown that the frequency domains of existence, for p- and s- modes are quite different for different types of interfaces. The Poyting vector and the density of energy associated with surface mode at each type of interface are calculated. Depending on the system parameters either p- or s- surface mode has the time-averaged Poyting vector directed opposite to phase velocity of the interface mode.

  11. Stable, accurate and efficient computation of normal modes for horizontal stratified models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bo; Chen, Xiaofei

    2016-06-01

    We propose an adaptive root-determining strategy that is very useful when dealing with trapped modes or Stoneley modes whose energies become very insignificant on the free surface in the presence of low-velocity layers or fluid layers in the model. Loss of modes in these cases or inaccuracy in the calculation of these modes may then be easily avoided. Built upon the generalized reflection/transmission coefficients, the concept of "family of secular functions" that we herein call "adaptive mode observers", is thus naturally introduced to implement this strategy, the underlying idea of which has been distinctly noted for the first time and may be generalized to other applications such as free oscillations or applied to other methods in use when these cases are encountered. Additionally, we have made further improvements upon the generalized reflection/transmission coefficient method; mode observers associated with only the free surface and low-velocity layers (and the fluid/solid interface if the model contains fluid layers) are adequate to guarantee no loss and high precision at the same time of any physically existent modes without excessive calculations. Finally, the conventional definition of the fundamental mode is reconsidered, which is entailed in the cases under study. Some computational aspects are remarked on. With the additional help afforded by our superior root-searching scheme and the possibility of speeding calculation using a less number of layers aided by the concept of "turning point", our algorithm is remarkably efficient as well as stable and accurate and can be used as a powerful tool for widely related applications.

  12. Stable, accurate and efficient computation of normal modes for horizontal stratified models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bo; Chen, Xiaofei

    2016-08-01

    We propose an adaptive root-determining strategy that is very useful when dealing with trapped modes or Stoneley modes whose energies become very insignificant on the free surface in the presence of low-velocity layers or fluid layers in the model. Loss of modes in these cases or inaccuracy in the calculation of these modes may then be easily avoided. Built upon the generalized reflection/transmission coefficients, the concept of `family of secular functions' that we herein call `adaptive mode observers' is thus naturally introduced to implement this strategy, the underlying idea of which has been distinctly noted for the first time and may be generalized to other applications such as free oscillations or applied to other methods in use when these cases are encountered. Additionally, we have made further improvements upon the generalized reflection/transmission coefficient method; mode observers associated with only the free surface and low-velocity layers (and the fluid/solid interface if the model contains fluid layers) are adequate to guarantee no loss and high precision at the same time of any physically existent modes without excessive calculations. Finally, the conventional definition of the fundamental mode is reconsidered, which is entailed in the cases under study. Some computational aspects are remarked on. With the additional help afforded by our superior root-searching scheme and the possibility of speeding calculation using a less number of layers aided by the concept of `turning point', our algorithm is remarkably efficient as well as stable and accurate and can be used as a powerful tool for widely related applications.

  13. Modeling G protein-coupled receptors for structure-based drug discovery using low-frequency normal modes for refinement of homology models: application to H3 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Rai, Brajesh K; Tawa, Gregory J; Katz, Alan H; Humblet, Christine

    2010-02-01

    G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) are integral membrane proteins that play important role in regulating key physiological functions, and are targets of about 50% of all recently launched drugs. High-resolution experimental structures are available only for very few GPCRs. As a result, structure-based drug design efforts for GPCRs continue to rely on in silico modeling, which is considered to be an extremely difficult task especially for these receptors. Here, we describe Gmodel, a novel approach for building 3D atomic models of GPCRs using a normal mode-based refinement of homology models. Gmodel uses a small set of relevant low-frequency vibrational modes derived from Random Elastic Network model to efficiently sample the large-scale receptor conformation changes and generate an ensemble of alternative models. These are used to assemble receptor-ligand complexes by docking a known active into each of the alternative models. Each of these is next filtered using restraints derived from known mutation and binding affinity data and is refined in the presence of the active ligand. In this study, Gmodel was applied to generate models of the antagonist form of histamine 3 (H3) receptor. The validity of this novel modeling approach is demonstrated by performing virtual screening (using the refined models) that consistently produces highly enriched hit lists. The models are further validated by analyzing the available SAR related to classical H3 antagonists, and are found to be in good agreement with the available experimental data, thus providing novel insights into the receptor-ligand interactions.

  14. [An Improved Empirical Mode Decomposition Algorithm for Phonocardiogram Signal De-noising and Its Application in S1/S2 Extraction].

    PubMed

    Gong, Jing; Nie, Shengdong; Wang, Yuanjun

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, an improved empirical mode decomposition (EMD) algorithm for phonocardiogram (PCG) signal de-noising is proposed. Based on PCG signal processing theory, the S1/S2 components can be extracted by combining the improved EMD-Wavelet algorithm and Shannon energy envelope algorithm. Firstly, by applying EMD-Wavelet algorithm for pre-processing, the PCG signal was well filtered. Then, the filtered PCG signal was saved and applied in the following processing steps. Secondly, time domain features, frequency domain features and energy envelope of the each intrinsic mode function's (IMF) were computed. Based on the time frequency domain features of PCG's IMF components which were extracted from the EMD algorithm and energy envelope of the PCG, the S1/S2 components were pinpointed accurately. Meanwhile, a detecting fixed method, which was based on the time domain processing, was proposed to amend the detection results. Finally, to test the performance of the algorithm proposed in this paper, a series of experiments was contrived. The experiments with thirty samples were tested for validating the effectiveness of the new method. Results of test experiments revealed that the accuracy for recognizing S1/S2 components was as high as 99.75%. Comparing the results of the method proposed in this paper with those of traditional algorithm, the detection accuracy was increased by 5.56%. The detection results showed that the algorithm described in this paper was effective and accurate. The work described in this paper will be utilized in the further studying on identity recognition.

  15. Energy trapping of thickness-shear vibration modes of elastic plates with functionally graded materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji; Yang, Jiashi; Li, Jiangyu

    2007-03-01

    Energy trapping has important applications in the design of thickness-shear resonators. Considerable efforts have been made for the effective utilization and improvement of energy trapping with variations of plate configurations, such as adding electrodes and contouring. As a new approach in seeking improved energy trapping feature, we analyze thickness-shear vibrations in an elastic plate with functionally graded material (FGM) of in-plane variation of mechanical properties, such as elastic constants and density. A simple and general equation governing the thickness-shear modes is derived from a variational analysis. A plate with piecewise constant material properties is analyzed as an example. It is shown that such a plate can support thickness-shear vibration modes with obvious energy trapping. Bechmann's number for the existence of only one trapped mode also can be determined accordingly.

  16. A relation between multipath group velocity, mode number, and ray cycle distance.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Chris H

    2012-07-01

    Weston's ray invariant or "characteristic time" in a range-dependent environment is exactly equivalent to the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin phase integral for ducted normal modes. By considering a ray element it is shown that the ray invariant can also be written in terms of ray cycle distance and cycle time. This leads to a useful formula for group velocity in terms of cycle distance and mode number. Drawing a distinction between the ray and wave interpretation, the Airy phase (i.e., the existence of a group velocity minimum) can be included in this approach. Favorable comparisons are made with group velocities derived from a normal mode model. The relationship is valid for variable sound speed and variable bathymetry, and this is demonstrated numerically. The formula is applicable to active sonar, multipath pulse shape, target signatures, reverberation, tomography, and underwater communications. PMID:22779454

  17. A relation between multipath group velocity, mode number, and ray cycle distance.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Chris H

    2012-07-01

    Weston's ray invariant or "characteristic time" in a range-dependent environment is exactly equivalent to the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin phase integral for ducted normal modes. By considering a ray element it is shown that the ray invariant can also be written in terms of ray cycle distance and cycle time. This leads to a useful formula for group velocity in terms of cycle distance and mode number. Drawing a distinction between the ray and wave interpretation, the Airy phase (i.e., the existence of a group velocity minimum) can be included in this approach. Favorable comparisons are made with group velocities derived from a normal mode model. The relationship is valid for variable sound speed and variable bathymetry, and this is demonstrated numerically. The formula is applicable to active sonar, multipath pulse shape, target signatures, reverberation, tomography, and underwater communications.

  18. The dating and interpretation of a Mode 1 site in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Barham, Lawrence; Phillips, William M; Maher, Barbara A; Karloukovski, Vassil; Duller, Geoff A T; Jain, Mayank; Wintle, Ann G

    2011-05-01

    Flake based assemblages (Mode 1) comprise the earliest stone technologies known, with well-dated Oldowan sites occurring in eastern Africa between ~2.6-1.7 Ma, and in less securely dated contexts in central, southern and northern Africa. Our understanding of the spread and local development of this technology outside East Africa remains hampered by the lack of reliable numerical dating techniques applicable to non-volcanic deposits. This study applied the still relatively new technique of cosmogenic nuclide burial dating ((10)Be/(26)Al) to calculate burial ages for fluvial gravels containing Mode 1 artefacts in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia. The Manzi River, a tributary of the Luangwa River, has exposed a 4.7 m deep section of fluvial sands with discontinuous but stratified gravel layers bearing Mode 1, possibly Oldowan, artefacts in the basal layers. An unconformity divides the Manzi section, separating Mode 1 deposits from overlying gravels containing Mode 3 (Middle Stone Age) artefacts. No diagnostic Mode 2 (Acheulean) artefacts were found. Cosmogenic nuclide burial dating was attempted for the basal gravels as well as exposure ages for the upper Mode 3 gravels, but was unsuccessful. The complex depositional history of the site prevented the calculation of reliable age models. A relative chronology for the full Manzi sequence was constructed, however, from the magnetostratigraphy of the deposit (N>R>N sequence). Isothermal thermoluminescence (ITL) dating of the upper Mode 3 layers also provided consistent results (~78 ka). A coarse but chronologically coherent sequence now exists for the Manzi section with the unconformity separating probable mid- or early Pleistocene deposits below from late Pleistocene deposits above. The results suggest Mode 1 technology in the Luangwa Valley may post-date the Oldowan in eastern and southern Africa. The dating programme has contributed to a clearer understanding of the geomorphological processes that have shaped the valley and

  19. The dating and interpretation of a Mode 1 site in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barham, L.; Phillips, W.M.; Maher, B.A.; Karloukovski, V.; Duller, G.A.T.; Jain, M.; Wintle, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Flake based assemblages (Mode 1) comprise the earliest stone technologies known, with well-dated Oldowan sites occurring in eastern Africa between ??? 2.6-1.7 Ma, and in less securely dated contexts in central, southern and northern Africa. Our understanding of the spread and local development of this technology outside East Africa remains hampered by the lack of reliable numerical dating techniques applicable to non-volcanic deposits. This study applied the still relatively new technique of cosmogenic nuclide burial dating (10Be/26Al) to calculate burial ages for fluvial gravels containing Mode 1 artefacts in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia. The Manzi River, a tributary of the Luangwa River, has exposed a 4.7 m deep section of fluvial sands with discontinuous but stratified gravel layers bearing Mode 1, possibly Oldowan, artefacts in the basal layers. An unconformity divides the Manzi section, separating Mode 1 deposits from overlying gravels containing Mode 3 (Middle Stone Age) artefacts. No diagnostic Mode 2 (Acheulean) artefacts were found. Cosmogenic nuclide burial dating was attempted for the basal gravels as well as exposure ages for the upper Mode 3 gravels, but was unsuccessful. The complex depositional history of the site prevented the calculation of reliable age models. A relative chronology for the full Manzi sequence was constructed, however, from the magnetostratigraphy of the deposit (N>R>N sequence). Isothermal thermoluminescence (ITL) dating of the upper Mode 3 layers also provided consistent results (???78 ka). A coarse but chronologically coherent sequence now exists for the Manzi section with the unconformity separating probable mid- or early Pleistocene deposits below from late Pleistocene deposits above. The results suggest Mode 1 technology in the Luangwa Valley may post-date the Oldowan in eastern and southern Africa. The dating programme has contributed to a clearer understanding of the geomorphological processes that have shaped the valley and

  20. New Existence Conditions for Order Complementarity Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Németh, S. Z.

    2009-09-01

    Complementarity problems are mathematical models of problems in economics, engineering and physics. A special class of complementarity problems are the order complementarity problems [2]. Order complementarity problems can be applied in lubrication theory [6] and economics [1]. The notion of exceptional family of elements for general order complementarity problems in Banach spaces will be introduced. It will be shown that for general order complementarity problems defined by completely continuous fields the problem has either a solution or an exceptional family of elements (for other notions of exceptional family of elements see [1, 2, 3, 4] and the related references therein). This solves a conjecture of [2] about the existence of exceptional family of elements for order complementarity problems. The proof can be done by using the Leray-Schauder alternative [5]. An application to integral operators will be given.

  1. Reconstruction of principal dynamical modes from climatic variability: nonlinear approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhin, Dmitry; Gavrilov, Andrey; Loskutov, Evgeny; Feigin, Alexander; Kurths, Juergen

    2015-04-01

    Analysis of multivariate time-series produced by complex systems requires efficient tools for reduction of data dimension. We consider this problem in relation to empirical modeling of climate, which implies an analysis of spatial-distributed time-series. The main goal is to establish the number of principal modes which have key contribution to data and actually governs the observed variability. Currently, the number of widely used linear methods based on PCA and factor analysis exists, which yield different data decompositions taking into consideration simultanious/time-lag correlations between spatial grid points. However, the question about possibility of improving the decomposition by taking into account nonlinear couplings between variables often remains untouched. In the report the method for constructing principal dynamic modes on the basis of low-dimensional nonlinear parametric representation of observed multivariate time-series is suggested. It is aimed to extracting the set of latent modes that both explains an essential part of variability, and obeys the simplest evolution law. Thus, this approach can be used for optimal reconstruction of the phase space for empirical prognostic modeling of observed dynamics. The evidence of nonlinear couplings in SST space-distributed data covering the Globe is investigated by the proposed approach. It is demonstrated that the obtained principal modes capture more part of SST variability than principal components (PCs) constructed by either EOF decomposition or its spatio-temporal extension. Relation of these modes to various climate phenomena is shown and discussed in the report. The application of the approach to data-driven forecast of climate bahavior is also discussed.

  2. Review on the Recent Development of Multi-mode Combined Detonation Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Le; Fan, Wei; Wang, Ke; Gao, Zhan

    2013-09-01

    In the next few decades, the development of hypersonic aircrafts will be the priority of national defense strategy of many countries, and the significance of the propulsion system applied on the aircraft is self-evident. Hypersonic aircrafts require propulsion devices that can be used independently in a wide range of Mach numbers and flight envelop, however, there have been no such propulsion systems up to now. The multi-mode combined detonation engine, which consists of four modes, is a novel propulsion concept proposed at the beginning of this century for potential application on hypersonic cruise or space access. The multi-mode combined detonation engine is a promising propulsion system which can be used independently in a wide range of Mach numbers and flight envelop. Recently, many countries attach much importance to the research of multi-mode combined detonation engine and great progress has been achieved. This paper attempts to provide an overview of the recent advances in the multi-mode combined detonation engine, and the major progress for each mode is detailed introduced. Nevertheless, there is still a need to pay more attention to the existing problems in the future.

  3. Scalar-vector soliton fiber laser mode-locked by nonlinear polarization rotation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhichao; Liu, Deming; Fu, Songnian; Li, Lei; Tang, Ming; Zhao, Luming

    2016-08-01

    We report a passively mode-locked fiber laser by nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR), where both vector and scalar soliton can co-exist within the laser cavity. The mode-locked pulse evolves as a vector soliton in the strong birefringent segment and is transformed into a regular scalar soliton after the polarizer within the laser cavity. The existence of solutions in a polarization-dependent cavity comprising a periodic combination of two distinct nonlinear waves is first demonstrated and likely to be applicable to various other nonlinear systems. For very large local birefringence, our laser approaches the operation regime of vector soliton lasers, while it approaches scalar soliton fiber lasers under the condition of very small birefringence. PMID:27505839

  4. Scalar-vector soliton fiber laser mode-locked by nonlinear polarization rotation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhichao; Liu, Deming; Fu, Songnian; Li, Lei; Tang, Ming; Zhao, Luming

    2016-08-01

    We report a passively mode-locked fiber laser by nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR), where both vector and scalar soliton can co-exist within the laser cavity. The mode-locked pulse evolves as a vector soliton in the strong birefringent segment and is transformed into a regular scalar soliton after the polarizer within the laser cavity. The existence of solutions in a polarization-dependent cavity comprising a periodic combination of two distinct nonlinear waves is first demonstrated and likely to be applicable to various other nonlinear systems. For very large local birefringence, our laser approaches the operation regime of vector soliton lasers, while it approaches scalar soliton fiber lasers under the condition of very small birefringence.

  5. Characteristic analysis of two-mode fiber Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Li; Hu, Guijun; Xiao, Jian; Chang, Yuxin; Bai, Song; Wang, Haiyan

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the two-mode FBG is intensively studied in simulation and experiment. From the perspective of mode coupling, the coupling wavelength of the two-mode FBG is analyzed theoretically and the Bragg wavelength is calculated in simulation. Meanwhile, the variation of the two-mode FBG's reflection spectrum is simulated in different power ratios of the LP11 and LP01 modes. Then, a two-mode FBG is written on SMF-28e fiber by using the phase-mask technique and the two-mode FBG's reflection spectrum has been experimentally measured by adjusting the core-offset distance between the broadband light source's pigtail and the two-mode fiber which changes the power ratio of LP11 and LP01 modes. Eventually and most importantly, the mode characteristic of the two-mode FBG is studied, and the LP11 mode is successfully obtained by using an experimental system of a two-mode FBG combined with an optical circulator. The results show that the two-mode FBG has a good prospect for obtaining high-order mode and for application in mode division multiplexing/demultiplexing.

  6. Characterizing a Mississippian Carbonate Reservoir for CO2-EOR and Carbon Geosequestration: Applicability of Existing Rock Physics Models and Implications to Feasibility of a Time Lapse Monitoring Program in the Wellington Oil Field, Sumner County, Kansas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lueck, A. J.; Raef, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    This study will focus on characterizing subsurface rock formations of the Wellington Field, in Sumner County, Kansas, for both geosequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the saline Arbuckle formation and enhanced oil recovery of a depleting Mississippian oil reservoir. Multi-scale data including lithofacies core samples, X-ray diffraction, digital rock physics scans, scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging, well log data including sonic and dipole sonic, and surface 3D seismic reflection data will be integrated to establish and/or validate a new or existing rock physics model that best represents our reservoir rock types and characteristics. We will acquire compressional wave velocity and shear wave velocity data from Mississippian and Arbuckle cores by running ultrasonic tests using an Ult 100 Ultrasonic System and a 12 ton hydraulic jack located in the geophysics lab in Thompson Hall at Kansas State University. The elastic constants Young's Modulus, Bulk Modulus, Shear (Rigidity) Modulus and Poisson's Ratio will be extracted from these velocity data. Ultrasonic velocities will also be compared to sonic and dipole sonic log data from the Wellington 1-32 well. These data will be integrated to validate a lithofacies classification statistical model, which will be and partially has been applied to the largely unknown saline Arbuckle formation, with hopes for a connection, perhaps via Poisson's ratio, allowing a time-lapse seismic feasibility assessment and potentially developing a transformation of compressional wave sonic velocities to shear wave sonic for all wells, where compressional wave sonic is available. We will also be testing our rock physics model by predicting effects of changing effective (brine + CO2 +hydrocarbon) fluid composition on seismic properties and the implications on feasibility of seismic monitoring. Lessons learned from characterizing the Mississippian are essential to understanding the potential of utilizing similar workflows for the

  7. Wavefront measurement of single-mode quantum cascade laser beam for seed application in laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet system.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Krzysztof M; Ohta, Takeshi; Suganuma, Takashi; Yokotsuka, Toshio; Fujimoto, Junichi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru

    2012-12-01

    Quantum cascade laser (QCL) is a very attractive seed source for a multikilowatt pulsed CO2 lasers applied for driving extreme ultraviolet emitting plasmas. In this Letter, we investigate output beam properties of a QCL designed to address P18 and P20 lines of 10.6 micron band of CO2 molecule. In particular, output beam quality and stability are investigated for the first time. A well-defined linear polarization and a single-mode operation enabled a use of phase retrieval method for full description of QCL output beam. A direct, multi-image numerical phase retrieval technique was developed and successfully applied to the measured intensity patterns of a QCL beam. Very good agreement between the measured and reconstructed beam profiles was observed at distances ranging from QCL aperture to infinity, proving a good understanding of the beam propagation. The results also confirm a high spatial coherence and high stability of the beam parameters, the features expected from an excellent seed source.

  8. Design and simulation of a novel 1400 V-4000 V enhancement mode buried gate GaN HEMT for power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faramehr, Soroush; Kalna, Karol; Igić, Petar

    2014-11-01

    A novel enhancement mode structure, a buried gate gallium nitride (GaN) high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with a breakdown voltage (BV) of 1400 V-4000 V for a source-to-drain spacing (LSD) of 6 μm-32 μm, is investigated using simulations by Silvaco Atlas. The simulations are based on meticulous calibration of a conventional lateral 1 μm gate length GaN HEMT with a source-to-drain spacing of 6 μm against its experimental transfer characteristics and BV. The specific on-resistance RS for the new power transistor with the source-to-drain spacing of 6 μm showing BV = 1400 V and the source-to-drain spacing of 8 μm showing BV = 1800 V is found to be 2.3 mΩ · cm2 and 3.5 mΩ · cm2, respectively. Further improvement up to BV = 4000 V can be achieved by increasing the source-to-drain spacing to 32 μm with the specific on-resistance of RS = 35.5 mΩ · cm2. The leakage current in the proposed devices stays in the range of ˜5 × 10-9 mA mm-1.

  9. A stable snow-atmosphere coupled mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liang; Zhu, Yuxiang; Liu, Haiwen; Liu, Zhongfang; Liu, Yanju; Li, Xiuping; Chen, Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Snow is both an important lower boundary forcing of the atmosphere and a response to atmospheric forcing in the extratropics. It is still unclear whether a stable snow-atmosphere coupled mode exists in the extratropics, like the ENSO in the tropics. Using Sliding Correlation analysis over Any Window, the present study quantitatively evaluates the stability of coupling relationships between the major modes of winter snow over the Northern Hemisphere and the winter atmospheric Arctic Oscillation (AO), the Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) and the Siberian High over the period 1872-2010, and discusses their possible relationships for different seasons. Results show that the first mode of the winter snow cover fraction and the winter AO together constitute a stable snow-atmosphere coupled mode, the SNAO. The coupled mode is stronger during recent decades than before. The snow anomaly over Europe is one key factor of the SNAO mode due to the high stability there, and the polar vortex anomaly in the atmosphere is its other key factor. The continuity of signals in the SNAO between autumn and winter is weaker than that between winter and spring. The second winter snow mode is generally stably correlated with the winter AAO and was more stable before the 1970s. The AAO signal with boreal snow has a strong continuity in seasonal transition. Generally, through these coupled modes, snow and atmosphere can interact in the same season or between different seasons: autumn snow can influence the winter atmosphere; the winter atmosphere can influence spring snow.

  10. Designing a VH-mode core/L-mode edge discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Staebler, G.M.; Hinton, F.L.; Wiley, J.C.

    1995-12-01

    An operating mode with a very high confinement core like the VH-mode but a very low power flow to the divertor plates and low edge particle confinement like an L-mode would be beneficial. For a large tokamak like the proposed ITER, the power density at the separatrix is not that far above the scaled H-mode power threshold so not much of the power can be radiated inside of the separatrix without causing a return to L-mode. The thicker scrape-off layer of an L-mode increases the radiating volume of the scrape-off layer and helps shield impurities from the core. This is especially important if the first wall is metallic. In this paper an H-mode transport model based on E x B velocity shear suppression of turbulence will be used to show that it is possible to have a strongly radiating mantle near the separatrix, which keeps the edge in L-mode, while having a VH-mode core with a broad region of suppressed turbulence. The existing results of enhanced L-mode confinement during impurity injection on a number of tokamaks will be surveyed. The operating conditions which will most likely result in the further improvement of the core confinement by control of the heating, fueling, and torque profiles will be identified.

  11. Ultrasonic Doppler Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tortoli, Piero; Fidanzati, Paolo; Luca, Bassi

    Any US equipment includes Doppler facilities capable of providing information about moving structures inside the human body. In most cases, the primary interest is in the investigation of blood flow dynamics, since this may be helpful for early diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. However, there is also an increasing interest in tracking the movements of human tissues, since such movements can give an indirect evaluation of their elastic properties, which are valuable indicators of the possible presence of pathologies. This paper aims at presenting an overview of the different ways in which the Doppler technique has been developed and used in medical ultrasound (US), from early continuous wave (CW) systems to advanced pulsed wave (PW) colour-Doppler equipment. In particular, the most important technical features and clinical applications of CW, single-gate PW, multi-gate PW and flow-imaging systems are reviewed. The main signal processing approaches used for detection of Doppler frequencies are described, including time-domain and frequency-domain (spectral) methods, as well as novel strategies like, e.g., harmonic Doppler mode, which have been recently introduced to exploit the benefits of US contrast agents.

  12. Expert system interaction with existing analysis codes

    SciTech Connect

    Ransom, V.H.; Fink, R.K.; Bertch, W.J.; Callow, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Coupling expert systems with existing engineering analysis codes is a promising area in the field of artificial intelligence. The added intelligence can provide for easier and less costly use of the code and also reduce the potential for code misuse. This paper will discuss the methods available to allow interaction between an expert system and a large analysis code running on a mainframe. Concluding remarks will identify potential areas of expert system application with specific areas that are being considered in a current research program. The difficulty of interaction between an analysis code and an expert system is due to the incompatibility between the FORTRAN environment used for the analysis code and the AI environment used for the expert system. Three methods, excluding file transfer techniques, are discussed to help overcome this incompatibility. The first method is linking the FORTRAN routines to the LISP environment on the same computer. Various LISP dialects available on mainframes and their interlanguage communication capabilities are discussed. The second method involves network interaction between a LISP machine and a mainframe computer. Comparisons between the linking method and networking are noted. The third method involves the use of an expert system tool that is campatible with a FORTRAN environment. Several available tools are discussed. With the interaction methods identified, several potential application areas are considered. Selection of the specific areas that will be developed for the pilot project and applied to a thermal-hydraulic energy analysis code are noted.

  13. Liouvillian quasinormal modes of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couch, W. E.; Holder, C. L.

    2009-02-01

    We identify a countable infinity of new exact, closed-form, quasinormal mode perturbations of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes. We obtain a finite number of these modes explicitly, together with the values of the quasinormal frequency and the black hole charge for which the modes are valid. These modes are contained in the Liouvillian perturbations obtained from the application of Kovacic's well-known algorithm to Chandrasekhar's radial equations. Our results suggest that the set of quasinormal modes found in this paper, plus the known algebraically special perturbations, are the only Liouvillian quasinormal modes of Reissner-Nordstrom.

  14. Dual-Mode Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trefny, Charles J (Inventor); Dippold, Vance F (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A new dual-mode ramjet combustor used for operation over a wide flight Mach number range is described. Subsonic combustion mode is usable to lower flight Mach numbers than current dual-mode scramjets. High speed mode is characterized by supersonic combustion in a free-jet that traverses the subsonic combustion chamber to a variable nozzle throat. Although a variable combustor exit aperture is required, the need for fuel staging to accommodate the combustion process is eliminated. Local heating from shock-boundary-layer interactions on combustor walls is also eliminated.

  15. Mode analysis of beam splitter for slanted grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shubin; Zhou, Changhe; Li, Yanyang; Lu, Yancong; Wang, Jin; Liu, Kun; Wu, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Beam splitters are widely used in various optical modern systems for separating optical wave into different directions. We have proposed a novel slanted grating for beam splitter at the central wavelength of 1550nm, which can be used in the optical communication. With the simulated annealing algorithm, beam splitter slanted grating can be optimized by using the rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA). The diffraction process can be analyzed by the simplified modal method. The simplified modal method, without complicated calculation, reduces the difficult diffraction process into a vividly and physical modal. We have derived an analytical expression which can provide an insightful physical description of the simplified modal method for the slanted grating. Compared with the rectangular grating, the slanted grating has the asymmetric physical structure. Therefore, the odd grating mode can also be excited in the slanted grating under normal incidence. The odd grating mode, which only exists in the asymmetric structure, plays the role of breaking the symmetric field distribution in the output plane. The physical analytical expression of mode conversion and coupling for the slanted grating can be obtained to interpretation the asymmetric field distribution. Numerical results obtained by the rigorous coupled wave analysis verified the validity of the simplified modal method. We expect the modal method for the slanted grating set forth in this work should be helpful for the tremendous potential application of the slanted grating.

  16. Weakly propagating unstable modes in unmagnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Tautz, R. C.; Lerche, I.

    2007-07-15

    The basic theory of isolated kinetic Weibel modes [Tautz et al., J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39, 13831 (2006)] is extended to include small real frequencies, describing unstable wave modes that propagate while growing. The new method is applicable for all kinds of arbitrary (therefore including symmetric as well as asymmetric) relativistic particle distribution functions, where the axis of wave propagation describes an oblique angle with respect to a symmetry axis. For the two examples of a warm, counterstreaming Cauchy distribution and a cold two-stream distribution it is shown that, although there are now broad regions in wavenumber space of unstable wave modes, the isolated Weibel modes (which, per definition, do not propagate) are recovered. Thus, this phenomenon deserves future investigation, because, in astrophysical plasmas, virtually all distribution functions are likely to be asymmetric, therefore giving rise to isolated Weibel modes.

  17. Semiempirical models of H-mode discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, C.E.; Redi, M.; Boyd, D.; Cavallo, A.; Grek, B.; Heifetz, D.; Hulse, R.; Johnson, D.; Langer, W.; LeBlanc, B.

    1985-05-01

    The H-mode transition can lead to a rapid increase in tokamak plasma confinement. A semiempirical transport model was derived from global OH and L-mode confinement scalings and then applied to simulation of H-mode discharges. The radial diffusivities in the model also depend on local density and pressure gradients and satisfy an appropriate dimensional constraint. Examples are shown of the application of this and similar models to the detailed simulation of two discharges which exhibit an H-mode transition. The models reproduce essential features of plasma confinement in the ohmic heating, low and high confinement phases of these discharges. In particular, the evolution of plasma energy content through the H-mode transition can be reproduced without any sudden or ad hoc modification of the plasma transport formulation.

  18. The mode switching of PSR B2020+28

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Z. G.; Wang, N.; Yan, W. M.; Yuan, J. P.; Liu, Z. Y.; Chen, M. Z.; Chen, J. L.

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports on polarimetric radiation properties based on the switching modes of normal PSR B2020+28 by analyzing the data acquired from the Nanshan 25-m radio telescope at 1556 MHz. With nearly 8 hours quasi-continuous observation, the data presented some striking and updated phenomena. The change of relative intensity between the leading and trailing components is the predominant feature of mode switching. The intensity ratio between the leading and trailing components are measured for the individual profiles averaged over 30 seconds. It is found that there is an excess of high ratios over the normal distribution, which indicates that two modes exist in the pulsar. The distribution of abnormal mode has a narrower width indicating that the abnormal mode is more stable than the normal mode. A total of 76 mode switching events are detected in our data. It spends 89 % in the normal mode and 11 % in the abnormal mode. The intrinsic distributions of mode timescales are constrained with power-law distributions. The significant difference in the index of the duration distribution between normal and abnormal modes possibly indicates that the timescale for the abnormal mode to get stable is shorter than that for the normal mode. The frequent switching between both modes may indicate that the oscillations between different magnetospheric states are rapid.

  19. Building America Performance Analysis Procedures for Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, R.

    2006-05-01

    Because there are more than 101 million residential households in the United States today, it is not surprising that existing residential buildings represent an extremely large source of potential energy savings. Because thousands of these homes are renovated each year, Building America is investigating the best ways to make existing homes more energy-efficient, based on lessons learned from research in new homes. The Building America program is aiming for a 20%-30% reduction in energy use in existing homes by 2020. The strategy for the existing homes project of Building America is to establish technology pathways that reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in American homes. The existing buildings project focuses on finding ways to adapt the results from the new homes research to retrofit applications in existing homes. Research activities include a combination of computer modeling, field demonstrations, and long-term monitoring to support the development of integrated approaches to reduce energy use in existing residential buildings. Analytical tools are being developed to guide designers and builders in selecting the best approaches for each application. Also, DOE partners with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to increase energy efficiency in existing homes through the Home Performance with ENERGY STAR program.

  20. Single mode variable-sensitivity fiber optic sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, K. A.; Fogg, B. R.; Gunther, M. F.; Claus, R. O.

    1992-01-01

    We review spatially-weighted optical fiber sensors that filter specific vibration modes from one dimensional beams placed in clamped-free and clamped-clamped configurations. The sensitivity of the sensor is varied along the length of the fiber by tapering circular-core, dual-mode optical fibers. Selective vibration mode suppression on the order of 10 dB was obtained. We describe experimental results and propose future extensions to single mode sensor applications.

  1. Single LP(0,n) mode excitation in multimode fibers.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Nitin; Rustagi, Kailash C; John, Joseph

    2014-07-14

    We analyze the transmission of a Single mode - Multimode -Multimode (SMm) fiber structure with the aim of exciting a single radial mode in the second multimode fiber. We show that by appropriate choice of the length of the central multimode fiber one can obtain > 90% of the total core power in a chosen mode. We also discuss methods of removing undesirable cladding and radiation modes and estimate tolerances for practical applications.

  2. 24 CFR 200.24 - Existing projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Existing projects. 200.24 Section... Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Miscellaneous Project Mortgage Insurance § 200.24 Existing projects. A mortgage financing the purchase or refinance of an existing rental housing project...

  3. 24 CFR 200.24 - Existing projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Existing projects. 200.24 Section... Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Miscellaneous Project Mortgage Insurance § 200.24 Existing projects. A mortgage financing the purchase or refinance of an existing rental housing project...

  4. 24 CFR 200.24 - Existing projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Existing projects. 200.24 Section... Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Miscellaneous Project Mortgage Insurance § 200.24 Existing projects. A mortgage financing the purchase or refinance of an existing rental housing project...

  5. 24 CFR 200.24 - Existing projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Existing projects. 200.24 Section... Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Miscellaneous Project Mortgage Insurance § 200.24 Existing projects. A mortgage financing the purchase or refinance of an existing rental housing project...

  6. Co-existing heat currents in opposite directions in graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingchao; Wang, Xinwei; Xie, Huaqing

    2013-12-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we create an unprecedented scenario in graphene nanoribbons: co-existence of two heat currents in opposite directions at the same location. One heat current is carried by flexural mode phonons, and the other one by transverse/longitudinal modes phonons in the opposite direction. The local apparent thermal conductivity (κapp) varies in a very large range: -468 to 1434 W/m K. The negative κapp does not violate the second law of thermodynamics. It is a combined effect of the much higher thermal conductivity of flexural mode phonons and the weak coupling between them and transverse/longitudinal modes phonons.

  7. ELECTROSTATIC MODE ASSOCIATED WITH PINCH VELOCITY IN RFPS

    SciTech Connect

    DELZANNO, GIAN LUCA; FINN, JOHN M.; CHACON, LUIS

    2007-02-08

    The existence of a new electrostatic instability is shown for RFP (reversed field pinch) equilibria. This mode arises due to the non-zero equilibrium radial flow (pinch flow). In RFP simulations with no-stress boundary conditions on the tangential velocity at the radial wall, this electrostatic mode is unstable and dominates the nonlinear dynamics, even in the presence of the MHD modes typically responsible for the reversal of the axial magnetic field at edge. Nonlinearly, this mode leads to two beams moving azimuthally towards each other, which eventually collide. The electrostatic mode can be controlled by using Dirichlet (no-slip) boundary conditions on the azimuthal velocity at the radial wall.

  8. Optimal second order sliding mode control for nonlinear uncertain systems.

    PubMed

    Das, Madhulika; Mahanta, Chitralekha

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, a chattering free optimal second order sliding mode control (OSOSMC) method is proposed to stabilize nonlinear systems affected by uncertainties. The nonlinear optimal control strategy is based on the control Lyapunov function (CLF). For ensuring robustness of the optimal controller in the presence of parametric uncertainty and external disturbances, a sliding mode control scheme is realized by combining an integral and a terminal sliding surface. The resulting second order sliding mode can effectively reduce chattering in the control input. Simulation results confirm the supremacy of the proposed optimal second order sliding mode control over some existing sliding mode controllers in controlling nonlinear systems affected by uncertainty.

  9. The KRAKEN normal mode program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, M. B.

    1992-05-01

    In the late 1970's, several normal-mode models existed which were widely used for predicting acoustic transmission-loss in the ocean; however, each had its own problems. Typical difficulties included numerical instabilities for certain types of sound-speed profiles and failures to compute a complete set of ocean modes. In short, there was a need for a model that was robust, accurate, and efficient. In order to resolve these problems, a new algorithm was developed forming the basis for the KRAKEN normal mode model. Over subsequent years, KRAKEN was greatly extended, with options for modeling ocean environments that are range-independent, range-dependent, or fully 3-dimensional. The current version offers the specialist a vast number of options for treating ocean-acoustics problems (or more generally acousto-elastic waveguides). On the other hand, it is easy for a less sophisticated user to learn the small subset of tools needed for the common problem of transmission-loss modeling in range-independent ocean environments. This report addresses the need for a more complete user's guide to supplement the on-line help files. The first chapters give a fairly technical description of the mathematical and numerical basis of the model. Additional chapters give a simpler description of its use and installation in a manner that is accessible to less scientifically-oriented readers.

  10. Smooth integral sliding mode controller for the position control of Stewart platform.

    PubMed

    Kumar P, Ramesh; Chalanga, Asif; Bandyopadhyay, B

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes the application of a new algorithm for the position control of a Stewart platform. The conventional integral sliding mode controller is a combination of nominal control and discontinuous feedback control hence the overall control is discontinuous in nature. The discontinuity in the feedback control is undesirable for practical applications due to chattering which causes the wear and tear of the mechanical actuators. In this paper the existing integral sliding mode control law for systems with matched disturbances is modified by replacing the discontinuous part by a continuous modified twisting control. This proposed controller is continuous in nature due to the combinations of two continuous controls. The desired position of the platform has been achieved using the proposed controller even in the presence of matched disturbances. The effectiveness of the proposed controller has been proved with the simulation results.

  11. The X-shooter Imaging Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martayan, C.; Mehner, A.; Beccari, G.; Peña, E.; Hummel, W.; Smette, A.; Modigliani, A.; Vernet, J.; Dekker, H.; Neumayer, N.; Mainieri, V.; Moehler, S.; Castillo, R.; Riquelme, M.

    2014-06-01

    X-shooter is a three-arm multi-wavelength (~ 300-2500 nm) medium resolution spectrograph installed on the VLT's Unit Telescope 3. From April 2014, a complementary imaging mode is offered to the astronomical community. This new observing mode uses the acquisition and guiding camera facility equipped with a set of Johnson and SDSS filters and gives the option of complementing the spectroscopic data with multi-band images and photometry. The main characteristics of the X-shooter imaging mode, an outline of its calibration and a few examples of scientific applications are presented.

  12. New Modes of Knowing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samples, Bob

    1979-01-01

    Recounts the experiences of an education expert who learned from his Navajo Indian students that there are many modes of learning. Identifies the dominant modes as symbolic/abstract, visual, kinesthetic/integrative, and auditory; argues for the value of each. (First part of a two-part article.) (FL)

  13. Tearing Modes in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    White, R. B.

    2008-05-14

    This lecture gives a basic introduction to magnetic pound elds, magnetic surface destruction, toroidal equilibrium and tearing modes in a tokamak, including the linear and nonlinear development of these modes and their modi pound cation by current drive and bootstrap current, and sawtooth oscillations and disruptions.

  14. Black hole lasers, a mode analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Coutant, Antonin; Parentani, Renaud

    2010-04-15

    We show that the black hole laser effect discovered by Corley and Jacobson should be described in terms of frequency eigenmodes that are spatially bound. The spectrum contains a discrete and finite set of complex frequency modes, which appear in pairs and which encode the laser effect. In addition, it contains real frequency modes that form a continuous set when space is infinite, and which are only elastically scattered, i.e., not subject to any Bogoliubov transformation. The quantization is straightforward, but the calculation of the asymptotic fluxes is rather involved. When the number of complex frequency modes is small, our expressions differ from those given earlier. In particular, when the region between the horizons shrinks, there is a minimal distance under which no complex frequency mode exists, and no radiation is emitted. Finally, we relate this effect to other dynamical instabilities found for rotating black holes and in electric fields, and we give the conditions to get this type of instability.

  15. Optimal sensor configuration for flexible structures with multi-dimensional mode shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Minwoo; Pakzad, Shamim N.

    2015-05-01

    A framework for deciding the optimal sensor configuration is implemented for civil structures with multi-dimensional mode shapes, which enhances the applicability of structural health monitoring for existing structures. Optimal sensor placement (OSP) algorithms are used to determine the best sensor configuration for structures with a priori knowledge of modal information. The signal strength at each node is evaluated by effective independence and modified variance methods. Euclidean norm of signal strength indices associated with each node is used to expand OSP applicability into flexible structures. The number of sensors for each method is determined using the threshold for modal assurance criterion (MAC) between estimated (from a set of observations) and target mode shapes. Kriging is utilized to infer the modal estimates for unobserved locations with a weighted sum of known neighbors. A Kriging model can be expressed as a sum of linear regression and random error which is assumed as the realization of a stochastic process. This study presents the effects of Kriging parameters for the accurate estimation of mode shapes and the minimum number of sensors. The feasible ranges to satisfy MAC criteria are investigated and used to suggest the adequate searching bounds for associated parameters. The finite element model of a tall building is used to demonstrate the application of optimal sensor configuration. The dynamic modes of flexible structure at centroid are appropriately interpreted into the outermost sensor locations when OSP methods are implemented. Kriging is successfully used to interpolate the mode shapes from a set of sensors and to monitor structures associated with multi-dimensional mode shapes.

  16. Zero-mode waveguides

    DOEpatents

    Levene, Michael J.; Korlach, Jonas; Turner, Stephen W.; Craighead, Harold G.; Webb, Watt W.

    2007-02-20

    The present invention is directed to a method and an apparatus for analysis of an analyte. The method involves providing a zero-mode waveguide which includes a cladding surrounding a core where the cladding is configured to preclude propagation of electromagnetic energy of a frequency less than a cutoff frequency longitudinally through the core of the zero-mode waveguide. The analyte is positioned in the core of the zero-mode waveguide and is then subjected, in the core of the zero-mode waveguide, to activating electromagnetic radiation of a frequency less than the cut-off frequency under conditions effective to permit analysis of the analyte in an effective observation volume which is more compact than if the analysis were carried out in the absence of the zero-mode waveguide.

  17. Excursions through KK modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuuchi, Kazuyuki

    2016-07-01

    In this article we study Kaluza-Klein (KK) dimensional reduction of massive Abelian gauge theories with charged matter fields on a circle. Since local gauge transformations change position dependence of the charged fields, the decomposition of the charged matter fields into KK modes is gauge dependent. While whole KK mass spectrum is independent of the gauge choice, the mode number depends on the gauge. The masses of the KK modes also depend on the field value of the zero-mode of the extra dimensional component of the gauge field. In particular, one of the KK modes in the KK tower of each massless 5D charged field becomes massless at particular values of the extra-dimensional component of the gauge field. When the extra-dimensional component of the gauge field is identified with the inflaton, this structure leads to recursive cosmological particle productions.

  18. Dual-mode Continuous Arrhythmias Telemonitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amien, Magdi B. M.; Lin, Jiarui

    Coronary artery disease still remains the main cause of death. The existence of silent myocardial isocheim emphasized the need for All-day real-time monitoring. Therefore patient monitoring during normal activity has become increasingly important as a standard preventive craniological procedure for detection of cardiac Arrhythmias, transient ischemic episodes and silent myocardial ischemia. This paper deals the design and implementation of a Dual-mode, (700 m) Wireless Real-time Arrhythmias monitoring and Auto-warning System. The system consists of slave node, and master node with a PC-based Application user interface. The system operates at the license-free open frequency band 915 MHZ. The slave node is a DSP-based smart board carried by the patient; it acquires two channels of full-spectrum ECG, stores samples on a Flash memory capable of handling 1GBits of data, compress and transmits a digitally-processed cardiac heart signal each time with detected QRS synchronous pulses as transmission data packet. The master node is responsible for receiving, decompressing, and analyzing the transmitted data packets. The SRWF-501F915 integrated module realizes the data transmitting and receiving. The developed system can be configured as master-slave or Stand-Alone topology.

  19. Dynamic loads analyses of flexible airplanes - New and existing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pototzky, A. S.; Perry, B., III

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews existing techniques for calculating dynamic loads for flexible airplanes and presents a new technique. The new technique involves the summation-of-forces method of writing dynamic loads equations. Until now this form of the dynamic loads equations has been formulated in the frequency domain. The new technique uses s-plane approximation methods (previously applied only to the equations of motion) to transform the dynamic loads equations from a second-order frequency-domain formulation with frequency-dependent coefficients into a linear-time-invariant state-space formulation. Several numerical examples demonstrate the usefulfness of the new technique and the high quality of the results. In addition, a convergence investigation establishes that the summation-of-forces method converges more quickly (that is, with fewer modes) than does the mode displacement method.

  20. Slow Modes in Convecting Liquid Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurnou, J. M.; Ribeiro, A.; Calkins, M. A.; Julien, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Slow, large-scale magnetostrophic wave modes are expected to develop in rapidly-rotating magnetohydrodynamic systems. These slow modes arise due to a leading order balance between Coriolis and Lorentz forces, with negligible effects of fluid inertia. Such slow modes have long been argued to be the primary cause of the long period (e.g., century-scale) variations in observations of the geomagnetic field. Yet, to date, such slow modes have yet to develop in global-scale numerical models of planetary dynamo action. Here we present the results of closely coupled laboratory-numerical simulations of rapidly rotating magnetoconvection in liquid gallium, in which we find strong evidence for slow modes developing near, as well as beyond, the onset of convection. Preliminary results from an associated survey of numerical simulations are allowing us to determine under what range of conditions slow convective modes exist. Thus far, it appears they develop only in low Prandtl number fluids, in which the thermal diffusivity significantly exceeds the viscous diffusivity, as occurs in liquid metals. Our findings suggest more metal-like fluid properties are necessary for the development of slow modes in convection-driven global-scale dynamo models.