Science.gov

Sample records for existing cng infrastructure

  1. CNG and Fleets: Building Your Business Case

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-01

    Two online resources help fleets evaluate the economic soundness of a compressed natural gas program. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Vehicle Infrastructure and Cash-Flow Evaluation (VICE 2.0) model and the accompanying report, Building a Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Fleet Applications, are uniquely designed for fleet managers considering an investment in CNG and can help ensure wise investment decisions about CNG vehicles and infrastructure.

  2. Compressed natural gas (CNG) measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Husain, Z.D.; Goodson, F.D.

    1995-12-01

    The increased level of environmental awareness has raised concerns about pollution. One area of high attention is the internal combustion engine. The internal combustion engine in and of itself is not a major pollution threat. However, the vast number of motor vehicles in use release large quantities of pollutants. Recent technological advances in ignition and engine controls coupled with unleaded fuels and catalytic converters have reduced vehicular emissions significantly. Alternate fuels have the potential to produce even greater reductions in emissions. The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) has been a significant alternative to accomplish the goal of cleaner combustion. Of the many alternative fuels under investigation, compressed natural gas (CNG) has demonstrated the lowest levels of emission. The only vehicle certified by the State of California as an Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV) was powered by CNG. The California emissions tests of the ULEV-CNG vehicle revealed the following concentrations: Non-Methane Hydrocarbons 0.005 grams/mile Carbon Monoxide 0.300 grams/mile Nitrogen Oxides 0.040 grams/mile. Unfortunately, CNG vehicles will not gain significant popularity until compressed natural gas is readily available in convenient locations in urban areas and in proximity to the Interstate highway system. Approximately 150,000 gasoline filling stations exist in the United States while number of CNG stations is about 1000 and many of those CNG stations are limited to fleet service only. Discussion in this paper concentrates on CNG flow measurement for fuel dispensers. Since the regulatory changes and market demands affect the flow metering and dispenser station design those aspects are discussed. The CNG industry faces a number of challenges.

  3. Technical aspects of CNG

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, J.; Jones, K.

    1983-07-01

    This report contains the following information: the volumetric Efficiency of Engines using Liquid and Gaseous Fuels (Why do CNG vehicles suffer a power loss.); Facilities and Procedures for CNG Testing at the University of Auckland. (What tests are the University of Auckland CNG Research Group able to do.); Carbon Monoxide Exhaust Emissions and the CNG Engine. (How can a CO exhaust emissions analyser be used to get the best fuel economy.); Ignition Timing and the Performance of a Dual-Fuel CNG-Petrol Engine. (How should ignition timing be set.); Ignition System Performance and Requirements for Dual Fuel CNG-Petrol Operation. (What are the spark plug temperature and voltage requirements.)

  4. Argentine gas plant expansion makes most of existing infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Kernan, K.; Carranza, D.

    1997-05-26

    Expansion currently under way at a large gas-processing plant near Bahia Blanca, Argentina, illustrates how incremental projects leveraged off existing facilities can be built at reduced investment. For $60 million, Transportadora de Gas del Sur S.A. (TGS) is increasing capacity at the General Cerri gas-processing plant by a net 17 million cu m/day (490 MMcfd) and storage capacity by 45,000 cu m. To build these facilities from scratch would cost as much as $150 million. By taking advantage of, or leveraging off, the infrastructure in place (land, compression, pipelines, water, and electricity), the project is capitalizing on existing gas flows. The paper describes current operations, the expansion, the addition of aftercoolers, and storage expansion.

  5. COMPARISON OF CLEAN DIESEL BUSES TO CNG BUSES

    SciTech Connect

    Lowell, D.; Parsley, W.; Bush,C; Zupo, D.

    2003-08-24

    Using previously published data on regulated and unregulated emissions, this paper will compare the environmental performance of current generation transit buses operated on compressed natural gas (CNG) to current generation transit buses operated on ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD) and incorporating diesel particulate filters (DPF). Unregulated emissions evaluated include toxic compounds associated with adverse health effects (carbonyl, PAH, NPAH, benzene) as well as PM particle count and size distribution. For all regulated and unregulated emissions, both technologies are shown to be comparable. DPF equipped diesel buses and CNG buses have virtually identical levels of PM mass emissions and particle number emissions. DPF-equipped diesel buses have lower HC and CO emissions and lower emissions of toxic substances such as benzene, carbonyls and PAHs than CNG buses. CNG buses have lower NOx emissions than DPF-equipped buses, though CNG bus NOx emissions are shown to be much more variable. In addition, this paper will compare the capital and operating costs of CNG and DPF-equipped buses. The cost comparison is primarily based on the experience of MTA New York City Transit in operating CNG buses since 1995 and DPF-equipped buses fueled with ULSD since 2001. Published data on the experience of other large transit agencies in operating CNG buses is used to validate the NYCT experience. The incremental cost (compared to ''baseline'' diesel) of operating a typical 200-bus depot is shown to be six times higher for CNG buses than for ''clean diesel'' buses. The contributors to this increased cost for CNG buses are almost equally split between increased capital costs for purchase of buses and installation of fueling infrastructure, and increased operating costs for purchase of fuel, bus maintenance, and fuel station maintenance.

  6. Flexible Reconfiguration of Existing Urban Water Infrastructure Systems.

    PubMed

    Perelman, Lina Sela; Allen, Michael; Preis, Ami; Iqbal, Mudasser; Whittle, Andrew J

    2015-11-17

    This paper presents a practical methodology for the flexible reconfiguration of existing water distribution infrastructure, which is adaptive to the water utility constraints and facilitates in operational management for pressure and water loss control. The network topology is reconfigured into a star-like topology, where the center node is a connected subset of transmission mains, that provides connection to water sources, and the nodes are the subsystems that are connected to the sources through the center node. In the proposed approach, the system is first decomposed into the main and subsystems based on graph theory methods and then the network reconfiguration problem is approximated as a single-objective linear programming problem, which is efficiently solved using a standard solver. The performance and resiliency of the original and reconfigured systems are evaluated through direct and surrogate measures. The methodology is demonstrated using two large-scale water distribution systems, showing the flexibility of the proposed approach. The results highlight the benefits and disadvantages of network decentralization.

  7. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn

    2004-03-01

    This report documents work performed in Phase I of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report describes a number of potential enhancements to the existing natural gas compression infrastructure that have been identified and qualitatively demonstrated in tests on three different integral engine/compressors in natural gas transmission service.

  8. Configuration Data Management (CDM) on a Shoestring Identifying & Utilizing an Existing Configuration & Data Management Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    VANN, J.M.

    2000-08-24

    The spreading need for and use of configuration and data management (CDM) standards has highlighted a number of challenges to the companies that need to implement those standards. For companies and organizations that are new to CDM or have limited CDM capabilities, one of the major dilemmas faced is identifying how and where to start. In many cases there is a need to contend with a legacy of poorly identified items and information and an immature or non-existent CDM infrastructure (processes, procedures, people, and information systems). To the company management and CDM professional this poses a seemingly insurmountable task of putting in place a CDM infrastructure that provides the needed benefits while keeping within an acceptable cost and schedule. This paper deals with initially establishing the CDM infrastructure using the tools that a company already has available. The paper identifies features of common software applications that can be used to implement CDM principles.

  9. Future CO2 Emissions and Climate Change from Existing Energy Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, S. J.; Caldeira, K.; Matthews, D.

    2010-12-01

    If current greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations remain constant, the world would be committed to several centuries of increasing global mean temperatures and sea level rise. By contrast, near elimination of anthropogenic CO2 emissions would be required to produce diminishing GHG concentrations consistent with stabilization of mean temperatures. Yet long-lived energy and transportation infrastructure now operating can be expected to contribute substantial CO2 emissions over the next 50 years. Barring widespread retrofitting of existing power plants with carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies or the early decommissioning of serviceable infrastructure, these “committed emissions” represent infrastructural inertia which may be the primary contributor to total future warming commitment. With respect to GHG emissions, infrastructural inertia may be thought of as having two important and overlapping components: (i) infrastructure that directly releases GHGs to the atmosphere, and (ii) infrastructure that contributes to the continued production of devices that emit GHGs to the atmosphere. For example, the interstate highway and refueling infrastructure in the United States facilitates continued production of gasoline-powered automobiles. Here, we focus only on the warming commitment from infrastructure that directly releases CO2 to the atmosphere. Essentially, we answer the question: What if no additional CO2-emitting devices (e.g., power plants, motor vehicles) were built, but all the existing CO2-emitting devices were allowed to live out their normal lifetimes? What CO2 levels and global mean temperatures would we attain? Of course, the actual lifetime of devices may be strongly influenced by economic and policy constraints. For instance, a ban on new CO2-emitting devices would create tremendous incentive to prolong the lifetime of existing devices. Thus, our scenarios are not realistic, but offer a means of gauging the threat of climate change from existing

  10. Future CO2 emissions and climate change from existing energy infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Davis, Steven J; Caldeira, Ken; Matthews, H Damon

    2010-09-10

    Slowing climate change requires overcoming inertia in political, technological, and geophysical systems. Of these, only geophysical warming commitment has been quantified. We estimated the commitment to future emissions and warming represented by existing carbon dioxide-emitting devices. We calculated cumulative future emissions of 496 (282 to 701 in lower- and upper-bounding scenarios) gigatonnes of CO2 from combustion of fossil fuels by existing infrastructure between 2010 and 2060, forcing mean warming of 1.3 degrees C (1.1 degrees to 1.4 degrees C) above the pre-industrial era and atmospheric concentrations of CO2 less than 430 parts per million. Because these conditions would likely avoid many key impacts of climate change, we conclude that sources of the most threatening emissions have yet to be built. However, CO2-emitting infrastructure will expand unless extraordinary efforts are undertaken to develop alternatives.

  11. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn

    2004-01-01

    This report documents work performed in the fifth quarter of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report describes the following work: completion of analysis of data from first visit to second site; preparation for follow-up testing.

  12. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn

    2003-10-01

    This report documents work performed in the fourth quarter of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report describes the following work: second field test; test data analysis for the first field test; operational optimization plans.

  13. Integrating smart container technology into existing shipping and law enforcement infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferriere, Dale; Pysareva, Khrystyna; Rucinski, Andrzej

    2006-05-01

    While there has been important research and development in the area of smart container technologies, no system design methodologies have yet emerged for integrating this technology into the existing shipping and law enforcement infrastructure. A successful deployment of smart containers requires a precise understanding of how to integrate this new technology into the existing shipping and law enforcement infrastructure, how to establish communication interoperability, and how to establish procedures and protocols related to the operation of smart containers. In addition, this integration needs to be seamless, unobtrusive to commerce, and cost-effective. In order to address these issues, we need to answer the following series of questions: 1) Who will own and operate the smart container technology; 2) Who will be responsible for monitoring the smart container data and notifying first responders; 3) What communication technologies currently used by first responders might be adopted for smart container data transmission; and 4) How will existing cargo manifest data be integrated into smart container data. In short, we need to identify the best practices for smart container ownership and operation. In order to help provide answers to these questions, we have surveyed a sample group of representatives from law enforcement, first responder, regulatory, and private sector organizations. This paper presents smart container infrastructure best practices recommendations obtained from the results of the survey.

  14. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn

    2004-08-01

    This report documents work performed in Phase I of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infracture''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report describes a number of potential enhancements to the existing natural gas compression infrastructure that have been identified and tested on four different integral engine/compressors in natural gas transmission service.

  15. Environmental engineering of navigation infrastructure: a survey of existing practices, challenges, and potential opportunities.

    PubMed

    Fredette, Thomas J; Foran, Christy M; Brasfield, Sandra M; Suedel, Burton C

    2012-01-01

    Navigation infrastructure such as channels, jetties, river training structures, and lock-and-dam facilities are primary components of a safe and efficient water transportation system. Planning for such infrastructure has until recently involved efforts to minimize impacts on the environment through a standardized environmental assessment process. More recently, consistent with environmental sustainability concepts, planners have begun to consider how such projects can also be constructed with environmental enhancements. This study examined the existing institutional conditions within the US Army Corps of Engineers and cooperating federal agencies relative to incorporating environmental enhancements into navigation infrastructure projects. The study sought to (1) investigate institutional attitudes towards the environmental enhancement of navigation infrastructure (EENI) concept, (2) identify potential impediments to implementation and solutions to such impediments, (3) identify existing navigation projects designed with the express intent of enhancing environmental benefit in addition to the primary project purpose, (4) identify innovative ideas for increasing environmental benefits for navigation projects, (5) identify needs for additional technical information or research, and (6) identify laws, regulations, and policies that both support and hinder such design features. The principal investigation tool was an Internet-based survey with 53 questions. The survey captured a wide range of perspectives on the EENI concept including ideas, concerns, research needs, and relevant laws and policies. Study recommendations included further promotion of the concept of EENI to planners and designers, documentation of existing projects, initiation of pilot studies on some of the innovative ideas provided through the survey, and development of national goals and interagency agreements to facilitate implementation.

  16. Barwood CNG Cab Fleet Study: Final Results

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, P.; Kelly, K.; John, M.

    1999-05-03

    This report describes a fleet study conducted over a 12-month period to evaluate the operation of dedicated compress natural gas (CNG) Ford Crown Victoria sedans in a taxicab fleet. In the study, we assess the performance and reliability of the vehicles and the cost of operating the CNG vehicles compared to gasoline vehicles. The study results reveal that the CNG vehicles operated by this fleet offer both economic and environmental advantages. The total operating costs of the CNG vehicles were about 25% lower than those of the gasoline vehicles. The CNG vehicles performed as well as the gasoline vehicles, and were just as reliable. Barwood representatives and drivers have come to consider the CNG vehicles an asset to their business and to the air quality of the local community.

  17. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn

    2004-07-01

    This quarterly report documents work performed in Phase I of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report documents the second series of tests performed on a turbocharged HBA-6T engine/compressor. It also presents baseline testing for air balance investigations and initial simulation modeling of the air manifold for a Cooper GMVH6.

  18. Helix Nebula: Enabling federation of existing data infrastructures and data services to an overarching cross-domain e-infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lengert, Wolfgang; Farres, Jordi; Lanari, Riccardo; Casu, Francesco; Manunta, Michele; Lassalle-Balier, Gerard

    2014-05-01

    Helix Nebula has established a growing public private partnership of more than 30 commercial cloud providers, SMEs, and publicly funded research organisations and e-infrastructures. The Helix Nebula strategy is to establish a federated cloud service across Europe. Three high-profile flagships, sponsored by CERN (high energy physics), EMBL (life sciences) and ESA/DLR/CNES/CNR (earth science), have been deployed and extensively tested within this federated environment. The commitments behind these initial flagships have created a critical mass that attracts suppliers and users to the initiative, to work together towards an "Information as a Service" market place. Significant progress in implementing the following 4 programmatic goals (as outlined in the strategic Plan Ref.1) has been achieved: × Goal #1 Establish a Cloud Computing Infrastructure for the European Research Area (ERA) serving as a platform for innovation and evolution of the overall infrastructure. × Goal #2 Identify and adopt suitable policies for trust, security and privacy on a European-level can be provided by the European Cloud Computing framework and infrastructure. × Goal #3 Create a light-weight governance structure for the future European Cloud Computing Infrastructure that involves all the stakeholders and can evolve over time as the infrastructure, services and user-base grows. × Goal #4 Define a funding scheme involving the three stake-holder groups (service suppliers, users, EC and national funding agencies) into a Public-Private-Partnership model to implement a Cloud Computing Infrastructure that delivers a sustainable business environment adhering to European level policies. Now in 2014 a first version of this generic cross-domain e-infrastructure is ready to go into operations building on federation of European industry and contributors (data, tools, knowledge, ...). This presentation describes how Helix Nebula is being used in the domain of earth science focusing on geohazards. The

  19. Analyzing existing conventional soil information sources to be incorporated in thematic Spatial Data Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual-Aguilar, J. A.; Rubio, J. L.; Domínguez, J.; Andreu, V.

    2012-04-01

    New information technologies give the possibility of widespread dissemination of spatial information to different geographical scales from continental to local by means of Spatial Data Infrastructures. Also administrative awareness on the need for open access information services has allowed the citizens access to this spatial information through development of legal documents, such as the INSPIRE Directive of the European Union, adapted by national laws as in the case of Spain. The translation of the general criteria of generic Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) to thematic ones is a crucial point for the progress of these instruments as large tool for the dissemination of information. In such case, it must be added to the intrinsic criteria of digital information, such as the harmonization information and the disclosure of metadata, the own environmental information characteristics and the techniques employed in obtaining it. In the case of inventories and mapping of soils, existing information obtained by traditional means, prior to the digital technologies, is considered to be a source of valid information, as well as unique, for the development of thematic SDI. In this work, an evaluation of existing and accessible information that constitutes the basis for building a thematic SDI of soils in Spain is undertaken. This information framework has common features to other European Union states. From a set of more than 1,500 publications corresponding to the national territory of Spain, the study was carried out in those documents (94) found for five autonomous regions of northern Iberian Peninsula (Asturias, Cantabria, Basque Country, Navarra and La Rioja). The analysis was performed taking into account the criteria of soil mapping and inventories. The results obtained show a wide variation in almost all the criteria: geographic representation (projections, scales) and geo-referencing the location of the profiles, map location of profiles integrated with edaphic

  20. 26 CFR 48.4041-21 - Compressed natural gas (CNG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Compressed natural gas (CNG). 48.4041-21 Section... natural gas (CNG). (a) Delivery of CNG into the fuel supply tank of a motor vehicle or motorboat—(1) Imposition of tax. Tax is imposed on the delivery of compressed natural gas (CNG) into the fuel supply...

  1. 26 CFR 48.4041-21 - Compressed natural gas (CNG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Compressed natural gas (CNG). 48.4041-21... natural gas (CNG). (a) Delivery of CNG into the fuel supply tank of a motor vehicle or motorboat—(1) Imposition of tax. Tax is imposed on the delivery of compressed natural gas (CNG) into the fuel supply...

  2. 26 CFR 48.4041-21 - Compressed natural gas (CNG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Compressed natural gas (CNG). 48.4041-21... natural gas (CNG). (a) Delivery of CNG into the fuel supply tank of a motor vehicle or motorboat—(1) Imposition of tax. Tax is imposed on the delivery of compressed natural gas (CNG) into the fuel supply...

  3. 26 CFR 48.4041-21 - Compressed natural gas (CNG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Compressed natural gas (CNG). 48.4041-21... natural gas (CNG). (a) Delivery of CNG into the fuel supply tank of a motor vehicle or motorboat—(1) Imposition of tax. Tax is imposed on the delivery of compressed natural gas (CNG) into the fuel supply...

  4. U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, Hydrogen/CNG Blended Fuels Performance Testing in a Ford F-150

    SciTech Connect

    James E. Francfort

    2003-11-01

    Federal regulation requires energy companies and government entities to utilize alternative fuels in their vehicle fleets. To meet this need, several automobile manufacturers are producing compressed natural gas (CNG)-fueled vehicles. In addition, several converters are modifying gasoline-fueled vehicles to operate on both gasoline and CNG (Bifuel). Because of the availability of CNG vehicles, many energy company and government fleets have adopted CNG as their principle alternative fuel for transportation. Meanwhile, recent research has shown that blending hydrogen with CNG (HCNG) can reduce emissions from CNG vehicles. However, blending hydrogen with CNG (and performing no other vehicle modifications) reduces engine power output, due to the lower volumetric energy density of hydrogen in relation to CNG. Arizona Public Service (APS) and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (DOE AVTA) identified the need to determine the magnitude of these effects and their impact on the viability of using HCNG in existing CNG vehicles. To quantify the effects of using various blended fuels, a work plan was designed to test the acceleration, range, and exhaust emissions of a Ford F-150 pickup truck operating on 100% CNG and blends of 15 and 30% HCNG. This report presents the results of this testing conducted during May and June 2003 by Electric Transportation Applications (Task 4.10, DOE AVTA Cooperative Agreement DEFC36- 00ID-13859).

  5. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2006-01-24

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 15, 16, and 18 through 23 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report presents results of design analysis performed on the TCVC10 engine/compressor installed at Dominion's Groveport Compressor Station to develop options and guide decisions for reducing pulsations and enhancing compressor system efficiency and capacity. The report further presents progress on modifying and testing the laboratory GMVH6 at SwRI for correcting air imbalance.

  6. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2005-10-27

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 15, 16, and 18 through 23 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report first summarizes key results from survey site tests performed on an HBA-6 installed at Duke Energy's Bedford compressor station, and on a TCVC10 engine/compressor installed at Dominion's Groveport Compressor Station. The report then presents results of design analysis performed on the Bedford HBA-6 to develop options and guide decisions for reducing pulsations and enhancing compressor system efficiency and capacity. The report further presents progress on modifying and testing the laboratory GMVH6 at SwRI for correcting air imbalance.

  7. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2005-07-27

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 15, 16, and 18 through 23 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report first documents a survey site test performed on a TCVC10 engine/compressor installed at Dominion's Groveport Compressor Station. This test completes planned screening efforts designed to guide selection of one or more units for design analysis and testing with emphasis on identification and reduction of compressor losses. The report further presents the validation of the simulation model for the Air Balance tasks and outline of conceptual manifold designs.

  8. Software augmented buildings: Exploiting existing infrastructure to improve energy efficiency and comfort in commercial buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaji, Bharathan

    Commercial buildings consume 19% of energy in the US as of 2010, and traditionally, their energy use has been optimized through improved equipment efficiency and retrofits. Beyond improved hardware and infrastructure, there exists a tremendous potential in reducing energy use through better monitoring and operation. We present several applications that we developed and deployed to support our thesis that building energy use can be reduced through sensing, monitoring and optimization software that modulates use of building subsystems including HVAC. We focus on HVAC systems as these constitute 48-55% of building energy use. Specifically, in case of sensing, we describe an energy apportionment system that enables us to estimate real-time zonal HVAC power consumption by analyzing existing sensor information. With this energy breakdown, we can measure effectiveness of optimization solutions and identify inefficiencies. Central to energy efficiency improvement is determination of human occupancy in buildings. But this information is often unavailable or expensive to obtain using wide scale sensor deployment. We present our system that infers room level occupancy inexpensively by leveraging existing WiFi infrastructure. Occupancy information can be used not only to directly control HVAC but also to infer state of the building for predictive control. Building energy use is strongly influenced by human behaviors, and timely feedback mechanisms can encourage energy saving behavior. Occupants interact with HVAC using thermostats which has shown to be inadequate for thermal comfort. Building managers are responsible for incorporating energy efficiency measures, but our interviews reveal that they struggle to maintain efficiency due to lack of analytical tools and contextual information. We present our software services that provide energy feedback to occupants and building managers, improves comfort with personalized control and identifies energy wasting faults. For wide

  9. Costs Associated With Compressed Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-09-01

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with fueling infrastructure for compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles. It provides estimated cost ranges for various sizes and types of CNG fueling stations and an overview of factors that contribute to the total cost of an installed station. The information presented is based on input from professionals in the natural gas industry who design, sell equipment for, and/or own and operate CNG stations.

  10. More Bang for the Buck: Integrating Green Infrastructure into Existing Public Works Projects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    shares lessons learned from municipal and county officials experienced in coordinating green infrastructure applications with scheduled street maintenance, park improvements, and projects on public sites.

  11. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2005-01-01

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 10 through 14 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report first documents tests performed on a KVG103 engine/compressor installed at Duke's Thomaston Compressor Station. This is the first series of tests performed on a four-stroke engine under this program. Additionally, this report presents results, which complete a comparison of performance before and after modification to install High Pressure Fuel Injection and a Turbocharger on a GMW10 at Williams Station 60. Quarterly Reports 7 and 8 already presented detailed data from tests before and after this modification, but the final quantitative comparison required some further analysis, which is presented in Section 5 of this report. The report further presents results of detailed geometrical measurements and flow bench testing performed on the cylinders and manifolds of the Laboratory Cooper GMVH6 engine being employed for two-stroke engine air balance investigations. These measurements are required to enhance the detailed accuracy in modeling the dynamic interaction of air manifold, exhaust manifold, and in-cylinder fuel-air balance.

  12. When the New Application Smell Is Gone: Traditional Intranet Best Practices and Existing Web 2.0 Intranet Infrastructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoose, Becky

    2010-01-01

    With the growth of Web 2.0 library intranets in recent years, many libraries are leaving behind legacy, first-generation intranets. As Web 2.0 intranets multiply and mature, how will traditional intranet best practices--especially in the areas of planning, implementation, and evaluation--translate into an existing Web 2.0 intranet infrastructure?…

  13. Investigative Study to Determine Effects of Hydro-Treated Renewable JP-8 Jet Fuel Blend in Existing Fuels Infrastructure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    Investigative Study to Determine Effects of JP-8 Synthetic Fuel Blend in Existing Fuels Infrastructure. Seymour , T. (2009). Algae Based Jet Fuel... Robertson , S. (2007). RAA Investigation into Vehicle Faults Claimed to be Induced by the Use of Opal Fuel. Alice Springs: RAA Technical Department

  14. CNG process, a new approach to physical-absorption acid-gas removal

    SciTech Connect

    Hise, R.E.; Massey, L.G.; Adler, R.J.; Brosilow, C.B.; Gardner, N.C.; Brown, W.R.; Cook, W.J.; Petrik, M.

    1982-01-01

    The CNG acid gas removal process embodies three novel features: (1) scrubbing with liquid carbon dioxide to remove all sulfurous molecules and other trace contaminants; (2) triple-point crystallization of carbon dioxide to concentrate sulfurous molecules and produce pure carbon dioxide; and (3) absorption of carbon dioxide with a slurry of solid carbon dioxide in organic carrier liquid. The CNG process is discussed and contrasted with existing acid gas removal technology as represented by the Benfield, Rectisol, and Selexol acid gas removal processes.

  15. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Ford A. Phillips; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2006-05-31

    This project has documented and demonstrated the feasibility of technologies and operational choices for companies who operate the large installed fleet of integral engine compressors in pipeline service. Continued operations of this fleet is required to meet the projected growth of the U.S. gas market. Applying project results will meet the goals of the DOE-NETL Natural Gas Infrastructure program to enhance integrity, extend life, improve efficiency, and increase capacity, while managing NOx emissions. These benefits will translate into lower cost, more reliable gas transmission, and options for increasing deliverability from the existing infrastructure on high demand days. The power cylinders on large bore slow-speed integral engine/compressors do not in general combust equally. Variations in cylinder pressure between power cylinders occur cycle-to-cycle. These variations affect both individual cylinder performance and unit average performance. The magnitude of the variations in power cylinder combustion is dependent on a variety of parameters, including air/fuel ratio. Large variations in cylinder performance and peak firing pressure can lead to detonation and misfires, both of which can be damaging to the unit. Reducing the variation in combustion pressure, and moving the high and low performing cylinders closer to the mean is the goal of engine balancing. The benefit of improving the state of the engine ''balance'' is a small reduction in heat rate and a significant reduction in both crankshaft strain and emissions. A new method invented during the course of this project is combustion pressure ratio (CPR) balancing. This method is more effective than current methods because it naturally accounts for differences in compression pressure, which results from cylinder-to-cylinder differences in the amount of air flowing through the inlet ports and trapped at port closure. It also helps avoid compensation for low compression pressure by the addition of excess fuel

  16. Gene replacement therapy for retinal CNG channelopathies.

    PubMed

    Schön, Christian; Biel, Martin; Michalakis, Stylianos

    2013-10-01

    Visual phototransduction relies on the function of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels in the rod and cone photoreceptor outer segment plasma membranes. The role of these ion channels is to translate light-triggered changes in the second messenger cyclic guanosine 3'-5'-monophosphate levels into an electrical signal that is further processed within the retinal network and then sent to higher visual centers. Rod and cone photoreceptors express distinct CNG channels. The rod photoreceptor CNG channel is composed of one CNGB1 and three CNGA1 subunits, whereas the cone channel is formed by one CNGB3 and three CNGA3 subunits. Mutations in any of these channel subunits result in severe and currently untreatable retinal degenerative diseases like retinitis pigmentosa or achromatopsia. In this review, we provide an overview of the human diseases and relevant animal models of CNG channelopathies. Furthermore, we summarize recent results from preclinical gene therapy studies using adeno-associated viral vectors and discuss the efficacy and translational potential of these gene therapeutic approaches.

  17. Expanding the Usefulness of Existing Data-Collection Infrastructure with Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, J.

    2009-12-01

    Throughout the world, considerable effort has been expended to construct data collection networks with real-time data collection. The U.S. Geological Survey’s streamflow-gaging stations compose one such network, with over 7,000 stations providing hourly data nationwide primarily via GOES satellite telemetry. Real-time telemetry is a critical component of a robust data collection protocol, allowing problems to be identified as they occur. These existing data collection networks offer a significant opportunity for expansion with wireless sensor networks. Common to nearly every USGS gaging station, and many other real-time networks, is a data logger with an SDI-12 interface for connecting sensors. SDI-12 is an ASCII text-based serial protocol that provides a standardized method for data loggers to communicate with sensors (www.sdi-12.org). A hardware/firmware module recently developed at USGS bridges this SDI-12 interface on data loggers with commercially available wireless sensor network hardware, such as Crossbow MICA2 motes or ZigBee mesh radios. The module appears as a single SDI-12 sensor to the data logger. With each measurement command from the data logger to the module, a request for data is sent out to each node in the wireless sensor network. These data are then formatted into the appropriate SDI-12 response from the module to the data logger, with tags identifying the measurement node. The combined data from all sensors is then transmitted by the data logger to the USGS National Water Information System database, where it is parsed and stored under the appropriate sensor location. The main advantages of bridging the SDI-12 interface with wireless sensor networks are (1) sensors can be deployed in the general vicinity of gaging stations or other platforms, to take advantage of existing real-time telemetry, without being constrained by physical cabling, (2) the wireless sensor network is seen as a single SDI-12 sensor at the data logger, with consequent

  18. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE - MANIFOLD DESIGN FOR CONTROLLING ENGINE AIR BALANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. Bourn; Ford A. Phillips; Ralph E. Harris

    2005-12-01

    This document provides results and conclusions for Task 15.0--Detailed Analysis of Air Balance & Conceptual Design of Improved Air Manifolds in the ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure'' project. SwRI{reg_sign} is conducting this project for DOE in conjunction with Pipeline Research Council International, Gas Machinery Research Council, El Paso Pipeline, Cooper Compression, and Southern Star, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-02NT41646. The objective of Task 15.0 was to investigate the perceived imbalance in airflow between power cylinders in two-stroke integral compressor engines and develop solutions via manifold redesign. The overall project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity.

  19. Conceptualization of a Health Care Coalition Framework in Georgia Based on the Existing Regional Coordinating Hospital Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Harris, Curtis; Waltz, Tawny; O'Neal, James Patrick; Nadeau, Kelly; Crumpton, Matthew; Ervin, Sara

    2016-02-01

    The watershed events of September 11, 2001; the anthrax attacks; Hurricane Katrina; and H1N1 necessitated that the United States define alternative mechanisms for disaster response. Specifically, there was a need to shift from a capacity building approach to a capabilities based approach that would place more emphasis on the health care community rather than just first responders. Georgia responded to this initiative by creating a Regional Coordinating Hospital (RCH) infrastructure that was responsible for coordinating regional responses within their individual geographic footprint. However, it was quickly realized that hospitals could not accomplish community-wide preparedness as a single entity and that siloed planning must come to an end. To reconcile this issue, Georgia responded to the 2012 US Department of Health and Human Services concept of coalitions. Georgia utilized the existing RCH boundaries to define its coalition regions and began inviting all medical and nonmedical response partners to the planning table (nursing homes, community health centers, volunteer groups, law enforcement, etc). This new collaboration effectively enhanced emergency response practices in Georgia, but also identified additional preparedness-related gaps that will require attention as our coalitions continue to grow and mature.

  20. Case studies: Application of SEA in provincial level expressway infrastructure network planning in China - Current existing problems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Kaiyi; Sheate, William R.

    2011-11-15

    Since the Law of the People's Republic of China on Environmental Impact Assessment was enacted in 2003 and Huanfa 2004 No. 98 was released in 2004, Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) has been officially being implemented in the expressway infrastructure planning field in China. Through scrutinizing two SEA application cases of China's provincial level expressway infrastructure (PLEI) network plans, it is found that current SEA practice in expressway infrastructure planning field has a number of problems including: SEA practitioners do not fully understand the objective of SEA; its potential contributions to strategic planning and decision-making is extremely limited; the employed application procedure and prediction and assessment techniques are too simple to bring objective, unbiased and scientific results; and no alternative options are considered. All these problems directly lead to poor quality SEA and consequently weaken SEA's effectiveness.

  1. Identification and characterization of a putative cyclic nucleotide-gated channel, CNG-1, in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Cho, Suk-Woo; Cho, Jeong-Hoon; Song, Hyun-Ok; Park, Chul-Seung

    2005-02-28

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels encoded by the tax-4 and tax-2 genes are required for chemosensing and thermosensing in the nematode C. elegans. We identified a gene in the C. elegans genome, which we designated cng-1, that is highly homologous to tax-4. Partial CNG-1 protein tagged with green fluorescent protein was expressed in several sensory neurons of the amphid. We created a deletion mutant of cng-1, cng-1 (jh111), to investigate its in vivo function. The mutant worms had no detectable abnormalities in terms of their basic behavior or morphology. Whereas tax-4 and tax-2 mutants failed to respond to water-soluble or volatile chemical attractants, the cng-1 null mutant exhibited normal chemotaxis to such chemicals and a tax-4;cng-1 double mutant had a similar phenotype to tax-4 single mutants. Interestingly, cng-1 and tax-4 had a synergistic effect on brood size.

  2. Comparison of CNG and LNG technologies for transportation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sinor, J.E. Consultants, Inc., Niwot, CO )

    1992-01-01

    This report provides a head-to-head comparison of compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) supplied to heavy-duty vehicles. The comparison includes an assessment of the overall efficiency of the fuel delivery system, the cost of the fuel supply system, the efficiency of use in heavy-duty vehicles, and the environmental impact of each technology. The report concludes that there are applications in which CNG will have the advantage, and applications in which LNG will be preferred.

  3. Cost-effectiveness analysis of TxDOT CNG fleet conversion, volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euritt, M. A.; Taylor, D. B.; Mahmassani, H.

    1992-08-01

    Increased emphasis on energy efficiency and air quality has resulted in a number of state and federal initiatives examining the use of alternative fuels for motor vehicles. Texas' program for alternate fuels includes compressed natural gas (CNG). Based on an analysis of 30-year life-cycle costs, development of a natural gas vehicle (NGV) program for the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) would cost about $47 million (in 1991 dollars). These costs include savings from lower priced natural gas, infrastructure costs for a fast-fueling station, vehicle costs, and operating costs. The 30-year life-cycle costs translate into an average annual vehicle cost increase of $596, or about 4.9 cents more per vehicle mile of travel. Based on the cost-effectiveness analysis and assumptions, there are currently no TxDOT stations suitable for conversion to compressed natural gas.

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis of TxDOT CNG fleet conversion, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euritt, M. A.; Taylor, D. B.; Mahmassani, H.

    1992-08-01

    Increased emphasis on energy efficiency and air quality has resulted in a number of state and federal initiatives examining the use of alternative fuels for motor vehicles. A Texas program for alternate fuels includes compressed natural gas (CNG). Based on analysis of 30-year life-cycle costs, development of a natural gas vehicle (NGV) program for the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) would cost about $47 million (in 1991 dollars). These costs include savings from lower-priced natural gas, infrastructure costs for a fast-fueling station, vehicle costs, and operating costs. The 30-year life-cycle costs translate into an average annual vehicle cost increase of $596, or about 4.9 cents more per vehicle mile of travel.

  5. Ignition study of a petrol/CNG single cylinder engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, N.; Saleem, Z.; Mirza, A. A.

    2005-11-01

    Benefits of laser ignition over the electrical ignition system for Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) engines have fuelled automobile industry and led to an extensive research on basic characteristics to switch over to the emerging technologies. This study was undertaken to determine the electrical and physical characteristics of the electric spark ignition of single cylinder petrol/CNG engine to determine minimum ignition requirements and timeline of ignition events to use in subsequent laser ignition study. This communication briefly reviews the ongoing research activities and reports the results of this experimental study. The premixed petrol and CNG mixtures were tested for variation of current and voltage characteristics of the spark with speed of engine. The current magnitude of discharge circuit was found to vary linearly over a wide range of speed but the stroke to stroke fire time was found to vary nonlinearly. The DC voltage profiles were observed to fluctuate randomly during ignition process and staying constant in rest of the combustion cycle. Fire to fire peaks of current amplitudes fluctuated up to 10% of the peak values at constant speed but increased almost linearly with increase in speed. Technical barriers of laser ignition related to threshold minimum ignition energy, inter-pulse durations and firing sequence are discussed. Present findings provide a basic initiative and background information for designing suitable timeline algorithms for laser ignited leaner direct injected CNG engines.

  6. Particle and gaseous emissions from individual diesel and CNG buses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallquist, Å. M.; Jerksjö, M.; Fallgren, H.; Westerlund, J.; Sjödin, Å.

    2012-10-01

    In this study size-resolved particle and gaseous emissions from 28 individual diesel-fuelled and 7 compressed natural gas (CNG)-fuelled buses, selected from an in-use bus fleet, were characterised for real-world dilution scenarios. The method used was based on using CO2 as a tracer of exhaust gas dilution. The particles were sampled by using an extractive sampling method and analysed with high time resolution instrumentation EEPS (10 Hz) and CO2 with non-dispersive infrared gas analyser (LI-840, LI-COR Inc. 1 Hz). The gaseous constituents (CO, HC and NO) were measured by using a remote sensing device (AccuScan RSD 3000, Environmental System Products Inc.). Nitrogen oxides, NOx, were estimated from NO by using default NO2/NOx ratios from the road vehicle emission model HBEFA 3.1. The buses studied were diesel-fuelled Euro II-V and CNG-fuelled Enhanced Environmental Friendly Vehicles (EEVs) with different after-treatment, including selective catalytic reduction (SCR), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF). The primary driving mode applied in this study was accelerating mode. However, regarding the particle emissions also a constant speed mode was analysed. The investigated CNG buses emitted on average higher number of particles but less mass compared to the diesel-fuelled buses. Emission factors for number of particles (EFPN) were EFPN, DPF = 8.0 ± 3.1 × 1014, EFPN, no DPF =2.8 ± 1.6 × 1015 and EFPN, CNG = 7.8 ± 5.7 × 1015 (kg fuel-1). In the accelerating mode size-resolved EFs showed unimodal number size distributions with peak diameters of 70-90 nm and 10 nm for diesel and CNG buses, respectively. For the constant speed mode bimodal average number size distributions were obtained for the diesel buses with peak modes of ~10 nm and ~60 nm. Emission factors for NOx expressed as NO2 equivalents for the diesel buses were on average 27 ± 7 g (kg fuel)-1 and for the CNG buses 41 ± 26 g (kg fuel)-1. An anti

  7. Particle and gaseous emissions from individual diesel and CNG buses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallquist, Å. M.; Jerksjö, M.; Fallgren, H.; Westerlund, J.; Sjödin, Å.

    2013-05-01

    In this study size-resolved particle and gaseous emissions from 28 individual diesel-fuelled and 7 compressed natural gas (CNG)-fuelled buses, selected from an in-use bus fleet, were characterised for real-world dilution scenarios. The method used was based on using CO2 as a tracer of exhaust gas dilution. The particles were sampled by using an extractive sampling method and analysed with high time resolution instrumentation EEPS (10 Hz) and CO2 with a non-dispersive infrared gas analyser (LI-840, LI-COR Inc. 1 Hz). The gaseous constituents (CO, HC and NO) were measured by using a remote sensing device (AccuScan RSD 3000, Environmental System Products Inc.). Nitrogen oxides, NOx, were estimated from NO by using default NO2/NOx ratios from the road vehicle emission model HBEFA3.1. The buses studied were diesel-fuelled Euro III-V and CNG-fuelled Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicles (EEVs) with different after-treatment, including selective catalytic reduction (SCR), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF). The primary driving mode applied in this study was accelerating mode. However, regarding the particle emissions also a constant speed mode was analysed. The investigated CNG buses emitted on average a higher number of particles but less mass compared to the diesel-fuelled buses. Emission factors for number of particles (EFPN) were EFPN, DPF = 4.4 ± 3.5 × 1014, EFPN, no DPF = 2.1 ± 1.0 × 1015 and EFPN, CNG = 7.8 ± 5.7 ×1015 kg fuel-1. In the accelerating mode, size-resolved emission factors (EFs) showed unimodal number size distributions with peak diameters of 70-90 nm and 10 nm for diesel and CNG buses, respectively. For the constant speed mode, bimodal average number size distributions were obtained for the diesel buses with peak modes of ~10 nm and ~60 nm. Emission factors for NOx expressed as NO2 equivalents for the diesel buses were on average 27 ± 7 g (kg fuel)-1 and for the CNG buses 41 ± 26 g (kg

  8. Drought Assessment Using Tritium River Water Measurements for Existing Dam Infrastructure in the Ishikari River basin, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusyev, M.; Morgenstern, U.; Stewart, M. K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Kashiwaya, K.; Kuribayashi, D.; Sawano, H.; Iwami, Y.

    2015-12-01

    A proposed methodology is based on estimated groundwater volumes from tritium river water measurements in the Ishikari River basin of Hokkaido Island, Japan. In our drought assessment, we characterize a groundwater storage that is available and can be used for the water supply during prolonged droughts. For the groundwater storage estimation, we utilized tritium river water measurements obtained during baseflows to estimate water mean transit times (MTTs). Tritium is ideally suited for characterization of the catchment's responses in river water samples with MTTs times up to 200 years. Tritium is a component of meteoric water, decays with a half-life of 12.32 years, and is inert in the subsurface. In Hokkaido, river water samples were collected in June, July and October 2014 at selected river gauging stations operated by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). These stations record hourly water levels, have catchment areas between 45 and 377 km2 and are located upstream of MLIT dams at altitudes between 36 m and 860 m MSL. The measured tritium ranged between 4.065 TU (±0.07) and 5.290 TU (±0.09) with both lowest and highest tritium values analysed in June river samples at Tougeshita and Okukatsura stations, respectively. For the MTT estimation, we selected exponential(80%)-piston(20%) Lumped Parameter Model (LPM) with constructed tritium in Hokkaido precipitation and obtained a non-unique fit of young (1-11 years) and old (16-98 years) groundwater MTTs. This result indicates that the bomb-peak tritium is still present in Japanese groundwater and may take several years to flush out. From the MTTs and baseflow discharges, the calculated groundwater volume ranges between 13 MCM and 12500 MCM and indicates potentially available groundwater storage during prolonged droughts in the Hokkaido headwater catchments. In the future studies, the accuracy of the estimated groundwater volume can be increased by conducting another tritium sampling at

  9. A comparison of exhaust emissions from vehicles fuelled with petrol, LPG and CNG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielaczyc, P.; Szczotka, A.; Woodburn, J.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an analysis of THC, NMHC, CO, NOx and CO2 emissions during testing of two bi-fuel vehicles, fuelled with petrol and gaseous fuels, on a chassis dynamometer in the context of the Euro 6 emissions requirements. The analyses were performed on one Euro 5 bi-fuel vehicle (petrol/LPG) and one Euro 5 bi-fuel vehicle (petrol/CNG), both with SI engines equipped with MPI feeding systems operating in closed-loop control, typical three-way-catalysts and heated oxygen sensors. The vehicles had been adapted by their manufacturers for fuelling with LPG or CNG by using additional special equipment mounted onto the existing petrol fuelling system. The vehicles tested featured multipoint gas injection systems. The aim of this paper was an analysis of the impact of the gaseous fuels on the exhaust emission in comparison to the emission of the vehicles fuelled with petrol. The tests subject to the analyses presented here were performed in the Engine Research Department of BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd in Bielsko-Biala, Poland, within a research programme investigating the influence of alternative fuels on exhaust emissions from light duty vehicle vehicles with spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines.

  10. National-level infrastructure and economic effects of switchgrass cofiring with coal in existing power plants for carbon mitigation.

    PubMed

    Morrow, William R; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2008-05-15

    We update a previously presented Linear Programming (LP) methodology for estimating state level costs for reducing CO2 emissions from existing coal-fired power plants by cofiring switchgrass, a biomass energy crop, and coal. This paper presents national level results of applying the methodology to the entire portion of the United States in which switchgrass could be grown without irrigation. We present incremental switchgrass and coal cofiring carbon cost of mitigation curves along with a presentation of regionally specific cofiring economics and policy issues. The results show that cofiring 189 million dry short tons of switchgrass with coal in the existing U.S. coal-fired electricity generation fleet can mitigate approximately 256 million short tons of carbon-dioxide (CO2) per year, representing a 9% reduction of 2005 electricity sector CO2 emissions. Total marginal costs, including capital, labor, feedstock, and transportation, range from $20 to $86/ton CO2 mitigated,with average costs ranging from $20 to $45/ton. If some existing power plants upgrade to boilers designed for combusting switchgrass, an additional 54 million tons of switchgrass can be cofired. In this case, total marginal costs range from $26 to $100/ton CO2 mitigated, with average costs ranging from $20 to $60/ton. Costs for states east of the Mississippi River are largely unaffected by boiler replacement; Atlantic seaboard states represent the lowest cofiring cost of carbon mitigation. The central plains states west of the Mississippi River are most affected by the boiler replacement option and, in general, go from one of the lowest cofiring cost of carbon mitigation regions to the highest. We explain the variation in transportation expenses and highlight regional cost of mitigation variations as transportation overwhelms other cofiring costs.

  11. National-level infrastructure and economic effects of switchgrass cofiring with coal in existing power plants for carbon mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    William R. Morrow; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews

    2008-05-15

    We update a previously presented Linear Programming (LP) methodology for estimating state level costs for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from existing coal-fired power plants by cofiring switchgrass, a biomass energy crop, and coal. This paper presents national level results of applying the methodology to the entire portion of the United States in which switchgrass could be grown without irrigation. We present incremental switchgrass and coal cofiring carbon cost of mitigation curves along with a presentation of regionally specific cofiring economics and policy issues. The results show that cofiring 189 million dry short tons of switchgrass with coal in the existing U.S. coal-fired electricity generation fleet can mitigate approximately 256 million short tons of carbon-dioxide (CO{sub 2}) per year, representing a 9% reduction of 2005 electricity sector CO{sub 2} emissions. Total marginal costs, including capital, labor, feedstock, and transportation, range from $20 to $86/ton CO{sub 2} mitigated, with average costs ranging from $20 to $45/ton. If some existing power plants upgrade to boilers designed for combusting switchgrass, an additional 54 million tons of switchgrass can be cofired. In this case, total marginal costs range from $26 to $100/ton CO{sub 2} mitigated, with average costs ranging from $20 to $60/ton. Costs for states east of the Mississippi River are largely unaffected by boiler replacement; Atlantic seaboard states represent the lowest cofiring cost of carbon mitigation. The central plains states west of the Mississippi River are most affected by the boiler replacement option and, in general, go from one of the lowest cofiring cost of carbon mitigation regions to the highest. We explain the variation in transportation expenses and highlight regional cost of mitigation variations as transportation overwhelms other cofiring costs. 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Seismotectonic characteristics of the Krško Basin with relation to seismic safety of existing and planned nuclear infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavec, Miloš; Atanackov, Jure; Jamšek Rupnik, Petra

    2015-04-01

    The Kr\\vsko Basin hosts complex infrastructure and is being investigated as a potential site for several future projects including a new NPP and a low and intermediate level radioactive waste repository. A large database of geological, geophysical and geotechnical data has been accumulated, producing increasingly detailed tectonic and seismotectonic models of the Kr\\vsko Basin. The first tectonic and seismotectonic investigation campaign was undertaken in the 1970s for the first Kr\\vsko NPP (Arsovski et al., 1973). The next study (Fajfar et al., 1994) was followed by an extensive geophysical survey in in which basin axis-trending syncline was reevaluated (Persoglia, ed., 2000). In 2004 the geological, tectonic and seismotectonic characteristics of the Kr\\vsko Basin were readdressed by performing a periodic seismic hazard assessment for the NPP (Swan et al., 2004). After which, a series of field investigations were conducted for the potential radwaste repository site evaluation (Brenčič, ed., 2006; Petkovšek, ed., 2009). In 2008-2013 a set of geological, geotechnical and seismological investigations were performed for the proposed new NPP unit (Bazargan-Sabet et al., 2010). As part of this project the seismotectonic model and the seismic source model were updated (Bavec et al., 2010a,b). Particular attention was given to the Libna fault (Bavec et al., 2013), which was also the subject of a follow up study to further evaluate the age of deformed sediments in the basin (Cline et al., 2013). A new phase of geological, geophysical and geomorphic investigations is being undertaken in the Kr\\vsko basin by the team of Rizzo Associates and Geological Survey of Slovenia to refine on the geological and seismological inputs to the planned PSHA. The Basin has experienced moderate and dispersed seismic activity. The catalogue of known earthquakes in the region (ARSO, 2011) extends back to the early 17th century. The strongest earthquake in the Kr\\vsko basin was the

  13. Optimization of a CNG series hybrid concept vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S.M.; Smith, J.R.; Perkins, L.J.; Haney, S.W.; Flowers, D.L.

    1995-09-22

    Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) has favorable characteristics as a vehicular fuel, in terms of fuel economy as well as emissions. Using CNG as a fuel in a series hybrid vehicle has the potential of resulting in very high fuel economy (between 26 and 30 km/liter, 60 to 70 mpg) and very low emissions (substantially lower than Federal Tier II or CARB ULEV). This paper uses a vehicle evaluation code and an optimizer to find a set of vehicle parameters that result in optimum vehicle fuel economy. The vehicle evaluation code used in this analysis estimates vehicle power performance, including engine efficiency and power, generator efficiency, energy storage device efficiency and state-of-charge, and motor and transmission efficiencies. Eight vehicle parameters are selected as free variables for the optimization. The optimum vehicle must also meet two perfect requirements: accelerate to 97 km/h in less than 10 s, and climb an infinitely long hill with a 6% slope at 97 km/h with a 272 kg (600 lb.) payload. The optimizer used in this work was originally developed in the magnetic fusion energy program, and has been used to optimize complex systems, such as magnetic and inertial fusion devices, neutron sources, and mil guns. The optimizer consists of two parts: an optimization package for minimizing non-linear functions of many variables subject to several non-linear equality and/or inequality constraints and a programmable shell that allows interactive configuration and execution of the optimizer. The results of the analysis indicate that the CNG series hybrid vehicle has a high efficiency and low emissions. These results emphasize the advantages of CNG as a near-term alternative fuel for vehicles.

  14. Utilities building NGV infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Gas utilities across the US are aggressively pursuing the natural gas vehicle market by putting in place the infrastructure needed to ensure the growth of the important market. The first annual P and GJ NGV Marketing Survey has revealed many utilities plant to build and continue building NGV fueling facilities. The NGV industry in the US is confronting a classic chicken-or-egg quandary. Fleet operators and individual drivers are naturally unwilling to commit to a natural gas vehicle fuel until sufficient fueling facilities are in place, yet service station operators are reluctant to add NGV refueling capacity until enough CNG vehicles are on the road to create demand. The future of the NGV market is bright, but continued research and product improvements by suppliers as well as LDCs is needed if the potential is to be fulfilled. Advances in refueling facilities must continue if the market is to develop.

  15. Performance of CO2 enrich CNG in direct injection engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firmansyah, W. B.; Ayandotun, E. Z.; Zainal, A.; Aziz, A. R. A.; Heika, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the potential of utilizing the undeveloped natural gas fields in Malaysia with high carbon dioxide (CO2) content ranging from 28% to 87%. For this experiment, various CO2 proportions by volume were added to pure natural gas as a way of simulating raw natural gas compositions in these fields. The experimental tests were carried out using a 4-stroke single cylinder spark ignition (SI) direct injection (DI) compressed natural gas (CNG) engine. The tests were carried out at 180° and 300° before top dead centre (BTDC) injection timing at 3000 rpm, to establish the effects on the engine performance. The results show that CO2 is suppressing the combustion of CNG while on the other hand CNG combustion is causing CO2 dissociation shown by decreasing CO2 emission with the increase in CO2 content. Results for 180° BTDC injection timing shows higher performance compared to 300° BTDC because of two possible reasons, higher volumetric efficiency and higher stratification level. The results also showed the possibility of increasing the CO2 content by injection strategy.

  16. Assessing the impact of transitions from centralised to decentralised water solutions on existing infrastructures – Integrated city-scale analysis with VIBe

    PubMed Central

    Sitzenfrei, Robert; Möderl, Michael; Rauch, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Traditional urban water management relies on central organised infrastructure, the most important being the drainage network and the water distribution network. To meet upcoming challenges such as climate change, the rapid growth and shrinking of cities and water scarcity, water infrastructure needs to be more flexible, adaptable and sustainable (e.g., sustainable urban drainage systems, SUDS; water sensitive urban design, WSUD; low impact development, LID; best management practice, BMP). The common feature of all solutions is the push from a central solution to a decentralised solution in urban water management. This approach opens up a variety of technical and socio-economic issues, but until now, a comprehensive assessment of the impact has not been made. This absence is most likely attributable to the lack of case studies, and the availability of adequate models is usually limited because of the time- and cost-intensive preparation phase. Thus, the results of the analysis are based on a few cases and can hardly be transferred to other boundary conditions. VIBe (Virtual Infrastructure Benchmarking) is a tool for the stochastic generation of urban water systems at the city scale for case study research. With the generated data sets, an integrated city-scale analysis can be performed. With this approach, we are able to draw conclusions regarding the technical effect of the transition from existing central to decentralised urban water systems. In addition, it is shown how virtual data sets can assist with the model building process. A simple model to predict the shear stress performance due to changes in dry weather flow production is developed and tested. PMID:24210508

  17. Assessing the impact of transitions from centralised to decentralised water solutions on existing infrastructures--integrated city-scale analysis with VIBe.

    PubMed

    Sitzenfrei, Robert; Möderl, Michael; Rauch, Wolfgang

    2013-12-15

    Traditional urban water management relies on central organised infrastructure, the most important being the drainage network and the water distribution network. To meet upcoming challenges such as climate change, the rapid growth and shrinking of cities and water scarcity, water infrastructure needs to be more flexible, adaptable and sustainable (e.g., sustainable urban drainage systems, SUDS; water sensitive urban design, WSUD; low impact development, LID; best management practice, BMP). The common feature of all solutions is the push from a central solution to a decentralised solution in urban water management. This approach opens up a variety of technical and socio-economic issues, but until now, a comprehensive assessment of the impact has not been made. This absence is most likely attributable to the lack of case studies, and the availability of adequate models is usually limited because of the time- and cost-intensive preparation phase. Thus, the results of the analysis are based on a few cases and can hardly be transferred to other boundary conditions. VIBe (Virtual Infrastructure Benchmarking) is a tool for the stochastic generation of urban water systems at the city scale for case study research. With the generated data sets, an integrated city-scale analysis can be performed. With this approach, we are able to draw conclusions regarding the technical effect of the transition from existing central to decentralised urban water systems. In addition, it is shown how virtual data sets can assist with the model building process. A simple model to predict the shear stress performance due to changes in dry weather flow production is developed and tested.

  18. The Earth Observing System (EOS) Ground System: Leveraging an Existing Operational Ground System Infrastructure to Support New Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardison, David; Medina, Johnny; Dell, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The Earth Observer System (EOS) was officially established in 1990 and went operational in December 1999 with the launch of its flagship spacecraft Terra. Aqua followed in 2002 and Aura in 2004. All three spacecraft are still operational and producing valuable scientific data. While all are beyond their original design lifetime, they are expected to remain viable well into the 2020s. The EOS Ground System is a multi-mission system based at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center that supports science and spacecraft operations for these three missions. Over its operational lifetime to date, the EOS Ground System has evolved as needed to accommodate mission requirements. With an eye towards the future, several updates are currently being deployed. Subsystem interconnects are being upgraded to reduce data latency and improve system performance. End-of-life hardware and operating systems are being replaced to mitigate security concerns and eliminate vendor support gaps. Subsystem hardware is being consolidated through the migration to Virtual Machine based platforms. While mission operations autonomy was not a design goal of the original system concept, there is an active effort to apply state-of-the-art products from the Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) to facilitate automation where possible within the existing heritage architecture. This presentation will provide background information on the EOS ground system architecture and evolution, discuss latest improvements, and conclude with the results of a recent effort that investigated how the current system could accommodate a proposed new earth science mission.

  19. Touristic infrastructure of municipalities in the border section of Bug valley's Dołhobyczów-Włodawa in the context of existing protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kałamucka, Wioletta; Kałamucki, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    This article presents results of research concerning tourist infrastructure in some districts located in the Bug river valley, in the context of protected areas. The territory examined includes 9 rural districts and 2 towns in the immediate neighborhood of the river. These administrative units are characterized by great natural value. Their total area is 687,7 km2 that makes 6,7% of the whole Lublin voivodship. On the other hand, the share of protected areas (without Natura 2000) is twice as high - 11,1%. Protected areas makes 37,6% of the territory under study. In some units, share of protected areas is very high: Dubienka - 72%, Horodło - 69,5%. In 2009 in the region examined there were 48 objects of collective accommodation - 16,8% of total number in the voivodship. 83,6% of all objects were situated in Włodawa. Characteristic feature of accommodation is seasonality. There are only 7 objects that functions the whole year and year-round lodging places (280) makes barely 9,3% of the totality. Comparing tourist management with presence of areas of the highest natural values, one can see strong correlation between these two indexes only in rural unit - Włodawa, located within the borders of Biosphere Reserves "Polesie Zachodnie" (West Polesie) In case of other units such a interdependance does not exist. On the contrary, there is opposite relation. In Dołhobyczów, Mircze, Horodło, where apart from areas of Natura 2000, in the Bug river valley landscapes protected areas and landscapes parks were created, tourist infrastructure is insignificant or even does not exist. The existence of large protected areas and natural value make it possible to develop various forms of environmentally friendly tourism - tourism qualified, especially fishing and canoeing, hiking, biking, nature education tourism. Tourist service centers should be located outside the valley. Due to the high natural values, caution is advisable to adapt the area for tourism. Such decisions should

  20. CNG Cylinder Safety - Education, Outreach, and Next Steps (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.; Schroeder, A.

    2014-01-01

    Mr. Schroeder discussed the work that NREL is performing for the U.S. Department of Transportation on compressed natural gas cylinder end-of-life requirements. CNG vehicles are different from most other vehicles in that the CNG fuel storage cylinders have a pre-determined lifetime that may be shorter than the expected life of the vehicle. The end-of-life date for a cylinder is based on construction and test protocols, and is specific to the construction and material of each cylinder. The end-of-life date is important because it provides a safe margin of error against catastrophic cylinder failure or rupture. The end-of-life dates range from 15 to 25 years from the date of manufacture. NREL worked to develop outreach materials to increase awareness of cylinder end-of-life dates, has provided technical support for individual efforts related to cylinder safety and removal, and also worked with CVEF to document best practices for cylinder removal or inspection after an accident. Mr. Smith discussed the engagement of the DOE Clean Fleets Partners, which were surveyed to identify best practices on managing cylinder inventories and approached to provide initial data on cylinder age in a fleet environment. Both DOE and NREL will continue to engage these fleets and other stakeholders to determine how to best address this issue moving forward.

  1. Introducing hepatitis B virus vaccine into the Expanded Programme on Immunization in Bangladesh: a proposed method to evaluate whether the existing infrastructure has the capacity.

    PubMed

    Trama, Annalisa; Walker, Damian; Fox-Rushby, Julia

    2005-03-01

    To determine whether the existing Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in Bangladesh has the capacity to introduce the hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine, this study was carried out in all the nine health facilities, which maintain a cold-chain, in Chandpur district of Bangladesh. The research, focusing specifically on cold-chain equipment, aimed at developing and applying an indicator of the use of cold-chain equipment. A structured questionnaire, developed and field-tested, was used for collecting information on cold-chain equipment and their use-rate. Data were used for estimating the resources needed to introduce the HBV vaccine and for increasing the coverage of measles and DPT vaccines. The findings of the study showed that the use-rate of cold-chain equipment in this district was low, suggesting that the district has sufficient spare capacity to introduce and sustain the storage of an increased quantity of vaccines. This paper suggests an approach to study capacity in relation to infrastructural facilities. By measuring the capacity of capital equipment, the study has illustrated that the measurement of resource-use rates provides useful information about the burden that a new vaccine places on the EPI.

  2. EarthScope's Plate Boundary Observatory in Alaska: Building on Existing Infrastructure to Provide a Platform for Integrated Research and Hazard-monitoring Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, E. S.; Bierma, R. M.; Willoughby, H.; Feaux, K.; Mattioli, G. S.; Enders, M.; Busby, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    EarthScope's geodetic component in Alaska, the UNAVCO-operated Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) network, includes 139 continuous GPS sites and 41 supporting telemetry relays. These are spread across a vast area, from northern AK to the Aleutians. Forty-five of these stations were installed or have been upgraded in cooperation with various partner agencies and currently provide data collection and transmission for more than one group. Leveraging existing infrastructure normally has multiple benefits, such as easier permitting requirements and costs savings through reduced overall construction and maintenance expenses. At some sites, PBO-AK power and communications systems have additional capacity beyond that which is needed for reliable acquisition of GPS data. Where permits allow, such stations could serve as platforms for additional instrumentation or real-time observing needs. With the expansion of the Transportable Array (TA) into Alaska, there is increased interest to leverage existing EarthScope resources for station co-location and telemetry integration. Because of the complexity and difficulty of long-term O&M at PBO sites, however, actual integration of GPS and seismic equipment must be considered on a case-by-case basis. UNAVCO currently operates two integrated GPS/seismic stations in collaboration with the Alaska Earthquake Center, and three with the Alaska Volcano Observatory. By the end of 2014, PBO and TA plan to install another four integrated and/or co-located geodetic and seismic systems. While three of these are designed around existing PBO stations, one will be a completely new TA installation, providing PBO with an opportunity to expand geodetic data collection in Alaska within the limited operations and maintenance phase of the project. We will present some of the design considerations, outcomes, and lessons learned from past and ongoing projects to integrate seismometers and other instrumentation at PBO-Alaska stations. Developing the PBO

  3. Guidance on Biogas used to Produce CNG or LNG under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    provides guidance on biogas quailty and RIN generation when biogas is injected into a commercial pipeline for use in producing renewable compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) under the Renewable Fuel Standard.

  4. Dispersion of CNG following a high-pressure release. Final report, February 1995-March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Gaumer, R.L.; Raj, P.K.

    1996-05-01

    The research described in the report was designed to evaluate the adequacy of the current convention concerning safeguards against CNG-related fires in transit buildings where CNG powered buses are fueled, stored, or maintained. The convention embraces the belief that precautions need to be taken only at or near the ceiling of the buildings. It is based on the premise that, since CNG is primarily methane and methane is approximately one-half the density of air at ambient temperature and pressure, any natural gas released would immediately rise to the ceiling as a buoyant plume. The experiments described here tested theoretical predictions that challenge this premise. During the tests, infrared imaging was used to track the movement of CNG following release from a high-pressure source close to the floor.

  5. Technology demonstration of dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) original equipment manufacturer (OEM) vehicles at Ft. Bliss, Texas. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, R.A.; Yost, D.M.

    1995-11-01

    A technology demonstration program of dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) original equipment manufacturer (OEM) vehicles was conducted at FL Bliss, Texas to demonstrate the use of CNG as an alternative fuel. The demonstration program at FL Bliss was the first Army initiative with CNG-fueled vehicles under the legislated Alternative Motor Fuels Act. This Department of Energy (DOE)-supported fleet demonstration consisted of 48 General Services Administration (GSA)-owned, Army-leased 1992 dedicated CNG General Motors (GM) 3/4-ton pickup trucks and four 1993 gasoline-powered Chevrolet 3/4-ton pickup trucks.

  6. On-road emission characteristics of CNG-fueled bi-fuel taxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhiliang; Cao, Xinyue; Shen, Xianbao; Zhang, Yingzhi; Wang, Xintong; He, Kebin

    2014-09-01

    To alleviate air pollution and lessen the petroleum demand from the motor vehicle sector in China, natural gas vehicles (NGVs) have been rapidly developed over the last several years. However, the understanding of the real-world emissions of NGVs is very limited. In this study, the emissions from 20 compressed-natural-gas-fueled bi-fuel taxis were measured using a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) under actual driving conditions in Yichang, China. The emission characteristics of the tested vehicles were analyzed, revealing that the average CO2, CO, HC and NOx emissions from the tested compressed-natural-gas (CNG) taxis under urban driving conditions were 1.6, 4.0, 2.0 and 0.98 times those under highway road conditions, respectively. The CO, HC and NOx emissions from Euro 3 CNG vehicles were approximately 40%, 55% and 44% lower than those from Euro 2 vehicles, respectively. Compared with the values for light-duty gasoline vehicles reported in the literature, the CO2 and CO emissions from the tested CNG taxis were clearly lower; however, significant increases in the HC and NOx emissions were observed. Finally, we normalized the emissions under the actual driving cycles of the entire test route to the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC)-based emissions using a VSP modes method developed by North Carolina State University. The simulated NEDC-based CO emissions from the tested CNG taxis were better than the corresponding emissions standards, whereas the simulated NEDC-based HC and NOx emissions greatly exceeded the standards. Thus, more attention should be paid to the emissions from CNG vehicles. As for the CNG-fueled bi-fuel taxis currently in use, the department of environmental protection should strengthen their inspection and supervision to reduce the emissions from these vehicles. The results of this study will be helpful in understanding and controlling emissions from CNG-fueled bi-fuel vehicles in China.

  7. CNG and Diesel Transit Bus Emissions in Review

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, A.; Kado, N.; Okamoto, R.; Gebel, M. Rieger, P.; Kobayashi, R.; Kuzmicky, P.

    2003-08-24

    Over the past three years, the California Air Resources Board (CARB), in collaboration with the University of California and other entities, has investigated the tailpipe emissions from three different latemodel, in-use heavy-duty transit buses in five different configurations. The study has focused on the measurement of regulated emissions (NOX, HC, CO, total PM), other gaseous emissions (CO2, NO2, CH4, NMHC), a number of pollutants of toxic risk significance (aromatics, carbonyls, PAHs, elements), composition (elemental and organic carbon), and the physical characterization (size-segregated number count and mass) of the particles in the exhaust aerosol. Emission samples are also tested in a modified Ames assay. The impact of oxidation catalyst control for both diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG) buses and a passive diesel particulate filter (DPF) were evaluated over multiple driving cycles (idle, 55 mph cruise, CBD, UDDS, NYBC) using a chassis dynamometer. For brevity, only CBD results are discussed in this paper and particle sizing results are omitted. The database of results is large and some findings have been reported already at various forums including last year's DEER conference. The goal of this paper is to offer an overview of the lessons learned and attempt to draw overall conclusions and interpretations based on key findings to date.

  8. A comparative study of emission motorcycle with gasoline and CNG fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasongko, M. N.; Wijayanti, W.; Rahardja, R. A.

    2016-03-01

    A comparison of the exhaust emissions of the engine running gasoline and Compressed Natural Gas have been performed in this study. A gasoline engine 4 stroke single-cylinder with volume of 124.8 cc and compression ratio of 9.3:1 was converted to a CNG gaseous engine. The fuel injector was replaced with a solenoid valve system for injecting CNG gas to engine. The concentrations of CO, CO2, O2 and HC in the exhaust gas of engine were measured over the range of fuel flow rate from 25.32 mg/s to 70.22 mg/s and wide range of Air Fuel Ratio. The comparative analysis of this study showed that CNG engine has a lower HC, CO2 and CO emission at the stoichiometry mixture of fuel and air combustion. The emissions increased when the Air-Fuel ratio was switched from the stoichiometry condition. Moreover, CNG engine produced a lower HC and CO emission compared to the gasoline for difference air flow rate. The average of HC and CO emissions of the CNG was 92 % and 78 % lower than that of the gasoline

  9. CNG acid gas removal process. Technical progress report No. 5, November 1, 1981-January 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, R.J.; Auyang, L.; Brown, W.R.; Cook, W.J.; Liu, Y.C.; Petrik, M.

    1982-11-01

    Three tasks were active during the fifth quarter of the CNG Acid Gas Removal project: Subtask 1.3 design and construction of a bench-scale triple-point crystallizer; Subtask 2.4 slurry pumping; and Task 4 fate of trace components. Within Subtask 1.3, safety considerations for the present CNG triple-point crystallizer system are summarized. These include: (1) building safety features, (2) crystallizer safety features, and (3) personnel safety features. Within Subtask 2.4, the minimum net positive suction head required for a MicroPump gear pump to successfully pump slurries of solid carbon dioxide in an organic liquid carrier solvent has been determined. Task 4, determination of the fate of trace contaminants in the CNG acid gas removal process, is complete. Trace contaminants anticipated in the crude gas entering acid gas removal are removed to acceptably low levels by the CNG process and rejected with the acid gases. With the possible exception of benzene, no recycle loops or accumulation of contaminants occur in the CNG process. Combinations of feed gas pressure and benzene contamination which may cause deposition of solid benzene are defined. 21 references, 10 figures, 6 tables.

  10. Modeling of diesel/CNG mixing in a pre-injection chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Wahhab, H. A.; Aziz, A. R. A.; Al-Kayiem, H. H.; Nasif, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Diesel engines performance can be improved by adding combustible gases to the liquid diesel. In this paper, the propagation of a two phase flow liquid-gas fuel mixture into a pre-mixer is investigated numerically by computational fluid dynamics simulation. CNG was injected into the diesel within a cylindrical conduit operates as pre-mixer. Four injection models of Diesel-CNG were simulated using ANSYS-FLUENT commercial software. Two CNG jet diameters were used of 1 and 2 mm and the diesel pipe diameter was 9 mm. Two configurations were considered for the gas injection. In the first the gas was injected from one side while for the second two side entries were used. The CNG to Diesel pressure ratio was varied between 1.5 and 3. The CNG to Diesel mass flow ratios were varied between 0.7 and 0.9. The results demonstrate that using double-sided injection increased the homogeneity of the mixture due to the swirl and acceleration of the mixture. Mass fraction, in both cases, was found to increase as the mixture flows towards the exit. As a result, this enhanced mixing is likely to lead to improvement in the combustion performance.

  11. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Transit Bus Experience Survey: April 2009--April 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.; Horne, D. B.

    2010-09-01

    This survey was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect and analyze experiential data and information from a cross-section of U.S. transit agencies with varying degrees of compressed natural gas (CNG) bus and station experience. This information will be used to assist DOE and NREL in determining areas of success and areas where further technical or other assistance might be required, and to assist them in focusing on areas judged by the CNG transit community as priority items.

  12. Comparison of CNG and LNG technologies for transportation applications. Final subcontract report, June 1991--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Sinor, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    This report provides a head-to-head comparison of compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) supplied to heavy-duty vehicles. The comparison includes an assessment of the overall efficiency of the fuel delivery system, the cost of the fuel supply system, the efficiency of use in heavy-duty vehicles, and the environmental impact of each technology. The report concludes that there are applications in which CNG will have the advantage, and applications in which LNG will be preferred.

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM DIESEL- AND CNG-POWERED URBAN BUSES

    SciTech Connect

    COROLLER, P; PLASSAT, G

    2003-08-24

    Couple years ago, ADEME engaged programs dedicated to the urban buses exhaust emissions studies. The measures associated with the reduction of atmospheric and noise pollution has particular importance in the sector of urban buses. In many cases, they illustrate the city's environmental image and contribute to reinforcing the attractiveness of public transport. France's fleet in service, presently put at about 14,000 units, consumes about 2 per cent of the total energy of city transport. It causes about 2 per cent of the HC emissions and from 4 to 6 per cent of the NOx emissions and particles. These vehicles typically have a long life span (about 15 years) and are relatively expensive to buy, about 150.000 euros per unit. Several technical solutions were evaluated to quantify, on a real condition cycle for buses, on one hand pollutants emissions, fuel consumption and on the other hand reliability, cost in real existing fleet. This paper presents main preliminary results on urban buses exhaust emission on two different cases: - existing Diesel buses, with fuel modifications (Diesel with low sulphur content), Diesel with water emulsion and bio-Diesel (30% oil ester in standard Diesel fuel); renovating CNG powered Euro II buses fleet, over representative driving cycles, set up by ADEME and partners. On these cycles, pollutants (regulated and unregulated) were measured as well as fuel consumption, at the beginning of a program and one year after to quantify reliability and increase/decrease of pollutants emissions. At the same time, some after-treatment technologies were tested under real conditions and several vehicles. Information such as fuel consumption, lubricant analysis, problem on the technology were following during a one year program. On the overall level, it is the combination of various action, pollution-reduction and renewal that will make it possible to meet the technological challenge of reducing emissions and fuel consumption by urban bus networks.

  14. In Situ Nuclear Characterization Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Smith; J. Rory Kennedy

    2011-11-01

    To be able to evolve microstructure with a prescribed in situ process, an effective measurement infrastructure must exist. This interdisciplinary infrastructure needs to be developed in parallel with in situ sensor technology. This paper discusses the essential elements in an effective infrastructure.

  15. Air quality and climate impacts due to CNG conversion of motor vehicles in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Wadud, Zia; Khan, Tanzila

    2013-12-17

    Dhaka had recently experienced rapid conversion of its motor vehicle fleet to run on compressed natural gas (CNG). This paper quantifies ex-post the air quality and climate benefits of the CNG conversion policy, including monetary valuations, through an impact pathway approach. Around 2045 (1665) avoided premature deaths in greater Dhaka (City Corporation) can be attributed to air quality improvements from the CNG conversion policy in 2010, resulting in a saving of around USD 400 million. Majority of these health benefits resulted from the conversion of high-emitting diesel vehicles. CNG conversion was clearly detrimental from climate change perspective using the changes in CO2 and CH4 only (CH4 emissions increased); however, after considering other global pollutants (especially black carbon), the climate impact was ambiguous. Uncertainty assessment using input distributions and Monte Carlo simulation along with a sensitivity analysis show that large uncertainties remain for climate impacts. For our most likely estimate, there were some climate costs, valued at USD 17.7 million, which is an order of magnitude smaller than the air quality benefits. This indicates that such policies can and should be undertaken on the grounds of improving local air pollution alone and that precautions should be taken to reduce the potentially unintended increases in GHG emissions or other unintended effects.

  16. ASE Program Certification Standards for Light/Medium Duty CNG/LPG Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation, Herndon, VA.

    This publication provides the evaluation policies, procedures, and standards to which a compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) technician training program must adhere to be granted certification by the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence. The policies section has three parts: the automobile areas that may…

  17. The combustion behavior of diesel/CNG mixtures in a constant volume combustion chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firmansyah; Aziz, A. R. A.; Heikal, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The stringent emissions and needs to increase fuel efficiency makes controlled auto-ignition (CAI) based combustion an attractive alternative for the new combustion system. However, the combustion control is the main obstacles in its development. Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) that employs two fuels with significantly different in reactivity proven to be able to control the combustion. The RCCI concept applied in a constant volume chamber fuelled with direct injected diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG) was tested. The mixture composition is varied from 0 - 100% diesel/CNG at lambda 1 with main data collection are pressure profile and combustion images. The results show that diesel-CNG mixture significantly shows better combustion compared to diesel only. It is found that CNG is delaying the diesel combustion and at the same time assisting in diesel distribution inside the chamber. This combination creates a multipoint ignition of diesel throughout the chamber that generate very fast heat release rate and higher maximum pressure. Furthermore, lighter yellow color of the flame indicates lower soot production in compared with diesel combustion.

  18. Low-cost, low-weight CNG cylinder development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Mark E.; Melford, K.; Wong, J.; Gambone, L.

    1999-09-01

    This program was established to develop and commercialize new high-strength steel-lined, composite hoop-wrapped compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders for vehicular applications. As much as 70% of the cost of natural gas vehicles can be related to on-board natural gas storage costs. The cost and weight targets for this program represent significant savings in each characteristic when compared to comparable containers available at the initiation of the program. The program objectives were to optimize specific weight and cost goals, yielding CNG cylinders with dimensions that should, allowing for minor modifications, satisfy several vehicle market segments. The optimization process encompassed material, design, and process improvement. In optimizing the CNG cylinder design, due consideration was given to safety aspects relative to national, international, and vehicle manufacturer cylinder standards and requirements. The report details the design and development effort, encompassing plant modifications, material selection, design issues, tooling development, prototype development, and prototype testing. Extenuating circumstances prevented the immediate commercialization of the cylinder designs, though significant progress was made towards improving the cost and performance of CNG cylinders. A new low-cost fiber was successfully employed while the weight target was met and the cost target was missed by less than seven percent.

  19. Assessment of air quality after the implementation of compressed natural gas (CNG) as fuel in public transport in Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Ravindra, Khaiwal; Wauters, Eric; Tyagi, Sushil K; Mor, Suman; Van Grieken, René

    2006-04-01

    Public transport in Delhi was amended by the Supreme Court of India to use Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) instead of diesel or petrol. After the implementation of CNG since April 2001, Delhi has the highest fraction of CNG-run public vehicles in the world and most of them were introduced within 20 months. In the present study, the concentrations of various criteria air pollutants (SPM, PM(10), CO, SO(2) and NO(x)) and organic pollutants such as benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed before and after the implementation of CNG. A decreasing trend was found for PAHs, SO(2) and CO concentrations, while the NO(x) level was increased in comparison to those before the implementation of CNG. Further, SPM, PM(10), and BTX concentrations showed no significant change after the implementation of CNG. However, the BTX concentration demonstrated a clear relation with the benzene content of gasoline. In addition to the impact of the introduction of CNG the daily variation in PAHs levels was also studied and the PAHs concentrations were observed to be relatively high between 10 pm to 6 am, which gives a proof of a relation with the limited day entry and movement of heavy vehicles in Delhi.

  20. Low Quality Natural Gas Sulfur Removal and Recovery CNG Claus Sulfur Recovery Process

    SciTech Connect

    Klint, V.W.; Dale, P.R.; Stephenson, C.

    1997-10-01

    Increased use of natural gas (methane) in the domestic energy market will force the development of large non-producing gas reserves now considered to be low quality. Large reserves of low quality natural gas (LQNG) contaminated with hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen (N) are available but not suitable for treatment using current conventional gas treating methods due to economic and environmental constraints. A group of three technologies have been integrated to allow for processing of these LQNG reserves; the Controlled Freeze Zone (CFZ) process for hydrocarbon / acid gas separation; the Triple Point Crystallizer (TPC) process for H{sub 2}S / C0{sub 2} separation and the CNG Claus process for recovery of elemental sulfur from H{sub 2}S. The combined CFZ/TPC/CNG Claus group of processes is one program aimed at developing an alternative gas treating technology which is both economically and environmentally suitable for developing these low quality natural gas reserves. The CFZ/TPC/CNG Claus process is capable of treating low quality natural gas containing >10% C0{sub 2} and measurable levels of H{sub 2}S and N{sub 2} to pipeline specifications. The integrated CFZ / CNG Claus Process or the stand-alone CNG Claus Process has a number of attractive features for treating LQNG. The processes are capable of treating raw gas with a variety of trace contaminant components. The processes can also accommodate large changes in raw gas composition and flow rates. The combined processes are capable of achieving virtually undetectable levels of H{sub 2}S and significantly less than 2% CO in the product methane. The separation processes operate at pressure and deliver a high pressure (ca. 100 psia) acid gas (H{sub 2}S) stream for processing in the CNG Claus unit. This allows for substantial reductions in plant vessel size as compared to conventional Claus / Tail gas treating technologies. A close integration of the components of the CNG Claus

  1. Influence of extensive compressed natural gas (CNG) usage on air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suthawaree, Jeeranut; Sikder, Helena Akhter; Jones, Charlotte Emily; Kato, Shungo; Kunimi, Hitoshi; Mohammed Hamidul Kabir, Abu Naser; Kajii, Yoshizumi

    2012-07-01

    Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is an inexpensive, indigenous energy resource which currently accounts for the majority of automobile and domestic energy consumption in Bangladesh. This extensive CNG usage, particularly within the capital city, Dhaka, heavily influences the atmospheric composition (and hence air quality), yet to date measurements of trace gases in regions dominated by CNG emissions are relatively limited. Here we report continuous observations of the atmospherically important trace gases O3, CO, SO2, NOx and volatile organic compounds (VOC), in ambient air in Dhaka City, Bangladesh, during May 2011. The average mixing ratios of O3, CO, SO2, and NOx for the measurement period were 18.9, 520.9, 7.6 and 21.5 ppbv, respectively. The ratios of CO to NO reveal that emissions from gasoline and CNG-fuelled vehicles were dominant during the daytime (slope of ˜26), while in contrast, owing to restrictions imposed on diesel fuelled vehicles entering Dhaka City, emissions from these vehicles only became significant during the night (slope of ˜10). The total VOC mixing ratio in Dhaka was ˜5-10 times higher than the levels reported in more developed Asian cities such as Tokyo and Bangkok, which consequently gives rise to a higher ozone formation potential (OFP). However, the most abundant VOC in Dhaka were the relatively long-lived ethane and propane (with mean mixing ratios of ˜115 and ˜30 ppbv, respectively), and as a consequence, the ozone formation potential per ppb carbon (ppbC) was lower in Dhaka than in Tokyo and Bangkok. Thus the atmospheric composition of air influenced by extensive CNG combustion may be characterized by high VOC mixing ratios, yet mixing ratios of the photochemical pollutant ozone do not drastically exceed the levels typical of Asian cities with considerably lower VOC levels.

  2. A structural, functional, and computational analysis suggests pore flexibility as the base for the poor selectivity of CNG channels

    PubMed Central

    Napolitano, Luisa Maria Rosaria; Bisha, Ina; De March, Matteo; Marchesi, Arin; Arcangeletti, Manuel; Demitri, Nicola; Mazzolini, Monica; Rodriguez, Alex; Magistrato, Alessandra; Onesti, Silvia; Laio, Alessandro; Torre, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) ion channels, despite a significant homology with the highly selective K+ channels, do not discriminate among monovalent alkali cations and are permeable also to several organic cations. We combined electrophysiology, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and X-ray crystallography to demonstrate that the pore of CNG channels is highly flexible. When a CNG mimic is crystallized in the presence of a variety of monovalent cations, including Na+, Cs+, and dimethylammonium (DMA+), the side chain of Glu66 in the selectivity filter shows multiple conformations and the diameter of the pore changes significantly. MD simulations indicate that Glu66 and the prolines in the outer vestibule undergo large fluctuations, which are modulated by the ionic species and the voltage. This flexibility underlies the coupling between gating and permeation and the poor ionic selectivity of CNG channels. PMID:26100907

  3. A structural, functional, and computational analysis suggests pore flexibility as the base for the poor selectivity of CNG channels.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Luisa Maria Rosaria; Bisha, Ina; De March, Matteo; Marchesi, Arin; Arcangeletti, Manuel; Demitri, Nicola; Mazzolini, Monica; Rodriguez, Alex; Magistrato, Alessandra; Onesti, Silvia; Laio, Alessandro; Torre, Vincent

    2015-07-07

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) ion channels, despite a significant homology with the highly selective K(+) channels, do not discriminate among monovalent alkali cations and are permeable also to several organic cations. We combined electrophysiology, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and X-ray crystallography to demonstrate that the pore of CNG channels is highly flexible. When a CNG mimic is crystallized in the presence of a variety of monovalent cations, including Na(+), Cs(+), and dimethylammonium (DMA(+)), the side chain of Glu66 in the selectivity filter shows multiple conformations and the diameter of the pore changes significantly. MD simulations indicate that Glu66 and the prolines in the outer vestibule undergo large fluctuations, which are modulated by the ionic species and the voltage. This flexibility underlies the coupling between gating and permeation and the poor ionic selectivity of CNG channels.

  4. Emission factors of air pollutants from CNG-gasoline bi-fuel vehicles: Part I. Black carbon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Xing, Zhenyu; Xu, Hui; Du, Ke

    2016-12-01

    Compressed natural gas (CNG) is considered to be a "cleaner" fuel compared to other fossil fuels. Therefore, it is used as an alternative fuel in motor vehicles to reduce emissions of air pollutants in transportation. To quantify "how clean" burning CNG is compared to burning gasoline, quantification of pollutant emissions under the same driving conditions for motor vehicles with different fuels is needed. In this study, a fleet of bi-fuel vehicles was selected to measure the emissions of black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) for driving in CNG mode and gasoline mode respectively under the same set of constant speeds and accelerations. Comparison of emission factors (EFs) for the vehicles burning CNG and gasoline are discussed. This part of the paper series reports BC EFs for bi-fuel vehicles driving on the real road, which were measured using an in situ method. Our results show that burning CNG will lead to 54%-83% reduction in BC emissions per kilometer, depending on actual driving conditions. These comparisons show that CNG is a cleaner fuel than gasoline for motor vehicles in terms of BC emissions and provide a viable option for reducing BC emissions cause by transportation.

  5. Green Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large paved surfaces keep rain from infiltrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Alternatively, Green infrastructure uses natural processes to reduce and treat stormwater in place by soaking up and storing water. These systems provide many environmental, social, an...

  6. Comparison of LNG, CNG, and diesel transit bus economics. Topical report, July 1992-September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Powars, C.A.; Moyer, C.B.; Luscher, D.R.; Lowell, D.D.; Pera, C.J.

    1993-10-20

    The purpose of the report is to compare the expected costs of operating a transit bus fleet on liquefied natural gas (LNG), compressed natural gas (CNG), and diesel fuel. The special report is being published prior to the overall project final report in response to the current high level of interest in LNG transit buses. It focuses exclusively on the economics of LNG buses as compared with CNG and diesel buses. The reader is referred to the anticipated final report, or to a previously published 'White Paper' report (Reference 1), for information regarding LNG vehicle and refueling system technology and/or the economics of other LNG vehicles. The LNG/CNG/diesel transit bus economics comparison is based on total life-cycle costs considering all applicable capital and operating costs. The costs considered are those normally borne by the transit property, i.e., the entity facing the bus purchase decision. These costs account for the portion normally paid by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Federal Transit Administration (FTA). Transit property net costs also recognize the sale of emissions reduction credits generated by using natural gas (NG) engines which are certified to levels below standards (particularly for NOX).

  7. An Infrastructure Roadmap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furgeson, Steven P.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how a master infrastructure plan for electrical and mechanical systems can help determine annual maintenance budgets, form annual capital-improvement budgets, take a snapshot of existing conditions, and lead to better energy management. Discusses important elements in such plans. (EV)

  8. Emission factors of air pollutants from CNG-gasoline bi-fuel vehicles: Part II. CO, HC and NOx.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yang; Xing, Zhenyu; Du, Ke

    2016-09-15

    The estimation of emission factors (EFs) is the basis of accurate emission inventory. However, the EFs of air pollutants for motor vehicles vary under different operating conditions, which will cause uncertainty in developing emission inventory. Natural gas (NG), considered as a "cleaner" fuel than gasoline, is increasingly being used to reduce combustion emissions. However, information is scarce about how much emission reduction can be achieved by motor vehicles burning NG (NGVs) under real road driving conditions, which is necessary for evaluating the environmental benefits for NGVs. Here, online, in situ measurements of the emissions from nine bi-fuel vehicles were conducted under different operating conditions on the real road. A comparative study was performed for the EFs of black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) for each operating condition when the vehicles using gasoline and compressed NG (CNG) as fuel. BC EFs were reported in part I. The part II in this paper series reports the influence of operating conditions and fuel types on the EFs of CO, HC and NOx. Fuel-based EFs of CO showed good correlations with speed when burning CNG and gasoline. The correlation between fuel-based HC EFs and speed was relatively weak whether burning CNG or gasoline. The fuel-based NOx EFs moderately correlated with speed when burning CNG, but weakly correlated with gasoline. As for HC, the mileage-based EFs of gasoline vehicles are 2.39-12.59 times higher than those of CNG vehicles. The mileage-based NOx EFs of CNG vehicles are slightly higher than those of gasoline vehicles. These results would facilitate a detailed analysis of the environmental benefits for replacing gasoline with CNG in light duty vehicles.

  9. Alternative Splicing Governs Cone Cyclic Nucleotide-gated (CNG) Channel Sensitivity to Regulation by Phosphoinositides*

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Gucan; Sherpa, Tshering; Varnum, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Precursor mRNA encoding CNGA3 subunits of cone photoreceptor cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels undergoes alternative splicing, generating isoforms differing in the N-terminal cytoplasmic region of the protein. In humans, four variants arise from alternative splicing, but the functional significance of these changes has been a persistent mystery. Heterologous expression of the four possible CNGA3 isoforms alone or with CNGB3 subunits did not reveal significant differences in basic channel properties. However, inclusion of optional exon 3, with or without optional exon 5, produced heteromeric CNGA3 + CNGB3 channels exhibiting an ∼2-fold greater shift in K1/2,cGMP after phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate or phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate application compared with channels lacking the sequence encoded by exon 3. We have previously identified two structural features within CNGA3 that support phosphoinositides (PIPn) regulation of cone CNG channels: N- and C-terminal regulatory modules. Specific mutations within these regions eliminated PIPn sensitivity of CNGA3 + CNGB3 channels. The exon 3 variant enhanced the component of PIPn regulation that depends on the C-terminal region rather than the nearby N-terminal region, consistent with an allosteric effect on PIPn sensitivity because of altered N-C coupling. Alternative splicing of CNGA3 occurs in multiple species, although the exact variants are not conserved across CNGA3 orthologs. Optional exon 3 appears to be unique to humans, even compared with other primates. In parallel, we found that a specific splice variant of canine CNGA3 removes a region of the protein that is necessary for high sensitivity to PIPn. CNGA3 alternative splicing may have evolved, in part, to tune the interactions between cone CNG channels and membrane-bound phosphoinositides. PMID:24675082

  10. Two structural components in CNGA3 support regulation of cone CNG channels by phosphoinositides

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Gucan; Peng, Changhong; Liu, Chunming

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels in retinal photoreceptors play a crucial role in vertebrate phototransduction. The ligand sensitivity of photoreceptor CNG channels is adjusted during adaptation and in response to paracrine signals, but the mechanisms involved in channel regulation are only partly understood. Heteromeric cone CNGA3 (A3) + CNGB3 (B3) channels are inhibited by membrane phosphoinositides (PIPn), including phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), demonstrating a decrease in apparent affinity for cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Unlike homomeric A1 or A2 channels, A3-only channels paradoxically did not show a decrease in apparent affinity for cGMP after PIPn application. However, PIPn induced an ∼2.5-fold increase in cAMP efficacy for A3 channels. The PIPn-dependent change in cAMP efficacy was abolished by mutations in the C-terminal region (R643Q/R646Q) or by truncation distal to the cyclic nucleotide-binding domain (613X). In addition, A3-613X unmasked a threefold decrease in apparent cGMP affinity with PIPn application to homomeric channels, and this effect was dependent on conserved arginines within the N-terminal region of A3. Together, these results indicate that regulation of A3 subunits by phosphoinositides exhibits two separable components, which depend on structural elements within the N- and C-terminal regions, respectively. Furthermore, both N and C regulatory modules in A3 supported PIPn regulation of heteromeric A3+B3 channels. B3 subunits were not sufficient to confer PIPn sensitivity to heteromeric channels formed with PIPn-insensitive A subunits. Finally, channels formed by mixtures of PIPn-insensitive A3 subunits, having complementary mutations in N- and/or C-terminal regions, restored PIPn regulation, implying that intersubunit N–C interactions help control the phosphoinositide sensitivity of cone CNG channels. PMID:23530136

  11. Development of CNG direct injection (CNGDI) clean fuel system for extra power in small engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Yusoff; Shamsudeen, Azhari; Abdullah, Shahrir; Mahmood, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan

    2012-06-01

    A new design of fuel system for CNG engine with direct injection (CNGDI) was developed for a demonstration project. The development of the fuel system was done on the engine with cylinder head modifications, for fuel injector and spark plug openings included in the new cylinder head. The piston was also redesigned for higher compression ratio. The fuel rails and the regulators are also designed for the direct injection system operating at higher pressure about 2.0 MPa. The control of the injection timing for the direct injectors are also controlled by the Electronic Control Unit specially designed for DI by another group project. The injectors are selected after testing with the various injection pressures and spray angles. For the best performance of the high-pressure system, selection is made from the tests on single cylinder research engine (SCRE). The components in the fuel system have to be of higher quality and complied with codes and standards to secure the safety of engine for high-pressure operation. The results of the CNGDI have shown that better power output is produced and better emissions were achieved compared to the aspirated CNG engine.

  12. The effects of refueling system operating pressure on LNG and CNG economics

    SciTech Connect

    Corless, A.J.; Barclay, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    Natural gas (NG) liquefaction and compression are energy intensive processes which make up a significant portion of the overall delivered price of liquefied NG (LNG) and compressed NG (CNG). Increases in system efficiency and/or process changes which reduce the required amount of work will improve the overall economics of NG as a vehicle fuel. This paper describes a method of reducing the delivered cost of LNG by liquefying the gas above ambient pressures. Higher pressure LNG is desirable because OEM NG engine manufacturers would like NG delivered to the engine intake manifold at elevated pressures to avoid compromising engine performance. Producing LNG at higher pressures reduces the amount of work required for liquefaction but it is only practical when the LNG is liquefied on-site. Using a thermo-economic approach, it is shown that NG fuel costs can be reduced by as much as 10% when producing LNG at higher pressures. A reduction in the delivered cost is also demonstrated for CNG produced on-site from high pressure LNG.

  13. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Lõhmus, Mare; Balbus, John

    2015-01-01

    Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens' quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion.

  14. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Lõhmus, Mare; Balbus, John

    2015-01-01

    Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens’ quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion. PMID:26615823

  15. EML1 (CNG-Modulin) Controls Light Sensitivity in Darkness and under Continuous Illumination in Zebrafish Retinal Cone Photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Milap; Tserentsoodol, Nomingerel; Postlethwait, John H.; Rebrik, Tatiana I.

    2013-01-01

    The ligand sensitivity of cGMP-gated (CNG) ion channels in cone photoreceptors is modulated by CNG-modulin, a Ca2+-binding protein. We investigated the functional role of CNG-modulin in phototransduction in vivo in morpholino-mediated gene knockdown zebrafish. Through comparative genomic analysis, we identified the orthologue gene of CNG-modulin in zebrafish, eml1, an ancient gene present in the genome of all vertebrates sequenced to date. We compare the photoresponses of wild-type cones with those of cones that do not express the EML1 protein. In the absence of EML1, dark-adapted cones are ∼5.3-fold more light sensitive than wild-type cones. Previous qualitative studies in several nonmammalian species have shown that immediately after the onset of continuous illumination, cones are less light sensitive than in darkness, but sensitivity then recovers over the following 15–20 s. We characterize light sensitivity recovery in continuously illuminated wild-type zebrafish cones and demonstrate that sensitivity recovery does not occur in the absence of EML1. PMID:24198367

  16. Cyber and physical infrastructure interdependencies.

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Laurence R.; Kelic, Andjelka; Warren, Drake E.

    2008-09-01

    The goal of the work discussed in this document is to understand the risk to the nation of cyber attacks on critical infrastructures. The large body of research results on cyber attacks against physical infrastructure vulnerabilities has not resulted in clear understanding of the cascading effects a cyber-caused disruption can have on critical national infrastructures and the ability of these affected infrastructures to deliver services. This document discusses current research and methodologies aimed at assessing the translation of a cyber-based effect into a physical disruption of infrastructure and thence into quantification of the economic consequences of the resultant disruption and damage. The document discusses the deficiencies of the existing methods in correlating cyber attacks with physical consequences. The document then outlines a research plan to correct those deficiencies. When completed, the research plan will result in a fully supported methodology to quantify the economic consequences of events that begin with cyber effects, cascade into other physical infrastructure impacts, and result in degradation of the critical infrastructure's ability to deliver services and products. This methodology enables quantification of the risks to national critical infrastructure of cyber threats. The work addresses the electric power sector as an example of how the methodology can be applied.

  17. On-road measurement of regulated pollutants from diesel and CNG buses with urea selective catalytic reduction systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jiadong; Ge, Yunshan; Hao, Lijun; Tan, Jianwei; Li, Jiaqiang; Feng, Xiangyu

    2014-12-01

    In this study, emissions from 13 buses operated in Beijing, including two Euro-III diesel buses, four Euro-IV diesel buses, three Euro-V diesel buses and four Euro-V CNG buses, were characterized in real world conditions. All of the buses tested were fitted with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems except for the Euro-III diesel buses. A SEMTECH-DS was used for testing the gaseous pollutants, and an electric low pressure impactor (ELPI) was used for measuring of particle numbers and size distributions. A comparison was made based on emission performance of these buses by employing the VSP approach and fuel- based emissions factors. Diesel buses emitted less CO and THC but more NOx and PM pollutants than CNG buses. The NOx reduction efficiencies of the SCR systems for CNG buses were higher because of the high exhaust temperature and high NO2/NOx ratio, whereas the efficiencies for diesel buses were lower. This resulted in extremely low NOx emissions from CNG buses, but the high NO2/NOx ratio needs further study. Failures of urea injection in the SCR systems were detected in this research, which resulted in very high NOx emissions. The CNG buses also emitted smaller numbers of particles and less particle mass with the presence of oxidation catalysts. Diesel buses satisfying the Euro-V standard performed better than Euro-IV and Euro-III diesel buses in terms of emission performance, except for more nuclei mode particles. Most of time, the Euro-IV diesel buses show no advantages in CO and NOx emissions compared with the Euro-III diesel buses.

  18. City and County of Denver: Technical comparison between hythane, CNG and gasoline fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The City and County of Denver, in cooperation with the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force of Public Technology, Inc. has completed a unique two-year research and development project designed to test and compare the technical merits of three transportation fuels. Comparisons of the tailpipe emissions from Hythane - a new, blended, alternative motor fuel comprised of 85% compressed natural gas (CNG) and 15% hydrogen measured by volume - to the emissions from gasoline and 100% CNG were conducted. This project has been one of the first pioneering studies of a hydrogen blended fuel and, through its success, has prompted eight additional Hythane research projects to date. Phase I of the project provided results from the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) testing of a light duty pick-up truck operating on Hythane. The purpose of this testing was to quantify any decrease in tailpipe emissions and to determine whether Hythane could meet the California Ultra Low Emission Vehicle standard (ULEV) for light duty trucks. During Phase I, FTP analyses were conducted in both Colorado (high altitude testing) and California (sea level testing) on a converted Chevrolet S-10, pick-up truck by Hydrogen Consultants (HCl), the Colorado Department of Health (CDH) and the California Air Resource Board (CARB). Currently, the only other non-electric vehicle which is capable of meeting the ULEV standard is Chrysler`s natural gas vehicle. There was additional interest in the role Hythane could play as a transitional fuel in the introduction of hydrogen. Hydrogen, a renewable energy carrier, may soon be categorized as a ZEV fuel by the South Coast Air Quality Management District. This factor may encourage the use of Hythane as a transportation fuel that not only meets the ULEV standard, but may provide the bridge necessary to the eventual widespread use of hydrogen.

  19. Geography of Existing and Potential Alternative Fuel Markets in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.; Hettinger, D.

    2014-11-01

    When deploying alternative fuels, it is paramount to match the right fuel with the right location, in accordance with local market conditions. We used six market indicators to evaluate the existing and potential regional market health for each of the five most commonly deployed alternative fuels: electricity (used by plug-in electric vehicles), biodiesel (blends of B20 and higher), E85 ethanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and propane. Each market indicator was mapped, combined, and evaluated by industry experts. This process revealed the weight the market indicators should be given, with the proximity of fueling stations being the most important indicator, followed by alternative fuel vehicle density, gasoline prices, state incentives, nearby resources, and finally, environmental benefit. Though markets vary among states, no state received 'weak' potential for all five fuels, indicating that all states have an opportunity to use at least one alternative fuel. California, Illinois, Indiana, Pennsylvania, and Washington appear to have the best potential markets for alternative fuels in general, with each sporting strong markets for four of the fuels. Wyoming showed the least potential, with weak markets for all alternative fuels except for CNG, for which it has a patchy market. Of all the fuels, CNG is promising in the greatest number of states--largely because freight traffic provides potential demand for many far-reaching corridor markets and because the sources of CNG are so widespread geographically.

  20. Carbon emissions of infrastructure development.

    PubMed

    Müller, Daniel B; Liu, Gang; Løvik, Amund N; Modaresi, Roja; Pauliuk, Stefan; Steinhoff, Franciska S; Brattebø, Helge

    2013-10-15

    Identifying strategies for reconciling human development and climate change mitigation requires an adequate understanding of how infrastructures contribute to well-being and greenhouse gas emissions. While direct emissions from infrastructure use are well-known, information about indirect emissions from their construction is highly fragmented. Here, we estimated the carbon footprint of the existing global infrastructure stock in 2008, assuming current technologies, to be 122 (-20/+15) Gt CO2. The average per-capita carbon footprint of infrastructures in industrialized countries (53 (± 6) t CO2) was approximately 5 times larger that that of developing countries (10 (± 1) t CO2). A globalization of Western infrastructure stocks using current technologies would cause approximately 350 Gt CO2 from materials production, which corresponds to about 35-60% of the remaining carbon budget available until 2050 if the average temperature increase is to be limited to 2 °C, and could thus compromise the 2 °C target. A promising but poorly explored mitigation option is to build new settlements using less emissions-intensive materials, for example by urban design; however, this strategy is constrained by a lack of bottom-up data on material stocks in infrastructures. Infrastructure development must be considered in post-Kyoto climate change agreements if developing countries are to participate on a fair basis.

  1. Early flame development image comparison of low calorific value syngas and CNG in DI SI gas engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    >Ftwi Yohaness Hagos, A. Rashid A.; Sulaiman, Shaharin A.

    2013-06-01

    The early flame development stage of syngas and CNG are analysed and compared from the flame images taken over 20° CA from the start of ignition. An imitated syngas with a composition of 19.2% H2, 29.6% CO, 5.3% CH4 and balance with nitrogen and carbon dioxide, which resembles the typical product of wood biomass gasification, was used in the study. A CCD camera triggered externally through the signals from the camshaft and crank angle sensors was used in capturing of the images. The engine was accessed through an endoscope access and a self-illumination inside the chamber. The results of the image analysis are further compared with the mass fraction burn curve of both syngas and CNG analysed from the pressure data. The analysis result of the flame image of syngas validates the double rapid burning stage of the mass fraction burn of syngas analysed from in-cylinder pressure data.

  2. Strategic plan for infrastructure optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Donley, C.D.

    1998-05-27

    This document represents Fluor Daniel Hanford`s and DynCorp`s Tri-Cities Strategic Plan for Fiscal Years 1998--2002, the road map that will guide them into the next century and their sixth year of providing safe and cost effective infrastructure services and support to the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Hanford Site. The Plan responds directly to the issues raised in the FDH/DOE Critical Self Assessment specifically: (1) a strategy in place to give DOE the management (systems) and physical infrastructure for the future; (2) dealing with the barriers that exist to making change; and (3) a plan to right-size the infrastructure and services, and reduce the cost of providing services. The Plan incorporates initiatives from several studies conducted in Fiscal Year 1997 to include: the Systems Functional Analysis, 200 Area Water Commercial Practices Plan, $ million Originated Cost Budget Achievement Plan, the 1OO Area Vacate Plan, the Railroad Shutdown Plan, as well as recommendations from the recently completed Review of Hanford Electrical Utility. These and other initiatives identified over the next five years will result in significant improvements in efficiency, allowing a greater portion of the infrastructure budget to be applied to Site cleanup. The Plan outlines a planning and management process that defines infrastructure services and structure by linking site technical base line data and customer requirements to work scope and resources. The Plan also provides a vision of where Site infrastructure is going and specific initiatives to get there.

  3. Green Infrastructure Models and Tools

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project is to modify and refine existing models and develop new tools to support decision making for the complete green infrastructure (GI) project lifecycle, including the planning and implementation of stormwater control in urban and agricultural settings,...

  4. Institutional Support Infrastructure for Online Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Ray

    2001-01-01

    Asserting that providing infrastructure to support online classes is analogous to building a new physical campus adjacent to the pre-existing one, describes the support requirements of online faculty, information technology networks, students, and administrators. Says that if these infrastructure considerations are not addressed near the beginning…

  5. An explosion of a CNG fuel vessel in an urban bus.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan-Seong; Jeon, Seung-Won; Moon, Jung-Eun; Lee, Kyu-Jung

    2010-03-01

    An investigation is presented of the explosion of a CNG (compressed natural gas) fuel vessel, called a liner, in an urban bus. The explosion happened at a gas station 10 min after filling was completed. There were no traces of soot and flames at the failed liner, which would be indicative of explosion by ignition of the gas. The filling process of the station was automatically monitored and recorded in a computer. There was no unusual record of the filling system that indicated excess pressure at the time of the accident. There were cracks on the liner that were initiated at the outer surface of the cylindrical shell located at a point 4 cm above the lower dome where cracks did not originate easily as a result of overload. Chemical analysis was performed on a specimen that was cut from the liner, and there was no peculiarity in the mix. Mechanical analysis was performed on the specimens and showed that the hardness was not in the specified range because of inadequate heat treatment of the metal. The hardness of the liner was strictly controlled in the manufacturing process. All the liners that were manufactured at the same period with the failed liner were recalled for examination.

  6. Functional Interactions Between A' Helices in the C-linker of Open CNG Channels

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Li; Gordon, Sharona E.

    2005-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels are nonselective cation channels that are activated by the direct binding of the cyclic nucleotides cAMP and cGMP. The region linking the last membrane-spanning region (S6) to the cyclic nucleotide binding domain in the COOH terminus, termed the C-linker, has been shown to play an important role in coupling cyclic nucleotide binding to opening of the pore. In this study, we explored the intersubunit proximity between the A' helices of the C-linker regions of CNGA1 in functional channels using site-specific cysteine substitution. We found that intersubunit disulfide bonds can be formed between the A' helices in open channels, and that inducing disulfide bonds in most of the studied constructs resulted in potentiation of channel activation. This suggests that the A' helices of the C-linker regions are in close proximity when the channel is in the open state. Our finding is not compatible with a homology model of the CNGA1 C-linker made from the recently published X-ray crystallographic structure of the hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-modulated (HCN) channel COOH terminus, and leads us to suggest that the C-linker region depicted in the crystal structure may represent the structure of the closed state. The opening conformational change would then involve a movement of the A' helices from a position parallel to the axis of the membrane to one perpendicular to the axis of the membrane. PMID:15738051

  7. Evaluation of aftermarket CNG conversion kits in light-duty vehicle applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, C.F.; Rowley, P.F.; Grimes, J.W.

    1995-07-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) was contracted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate three compressed natural gas (CNG) conversion systems using a 1993 Chevrolet Lumina baseline vehicle. A fourth conversion system was added to the test matrix through funding support from Brooklyn Union. The objective of this project was to measure the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emissions and fuel economy of the different conversion systems, and to compare the performance to gasoline-fueled operation and each other. Different natural gas compositions were selected to represent the 10th percentile, mean, and 90th percentile compositions distributed in the Continental United States. Testing with these different compositions demonstrated the systems` ability to accommodate the spectrum of gas found in the United States. Each compressed natural gas conversion system was installed and adjusted according to the manufacturer`s instructions. In addition to the FTP testing, an evaluation of the comparative installation times and derivability tests (based on AGA and CRC guidelines) were conducted on each system.

  8. Role of the S4-S5 Linker in CNG Channel Activation

    PubMed Central

    Kusch, Jana; Zimmer, Thomas; Holschuh, Jascha; Biskup, Christoph; Schulz, Eckhard; Nache, Vasilica; Benndorf, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels mediate sensory signal transduction in retinal and olfactory cells. The channels are activated by the binding of cyclic nucleotides to a cyclic nucleotide-binding domain (CNBD) in the C-terminus that is located at the intracellular side. The molecular events translating the ligand binding to the pore opening are still unknown. We investigated the role of the S4-S5 linker in the activation process by quantifying its interaction with other intracellular regions. To this end, we constructed chimeric channels in which the N-terminus, the S4-S5 linker, the C-linker, and the CNBD of the retinal CNGA1 subunit were systematically replaced by the respective regions of the olfactory CNGA2 subunit. Macroscopic concentration-response relations were analyzed, yielding the apparent affinity to cGMP and the Hill coefficient. The degree of functional coupling of intracellular regions in the activation gating was determined by thermodynamic double-mutant cycle analysis. We observed that all four intracellular regions, including the relatively short S4-S5 linker, are involved in controlling the apparent affinity of the channel to cGMP and, moreover, in determining the degree of cooperativity between the subunits, as derived from the Hill coefficient. The interaction energies reveal an interaction of the S4-S5 linker with both the N-terminus and the C-linker, but no interaction with the CNBD. PMID:20959089

  9. Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit is a toolkit of 5 EPA green infrastructure models and tools, along with communication materials, that can be used as a teaching tool and a quick reference resource when making GI implementation decisions.

  10. Aging Water Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is part of EPA’s larger effort called the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative. The SI initiative brings together drinking water and wastewater utility managers; trade associations; local watershed protection organ...

  11. Green Infrastructure Modeling Tools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Modeling tools support planning and design decisions on a range of scales from setting a green infrastructure target for an entire watershed to designing a green infrastructure practice for a particular site.

  12. Sustainable Water Infrastructure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources for state and local environmental and public health officials, and water, infrastructure and utility professionals to learn about sustainable water infrastructure, sustainable water and energy practices, and their role.

  13. Climate Action Benefits: Infrastructure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides background on the relationship between infrastructure and climate change and describes what the CIRA Infrastructure analyses cover. It provides links to the subsectors Bridges, Roads, Urban Drainage, and Coastal Property.

  14. CNGA3 achromatopsia-associated mutation potentiates the phosphoinositide sensitivity of cone photoreceptor CNG channels by altering intersubunit interactions

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Gucan

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels are critical for sensory transduction in retinal photoreceptors and olfactory receptor cells; their activity is modulated by phosphoinositides (PIPn) such as phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3). An achromatopsia-associated mutation in cone photoreceptor CNGA3, L633P, is located in a carboxyl (COOH)-terminal leucine zipper domain shown previously to be important for channel assembly and PIPn regulation. We determined the functional consequences of this mutation using electrophysiological recordings of patches excised from cells expressing wild-type and mutant CNG channel subunits. CNGA3-L633P subunits formed functional channels with or without CNGB3, producing an increase in apparent cGMP affinity. Surprisingly, L633P dramatically potentiated PIPn inhibition of apparent cGMP affinity for these channels. The impact of L633P on PIPn sensitivity depended on an intact amino (NH2) terminal PIPn regulation module. These observations led us to hypothesize that L633P enhances PIPn inhibition by altering the coupling between NH2- and COOH-terminal regions of CNGA3. A recombinant COOH-terminal fragment partially restored normal PIPn sensitivity to channels with COOH-terminal truncation, but L633P prevented this effect. Furthermore, coimmunoprecipitation of channel fragments, and thermodynamic linkage analysis, also provided evidence for NH2-COOH interactions. Finally, tandem dimers of CNGA3 subunits that specify the arrangement of subunits containing L633P and other mutations indicated that the putative interdomain interaction occurs between channel subunits (intersubunit) rather than exclusively within the same subunit (intrasubunit). Collectively, these studies support a model in which intersubunit interactions control the sensitivity of cone CNG channels to regulation by phosphoinositides. Aberrant channel regulation may contribute to disease progression in patients with the

  15. Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.

    SciTech Connect

    Liebrock, Lorie M.; Duggan, David Patrick

    2009-10-01

    This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

  16. Permafrost Hazards and Linear Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanilovskaya, Julia; Sergeev, Dmitry

    2014-05-01

    climate change. Extra maintenance activity is needed for existence infrastructure to stay operable. Engineers should run climate models under the most pessimistic scenarios when planning new infrastructure projects. That would allow reducing the potential shortcomings related to the permafrost thawing.

  17. Unregulated emissions from compressed natural gas (CNG) transit buses configured with and without oxidation catalyst.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Robert A; Kado, Norman Y; Kuzmicky, Paul A; Ayala, Alberto; Kobayashi, Reiko

    2006-01-01

    The unregulated emissions from two in-use heavy-duty transit buses fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) and equipped with oxidation catalyst (OxiCat) control were evaluated. We tested emissions from a transit bus powered by a 2001 Cummins Westport C Gas Plus 8.3-L engine (CWest), which meets the California Air Resources Board's (CARB) 2002 optional NOx standard (2.0 g/bhp-hr). In California, this engine is certified only with an OxiCat, so our study did not include emissions testing without it. We also tested a 2000 New Flyer 40-passenger low-floor bus powered by a Detroit Diesel series 50G engine (DDCs50G) that is currently certified in California without an OxiCat. The original equipment manufacturer (OEM) offers a "low-emission" package for this bus that includes an OxiCat for transit bus applications, thus, this configuration was also tested in this study. Previously, we reported that formaldehyde and other volatile organic emissions detected in the exhaust of the DDCs50G bus equipped with an OxiCat were significantly reduced relative to the same DDCs50G bus without OxiCat. In this paper, we examine othertoxic unregulated emissions of significance. The specific mutagenic activity of emission sample extracts was examined using the microsuspension assay. The total mutagenic activity of emissions (activity per mile) from the OxiCat-equipped DDC bus was generally lower than that from the DDC bus without the OxiCat. The CWest bus emission samples had mutagenic activity that was comparable to that of the OxiCat-equipped DDC bus. In general, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions were lower forthe OxiCat-equipped buses, with greater reductions observed for the volatile and semivolatile PAH emissions. Elemental carbon (EC) was detected in the exhaust from the all three bus configurations, and we found that the total carbon (TC) composition of particulate matter (PM) emissions was primarily organic carbon (OC). The amount of carbon emissions far exceeded the

  18. Fuzzy architecture assessment for critical infrastructure resilience

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, George

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents an approach for the selection of alternative architectures in a connected infrastructure system to increase resilience of the overall infrastructure system. The paper begins with a description of resilience and critical infrastructure, then summarizes existing approaches to resilience, and presents a fuzzy-rule based method of selecting among alternative infrastructure architectures. This methodology includes considerations which are most important when deciding on an approach to resilience. The paper concludes with a proposed approach which builds on existing resilience architecting methods by integrating key system aspects using fuzzy memberships and fuzzy rule sets. This novel approach aids the systems architect in considering resilience for the evaluation of architectures for adoption into the final system architecture.

  19. Mechanosensitive behavior of bacterial cyclic nucleotide gated (bCNG) ion channels: Insights into the mechanism of channel gating in the mechanosensitive channel of small conductance superfamily.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, Hannah R; Elmore, Donald E; Maurer, Joshua A

    2012-01-20

    We have recently identified and characterized the bacterial cyclic nucleotide gated (bCNG) subfamily of the larger mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS) superfamily of ion channels. The channel domain of bCNG channels exhibits significant sequence homology to the mechanosensitive subfamily of MscS in the regions that have previously been used as a hallmark for channels that gate in response to mechanical stress. However, we have previously demonstrated that three of these channels are unable to rescue Escherichiacoli from osmotic downshock. Here, we examine an additional nine bCNG homologues and further demonstrate that the full-length bCNG channels are unable to rescue E. coli from hypoosmotic stress. However, limited mechanosensation is restored upon removal of the cyclic nucleotide binding domain. This indicates that the C-terminal domain of the MscS superfamily can drive channel gating and further highlight the ability of a superfamily of ion channels to be gated by multiple stimuli.

  20. The cyclic nucleotide gated channel subunit CNG-1 instructs behavioral outputs in Caenorhabditis elegans by coincidence detection of nutritional status and olfactory input.

    PubMed

    He, Chao; Altshuler-Keylin, Svetlana; Daniel, David; L'Etoile, Noelle D; O'Halloran, Damien

    2016-10-06

    In mammals, olfactory subsystems have been shown to express seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in a one-receptor-one-neuron pattern, whereas in Caenorhabditis elegans, olfactory sensory neurons express multiple G-protein coupled odorant receptors per olfactory sensory neuron. In both mammalian and C. elegans olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), the process of olfactory adaptation begins within the OSN; this process of negative feedback within the mammalian OSN has been well described in mammals and enables activated OSNs to desensitize their response cell autonomously while attending to odors detected by separate OSNs. However, the mechanism that enables C. elegans to adapt to one odor and attend to another odor sensed by the same olfactory sensory neuron remains unclear. We found that the cyclic nucleotide gated channel subunit CNG-1 is required to promote cross adaptation responses between distinct olfactory cues. This change in sensitivity to a pair of odorants after persistent stimulation by just one of these odors is modulated by the internal nutritional state of the animal, and we find that this response is maintained across a diverse range of food sources for C. elegans. We also reveal that CNG-1 integrates food related cues for exploratory motor output, revealing that CNG-1 functions in multiple capacities to link nutritional information with behavioral output. Our data describes a novel model whereby CNG channels can integrate the coincidence detection of appetitive and olfactory information to set olfactory preferences and instruct behavioral outputs.

  1. Infrastructure of electronic information management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twitchell, G.D.

    2004-01-01

    The information technology infrastructure of an organization, whether it is a private, non-profit, federal, or academic institution, is key to delivering timely and high-quality products and services to its customers and stakeholders. With the evolution of the Internet and the World Wide Web, resources that were once "centralized" in nature are now distributed across the organization in various locations and often remote regions of the country. This presents tremendous challenges to the information technology managers, users, and CEOs of large world-wide corporations who wish to exchange information or get access to resources in today's global marketplace. Several tools and technologies have been developed over recent years that play critical roles in ensuring that the proper information infrastructure exists within the organization to facilitate this global information marketplace Such tools and technologies as JAVA, Proxy Servers, Virtual Private Networks (VPN), multi-platform database management solutions, high-speed telecommunication technologies (ATM, ISDN, etc.), mass storage devices, and firewall technologies most often determine the organization's success through effective and efficient information infrastructure practices. This session will address several of these technologies and provide options related to those that may exist and can be readily applied within Eastern Europe. ?? 2004 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

  2. Infrastructure Survey 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the Group of Eight (Go8) conducted a survey on the state of its buildings and infrastructure. The survey is the third Go8 Infrastructure survey, with previous surveys being conducted in 2007 and 2009. The current survey updated some of the information collected in the previous surveys. It also collated data related to aspects of the…

  3. Smart Valley Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maule, R. William

    1994-01-01

    Discusses prototype information infrastructure projects in northern California's Silicon Valley. The strategies of the public and private telecommunications carriers vying for backbone services and industries developing end-user infrastructure technologies via office networks, set-top box networks, Internet multimedia, and "smart homes"…

  4. [Attributes of forest infrastructure].

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun-kai; Jin, Ying-shan

    2007-06-01

    This paper discussed the origin and evolution of the conception of ecological infrastructure, the understanding of international communities about the functions of forest, the important roles of forest in China' s economic development and ecological security, and the situations and challenges to the ongoing forestry ecological restoration programs. It was suggested that forest should be defined as an essential infrastructure for national economic and social development in a modern society. The critical functions of forest infrastructure played in the transition of forestry ecological development were emphasized. Based on the synthesis of forest ecosystem features, it was considered that the attributes of forest infrastructure are distinctive, due to the fact that it is constructed by living biological material and diversified in ownership. The forestry ecological restoration program should not only follow the basic principles of infrastructural construction, but also take the special characteristics of forests into consideration in studying the managerial system of the programs. Some suggestions for the ongoing programs were put forward: 1) developing a modern concept of ecosystem where man and nature in harmony is the core, 2) formulating long-term stable investments for forestry ecological restoration programs, 3) implementing forestry ecological restoration programs based on infrastructure construction principles, and 4) managing forests according to the principles of infrastructural construction management.

  5. [Biobanks European infrastructure].

    PubMed

    Kinkorová, Judita; Topolčan, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Biobanks are structured repositories of human tissue samples connected with specific information. They became an integral part of personalized medicine in the new millennium. At the European research area biobanks are isolated not well coordinated and connected to the network. European commission supports European infrastructure BBMRI-ERIC (Biobanks and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure European Research Infrastructure Consortium), consortium of 54 members with more than 225 associated organizations, largely biobanks from over 30 countries. The aim is to support biomedical research using stored samples. Czech Republic is a member of the consortium as a national node BBMRI_CZ, consisting of five partners.

  6. Gas Phase Emission Ratios From In-Use Diesel and CNG Curbside Passenger Buses in New York City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herndon, S. C.; Shorter, J.; Canagaratna, M.; Jayne, J.; Nelson, D. D.; Wormhoudt, J. C.; Williams, P.; Silva, P. J.; Shi, Q.; Ghertner, A.; Zahniser, M.; Worsnop, D.; Kolb, C.; Lanni, T.; Drewnick, F.; Demerjian, K. L.

    2002-12-01

    The Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory simultaneously measured gas phase and particulate emissions from in use vehicles during two campaigns in New York City. The campaigns took place during two weeks in October, 2000 and four weeks in July-August, 2001. Passenger curbside buses were the primary focus of the study, but school buses and several other heavy duty diesel vehicles were also characterized. This paper describes the methodologies used to measure individual in use vehicles and presents the results of the gas phase measurements. Emission ratios for NO, NO2, SO2, N2O, CO, CH4 and H2CO relative to CO2 have been determined across several classes of buses. The gas phase concentrations were measured each second, using Tunable Infrared Laser Direct Absorption Spectroscopy (TILDAS). Some of the categories of buses into which the data has been sorted are; diesel (both 6V92 and Series 50) with and without the Continuous Regenerative Technology (CRT) retrofit, compressed natural gas powered(CNG) and hybrid diesel-electric buses. The New York Metropolitan Transit Authority (MTA) cooperated with this work, providing details about each of their buses followed. In addition to MTA buses, other New York City passenger bus operators were also measured. In September 2000, MTA began to switch to 30 ppm sulfur diesel fuel while it is believed the non MTA operators did not. The measured emission ratios show that low sulfur fuel greatly reduces the amount of SO2 per CO2. Roughly one third of the MTA fleet of diesel buses have been equipped with the CRT retrofit. The gas phase results of interest in this category show increased direct emission of NO2 and companion work (also submitted to the 12th CRC) show the impact the CRT refit has on particulate emissions. CNG buses show increased H2CO and CH4 emission ratios relative to diesel powered motors.

  7. COOPEUS - connecting research infrastructures in environmental sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koop-Jakobsen, Ketil; Waldmann, Christoph; Huber, Robert

    2015-04-01

    The COOPEUS project was initiated in 2012 bringing together 10 research infrastructures (RIs) in environmental sciences from the EU and US in order to improve the discovery, access, and use of environmental information and data across scientific disciplines and across geographical borders. The COOPEUS mission is to facilitate readily accessible research infrastructure data to advance our understanding of Earth systems through an international community-driven effort, by: Bringing together both user communities and top-down directives to address evolving societal and scientific needs; Removing technical, scientific, cultural and geopolitical barriers for data use; and Coordinating the flow, integrity and preservation of information. A survey of data availability was conducted among the COOPEUS research infrastructures for the purpose of discovering impediments for open international and cross-disciplinary sharing of environmental data. The survey showed that the majority of data offered by the COOPEUS research infrastructures is available via the internet (>90%), but the accessibility to these data differ significantly among research infrastructures; only 45% offer open access on their data, whereas the remaining infrastructures offer restricted access e.g. do not release raw data or sensible data, demand user registration or require permission prior to release of data. These rules and regulations are often installed as a form of standard practice, whereas formal data policies are lacking in 40% of the infrastructures, primarily in the EU. In order to improve this situation COOPEUS has installed a common data-sharing policy, which is agreed upon by all the COOPEUS research infrastructures. To investigate the existing opportunities for improving interoperability among environmental research infrastructures, COOPEUS explored the opportunities with the GEOSS common infrastructure (GCI) by holding a hands-on workshop. Through exercises directly registering resources

  8. IPHE Infrastructure Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    2010-02-01

    This proceedings contains information from the IPHE Infrastructure Workshop, a two-day interactive workshop held on February 25-26, 2010, to explore the market implementation needs for hydrogen fueling station development.

  9. Critical Infrastructure Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    2004-10-01

    The Critical Infrastructure Modeling System (CIMS) is a 3D modeling and simulation environment designed to assist users in the analysis of dependencies within individual infrastructure and also interdependencies between multiple infrastructures. Through visual cuing and textual displays, a use can evaluate the effect of system perturbation and identify the emergent patterns that evolve. These patterns include possible outage areas from a loss of power, denial of service or access, and disruption of operations. Method of Solution: CIMS allows the user to model a system, create an overlay of information, and create 3D representative images to illustrate key infrastructure elements. A geo-referenced scene, satellite, aerial images or technical drawings can be incorporated into the scene. Scenarios of events can be scripted, and the user can also interact during run time to alter system characteristics. CIMS operates as a discrete event simulation engine feeding a 3D visualization.

  10. Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green infrastructure, such as rain gardens, green roofs, porous pavement, cisterns, and constructed wetlands, is becoming an increasingly attractive way to recharge aquifers and reduce the amount of stormwater runoff that flows into wastewater treatment plants or into waterbodies...

  11. Clarkesville Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The report outlines the 2012 technical assistance for Clarkesville, GA to develop a Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy, which provides the basic building blocks for a green infrastructure plan:

  12. MFC Communications Infrastructure Study

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Cannon; Terry Barney; Gary Cook; George Danklefsen, Jr.; Paul Fairbourn; Susan Gihring; Lisa Stearns

    2012-01-01

    Unprecedented growth of required telecommunications services and telecommunications applications change the way the INL does business today. High speed connectivity compiled with a high demand for telephony and network services requires a robust communications infrastructure.   The current state of the MFC communication infrastructure limits growth opportunities of current and future communication infrastructure services. This limitation is largely due to equipment capacity issues, aging cabling infrastructure (external/internal fiber and copper cable) and inadequate space for telecommunication equipment. While some communication infrastructure improvements have been implemented over time projects, it has been completed without a clear overall plan and technology standard.   This document identifies critical deficiencies with the current state of the communication infrastructure in operation at the MFC facilities and provides an analysis to identify needs and deficiencies to be addressed in order to achieve target architectural standards as defined in STD-170. The intent of STD-170 is to provide a robust, flexible, long-term solution to make communications capabilities align with the INL mission and fit the various programmatic growth and expansion needs.

  13. Building safeguards infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Rebecca S; Mcclelland - Kerr, John

    2009-01-01

    Much has been written in recent years about the nuclear renaissance - the rebirth of nuclear power as a clean and safe source of electricity around the world. Those who question the nuclear renaissance often cite the risk of proliferation, accidents or an attack on a facility as concerns, all of which merit serious consideration. The integration of these three areas - sometimes referred to as 3S, for safety, security and safeguards - is essential to supporting the growth of nuclear power, and the infrastructure that supports them should be strengthened. The focus of this paper will be on the role safeguards plays in the 3S concept and how to support the development of the infrastructure necessary to support safeguards. The objective of this paper has been to provide a working definition of safeguards infrastructure, and to discuss xamples of how building safeguards infrastructure is presented in several models. The guidelines outlined in the milestones document provide a clear path for establishing both the safeguards and the related infrastructures needed to support the development of nuclear power. The model employed by the INSEP program of engaging with partner states on safeguards-related topics that are of current interest to the level of nuclear development in that state provides another way of approaching the concept of building safeguards infrastructure. The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative is yet another approach that underscored five principal areas for growth, and the United States commitment to working with partners to promote this growth both at home and abroad.

  14. MOEMS industrial infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heeren, Henne; Paschalidou, Lia

    2004-08-01

    numbers they want (several millions per year). The crossover point where building a dedicated facility becomes a realistic option, can differ very much depending on technology complexity, numbers and market value. Also history plays a role, companies with past experience in the production of a product and the necessary facilities and equipment will tend to achieve captive production. Companies not having a microtechnology history will tend to outsource, offering business opportunities for foundries. The number of foundries shows a steady growth over the years. The total availability of foundries, however, and their flexibility will, undoubtedly, rely on market potential and its size. Unlike design houses, foundries need to realise a substantial return on the "large" investments they make in terms of capital and infrastructure. These returns will be maximised through mass-produced products aimed at "killer" applications (accelerometers are only one example). The existence of professional suppliers of MOEMS packaging and assembly is an essential element in the supply chain and critical for the manufacturing and commercialisation of MOEMS products. In addition, the incorporation of packaging and assembly techniques at the front-end of the engineering cycle will pay back in terms of financial savings and shorter timescales to market. Packaging and assembly for MOEMS are, in general, more costly than their equivalents for standard integrated circuits. This is, primarily, due to the diversity of the interconnections (which are multi-functional and may incorporate: electrical, optical, fluidic etc). In addition, the high levels of accuracy and the potential sensitivity of the devices to mechanical and external influences play a major role in the cost aspects of the final MNT product. This article will give an overview of the package/assembly providers and foundry business models and analyse their contribution to the MOEMS supply chain illustrated with some typical examples. As

  15. A sociotechnical framework for understanding infrastructure breakdown and repair

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, Benjamin H

    2009-01-01

    This paper looks at how and why infrastructure is repaired. With a new era of infrastructure spending underway, policymakers need to understand and anticipate the particular technical and political challenges posed by infrastructure repair. In particular, as infrastructure problems are increasingly in the public eye with current economic stimulus efforts, the question has increasingly been asked: why has it been so difficult for the United Statesto devote sustained resources to maintaining and upgrading its national infrastructure? This paper provides a sociotechnical framework for understanding the challenges of infrastructure repair, and demonstrates this framework using a case study of seismic retrofit of freeway bridges in California. The design of infrastructure is quite different from other types of design work even when new infrastructure is being designed. Infrastructure projects are almost always situated within, and must work with, existing infrastructure networks. As a result, compared to design of more discrete technological artifacts, the design of infrastructure systems requires a great deal of attention to interfaces as well as adaptation of design to the constraints imposed by existing systems. Also, because of their scale, infrastructural technologies engage with social life at a level where explicit political agendas may playa central role in the design process. The design and building of infrastructure is therefore often an enormously complex feat of sociotechnical engineering, in which technical and political agendas are negotiated together until an outcome is reached that allows the project to move forward. These sociotechnical settlements often result in a complex balancing of powerful interests around infrastructural artifacts; at the same time, less powerful interests have historically often been excluded or marginalized from such settlements.

  16. The Moral Dimensions of Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Epting, Shane

    2016-04-01

    Moral issues in urban planning involving technology, residents, marginalized groups, ecosystems, and future generations are complex cases, requiring solutions that go beyond the limits of contemporary moral theory. Aside from typical planning problems, there is incongruence between moral theory and some of the subjects that require moral assessment, such as urban infrastructure. Despite this incongruence, there is not a need to develop another moral theory. Instead, a supplemental measure that is compatible with existing moral positions will suffice. My primary goal in this paper is to explain the need for this supplemental measure, describe what one looks like, and show how it works with existing moral systems. The secondary goal is to show that creating a supplemental measure that provides congruency between moral systems that are designed to assess human action and non-human subjects advances the study of moral theory.

  17. ITER Cryoplant Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauve, E.; Monneret, E.; Voigt, T.; Vincent, G.; Forgeas, A.; Simon, M.

    2017-02-01

    The ITER Tokamak requires an average 75 kW of refrigeration power at 4.5 K and 600 kW of refrigeration Power at 80 K to maintain the nominal operation condition of the ITER thermal shields, superconducting magnets and cryopumps. This is produced by the ITER Cryoplant, a complex cluster of refrigeration systems including in particular three identical Liquid Helium Plants and two identical Liquid Nitrogen Plants. Beyond the equipment directly part of the Cryoplant, colossal infrastructures are required. These infrastructures account for a large part of the Cryoplants lay-out, budget and engineering efforts. It is ITER Organization responsibility to ensure that all infrastructures are adequately sized and designed to interface with the Cryoplant. This proceeding presents the overall architecture of the cryoplant. It provides order of magnitude related to the cryoplant building and utilities: electricity, cooling water, heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC).

  18. Urban infrastructure choices structure climate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creutzig, Felix; Agoston, Peter; Minx, Jan C.; Canadell, Josep G.; Andrew, Robbie M.; Quéré, Corinne Le; Peters, Glen P.; Sharifi, Ayyoob; Yamagata, Yoshiki; Dhakal, Shobhakar

    2016-12-01

    Cities are becoming increasingly important in combatting climate change, but their overall role in global solution pathways remains unclear. Here we suggest structuring urban climate solutions along the use of existing and newly built infrastructures, providing estimates of the mitigation potential.

  19. Utility and infrastructure needs for private tank waste processing

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, B.A.

    1996-05-01

    This document supports the development of the Draft TWRS Privatization RFP. The document provides summaries of a wide variety of utility infrastructure and support services that are available at the Hanford Site. The needs of the privatization contractors are estimated and compared to the existing infrastructure. Recommendations are presented on the preferred and alternate routes of supplying the identifies requirements.

  20. Development Model for Research Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wächter, Joachim; Hammitzsch, Martin; Kerschke, Dorit; Lauterjung, Jörn

    2015-04-01

    . The maturity of individual scientific domains differs considerably. • Technologically and organisationally many different RI components have to be integrated. Individual systems are often complex and have a long-term history. Existing approaches are on different maturity levels, e.g. in relation to the standardisation of interfaces. • The concrete implementation process consists of independent and often parallel development activities. In many cases no detailed architectural blue-print for the envisioned system exists. • Most of the funding currently available for RI implementation is provided on a project basis. To increase the synergies in infrastructure development the authors propose a specific RI Maturity Model (RIMM) that is specifically qualified for open system-of-system environments. RIMM is based on the concepts of Capability Maturity Models for organisational development, concretely the Levels of Conceptual Interoperability Model (LCIM) specifying the technical, syntactical, semantic, pragmatic, dynamic, and conceptual layers of interoperation [1]. The model is complemented by the identification and integration of growth factors (according to the Nolan Stages Theory [2]). These factors include supply and demand factors. Supply factors comprise available resources, e.g., data, services and IT-management capabilities including organisations and IT-personal. Demand factors are the overall application portfolio for RIs but also the skills and requirements of scientists and communities using the infrastructure. RIMM thus enables a balanced development process of RI and RI components by evaluating the status of the supply and demand factors in relation to specific levels of interoperability. [1] Tolk, A., Diallo, A., Turnitsa, C. (2007): Applying the Levels of Conceptual Interoperability Model in Support of Integratability, Interoperability, and Composability for System-of-Systems Engineering. Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, Volume 5 - Number 5. [2

  1. Kwajalein Infrastructure Prioritization Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    GROUNDS-MAINTENANCE-SERVICE- CONTRACT-GUIDE-US-Army-Center>. David, Leonard. “ SpaceX Private Rocket Shifts to Island Launch.” 12 Aug. 2005. TechMedia...Network. 11 Sept. 2011. <http://www.space.com/1422- spacex -private-rocket-shifts-island-launch.html>. Kwajalein Infrastructure Prioritization

  2. Infrastructure Survey 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 the Group of Eight (Go8) released a first report on the state of its buildings and infrastructure, based on a survey undertaken in 2007. A further survey was undertaken in 2009, updating some information about the assessed quality, value and condition of buildings and use of space. It also collated data related to aspects of the estate not…

  3. An Infrastructure Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2013-01-01

    This article invites teachers to let their students' imaginations soar as they become part of a team that will design a whole new kind of living technological museum, a facility that celebrates the world of infrastructure. In this activity, a new two-story building will be built, occupying a vacant corner parcel of land, approximately 150…

  4. CNG acid-gas-removal process. Technical progress report 4 for the period 1 August 1981-31 October 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, R.J.; Auyang, L.; Brown, W.R.; Cook, W.J.; Keyvani, M.; Liu, Y.C.

    1981-12-01

    Four tasks were active: design and construction of a bench-scale triple-point crystallizer; equilibrium data acquisition, crystallizer separation factors for several sulfur-containing molecules and trace contaminants, and slurry pumping. A new design for the CNG crystallizer has been completed. A control scheme was devised for the new design. Equipment sizing, selection, and procurement is in progress. Equilibrium data acquisition has been completed. Five component vapor-liquid equilibrium data for gas mixtures representative of BCR Bi-Gas and Exxon catalytic gasifier crude gases were measured. The experimental data agree very well with the equilibrium data estimated by computer calculations. Separation factors were determined for the binary systems carbon dioxide/hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide/carbonyl sulfide, carbon dioxide/ethane, carbon dioxide/ethylene, and carbon dioxide/methyl mercaptan. For each system, sharp separation was observed in one stage of crystallization. In the slurry pumping project the height of liquid leg between the free flashing surface and the pump centerline is being varied to determine the minimum suction head needed for pumping slurry. The pump in current use is a MICROPUMP gear pump.

  5. California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project

    SciTech Connect

    Heydorn, Edward C

    2013-03-12

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has completed a comprehensive, multiyear project to demonstrate a hydrogen infrastructure in California. The specific primary objective of the project was to demonstrate a model of a real-world retail hydrogen infrastructure and acquire sufficient data within the project to assess the feasibility of achieving the nation's hydrogen infrastructure goals. The project helped to advance hydrogen station technology, including the vehicle-to-station fueling interface, through consumer experiences and feedback. By encompassing a variety of fuel cell vehicles, customer profiles and fueling experiences, this project was able to obtain a complete portrait of real market needs. The project also opened its stations to other qualified vehicle providers at the appropriate time to promote widespread use and gain even broader public understanding of a hydrogen infrastructure. The project engaged major energy companies to provide a fueling experience similar to traditional gasoline station sites to foster public acceptance of hydrogen. Work over the course of the project was focused in multiple areas. With respect to the equipment needed, technical design specifications (including both safety and operational considerations) were written, reviewed, and finalized. After finalizing individual equipment designs, complete station designs were started including process flow diagrams and systems safety reviews. Material quotes were obtained, and in some cases, depending on the project status and the lead time, equipment was placed on order and fabrication began. Consideration was given for expected vehicle usage and station capacity, standard features needed, and the ability to upgrade the station at a later date. In parallel with work on the equipment, discussions were started with various vehicle manufacturers to identify vehicle demand (short- and long-term needs). Discussions included identifying potential areas most suited for hydrogen fueling stations

  6. Gaseous and particulate composition of fresh and aged emissions of diesel, RME and CNG buses using Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psichoudaki, Magda; Le Breton, Michael; Hallquist, Mattias; Watne, Ågot; Hallquist, Asa

    2016-04-01

    Urban air pollution is becoming a significant global problem, especially for large cities around the world. Traffic emissions contribute significantly to both elevated particle concentrations and to gaseous pollutants in cities. The latter also have the potential of forming more particulate mass via their photochemical oxidation in the atmosphere. The International Agency for Research on Cancer and the US EPA have characterised diesel exhausts as a likely human carcinogen that can also contribute to other health problems. In order to meet the challenges with increased transportation and enhanced greenhouse gas emissions, the European Union have decided on a 10% substitution of traditional fuels in the road transport sector by alternative fuels (e.g. biodiesel, CNG) before the year 2020. However, it is also important to study the influence of fuel switches on other primary pollutants as well as the potential to form secondary aerosol mass. This work focuses on the characterisation of the chemical composition of the gas and the condensed phase of fresh bus emissions during acceleration, in order to mimic the exhaust plume that humans would inhale under realistic conditions. In addition, photochemical aging of the exhaust emissions was achieved by employing a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) flow reactor, allowing the characterization of the composition of the corresponding aged emissions. The PAM reactor uses UV lamps and high concentrations of oxidants (OH radicals and O3) to oxidize the organic species present in the chamber. The oxidation that takes place within the reactor can be equivalent to up to one week of atmospheric oxidation. Preliminary tests showed that the oxidation employed in these measurements corresponded to a range from 4 to 8 days in the atmosphere. During June and July 2015, a total of 29 buses, 5 diesel, 13 CNG and 11 RME (rapeseed methyl ester), were tested in two different locations with limited influence from other types of emissions and traffic

  7. Operational models of infrastructure resilience.

    PubMed

    Alderson, David L; Brown, Gerald G; Carlyle, W Matthew

    2015-04-01

    We propose a definition of infrastructure resilience that is tied to the operation (or function) of an infrastructure as a system of interacting components and that can be objectively evaluated using quantitative models. Specifically, for any particular system, we use quantitative models of system operation to represent the decisions of an infrastructure operator who guides the behavior of the system as a whole, even in the presence of disruptions. Modeling infrastructure operation in this way makes it possible to systematically evaluate the consequences associated with the loss of infrastructure components, and leads to a precise notion of "operational resilience" that facilitates model verification, validation, and reproducible results. Using a simple example of a notional infrastructure, we demonstrate how to use these models for (1) assessing the operational resilience of an infrastructure system, (2) identifying critical vulnerabilities that threaten its continued function, and (3) advising policymakers on investments to improve resilience.

  8. Infrastructure for microsystem production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heeren, Henne; Sanchez, Stefan; Elders, Job; Heideman, Rene G.

    1999-03-01

    Manufacturing of micro-systems differs from IC manufacturing because the market requires a diversity of products and lower volumes per product. In addition, a diversity of micro-technologies has been developed, including non-IC compatible processes and potentially IC compatible processes. An infrastructure for the production of micro- system devices is lacking. On one side the technology for MST is available at the universities and small university related companies. On the other side there are several small and medium enterprises and bigger companies wanting to implement MST devices in their products, but unwilling to be dependent on universities. Philips Electronics in the Netherlands and Twente MicroProducts realized this problem and have started a project to fill this gap. At this moment the basic of the infrastructure is available: OnStream BV, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, opened its waferfab and assembly facilities for the production of MST devices. Twente MicroProducts will take care of the design of the products and of the small-scale production. Integration of quality systems for maintenance, yield, statistical process control and production in a Manufacturing Execution System offers direct access for all people involved to all the relevant information. It also ensures quality of the products made. The available capabilities of the infrastructure in the current status are compared to the market needs. In this article, a description of a seamless Micro-System Engineering Foundry is given. A seamless organization is capable of helping the customer from design to production. Several examples are given.

  9. Agile Infrastructure Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, P.; Ascenso, J.; Fedorko, I.; Fiorini, B.; Paladin, M.; Pigueiras, L.; Santos, M.

    2014-06-01

    At the present time, data centres are facing a massive rise in virtualisation and cloud computing. The Agile Infrastructure (AI) project is working to deliver new solutions to ease the management of CERN data centres. Part of the solution consists in a new "shared monitoring architecture" which collects and manages monitoring data from all data centre resources. In this article, we present the building blocks of this new monitoring architecture, the different open source technologies selected for each architecture layer, and how we are building a community around this common effort.

  10. The INSC Security Infrastructure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    Le but était de démontrer une infrastructure de réseau qui soutient la sécurité, l’interopérabilité, la maintenance, et la mobilité . La sécurité a...l’interopérabilité, la maintenance, et la mobilité . La sécurité a été fournie à la couche réseau en utilisant le protocole d’IPsec. Aucune sécurité

  11. Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics (CIG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurnis, M.; Kellogg, L. H.; Bloxham, J.; Hager, B. H.; Spiegelman, M.; Willett, S.; Wysession, M. E.; Aivazis, M.

    2004-12-01

    Solid earth geophysicists have a long tradition of writing scientific software to address a wide range of problems. In particular, computer simulations came into wide use in geophysics during the decade after the plate tectonic revolution. Solution schemes and numerical algorithms that developed in other areas of science, most notably engineering, fluid mechanics, and physics, were adapted with considerable success to geophysics. This software has largely been the product of individual efforts and although this approach has proven successful, its strength for solving problems of interest is now starting to show its limitations as we try to share codes and algorithms or when we want to recombine codes in novel ways to produce new science. With funding from the NSF, the US community has embarked on a Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics (CIG) that will develop, support, and disseminate community-accessible software for the greater geodynamics community from model developers to end-users. The software is being developed for problems involving mantle and core dynamics, crustal and earthquake dynamics, magma migration, seismology, and other related topics. With a high level of community participation, CIG is leveraging state-of-the-art scientific computing into a suite of open-source tools and codes. The infrastructure that we are now starting to develop will consist of: (a) a coordinated effort to develop reusable, well-documented and open-source geodynamics software; (b) the basic building blocks - an infrastructure layer - of software by which state-of-the-art modeling codes can be quickly assembled; (c) extension of existing software frameworks to interlink multiple codes and data through a superstructure layer; (d) strategic partnerships with the larger world of computational science and geoinformatics; and (e) specialized training and workshops for both the geodynamics and broader Earth science communities. The CIG initiative has already started to

  12. The Master Clock Building at USNO Infrastructure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    40th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting THE MASTER CLOCK BUILDING AT USNO INFRASTRUCTURE Warren F. Walls U.S. Naval...Observatory, Time Service Department 3450 Massachusetts Ave., NW; Washington, DC 20392, USA E-mail: Warren.Walls@Navy.mil Abstract The U.S...estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the

  13. Tool Gear: Infrastructure for Parallel Tools

    SciTech Connect

    May, J; Gyllenhaal, J

    2003-04-17

    Tool Gear is a software infrastructure for developing performance analysis and other tools. Unlike existing integrated toolkits, which focus on providing a suite of capabilities, Tool Gear is designed to help tool developers create new tools quickly. It combines dynamic instrumentation capabilities with an efficient database and a sophisticated and extensible graphical user interface. This paper describes the design of Tool Gear and presents examples of tools that have been built with it.

  14. Essential infrastructure: national nuclear regulation.

    PubMed

    Paperiello, Carl J

    2011-01-01

    In order for nuclear power to expand to many countries that do not currently have it, it will be essential for these countries to have laws, regulations, guidance and organizations that can license or permit nuclear power plants and support nuclear facilities, ensure compliance by inspection, and enforce nuclear regulations. The viability of nuclear power worldwide depends on an extremely high level of safety everywhere, and compliance with a number of international treaties is required before supplier nations will provide the material, both hardware and software, to build and operate nuclear power plants. While infrastructure support can be obtained from the IAEA and other countries, an essential core of expertise must exist in the country seeking to establish domestic nuclear power generation. While some reliance can be placed on the safety reviews of standard reactor designs by the nuclear regulators in supplier nations, the certification of fuel design, the quality of instruments, and the matching of a new reactor to a proposed site in the importing nation will require site-specific reviews. National arrangements are also needed for emergency preparedness, environmental protection, fuel transportation and the storage, transportation and disposal of radioactive waste. If foreign contractors and consultants are engaged to perform much of the technical work for the regulatory body(s) that has to be performed by the importing nation, that nation must have a core cadre of technically knowledgeable regulators and an organization to provide management and oversight of the contractors and consultants. Consistency in national nuclear regulations, the deployment of standardized nuclear power plant designs and standardized supporting material infrastructure can promote the safe and secure worldwide growth in nuclear power.

  15. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  16. The future of infrastructure security :

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Pablo; Turnley, Jessica Glicken; Parrott, Lori K.

    2013-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories hosted a workshop on the future of infrastructure security on February 27-28, 2013, in Albuquerque, NM. The 17 participants came from backgrounds as diverse as federal policy, the insurance industry, infrastructure management, and technology development. The purpose of the workshop was to surface key issues, identify directions forward, and lay groundwork for cross-sectoral and cross-disciplinary collaborations. The workshop addressed issues such as the problem space (what is included in infrastructure problems?), the general types of threats to infrastructure (such as acute or chronic, system-inherent or exogenously imposed) and definitions of secure and resilient infrastructures. The workshop concluded with a consideration of stakeholders and players in the infrastructure world, and identification of specific activities that could be undertaken by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other players.

  17. Michigan E85 Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Sandstrom, Matthew M.

    2012-03-30

    This is the final report for a grant-funded project to financially assist and otherwise provide support to projects that increase E85 infrastructure in Michigan at retail fueling locations. Over the two-year project timeframe, nine E85 and/or flex-fuel pumps were installed around the State of Michigan at locations currently lacking E85 infrastructure. A total of five stations installed the nine pumps, all providing cost share toward the project. By using cost sharing by station partners, the $200,000 provided by the Department of Energy facilitated a total project worth $746,332.85. This project was completed over a two-year timetable (eight quarters). The first quarter of the project focused on project outreach to station owners about the incentive on the installation and/or conversion of E85 compatible fueling equipment including fueling pumps, tanks, and all necessary electrical and plumbing connections. Utilizing Clean Energy Coalition (CEC) extensive knowledge of gasoline/ethanol infrastructure throughout Michigan, CEC strategically placed these pumps in locations to strengthen the broad availability of E85 in Michigan. During the first and second quarters, CEC staff approved projects for funding and secured contracts with station owners; the second through eighth quarters were spent working with fueling station owners to complete projects; the third through eighth quarters included time spent promoting projects; and beginning in the second quarter and running for the duration of the project was spent performing project reporting and evaluation to the US DOE. A total of 9 pumps were installed (four in Elkton, two in Sebewaing, one in East Lansing, one in Howell, and one in Whitmore Lake). At these combined station locations, a total of 192,445 gallons of E85, 10,786 gallons of E50, and 19,159 gallons of E30 were sold in all reporting quarters for 2011. Overall, the project has successfully displaced 162,611 gallons (2,663 barrels) of petroleum, and reduced

  18. EEW Implementation into Critical Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulfikar, Can; Pinar, Ali

    2016-04-01

    In FP7 MARsite project WP9, the integration algorithm of existing strong motion networks with the critical infrastructures strong motion networks have been studied. In Istanbul, the existing Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning (IEEW) strong motion network consists of 15 stations including 10 on land and 5 ocean bottom stations. The system provides continuous online data and earthquake early warning alert depending on the exceedance of the threshold levels in ground motion acceleration in certain number of station within the certain time interval. The data transmission is provided through the fiber optic cable and satellite line alternatively. The early warning alert is transmitted to the critical infrastructures of Istanbul Natural Gas distribution line and Marmaray Tube Tunnel line in order to activate the local strong motion networks for the automatic shut-off mechanism. Istanbul Natural Gas distribution line has 1.800km steel and 15.200km polyethylene in total 18.000km gas pipeline in Istanbul. There are in total 750 district regulators in the city where the gas pressure is reduced from 20bar to 4bar and from there the gas is transmitted with polyethylene lines to service boxes. Currently, Istanbul Natural Gas Distribution Company (IGDAS) has its own strong motion network with 110 strong motion stations installed at the 110 of 750 district regulators. Once the IGDAS strong motion network is activated by the IEEW network, depending on the exceedance of the ground motion parameters threshold levels the gas flow is stopped at the district regulators. Other than the Earthquake Early Warning operation in IGDAS strong motion network, having the calculated ground motion parameters in the network provides damage maps for the buildings and natural gas pipeline network. The Marmaray Tube Tunnel connects the Europe and Asian sides of Istanbul City by a rail line. The tunnel is 1.4km length and consists of 13segments. There is strong motion monitoring network in the tunnel

  19. Energy Transmission and Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Mathison, Jane

    2012-12-31

    The objective of Energy Transmission and Infrastructure Northern Ohio (OH) was to lay the conceptual and analytical foundation for an energy economy in northern Ohio that will: • improve the efficiency with which energy is used in the residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and transportation sectors for Oberlin, Ohio as a district-wide model for Congressional District OH-09; • identify the potential to deploy wind and solar technologies and the most effective configuration for the regional energy system (i.e., the ratio of distributed or centralized power generation); • analyze the potential within the district to utilize farm wastes to produce biofuels; • enhance long-term energy security by identifying ways to deploy local resources and building Ohio-based enterprises; • identify the policy, regulatory, and financial barriers impeding development of a new energy system; and • improve energy infrastructure within Congressional District OH-09. This objective of laying the foundation for a renewable energy system in Ohio was achieved through four primary areas of activity: 1. district-wide energy infrastructure assessments and alternative-energy transmission studies; 2. energy infrastructure improvement projects undertaken by American Municipal Power (AMP) affiliates in the northern Ohio communities of Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; 3. Oberlin, OH-area energy assessment initiatives; and 4. a district-wide conference held in September 2011 to disseminate year-one findings. The grant supported 17 research studies by leading energy, policy, and financial specialists, including studies on: current energy use in the district and the Oberlin area; regional potential for energy generation from renewable sources such as solar power, wind, and farm-waste; energy and transportation strategies for transitioning the City of Oberlin entirely to renewable resources and considering pedestrians, bicyclists, and public transportation as well as drivers

  20. Governance of Large Scale Research Infrastructures: Tailoring Infrastructures to Fit the Research Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, E.; Pedersen, H.; Clémenceau, A.; Evans, R.

    2012-04-01

    The legal and governance structures of a pan-European large scale research infrastructure (RI) are critical. They shape the very operation of the undertaking - decision making processes, allocation of tasks and resources, and the relationships amongst the various interested parties - and its eventual success is crucially dependent on choosing these structures wisely. The experience of several examples is used to illustrate how legal and governance schemes for pan-European Research Infrastructures can be used as vehicles to tailor the infrastructure according to its scientific objectives. Indeed, the chosen model can: 1) foster multi-disciplinary research by having representatives of different communities deciding on joint programs; 2) better coordinate scattered communities, both geographically and thematically, increasing their cooperation; 3) implement an innovative Research organization; 4) leverage additional funding; 5) develop a strong identity and elevate international visibility for the communities served; 6) clarify responsibilities, accountability and authority. The ESFRI roadmap has extended the "classical" concept of single-sited RIs (as exemplified in the field of physics by facilities such as CERN) to that of distributed and virtual infrastructures but these raise new issues, especially regarding data exchange and management. As this concept of infrastructure at a European level is relatively new to the major part of the science community, it is especially important that governance models are thoroughly discussed and carefully adapted to fit the specific needs of each of these new distributed facilities. Alongside the legal frameworks which have previously been used for existing infrastructures, the European Commission has established a new legal vehicle, the European Research Infrastructure Consortium or "ERIC", to meet the requirements of the pan-European facilities. It will be shown that this flexible model can be used in a "customized" way to meet

  1. Surface acoustic wave sensors/gas chromatography; and Low quality natural gas sulfur removal and recovery CNG Claus sulfur recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Klint, B.W.; Dale, P.R.; Stephenson, C.

    1997-12-01

    This topical report consists of the two titled projects. Surface Acoustic Wave/Gas Chromatography (SAW/GC) provides a cost-effective system for collecting real-time field screening data for characterization of vapor streams contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Model 4100 can be used in a field screening mode to produce chromatograms in 10 seconds. This capability will allow a project manager to make immediate decisions and to avoid the long delays and high costs associated with analysis by off-site analytical laboratories. The Model 4100 is currently under evaluation by the California Environmental Protection Agency Technology Certification Program. Initial certification focuses upon the following organics: cis-dichloroethylene, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethylene, tetrachloroethylene, tetrachloroethane, benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and o-xylene. In the second study the CNG Claus process is being evaluated for conversion and recovery of elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide, especially found in low quality natural gas. This report describes the design, construction and operation of a pilot scale plant built to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the integrated CNG Claus process.

  2. Chemical and toxicological properties of emissions from CNG transit buses equipped with three-way catalysts compared to lean-burn engines and oxidation catalyst technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Seungju; Hu, Shaohua; Kado, Norman Y.; Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Collins, John F.; Gautam, Mridul; Herner, Jorn D.; Ayala, Alberto

    2014-02-01

    Chemical and toxicological properties of emissions from compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled transit buses with stoichiometric combustion engines and three-way catalyst (TWC) exhaust control systems were measured using a chassis dynamometer testing facility and compared to the data from earlier CNG engine and exhaust control technologies. Gaseous and particulate matter emissions from buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC were significantly lower than the emissions from buses with lean-burn engines. Carbonyls and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC were lower by more than 99% compared to buses with lean-burn engines. Elemental and organic carbons (EC and OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and trace elements from buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC were effectively controlled and significantly lower than the emissions from buses with lean-burn engines. Potential mutagenicity measured using a microsuspension modification of the Salmonella/microsome assay was lower by more than 99% for buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC, compared to buses with lean-burn engines and OxC.

  3. Green infrastructure development at European Union's eastern border: Effects of road infrastructure and forest habitat loss.

    PubMed

    Angelstam, Per; Khaulyak, Olha; Yamelynets, Taras; Mozgeris, Gintautas; Naumov, Vladimir; Chmielewski, Tadeusz J; Elbakidze, Marine; Manton, Michael; Prots, Bohdan; Valasiuk, Sviataslau

    2017-05-15

    The functionality of forest patches and networks as green infrastructure may be affected negatively both by expanding road networks and forestry intensification. We assessed the effects of (1) the current and planned road infrastructure, and (2) forest loss and gain, on the remaining large forest landscape massifs as green infrastructure at the EU's eastern border region in post-socialistic transition. First, habitat patch and network functionality in 1996-98 was assessed using habitat suitability index modelling. Second, we made expert interviews about road development with planners in 10 administrative regions in Poland, Belarus and Ukraine. Third, forest loss and gain inside the forest massifs, and gain outside them during the period 2001-14 were measured. This EU cross-border region hosts four remaining forest massifs as regional green infrastructure hotspots. While Poland's road network is developing fast in terms of new freeways, city bypasses and upgrades of road quality, in Belarus and Ukraine the focus is on maintenance of existing roads, and no new corridors. We conclude that economic support from the EU, and thus rapid development of roads in Poland, is likely to reduce the permeability for wildlife of the urban and agricultural matrix around existing forest massifs. However, the four identified forest massifs themselves, forming the forest landscape green infrastructure at the EU's east border, were little affected by road development plans. In contrast, forest loss inside massifs was high, especially in Ukraine. Only in Poland forest loss was balanced by gain. Forest gain outside forest massifs was low. To conclude, pro-active and collaborative spatial planning across different sectors and countries is needed to secure functional forest green infrastructure as base for biodiversity conservation and human well-being.

  4. Framework for Vulnerability Assessment of Coastal Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrien, P. S.; Moritz, H. R.; White, K. D.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal infrastructure can be highly vulnerable to changing climate, including increasing sea levels and altered frequency and intensity of coastal storms. Existing coastal infrastructure may be of a sufficient age that it is already experiencing noticeable impacts from global sea level rise, and require a variety of potential preparedness and resilience measures to adapt to changing climate. Methods to determine vulnerability to changing sea level and support planning of potential future adaptation measures are needed for application to projects having multiple purposes (e.g., navigation, coastal risk reduction). Here we describe a potential framework for assessing projects with several components typical of existing coastal infrastructure spanning a range of engineering disciplines (e.g., hydrology, geotechnical, structural, electrical, and mechanical). The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Climate Preparedness and Resilience Register (CPRR) framework is currently under development. It takes a tiered approach as described in earlier USACE guidance (Engineer Technical Letter 1100-2-1) using the three scenarios prescribed by Engineer Regulation ER 1100-2-8162. Level 1 is a qualitative assessment defining the major sea level change-related impacts and ranks them in order of soonest occurrence. Level 2 is a quantitative evaluation that analyzes current and future performance of individual project components, including electrical, mechanical and structural components and functions using the sea level change scenarios prescribed by ER 1100-2-8162. Level 3 proposes adaptation measures per ETL 1100-2-1 and evaluates changes in sea level change-related impacts.

  5. Cyberwarfare on the Electricity Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Murarka, N.; Ramesh, V.C.

    2000-03-20

    The report analyzes the possibility of cyberwarfare on the electricity infrastructure. The ongoing deregulation of the electricity industry makes the power grid all the more vulnerable to cyber attacks. The report models the power system information system components, models potential threats and protective measures. It therefore offers a framework for infrastructure protection.

  6. Education, Infrastructure and America's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley-Braun, Carol

    1997-01-01

    Senator Carol Moseley-Braun, D-Ill., a recognized advocate for federal funding of educational facilities, describes the strategy of placing school infrastructure in the same category as commercial and transportation infrastructure. Three researchers in the facilities field present empirical evidence that facility conditions directly affect…

  7. The 1990 direct support infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The airport and cargo terminal were individually analyzed in depth as the principal direct infrastructure components having cross impacts with aircraft carrying cargo. Containerization was also addressed in depth as an infrastructure component since it categorically is linked with and cross impacted by the aircraft, the cargo terminal, the surface transport system, the shipper and consignee, and the actual cargo being moved.

  8. Multi-Scale Infrastructure Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) multi-scale infrastructure assessment project supports both water resource adaptation to climate change and the rehabilitation of the nation’s aging water infrastructure by providing tools, scientific data and information to progra...

  9. Distributed Data Integration Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Critchlow, T; Ludaescher, B; Vouk, M; Pu, C

    2003-02-24

    The Internet is becoming the preferred method for disseminating scientific data from a variety of disciplines. This can result in information overload on the part of the scientists, who are unable to query all of the relevant sources, even if they knew where to find them, what they contained, how to interact with them, and how to interpret the results. A related issue is keeping up with current trends in information technology often taxes the end-user's expertise and time. Thus instead of benefiting from this information rich environment, scientists become experts on a small number of sources and technologies, use them almost exclusively, and develop a resistance to innovations that can enhance their productivity. Enabling information based scientific advances, in domains such as functional genomics, requires fully utilizing all available information and the latest technologies. In order to address this problem we are developing a end-user centric, domain-sensitive workflow-based infrastructure, shown in Figure 1, that will allow scientists to design complex scientific workflows that reflect the data manipulation required to perform their research without an undue burden. We are taking a three-tiered approach to designing this infrastructure utilizing (1) abstract workflow definition, construction, and automatic deployment, (2) complex agent-based workflow execution and (3) automatic wrapper generation. In order to construct a workflow, the scientist defines an abstract workflow (AWF) in terminology (semantics and context) that is familiar to him/her. This AWF includes all of the data transformations, selections, and analyses required by the scientist, but does not necessarily specify particular data sources. This abstract workflow is then compiled into an executable workflow (EWF, in our case XPDL) that is then evaluated and executed by the workflow engine. This EWF contains references to specific data source and interfaces capable of performing the desired

  10. JINR cloud infrastructure evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, A. V.; Balashov, N. A.; Kutovskiy, N. A.; Semenov, R. N.

    2016-09-01

    To fulfil JINR commitments in different national and international projects related to the use of modern information technologies such as cloud and grid computing as well as to provide a modern tool for JINR users for their scientific research a cloud infrastructure was deployed at Laboratory of Information Technologies of Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. OpenNebula software was chosen as a cloud platform. Initially it was set up in simple configuration with single front-end host and a few cloud nodes. Some custom development was done to tune JINR cloud installation to fit local needs: web form in the cloud web-interface for resources request, a menu item with cloud utilization statistics, user authentication via Kerberos, custom driver for OpenVZ containers. Because of high demand in that cloud service and its resources over-utilization it was re-designed to cover increasing users' needs in capacity, availability and reliability. Recently a new cloud instance has been deployed in high-availability configuration with distributed network file system and additional computing power.

  11. Flexible Computational Science Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Bergen, Ben; Moss, Nicholas; Charest, Marc Robert Joseph

    2016-04-06

    FleCSI is a compile-time configurable framework designed to support multi-physics application development. As such, FleCSI attempts to provide a very general set of infrastructure design patterns that can be specialized and extended to suit the needs of a broad variety of solver and data requirements. Current support includes multi-dimensional mesh topology, mesh geometry, and mesh adjacency information, n-dimensional hashed-tree data structures, graph partitioning interfaces, and dependency closures. FleCSI also introduces a functional programming model with control, execution, and data abstractions that are consistent with both MPI and state-of-the-art task-based runtimes such as Legion and Charm++. The FleCSI abstraction layer provides the developer with insulation from the underlying runtime, while allowing support for multiple runtime systems, including conventional models like asynchronous MPI. The intent is to give developers a concrete set of user-friendly programming tools that can be used now, while allowing flexibility in choosing runtime implementations and optimizations that can be applied to architectures and runtimes that arise in the future. The control and execution models in FleCSI also provide formal nomenclature for describing poorly understood concepts like kernels and tasks.

  12. Meeting Hanford's Infrastructure Requirements - 12505

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, Karen

    2012-07-01

    Hanford, by all accounts, is an enormous and complex project, with thousands of disparate, but co-mingled activities in motion on any given day. The primary target of the mission at Hanford is cleanup of the 586 square-mile site, but there is the equally vital mission of site services and infrastructure. Without functions like the well-maintained site roads, electricity, water, and emergency management services, not a single cleanup project could be undertaken. As the cleanup projects evolve - with new work-scope emerging, while existing projects are completed - there becomes a very real need to keep projects integrated and working to the same 'blueprint'. And the Hanford blueprint extends for years and includes myriad variables that come with meeting the challenges and complexities associated with Hanford cleanup. Because of an innovative and unique contracting strategy, the Department of Energy (DOE) found a way to keep the cleanup projects un-encumbered from the side task of having to self-provide their individual essential site services, thus allowing the cleanup contractors to concentrate their efforts on their primary mission of cleaning up the site. These infrastructure and support services also need to be provided efficiently and cost effectively - done primarily through 'right-sizing' efforts. The real innovation came when DOE had the foresight to include a second provision in this contract which specifically asked for a specialized role of site integrator and innovator, with a special emphasis placed on providing substantial cost savings for the government. The need for a true site integrator function was necessitated by the ever-increasing complexity of projects at Hanford and the progression of cleanup at others. At present, there are two main DOE offices overseeing the cleanup work and six primary contractors performing that work. Each of these contractors works to separate schedules and cleanup milestones, and the nature of the cleanup differs, but

  13. A relational conceptual framework for multidisciplinary health research centre infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Although multidisciplinary and team-based approaches are increasingly acknowledged as necessary to address some of the most pressing contemporary health challenges, many researchers struggle with a lack of infrastructure to facilitate and formalise the requisite collaborations. Specialised research centres have emerged as an important organisational solution, yet centre productivity and sustainability are frequently dictated by the availability and security of infrastructure funds. Despite being widely cited as a core component of research capacity building, infrastructure as a discrete concept has been rather analytically neglected, often treated as an implicit feature of research environments with little specification or relegated to a narrow category of physical or administrative inputs. The terms research infrastructure, capacity, and culture, among others, are deployed in overlapping and inconsistent ways, further obfuscating the crucial functions of infrastructure specifically and its relationships with associated concepts. The case is made for an expanded conceptualisation of research infrastructure, one that moves beyond conventional 'hardware' notions. Drawing on a case analysis of NEXUS, a multidisciplinary health research centre based at the University of British Columbia, Canada, a conceptual framework is proposed that integrates the tangible and intangible structures that interactively underlie research centre functioning. A relational approach holds potential to allow for more comprehensive accounting of the returns on infrastructure investment. For those developing new research centres or seeking to reinvigorate existing ones, this framework may be a useful guide for both centre design and evaluation. PMID:20925953

  14. The Fermilab data storage infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Jon A Bakken et al.

    2003-02-06

    Fermilab, in collaboration with the DESY laboratory in Hamburg, Germany, has created a petabyte scale data storage infrastructure to meet the requirements of experiments to store and access large data sets. The Fermilab data storage infrastructure consists of the following major storage and data transfer components: Enstore mass storage system, DCache distributed data cache, ftp and Grid ftp for primarily external data transfers. This infrastructure provides a data throughput sufficient for transferring data from experiments' data acquisition systems. It also allows access to data in the Grid framework.

  15. Low-carbon infrastructure strategies for cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, C. A.; Ibrahim, N.; Hoornweg, D.

    2014-05-01

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions to avert potentially disastrous global climate change requires substantial redevelopment of infrastructure systems. Cities are recognized as key actors for leading such climate change mitigation efforts. We have studied the greenhouse gas inventories and underlying characteristics of 22 global cities. These cities differ in terms of their climates, income, levels of industrial activity, urban form and existing carbon intensity of electricity supply. Here we show how these differences in city characteristics lead to wide variations in the type of strategies that can be used for reducing emissions. Cities experiencing greater than ~1,500 heating degree days (below an 18 °C base), for example, will review building construction and retrofitting for cold climates. Electrification of infrastructure technologies is effective for cities where the carbon intensity of the grid is lower than ~600 tCO2e GWh-1 whereas transportation strategies will differ between low urban density (<~6,000 persons km-2) and high urban density (>~6,000 persons km-2) cities. As nation states negotiate targets and develop policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, attention to the specific characteristics of their cities will broaden and improve their suite of options. Beyond carbon pricing, markets and taxation, governments may develop policies and target spending towards low-carbon urban infrastructure.

  16. Specific interoperability problems of security infrastructure services.

    PubMed

    Pharow, Peter; Blobel, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    Communication and co-operation in healthcare and welfare require a well-defined set of security services based on a standards-based interoperable security infrastructure and provided by a Trusted Third Party. Generally, the services describe status and relation of communicating principals, corresponding keys and attributes, and the access rights to both applications and data. Legal, social, behavioral and ethical requirements demand securely stored patient information and well-established access tools and tokens. Electronic signatures as means for securing integrity of messages and files, certified time stamps and time signatures are important for accessing and storing data in Electronic Health Record Systems. The key for all these services is a secure and reliable procedure for authentication (identification and verification). While mentioning technical problems (e.g. lifetime of the storage devices, migration of retrieval and presentation software), this paper aims at identifying harmonization and interoperability requirements of securing data items, files, messages, sets of archived items or documents, and life-long Electronic Health Records based on a secure certificate-based identification. It's commonly known that just relying on existing and emerging security standards does not necessarily guarantee interoperability of different security infrastructure approaches. So certificate separation can be a key to modern interoperable security infrastructure services.

  17. Securing the United States' power infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Happenny, Sean F.

    2015-08-01

    The United States’ power infrastructure is aging, underfunded, and vulnerable to cyber attack. Emerging smart grid technologies may take some of the burden off of existing systems and make the grid as a whole more efficient, reliable, and secure. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is funding research into several aspects of smart grid technology and grid security, creating a software simulation tool that will allow researchers to test power distribution networks utilizing different smart grid technologies to determine how the grid and these technologies react under different circumstances. Demonstrating security in embedded systems is another research area PNNL is tackling. Many of the systems controlling the U.S. critical infrastructure, such as the power grid, lack integrated security and the networks protecting them are becoming easier to breach. Providing a virtual power substation network to each student team at the National Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition, thereby supporting the education of future cyber security professionals, is another way PNNL is helping to strengthen the security of the nation’s power infrastructure.

  18. Virtual infrastructure management in private and hybrid clouds.

    SciTech Connect

    Sotomayor, B.; Montero, R. S.; Llorente, I. M.; Foster, I.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. Complutense of Madrid

    2009-01-01

    One of the many definitions of 'cloud' is that of an infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS) system, in which IT infrastructure is deployed in a provider's data center as virtual machines. With IaaS clouds growing popularity, tools and technologies are emerging that can transform an organization's existing infrastructure into a private or hybrid cloud. OpenNebula is an open source, virtual infrastructure manager that deploys virtualized services on both a local pool of resources and external IaaS clouds. Haizea, a resource lease manager, can act as a scheduling back end for OpenNebula, providing features not found in other cloud software or virtualization-based data center management software.

  19. Green Infrastructure for Arid Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    how green infrastructure practices and the many associated benefits can be effective not only in wetter climates, but also for those communities in arid and semi-arid regions around the nation that have different precipitation patterns

  20. Incorporating Green Infrastructure into TMDLs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The fact sheet provides examples of how some states describe green infrastructure and low impact development activities in their TMDL implementation sections to address stormwater-source impaired waters.

  1. Review of CERN Data Centre Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, P.; Bell, T.; van Eldik, J.; McCance, G.; Panzer-Steindel, B.; Coelho dos Santos, M.; Traylen and, S.; Schwickerath, U.

    2012-12-01

    The CERN Data Centre is reviewing strategies for optimizing the use of the existing infrastructure and expanding to a new data centre by studying how other large sites are being operated. Over the past six months, CERN has been investigating modern and widely-used tools and procedures used for virtualisation, clouds and fabric management in order to reduce operational effort, increase agility and support unattended remote data centres. This paper gives the details on the project's motivations, current status and areas for future investigation.

  2. Infrastructure dynamics: A selected bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dajani, J. S.; Bencosme, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    The term infrastructure is used to denote the set of life support and public service systems which is necessary for the development of growth of human settlements. Included are some basic references in the field of dynamic simulation, as well as a number of relevant applications in the area of infrastructure planning. The intent is to enable the student or researcher to quickly identify such applications to the extent necessary for initiating further work in the field.

  3. Open Component Portability Infrastructure (OPENCPI)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    OPEN COMPONENT PORTABILITY INFRASTRUCTURE (OPENCPI) MERCURY FEDERAL SYSTEMS, INC. MARCH 2013 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT...NUMBER OC 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER PI 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Mercury Federal Systems, Inc. 1901 South Bell Street, Suite...Component Portability Infrastructure (OPENCPI) ,” AFRL-RI-RS-TR- 2009-257, Mercury Federal Systems, Inc., Arlington, VA, Nov 2009. 2. Kulp, J., “OpenCPI

  4. PKA and cAMP/CNG Channels Independently Regulate the Cholinergic Ca(2+)-Response of Drosophila Mushroom Body Neurons(1,2,3).

    PubMed

    Pavot, Pierre; Carbognin, Elena; Martin, Jean-René

    2015-01-01

    The mushroom bodies (MBs), one of the main structures in the adult insect brain, play a critical role in olfactory learning and memory. Though historical genes such as dunce and rutabaga, which regulate the level of cAMP, were identified more than 30 years ago, their in vivo effects on cellular and physiological mechanisms and particularly on the Ca(2+)-responses still remain largely unknown. In this work, performed in Drosophila, we took advantage of in vivo bioluminescence imaging, which allowed real-time monitoring of the entire MBs (both the calyx/cell-bodies and the lobes) simultaneously. We imaged neuronal Ca(2+)-activity continuously, over a long time period, and characterized the nicotine-evoked Ca(2+)-response. Using both genetics and pharmacological approaches to interfere with different components of the cAMP signaling pathway, we first show that the Ca(2+)-response is proportional to the levels of cAMP. Second, we reveal that an acute change in cAMP levels is sufficient to trigger a Ca(2+)-response. Third, genetic manipulation of protein kinase A (PKA), a direct effector of cAMP, suggests that cAMP also has PKA-independent effects through the cyclic nucleotide-gated Ca(2+)-channel (CNG). Finally, the disruption of calmodulin, one of the main regulators of the rutabaga adenylate cyclase (AC), yields different effects in the calyx/cell-bodies and in the lobes, suggesting a differential and regionalized regulation of AC. Our results provide insights into the complex Ca(2+)-response in the MBs, leading to the conclusion that cAMP modulates the Ca(2+)-responses through both PKA-dependent and -independent mechanisms, the latter through CNG-channels.

  5. PKA and cAMP/CNG Channels Independently Regulate the Cholinergic Ca2+-Response of Drosophila Mushroom Body Neurons1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Pavot, Pierre; Carbognin, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The mushroom bodies (MBs), one of the main structures in the adult insect brain, play a critical role in olfactory learning and memory. Though historical genes such as dunce and rutabaga, which regulate the level of cAMP, were identified more than 30 years ago, their in vivo effects on cellular and physiological mechanisms and particularly on the Ca2+-responses still remain largely unknown. In this work, performed in Drosophila, we took advantage of in vivo bioluminescence imaging, which allowed real-time monitoring of the entire MBs (both the calyx/cell-bodies and the lobes) simultaneously. We imaged neuronal Ca2+-activity continuously, over a long time period, and characterized the nicotine-evoked Ca2+-response. Using both genetics and pharmacological approaches to interfere with different components of the cAMP signaling pathway, we first show that the Ca2+-response is proportional to the levels of cAMP. Second, we reveal that an acute change in cAMP levels is sufficient to trigger a Ca2+-response. Third, genetic manipulation of protein kinase A (PKA), a direct effector of cAMP, suggests that cAMP also has PKA-independent effects through the cyclic nucleotide-gated Ca2+-channel (CNG). Finally, the disruption of calmodulin, one of the main regulators of the rutabaga adenylate cyclase (AC), yields different effects in the calyx/cell-bodies and in the lobes, suggesting a differential and regionalized regulation of AC. Our results provide insights into the complex Ca2+-response in the MBs, leading to the conclusion that cAMP modulates the Ca2+-responses through both PKA-dependent and -independent mechanisms, the latter through CNG-channels. PMID:26464971

  6. Water Supply Infrastructure System Surety

    SciTech Connect

    EKMAN,MARK E.; ISBELL,DARYL

    2000-01-06

    The executive branch of the United States government has acknowledged and identified threats to the water supply infrastructure of the United States. These threats include contamination of the water supply, aging infrastructure components, and malicious attack. Government recognition of the importance of providing safe, secure, and reliable water supplies has a historical precedence in the water works of the ancient Romans, who recognized the same basic threats to their water supply infrastructure the United States acknowledges today. System surety is the philosophy of ''designing for threats, planning for failure, and managing for success'' in system design and implementation. System surety is an alternative to traditional compliance-based approaches to safety, security, and reliability. Four types of surety are recognized: reactive surety; proactive surety, preventative surety; and fundamental, inherent surety. The five steps of the system surety approach can be used to establish the type of surety needed for the water infrastructure and the methods used to realize a sure water infrastructure. The benefit to the water industry of using the system surety approach to infrastructure design and assessment is a proactive approach to safety, security, and reliability for water transmission, treatment, distribution, and wastewater collection and treatment.

  7. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, G; Abhayaratne, P; Bale, J; Bhattacharjee, A; Blair, C; Hansell, L; Jayne, A; Kosal, M; Lucas, S; Moran, K; Seroki, L; Vadlamudi, S

    2006-12-04

    organization will attack critical infrastructure. In other words, this research investigates: (1) why terrorists choose to attack critical infrastructure rather than other targets; (2) how groups make such decisions; (3) what, if any, types of groups are most inclined to attack critical infrastructure targets; and (4) which types of critical infrastructure terrorists prefer to attack and why. In an effort to address the above questions as comprehensively as possible, the project team employed four discrete investigative approaches in its research design. These include: (1) a review of existing terrorism and threat assessment literature to glean expert consensus regarding terrorist target selection, as well as to identify theoretical approaches that might be valuable to analysts and decision-makers who are seeking to understand such terrorist group decision-making processes; (2) the preparation of several concise case studies to help identify internal group factors and contextual influences that have played significant roles in leading some terrorist groups to attack critical infrastructure; (3) the creation of a new database--the Critical Infrastructure Terrorist Incident Catalog (CrITC)--to capture a large sample of empirical CI attack data that might be used to illuminate the nature of such attacks to date; and (4) the development of a new analytical framework--the Determinants Effecting Critical Infrastructure Decisions (DECIDe) Framework--designed to make the factors and dynamics identified by the study more ''usable'' in any future efforts to assess terrorist intentions to target critical infrastructure. Although each is addressed separately in the following chapters, none of the four aspects of this study were developed in isolation. Rather, all the constituent elements of the project informed--and were informed by--the others. For example, the review of the available literature on terrorist target selection made possible the identification of several target selection

  8. Public key infrastructure for DOE security research

    SciTech Connect

    Aiken, R.; Foster, I.; Johnston, W.E.

    1997-06-01

    This document summarizes the Department of Energy`s Second Joint Energy Research/Defence Programs Security Research Workshop. The workshop, built on the results of the first Joint Workshop which reviewed security requirements represented in a range of mission-critical ER and DP applications, discussed commonalties and differences in ER/DP requirements and approaches, and identified an integrated common set of security research priorities. One significant conclusion of the first workshop was that progress in a broad spectrum of DOE-relevant security problems and applications could best be addressed through public-key cryptography based systems, and therefore depended upon the existence of a robust, broadly deployed public-key infrastructure. Hence, public-key infrastructure ({open_quotes}PKI{close_quotes}) was adopted as a primary focus for the second workshop. The Second Joint Workshop covered a range of DOE security research and deployment efforts, as well as summaries of the state of the art in various areas relating to public-key technologies. Key findings were that a broad range of DOE applications can benefit from security architectures and technologies built on a robust, flexible, widely deployed public-key infrastructure; that there exists a collection of specific requirements for missing or undeveloped PKI functionality, together with a preliminary assessment of how these requirements can be met; that, while commercial developments can be expected to provide many relevant security technologies, there are important capabilities that commercial developments will not address, due to the unique scale, performance, diversity, distributed nature, and sensitivity of DOE applications; that DOE should encourage and support research activities intended to increase understanding of security technology requirements, and to develop critical components not forthcoming from other sources in a timely manner.

  9. Towards an Infrastructure for MLS Distributed Computing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Distributed computing owes its success to the development of infrastructure, middleware, and standards (e.g., CORBA) by the computing industry. This...Government must protect national security information against unauthorized information flow. To support MLS distributed computing , a MLS infrastructure...protection of classified information and use both the emerging distributed computing and commercial security infrastructures. The resulting infrastructure

  10. Agent-based modeling of complex infrastructures

    SciTech Connect

    North, M. J.

    2001-06-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) can be applied to investigate complex infrastructures and infrastructure interdependencies. The CAS model agents within the Spot Market Agent Research Tool (SMART) and Flexible Agent Simulation Toolkit (FAST) allow investigation of the electric power infrastructure, the natural gas infrastructure and their interdependencies.

  11. Critical Infrastructures: Background, Policy, and Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-07

    Government Accountability Office, Critical Infrastructure Protection: Challenges for Selected Agencies and Industry Sectors. Repot to the Committee on...the federal government to develop and implement plans that would protect government -operated infrastructures and called for a dialogue between... government and the private sector to develop a National Infrastructure Assurance Plan that would protect all of the nation’s critical infrastructures by

  12. Infrastructure Commons in Economic Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frischmann, Brett M.

    This chapter briefly summarizes a theory (developed in substantial detail elsewhere)1 that explains why there are strong economic arguments for managing and sustaining infrastructure resources in an openly accessible manner. This theory facilitates a better understanding of two related issues: how society benefits from infrastructure resources and how decisions about how to manage or govern infrastructure resources affect a wide variety of public and private interests. The key insights from this analysis are that infrastructure resources generate value as inputs into a wide range of productive processes and that the outputs from these processes are often public goods and nonmarket goods that generate positive externalities that benefit society as a whole. Managing such resources in an openly accessible manner may be socially desirable from an economic perspective because doing so facilitates these downstream productive activities. For example, managing the Internet infrastructure in an openly accessible manner facilitates active citizen involvement in the production and sharing of many different public and nonmarket goods. Over the last decade, this has led to increased opportunities for a wide range of citizens to engage in entrepreneurship, political discourse, social network formation, and community building, among many other activities. The chapter applies these insights to the network neutrality debate and suggests how the debate might be reframed to better account for the wide range of private and public interests at stake.

  13. RISK DISCLOSURE AGAINST ATTACK ON CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Mamoru; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi

    This paper analyzes the government's defensive and disclosure strategies to reduce the damage caused by terrorists that attack critical infrastructures using subjective game theory. The government recognizes a terrorist as a hidden opponent and the government's decision making about the policies against terror attacks depends on the belief about the existence of terrorist. In addition, it is not necessarily true that the government and the terrorist play the common game and make their decisions. Considering these points, the paper formulates the model in which the government and the terrorist formulate the subjective games respectively, and they induce the strategies using the equilibriums of their subjective games. The paper concluded that the government's disclosure about the implementation of the countermeasure, rather than the disclosure of warning level related with the belief about the existence of terrorist, brings about the higher increment of the subjective payoffs of the government.

  14. SPRUCE experiment data infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krassovski, M.; Hanson, P. J.; Boden, T.; Riggs, J.; Nettles, W. R.; Hook, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), USA has provided scientific data management support for the US Department of Energy and international climate change science since 1982. Among the many data activities CDIAC performs are design and implementation of the data systems. One current example is the data system and network for SPRUCE experiment. The SPRUCE experiment (http://mnspruce.ornl.gov) is the primary component of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Scientific Focus Area of ORNL's Climate Change Program, focused on terrestrial ecosystems and the mechanisms that underlie their responses to climatic change. The experimental work is to be conducted in a bog forest in northern Minnesota, 40 km north of Grand Rapids, in the USDA Forest Service Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF). The site is located at the southern margin of the boreal peatland forest. Experimental work in the 8.1-ha S1 bog will be a climate change manipulation focusing on the combined responses to multiple levels of warming at ambient or elevated CO2 (eCO2) levels. The experiment provides a platform for testing mechanisms controlling the vulnerability of organisms, biogeochemical processes and ecosystems to climatic change (e.g., thresholds for organism decline or mortality, limitations to regeneration, biogeochemical limitations to productivity, the cycling and release of CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere). The manipulation will evaluate the response of the existing biological communities to a range of warming levels from ambient to +9°C, provided via large, modified open-top chambers. The ambient and +9°C warming treatments will also be conducted at eCO2 (in the range of 800 to 900 ppm). Both direct and indirect effects of these experimental perturbations will be analyzed to develop and refine models needed for full Earth system analyses. SPRUCE provides wide range continuous and discrete measurements. To successfully manage SPRUCE data flow

  15. Development of a lunar infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of building an infrastructure on the moon is discussed, assuming that earth-to-moon and moon-to-earth transport will be available. The sequence of events which would occur in the process of building an infrastructure is examined. The human needs which must be met on a lunar base are discussed, including minimal life support, quality of life, and growth stages. The technology available to meet these needs is reviewed and further research in fields related to a lunar base, such as the study of the moon's polar regions and the limits of lunar agriculture, is recommended.

  16. International Needs for Infrastructure Nde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovics, John; Boller, Christian; Cawley, Peter; Spencer, Billie F.; Wang, Ming L.; Washer, Glenn

    2009-03-01

    The Aging of Infrastructure is a world wide problem of increasing importance, with the specifics varying from region to region depending on the age and nature of critical structures. It is clear that the NDE and SHM tools being developed by the QNDE community can play an important role in addressing the Aging Infrastructure problem, and the special evening session is designed to provide perspective to the developers of that technology through an overview of the international needs. A panel of speakers with experience with the unique situations in different regions of the world will first make a series of short presentations. This will be followed by a general discussion period.

  17. FOREWORD: Structural Health Monitoring and Intelligent Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhishen; Fujino, Yozo

    2005-06-01

    This special issue collects together 19 papers that were originally presented at the First International Conference on Structural Health Monitoring and Intelligent Infrastructure (SHMII-1'2003), held in Tokyo, Japan, on 13-15 November 2003. This conference was organized by the Japan Society of Civil Engineers (JSCE) with partial financial support from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) and the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport, Science and Technology, Japan. Many related organizations supported the conference. A total of 16 keynote papers including six state-of-the-art reports from different counties, six invited papers and 154 contributed papers were presented at the conference. The conference was attended by a diverse group of about 300 people from a variety of disciplines in academia, industry and government from all over the world. Structural health monitoring (SHM) and intelligent materials, structures and systems have been the subject of intense research and development in the last two decades and, in recent years, an increasing range of applications in infrastructure have been discovered both for existing structures and for new constructions. SHMII-1'2003 addressed progress in the development of building, transportation, marine, underground and energy-generating structures, and other civilian infrastructures that are periodically, continuously and/or actively monitored where there is a need to optimize their performance. In order to focus the current needs on SHM and intelligent technologies, the conference theme was set as 'Structures/Infrastructures Sustainability'. We are pleased to have the privilege to edit this special issue on SHM and intelligent infrastructure based on SHMII-1'2003. We invited some of the presenters to submit a revised/extended version of their paper that was included in the SHMII-1'2003 proceedings for possible publication in the special issue. Each paper included in this special issue was edited with the same

  18. RIDE: the Research Infrastructure Database for EPOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailo, Daniele; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Jeffery, Keith G.; Clemenceau, Alice; Hoffmann, Thomas L.

    2013-04-01

    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) is a European initiative which aims to promote and make possible innovative approaches for a better understanding of the physical processes laying behind natural events and geo-science phenomena (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, unrest episodes and tsunamis etc.) by integrating existing national and trans-national Research Infrastructures (RIs). Such integration will increase access and use of the multidisciplinary data recorded by solid Earth monitoring networks, acquired in laboratory experiments and/or produced by computational simulations. Here we present the Research Infrastructures Database for EPOS (RIDE), a database containing technical information about the different RIs declared by EPOS partners and EPOS associate partners, which will eventually compose the EPOS distributed Research Infrastructure. The main goals of RIDE are (i) to allow the EPOS RI to be organized, with interactive access and information mining available to a broad community of users and stakeholders, (ii) to have a first set of information to be stored in the EPOS catalogue, which will be used as a basis for the development of EPOS Core Services, (iii) to enable EPOS partners to revise and update the current RI information, (iv) to show the contents of the EPOS integration plan to all stakeholders, (v) to facilitate the dissemination of existing data infrastructures to different communities and to promote a discussion within the community to implement the present data infrastructures. RIDE - whose driving technology is Apache CouchDB - contains at the current status detailed information on more than 200 Research Infrastructures. It enables any user to visualize RIs and sensors on a map, to carry out statistics on the stored data and to browse through the details of any RI. Based on the content of RIDE it is now possible to estimate the potential size of the new EPOS distributed RI: EPOS is going to integrate more than 7000 sensors (seismic

  19. Research e-infrastructure for "Geophysics" mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarov, V.; Mogilevsky, M.; Nazirov, R.; Eismont, N.; Melnik, A.

    2009-04-01

    Space mission "Geophysics" intended for monitoring of ionospheric plasma parameters, electromagnetic emission and solar activity. In the frame of the project will be launched five small satellites on solar-synchronous orbits: two satellites on circular orbit, altitude ~700 km, orbit plane - morning-evening, another two satellites at the same altitude but orbit plane - day-night and the last satellite - on elliptic orbit with ~1200 km apogee and ~400 km perigee. Such choice of spacecraft constellation configuration is so some extent similar to the configuration usually used for the Earth remote sensing tasks. It gives advantages for the project because it allows to apply technologies of remote sensing satellites practically off shelved. From the other side it gives new possibilities for geophysics experiments followed from the fact that the measurements may be considered as the ones done by the instruments having the size of the Earth scale. However it brings more strict requirements for information support of the mission in general and for ground segment particularly. In needs not only on-line processing but on-line interpretation too, operative feedback link between interpretation and operation subsystems etc. Satisfaction of such strict requirements from one side and necessity for using of existing ground resources (taking in account budget limitations) implied creating of unified ground information infrastructure for target payload of the mission. This e-infrastructure will cover traditional ground systems which are treated as systems based on Resource-Oriented Architecture (ROA) and will produce unified integration platform based on Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) which will collects all needed services and provides access to them in frame of unified cyber-infrastructure. The article describes technology and methodology aspects of design of this system.

  20. EPA's Ongoing Green Infrastructure Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Infrastructure is a concept originating in the United States in the mid-1990's that highlights the importance of the natural environment in decisions about land use planning. In particular there is an emphasis on the “life support” functions provided by the natural environm...

  1. Managing Mission-Critical Infrastructure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeding, Marshall

    2012-01-01

    In the library context, they depend on sophisticated business applications specifically designed to support their work. This infrastructure consists of such components as integrated library systems, their associated online catalogs or discovery services, and self-check equipment, as well as a Web site and the various online tools and services…

  2. Impact of Declining Rural Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Fiona Haslem

    A study investigated the impact of declining rural community infrastructure on social, environmental, and economic well-being in Western Australia's central wheatbelt. Questionnaires were completed by 398 residents of the central wheatbelt, on-farm interviews were conducted with 68 respondents, and 4 focus groups were held in area towns.…

  3. Infrastructure for large space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacEwen, Howard A.; Lillie, Charles F.

    2016-10-01

    It is generally recognized (e.g., in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration response to recent congressional appropriations) that future space observatories must be serviceable, even if they are orbiting in deep space (e.g., around the Sun-Earth libration point, SEL2). On the basis of this legislation, we believe that budgetary considerations throughout the foreseeable future will require that large, long-lived astrophysics missions must be designed as evolvable semipermanent observatories that will be serviced using an operational, in-space infrastructure. We believe that the development of this infrastructure will include the design and development of a small to mid-sized servicing vehicle (MiniServ) as a key element of an affordable infrastructure for in-space assembly and servicing of future space vehicles. This can be accomplished by the adaptation of technology developed over the past half-century into a vehicle approximately the size of the ascent stage of the Apollo Lunar Module to provide some of the servicing capabilities that will be needed by very large telescopes located in deep space in the near future (2020s and 2030s). We specifically address the need for a detailed study of these servicing requirements and the current proposals for using presently available technologies to provide the appropriate infrastructure.

  4. Internet 2 Distributed Storage Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simco, Greg

    2003-01-01

    The Distributed Storage Infrastructure (DSI) project, a cooperative effort of the University of Tennessee and University of North Carolina, is an example of the Internet 2 (I2) efforts to enable remote collaboration among the research and educational communities. It extends the domain of a distributed high-speed computing environment to enable…

  5. 2009 Infrastructure Platform Review Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, John

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass program‘s Infrastructure platform review meeting, held on February 19, 2009, at the Marriott Residence Inn, National Harbor, Maryland.

  6. Engineering Infrastructures: Problems of Safety and Security in the Russian Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhutov, Nikolay A.; Reznikov, Dmitry O.; Petrov, Vitaly P.

    Modern society cannot exist without stable and reliable engineering infrastructures (EI), whose operation is vital for any national economy. These infrastructures include energy, transportation, water and gas supply systems, telecommunication and cyber systems, etc. Their performance is commensurate with storing and processing huge amounts of information, energy and hazardous substances. Ageing infrastructures are deteriorating — with operating conditions declining from normal to emergency and catastrophic. The complexity of engineering infrastructures and their interdependence with other technical systems makes them vulnerable to emergency situations triggered by natural and manmade catastrophes or terrorist attacks.

  7. Population as a proxy for infrastructure in the determination of event response and recovery resource allocations

    DOE PAGES

    Stamber, Kevin L.; Unis, Carl J.; Shirah, Donald N.; ...

    2016-04-01

    Research into modeling of the quantification and prioritization of resources used in the recovery of lifeline critical infrastructure following disruptive incidents, such as hurricanes and earthquakes, has shown several factors to be important. Among these are population density and infrastructure density, event effects on infrastructure, and existence of an emergency response plan. The social sciences literature has a long history of correlating the population density and infrastructure density at a national scale, at a country-to-country level, mainly focused on transportation networks. This effort examines whether these correlations can be repeated at smaller geographic scales, for a variety of infrastructure types,more » so as to be able to use population data as a proxy for infrastructure data where infrastructure data is either incomplete or insufficiently granular. Using the best data available, this effort shows that strong correlations between infrastructure density for multiple types of infrastructure (e.g. miles of roads, hospital beds, miles of electric power transmission lines, and number of petroleum terminals) and population density do exist at known geographic boundaries (e.g. counties, service area boundaries) with exceptions that are explainable within the social sciences literature. Furthermore, the correlations identified provide a useful basis for ongoing research into the larger resource utilization problem.« less

  8. Population as a proxy for infrastructure in the determination of event response and recovery resource allocations

    SciTech Connect

    Stamber, Kevin L.; Unis, Carl J.; Shirah, Donald N.; Gibson, Jessica A.; Fogleman, William E.; Kaplan, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Research into modeling of the quantification and prioritization of resources used in the recovery of lifeline critical infrastructure following disruptive incidents, such as hurricanes and earthquakes, has shown several factors to be important. Among these are population density and infrastructure density, event effects on infrastructure, and existence of an emergency response plan. The social sciences literature has a long history of correlating the population density and infrastructure density at a national scale, at a country-to-country level, mainly focused on transportation networks. This effort examines whether these correlations can be repeated at smaller geographic scales, for a variety of infrastructure types, so as to be able to use population data as a proxy for infrastructure data where infrastructure data is either incomplete or insufficiently granular. Using the best data available, this effort shows that strong correlations between infrastructure density for multiple types of infrastructure (e.g. miles of roads, hospital beds, miles of electric power transmission lines, and number of petroleum terminals) and population density do exist at known geographic boundaries (e.g. counties, service area boundaries) with exceptions that are explainable within the social sciences literature. Furthermore, the correlations identified provide a useful basis for ongoing research into the larger resource utilization problem.

  9. ELECTRIC INFRASTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY, TRAINING, AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    TREMEL, CHARLES L

    2007-06-28

    The objective of this Electric Infrastructure Technology, Training and Assessment Program was to enhance the reliability of electricity delivery through engineering integration of real-time technologies for wide-area applications enabling timely monitoring and management of grid operations. The technologies developed, integrated, tested and demonstrated will be incorporated into grid operations to assist in the implementation of performance-based protection/preventive measures into the existing electric utility infrastructure. This proactive approach will provide benefits of reduced cost and improved reliability over the typical schedule-based and as needed maintenance programs currently performed by utilities. Historically, utilities have relied on maintenance and inspection programs to diagnose equipment failures and have used the limited circuit isolation devices, such as distribution main circuit breakers to identify abnormal system performance. With respect to reliable problem identification, customer calls to utility service centers are often the sole means for utilities to identify problem occurrences and determine restoration methodologies. Furthermore, monitoring and control functions of equipment and circuits are lacking; thus preventing timely detection and response to customer outages. Finally, the two-way flow of real-time system information is deficient, depriving decision makers of key information required to effectively manage and control current electric grid demands to provide reliable customer service in abnormal situations. This Program focused on advancing technologies and the engineering integration required to incorporate them into the electric grid operations to enhance electrical system reliability and reduce utility operating costs.

  10. Intelligent transportation infrastructure deployment analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Rathi, A.K.; Harding, J.A.

    1997-02-01

    Much of the work on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) to date has emphasized technologies, standards/protocols, architecture, user services, core infrastructure requirements, and various other technical and institutional issues. ITS implementations in the United States and elsewhere in the world have demonstrated benefits in the areas of safety, productivity, efficiency, and environmental impact. However, quantitative benefits and satisfactory cost estimates are not available or cannot be derived for many components of the ITS, whether deployed individually or in some integrated fashion. The limitations of existing analysis and evaluation capabilities coupled with the lack of strong empirical evidence presents a major knowledge and data gap for infrastructure investment decisions involving ITS alternatives. This paper describes the over-arching issues and requirements associated with the analysis capabilities required for a systematic, faithful, and rigorous evaluation of the impacts of deploying ITS in a metropolitan area. It then describes the conceptual framework of a modeling system that will provide a preliminary analysis capability to support ITS deployment analysis and evaluation.

  11. Working towards a European Geological Data Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Krogt, Rob; Hughes, Richard; Pedersen, Mikael; Serrano, Jean-Jacques; Lee, Kathryn A.; Tulstrup, Jørgen; Robida, François

    2013-04-01

    ; what can we conclude and what is the way forward? • The project has evaluated relevant existing interoperable infrastructures revealing a typology of infrastructures that may be useful models for the EGDI; • Planning for the EGDI also need to be integrated with other relevant international initiatives and programs such as GMES, GEO and EPOS, and with legally binding regulations like INSPIRE. The outcomes of these relevant evaluations and activities will contribute to the implementation plan for the EGDI including the prioritization of relevant datasets and the most important functional, technical (design, use of standards), legal and organizational requirements.

  12. Optimal recovery sequencing for critical infrastructure resilience assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    Vugrin, Eric D.; Brown, Nathanael J. K.; Turnquist, Mark Alan

    2010-09-01

    Critical infrastructure resilience has become a national priority for the U. S. Department of Homeland Security. System resilience has been studied for several decades in many different disciplines, but no standards or unifying methods exist for critical infrastructure resilience analysis. This report documents the results of a late-start Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that investigated the identification of optimal recovery strategies that maximize resilience. To this goal, we formulate a bi-level optimization problem for infrastructure network models. In the 'inner' problem, we solve for network flows, and we use the 'outer' problem to identify the optimal recovery modes and sequences. We draw from the literature of multi-mode project scheduling problems to create an effective solution strategy for the resilience optimization model. We demonstrate the application of this approach to a set of network models, including a national railroad model and a supply chain for Army munitions production.

  13. Exposure of smoke solutions from CNG-powered four-stroke auto-rickshaws induces distressed embryonic movements, embryonic hemorrhaging and ectopia cordis.

    PubMed

    Ejaz, Sohail; Ejaz, Ahmed; Sohail, Amara; Ahmed, Mukthar; Nasir, Amar; Lim, Chae Woong

    2009-07-01

    In south Asian countries, a campaign has launched to promote CNG-powered four-stroke auto-rickshaws (CNFAR) to decrease emission load in the environment. Even though, CNFAR are considered environmentally safe, emissions of some other toxic chemicals would amplify, which may effect the development of growing fetus and may result in different growth defects. By utilizing the in vivo chicken embryo model, this report analyzes the toxic potential of CNFAR smoke solutions (CNFARSS) on embryonic movements (EM) and cardiovascular development. Application of CNFARSS to embryos caused profound decline (p<0.001) in all four types of EMs. Several recovery attempts of all EMs were observed in oscillating fashion, however, EMs did not recover by the end of experiment. Exposure of CNFARSS escorted intense decline (p<0.001) with temperate recovery phases in the EM of tail. Macroscopic evaluation of all CNFARSS treated chicken embryos revealed several widespread hemorrhaging throughout the whole body. Moreover, four different types of ectopia cordis were prominently observed among all CNFARSS treated embryos, namely; incomplete ectopia cordis, complete ectopia cordis, cervico-thoracic ectopia cordis and thoraco-abdominal ectopia cordis.

  14. Innovations in Nuclear Infrastructure and Education

    SciTech Connect

    John Bernard

    2010-12-13

    The decision to implement the Innovation in Nuclear Infrastructure and Engineering Program (INIE) was an important first step towards ensuring that the United States preserves its worldwide leadership role in the field of nuclear science and engineering. Prior to INIE, university nuclear science and engineering programs were waning, undergraduate student enrollment was down, university research reactors were being shut down, while others faced the real possibility of closure. For too long, cutting edge research in the areas of nuclear medicine, neutron scattering, radiochemistry, and advanced materials was undervalued and therefore underfunded. The INIE program corrected this lapse in focus and direction and started the process of drawing a new blueprint with positive goals and objectives that supports existing as well the next generation of educators, students and researchers.

  15. Analysis of Critical Infrastructure Dependencies and Interdependencies

    SciTech Connect

    Petit, Frederic; Verner, Duane; Brannegan, David; Buehring, William; Dickinson, David; Guziel, Karen; Haffenden, Rebecca; Phillips, Julia; Peerenboom, James

    2015-06-01

    The report begins by defining dependencies and interdependencies and exploring basic concepts of dependencies in order to facilitate a common understanding and consistent analytical approaches. Key concepts covered include; Characteristics of dependencies: upstream dependencies, internal dependencies, and downstream dependencies; Classes of dependencies: physical, cyber, geographic, and logical; and Dimensions of dependencies: operating environment, coupling and response behavior, type of failure, infrastructure characteristics, and state of operations From there, the report proposes a multi-phase roadmap to support dependency and interdependency assessment activities nationwide, identifying a range of data inputs, analysis activities, and potential products for each phase, as well as key steps needed to progress from one phase to the next. The report concludes by outlining a comprehensive, iterative, and scalable framework for analyzing dependencies and interdependencies that stakeholders can integrate into existing risk and resilience assessment efforts.

  16. The Adaptive Multi-scale Simulation Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, William R.

    2015-09-01

    The Adaptive Multi-scale Simulation Infrastructure (AMSI) is a set of libraries and tools developed to support the development, implementation, and execution of general multimodel simulations. Using a minimal set of simulation meta-data AMSI allows for minimally intrusive work to adapt existent single-scale simulations for use in multi-scale simulations. Support for dynamic runtime operations such as single- and multi-scale adaptive properties is a key focus of AMSI. Particular focus has been spent on the development on scale-sensitive load balancing operations to allow single-scale simulations incorporated into a multi-scale simulation using AMSI to use standard load-balancing operations without affecting the integrity of the overall multi-scale simulation.

  17. 76 FR 17934 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Infrastructure Protection Data Call AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS...: Infrastructure Protection Data Call. OMB Number: 1670-NEW. Frequency: On occasion. Affected Public:...

  18. The MED-SUV Multidisciplinary Interoperability Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzetti, Paolo; D'Auria, Luca; Reitano, Danilo; Papeschi, Fabrizio; Roncella, Roberto; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Nativi, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    In accordance with the international Supersite initiative concept, the MED-SUV (MEDiterranean SUpersite Volcanoes) European project (http://med-suv.eu/) aims to enable long-term monitoring experiment in two relevant geologically active regions of Europe prone to natural hazards: Mt. Vesuvio/Campi Flegrei and Mt. Etna. This objective requires the integration of existing components, such as monitoring systems and data bases and novel sensors for the measurements of volcanic parameters. Moreover, MED-SUV is also a direct contribution to the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) as one the volcano Supersites recognized by the Group on Earth Observation (GEO). To achieve its goal, MED-SUV set up an advanced e-infrastructure allowing the discovery of and access to heterogeneous data for multidisciplinary applications, and the integration with external systems like GEOSS. The MED-SUV overall infrastructure is conceived as a three layer architecture with the lower layer (Data level) including the identified relevant data sources, the mid-tier (Supersite level) including components for mediation and harmonization , and the upper tier (Global level) composed of the systems that MED-SUV must serve, such as GEOSS and possibly other global/community systems. The Data level is mostly composed of existing data sources, such as space agencies satellite data archives, the UNAVCO system, the INGV-Rome data service. They share data according to different specifications for metadata, data and service interfaces, and cannot be changed. Thus, the only relevant MED-SUV activity at this level was the creation of a MED-SUV local repository based on Web Accessible Folder (WAF) technology, deployed in the INGV site in Catania, and hosting in-situ data and products collected and generated during the project. The Supersite level is at the core of the MED-SUV architecture, since it must mediate between the disparate data sources in the layer below, and provide a harmonized view to

  19. Infrastructure Ecology for Sustainable and Resilient Urban Infrastructure Design

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Hyunju; Pandit, Arka; Crittenden, John; Xu, Ming; Perrings, Charles; Wang, Dali; Li, Ke; French, Steve

    2010-10-01

    The population growth coupled with increasing urbanization is predicted to exert a huge demand on the growth and retrofit of urban infrastructure, particularly in water and energy systems. The U.S. population is estimated to grow by 23% (UN, 2009) between 2005 and 2030. The corresponding increases in energy and water demand were predicted as 14% (EIA, 2009) and 20% (Elcock, 2008), respectively. The water-energy nexus needs to be better understood to satisfy the increased demand in a sustainable manner without conflicting with environmental and economic constraints. Overall, 4% of U.S. power generation is used for water distribution (80%) and treatment (20%). 3% of U.S. water consumption (100 billion gallons per day, or 100 BGD) and 40% of U.S. water withdrawal (340 BGD) are for thermoelectric power generation (Goldstein and Smith, 2002). The water demand for energy production is predicted to increase most significantly among the water consumption sectors by 2030. On the other hand, due to the dearth of conventional water sources, energy intensive technologies are increasingly in use to treat seawater and brackish groundwater for water supply. Thus comprehending the interrelation and interdependency between water and energy system is imperative to evaluate sustainable water and energy supply alternatives for cities. In addition to the water-energy nexus, decentralized or distributed concept is also beneficial for designing sustainable water and energy infrastructure as these alternatives require lesser distribution lines and space in a compact urban area. Especially, the distributed energy infrastructure is more suited to interconnect various large and small scale renewable energy producers which can be expected to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In the case of decentralized water infrastructure, on-site wastewater treatment facility can provide multiple benefits. Firstly, it reduces the potable water demand by reusing the treated water for non-potable uses

  20. A Scalable Tools Communication Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Buntinas, Darius; Bosilca, George; Graham, Richard L; Vallee, Geoffroy R; Watson, Gregory R.

    2008-01-01

    The Scalable Tools Communication Infrastructure (STCI) is an open source collaborative effort intended to provide high-performance, scalable, resilient, and portable communications and process control services for a wide variety of user and system tools. STCI is aimed specifically at tools for ultrascale computing and uses a component architecture to simplify tailoring the infrastructure to a wide range of scenarios. This paper describes STCI's design philosophy, the various components that will be used to provide an STCI implementation for a range of ultrascale platforms, and a range of tool types. These include tools supporting parallel run-time environments, such as MPI, parallel application correctness tools and performance analysis tools, as well as system monitoring and management tools.

  1. National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Berscheid, Alan P.

    2012-07-30

    National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) mission is to: (1) Improve the understanding, preparation, and mitigation of the consequences of infrastructure disruption; (2) Provide a common, comprehensive view of U.S. infrastructure and its response to disruptions - Scale & resolution appropriate to the issues and All threats; and (3) Built an operations-tested DHS capability to respond quickly to urgent infrastructure protection issues.

  2. Decontamination of Drinking Water Infrastructure ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Brief This study examines the effectiveness of decontaminating corroded iron and cement-mortar coupons that have been contaminated with spores of Bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii (B. globigii), which is often used as a surrogate for pathogenic B. anthracis (anthrax) in disinfection studies. Bacillus spores are persistent on common drinking water material surfaces like corroded iron, requiring physical or chemical methods to decontaminate the infrastructure. In the United States, free chlorine and monochloramine are the primary chemical disinfectants used by the drinking water industry to inactivate microorganisms. Flushing is also a common, easily implemented practice in drinking water distribution systems, although large volumes of contaminated water needing treatment could be generated. Identifying readily available alternative disinfectant formulations for infrastructure decontamination could give water utilities options for responding to specific types of contamination events. In addition to presenting data on flushing alone, which demonstrated the persistence of spores on water infrastructure in the absence of high levels of disinfectants, data on acidified nitrite, chlorine dioxide, free chlorine, monochloramine, ozone, peracetic acid, and followed by flushing are provided.

  3. Greening Existing Tribal Buildings

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Guidance about improving sustainability in existing tribal casinos and manufactured homes. Many steps can be taken to make existing buildings greener and healthier. They may also reduce utility and medical costs.

  4. Robotic tele-existence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tachi, Susumu; Arai, Hirohiko; Maeda, Taro

    1989-01-01

    Tele-existence is an advanced type of teleoperation system that enables a human operator at the controls to perform remote manipulation tasks dexterously with the feeling that he or she exists in the remote anthropomorphic robot in the remote environment. The concept of a tele-existence is presented, the principle of the tele-existence display method is explained, some of the prototype systems are described, and its space application is discussed.

  5. PRACE - The European HPC Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadelmeyer, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The mission of PRACE (Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe) is to enable high impact scientific discovery and engineering research and development across all disciplines to enhance European competitiveness for the benefit of society. PRACE seeks to realize this mission by offering world class computing and data management resources and services through a peer review process. This talk gives a general overview about PRACE and the PRACE research infrastructure (RI). PRACE is established as an international not-for-profit association and the PRACE RI is a pan-European supercomputing infrastructure which offers access to computing and data management resources at partner sites distributed throughout Europe. Besides a short summary about the organization, history, and activities of PRACE, it is explained how scientists and researchers from academia and industry from around the world can access PRACE systems and which education and training activities are offered by PRACE. The overview also contains a selection of PRACE contributions to societal challenges and ongoing activities. Examples of the latter are beside others petascaling, application benchmark suite, best practice guides for efficient use of key architectures, application enabling / scaling, new programming models, and industrial applications. The Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE) is an international non-profit association with its seat in Brussels. The PRACE Research Infrastructure provides a persistent world-class high performance computing service for scientists and researchers from academia and industry in Europe. The computer systems and their operations accessible through PRACE are provided by 4 PRACE members (BSC representing Spain, CINECA representing Italy, GCS representing Germany and GENCI representing France). The Implementation Phase of PRACE receives funding from the EU's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreements RI-261557, RI-283493 and RI

  6. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulton, William R.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Tummala, Rao R.

    1995-01-01

    The JTEC panel found that, after four decades of development in electronics and manufacturing technologies, Japanese electronics companies are leaders in the development, support, and management of complex, low-cost packaging and assembly technologies used in the production of a broad range of consumer electronics products. The electronics industry's suppliers provide basic materials and equipment required for electronic packaging applications. Panelists concluded that some Japanese firms could be leading U.S. competitors by as much as a decade in these areas. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure is an integral part of its microelectronics industry's success.

  7. Open Component Portability Infrastructure (OPENCPI)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    AFRL-RI-RS-TR-2009-257 Final Technical Report November 2009 OPEN COMPONENT PORTABILITY INFRASTRUCTURE (OPENCPI) Mercury ...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Mercury Federal Systems, Inc. 1901 South Bell Street, Suite 402 Arlington, VA 22202-4511 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...APPLICATIONS  30  6.0  REFERENCES  31  7.0  LIST OF ABBRVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS  32  APPENDIX A: ADDITIONAL REFERENCES  34  APPENDIX B:  MERCURY  CPI ITAR

  8. National Infrastructure Protection Plan: Partnering to Enhance Protection and Resiliency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Protocols 68 4.4 Privacy and Constitutional Freedoms 69 5 . CIKR Protection as Part of the Homeland Security Mission 71 5.1 A Coordinated National...149 Appendix 3C: Infrastructure Data Warehouse 155 Appendix 4: Existing Coordination Mechanisms 159 Appendix 5 : Integrating CIKR Protection as Part...Framework: Identify Assets, Systems, and Networks 30 Figure 3-4: NIPP Risk Management Framework: Assess Risks 33 Figure 3- 5 : NIPP Risk Management Framework

  9. Performance characteristics of Jefferson Lab's new SRF infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, Charles E.; Denny, Philip; Reilly, Anthony

    2013-09-01

    In the past two years, Jefferson Lab has reconfigured and renovated its SRF support infrastructure as part of the Technology and Engineering Development Facility project, TEDF. The most significant changes are in the cleanroom and chemistry facilities. We report the initial characterization data on the new ultra-pure water systems, cleanroom facilities, describe the reconfiguration of existing facilities and also opportunities for flexible growth presented by the new arrangement.

  10. Tool Gear: Infrastructure for Building Parallel Programming Tools

    SciTech Connect

    May, J M; Gyllenhaal, J

    2002-12-09

    Tool Gear is a software infrastructure for developing performance analysis and other tools. Unlike existing integrated toolkits, which focus on providing a suite of capabilities, Tool Gear is designed to help tool developers create new tools quickly. It combines dynamic instrumentation capabilities with an efficient database and a sophisticated and extensible graphical user interface. This paper describes the design of Tool Gear and presents examples of tools that have been built with it.

  11. Data hosting infrastructure for primary biodiversity data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Today, an unprecedented volume of primary biodiversity data are being generated worldwide, yet significant amounts of these data have been and will continue to be lost after the conclusion of the projects tasked with collecting them. To get the most value out of these data it is imperative to seek a solution whereby these data are rescued, archived and made available to the biodiversity community. To this end, the biodiversity informatics community requires investment in processes and infrastructure to mitigate data loss and provide solutions for long-term hosting and sharing of biodiversity data. Discussion We review the current state of biodiversity data hosting and investigate the technological and sociological barriers to proper data management. We further explore the rescuing and re-hosting of legacy data, the state of existing toolsets and propose a future direction for the development of new discovery tools. We also explore the role of data standards and licensing in the context of data hosting and preservation. We provide five recommendations for the biodiversity community that will foster better data preservation and access: (1) encourage the community's use of data standards, (2) promote the public domain licensing of data, (3) establish a community of those involved in data hosting and archival, (4) establish hosting centers for biodiversity data, and (5) develop tools for data discovery. Conclusion The community's adoption of standards and development of tools to enable data discovery is essential to sustainable data preservation. Furthermore, the increased adoption of open content licensing, the establishment of data hosting infrastructure and the creation of a data hosting and archiving community are all necessary steps towards the community ensuring that data archival policies become standardized. PMID:22373257

  12. Cyber Threats to Nuclear Infrastructures

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson; Paul Moskowitz; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Curtis St. Michel

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear facility personnel expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against both natural and man-made threats. Historically, most attention has been placed on physical security. Recently however, the threat of cyber-related attacks has become a recognized and growing world-wide concern. Much attention has focused on the vulnerability of the electric grid and chemical industries to cyber attacks, in part, because of their use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Lessons learned from work in these sectors indicate that the cyber threat may extend to other critical infrastructures including sites where nuclear and radiological materials are now stored. In this context, this white paper presents a hypothetical scenario by which a determined adversary launches a cyber attack that compromises the physical protection system and results in a reduced security posture at such a site. The compromised security posture might then be malevolently exploited in a variety of ways. The authors conclude that the cyber threat should be carefully considered for all nuclear infrastructures.

  13. Identifying, understanding, and analyzing critical infrastructure interdependencies.

    SciTech Connect

    Rinaldi, S. M.; Peerenboom, J. P.; Kelly, T. K.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2001-12-01

    The notion that our nation's critical infrastructures are highly interconnected and mutually dependent in complex ways, both physically and through a host of information and communications technologies (so-called 'cyberbased systems'), is more than an abstract, theoretical concept. As shown by the 1998 failure of the Galaxy 4 telecommunications satellite, the prolonged power crisis in California, and many other recent infrastructure disruptions, what happens to one infrastructure can directly and indirectly affect other infrastructures, impact large geographic regions and send ripples throughout the national a global economy. This article presents a conceptual framework for addressing infrastructure interdependencies that could serve as the basis for further understanding and scholarship in this important area. We use this framework to explore the challenges and complexities of interdependency. We set the stage for this discussion by explicitly defining the terms infrastructure, infrastructure dependencies, and infrastructure interdependencies and introducing the fundamental concept of infrastructures as complex adaptive systems. We then focus on the interrelated factors and system conditions that collectively define the six dimensions. Finally, we discuss some of the research challenges involved in developing, applying, and validating modeling and simulation methodologies and tools for infrastructure interdependency analysis.

  14. Perspectives on the use of green infrastructure for stormwater management in Cleveland and Milwaukee.

    PubMed

    Keeley, Melissa; Koburger, Althea; Dolowitz, David P; Medearis, Dale; Nickel, Darla; Shuster, William

    2013-06-01

    Green infrastructure is a general term referring to the management of landscapes in ways that generate human and ecosystem benefits. Many municipalities have begun to utilize green infrastructure in efforts to meet stormwater management goals. This study examines challenges to integrating gray and green infrastructure for stormwater management, informed by interviews with practitioners in Cleveland, OH and Milwaukee WI. Green infrastructure in these cities is utilized under conditions of extreme fiscal austerity and its use presents opportunities to connect stormwater management with urban revitalization and economic recovery while planning for the effects of negative- or zero-population growth. In this context, specific challenges in capturing the multiple benefits of green infrastructure exist because the projects required to meet federally mandated stormwater management targets and the needs of urban redevelopment frequently differ in scale and location.

  15. Perspectives on the Use of Green Infrastructure for Stormwater Management in Cleveland and Milwaukee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeley, Melissa; Koburger, Althea; Dolowitz, David P.; Medearis, Dale; Nickel, Darla; Shuster, William

    2013-06-01

    Green infrastructure is a general term referring to the management of landscapes in ways that generate human and ecosystem benefits. Many municipalities have begun to utilize green infrastructure in efforts to meet stormwater management goals. This study examines challenges to integrating gray and green infrastructure for stormwater management, informed by interviews with practitioners in Cleveland, OH and Milwaukee WI. Green infrastructure in these cities is utilized under conditions of extreme fiscal austerity and its use presents opportunities to connect stormwater management with urban revitalization and economic recovery while planning for the effects of negative- or zero-population growth. In this context, specific challenges in capturing the multiple benefits of green infrastructure exist because the projects required to meet federally mandated stormwater management targets and the needs of urban redevelopment frequently differ in scale and location.

  16. Climate Change and Infrastructure, Urban Systems, and Vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, Thomas J; Fernandez, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    This Technical Report on Climate Change and Infrastructure, Urban Systems, and Vulnerabilities has been prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in support of the U.S. National Climate Assessment (NCA). It is a summary of the currently existing knowledge base on its topic, nested within a broader framing of issues and questions that need further attention in the longer run. The report arrives at a number of assessment findings, each associated with an evaluation of the level of consensus on that issue within the expert community, the volume of evidence available to support that judgment, and the section of the report that provides an explanation for the finding. Cross-sectoral issues related to infrastructures and urban systems have not received a great deal of attention to date in research literatures in general and climate change assessments in particular. As a result, this technical report is breaking new ground as a component of climate change vulnerability and impact assessments in the U.S., which means that some of its assessment findings are rather speculative, more in the nature of propositions for further study than specific conclusions that are offered with a high level of confidence and research support. But it is a start in addressing questions that are of interest to many policymakers and stakeholders. A central theme of the report is that vulnerabilities and impacts are issues beyond physical infrastructures themselves. The concern is with the value of services provided by infrastructures, where the true consequences of impacts and disruptions involve not only the costs associated with the clean-up, repair, and/or replacement of affected infrastructures but also economic, social, and environmental effects as supply chains are disrupted, economic activities are suspended, and/or social well-being is threatened. Current knowledge indicates that vulnerability concerns tend to be focused on extreme weather events

  17. Model institutional infrastructures for recycling of photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Moscowitz, P.D.; Reaven, J.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1996-07-01

    This paper describes model approaches to designing an institutional infrastructure for the recycling of decommissioned photovoltaic modules; more detailed discussion of the information presented in this paper is contained in Reaven et al., (1996)[1]. The alternative approaches are based on experiences in other industries, with other products and materials. In the aluminum, scrap iron, and container glass industries, where recycling is a long-standing, even venerable practice, predominantly private, fully articulated institutional infrastructures exist. Nevertheless, even in these industries, arrangements are constantly evolving in response to regulatory changes, competition, and new technological developments. Institutional infrastructures are less settled for younger large- scale recycling industries that target components of the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream, such as cardboard and newspaper, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) plastics, and textiles. In these industries the economics, markets, and technologies are rapidly changing. Finally, many other industries are developing projects to ensure that their products are recycled (and recyclable) e.g., computers, non-automotive batteries, communications equipment, motor and lubrication oil and oil filters, fluorescent lighting fixtures, automotive plastics and shredder residues, and bulk industrial chemical wastes. The lack of an an adequate recycling infrastructure, attractive end-markets, and clear the economic incentives, can be formidable impediments to a self- sustaining recycling system.

  18. Increasing impacts of climate extremes on critical infrastructures in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forzieri, Giovanni; Bianchi, Alessandra; Feyen, Luc; Silva, Filipe Batista e.; Marin, Mario; Lavalle, Carlo; Leblois, Antoine

    2016-04-01

    The projected increases in exposure to multiple climate hazards in many regions of Europe, emphasize the relevance of a multi-hazard risk assessment to comprehensively quantify potential impacts of climate change and develop suitable adaptation strategies. In this context, quantifying the future impacts of climatic extremes on critical infrastructures is crucial due to their key role for human wellbeing and their effects on the overall economy. Critical infrastructures describe the existing assets and systems that are essential for the maintenance of vital societal functions, health, safety, security, economic or social well-being of people, and the disruption or destruction of which would have a significant impact as a result of the failure to maintain those functions. We assess the direct damages of heat and cold waves, river and coastal flooding, droughts, wildfires and windstorms to energy, transport, industry and social infrastructures in Europe along the 21st century. The methodology integrates in a coherent framework climate hazard, exposure and vulnerability components. Overall damage is expected to rise up to 38 billion €/yr, ten time-folds the current climate damage, with drastic variations in risk scenarios. Exemplificative are drought and heat-related damages that could represent 70% of the overall climate damage in 2080s versus the current 12%. Many regions, prominently Southern Europe, will likely suffer multiple stresses and systematic infrastructure failures due to climate extremes if no suitable adaptation measures will be taken.

  19. Spatial-Temporal Quantification of Interdependencies Across Infrastructure Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Christopher; Dueñas-Osorio, Leonardo

    As infrastructure networks become more complex and intertwined, the relevance of network interdependency research is increasingly evident. Interconnected networks bring about efficiencies during normal operations but also come with risks of cascading failures with disaster events. An adequate understanding of network interdependencies and realistic multi-system modeling capabilities enable the exploration of practical operation strategies and mitigation efforts applicable to existing or future coupled networked systems. This chapter examines recent efforts in quantifying infrastructure network interdependencies through spatial and time-series analyses to reveal the heterogeneity and complexity in their coupling. Furthermore, a combined spatial-temporal methodology is recommended for the future calibration and validation of theoretical and computational models of interdependent networks of networks. An example case study is demonstrated using data derived from the 2010 Chilean Earthquake in the Talcahuano-Concepción region, which highlights the richness in coupling strengths across infrastructure systems, both as a function of time and geographical extent. Insights for design and control of coupled networks are also derivable from joint spatial-temporal analyses of infrastructure interdependence and its evolution.

  20. Analysis of the infrastructure for recharging electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, R.; Graver, C.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of the infrastructure ofr recharging electric vehicles (EV), equivalent to the refueling infrastructure for internal combustion engines (ICE), shows that many of the infrastructure elements required to recharge a large number of EV's in the U.S. are already in place. The U.S. utility industry has sufficient capacity to support at least 13 million EV's if they are recharged at night. There are at least 20 million single-family homes where an EV could be recharged by adding a 230 volt, 50 amp branch circuit and outlet. This support is not uniformly distributed, however, and will depend on the local housing stock characteristics. With respect to range-extension support, transient recharging stations could supply emergency recharging, but would not be desirable for routine use. Battery exchange would be feasible once there are enough EV's on the road. A range-extension hybrid could use the existing ICE refueling infrastructure, but would require further technical development, and would still depend somewhat on petroleum availability.

  1. Building a North American Spatial Data Infrastructure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, D.J.; Nebert, D.D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses the state of spatial data infrastructures within North America in late 1997. After providing some background underlying the philosophy and development of the SDI concept, the authors discuss effects of technology, institutions, and standardization that confront the cohesive implementation of a common infrastructure today. The paper concludes with a comparative framework and specific examples of elements and initiatives defining respective spatial data infrastructure initiatives in the United States and Canada.

  2. Critical Infrastructures: Background, Policy, and Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-10

    Government Accountability Office, Critical Infrastructure Protection: Challenges for Selected Agencies and Industry Sectors. Repot to the Committee on...set up groups within the federal government to develop and implement plans that would protect government -operated infrastructures and called for a...dialogue between government and the private sector to develop a National Infrastructure Assurance Plan that would protect all of the nation’s critical

  3. Co-location and Self-Similar Topologies of Urban Infrastructure Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkhamer, Christopher; Zhan, Xianyuan; Ukkusuri, Satish; Elisabeth, Krueger; Paik, Kyungrock; Rao, Suresh

    2016-04-01

    The co-location of urban infrastructure is too obvious to be easily ignored. For reasons of practicality, reliability, and eminent domain, the spatial locations of many urban infrastructure networks, including drainage, sanitary sewers, and road networks, are well correlated. However, important questions dealing with correlations in the network topologies of differing infrastructure types remain unanswered. Here, we have extracted randomly distributed, nested subnets from the urban drainage, sanitary sewer, and road networks in two distinctly different cities: Amman, Jordan; and Indianapolis, USA. Network analyses were performed for each randomly chosen subnet (location and size), using a dual-mapping approach (Hierarchical Intersection Continuity Negotiation). Topological metrics for each infrastructure type were calculated and compared for all subnets in a given city. Despite large differences in the climate, governance, and populace of the two cities, and functional properties of the different infrastructure types, these infrastructure networks are shown to be highly spatially homogenous. Furthermore, strong correlations are found between topological metrics of differing types of surface and subsurface infrastructure networks. Also, the network topologies of each infrastructure type for both cities are shown to exhibit self-similar characteristics (i.e., power law node-degree distributions, [p(k) = ak-γ]. These findings can be used to assist city planners and engineers either expanding or retrofitting existing infrastructure, or in the case of developing countries, building new cities from the ground up. In addition, the self-similar nature of these infrastructure networks holds significant implications for the vulnerability of these critical infrastructure networks to external hazards and ways in which network resilience can be improved.

  4. Benefits and challenges of linking green infrastructure and highway planning in the United States.

    PubMed

    Marcucci, Daniel J; Jordan, Lauren M

    2013-01-01

    Landscape-level green infrastructure creates a network of natural and semi-natural areas that protects and enhances ecosystem services, regenerative capacities, and ecological dynamism over long timeframes. It can also enhance quality of life and certain economic activity. Highways create a network for moving goods and services efficiently, enabling commerce, and improving mobility. A fundamentally profound conflict exists between transportation planning and green infrastructure planning because they both seek to create connected, functioning networks across the same landscapes and regions, but transportation networks, especially in the form of highways, fragment and disconnect green infrastructure networks. A key opportunity has emerged in the United States during the last ten years with the promotion of measures to link transportation and environmental concerns. In this article we examined the potential benefits and challenges of linking landscape-level green infrastructure planning and implementation with integrated transportation planning and highway project development in the United States policy context. This was done by establishing a conceptual model that identified logical flow lines from planning to implementation as well as the potential interconnectors between green infrastructure and highway infrastructure. We analyzed the relationship of these activities through literature review, policy analysis, and a case study of a suburban Maryland, USA landscape. We found that regionally developed and adopted green infrastructure plans can be instrumental in creating more responsive regional transportation plans and streamlining the project environmental review process while enabling better outcomes by enabling more targeted mitigation. In order for benefits to occur, however, landscape-scale green infrastructure assessments and plans must be in place before integrated transportation planning and highway project development occurs. It is in the transportation

  5. Benefits and Challenges of Linking Green Infrastructure and Highway Planning in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcucci, Daniel J.; Jordan, Lauren M.

    2013-01-01

    Landscape-level green infrastructure creates a network of natural and semi-natural areas that protects and enhances ecosystem services, regenerative capacities, and ecological dynamism over long timeframes. It can also enhance quality of life and certain economic activity. Highways create a network for moving goods and services efficiently, enabling commerce, and improving mobility. A fundamentally profound conflict exists between transportation planning and green infrastructure planning because they both seek to create connected, functioning networks across the same landscapes and regions, but transportation networks, especially in the form of highways, fragment and disconnect green infrastructure networks. A key opportunity has emerged in the United States during the last ten years with the promotion of measures to link transportation and environmental concerns. In this article we examined the potential benefits and challenges of linking landscape-level green infrastructure planning and implementation with integrated transportation planning and highway project development in the United States policy context. This was done by establishing a conceptual model that identified logical flow lines from planning to implementation as well as the potential interconnectors between green infrastructure and highway infrastructure. We analyzed the relationship of these activities through literature review, policy analysis, and a case study of a suburban Maryland, USA landscape. We found that regionally developed and adopted green infrastructure plans can be instrumental in creating more responsive regional transportation plans and streamlining the project environmental review process while enabling better outcomes by enabling more targeted mitigation. In order for benefits to occur, however, landscape-scale green infrastructure assessments and plans must be in place before integrated transportation planning and highway project development occurs. It is in the transportation

  6. Cooperative Drought Adaptation: Integrating Infrastructure Development, Conservation, and Water Transfers into Adaptive Policy Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeff, H. B.; Characklis, G. W.; Reed, P. M.; Herman, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Water supply policies that integrate portfolios of short-term management decisions with long-term infrastructure development enable utilities to adapt to a range of future scenarios. An effective mix of short-term management actions can augment existing infrastructure, potentially forestalling new development. Likewise, coordinated expansion of infrastructure such as regional interconnections and shared treatment capacity can increase the effectiveness of some management actions like water transfers. Highly adaptable decision pathways that mix long-term infrastructure options and short-term management actions require decision triggers capable of incorporating the impact of these time-evolving decisions on growing water supply needs. Here, we adapt risk-based triggers to sequence a set of potential infrastructure options in combination with utility-specific conservation actions and inter-utility water transfers. Individual infrastructure pathways can be augmented with conservation or water transfers to reduce the cost of meeting utility objectives, but they can also include cooperatively developed, shared infrastructure that expands regional capacity to transfer water. This analysis explores the role of cooperation among four water utilities in the 'Research Triangle' region of North Carolina by formulating three distinct categories of adaptive policy pathways: independent action (utility-specific conservation and supply infrastructure only), weak cooperation (utility-specific conservation and infrastructure development with regional transfers), and strong cooperation (utility specific conservation and jointly developed of regional infrastructure that supports transfers). Results suggest that strong cooperation aids the utilities in meeting their individual objections at substantially lower costs and with fewer irreversible infrastructure options.

  7. Emergent Risks In Critical Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dynes, Scott

    Firms cannot function successfully without managing a host of internal and external organizational and process interdependencies. Part of this involves business continuity planning, which directly aects how resilient arm and its business sector are in the face of disruptions. This paper presents the results of eld studies related to information risk management practices in the health care and retail sectors. The studies explore information risk management coordinating signals within and across rms in these sectors as well as the potential eects of cyber disruptions on the rms as stand-alone entities and as part of a critical infrastructure. The health care case study investigates the impact of the Zotob worm on the ability to deliver medical care and treatment. The retail study examines the resilience of certain elements of the food supply chain to cyber disruptions.

  8. Enhancing Sustainable Communities With Green Infrastructure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This publication aims to help local governments, water utilities, nonprofit organizations, neighborhood groups, and other stakeholders integrate green infrastructure strategies into plans that can transform their communities.

  9. Tools for 21st Century infrastructure protection

    SciTech Connect

    Trost, S.R.

    1997-07-01

    The President`s Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection (PCCEP) was formed under Executive Order 13010 to recommend a national strategy for protecting and assuring critical infrastructures. Eight critical infrastructure elements have been identified. This paper provides an overview of tools necessary to conduct in depth analysis and characterization of threats, vulnerabilities, and interdependencies of critical infrastructure subsystems, and their interaction with each other. Particular emphasis is placed on research requirements necessary to develop the next generation of tools. In addition to tools, a number of system level research suggestions are made including developing a system architecture, data flow models, national level resources, and a national test bed.

  10. SPRUCE experiment data infrastructure development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krassovski, Misha

    2013-04-01

    The SPRUCE experiment (http://mnspruce.ornl.gov) is the primary component of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Scientific Focus Area of ORNL's Climate Change Program, focused on terrestrial ecosystems and the mechanisms that underlie their responses to climatic change. The experimental work is to be conducted in a Picea mariana [black spruce] - Sphagnum spp. bog forest in northern Minnesota, 40 km north of Grand Rapids, in the USDA Forest Service Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF). The site is located at the southern margin of the boreal peatland forest. It is an ecosystem considered especially vulnerable to climate change, and anticipated to be near its tipping point with respect to climate change. Responses to warming and interactions with increased atmospheric CO2 concentration are anticipated to have important feedbacks on the atmosphere and climate, because of the high carbon stocks harbored by such ecosystems. Both direct and indirect effects of these experimental perturbations will be analyzed to develop and refine models needed for full Earth system analyses. The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides data management support for the SPRUCE experiment including data infrastructure design, development, long-term storage and dissemination. This presentation is going to show how the whole data infrastructure was designed, discuss major problems that are common for remote observational systems and unique for this particular implementation. It will demonstrate the dataflow starting from the sensors and ending at the archiving/distribution points, discuss types of hardware and software used, and examine considerations that were used to choose them.

  11. Siting GNEP at the Savannah River Site: Using Legacy and Infrastructure in a Commercial Energy Park Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.; Hoffman, D.

    2008-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) was proposed as one of eleven potential sites to be included in the U.S. Department of Energy Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program. The approach to meet siting and infrastructure requirements for possible GNEP facilities at the SRS focused on available infrastructure including land, cooling water systems, high voltage power supplies, existing heavy haul roadways, existing analytical capabilities, and existing waste handling capabilities. Additional siting criteria and existing SRS capabilities and conditions were developed to locate the GNEP within a commercial Energy Park contained within, but separate from, the SRS. Included as part of, or corollary to, existing infrastructure at the SRS was the availability of a nuclear trained workforce living within the area. The SRS consists of approximately 803 square kilometers (310 square miles) in the Upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina bordering along the Savannah River. Historic production reactors, processing, and laboratory facilities are currently being decommissioned and destroyed while new facilities such as the MOX facility are being built. Existing legacy infrastructure, beneficial to the potential GNEP facilities, continues to exist and operate. The SRS has a long history of processing, reprocessing and in the disposition of nuclear fuels and byproducts continuing through today with HCanyon as the only DOE facility currently capable of uranium reprocessing. Because of ongoing operations and maintenance of historic systems, SRS has existing infrastructure immediately available for GNEP facilities in or near the proposed Energy Park. The Energy Park location was chosen to achieve maximum use of this legacy infrastructure. In summary: Requirements for potential or conceivable GNEP facilities can be met using the existing facilities and infrastructure of the SRS. A potential commercially operated Energy

  12. Regional Charging Infrastructure for Plug-In Electric Vehicles: A Case Study of Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Eric; Raghavan, Sesha; Rames, Clement; Eichman, Joshua; Melaina, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Given the complex issues associated with plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging and options in deploying charging infrastructure, there is interest in exploring scenarios of future charging infrastructure deployment to provide insight and guidance to national and regional stakeholders. The complexity and cost of PEV charging infrastructure pose challenges to decision makers, including individuals, communities, and companies considering infrastructure installations. The value of PEVs to consumers and fleet operators can be increased with well-planned and cost-effective deployment of charging infrastructure. This will increase the number of miles driven electrically and accelerate PEV market penetration, increasing the shared value of charging networks to an expanding consumer base. Given these complexities and challenges, the objective of the present study is to provide additional insight into the role of charging infrastructure in accelerating PEV market growth. To that end, existing studies on PEV infrastructure are summarized in a literature review. Next, an analysis of current markets is conducted with a focus on correlations between PEV adoption and public charging availability. A forward-looking case study is then conducted focused on supporting 300,000 PEVs by 2025 in Massachusetts. The report concludes with a discussion of potential methodology for estimating economic impacts of PEV infrastructure growth.

  13. Cryogenic infrastructure for Fermilab's ILC vertical cavity test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Carcagno, R.; Ginsburg, C.; Huang, Y.; Norris, B.; Ozelis, J.; Peterson, T.; Poloubotko, V.; Rabehl, R.; Sylvester, C.; Wong, M.; /Fermilab

    2006-06-01

    Fermilab is building a Vertical Cavity Test Facility (VCTF) to provide for R&D and pre-production testing of bare 9-cell, 1.3-GHz superconducting RF (SRF) cavities for the International Linear Collider (ILC) program. This facility is located in the existing Industrial Building 1 (IB1) where the Magnet Test Facility (MTF) also resides. Helium and nitrogen cryogenics are shared between the VCTF and MTF including the existing 1500-W at 4.5-K helium refrigerator with vacuum pumping for super-fluid operation (125-W capacity at 2-K). The VCTF is being constructed in multiple phases. The first phase is scheduled for completion in mid 2007, and includes modifications to the IB1 cryogenic infrastructure to allow helium cooling to be directed to either the VCTF or MTF as scheduling demands require. At this stage, the VCTF consists of one Vertical Test Stand (VTS) cryostat for the testing of one cavity in a 2-K helium bath. Planning is underway to provide a total of three Vertical Test Stands at VCTF, each capable of accommodating two cavities. Cryogenic infrastructure improvements necessary to support these additional VCTF test stands include a dedicated ambient temperature vacuum pump, a new helium purification skid, and the addition of helium gas storage. This paper describes the system design and initial cryogenic operation results for the first VCTF phase, and outlines future cryogenic infrastructure upgrade plans for expanding to three Vertical Test Stands.

  14. Enhanced INL Power Grid Test Bed Infrastructure – Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Carol Ann; West, Grayson Shawn; McBride, Scott Alan

    2014-06-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE) laboratory, owns, operates, and maintains transmission and distribution power grid infrastructure to support the INL multi program mission. Sections of this power infrastructure, known as the INL Power Grid Test Bed, have been and are being used by government and industry to develop, demonstrate, and validate technologies for the modern grid, including smart grid, on a full scale utility test bed. INL’s power grid includes 61 miles of 140 MW, 138 kV rated electrical power transmission supplying seven main substations, each feeding a separate facility complex (or ‘city’) within the INL’s 890 square mile Site. This power grid is fed by three commercial utilities into the INL’s main control substation, but is operated independently from the commercial utility through its primary substation and command and control center. Within the INL complex, one of the seven complexes, the Critical Infrastructure Test Range Complex (CITRC), has been designated as the INL complex for supporting critical infrastructure research and testing. This complex includes its own substation and 13.8kV distribution network, all configurable and controlled by the INL research and development programs. Through investment partnership with the DOE Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE OE), INL is enhancing its existing distribution infrastructure to expand the types of testing that can be conducted and increase flexibility for testing configurations. The enhancement of the INL Power Grid Test Bed will enable development and full scale testing of smart-grid-related technologies and smart devices including testing interoperability, operational performance, reliability, and resiliency contribution at multiple distribution voltage classes, specifically 15kV, 25kV, and 35kV. The expected time frame for completion of the Phase I portion of the enhancement would be 4th quarter fiscal year (FY) 2015.

  15. Robust Engineering Designs for Infrastructure Adaptation to a Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaras, C.; Cook, L.

    2015-12-01

    Infrastructure systems are expected to be functional, durable and safe over long service lives - 50 to over 100 years. Observations and models of climate science show that greenhouse gas emissions resulting from human activities have changed climate, weather and extreme events. Projections of future changes (albeit with uncertainties caused by inadequacies of current climate/weather models) can be made based on scenarios for future emissions, but actual future emissions are themselves uncertain. Most current engineering standards and practices for infrastructure assume that the probabilities of future extreme climate and weather events will match those of the past. Climate science shows that this assumption is invalid, but is unable, at present, to define these probabilities over the service lives of existing and new infrastructure systems. Engineering designs, plans, and institutions and regulations will need to be adaptable for a range of future conditions (conditions of climate, weather and extreme events, as well as changing societal demands for infrastructure services). For their current and future projects, engineers should: Involve all stakeholders (owners, financers, insurance, regulators, affected public, climate/weather scientists, etc.) in key decisions; Use low regret, adaptive strategies, such as robust decision making and the observational method, comply with relevant standards and regulations, and exceed their requirements where appropriate; Publish design studies and performance/failure investigations to extend the body of knowledge for advancement of practice. The engineering community should conduct observational and modeling research with climate/weather/social scientists and the concerned communities and account rationally for climate change in revised engineering standards and codes. This presentation presents initial research on decisionmaking under uncertainty for climate resilient infrastructure design.

  16. The EPOS e-Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, Keith; Bailo, Daniele

    2014-05-01

    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) is integrating geoscientific information concerning earth movements in Europe. We are approaching the end of the PP (Preparatory Project) phase and in October 2014 expect to continue with the full project within ESFRI (European Strategic Framework for Research Infrastructures). The key aspects of EPOS concern providing services to allow homogeneous access by end-users over heterogeneous data, software, facilities, equipment and services. The e-infrastructure of EPOS is the heart of the project since it integrates the work on organisational, legal, economic and scientific aspects. Following the creation of an inventory of relevant organisations, persons, facilities, equipment, services, datasets and software (RIDE) the scale of integration required became apparent. The EPOS e-infrastructure architecture has been developed systematically based on recorded primary (user) requirements and secondary (interoperation with other systems) requirements through Strawman, Woodman and Ironman phases with the specification - and developed confirmatory prototypes - becoming more precise and progressively moving from paper to implemented system. The EPOS architecture is based on global core services (Integrated Core Services - ICS) which access thematic nodes (domain-specific European-wide collections, called thematic Core Services - TCS), national nodes and specific institutional nodes. The key aspect is the metadata catalog. In one dimension this is described in 3 levels: (1) discovery metadata using well-known and commonly used standards such as DC (Dublin Core) to enable users (via an intelligent user interface) to search for objects within the EPOS environment relevant to their needs; (2) contextual metadata providing the context of the object described in the catalog to enable a user or the system to determine the relevance of the discovered object(s) to their requirement - the context includes projects, funding, organisations

  17. Critical infrastructure systems of systems assessment methodology.

    SciTech Connect

    Sholander, Peter E.; Darby, John L.; Phelan, James M.; Smith, Bryan; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Walter, Andrew; Varnado, G. Bruce; Depoy, Jennifer Mae

    2006-10-01

    Assessing the risk of malevolent attacks against large-scale critical infrastructures requires modifications to existing methodologies that separately consider physical security and cyber security. This research has developed a risk assessment methodology that explicitly accounts for both physical and cyber security, while preserving the traditional security paradigm of detect, delay, and respond. This methodology also accounts for the condition that a facility may be able to recover from or mitigate the impact of a successful attack before serious consequences occur. The methodology uses evidence-based techniques (which are a generalization of probability theory) to evaluate the security posture of the cyber protection systems. Cyber threats are compared against cyber security posture using a category-based approach nested within a path-based analysis to determine the most vulnerable cyber attack path. The methodology summarizes the impact of a blended cyber/physical adversary attack in a conditional risk estimate where the consequence term is scaled by a ''willingness to pay'' avoidance approach.

  18. Network infrastructure for a large radiology environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphrey, Louis M.; Do Van, Minh; Ravin, Carl E.

    1996-05-01

    As image transmission becomes a more important part of the way radiology departments operate, the need for a high speed network infrastructure has become more important. We have installed a high speed network in the department that uses the latest Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networking technology combined with Ethernet switching. This network combination is capable of handling a tremendous amount of data traffic while maintaining compatibility with the existing Ethernet environment. These network changes have significantly improved Ethernet throughput on some of the most heavily used segments of the network by effectively isolating common traffic onto different network segments using new network management software and capabilities that are the result of the ATM backbone. Additional capabilities have allowed us to provide a number of serves that would not have been available using older techniques and architecture. Careful planning of the network before any new installations or changes is important for overall network and traffic management. The installation of this high speed network has allowed us to make imaging within the department and throughout the Medical Center and the connected region a reality.

  19. The National Information Infrastructure: Agenda for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Commerce, Washington, DC. Information Infrastructure Task Force.

    The National Information Infrastructure (NII) is planned as a web of communications networks, computers, databases, and consumer electronics that will put vast amounts of information at the users' fingertips. Private sector firms are beginning to develop this infrastructure, but essential roles remain for the Federal Government. The National…

  20. USEPA ORD Aging Water Infrastructure Research Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes research that is being conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) Research Program, which will help U.S. water infrastructure to be more effectively and sustainably managed. The AWI research program see...

  1. 78 FR 11737 - Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... Cybersecurity #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 33 / Tuesday... of February 12, 2013 Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity By the authority vested in me as... improved cybersecurity. The cyber threat to critical infrastructure continues to grow and represents one...

  2. The Other Infrastructure: Distance Education's Digital Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boettcher, Judith V.; Kumar, M. S. Vijay

    2000-01-01

    Suggests a new infrastructure--the digital plant--for supporting flexible Web campus environments. Describes four categories which make up the infrastructure: personal communication tools and applications; network of networks for the Web campus; dedicated servers and software applications; software applications and services from external…

  3. Cyber Security and Critical Energy Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Onyeji, Ijeoma; Bazilian, Morgan; Bronk, Chris

    2014-03-01

    Both the number and security implications of sophisticated cyber attacks on companies providing critical energy infrastructures are increasing. As power networks and, to a certain extent, oil and gas infrastructure both upstream and downstream, are becoming increasingly integrated with information communication technology systems, they are growing more susceptible to cyber attacks.

  4. 31 CFR 800.208 - Critical infrastructure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Critical infrastructure. 800.208 Section 800.208 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE..., AND TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.208 Critical infrastructure. The term...

  5. Development of a Water Infrastructure Knowledge Database

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a methodology for developing a national database, as applied to water infrastructure systems, which includes both drinking water and wastewater. The database is branded as "WATERiD" and can be accessed at www.waterid.org. Water infrastructure in the U.S. is ag...

  6. Critical Infrastructure Rebuild Prioritization using Simulation Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    the water and allowing the water to flow to the turbine. ( SEDA Renewable Energy Web site) 24 2.4.3 Oil infrastructure In the Wikipedia...Critical Infrastructure Protection Workshop, Frankfurt Germany, September 2003 SEDA Renewable Energy & Cogeneration, “Hydro Power,” September 2006

  7. 78 FR 65675 - National Infrastructure Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... comments after the presentation of the report from the Regional Resilience Working Group, and after the... security and resilience of the Nation's critical infrastructure sectors. The NIAC will meet to discuss issues relevant to the critical infrastructure security and resilience as directed by the President....

  8. 77 FR 19300 - National Infrastructure Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... SECURITY National Infrastructure Advisory Council AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS... Infrastructure Advisory Council (NIAC) will meet on Tuesday, April 17, 2012, 1310 N. Courthouse Road, Suite 300, Virginia Room, Arlington, VA 22201. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES: The NIAC will...

  9. Critical Infrastructures: Background, Policy, and Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-15

    set up groups within the federal government to develop and implement plans that would protect government -operated infrastructures and called for a...dialogue between government and the private sector to develop a National Infrastructure Assurance Plan that would protect all of the nation’s critical...16 Policy Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Government — Sector Coordination

  10. Critical Infrastructures: Background, Policy, and Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-15

    Directive set up groups within the federal government to develop and implement plans that would protect government -operated infrastructures and called for a...dialogue between government and the private sector to develop a National Infrastructure Assurance Plan that would protect all of the nation’s...16 Policy Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Government — Sector

  11. Critical Infrastructures: Background, Policy, and Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-02

    set up groups within the federal government to develop and implement plans that would protect government -operated infrastructures and called for a...dialogue between government and the private sector to develop a National Infrastructure Assurance Plan that would protect all of the nation’s critical...Policy Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Government — Sector Coordination

  12. Upgrading Technology Infrastructure in California's Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Niu; Murphy, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    As California schools move into online testing and online learning, an adequate technology infrastructure is no longer an option, but a necessity. To fully benefit from digital learning, schools will require a comprehensive technology infrastructure that can support a range of administrative and instructional tools. An earlier PPIC report found…

  13. South Africa's School Infrastructure Performance Indicator System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibberd, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    While some South African schools have excellent infrastructure, others lack basic services such as water and sanitation. This article describes the school infrastructure performance indicator system (SIPIS) in South Africa. The project offers an approach that can address both the urgent provision of basic services as well as support the…

  14. Advanced technology program: information infrastructure for healthcare focused program.

    PubMed

    Spivack, Richard N

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes an initiative begun by the Advanced Technology Program in 1994 referred to as the Information Infrastructure for Healthcare (IIH) focused program. The IIH focus program began with an initial exchange of ideas among members of the private and public sectors (industry's submission of "white papers"; workshops conducted by the ATP; meetings held between individuals from both groups) to identify those technologies necessary for the development of a national information infrastructure in healthcare. A discussion of the development of the focus program through a "white paper" process notes differences that existed between what the ATP had hoped to gain through this method and how the private sector responded. A statistical description of the participants as well as a brief discussion of the ATP review and selection process is included.

  15. Orion Navigation Sensitivities to Ground Station Infrastructure for Lunar Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Getchius, Joel; Kukitschek, Daniel; Crain, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) will replace the Space Shuttle and serve as the next-generation spaceship to carry humans to the International Space Station and back to the Moon for the first time since the Apollo program. As in the Apollo and Space Shuttle programs, the Mission Control Navigation team will utilize radiometric measurements to determine the position and velocity of the CEV. In the case of lunar missions, the ground station infrastructure consisting of approximately twelve stations distributed about the Earth and known as the Apollo Manned Spaceflight Network, no longer exists. Therefore, additional tracking resources will have to be allocated or constructed to support mission operations for Orion lunar missions. This paper examines the sensitivity of Orion navigation for lunar missions to the number and distribution of tracking sites that form the ground station infrastructure.

  16. Security middleware infrastructure for DICOM images in health information systems.

    PubMed

    Kallepalli, Vijay N V; Ehikioya, Sylvanus A; Camorlinga, Sergio; Rueda, Jose A

    2003-12-01

    In health care, it is mandatory to maintain the privacy and confidentiality of medical data. To achieve this, a fine-grained access control and an access log for accessing medical images are two important aspects that need to be considered in health care systems. Fine-grained access control provides access to medical data only to authorized persons based on priority, location, and content. A log captures each attempt to access medical data. This article describes an overall middleware infrastructure required for secure access to Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) images, with an emphasis on access control and log maintenance. We introduce a hybrid access control model that combines the properties of two existing models. A trust relationship between hospitals is used to make the hybrid access control model scalable across hospitals. We also discuss events that have to be logged and where the log has to be maintained. A prototype of security middleware infrastructure is implemented.

  17. Site Support Program Plan Infrastructure Program

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-26

    The Fiscal Year 1996 Infrastructure Program Site Support Program Plan addresses the mission objectives, workscope, work breakdown structures (WBS), management approach, and resource requirements for the Infrastructure Program. Attached to the plan are appendices that provide more detailed information associated with scope definition. The Hanford Site`s infrastructure has served the Site for nearly 50 years during defense materials production. Now with the challenges of the new environmental cleanup mission, Hanford`s infrastructure must meet current and future mission needs in a constrained budget environment, while complying with more stringent environmental, safety, and health regulations. The infrastructure requires upgrading, streamlining, and enhancement in order to successfully support the site mission of cleaning up the Site, research and development, and economic transition.

  18. Modeling and Managing Risk in Billing Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiardi, Fabrizio; Telmon, Claudio; Sgandurra, Daniele

    This paper discusses risk modeling and risk management in information and communications technology (ICT) systems for which the attack impact distribution is heavy tailed (e.g., power law distribution) and the average risk is unbounded. Systems with these properties include billing infrastructures used to charge customers for services they access. Attacks against billing infrastructures can be classified as peripheral attacks and backbone attacks. The goal of a peripheral attack is to tamper with user bills; a backbone attack seeks to seize control of the billing infrastructure. The probability distribution of the overall impact of an attack on a billing infrastructure also has a heavy-tailed curve. This implies that the probability of a massive impact cannot be ignored and that the average impact may be unbounded - thus, even the most expensive countermeasures would be cost effective. Consequently, the only strategy for managing risk is to increase the resilience of the infrastructure by employing redundant components.

  19. The impact of natural hazard on critical infrastructure systems: definition of an ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimauro, Carmelo; Bouchon, Sara; Frattini, Paolo; Giusto, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    According to the Council of the European Union Directive (2008), 'critical infrastructure' means an asset, system or part thereof which is essential for the maintenance of vital societal functions, health, safety, security, economic or social well-being of people, and the disruption or destruction of which would have a significant impact as a result of the failure to maintain those functions. Critical infrastructure networks are exposed to natural events, such as floods, storms, landslides, earthquakes, etc. Recent natural disasters show that socio-economic consequences can be very much aggravated by the impact on these infrastructures. Though, there is still a lack of a recognized approach or methodology to assess the vulnerability of critical infrastructure assets against natural threats. The difficulty to define such an approach is increased by the need to consider a very high number of natural events, which differ in nature, magnitude and probability, as well as the need to assess the vulnerability of a high variety of infrastructure assets (e.g. bridges, roads, tunnels, pipelines, etc.) To meet this challenge, the objective of the THREVI2 EU-CIPS project is to create a database linking the relationships between natural hazards and critical infrastructure assets. The query of the database will allow the end-users (critical infrastructure protection authorities and operators) to identify the relevant scenarios according to the own priorities and criteria. The database builds on an ontology optimized for the assessment of the impact of threats on critical infrastructures. The ontology aims at capturing the existing knowledge on natural hazards, critical infrastructures assets and their related vulnerabilities. Natural phenomena that can threaten critical infrastructures are classified as "events", and organized in a genetic-oriented hierarchy. The main attributes associated to each event are the probability, the magnitude and the "modus". The modus refers to the

  20. Does Unconscious Racism Exist?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quillian, Lincoln

    2008-01-01

    This essay argues for the existence of a form of unconscious racism. Research on implicit prejudice provides good evidence that most persons have deeply held negative associations with minority groups that can lead to subtle discrimination without conscious awareness. The evidence for implicit attitudes is briefly reviewed. Criticisms of the…

  1. Relativity, Dimensionality, and Existence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkov, Vesselin

    A 100 years have passed since the advent of special relativity and 2008 will mark another important to all relativists anniversary - 100 years since Minkowski gave his talk "Space and Time" on September 21, 1908 in which he proposed the unifi- cation of space and time into an inseparable entity - space-time. Although special relativity has been an enormously successful physical theory no progress has been made in clarifying the question of existence of the objects represented by two of its basic concepts - space-time and world lines (or worldtubes in the case of extended bodies). The major reason for this failure appears to be the physicists' tradition to call such questions of existence philosophical. This tradition, however, is not quite consistent. In Newtonian mechanics physicists believe that they describe real objects whenever they talk about particles - one of the basic concepts of Newtonian physics. The situation is the same in quantum physics - no one questions the existence of electrons, protons, etc. Then why should the question of existence of worldtubes (representing particles in relativity) be regarded as a philosophical question?

  2. Fluxnet Synthesis Dataset Collaboration Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Deborah A.; Humphrey, Marty; van Ingen, Catharine; Beekwilder, Norm; Goode, Monte; Jackson, Keith; Rodriguez, Matt; Weber, Robin

    2008-02-06

    The Fluxnet synthesis dataset originally compiled for the La Thuile workshop contained approximately 600 site years. Since the workshop, several additional site years have been added and the dataset now contains over 920 site years from over 240 sites. A data refresh update is expected to increase those numbers in the next few months. The ancillary data describing the sites continues to evolve as well. There are on the order of 120 site contacts and 60proposals have been approved to use thedata. These proposals involve around 120 researchers. The size and complexity of the dataset and collaboration has led to a new approach to providing access to the data and collaboration support and the support team attended the workshop and worked closely with the attendees and the Fluxnet project office to define the requirements for the support infrastructure. As a result of this effort, a new website (http://www.fluxdata.org) has been created to provide access to the Fluxnet synthesis dataset. This new web site is based on a scientific data server which enables browsing of the data on-line, data download, and version tracking. We leverage database and data analysis tools such as OLAP data cubes and web reports to enable browser and Excel pivot table access to the data.

  3. Infrastructure for distributed enterprise simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.M.; Yoshimura, A.S.; Goldsby, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    Traditional discrete-event simulations employ an inherently sequential algorithm and are run on a single computer. However, the demands of many real-world problems exceed the capabilities of sequential simulation systems. Often the capacity of a computer`s primary memory limits the size of the models that can be handled, and in some cases parallel execution on multiple processors could significantly reduce the simulation time. This paper describes the development of an Infrastructure for Distributed Enterprise Simulation (IDES) - a large-scale portable parallel simulation framework developed to support Sandia National Laboratories` mission in stockpile stewardship. IDES is based on the Breathing-Time-Buckets synchronization protocol, and maps a message-based model of distributed computing onto an object-oriented programming model. IDES is portable across heterogeneous computing architectures, including single-processor systems, networks of workstations and multi-processor computers with shared or distributed memory. The system provides a simple and sufficient application programming interface that can be used by scientists to quickly model large-scale, complex enterprise systems. In the background and without involving the user, IDES is capable of making dynamic use of idle processing power available throughout the enterprise network. 16 refs., 14 figs.

  4. Extreme Light Infrastructure: nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamfir, N. V.; Habs, D.; Negoita, F.; Ursescu, D.

    2011-06-01

    The spectacular progress of electron and heavy-ions acceleration driven by ultra-short high-power laser has opened the way for new methods of investigations in nuclear physics and related fields. On the other hand, upshifting the photon energies of a high repetition TW-class laser through inverse Compton scattering on electron bunches classically accelerated, a high-flux narrow bandwidth gamma beam can be produced. With such a gamma beam in the 1-20 MeV energy range and a two-arms 10-PW class laser system, the pillar of "Extreme Light Infrastructure" to be built in Bucharest will focus on nuclear phenomena and their practical applications. Nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics, fundamental QED aspects as well as applications in material and life sciences, radioactive waste management and homeland security will be studied using the high-power laser, the gamma beam or combining the two. The article includes a general description of ELI-Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) facility, an overview of the Physics Case and some details on the few, most representative proposed experiments.

  5. Scaling Agile Infrastructure to People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, B.; McCance, G.; Traylen, S.; Barrientos Arias, N.

    2015-12-01

    When CERN migrated its infrastructure away from homegrown fabric management tools to emerging industry-standard open-source solutions, the immediate technical challenges and motivation were clear. The move to a multi-site Cloud Computing model meant that the tool chains that were growing around this ecosystem would be a good choice, the challenge was to leverage them. The use of open-source tools brings challenges other than merely how to deploy them. Homegrown software, for all the deficiencies identified at the outset of the project, has the benefit of growing with the organization. This paper will examine what challenges there were in adapting open-source tools to the needs of the organization, particularly in the areas of multi-group development and security. Additionally, the increase in scale of the plant required changes to how Change Management was organized and managed. Continuous Integration techniques are used in order to manage the rate of change across multiple groups, and the tools and workflow for this will be examined.

  6. Leveraging Internal Partnerships and Existing Data Infrastructure to Track and Assess Community Engagement across the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holton, Valerie L.; Jettner, Jennifer F.; Early, Jennifer L.; Shaw, Kathleen K.

    2015-01-01

    Universities increasingly see community engagement as a means to achieve their mission. In order to assess the impact of these efforts, it is necessary to gather and analyze data from across the institution on community-engaged activities. This article presents a case study of Virginia Commonwealth University's efforts in developing enterprise…

  7. Environmental Enhancements and Navigation Infrastructure: A Study of Existing Practices, Innovative Ideas, Impediments, and Research Needs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    are likely to provide habitat diversity even in the absence of improvements. Significant fish and lobster populations have been observed around stone...designing a jetty to incorporate haMal features targeted at specific crab or lobster species. This might involve intentionally creating a toe that

  8. Map of Water Infrastructure and Homes Without Access to Safe Drinking Water and Basic Sanitation on the Navajo Nation - October 2010

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document presents the results of completed work using existing geographic information system (GIS) data to map existing water and sewer infrastructure and homes without access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation on the Navajo Nation.

  9. Resilience in social insect infrastructure systems.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Eliza J T; Latty, Tanya

    2016-03-01

    Both human and insect societies depend on complex and highly coordinated infrastructure systems, such as communication networks, supply chains and transportation networks. Like human-designed infrastructure systems, those of social insects are regularly subject to disruptions such as natural disasters, blockages or breaks in the transportation network, fluctuations in supply and/or demand, outbreaks of disease and loss of individuals. Unlike human-designed systems, there is no deliberate planning or centralized control system; rather, individual insects make simple decisions based on local information. How do these highly decentralized, leaderless systems deal with disruption? What factors make a social insect system resilient, and which factors lead to its collapse? In this review, we bring together literature on resilience in three key social insect infrastructure systems: transportation networks, supply chains and communication networks. We describe how systems differentially invest in three pathways to resilience: resistance, redirection or reconstruction. We suggest that investment in particular resistance pathways is related to the severity and frequency of disturbance. In the final section, we lay out a prospectus for future research. Human infrastructure networks are rapidly becoming decentralized and interconnected; indeed, more like social insect infrastructures. Human infrastructure management might therefore learn from social insect researchers, who can in turn make use of the mature analytical and simulation tools developed for the study of human infrastructure resilience.

  10. Resilience in social insect infrastructure systems

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Both human and insect societies depend on complex and highly coordinated infrastructure systems, such as communication networks, supply chains and transportation networks. Like human-designed infrastructure systems, those of social insects are regularly subject to disruptions such as natural disasters, blockages or breaks in the transportation network, fluctuations in supply and/or demand, outbreaks of disease and loss of individuals. Unlike human-designed systems, there is no deliberate planning or centralized control system; rather, individual insects make simple decisions based on local information. How do these highly decentralized, leaderless systems deal with disruption? What factors make a social insect system resilient, and which factors lead to its collapse? In this review, we bring together literature on resilience in three key social insect infrastructure systems: transportation networks, supply chains and communication networks. We describe how systems differentially invest in three pathways to resilience: resistance, redirection or reconstruction. We suggest that investment in particular resistance pathways is related to the severity and frequency of disturbance. In the final section, we lay out a prospectus for future research. Human infrastructure networks are rapidly becoming decentralized and interconnected; indeed, more like social insect infrastructures. Human infrastructure management might therefore learn from social insect researchers, who can in turn make use of the mature analytical and simulation tools developed for the study of human infrastructure resilience. PMID:26962030

  11. Emergency navigation without an infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Gelenbe, Erol; Bi, Huibo

    2014-08-18

    Emergency navigation systems for buildings and other built environments, such as sport arenas or shopping centres, typically rely on simple sensor networks to detect emergencies and, then, provide automatic signs to direct the evacuees. The major drawbacks of such static wireless sensor network (WSN)-based emergency navigation systems are the very limited computing capacity, which makes adaptivity very difficult, and the restricted battery power, due to the low cost of sensor nodes for unattended operation. If static wireless sensor networks and cloud-computing can be integrated, then intensive computations that are needed to determine optimal evacuation routes in the presence of time-varying hazards can be offloaded to the cloud, but the disadvantages of limited battery life-time at the client side, as well as the high likelihood of system malfunction during an emergency still remain. By making use of the powerful sensing ability of smart phones, which are increasingly ubiquitous, this paper presents a cloud-enabled indoor emergency navigation framework to direct evacuees in a coordinated fashion and to improve the reliability and resilience for both communication and localization. By combining social potential fields (SPF) and a cognitive packet network (CPN)-based algorithm, evacuees are guided to exits in dynamic loose clusters. Rather than relying on a conventional telecommunications infrastructure, we suggest an ad hoc cognitive packet network (AHCPN)-based protocol to adaptively search optimal communication routes between portable devices and the network egress nodes that provide access to cloud servers, in a manner that spares the remaining battery power of smart phones and minimizes the time latency. Experimental results through detailed simulations indicate that smart human motion and smart network management can increase the survival rate of evacuees and reduce the number of drained smart phones in an evacuation process.

  12. Emergency Navigation without an Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Gelenbe, Erol; Bi, Huibo

    2014-01-01

    Emergency navigation systems for buildings and other built environments, such as sport arenas or shopping centres, typically rely on simple sensor networks to detect emergencies and, then, provide automatic signs to direct the evacuees. The major drawbacks of such static wireless sensor network (WSN)-based emergency navigation systems are the very limited computing capacity, which makes adaptivity very difficult, and the restricted battery power, due to the low cost of sensor nodes for unattended operation. If static wireless sensor networks and cloud-computing can be integrated, then intensive computations that are needed to determine optimal evacuation routes in the presence of time-varying hazards can be offloaded to the cloud, but the disadvantages of limited battery life-time at the client side, as well as the high likelihood of system malfunction during an emergency still remain. By making use of the powerful sensing ability of smart phones, which are increasingly ubiquitous, this paper presents a cloud-enabled indoor emergency navigation framework to direct evacuees in a coordinated fashion and to improve the reliability and resilience for both communication and localization. By combining social potential fields (SPF) and a cognitive packet network (CPN)-based algorithm, evacuees are guided to exits in dynamic loose clusters. Rather than relying on a conventional telecommunications infrastructure, we suggest an ad hoc cognitive packet network (AHCPN)-based protocol to adaptively search optimal communication routes between portable devices and the network egress nodes that provide access to cloud servers, in a manner that spares the remaining battery power of smart phones and minimizes the time latency. Experimental results through detailed simulations indicate that smart human motion and smart network management can increase the survival rate of evacuees and reduce the number of drained smart phones in an evacuation process. PMID:25196014

  13. Computational Infrastructure for Nuclear Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. S.; Lingerfelt, E. J.; Scott, J. P.; Nesaraja, C. D.; Hix, W. R.; Bardayan, D. W.; Blackmon, J. C.; Chae, K.; Guidry, M. W.; Hard, C. C.; Sharp, J. E.; Kozub, R. L.; Meyer, R. A.

    2004-12-01

    The Computational Infrastructure for Nuclear Astrophysics is a platform-independent, online suite of computer codes developed by the ORNL Nuclear Data Project that makes a rapid connection between laboratory nuclear physics results and astrophysical models. It enables users to evaluate cross sections, process them into thermonuclear reaction rates, and parameterize (with a few percent accuracy) these rates that vary by up to 30 orders of magnitude over the temperatures of interest. Users can then properly format these rates for input into astrophysical computer simulations, create and manipulate libraries of rates, as well as run and visualize sample post-processing nucleosynthesis calculations. For example, we have developed animated nuclide charts that show how predicted abundances (represented by a user-defined color scale) change in time. With this unique suite, users can within a very short time quantify the astrophysical impact of a newly measured or calculated cross section, or a newly created customized reaction rate library, and then document and share their results with the scientific community. The suite has a straightforward interface with a "Windows Wizard" motif whereby users progress through complicated calculations in a step-by-step fashion. Users can upload their own files for processing and save their work on our server, as well as work with files that other users wish to share. These tools are currently being used to investigate novae and X-ray bursts. The suite is available through nucastrodata.org, a website that also hyperlinks available nuclear data sets relevant for nuclear astrophysics research. New features are continually being added to this software, which is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Low Energy Nuclear Physics and Nuclear Data Programs. ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  14. A Cis-Lunar Propellant Infrastructure for Flexible Path Exploration and Space Commerce

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a space infrastructure concept that exploits lunar water for propellant production and delivers it to users in cis-lunar space. The goal is to provide responsive economical space transportation to destinations beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) and enable in-space commerce. This is a game changing concept that could fundamentally affect future space operations, provide greater access to space beyond LEO, and broaden participation in space exploration. The challenge is to minimize infrastructure development cost while achieving a low operational cost. This study discusses the evolutionary development of the infrastructure from a very modest robotic operation to one that is capable of supporting human operations. The cis-lunar infrastructure involves a mix of technologies including cryogenic propellant production, reusable lunar landers, propellant tankers, orbital transfer vehicles, aerobraking technologies, and electric propulsion. This cislunar propellant infrastructure replaces Earth-launched propellants for missions beyond LEO. It enables users to reach destinations with smaller launchers or effectively multiplies the user s existing payload capacity. Users can exploit the expanded capacity to launch logistics material that can then be traded with the infrastructure for propellants. This mutually beneficial trade between the cis-lunar infrastructure and propellant users forms the basis of in-space commerce.

  15. Assessing the vulnerability of infrastructure to climate change on the Islands of Samoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhruddin, S. H. M.

    2015-03-01

    Pacific Islanders have been exposed to risks associated with climate change. Samoa as one of the Pacific Islands are prone to climatic hazards that will likely increase in coming decades, affecting coastal communities and infrastructure around the islands. Climate models do not predict a reduction of such disaster events in the future in Samoa; indeed, most predict an increase in such events. This paper identifies key infrastructure and their functions and status in order to provide an overall picture of relative vulnerability to climate-related stresses of such infrastructure on the island. By reviewing existing reports as well as holding a series of consultation meetings, a list of critical infrastructures were developed and shared with stakeholders for their consideration. An indicator-based vulnerability model (SIVM) was developed in collaboration with stakeholders to assess the vulnerability of selected infrastructure systems on the Samoan Islands. Damage costs were extracted from the Evan cyclone recovery needs document. On the other hand, criticality and capacity to repair data were collected from stakeholders. Having stakeholder perspectives on these two issues was important because (a) criticality of a given infrastructure could be viewed differently among different stakeholders, and (b) stakeholders were the best available source (in this study) to estimate the capacity to repair non-physical damage to such infrastructure. Analysis of the results suggested rankings from most vulnerable to least vulnerable sectors are the transportation sector, the power sector, the water supply sector and the sewerage system.

  16. Assessing the vulnerability of infrastructure to climate change on the Islands of Samoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhruddin, S. H. M.; Babel, M. S.; Kawasaki, A.

    2015-06-01

    Pacific Islanders have been exposed to risks associated with climate change. Samoa, as one of the Pacific Islands, is prone to climatic hazards that will likely increase in the coming decades, affecting coastal communities and infrastructure around the islands. Climate models do not predict a reduction of such disaster events in the future in Samoa; indeed, most predict an increase. This paper identifies key infrastructure and their functions and status in order to provide an overall picture of relative vulnerability to climate-related stresses of such infrastructure on the island. By reviewing existing reports as well as holding a series of consultation meetings, a list of critical infrastructure was developed and shared with stakeholders for their consideration. An indicator-based vulnerability model (SIVM) was developed in collaboration with stakeholders to assess the vulnerability of selected infrastructure systems on the Samoan Islands. Damage costs were extracted from the Cyclone Evan recovery needs document. Additionally, data on criticality and capacity to repair damage were collected from stakeholders. Having stakeholder perspectives on these two issues was important because (a) criticality of a given infrastructure could be viewed differently among different stakeholders, and (b) stakeholders were the best available source (in this study) to estimate the capacity to repair non-physical damage to such infrastructure. Analysis of the results suggested a ranking of sectors from the most vulnerable to least vulnerable are: the transportation sector, the power sector, the water supply sector and the sewerage system.

  17. Transforming the U.S. Energy Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Demick

    2010-07-01

    The U.S. energy infrastructure is among the most reliable, accessible and economic in the world. On the other hand, the U.S. energy infrastructure is excessively reliant on foreign sources of energy, experiences high volatility in energy prices, does not practice good stewardship of finite indigenous energy resources and emits significant quantities of greenhouse gases (GHG). This report presents a Technology Based Strategy to achieve a full transformation of the U.S. energy infrastructure that corrects these negative factors while retaining the positives.

  18. Climate Indicators for Energy and Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilbanks, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Two of the key categories of climate indicators are energy and infrastructure. For energy supply and use, many indicators are available for energy supply and consumption; and some indicators are available to assess implications of climate change, such as changes over time in heating and cooling days. Indicators of adaptation and adaptive capacity are more elusive. For infrastructure, which includes more than a dozen different sectors, general indicators are not available, beyond counts of major disasters and such valuable contributions as the ASCE "report cards." In this case, research is needed, for example to develop credible metrics for assessing the resilience of built infrastructures to climate change and other stresses.

  19. Scientific computing infrastructure and services in Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogatencov, P. P.; Secrieru, G. V.; Degteariov, N. V.; Iliuha, N. P.

    2016-09-01

    In recent years distributed information processing and high-performance computing technologies (HPC, distributed Cloud and Grid computing infrastructures) for solving complex tasks with high demands of computing resources are actively developing. In Moldova the works on creation of high-performance and distributed computing infrastructures were started relatively recently due to participation in implementation of a number of international projects. Research teams from Moldova participated in a series of regional and pan-European projects that allowed them to begin forming the national heterogeneous computing infrastructure, get access to regional and European computing resources, and expand the range and areas of solving tasks.

  20. "New Infrastructure" Needs in Appalachia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Mike

    1987-01-01

    Reports study of auto supply, apparel/textile, chemicals, tourism, instruments/telecommunications equipment industries, showing how Appalachia's ability to compete with other regions lies in access to capital, technology, and a skilled workforce. Concludes capitalizing on existing strengths will require action by all levels of government and the…

  1. 75 FR 60771 - Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC) AGENCY: National Protection and... Government and critical infrastructure owners and operators and provides a forum in which they can engage in a broad spectrum of activities to support and coordinate critical infrastructure protection....

  2. 76 FR 70730 - The Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... SECURITY The Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC) AGENCY: National Protection and... Security (DHS) announced the establishment of the Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council... the critical infrastructure sectors defined by Homeland Security Presidential Directive 7 (HSPD-7)...

  3. 77 FR 32656 - Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC) AGENCY: National Protection and... Security (DHS) announced the establishment of the Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Larry May, Designated Federal Officer, Critical Infrastructure...

  4. Why You Should Consider Green Stormwater Infrastructure for Your Community

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides an overview of the nation's infrastructure needs and cost and the benefits of integrating green infrastructure into projects that typically use grey infrastructure, such as roadways, sidewalks and parking lots.

  5. Network Interdependency Modeling for Risk Assessment on Built Infrastructure Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    inoperability model (IIM) in the analysis of built infrastructure systems . Previous applications of the IIM characterized infrastructure at the national...infrastructure systems and facilities. .............. 86 Figure 15. Analysis results using a common centrality measure. .................................... 90

  6. AGING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE RESEARCH PROGRAM: ADDRESSING THE CHALLENGE THROUGH INNOVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A driving force behind the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative and the Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is the Clean Water and Drinking Water Infrastructure Gap Analysis. In this report, EPA estimated that if operation, maintenance, and capital inves...

  7. Airborne biological hazards and urban transport infrastructure: current challenges and future directions.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Zaheer Ahmad; Campos, Luiza Cintra; Christie, Nicola; Colbeck, Ian

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to airborne biological hazards in an ever expanding urban transport infrastructure and highly diverse mobile population is of growing concern, in terms of both public health and biosecurity. The existing policies and practices on design, construction and operation of these infrastructures may have severe implications for airborne disease transmission, particularly, in the event of a pandemic or intentional release of biological of agents. This paper reviews existing knowledge on airborne disease transmission in different modes of transport, highlights the factors enhancing the vulnerability of transport infrastructures to airborne disease transmission, discusses the potential protection measures and identifies the research gaps in order to build a bioresilient transport infrastructure. The unification of security and public health research, inclusion of public health security concepts at the design and planning phase, and a holistic system approach involving all the stakeholders over the life cycle of transport infrastructure hold the key to mitigate the challenges posed by biological hazards in the twenty-first century transport infrastructure.

  8. Evaluation of Existing Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-01

    EVALUATION OF EXISTING STRUCTURES Final Report 6 PERFORMING ORG . REPORT NUMBER 7 AUTHOR(s) 8 CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBERls) C. K. Wiehie IDAHC20-71-C-0292 9...43,F:9J 4).IC A-44) S ’t 1001 iC 310140’ Cl144 PcC.0 4,:,(F <R49,10.- 1.y 10. . . U .A 30G150 4 -L4T-’P-.T’Ii𔃻J 4’ IARA (4.PS4*IC).P4)FC 30R100: RFAL R

  9. Existence of hyperbolic calorons

    PubMed Central

    Sibner, Lesley; Sibner, Robert; Yang, Yisong

    2015-01-01

    Recent work of Harland shows that the SO(3)-symmetric, dimensionally reduced, charge-N self-dual Yang–Mills calorons on the hyperbolic space H3×S1 may be obtained through constructing N-vortex solutions of an Abelian Higgs model as in the study of Witten on multiple instantons. In this paper, we establish the existence of such minimal action charge-N calorons by constructing arbitrarily prescribed N-vortex solutions of the Witten type equations. PMID:27547084

  10. Integration of implant planning workflows into the PACS infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessat, Michael; Strauß, Gero; Burgert, Oliver

    2008-03-01

    The integration of imaging devices, diagnostic workstations, and image servers into Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) has had an enormous effect on the efficiency of radiology workflows. The standardization of the information exchange between the devices with the DICOM standard has been an essential precondition for that development. For surgical procedures, no such infrastructure exists. With the increasingly important role computerized planning and assistance systems play in the surgical domain, an infrastructure that unifies the communication between devices becomes necessary. In recent publications, the need for a modularized system design has been established. A reference architecture for a Therapy Imaging and Model Management System (TIMMS) has been proposed. It was accepted by the DICOM Working Group 6 as the reference architecture for DICOM developments for surgery. In this paper we propose the inclusion of implant planning systems into the PACS infrastructure. We propose a generic information model for the patient specific selection and positioning of implants from a repository according to patient image data. The information models are based on clinical workflows from ENT, cardiac, and orthopedic surgery as well as technical requirements derived from different use cases and systems. We show an exemplary implementation of the model for application in ENT surgery: the selection and positioning of an ossicular implant in the middle ear. An implant repository is stored in the PACS. It makes use of an experimental implementation of the Surface Mesh Module that is currently being developed as extension to the DICOM standard.

  11. Neural Network Based Intrusion Detection System for Critical Infrastructures

    SciTech Connect

    Todd Vollmer; Ondrej Linda; Milos Manic

    2009-07-01

    Resiliency and security in control systems such as SCADA and Nuclear plant’s in today’s world of hackers and malware are a relevant concern. Computer systems used within critical infrastructures to control physical functions are not immune to the threat of cyber attacks and may be potentially vulnerable. Tailoring an intrusion detection system to the specifics of critical infrastructures can significantly improve the security of such systems. The IDS-NNM – Intrusion Detection System using Neural Network based Modeling, is presented in this paper. The main contributions of this work are: 1) the use and analyses of real network data (data recorded from an existing critical infrastructure); 2) the development of a specific window based feature extraction technique; 3) the construction of training dataset using randomly generated intrusion vectors; 4) the use of a combination of two neural network learning algorithms – the Error-Back Propagation and Levenberg-Marquardt, for normal behavior modeling. The presented algorithm was evaluated on previously unseen network data. The IDS-NNM algorithm proved to be capable of capturing all intrusion attempts presented in the network communication while not generating any false alerts.

  12. German Water Infrastructure in China: Colonial Qingdao 1898-1914.

    PubMed

    Kneitz, Agnes

    2016-12-01

    Within the colorful tapestry of colonial possessions the German empire acquired over the short period of its existence, Qingdao stands out because it fulfilled a different role from settlements in Africa-especially because of its exemplary planned water infrastructure: its technological model, the resulting (public) hygiene, and the adjunct brewery. The National Naval Office (Reichsmarineamt), which oversaw the administration of the future "harbour colony"-at first little more than a little fishing village-enjoyed a remarkable degree of freedom in implementing this project. The German government invested heavily in showing off its techno-cultural achievements to China and the world and thereby massively exploited the natural resources of the mountainous interior. This contribution focuses on Qingdao's water infrastructure and its role in public hygiene and further area development. This article will not only use new empirical evidence to demonstrate that the water infrastructure was an ambivalent "tool of empire". Relying on the concept of "urban metabolism," this paper primarily traces the ecological consequences, particularly the landscape transformation of the mountains surrounding the bay and the implications for the region's water resources. When evaluating colonial enterprises, changes in local ecology should play a significantly greater role.

  13. Stochastic Coloured Petrinet Based Healthcare Infrastructure Interdependency Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nukavarapu, Nivedita; Durbha, Surya

    2016-06-01

    The Healthcare Critical Infrastructure (HCI) protects all sectors of the society from hazards such as terrorism, infectious disease outbreaks, and natural disasters. HCI plays a significant role in response and recovery across all other sectors in the event of a natural or manmade disaster. However, for its continuity of operations and service delivery HCI is dependent on other interdependent Critical Infrastructures (CI) such as Communications, Electric Supply, Emergency Services, Transportation Systems, and Water Supply System. During a mass casualty due to disasters such as floods, a major challenge that arises for the HCI is to respond to the crisis in a timely manner in an uncertain and variable environment. To address this issue the HCI should be disaster prepared, by fully understanding the complexities and interdependencies that exist in a hospital, emergency department or emergency response event. Modelling and simulation of a disaster scenario with these complexities would help in training and providing an opportunity for all the stakeholders to work together in a coordinated response to a disaster. The paper would present interdependencies related to HCI based on Stochastic Coloured Petri Nets (SCPN) modelling and simulation approach, given a flood scenario as the disaster which would disrupt the infrastructure nodes. The entire model would be integrated with Geographic information based decision support system to visualize the dynamic behaviour of the interdependency of the Healthcare and related CI network in a geographically based environment.

  14. Regional study on investment for transmission infrastructure in China based on the State Grid data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wendong; Wu, Xudong; Wu, Xiaofang; Xi, Qiangmin; Ji, Xi; Li, Guoping

    2016-06-01

    Transmission infrastructure is an integral component of safeguarding the stability of electricity delivery. However, existing studies of transmission infrastructure mostly rely on a simple review of the network, while the analysis of investments remains rudimentary. This study conducted the first regionally focused analysis of investments in transmission infrastructure in China to help optimize its structure and reduce investment costs. Using State Grid data, the investment costs, under various voltages, for transmission lines and transformer substations are calculated. By analyzing the regional profile of cumulative investment in transmission infrastructure, we assess correlations between investment, population, and economic development across the regions. The recent development of ultra-high-voltage transmission networks will provide policy-makers new options for policy development.

  15. Regional study on investment for transmission infrastructure in China based on the State Grid data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wendong; Wu, Xudong; Wu, Xiaofang; Xi, Qiangmin; Ji, Xi; Li, Guoping

    2017-03-01

    Transmission infrastructure is an integral component of safeguarding the stability of electricity delivery. However, existing studies of transmission infrastructure mostly rely on a simple review of the network, while the analysis of investments remains rudimentary. This study conducted the first regionally focused analysis of investments in transmission infrastructure in China to help optimize its structure and reduce investment costs. Using State Grid data, the investment costs, under various voltages, for transmission lines and transformer substations are calculated. By analyzing the regional profile of cumulative investment in transmission infrastructure, we assess correlations between investment, population, and economic development across the regions. The recent development of ultra-high-voltage transmission networks will provide policy-makers new options for policy development.

  16. Increasing the resilience and security of the United States' power infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Happenny, Sean F.

    2015-08-01

    The United States' power infrastructure is aging, underfunded, and vulnerable to cyber attack. Emerging smart grid technologies may take some of the burden off of existing systems and make the grid as a whole more efficient, reliable, and secure. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is funding research into several aspects of smart grid technology and grid security, creating a software simulation tool that will allow researchers to test power infrastructure control and distribution paradigms by utilizing different smart grid technologies to determine how the grid and these technologies react under different circumstances. Understanding how these systems behave in real-world conditions will lead to new ways to make our power infrastructure more resilient and secure. Demonstrating security in embedded systems is another research area PNNL is tackling. Many of the systems controlling the U.S. critical infrastructure, such as the power grid, lack integrated security and the aging networks protecting them are becoming easier to attack.

  17. Tell EPA About Your Green Infrastructure Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Aug. 13, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced a poster contest to highlight green infrastructure and low-impact development projects in Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, New Mexico and Texas. Did your business bu

  18. A technological infrastructure to sustain Internetworked Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Mattina, Ernesto; Savarino, Vincenzo; Vicari, Claudia; Storelli, Davide; Bianchini, Devis

    In the Web 3.0 scenario, where information and services are connected by means of their semantics, organizations can improve their competitive advantage by publishing their business and service descriptions. In this scenario, Semantic Peer to Peer (P2P) can play a key role in defining dynamic and highly reconfigurable infrastructures. Organizations can share knowledge and services, using this infrastructure to move towards value networks, an emerging organizational model characterized by fluid boundaries and complex relationships. This chapter collects and defines the technological requirements and architecture of a modular and multi-Layer Peer to Peer infrastructure for SOA-based applications. This technological infrastructure, based on the combination of Semantic Web and P2P technologies, is intended to sustain Internetworked Enterprise configurations, defining a distributed registry and enabling more expressive queries and efficient routing mechanisms. The following sections focus on the overall architecture, while describing the layers that form it.

  19. 77 FR 36903 - Accelerating Broadband Infrastructure Deployment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... their respective agencies, in consultation with the Director of the Office of Science and Technology... private investment in State ITS infrastructure, determining fair market value for rights of way...

  20. Green infrastructure monitoring in Camden, NJ

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Camden County Municipal Utilities Authority (CCMUA) installed green infrastructure Stormwater Control Measures (SCMs) at multiple locations around the city of Camden, NJ. The SCMs include raised downspout planter boxes, rain gardens, and cisterns. The cisterns capture water ...

  1. Maritime Infrastructure Security and Counterterrorism Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Cao, Anh "Joseph" [R-LA-2

    2010-07-01

    07/14/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Transportation Security and Infrastructure Protection. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. The Europlanet Research Infrastructure and Technology Foresight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grande, M.; Europlanet Community

    2016-10-01

    The Europlanet 2020 Research Infrastructure is a project to integrate and support planetary science activities across Europe. The project is funded under the European Commission's Horizon 2020 programme. Technology Foresight is a key activity.

  3. 76 FR 36137 - National Infrastructure Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Infrastructure Advisory Council (NIAC) will meet on Tuesday, July 12, 2011, at the Washington Marriott at Metro... NIAC@dhs.gov . ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Washington Marriott at Metro Center, Salon...

  4. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review. Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Lindauer, Alicia

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Infrastructure Platform Review meeting.

  5. Expecting the Unexpected: Towards Robust Credential Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shouhuai; Yung, Moti

    Cryptographic credential infrastructures, such as Public key infrastructure (PKI), allow the building of trust relationships in electronic society and electronic commerce. At the center of credential infrastructures is the methodology of digital signatures. However, methods that assure that credentials and signed messages possess trustworthiness and longevity are not well understood, nor are they adequately addressed in both literature and practice. We believe that, as a basic engineering principle, these properties have to be built into the credential infrastructure rather than be treated as an after-thought since they are crucial to the long term success of this notion. In this paper we present a step in the direction of dealing with these issues. Specifically, we present the basic engineering reasoning as well as a model that helps understand (somewhat formally) the trustworthiness and longevity of digital signatures, and then we give basic mechanisms that help improve these notions.

  6. Neighborhood Sociodemographics and Change in Built Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Jana A; Green, Geoffrey F; Peterson, Marc; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2017-01-01

    While increasing evidence suggests an association between physical infrastructure in neighbourhoods and health outcomes, relatively little research examines how neighbourhoods change physically over time and how these physical improvements are spatially distributed across populations. This paper describes the change over 25 years (1985-2010) in bicycle lanes, off-road trails, bus transit service, and parks, and spatial clusters of changes in these domains relative to neighbourhood sociodemographics in four U.S. cities that are diverse in terms of geography, size and population. Across all four cities, we identified increases in bicycle lanes, off-road trails, and bus transit service, with spatial clustering in these changes that related to neighbourhood sociodemographics. Overall, we found evidence of positive changes in physical infrastructure commonly identified as supportive of physical activity. However, the patterning of infrastructure change by sociodemographic change encourages attention to the equity in infrastructure improvements across neighbourhoods.

  7. Powering the Network: The Forgotten Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learn, Larry L., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses systems that power the telecommunications infrastructure. Highlights include power for central telephone company offices; private branch exchange systems; power interruptions and power irregularities; uninterruptible power systems; problems in the systems; and photovoltaic systems. (LRW)

  8. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-05

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  9. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-01

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  10. An authentication infrastructure for today and tomorrow

    SciTech Connect

    Engert, D.E.

    1996-06-01

    The Open Software Foundation`s Distributed Computing Environment (OSF/DCE) was originally designed to provide a secure environment for distributed applications. By combining it with Kerberos Version 5 from MIT, it can be extended to provide network security as well. This combination can be used to build both an inter and intra organizational infrastructure while providing single sign-on for the user with overall improved security. The ESnet community of the Department of Energy is building just such an infrastructure. ESnet has modified these systems to improve their interoperability, while encouraging the developers to incorporate these changes and work more closely together to continue to improve the interoperability. The success of this infrastructure depends on its flexibility to meet the needs of many applications and network security requirements. The open nature of Kerberos, combined with the vendor support of OSF/DCE, provides the infrastructure for today and tomorrow.

  11. Water Infrastructure and Resiliency Finance Center

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Water Infrastructure and Resiliency Finance Center serves as a resource to communities to improve their wastewater, drinking water and stormwater systems, particularly through innovative financing and increased resiliency to climate change.

  12. The Influence of Technical Infrastructure on the Roundabout Areas Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostecki, Jakub; Greinert, Andrzej; Owoc, Ewelina

    2016-12-01

    The article presents the analysis of roundabouts design aspects including the location of underground and overground infrastructure. Authors also undertake an attempt to assess the existing situation with planning conditions. Many differences depended on the roundabout size, location, surroundings, natural conditions, landform technology used were noted. Roundabouts design should include both the natural arrangements and art installations, increasing the area of urban green areas in parallel using the area as a place for works of art exposure. For Zielona Góra urban area this is of particular importance because of the multitude of roundabouts and their good position in the city structure.

  13. The Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG™) Security Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Langella, Stephen; Oster, Scott; Hastings, Shannon; Siebenlist, Frank; Phillips, Joshua; Ervin, David; Permar, Justin; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Security is a high priority issue in medical domain, because many institutions performing biomedical research work with sensitive medical data regularly. This issue becomes more complicated, when it is desirable or needed to access and analyze data in a multi-institutional setting. In the NCI cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG™) program, several security issues were raised that existing security technologies could not address. Considering caBIG is envisioned to span a large number of cancer centers and investigator laboratories, these issues pose considerable challenge. In this paper we present these issues and the infrastructure, referred to as GAARDS, which has been developed to address them. PMID:18693873

  14. 78 FR 27113 - Version 5 Critical Infrastructure Protection Reliability Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 40 Version 5 Critical Infrastructure... 5 Critical Infrastructure Protection Reliability Standards, 143 FERC ] 61,055 (2013). This...

  15. Economic Benefits of Green Infrastructure in Lancaster PA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document outlines technical assistance for demonstrating how accounting for the multiple benefits of green infrastructure can provide a more complete assessment of infrastructure and community investments.

  16. 78 FR 66038 - Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC); Correction.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... support and coordinate critical infrastructure security and resilience. The November 5, 2013, meeting will... resilience. Topics, such as Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience and Cybersecurity, will...

  17. Mass transit infrastructure and urban health.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Rae

    2005-03-01

    Mass transit is a critical infrastructure of urban environments worldwide. The public uses it extensively, with roughly 9 billion mass transit trips occurring annually in the United States alone according to the U.S. Department of Transportation data. Its benefits per traveler include lower emissions of air pollutants and energy usage and high speeds and safety records relative to many other common modes of transportation that contribute to human health and safety. However, mass transit is vulnerable to intrusions that compromise its use and the realization of the important benefits it brings. These intrusions pertain to physical conditions, security, external environmental conditions, and equity. The state of the physical condition of transit facilities overall has been summarized in the low ratings the American Society of Civil Engineers gives to mass transit, and the large dollar estimates to maintain existing conditions as well as to bring on new improvements, which are, however, many times lower than investments estimated for roadways. Security has become a growing issue, and numerous incidents point to the potential for threats to security in the US. External environmental conditions, such as unexpected inundations of water and electric power outages also make transit vulnerable. Equity issues pose constraints on the use of transit by those who cannot access it. Transit has shown a remarkable ability to rebound after crises, most notably after the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center, due to a combination of design and operational features of the system. These experiences provide important lessons that must be captured to provide proactive approaches to managing and reducing the consequences of external factors that impinge negatively on transit.

  18. Reliability centered maintenance in astronomical infrastructure facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansorge, W. R.

    2006-06-01

    Hundreds of mirror segment, thousands of high precision actuators, highly complex mechanical, hydraulic, electrical and other technology subsystems, and highly sophisticated control systems: an ELT system consists of millions of individual parts and components, each of them may fail and lead to a partial or complete system breakdown. The traditional maintenance concepts characterized by predefined preventive maintenance activities and rigid schedules are not suitable for handling this large number of potential failures and malfunctions and the extreme maintenance workload. New maintenance strategies have to be found suitable to increase reliability while reducing the cost of needless maintenance services. The Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM) methodology is already used extensively by airlines, and in industrial and marine facilities and even by scientific institutions like NASA. Its application increases the operational reliability while reducing the cost of unnecessary maintenance activities and is certainly also a solution for current and future ELT facilities. RCM is a concept of developing a maintenance scheme based on the reliability of the various components of a system by using "feedback loops between instrument / system performance monitoring and preventive/corrective maintenance cycles." Ideally RCM has to be designed within a system and should be located in the requirement definition, the preliminary and final design phases of new equipment and complicated systems. However, under certain conditions, an implementation of RCM into the maintenance management strategy of already existing astronomical infrastructure facilities is also possible. This presentation outlines the principles of the RCM methodology, explains the advantages, and highlights necessary changes in the observatory development, operation and maintenance philosophies. Presently, it is the right time to implement RCM into current and future ELT projects and to save up to 50% maintenance

  19. LCA as a Tool to Evaluate Green Infrastructure's Environmental Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano De Sousa, M.; Erispaha, A.; Spatari, S.; Montalto, F.

    2011-12-01

    Decentralized approaches to managing urban stormwater through use of green infrastructure (GI) often lead to system-wide efficiency gains within the urban watershed's energy supply system. These efficiencies lead to direct greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions savings, and also restore some ecosystem functions within the urban landscape. We developed a consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) model to estimate the life cycle energy, global warming potential (GWP), and payback times for each if GI were applied within a select neighborhood in New York City. We applied the SIMAPRO LCA software and the economic input-output LCA (EIO-LCA) tool developed by Carnegie Mellon University. The results showed that for a new intersection installation highlighted in this study a conventional infrastructure construction would emit and use approximately 3 times more for both CO2 and energy than a design using GI. Two GI benefits were analyzed with regards to retrofitting the existing intersection. The first was related to the savings in energy and CO2 at the Waste Water Treatment Plant via runoff reduction accrued from GI use. The second benefit was related to the avoided environmental costs associated with an additional new grey infrastructure installation needed to prevent CSO in case of no GI implementation. The first benefit indicated a high payback time for a GI installation in terms of CO2 and energy demand (80 and 90 years respectively) and suggest a slow energy and carbon recovery time. However, concerning to the second benefit, GI proved to be a sustainable alternative considering the high CO2 releases (429 MTE) and energy demand (5.5 TJ) associated with a grey infrastructure construction.

  20. Sustainable Infrastructure in the Department of Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-16

    Sustainable Infrastructure in the Department of Defense Col Bart Barnhart ODUSD(I&E)/EM June 16, 2010 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 16 JUN 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00...00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sustainable Infrastructure in the Department of Defense 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  1. Informatics Infrastructure for the Materials Genome Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, Alden; Bhaskarla, Sunil; Becker, Chandler; Brady, Mary; Campbell, Carelyn; Dessauw, Philippe; Hanisch, Robert; Kattner, Ursula; Kroenlein, Kenneth; Newrock, Marcus; Peskin, Adele; Plante, Raymond; Li, Sheng-Yen; Rigodiat, Pierre-François; Amaral, Guillaume Sousa; Trautt, Zachary; Schmitt, Xavier; Warren, James; Youssef, Sharief

    2016-08-01

    A materials data infrastructure that enables the sharing and transformation of a wide range of materials data is an essential part of achieving the goals of the Materials Genome Initiative. We describe two high-level requirements of such an infrastructure as well as an emerging open-source implementation consisting of the Materials Data Curation System and the National Institute of Standards and Technology Materials Resource Registry.

  2. Critical Infrastructures: Background, Policy, and Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-12

    order to identify priorities for protective and support measures; ! to develop a comprehensive national plan for securing key resources and critical... plan ,37 a priority asset is one that could be “catastrophically exploited.” It is not clear from the testimony how the list of critical assets was...private sector to develop a National Infrastructure Assurance Plan that would protect all of the nation’s critical infrastructures by the year 2003

  3. Contested environmental policy infrastructure: Socio-political acceptance of renewable energy, water, and waste facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wolsink, Maarten

    2010-09-15

    The construction of new infrastructure is hotly contested. This paper presents a comparative study on three environmental policy domains in the Netherlands that all deal with legitimising building and locating infrastructure facilities. Such infrastructure is usually declared essential to environmental policy and claimed to serve sustainability goals. They are considered to serve (proclaimed) public interests, while the adverse impact or risk that mainly concerns environmental values as well is concentrated at a smaller scale, for example in local communities. The social acceptance of environmental policy infrastructure is institutionally determined. The institutional capacity for learning in infrastructure decision-making processes in the following three domains is compared: 1.The implementation of wind power as a renewable energy innovation; 2.The policy on space-water adaptation, with its claim to implement a new style of management replacing the current practice of focusing on control and 'hard' infrastructure; 3.Waste policy with a focus on sound waste management and disposal, claiming a preference for waste minimization (the 'waste management hierarchy'). All three cases show a large variety of social acceptance issues, where the appraisal of the impact of siting the facilities is confronted with the desirability of the policies. In dealing with environmental conflict, the environmental capacity of the Netherlands appears to be low. The policies are frequently hotly contested within the process of infrastructure decision-making. Decision-making on infrastructure is often framed as if consensus about the objectives of environmental policies exists. These claims are not justified, and therefore stimulating the emergence of environmental conflicts that discourage social acceptance of the policies. Authorities are frequently involved in planning infrastructure that conflicts with their officially proclaimed policy objectives. In these circumstances, they are

  4. Toolkit of Available EPA Green Infrastructure Modeling ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a software application designed tofacilitate integrated water resources management across wet and dry climate regions. It allows waterresources managers and planners to screen a wide range of practices across their watershed or jurisdictionfor cost-effectiveness and environmental and economic sustainability. WMOST allows users to select up to 15stormwater management practices, including traditional grey infrastructure, green infrastructure, and otherlow impact development practices. Stormwater discharges continue to cause impairment of our Nation’s waterbodies. Conventional stormwater infrastructure, or gray infrastructure, is largely designed to move stormwater away from urban areas through pipes and conduit. Runoff from these surfaces can overwhelm sewer systems and end up contaminating local waterways. When stormwater runs off impervious streets, parking lots, sidewalks, and rooftops, it carries pollutants such as motor oil, lawn chemicals, sediments, and pet waste to streams, rivers, and lakes. Runoff flows can also cause erosion and flooding that can damage property, infrastructure, and wildlife habitat. In addition to runoff problems, impervious surfaces also prevent water from penetrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Green infrastructure (e.g., rain gardens, green roofs, porous pavement, cisterns) is becoming an increasingly attractive way to recharge aquifers and reduce the amou

  5. Toolkit of Available EPA Green Infrastructure Modeling ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This webinar will present a toolkit consisting of five EPA green infrastructure models and tools, along with communication material. This toolkit can be used as a teaching and quick reference resource for use by planners and developers when making green infrastructure implementation decisions. It can also be used for low impact development design competitions. Models and tools included: Green Infrastructure Wizard (GIWiz), Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST), Visualizing Ecosystem Land Management Assessments (VELMA) Model, Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), and the National Stormwater Calculator (SWC). This webinar will present a toolkit consisting of five EPA green infrastructure models and tools, along with communication material. This toolkit can be used as a teaching and quick reference resource for use by planners and developers when making green infrastructure implementation decisions. It can also be used for low impact development design competitions. Models and tools included: Green Infrastructure Wizard (GIWiz), Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST), Visualizing Ecosystem Land Management Assessments (VELMA) Model, Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), and the National Stormwater Calculator (SWC).

  6. Research infrastructure support to address ecosystem dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Los, Wouter

    2014-05-01

    Predicting the evolution of ecosystems to climate change or human pressures is a challenge. Even understanding past or current processes is complicated as a result of the many interactions and feedbacks that occur within and between components of the system. This talk will present an example of current research on changes in landscape evolution, hydrology, soil biogeochemical processes, zoological food webs, and plant community succession, and how these affect feedbacks to components of the systems, including the climate system. Multiple observations, experiments, and simulations provide a wealth of data, but not necessarily understanding. Model development on the coupled processes on different spatial and temporal scales is sensitive for variations in data and of parameter change. Fast high performance computing may help to visualize the effect of these changes and the potential stability (and reliability) of the models. This may than allow for iteration between data production and models towards stable models reducing uncertainty and improving the prediction of change. The role of research infrastructures becomes crucial is overcoming barriers for such research. Environmental infrastructures are covering physical site facilities, dedicated instrumentation and e-infrastructure. The LifeWatch infrastructure for biodiversity and ecosystem research will provide services for data integration, analysis and modeling. But it has to cooperate intensively with the other kinds of infrastructures in order to support the iteration between data production and model computation. The cooperation in the ENVRI project (Common operations of environmental research infrastructures) is one of the initiatives to foster such multidisciplinary research.

  7. Benchmarking infrastructure for mutation text mining

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Experimental research on the automatic extraction of information about mutations from texts is greatly hindered by the lack of consensus evaluation infrastructure for the testing and benchmarking of mutation text mining systems. Results We propose a community-oriented annotation and benchmarking infrastructure to support development, testing, benchmarking, and comparison of mutation text mining systems. The design is based on semantic standards, where RDF is used to represent annotations, an OWL ontology provides an extensible schema for the data and SPARQL is used to compute various performance metrics, so that in many cases no programming is needed to analyze results from a text mining system. While large benchmark corpora for biological entity and relation extraction are focused mostly on genes, proteins, diseases, and species, our benchmarking infrastructure fills the gap for mutation information. The core infrastructure comprises (1) an ontology for modelling annotations, (2) SPARQL queries for computing performance metrics, and (3) a sizeable collection of manually curated documents, that can support mutation grounding and mutation impact extraction experiments. Conclusion We have developed the principal infrastructure for the benchmarking of mutation text mining tasks. The use of RDF and OWL as the representation for corpora ensures extensibility. The infrastructure is suitable for out-of-the-box use in several important scenarios and is ready, in its current state, for initial community adoption. PMID:24568600

  8. Does 'mental kinesiophobia' exist?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Anton J M

    2003-10-01

    In this study the relevance of the concept of mental kinesiophobia (respectively cogniphobia or fear of mental exertion) for clients with chronic stress problems was explored. It was hypothesized that cognitive, chronic stress complaints, such as concentration problems or decreased problem solving abilities, could be catastrophized as signs of heightened personal vulnerability, with a chance of becoming permanent. As a consequence, mental exertion is avoided. This line of reasoning comes from the existing concept of kinesiophobia. This concept describes the avoidance behavior in chronic benign pain patients and refers to their fear of inflicting irreversible bodily damage due to physical exertion.An illustrative case of cogniphobia is presented. In an explorative pilot-study it was demonstrated that chronically stressed clients scored significantly higher on an experimental questionnaire measuring avoidance tendencies for mental exertion, compared with actively working employees. Consequences for treatment and suggestions for further study are discussed.

  9. Practical Use of the GEOSS Common Infrastructure by Environmental Research Infrastructures - Lessons from a COOPEUS-GEOSS Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldmann, H. C.; Koop-Jakobsen, K.

    2014-12-01

    The GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI) enables earth observations data providers to make their resources available in a global context and allow users of earth observations data to search, access and use data, tools and services available through the Global Earth Observation System of Systems. COOPEUS views the GCI as an important platform promoting cross-disciplinary approaches in the studies of multifaceted environmental challenges, and the research infrastructures (RIs) in COOPEUS are currently in the process of registering resources and services within the GCI. To promote this work, COOPEUS and GEOSS held a joint workshop in July 2014, where the main scope was to get data managers of the COOPEUS RIs involved and establish the GCI as part of the COOPEUS interoperability framework. The workshop revealed that data policies of the individual RIs can often be the first impediment for their use of the GCI. As many RIs are administering data from many sources, permission to distribute the data must be in place before registration in the GCI. Through hands-on exercises registering resources from the COOPEUS RIs, the first steps were taken to implement the GCI as a platform for documenting the capabilities of the COOPEUS RIs. These exercises gave important feedback for the practical implementation of the GCI as well as the challenges lying ahead. For the COOPEUS RIs providing data the benefits includes improved discovery and access to data and information, increased visibility of available data, information and services, which will promote the structuring of the existing environmental research infrastructure landscape and improve the interoperability. However, in order to attract research infrastructures to use the GCI, the registration process must be simplified and accelerated like for instance allowing for bulk data registration; the resource registration and feedback by COOPEUS partners can play an important role in these efforts.

  10. Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Hallinan, Kevin; Menart, James; Gilbert, Robert

    2012-08-31

    The Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative represents a collaborative effort by the University of Dayton, Wright State University and Sinclair Community College. This effort above all aimed to establish energy related programs at each of the universities while also providing outreach to the local, state-wide, and national communities. At the University of Dayton, the grant has aimed at: solidfying a newly created Master's program in Renewable and Clean Energy; helping to establish and staff a regional sustainability organization for SW Ohio. As well, as the prime grantee, the University of Dayton was responsible for insuring curricular sharing between WSU and the University of Dayton. Finally, the grant, through its support of graduate students, and through cooperation with the largest utilities in SW Ohio enabled a region-wide evaluation of over 10,000 commercial building buildings in order to identify the priority buildings in the region for energy reduction. In each, the grant has achieved success. The main focus of Wright State was to continue the development of graduate education in renewable and clean energy. Wright State has done this in a number of ways. First and foremost this was done by continuing the development of the new Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree program at Wright State . Development tasks included: continuing development of courses for the Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree, increasing the student enrollment, and increasing renewable and clean energy research work. The grant has enabled development and/or improvement of 7 courses. Collectively, the University of Dayton and WSU offer perhaps the most comprehensive list of courses in the renewable and clean energy area in the country. Because of this development, enrollment at WSU has increased from 4 students to 23. Secondly, the grant has helped to support student research aimed in the renewable and clean energy program. The grant helped to solidify new research

  11. Sharing information among existing data sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, W. R., III

    1999-01-01

    The sharing of information between law enforcement agencies is a premise for the success of all jurisdictions. A wealth of information resides in both the databases and infrastructures of local, state, and regional agencies. However, this information is often not available to the law enforcement professionals who require it. When the information is, available, individual investigators must not only know that it exists, but where it resides, and how to retrieve it. In many cases, these types of cross-jurisdictional communications are limited to personal relationships that result from telephone calls, faxes, and in some cases, e-mail. As criminal elements become more sophisticated and distributed, law enforcement agencies must begin to develop infrastructures and common sharing mechanisms that address a constantly evolving criminal threat. Historically, criminals have taken advantage of the lack of communication between law enforcement agencies. Examples of this are evident in the search for stolen property and monetary dealings. Pawned property, cash transactions, and failure to supply child support are three common cross- jurisdictional crimes that could be better enforced by strengthening the lines of communication. Criminal behavior demonstrates that it is easier to profit from their actions by dealing in separate jurisdictions. For example, stolen property is sold outside of the jurisdiction of its origin. In most cases, simply traveling a short distance to the adjoining county or municipality is sufficient to ensure that apprehension of the criminal or seizure of the stolen property is highly unlikely. In addition to the traditional burglar, fugitives often sell or pawn property to finance their continued evasion from the law. Sharing of information in a rapid manner would increase the ability of law enforcement personnel to track and capture fugitives, as well as criminals. In an example to combat this threat, the State of Florida recently acted on the need to

  12. Environmental Monitoring using Measurements from Cellular Network Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, N.; Gao, O. H.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate measurements of atmospheric parameters at ground level are fundamentally essential for hazard warning, meteorological forecasting and for various applications in agriculture, hydrology, transportation and more. The accuracy of existing instruments, however, is often limited as a result of technical and practical constraints. Existing technologies such as satellite systems cover large areas but may experience lack of precision at near surface level. On the other hand, ground based in-situ sensors often suffer from low spatial representativity. In addition, these conventional monitoring instruments are costly to implement and maintain. At frequencies of tens of GHz, various atmospheric hydrometeors affect microwave beams, causing perturbations to radio signals. Consequently, commercial wireless links that constitute the infrastructure for data transport between cellular base stations can be considered as a built in environmental monitoring facility (Messer et al., Science, 2006). These microwave links are widely deployed worldwide at surface level altitudes and can provide measurements of various atmospheric phenomena. The implementation costs are minimal since the infrastructure is already situated in the field. This technique has been shown to be applicable for 2D rainfall monitoring (e.g. Overeem et al., PNAS, 2013; Liberman et al., AMT, 2014) and potentially for water vapor observations (David et al., ACP, 2009; Chwala et al., Atmos. Res., 2013). Moreover, it has been recently shown that the technology has strong potential for detection of fog and estimation of its intensity (David et al., JGR-Atmos., 2013; David et al., BAMS, 2014). The research conducted to this point forms the basis for the initiation of a research project in this newly emerging field at the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering of Cornell University. The presentation will provide insights into key capabilities of the novel approach. The potential to monitor various

  13. Analysing the relationship between urban livelihoods and water infrastructure in three settlements in Cusco, Peru.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Catherine; Bell, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the role played by water infrastructure in urban livelihoods. It is based on a study of three settlements in Cusco, Peru, and shows that different modes of organising infrastructure co-exist within the same city, despite national policy prescriptions for urban water provision. Further, unequal access of households to these services exists within the same settlements and amplifies household vulnerability which, in turn, feeds back to undermine local, autonomous governance of water. This paper draws on the work of van Vliet et al. and Marvin and Graham to develop a framework that considers infrastructure organisation alongside household livelihoods in order to analyse the features of governance and vulnerability that affect urban livelihoods by privileging some groups and bypassing others.

  14. EUDAT: A New Cross-Disciplinary Data Infrastructure For Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecarpentier, Damien; Michelini, Alberto; Wittenburg, Peter

    2013-04-01

    In recent years significant investments have been made by the European Commission and European member states to create a pan-European e-Infrastructure supporting multiple research communities. As a result, a European e-Infrastructure ecosystem is currently taking shape, with communication networks, distributed grids and HPC facilities providing European researchers from all fields with state-of-the-art instruments and services that support the deployment of new research facilities on a pan-European level. However, the accelerated proliferation of data - newly available from powerful new scientific instruments, simulations and the digitization of existing resources - has created a new impetus for increasing efforts and investments in order to tackle the specific challenges of data management, and to ensure a coherent approach to research data access and preservation. EUDAT is a pan-European initiative that started in October 2011 and which aims to help overcome these challenges by laying out the foundations of a Collaborative Data Infrastructure (CDI) in which centres offering community-specific support services to their users could rely on a set of common data services shared between different research communities. Although research communities from different disciplines have different ambitions and approaches - particularly with respect to data organization and content - they also share many basic service requirements. This commonality makes it possible for EUDAT to establish common data services, designed to support multiple research communities, as part of this CDI. During the first year, EUDAT has been reviewing the approaches and requirements of a first subset of communities from linguistics (CLARIN), solid earth sciences (EPOS), climate sciences (ENES), environmental sciences (LIFEWATCH), and biological and medical sciences (VPH), and shortlisted four generic services to be deployed as shared services on the EUDAT infrastructure. These services are data

  15. Risk assessment for physical and cyber attacks on critical infrastructures.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Bryan J.; Sholander, Peter E.; Phelan, James M.; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Varnado, G. Bruce; Depoy, Jennifer Mae

    2005-08-01

    Assessing the risk of malevolent attacks against large-scale critical infrastructures requires modifications to existing methodologies. Existing risk assessment methodologies consider physical security and cyber security separately. As such, they do not accurately model attacks that involve defeating both physical protection and cyber protection elements (e.g., hackers turning off alarm systems prior to forced entry). This paper presents a risk assessment methodology that accounts for both physical and cyber security. It also preserves the traditional security paradigm of detect, delay and respond, while accounting for the possibility that a facility may be able to recover from or mitigate the results of a successful attack before serious consequences occur. The methodology provides a means for ranking those assets most at risk from malevolent attacks. Because the methodology is automated the analyst can also play 'what if with mitigation measures to gain a better understanding of how to best expend resources towards securing the facilities. It is simple enough to be applied to large infrastructure facilities without developing highly complicated models. Finally, it is applicable to facilities with extensive security as well as those that are less well-protected.

  16. Final Report on National NGV Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    GM Sverdrup; JG DeSteese; ND Malcosky

    1999-01-07

    This report summarizes work fimded jointly by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) to (1) identi& barriers to establishing sustainable natural gas vehicle (NGV) infrastructure and (2) develop planning information that can help to promote a NGV infrastructure with self-sustaining critical maw. The need for this work is driven by the realization that demand for NGVS has not yet developed to a level that provides sufficient incentives for investment by the commercial sector in all necessary elements of a supportive infrastructure. The two major objectives of this project were: (1) to identifi and prioritize the technical barriers that may be impeding growth of a national NGV infrastructure and (2) to develop input that can assist industry in overcoming these barriers. The approach used in this project incorporated and built upon the accumulated insights of the NGV industry. The project was conducted in three basic phases: (1) review of the current situation, (2) prioritization of technical infrastructure btiiers, and (3) development of plans to overcome key barriers. An extensive and diverse list of barriers was obtained from direct meetings and telephone conferences with sixteen industry NGV leaders and seven Clean Cities/Clean Corridors coordinators. This information is filly documented in the appendix. A distillation of insights gained in the interview process suggests that persistent barriers to developing an NGV market and supporting infrastructure can be grouped into four major categories: 1. Fuel station economics 2. Value of NGVs from the owner/operator perspective 3. Cooperation necessary for critical mass 4. Commitment by investors. A principal conclusion is that an efficient and effective approach for overcoming technical barriers to developing an NGV infrastructure can be provided by building upon and consolidating the relevant efforts of the NGV industry and government. The major recommendation of this project is the

  17. Cybersecurity: The Nation’s Greatest Threat to Critical Infrastructure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Cybersecurity: The Nation’s Greatest Threat To Critical Infrastructure by Lieutenant Colonel Nikki L. Griffin Olive...The Nation’s Greatest Threat To Critical Infrastructure 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S... infrastructure has grown to potentially catastrophic dimensions. Critical Infrastructure protection has become a matter of national security, public safety

  18. Structural health monitoring of civil infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Brownjohn, J M W

    2007-02-15

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is a term increasingly used in the last decade to describe a range of systems implemented on full-scale civil infrastructures and whose purposes are to assist and inform operators about continued 'fitness for purpose' of structures under gradual or sudden changes to their state, to learn about either or both of the load and response mechanisms. Arguably, various forms of SHM have been employed in civil infrastructure for at least half a century, but it is only in the last decade or two that computer-based systems are being designed for the purpose of assisting owners/operators of ageing infrastructure with timely information for their continued safe and economic operation. This paper describes the motivations for and recent history of SHM applications to various forms of civil infrastructure and provides case studies on specific types of structure. It ends with a discussion of the present state-of-the-art and future developments in terms of instrumentation, data acquisition, communication systems and data mining and presentation procedures for diagnosis of infrastructural 'health'.

  19. Information Infrastructure Development Recommendations through Analysis of Current Information Technology Infrastructure, Plans and Policies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze current Global, National, and Department of Defense policies and initiatives for information technology management and...and the resources outlined in the Information Technology Management Strategic Plan, the Defense Information Infrastructure Master Plan, and the Global and National Information Infrastructure initiatives.

  20. Controlling Infrastructure Costs: Right-Sizing the Mission Control Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Keith; Sen-Roy, Michael; Heiman, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Johnson Space Center's Mission Control Center is a space vehicle, space program agnostic facility. The current operational design is essentially identical to the original facility architecture that was developed and deployed in the mid-90's. In an effort to streamline the support costs of the mission critical facility, the Mission Operations Division (MOD) of Johnson Space Center (JSC) has sponsored an exploratory project to evaluate and inject current state-of-the-practice Information Technology (IT) tools, processes and technology into legacy operations. The general push in the IT industry has been trending towards a data-centric computer infrastructure for the past several years. Organizations facing challenges with facility operations costs are turning to creative solutions combining hardware consolidation, virtualization and remote access to meet and exceed performance, security, and availability requirements. The Operations Technology Facility (OTF) organization at the Johnson Space Center has been chartered to build and evaluate a parallel Mission Control infrastructure, replacing the existing, thick-client distributed computing model and network architecture with a data center model utilizing virtualization to provide the MCC Infrastructure as a Service. The OTF will design a replacement architecture for the Mission Control Facility, leveraging hardware consolidation through the use of blade servers, increasing utilization rates for compute platforms through virtualization while expanding connectivity options through the deployment of secure remote access. The architecture demonstrates the maturity of the technologies generally available in industry today and the ability to successfully abstract the tightly coupled relationship between thick-client software and legacy hardware into a hardware agnostic "Infrastructure as a Service" capability that can scale to meet future requirements of new space programs and spacecraft. This paper discusses the benefits

  1. Impacts of climate change on infrastructure in permafrost regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beloloutskaia, M.; Anisimov, O.

    2003-04-01

    (Salekhard, Igarka, Dudinka, Tiksi in Russia and Barrow, Inuvik in North America), pipelines, and extraction facilities including the Nadym-Pur-Taz natural gas production complex and associated infrastructure in northwest Siberia fall within this zone of high hazard potential. Within the zone of medium hazard potential are several large population centers (Yakutsk, Noril'sk, Vorkuta), and much of the Trans-Siberian and Baikal-Amur Railroads. One of the important conclusions is that substantial investments are necessary to maintain the existing infrastructure in permafrost regions and mitigate the detrimental impacts of warming. Predictive hazards maps may be used effectively to assists such efforts on environmental and economical planning.

  2. Repository Planning, Design, and Engineering: Part I--Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Baird, Philip M; Gunter, Elaine W

    2016-04-01

    This is a two-part review describing the planning, engineering, and design considerations for building a new repository for biological and environmental samples. Part I addresses the physical infrastructure requirements for a repository; Part II will cover equipment and costing. Planning for construction of a new repository is a complex process requiring comprehensive preplanning and adherence to many regulatory and safety requirements. Guidance and a planning timeline are provided for many of the physical aspects and large capital acquisition costs for the expansion of an existing repository, or the creation of a new repository facility, using an available unoccupied building such as a former warehouse. This article provides a comprehensive set of information about every aspect of repository construction and operation to be considered in the planning process, and also addresses all aspects of designing and constructing a new repository in an existing structure. The engineering and design parameters for the repository are discussed in detail.

  3. Pandemic influenza and critical infrastructure dependencies: possible impact on hospitals.

    PubMed

    Itzwerth, Ralf L; Macintyre, C Raina; Shah, Smita; Plant, Aileen J

    2006-11-20

    Hospitals will be particularly challenged when pandemic influenza spreads. Within the health sector in general, existing pandemic plans focus on health interventions to control outbreaks. The critical relationship between the health sector and other sectors is not well understood and addressed. Hospitals depend on critical infrastructure external to the organisation itself. Existing plans do not adequately consider the complexity and interdependency of systems upon which hospitals rely. The failure of one such system can trigger a failure of another, causing cascading breakdowns. Health is only one of the many systems that struggle at maximum capacity during "normal" times, as current business models operate with no or minimal "excess" staff and have become irreducible operations. This makes interconnected systems highly vulnerable to acute disruptions, such as a pandemic. Companies use continuity plans and highly regulated business continuity management to overcome process interruptions. This methodology can be applied to hospitals to minimise the impact of a pandemic.

  4. Earthquake warning system for infrastructures : a scoping analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Nancy S.; O'Connor, Sharon L.; Stamber, Kevin Louis; Kelic, Andjelka; Fogleman, William E.; Vugrin, Eric D.; Corbet, Thomas Frank, Jr.; Brown, Theresa Jean

    2011-09-01

    This report provides the results of a scoping study evaluating the potential risk reduction value of a hypothetical, earthquake early-warning system. The study was based on an analysis of the actions that could be taken to reduce risks to population and infrastructures, how much time would be required to take each action and the potential consequences of false alarms given the nature of the action. The results of the scoping analysis indicate that risks could be reduced through improving existing event notification systems and individual responses to the notification; and production and utilization of more detailed risk maps for local planning. Detailed maps and training programs, based on existing knowledge of geologic conditions and processes, would reduce uncertainty in the consequence portion of the risk analysis. Uncertainties in the timing, magnitude and location of earthquakes and the potential impacts of false alarms will present major challenges to the value of an early-warning system.

  5. Infrastructuring Multicultural Healthcare Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Dreessen, Katrien; Huybrechts, Liesbeth; Grönvall, Erik; Hendriks, Niels

    2017-01-01

    This paper stresses the need for more research in the field of Participatory Design (PD) and in particular into how to design Health Information Technology (HIT) together with care providers and -receivers in multicultural settings. We contribute to this research by describing a case study, the 'Health-Cultures' project, in which we designed HIT for the context of home care of older people with a migration background. The Health-Cultures project is located in the city of Genk, Belgium, which is known for its multicultural population, formed by three historical migration waves of people coming to work in the nowadays closed coal mines. Via a PD approach, we studied existing means of dialogue and designed HIT that both care receivers and care providers in Genk can use in their daily exchanges between cultures in home care contexts. In discussing relevant literature as well as the results of this study, we point to the need and the ways of taking spatio-historical aspects of a specific healthcare situation into account in the PD of HIT to support multicultural perspectives on healthcare.

  6. Towards a multidisciplinary e-infrastructure for the Mediterranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nativi, Stefano; Mathieu, Pierre Philippe; Cossu, Roberto; Santoto, Mattia; Martini, Marcello; Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    The MED-SUV European project (http://med-suv.eu/) aims to design and implement a multidisciplinary infrastructure for the volcanic risk management life-cycle in southern Italy. The MED-SUV infrastructure will rely upon the improvements of the understanding of geophysical processes underlying the volcanic systems of Vesuvius / Campi Flegrei and Mt. Etna. It will also achieve the integration of existing components, such as monitoring systems and data bases, novel sensors for the measurements of volcanic parameters, and tools for data analysis and process modelling. This effort will contribute to GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems - http://www.earthobservations.org/geoss.shtml) as one the volcano Supersite recognized by GEO (Group on Earth Observation) -see http://supersites.earthobservations.org/. To achieve its goals, MED-SUV needs an advanced e-infrastructure allowing: (a) heterogeneous data and processing systems to provide and share their resources, and (b) supersite Users to run their workflows and generate significant products. This presentation discusses the general interoperability approach and architecture characterizing the MED-SUV e-infrastructure. The MED-SUV e-infrastructure considered the concepts and solutions adopted by the GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI). The architecture requirements and system technologies builds on the experience done by relevant European projects in the framework of GEOSS and ESFRI (e.g. EuroGEOSS, GENESI, GEOWOW). MED-SUV e-infrastructure adopts three-tiers approach distinguishing among: (a) local and distributed Data/Information Providers; (b) the MED-SUV Brokering framework for harmonization and interoperability; (c) the MED-SUV e-collaboration environment for the generation and publication of advanced products. MED-SUV e-infrastructure development considers interoperability with the other two FP7 supersite projects: MARSITE and FUTUREVOLC, as well as EPOS.

  7. Infrastructure Vulnerability Assessment Model (I-VAM).

    PubMed

    Ezell, Barry Charles

    2007-06-01

    Quantifying vulnerability to critical infrastructure has not been adequately addressed in the literature. Thus, the purpose of this article is to present a model that quantifies vulnerability. Vulnerability is defined as a measure of system susceptibility to threat scenarios. This article asserts that vulnerability is a condition of the system and it can be quantified using the Infrastructure Vulnerability Assessment Model (I-VAM). The model is presented and then applied to a medium-sized clean water system. The model requires subject matter experts (SMEs) to establish value functions and weights, and to assess protection measures of the system. Simulation is used to account for uncertainty in measurement, aggregate expert assessment, and to yield a vulnerability (Omega) density function. Results demonstrate that I-VAM is useful to decisionmakers who prefer quantification to qualitative treatment of vulnerability. I-VAM can be used to quantify vulnerability to other infrastructures, supervisory control and data acquisition systems (SCADA), and distributed control systems (DCS).

  8. Recovery of infrastructure networks after localised attacks.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fuyu; Yeung, Chi Ho; Yang, Saini; Wang, Weiping; Zeng, An

    2016-04-14

    The stability of infrastructure network is always a critical issue studied by researchers in different fields. A lot of works have been devoted to reveal the robustness of the infrastructure networks against random and malicious attacks. However, real attack scenarios such as earthquakes and typhoons are instead localised attacks which are investigated only recently. Unlike previous studies, we examine in this paper the resilience of infrastructure networks by focusing on the recovery process from localised attacks. We introduce various preferential repair strategies and found that they facilitate and improve network recovery compared to that of random repairs, especially when population size is uneven at different locations. Moreover, our strategic repair methods show similar effectiveness as the greedy repair. The validations are conducted on simulated networks, and on real networks with real disasters. Our method is meaningful in practice as it can largely enhance network resilience and contribute to network risk reduction.

  9. Recovery of infrastructure networks after localised attacks

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Fuyu; Yeung, Chi Ho; Yang, Saini; Wang, Weiping; Zeng, An

    2016-01-01

    The stability of infrastructure network is always a critical issue studied by researchers in different fields. A lot of works have been devoted to reveal the robustness of the infrastructure networks against random and malicious attacks. However, real attack scenarios such as earthquakes and typhoons are instead localised attacks which are investigated only recently. Unlike previous studies, we examine in this paper the resilience of infrastructure networks by focusing on the recovery process from localised attacks. We introduce various preferential repair strategies and found that they facilitate and improve network recovery compared to that of random repairs, especially when population size is uneven at different locations. Moreover, our strategic repair methods show similar effectiveness as the greedy repair. The validations are conducted on simulated networks, and on real networks with real disasters. Our method is meaningful in practice as it can largely enhance network resilience and contribute to network risk reduction. PMID:27075559

  10. Challenges in scaling up biofuels infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Richard, Tom L

    2010-08-13

    Rapid growth in demand for lignocellulosic bioenergy will require major changes in supply chain infrastructure. Even with densification and preprocessing, transport volumes by mid-century are likely to exceed the combined capacity of current agricultural and energy supply chains, including grain, petroleum, and coal. Efficient supply chains can be achieved through decentralized conversion processes that facilitate local sourcing, satellite preprocessing and densification for long-distance transport, and business models that reward biomass growers both nearby and afar. Integrated systems that are cost-effective and energy-efficient will require new ways of thinking about agriculture, energy infrastructure, and rural economic development. Implementing these integrated systems will require innovation and investment in novel technologies, efficient value chains, and socioeconomic and policy frameworks; all are needed to support an expanded biofuels infrastructure that can meet the challenges of scale.

  11. Securing Infrastructure from High Explosive Threats

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, L; Noble, C; Reynolds, J; Kuhl, A; Morris, J

    2009-03-20

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is working with the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate, the Transportation Security Administration, and several infrastructure partners to characterize and help mitigate principal structural vulnerabilities to explosive threats. Given the importance of infrastructure to the nation's security and economy, there is a clear need for applied research and analyses (1) to improve understanding of the vulnerabilities of these systems to explosive threats and (2) to provide decision makers with time-critical technical assistance concerning countermeasure and mitigation options. Fully-coupled high performance calculations of structural response to ideal and non-ideal explosives help bound and quantify specific critical vulnerabilities, and help identify possible corrective schemes. Experimental validation of modeling approaches and methodologies builds confidence in the prediction, while advanced stochastic techniques allow for optimal use of scarce computational resources to efficiently provide infrastructure owners and decision makers with timely analyses.

  12. Developing an Information Infrastructure To Support Information Retrieval: Towards a Theory of Clustering Based in Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micco, Mary; Popp, Rich

    Techniques for building a world-wide information infrastructure by reverse engineering existing databases to link them in a hierarchical system of subject clusters to create an integrated database are explored. The controlled vocabulary of the Library of Congress Subject Headings is used to ensure consistency and group similar items. Each database…

  13. Youth and Lifelong Education: After-School Programmes as a Vital Component of Lifelong Education Infrastructure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauzon, Allan C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that after-school programmes need to be considered an essential part of lifelong learning infrastructure, particularly in light of the dominance of the economic discourse in both lifelong learning literature and the initial schooling literature. The paper, which is based upon existing literature, begins by providing an overview…

  14. 77 FR 30589 - SteelRiver Infrastructure Partners LP, SteelRiver Infrastructure Associates LLC, SteelRiver...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Surface Transportation Board SteelRiver Infrastructure Partners LP, SteelRiver Infrastructure Associates LLC, SteelRiver Infrastructure Fund North America LP, and Patriot Funding LLC--Control Exemption--Patriot Rail Corp., et al. SteelRiver Infrastructure Partners LP (SRIP LP), SteelRiver...

  15. Transportation of Large Wind Components: A Review of Existing Geospatial Data

    SciTech Connect

    Mooney, Meghan; Maclaurin, Galen

    2016-09-01

    This report features the geospatial data component of a larger project evaluating logistical and infrastructure requirements for transporting oversized and overweight (OSOW) wind components. The goal of the larger project was to assess the status and opportunities for improving the infrastructure and regulatory practices necessary to transport wind turbine towers, blades, and nacelles from current and potential manufacturing facilities to end-use markets. The purpose of this report is to summarize existing geospatial data on wind component transportation infrastructure and to provide a data gap analysis, identifying areas for further analysis and data collection.

  16. Sea Level Rise Impacts On Infrastructure Vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqualini, D.; Mccown, A. W.; Backhaus, S.; Urban, N. M.

    2015-12-01

    Increase of global sea level is one of the potential consequences of climate change and represents a threat for the U.S.A coastal regions, which are highly populated and home of critical infrastructures. The potential danger caused by sea level rise may escalate if sea level rise is coupled with an increase in frequency and intensity of storms that may strike these regions. These coupled threats present a clear risk to population and critical infrastructure and are concerns for Federal, State, and particularly local response and recovery planners. Understanding the effect of sea level rise on the risk to critical infrastructure is crucial for long planning and for mitigating potential damages. In this work we quantify how infrastructure vulnerability to a range of storms changes due to an increase of sea level. Our study focuses on the Norfolk area of the U.S.A. We assess the direct damage of drinking water and wastewater facilities and the power sector caused by a distribution of synthetic hurricanes. In addition, our analysis estimates indirect consequences of these damages on population and economic activities accounting also for interdependencies across infrastructures. While projections unanimously indicate an increase in the rate of sea level rise, the scientific community does not agree on the size of this rate. Our risk assessment accounts for this uncertainty simulating a distribution of sea level rise for a specific climate scenario. Using our impact assessment results and assuming an increase of future hurricanes frequencies and intensities, we also estimate the expected benefits for critical infrastructure.

  17. Infrastructure Retrofit Design via Composite Mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos, C.; Gotsis,Pascal K.

    1998-01-01

    Select applications are described to illustrate the concept for retrofitting reinforced concrete infrastructure with fiber reinforced plastic laminates. The concept is first illustrated by using an axially loaded reinforced concrete column. A reinforced concrete arch and a dome are then used to illustrate the versatility of the concept. Advanced methods such as finite element structural analysis and progressive structural fracture are then used to evaluate the retrofitting laminate adequacy. Results obtains show that retrofits can be designed to double and even triple the as-designed load of the select reinforced concrete infrastructures.

  18. Securing energy assets and infrastructure 2007

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-15

    This report describes in detail the energy industry's challenges and solutions for protecting critical assets including oil and gas infrastructure, transmission grids, power plants, storage, pipelines, and all aspects of strategic industry assets. It includes a special section on cyber-terrorism and protecting control systems. Contents: Section I - Introduction; U.S Energy Trends; Vulnerabilities; Protection Measures. Section II - Sector-wise Vulnerabilities Assessments and Security Measures: Coal, Oil and Petroleum, Natural Gas, Electric Power, Cybersecurity and Control Systems, Key Recommendations; Section III - Critical Infrastructure Protection Efforts: Government Initiatives, Agencies, and Checklists.

  19. NASA World Wind: Infrastructure for Spatial Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The world has great need for analysis of Earth observation data, be it climate change, carbon monitoring, disaster response, national defense or simply local resource management. To best provide for spatial and time-dependent information analysis, the world benefits from an open standards and open source infrastructure for spatial data. In the spirit of NASA's motto "for the benefit of all" NASA invites the world community to collaboratively advance this core technology. The World Wind infrastructure for spatial data both unites and challenges the world for innovative solutions analyzing spatial data while also allowing absolute command and control over any respective information exchange medium.

  20. Settlement characteristics of major infrastructures in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, X.; Yan, X. X.; Wang, H. M.

    2015-11-01

    Critical infrastructures in Shanghai have undergone uneven settlement since their operation, which plays an important role in affecting the security of Shanghai. This paper, taking rail transportation as example, investigates settlement characteristics and influencing factors of this linear engineering, based on long-term settlement monitoring data. Results show that rail settlement is related to geological conditions, regional ground subsidence, surrounding construction activities and structural differences in the rail systems. In order to effectively decrease the impact of regional ground subsidence, a monitoring and early-warning mechanism for critical infrastructure is established by the administrative department and engineering operators, including monitoring network construction, settlement monitoring, information sharing, settlement warning, and so on.

  1. Astronomy: On the Bleeding Edge of Scholarly Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgman, Christine; Sands, A.; Wynholds, L. A.

    2013-01-01

    The infrastructure for scholarship has moved online, making data, articles, papers, journals, catalogs, and other scholarly resources nodes in a deeply interconnected network. Astronomy has led the way on several fronts, developing tools such as ADS to provide unified access to astronomical publications and reaching agreement on a common data file formats such as FITS. Astronomy also was among the first fields to establish open access to substantial amounts of observational data. We report on the first three years of a long-term research project to study knowledge infrastructures in astronomy, funded by the NSF and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. Early findings indicate that the availability and use of networked technologies for integrating scholarly resources varies widely within astronomy. Substantial differences arise in the management of data between ground-based and space-based missions and between subfields of astronomy, for example. While large databases such as SDSS and MAST are essential resources for many researchers, much pointed, ground-based observational data exist only on local servers, with minimal curation. Some astronomy data are easily discoverable and usable, but many are not. International coordination activities such as IVOA and distributed access to high-level data products servers such as SIMBAD and NED are enabling further integration of published data. Astronomers are tackling yet more challenges in new forms of publishing data, algorithms, visualizations, and in assuring interoperability with parallel infrastructure efforts in related fields. New issues include data citation, attribution, and provenance. Substantial concerns remain for the long term discoverability, accessibility, usability, and curation of astronomy data and other scholarly resources. The presentation will outline these challenges, how they are being addressed by astronomy and related fields, and identify concerns and accomplishments expressed by the astronomers we have

  2. DRIHM: Distributed Research Infrastructure for HydroMeteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parodi, A.

    2012-04-01

    Predicting weather and climate and its impacts on the environment, including hazards such as floods and landslides, is still one of the main challenges of the 21st century with significant societal and economic implications. At the heart of this challenge lies the ability to have easy access to hydrometeorological data and models, and facilitate the collaboration between meteorologists, hydrologists, and Earth science experts for accelerated scientific advances in hydrometeorological research (HMR). to face these problems the DRIHM (Distributed Research Infrastructure for Hydro-Meteorology) project intends to develop a prototype e-Science environment to facilitate this collaboration and provide end-to-end HMR services (models, datasets and post-processing tools) at the European level, with the ability to expand to global scale. The objectives of DRIHM are to lead the definition of a common long-term strategy, to foster the development of new HMR models and observational archives for the study of severe hydrometeorological events, to promote the execution and analysis of high-end simulations, and to support the dissemination of predictive models as decision analysis tools. DRIHM combines the European expertise in HMR, in Grid and High Performance Computing (HPC). Joint research activities will improve the efficient use of the European e-Infrastructures, notably Grid and HPC, for HMR modelling and observational databases, model evaluation tool sets and access to HMR model results. Networking activities will disseminate DRIHM results at the European and global levels in order to increase the cohesion of European and possibly worldwide HMR communities and increase the awareness of ICT potential for HMR. Service activities will deploy the end-to-end DRIHM services and tools in support of HMR networks and virtual organizations on top of the existing European e-Infrastructures.

  3. GOES-R GS Product Generation Infrastructure Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanton, M.; Gundy, J.

    2012-12-01

    GOES-R GS Product Generation Infrastructure Operations: The GOES-R Ground System (GS) will produce a much larger set of products with higher data density than previous GOES systems. This requires considerably greater compute and memory resources to achieve the necessary latency and availability for these products. Over time, new algorithms could be added and existing ones removed or updated, but the GOES-R GS cannot go down during this time. To meet these GOES-R GS processing needs, the Harris Corporation will implement a Product Generation (PG) infrastructure that is scalable, extensible, extendable, modular and reliable. The primary parts of the PG infrastructure are the Service Based Architecture (SBA), which includes the Distributed Data Fabric (DDF). The SBA is the middleware that encapsulates and manages science algorithms that generate products. The SBA is divided into three parts, the Executive, which manages and configures the algorithm as a service, the Dispatcher, which provides data to the algorithm, and the Strategy, which determines when the algorithm can execute with the available data. The SBA is a distributed architecture, with services connected to each other over a compute grid and is highly scalable. This plug-and-play architecture allows algorithms to be added, removed, or updated without affecting any other services or software currently running and producing data. Algorithms require product data from other algorithms, so a scalable and reliable messaging is necessary. The SBA uses the DDF to provide this data communication layer between algorithms. The DDF provides an abstract interface over a distributed and persistent multi-layered storage system (memory based caching above disk-based storage) and an event system that allows algorithm services to know when data is available and to get the data that they need to begin processing when they need it. Together, the SBA and the DDF provide a flexible, high performance architecture that can meet

  4. Green Infrastructure, Ecosystem Services, and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Coutts, Christopher; Hahn, Micah

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary ecological models of health prominently feature the natural environment as fundamental to the ecosystem services that support human life, health, and well-being. The natural environment encompasses and permeates all other spheres of influence on health. Reviews of the natural environment and health literature have tended, at times intentionally, to focus on a limited subset of ecosystem services as well as health benefits stemming from the presence, and access and exposure to, green infrastructure. The sweeping influence of green infrastructure on the myriad ecosystem services essential to health has therefore often been underrepresented. This survey of the literature aims to provide a more comprehensive picture—in the form of a primer—of the many simultaneously acting health co-benefits of green infrastructure. It is hoped that a more accurately exhaustive list of benefits will not only instigate further research into the health co-benefits of green infrastructure but also promote consilience in the many fields, including public health, that must be involved in the landscape conservation necessary to protect and improve health and well-being. PMID:26295249

  5. The National Information Infrastructure: Agenda for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Microcomputers for Information Management, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the National Information Infrastructure and the role of the government. Topics include private sector investment; universal service; technological innovation; user orientation; information security and network reliability; management of the radio frequency spectrum; intellectual property rights; coordination with other levels of…

  6. Can Economics Provide Insights into Trust Infrastructure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishik, Claire

    Many security technologies require infrastructure for authentication, verification, and other processes. In many cases, viable and innovative security technologies are never adopted on a large scale because the necessary infrastructure is slow to emerge. Analyses of such technologies typically focus on their technical flaws, and research emphasizes innovative approaches to stronger implementation of the core features. However, an observation can be made that in many cases the success of adoption pattern depends on non-technical issues rather than technology-lack of economic incentives, difficulties in finding initial investment, inadequate government support. While a growing body of research is dedicated to economics of security and privacy in general, few theoretical studies in this area have been completed, and even fewer that look at the economics of “trust infrastructure” beyond simple “cost of ownership” models. This exploratory paper takes a look at some approaches in theoretical economics to determine if they can provide useful insights into security infrastructure technologies and architectures that have the best chance to be adopted. We attempt to discover if models used in theoretical economics can help inform technology developers of the optimal business models that offer a better chance for quick infrastructure deployment.

  7. ACRF Data Collection and Processing Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Macduff, M; Egan, D

    2004-12-01

    We present a description of the data flow from measurement to long-term archive. We also discuss data communications infrastructure. The data handling processes presented include collection, transfer, ingest, quality control, creation of Value-Added Products (VAP), and data archiving.

  8. Is the Infrastructure of EHDI Programs Working?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, K. Todd; Hoffman, Jeff; Munoz, Karen F.; Bradham, Tamala S.

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that consisted of 12 evaluative areas of EHDI programs. For the EHDI program infrastructure area, 47 coordinators responded with a total of 292 items, and themes were identified in each…

  9. Telecommunications and Technology Infrastructure Program, 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This 16th annual report highlights up-to-date information on the programs supported through the Chancellor's Office Telecommunications and Technology Infrastructure Program (TTIP). To summarize 2012-13, one would describe it as a year of planning and preparation. The system-wide budget cuts of the past few years, reports of impacted classes, staff…

  10. Privacy and the National Information Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Marc

    1994-01-01

    Explains the work of Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility regarding privacy issues in the use of electronic networks; recommends principles that should be adopted for a National Information Infrastructure privacy code; discusses the need for public education; and suggests pertinent legislative proposals. (LRW)

  11. 78 FR 40487 - National Infrastructure Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... Resilience Working Group. We request that comments be limited to the issues listed in the meeting agenda and... on the security and resilience of the Nation's critical infrastructure sectors and their information... resilience as directed by the President. At this meeting, the committee will receive and discuss...

  12. CP corrosion control of municipal infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Gummow, R.A.

    2000-02-01

    Since its introduction in 1824, cathodic protection (CP) technology has developed to become a fundamental tool for preventing corrosion on municipal infrastructure. Potable water storage tanks and piping, prestressed concrete cylinder pipe, reinforced concrete structures, bridges, parking structures, underground fuel tanks, and effluent treatment clarifiers now benefit from this technology.

  13. Infrastructure and Administrative Support for Online Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, John D.; Barefield, Amanda C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the availability and effectiveness of administrative support elements for online teaching faculty, and introduce a faculty validated Matrix for use as a guide in development of administrative support for online programs. When administrators make decisions about the infrastructure support needs of a current…

  14. The Critical Infrastructure Portfolio Selection Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-13

    Gregory Ehlers ties together two concepts that are fundamental to enabling a thorough understanding of the Critical Infrastructure Portfolio Selection...work of world-renowned economists, Paul Collier and Anke Hoeffler, and the econometric models that these scholars have developed in an effort to...

  15. The development of a cislunar space infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, C. A.; Johnson, A. S.; Mcglinchey, J. M.; Ryan, K. D.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective of this Advanced Mission Design Program is to define the general characteristics and phased evolution of a near-Earth space infrastructure. The envisioned foundation includes a permanently manned, self-sustaining base on the lunar surface, a space station at the Libration Point between earth and the moon (L1), and a transportation system that anchors these elements to the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) station. The implementation of this conceptual design was carried out with the idea that the infrastructure is an important step in a larger plan to expand man's capabilities in space science and technology. Such expansion depends on low cost, reliable, and frequent access to space for those who wish to use the multiple benefits of this environment. The presence of a cislunar space infrastructure would greatly facilitate the staging of future planetary missions, as well as the full exploration of the lunar potential for science and industry. The rationale for, and a proposed detailed scenario in support of, the cislunar space infrastructure are discussed.

  16. Green Infrastructure, Ecosystem Services, and Human Health.

    PubMed

    Coutts, Christopher; Hahn, Micah

    2015-08-18

    Contemporary ecological models of health prominently feature the natural environment as fundamental to the ecosystem services that support human life, health, and well-being. The natural environment encompasses and permeates all other spheres of influence on health. Reviews of the natural environment and health literature have tended, at times intentionally, to focus on a limited subset of ecosystem services as well as health benefits stemming from the presence, and access and exposure to, green infrastructure. The sweeping influence of green infrastructure on the myriad ecosystem services essential to health has therefore often been underrepresented. This survey of the literature aims to provide a more comprehensive picture-in the form of a primer-of the many simultaneously acting health co-benefits of green infrastructure. It is hoped that a more accurately exhaustive list of benefits will not only instigate further research into the health co-benefits of green infrastructure but also promote consilience in the many fields, including public health, that must be involved in the landscape conservation necessary to protect and improve health and well-being.

  17. The internal social sustainability of sanitation infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Kaminsky, Jessica A; Javernick-Will, Amy N

    2014-09-02

    While the construction of sanitation infrastructure is one of humankind's greatest public health and environmental engineering achievements, its benefits are not yet enjoyed by all. In addition to the billions of people not yet reached by sanitation infrastructure, at least half of systems constructed in developing contexts are abandoned in the years following initial construction. In this research, we target the problem of postconstruction onsite sanitation infrastructure abandonment in rural Guatemala using legitimacy and status theory. Legitimacy and status are established theoretical concepts from organizational theory that reflect cultural alignment and normative support. Crisp set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (csQCA), which uses Boolean algebra to discover combinations of theoretical conditions that produce an outcome of interest, allowed us to describe the various pathways that have caused socially sustainable uptake. We find that three combinations of legitimacy and status theory explain 85% of household cases at a consistency of 0.97. The most practically useful pathway covers 50% of household cases and shows that the combination of consequential legitimacy (a moral understanding of outcomes) and comprehensibility legitimacy (a cognitive model connecting outcomes to processes) is a powerful way to achieve socially sustainable sanitation infrastructure.

  18. Seeking Equity in the National Information Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doctor, Ronald D.

    1994-01-01

    Proposals for shaping the National Information Infrastructure (NII) lack sufficient provision for supporting locally controlled information delivery systems, which could serve all the people, regardless of class or community environment. A system of federally sponsored National and Regional Institutes for Information Democracy could help meet this…

  19. Plan to mitigate infrastructure development released

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-04-01

    Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewell released a new strategy on 10 April 2014 to advance landscape-scale, science-based management of America's public lands and wildlife. The strategy will implement mitigation policies and practices at the Department of the Interior that can encourage infrastructure development while protecting natural and cultural resources.

  20. Distribution of green infrastructure along walkable roads

    EPA Science Inventory

    Low-income and minority neighborhoods frequently lack healthful resources to which wealthier communities have access. Though important, the addition of facilities such as recreation centers can be costly and take time to implement. Urban green infrastructure, such as street trees...

  1. Technology Infrastructure in Schools. Hot Topic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SERVE: SouthEastern Regional Vision for Education.

    This document is designed for education, government, and community leaders as they collaborate to provide information access for students by establishing a technology infrastructure within schools. Overviews of issues, appropriate questions to consider, and lists of recommendations seek to put the non-technology literate end-user, who might now be…

  2. The ICT Infrastructure: A Driver of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Richard N.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the influence of information and communications technology (ICT) infrastructure changes on higher education. Addresses issues such as ICT hardware, networks, and leadership and skills; budgets; policy (including access to information, information privacy, information security, and ownership of faculty course materials); changes in…

  3. Modular Infrastructure for Rapid Flight Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pires, Craig

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of modular infrastructure to assist in the development of flight software. A feature of this program is the use of model based approach for application unique software. A review of two programs that this approach was use on are: the development of software for Hover Test Vehicle (HTV), and Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Experiment (LADEE).

  4. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Analysis (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2012-05-01

    This is a presentation about the Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demo, a 7-year project and the largest single FCEV and infrastructure demonstration in the world to date. Information such as its approach, technical accomplishments and progress; collaborations and future work are discussed.

  5. Utilizing Instructional Media for Teaching Infrastructure Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fajriah, Ulfah Nur; Churiyah, Madziatul

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to produce instructional media Corel VideoStudio Pro X7-based on teaching infrastructure administration at class XI of APK in SMKN 1 Ngawi, East Java, Indonesia. This study uses Research and Development research design (R & D) through 10 steps, namely: (1) the potential and problems, (2) data collection, (3) the design of the…

  6. Building an Education Infrastructure for Allied Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankes, R. David; Bonner, Hugh W.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a five-part framework for an information infrastructure: (1) aggregating (digital storage); (2) organizing (imposing higher-level structure); (3) using (retrieval processes); (4) tool building (designing and developing technologies for steps 1-3); and (5) policy making (metadata, selection criteria, use policies). Applies the framework to…

  7. Critical Infrastructures: Background, Policy, and Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-12

    federal government to develop and implement plans that would protect government -operated infrastructures and called for a dialogue between government ...16 Government —Sector Coordination...State and local government capacities to maintain order and deliver minimum essential public services, • damage the private sector’s capability to

  8. GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE RESEARCH PROGRAM: Rain Gardens

    EPA Science Inventory

    the National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) rain garden evaluation is part of a larger collection of long-term research that evaluates a variety of stormwater management practices. The U.S. EPA recognizes the potential of rain gardens as a green infrastructure manag...

  9. Monitoring Alpine Transportation Infrastructures Using Space Techniues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strozzi, Tazio; Caduff, Rafael; Wegmuller, Urs; Brandstaetter, Michael; Kuhtreiber, Norbert

    2013-12-01

    Integration of satellite SAR interferometry, terrestrial radar interferometry and GPS is considered for the monitoring of ground motion along Alpine transportation infrastructures. We present results related to large-scale surveys in Switzerland along the Gotthard railway with satellite SAR interferometry and to a local monitoring of an active rockfall above the Pyhrn motorway in Austria using terrestrial radar interferometry and GPS.

  10. The Component Model of Infrastructure: A Practical Approach to Understanding Public Health Program Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Kimberly; Rieker, Patricia P.

    2014-01-01

    Functioning program infrastructure is necessary for achieving public health outcomes. It is what supports program capacity, implementation, and sustainability. The public health program infrastructure model presented in this article is grounded in data from a broader evaluation of 18 state tobacco control programs and previous work. The newly developed Component Model of Infrastructure (CMI) addresses the limitations of a previous model and contains 5 core components (multilevel leadership, managed resources, engaged data, responsive plans and planning, networked partnerships) and 3 supporting components (strategic understanding, operations, contextual influences). The CMI is a practical, implementation-focused model applicable across public health programs, enabling linkages to capacity, sustainability, and outcome measurement. PMID:24922125

  11. The component model of infrastructure: a practical approach to understanding public health program infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Lavinghouze, S René; Snyder, Kimberly; Rieker, Patricia P

    2014-08-01

    Functioning program infrastructure is necessary for achieving public health outcomes. It is what supports program capacity, implementation, and sustainability. The public health program infrastructure model presented in this article is grounded in data from a broader evaluation of 18 state tobacco control programs and previous work. The newly developed Component Model of Infrastructure (CMI) addresses the limitations of a previous model and contains 5 core components (multilevel leadership, managed resources, engaged data, responsive plans and planning, networked partnerships) and 3 supporting components (strategic understanding, operations, contextual influences). The CMI is a practical, implementation-focused model applicable across public health programs, enabling linkages to capacity, sustainability, and outcome measurement.

  12. Supporting Infrastructure and Acceptability Issues Associated With Two New Generation Vehicles: P2000 and EXS2

    SciTech Connect

    Das, S

    2000-06-06

    As the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) has been proceeding with the development of designs for high-fuel-economy vehicles, it also has been assessing whether impediments exist to the transition to these vehicles. Toward that end, as materials options and vehicle designs have been developed, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been conducting analyses related to the attendant materials infrastructure requirements. This report addresses the question, what are the infrastructure requirements, acceptance issues, and life-cycle impacts associated with PNGV vehicles constructed of lightweight materials.

  13. ACRF data collection and processing infrastructure.

    SciTech Connect

    Macduff, M. C.; Eagan, R. C.; Decision and Information Sciences; Pacific Northwest National Lab.

    2005-01-01

    Designated a national user facility, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) provides a unique asset for the study of global climate change to the broader national and international research community. It has enormous potential to contribute to a wide range of interdisciplinary science in the areas of meteorology, atmospheric aerosols, hydrology, ecology, oceanography, satellite validation, and to provide potential monitoring sites where remote sensing and modeling related to homeland security can be validated. The primary goals for the ACRF are to (1) provide infrastructure to the scientific community for scientific research pertaining to global climate change and the goals of the ARM Program (Ackerman and Stokes 2003), (2) provide data and information to the scientific community for meeting those goals, and (3) provide education and outreach on the activities and scientific findings that result from ongoing research at the ACRF. The foundation of the ACRF infrastructure is based on the scientific infrastructure created for the ARM Program (DOE 1990). In support of the ARM Program, the ACRF operates three instrumented sites and a mobile facility to provide relevant atmospheric measurements to the ARM Program and to the global scientific community. The goal of the ACRF infrastructure is to deliver these measurement data reliably, quickly, and in a useful format to the scientific community. The basic focus of the infrastructure is to get the data generated by instruments in the field to a central distribution point. The remoteness of the sites and the diversity of the instruments add to the complexity of the solution. Network access to the sites was often limited and significantly impacted options for data flow and the architecture deployed at each location. Because of several iterations and significant work to establish Internet connections at each site, the ACRF has developed an efficient and

  14. Information Infrastructure, Information Environments, and Long-Term Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, K. S.; Pennington, D. D.

    2009-12-01

    Information infrastructure that supports collaborative science is a complex system of people, organizational arrangements, and tools that require co-management. Contemporary studies are exploring how to establish and characterize effective collaborative information environments. Collaboration depends on the flow of information across the human and technical system components through mechanisms that create linkages, both conceptual and technical. This transcends the need for requirements solicitation and usability studies, highlighting synergistic interactions between humans and technology that can lead to emergence of group level cognitive properties. We consider the ramifications of placing priority on establishing new metaphors and new types of learning environments located near-to-data-origin for the field sciences. In addition to changes in terms of participant engagement, there are implications in terms of innovative contributions to the design of information systems and data exchange. While data integration occurs in the minds of individual participants, it may be facilitated by collaborative thinking and community infrastructure. Existing learning frameworks - from Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to organizational learning - require modification and extension if effective approaches to decentralized information management and systems design are to emerge. Case studies relating to data integration include ecological community projects: development of cross-disciplinary conceptual maps and of a community unit registry.

  15. Architecture for Cognitive Networking within NASAs Future Space Communications Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Gilbert J., III; Eddy, Wesley M.; Johnson, Sandra K.; Barnes, James; Brooks, David

    2016-01-01

    Future space mission concepts and designs pose many networking challenges for command, telemetry, and science data applications with diverse end-to-end data delivery needs. For future end-to-end architecture designs, a key challenge is meeting expected application quality of service requirements for multiple simultaneous mission data flows with options to use diverse onboard local data buses, commercial ground networks, and multiple satellite relay constellations in LEO, MEO, GEO, or even deep space relay links. Effectively utilizing a complex network topology requires orchestration and direction that spans the many discrete, individually addressable computer systems, which cause them to act in concert to achieve the overall network goals. The system must be intelligent enough to not only function under nominal conditions, but also adapt to unexpected situations, and reorganize or adapt to perform roles not originally intended for the system or explicitly programmed. This paper describes architecture features of cognitive networking within the future NASA space communications infrastructure, and interacting with the legacy systems and infrastructure in the meantime. The paper begins by discussing the need for increased automation, including inter-system collaboration. This discussion motivates the features of an architecture including cognitive networking for future missions and relays, interoperating with both existing endpoint-based networking models and emerging information-centric models. From this basis, we discuss progress on a proof-of-concept implementation of this architecture as a cognitive networking on-orbit application on the SCaN Testbed attached to the International Space Station.

  16. Assuring the Performance of Buildings and Infrastructures: Report of Discussions

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, Regina L.

    1999-05-28

    How to ensure the appropriate performance of our built environment in the face of normal conditions, natural hazards, and malevolent threats is an issue of emerging national and international importance. As the world population increases, new construction must be increasingly cost effective and at the same time increasingly secure, safe, and durable. As the existing infrastructure ages, materials and techniques for retrofitting must be developed in parallel with improvements in design, engineering, and building codes for new construction. Both new and renovated structures are more often being subjected to the scrutiny of risk analysis. An international conference, "Assuring the Performance of Buildings and Infrastructures," was held in May 1997 to address some of these issues. The conference was co-sponsored by the Architectural Engineering Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), the American Institute of Architects, and Sandia National Laboratories and convened in Albuquerque, NM. Many of the papers presented at the conference are found within this issue of Techno20~. This paper presents some of the major conference themes and summarizes discussions not found in the other papers.

  17. MEDWISE: an innovative public health information system infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Celikkan, Ufuk

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we present MedWise, a high level design of a medical information infrastructure, and its architecture. The proposed system offers a comprehensive, modular, robust and extensible infrastructure to be used in public health care systems. The system gathers reliable and evidence based health data, which it then classifies, interprets and stores into a particular database. It creates a healthcare ecosystem that aids the medical community by providing for less error prone diagnoses and treatment of diseases. This system will be standards-compliant; therefore it would be complementary to the existing healthcare and clinical information systems. The key objective of the proposed system is to provide as much medical historical and miscellaneous data as possible about the patients with minimal consultation, thus allowing physicians to easily access Patients' Ancillary Data (PAD) such as hereditary, residential, travel, custom, meteorological, biographical and demographical data before the consultation. In addition, the system can help to diminish problems and misdiagnosis situations caused by language barriers-disorders and misinformation. MedWise can assist physicians to shorten time for diagnosis and consultations, therefore dramatically improving quality and quantity of the physical examinations of patients. Furthermore, since it intends to supply a significant amount of data, it may be used to improve skills of students in medical education.

  18. Infrastructure Task Force Sustainable Infrastructure Goals and Concepts Document - November 2011

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document outlines the concepts of appropriate infrastructure and sustainable management entities to guide the coordinated federal efforts to achieve greater sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.

  19. A service-based BLAST command tool supported by cloud infrastructures.

    PubMed

    Carrión, Abel; Blanquer, Ignacio; Hernández, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Notwithstanding the benefits of distributed-computing infrastructures for empowering bioinformatics analysis tools with the needed computing and storage capability, the actual use of these infrastructures is still low. Learning curves and deployment difficulties have reduced the impact on the wide research community. This article presents a porting strategy of BLAST based on a multiplatform client and a service that provides the same interface as sequential BLAST, thus reducing learning curve and with minimal impact on their integration on existing workflows. The porting has been done using the execution and data access components from the EC project Venus-C and the Windows Azure infrastructure provided in this project. The results obtained demonstrate a low overhead on the global execution framework and reasonable speed-up and cost-efficiency with respect to a sequential version.

  20. Co-integration Model of Logistics Infrastructure Investment and Regional Economic Growth in Central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Kai; Gan, Xiao-qing; Gao, Kuo

    The speed of logistics infrastructures investment in Central China is still lower than other regions since the rise of the central region strategy was put forward. And the ration of freight turnover was also being down. The analysis with the relations among the central region of the logistics investment, logistics value-added and GDP, found that three variables exists co-integration relation. And found that the investment in logistics infrastructure was the Granger reason of the GDP, the investment in logistics infrastructure and logistics value-added was the Granger reason for each other. According to the analysis, some countermeasures be put forward as following: accelerate the speed of logistics investment, optimize logistics environment, promote the logistics capability, reduce logistics cost, and so on.

  1. Designing a concept for an IT-infrastructure for an integrated research and treatment center.

    PubMed

    Stäubert, Sebastian; Winter, Alfred; Speer, Ronald; Löffler, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare and medical research in Germany are heading to more interconnected systems. New initiatives are funded by the German government to encourage the development of Integrated Research and Treatment Centers (IFB). Within an IFB new organizational structures and infrastructures for interdisciplinary, translational and trans-sectoral working relationship between existing rigid separated sectors are intended and needed. This paper describes how an IT-infrastructure of an IFB could look like, what major challenges have to be solved and what methods can be used to plan such a complex IT-infrastructure in the field of healthcare. By means of project management, system analyses, process models, 3LGM2-models and resource plans an appropriate concept with different views is created. This concept supports the information management in its enterprise architecture planning activities and implies a first step of implementing a connected healthcare and medical research platform.

  2. Clinical Trials Infrastructure as a Quality Improvement Intervention in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Denburg, Avram; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Joffe, Steven

    2016-06-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that participation in clinical trials confers neither advantage nor disadvantage on those enrolled. Narrow focus on the question of a "trial effect," however, distracts from a broader mechanism by which patients may benefit from ongoing clinical research. We hypothesize that the existence of clinical trials infrastructure-the organizational culture, systems, and expertise that develop as a product of sustained participation in cooperative clinical trials research-may function as a quality improvement lever, improving the quality of care and outcomes of all patients within an institution or region independent of their individual participation in trials. We further contend that this "infrastructure effect" can yield particular benefits for patients in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The hypothesis of an infrastructure effect as a quality improvement intervention, if correct, justifies enhanced research capacity in LMIC as a pillar of health system development.

  3. Utilizing Semantic Big Data for realizing a National-scale Infrastructure Vulnerability Analysis System

    SciTech Connect

    Chinthavali, Supriya; Shankar, Mallikarjun

    2016-01-01

    Critical Infrastructure systems(CIs) such as energy, water, transportation and communication are highly interconnected and mutually dependent in complex ways. Robust modeling of CIs interconnections is crucial to identify vulnerabilities in the CIs. We present here a national-scale Infrastructure Vulnerability Analysis System (IVAS) vision leveraging Se- mantic Big Data (SBD) tools, Big Data, and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) tools. We survey existing ap- proaches on vulnerability analysis of critical infrastructures and discuss relevant systems and tools aligned with our vi- sion. Next, we present a generic system architecture and discuss challenges including: (1) Constructing and manag- ing a CI network-of-networks graph, (2) Performing analytic operations at scale, and (3) Interactive visualization of ana- lytic output to generate meaningful insights. We argue that this architecture acts as a baseline to realize a national-scale network based vulnerability analysis system.

  4. A vision for collaborative training infrastructure for bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jason J; Teal, Tracy K

    2017-01-01

    In biology, a missing link connecting data generation and data-driven discovery is the training that prepares researchers to effectively manage and analyze data. National and international cyberinfrastructure along with evolving private sector resources place biologists and students within reach of the tools needed for data-intensive biology, but training is still required to make effective use of them. In this concept paper, we review a number of opportunities and challenges that can inform the creation of a national bioinformatics training infrastructure capable of servicing the large number of emerging and existing life scientists. While college curricula are slower to adapt, grassroots startup-spirited organizations, such as Software and Data Carpentry, have made impressive inroads in training on the best practices of software use, development, and data analysis. Given the transformative potential of biology and medicine as full-fledged data sciences, more support is needed to organize, amplify, and assess these efforts and their impacts.

  5. Network Randomization and Dynamic Defense for Critical Infrastructure Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Adrian R.; Martin, Mitchell Tyler; Hamlet, Jason; Stout, William M.S.; Lee, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Critical Infrastructure control systems continue to foster predictable communication paths, static configurations, and unpatched systems that allow easy access to our nation's most critical assets. This makes them attractive targets for cyber intrusion. We seek to address these attack vectors by automatically randomizing network settings, randomizing applications on the end devices themselves, and dynamically defending these systems against active attacks. Applying these protective measures will convert control systems into moving targets that proactively defend themselves against attack. Sandia National Laboratories has led this effort by gathering operational and technical requirements from Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and performing research and development to create a proof-of-concept solution. Our proof-of-concept has been tested in a laboratory environment with over 300 nodes. The vision of this project is to enhance control system security by converting existing control systems into moving targets and building these security measures into future systems while meeting the unique constraints that control systems face.

  6. 77 FR 35700 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Program Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... SECURITY Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Program Survey AGENCY: National Protection... by this survey serves this purpose. The survey data collected is for internal PCII Program, IICD, and... Information Program. Title: Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Program Survey. OMB...

  7. 76 FR 29775 - The Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... SECURITY The Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC) AGENCY: National Protection and... Security (DHS) announced the establishment of the Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Nancy J. Wong, Director, Partnership Programs and Information Sharing...

  8. 76 FR 20995 - Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC) AGENCY: National Protection and... Security (DHS) announced the establishment of the Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Nancy J. Wong, Director, Partnership Programs and Information Sharing...

  9. 77 FR 44641 - Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request AGENCY: National Protection and... comments concerning Reinstatement, with change, of a previously approved ICR for the Critical... sector partners who are responsible for critical infrastructure protection but would not otherwise...

  10. 75 FR 21011 - Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: Notice of the Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC) charter... government officials and representatives of the community of owners and operators for each of the...

  11. 77 FR 21989 - Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request AGENCY: National Protection and... information provided. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program (PSCP) sponsors clearances for private sector partners who are responsible for critical...

  12. 78 FR 76986 - Version 5 Critical Infrastructure Protection Reliability Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 40 Version 5 Critical Infrastructure Protection Reliability... proceeding, Version 5 Critical Infrastructure Protection Reliability Standards, 145 FERC ] 61,160...

  13. 77 FR 64818 - The Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... SECURITY The Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: Quarterly Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council membership update. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) announced the ] establishment of the...

  14. 77 FR 32655 - Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC) AGENCY: National Protection and... Security (DHS) announced the establishment of the Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council... Council (SLTTGCC). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Larry May, Designated Federal Officer,...

  15. Lick Run: Green Infrastructure in Cincinnati and Beyond

    EPA Science Inventory

    By capturing and redistributing rain water or runoff in plant-soil systems such as green roofs, rain gardens or swales, green infrastructure restores natural hydrologic cycles and reduces runoff from overburdened gray infrastructure. Targeted ecosystem restoration, contaminant fi...

  16. What is EPA Doing to Support Green Infrastructure?

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has released a series of policy memos encouraging the use of green infrastructure to meet regulatory requirements, as well as a series of Strategic Agendas describing the actions the Agency is taking to promote green infrastructure

  17. New Assistance for Low-Income Areas and Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeder, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    Changes in federal policy affecting rural development in economically distressed areas in 2001 include new markets initiatives, establishment of the (Mississippi River) Delta Regional Authority, and increased infrastructure funding. Infrastructure priorities include highway construction, airport improvements, public works grants, rural…

  18. Consideration of an applied model of public health program infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Lavinghouze, René; Snyder, Kimberly; Rieker, Patricia; Ottoson, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Systemic infrastructure is key to public health achievements. Individual public health program infrastructure feeds into this larger system. Although program infrastructure is rarely defined, it needs to be operationalized for effective implementation and evaluation. The Ecological Model of Infrastructure (EMI) is one approach to defining program infrastructure. The EMI consists of 5 core (Leadership, Partnerships, State Plans, Engaged Data, and Managed Resources) and 2 supporting (Strategic Understanding and Tactical Action) elements that are enveloped in a program's context. We conducted a literature search across public health programs to determine support for the EMI. Four of the core elements were consistently addressed, and the other EMI elements were intermittently addressed. The EMI provides an initial and partial model for understanding program infrastructure, but additional work is needed to identify evidence-based indicators of infrastructure elements that can be used to measure success and link infrastructure to public health outcomes, capacity, and sustainability.

  19. 78 FR 37648 - Space Transportation Infrastructure Matching (STIM) Grants Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Space Transportation Infrastructure Matching (STIM) Grants Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of non-availability of Space Transportation Infrastructure Matching Grants in FY 2013. SUMMARY: The Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST) will...

  20. 77 FR 14462 - Space Transportation Infrastructure Matching Grants Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Space Transportation Infrastructure Matching Grants Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of request for grant proposals for the Space... proposals to continue the development of a Commercial Space Transportation infrastructure system...

  1. European network infrastructures of observatories for terrestrial Global Change research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereecken, H.; Bogena, H.; Lehning, M.

    2009-04-01

    The earth's climate is significantly changing (e.g. IPCC, 2007) and thus directly affecting the terrestrial systems. The number and intensity hydrological extremes, such as floods and droughts, are continually increasing, resulting in major economical and social impacts. Furthermore, the land cover in Europe has been modified fundamentally by conversions for agriculture, forest and for other purposes such as industrialisation and urbanisation. Additionally, water resources are more than ever used for human development, especially as a key resource for agricultural and industrial activities. As a special case, the mountains of the world are of significant importance in terms of water resources supply, biodiversity, economy, agriculture, traffic and recreation but particularly vulnerable to environmental change. The Alps are unique because of the pronounced small scale variability they contain, the high population density they support and their central position in Europe. The Alps build a single coherent physical and natural environment, artificially cut by national borders. The scientific community and governmental bodies have responded to these environmental changes by performing dedicated experiments and by establishing environmental research networks to monitor, analyse and predict the impact of Global Change on different terrestrial systems of the Earths' environment. Several European network infrastructures for terrestrial Global Change research are presently immerging or upgrading, such as ICOS, ANAEE, LifeWatch or LTER-Europe. However, the strongest existing networks are still operating on a regional or national level and the historical growth of such networks resulted in a very heterogeneous landscape of observation networks. We propose therefore the establishment of two complementary networks: The NetwOrk of Hydrological observAtories, NOHA. NOHA aims to promote the sustainable management of water resources in Europe, to support the prediction of

  2. Building an intellectual infrastructure for space commerce

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Barbara A.; Struthers, Jeffrey L.

    1992-01-01

    Competition in commerce requires an 'intellectual infrastructure', that is, a work force with extensive scientific and technical knowledge and a thorough understanding of the business world. This paper focuses on the development of such intellectual infrastructure for space commerce. Special consideration is given to the contributions to this development by the 17 Centers for the Commercial Development of Space Program conducting commercially oriented research in eight specialized areas: automation and robotics, remote sensing, life sciences, materials processing in space, space power, space propulsion, space structures and materials, and advanced satellite communications. Attention is also given to the Space Business Development Center concept aimed at addressing a variety of barriers common to the development of space commerce.

  3. Near-Site Transportation Infrastructure Project

    SciTech Connect

    Viebrock, J.M.; Mote, N. )

    1992-02-01

    There are 122 commercial nuclear facilities from which spent nuclear fuel will be accepted by the Federal Waste Management System (FWMS). Since some facilities share common sites and some facilities are on adjacent sites, 76 sites were identified for the Near-Site Transportation Infrastructure (NSTI) project. The objective of the NSTI project was to identify the options available for transportation of spent-fuel casks from each of these commercial nuclear facility sites to the main transportation routes -- interstate highways, commercial rail lines and navigable waterways available for commercial use. The near-site transportation infrastructure from each site was assessed, based on observation of technical features identified during a survey of the routes and facilities plus data collected from referenced information sources. The potential for refurbishment of transportation facilities which are not currently operational was also assessed, as was the potential for establishing new transportation facilities.

  4. Engineering Information Infrastructure for Product Lifecycle Managment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Fumihiko

    For proper management of total product life cycle, it is fundamentally important to systematize design and engineering information about product systems. For example, maintenance operation could be more efficiently performed, if appropriate parts design information is available at the maintenance site. Such information shall be available as an information infrastructure for various kinds of engineering operations, and it should be easily accessible during the whole product life cycle, such as transportation, marketing, usage, repair/upgrade, take-back and recycling/disposal. Different from the traditional engineering database, life cycle support information has several characteristic requirements, such as flexible extensibility, distributed architecture, multiple viewpoints, long-time archiving, and product usage information, etc. Basic approaches for managing engineering information infrastructure are investigated, and various information contents and associated life cycle applications are discussed.

  5. Design and optimization of photovoltaics recycling infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun-Ki; Fthenakis, Vasilis

    2010-11-15

    With the growing production and installation of photovoltaics (PV) around the world constrained by the limited availability of resources, end-of-life management of PV is becoming very important. A few major PV manufacturers currently are operating several PV recycling technologies at the process level. The management of the total recycling infrastructure, including reverse-logistics planning, is being started in Europe. In this paper, we overview the current status of photovoltaics recycling planning and discuss our mathematic modeling of the economic feasibility and the environmental viability of several PV recycling infrastructure scenarios in Germany; our findings suggest the optimum locations of the anticipated PV take-back centers. Short-term 5-10 year planning for PV manufacturing scraps is the focus of this article. Although we discuss the German situation, we expect the generic model will be applicable to any region, such as the whole of Europe and the United States.

  6. Design and Optimization of Photovoltaics Recycling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, J.K.; Fthenakis, V.

    2010-10-01

    With the growing production and installation of photovoltaics (PV) around the world constrained by the limited availability of resources, end-of-life management of PV is becoming very important. A few major PV manufacturers currently are operating several PV recycling technologies at the process level. The management of the total recycling infrastructure, including reverse-logistics planning, is being started in Europe. In this paper, we overview the current status of photovoltaics recycling planning and discuss our mathematic modeling of the economic feasibility and the environmental viability of several PV recycling infrastructure scenarios in Germany; our findings suggest the optimum locations of the anticipated PV take-back centers. Short-term 5-10 year planning for PV manufacturing scraps is the focus of this article. Although we discuss the German situation, we expect the generic model will be applicable to any region, such as the whole of Europe and the United States.

  7. CU-ICAR Hydrogen Infrastructure Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Leitner; David Bodde; Dennis Wiese; John Skardon; Bethany Carter

    2011-09-28

    The goal of this project was to establish an innovation center to accelerate the transition to a 'hydrogen economy' an infrastructure of vehicles, fuel resources, and maintenance capabilities based on hydrogen as the primary energy carrier. The specific objectives of the proposed project were to: (a) define the essential attributes of the innovation center; (b) validate the concept with potential partners; (c) create an implementation plan; and (d) establish a pilot center and demonstrate its benefits via a series of small scale projects.

  8. Healthcare Information Technology Infrastructures in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yuksel, M.; Ertürkmen, G. L.; Kabak, Y.; Namli, T.; Yıldız, M. H.; Ay, Y.; Ceyhan, B.; Hülür, Ü.; Öztürk, H.; Atbakan, E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives The objective of this paper is to describe some of the major healthcare information technology (IT) infrastructures in Turkey, namely, Sağlık-Net (Turkish for “Health-Net”), the Centralized Hospital Appointment System, the Basic Health Statistics Module, the Core Resources Management System, and the e-prescription system of the Social Security Institution. International collaboration projects that are integrated with Sağlık-Net are also briefly summarized. Methods The authors provide a survey of the some of the major healthcare IT infrastructures in Turkey. Results Sağlık-Net has two main components: the National Health Information System (NHIS) and the Family Medicine Information System (FMIS). The NHIS is a nation-wide infrastructure for sharing patients’ Electronic Health Records (EHRs). So far, EHRs of 78.9 million people have been created in the NHIS. Similarly, family medicine is operational in the whole country via FMIS. Centralized Hospital Appointment System enables the citizens to easily make appointments in healthcare providers. Basic Health Statistics Module is used for collecting information about the health status, risks and indicators across the country. Core Resources Management System speeds up the flow of information between the headquarters and Provincial Health Directorates. The e-prescription system is linked with Sağlık-Net and seamlessly integrated with the healthcare provider information systems. Finally, Turkey is involved in several international projects for experience sharing and disseminating national developments. Conclusion With the introduction of the “Health Transformation Program” in 2003, a number of successful healthcare IT infrastructures have been developed in Turkey. Currently, work is going on to enhance and further improve their functionality. PMID:24853036

  9. Innovations in Nuclear Infrastructure and Education

    SciTech Connect

    Gutteridge, John

    2002-09-30

    This PowerPoint presentation was given at the Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee meeting held in Crystal City, VA, 30 Sept - 1 Oct 2002. The talk addresses activities in the area of Innovations in Nuclear Infrastructure and Education (INIE) meant to counter declines in the nuclear workforce and prepare for the future in the nuclear industry. Three INIE programs are described: The Western Nuclear Science Alliance, the Big-10 Consortium, and Southwest Consortium.

  10. High Speed Internet Access Using Cellular Infrastructure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    Telecommunications, [http://www.cept.org/], April 2004. Dawkins, S., Montenegro, G ., Kojo, M., and Magret, V., RFC 3150, End to End Performance ...Internet Access Using Cellular Infrastructure 6. AUTHOR(S) Ioannis Chatziioannidis 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND

  11. Creating an open environment software infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jipping, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    As the development of complex computer hardware accelerates at increasing rates, the ability of software to keep pace is essential. The development of software design tools, however, is falling behind the development of hardware for several reasons, the most prominent of which is the lack of a software infrastructure to provide an integrated environment for all parts of a software system. The research was undertaken to provide a basis for answering this problem by investigating the requirements of open environments.

  12. Decline in Radiation Hardened Microcircuit Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    Two areas of radiation hardened microcircuit infrastructure will be discussed: 1) The availability and performance of radiation hardened microcircuits, and, and 2) The access to radiation test facilities primarily for proton single event effects (SEE) testing. Other areas not discussed, but are a concern include: The challenge for maintaining radiation effects tool access for assurance purposes, and, the access to radiation test facilities primarily for heavy ion single event effects (SEE) testing. Status and implications will be discussed for each area.

  13. Space Transportation Infrastructure Supported By Propellant Depots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David; Woodcock, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    A space transportation infrastructure is described that utilizes propellant depot servicing platforms to support all foreseeable missions in the Earth-Moon vicinity and deep space out to Mars. The infrastructure utilizes current expendable launch vehicle (ELV) systems such as the Delta IV Heavy, Atlas V, and Falcon 9, for all crew, cargo, and propellant launches to orbit. Propellant launches are made to Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Depot and an Earth-Moon Lagrange Point 1 (L1) Depot to support a new reusable in-space transportation vehicles. The LEO Depot supports missions to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) for satellite servicing and to L1 for L1 Depot missions. The L1 Depot supports Lunar, Earth-Sun L2 (ESL2), Asteroid and Mars Missions. New vehicle design concepts are presented that can be launched on current 5 meter diameter ELV systems. These new reusable vehicle concepts include a Crew Transfer Vehicle (CTV) for crew transportation between the LEO Depot, L1 Depot and missions beyond L1; a new reusable lunar lander for crew transportation between the L1 Depot and the lunar surface; and Mars orbital Depot are based on International Space Station (ISS) heritage hardware. Data provided includes the number of launches required for each mission utilizing current ELV systems (Delta IV Heavy or equivalent) and the approximate vehicle masses and propellant requirements. Also included is a discussion on affordability with ideas on technologies that could reduce the number of launches required and thoughts on how this infrastructure include competitive bidding for ELV flights and propellant services, developments of new reusable in-space vehicles and development of a multiuse infrastructure that can support many government and commercial missions simultaneously.

  14. Human initiated cascading failures in societal infrastructures.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Chris; Channakeshava, Karthik; Huang, Fei; Kim, Junwhan; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav V; Pei, Guanhong; Saha, Sudip; Subbiah, Balaaji S P; Vullikanti, Anil Kumar S

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we conduct a systematic study of human-initiated cascading failures in three critical inter-dependent societal infrastructures due to behavioral adaptations in response to a crisis. We focus on three closely coupled socio-technical networks here: (i) cellular and mesh networks, (ii) transportation networks and (iii) mobile call networks. In crises, changes in individual behaviors lead to altered travel, activity and calling patterns, which influence the transport network and the loads on wireless networks. The interaction between these systems and their co-evolution poses significant technical challenges for representing and reasoning about these systems. In contrast to system dynamics models for studying these interacting infrastructures, we develop interaction-based models in which individuals and infrastructure elements are represented in detail and are placed in a common geographic coordinate system. Using the detailed representation, we study the impact of a chemical plume that has been released in a densely populated urban region. Authorities order evacuation of the affected area, and this leads to individual behavioral adaptation wherein individuals drop their scheduled activities and drive to home or pre-specified evacuation shelters as appropriate. They also revise their calling behavior to communicate and coordinate among family members. These two behavioral adaptations cause flash-congestion in the urban transport network and the wireless network. The problem is exacerbated with a few, already occurring, road closures. We analyze how extended periods of unanticipated road congestion can result in failure of infrastructures, starting with the servicing base stations in the congested area. A sensitivity analysis on the compliance rate of evacuees shows non-intuitive effect on the spatial distribution of people and on the loading of the base stations. For example, an evacuation compliance rate of 70% results in higher number of overloaded

  15. Human Initiated Cascading Failures in Societal Infrastructures

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Chris; Channakeshava, Karthik; Huang, Fei; Kim, Junwhan; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav V.; Pei, Guanhong; Saha, Sudip; Subbiah, Balaaji S. P.; Vullikanti, Anil Kumar S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we conduct a systematic study of human-initiated cascading failures in three critical inter-dependent societal infrastructures due to behavioral adaptations in response to a crisis. We focus on three closely coupled socio-technical networks here: (i) cellular and mesh networks, (ii) transportation networks and (iii) mobile call networks. In crises, changes in individual behaviors lead to altered travel, activity and calling patterns, which influence the transport network and the loads on wireless networks. The interaction between these systems and their co-evolution poses significant technical challenges for representing and reasoning about these systems. In contrast to system dynamics models for studying these interacting infrastructures, we develop interaction-based models in which individuals and infrastructure elements are represented in detail and are placed in a common geographic coordinate system. Using the detailed representation, we study the impact of a chemical plume that has been released in a densely populated urban region. Authorities order evacuation of the affected area, and this leads to individual behavioral adaptation wherein individuals drop their scheduled activities and drive to home or pre-specified evacuation shelters as appropriate. They also revise their calling behavior to communicate and coordinate among family members. These two behavioral adaptations cause flash-congestion in the urban transport network and the wireless network. The problem is exacerbated with a few, already occurring, road closures. We analyze how extended periods of unanticipated road congestion can result in failure of infrastructures, starting with the servicing base stations in the congested area. A sensitivity analysis on the compliance rate of evacuees shows non-intuitive effect on the spatial distribution of people and on the loading of the base stations. For example, an evacuation compliance rate of 70% results in higher number of overloaded

  16. Thermal Spray Coatings for Coastal Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, BernardS. Jr.; Cramer, S.D.; Bullard, S.J.

    1997-11-01

    Several protection strategies for coastal infrastructure using thermal-spray technology are presented from research at the Albany Research Center. Thermal-sprayed zinc coatings for anodes in impressed current cathodic protection systems are used to extend the service lives of reinforced concrete bridges along the Oregon coast. Thermal-sprayed Ti is examined as an alternative to the consumable zinc anode. Sealed thermal-sprayed Al is examined as an alternative coating to zinc dust filled polyurethane paint for steel structures.

  17. Putting the Critical Back in Critical Infrastructure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    anonymous online survey to capture the perceptions and views of critical infrastructure professionals across the nation. The survey included an evaluation...on the perceptions and views of the business process, program maturity and implementation, as well as the current state of outcomes. This thesis...foundational nature of this work. A formative program evaluation was conducted through an anonymous online survey to capture the perceptions and views of

  18. Green Infrastructure, Groundwater and the Sustainable City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Band, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    The management of water is among the most important attributes of urbanization. Provision of sufficient quantities and quality of freshwater, treatment and disposal of wastewater and flood protection are critical for urban sustainability. Over the last century, two major shifts in water management paradigms have occurred, the first to improve public health with the provision of infrastructure for centralized sanitary effluent collection and treatment, and the rapid drainage and routing of stormwater. A current shift in paradigm is now occurring in response to the unintended consequences of sanitary and stormwater management, which have degraded downstream water bodies and shifted flood hazard downstream. Current infrastructure is being designed and implemented to retain, rather than rapidly drain, stormwater, with a focus on infiltration based methods. In urban areas, this amounts to a shift in hydrologic behavior to depression focused recharge. While stormwater is defined as surface flow resulting from developed areas, an integrated hydrologic systems approach to urban water management requires treatment of the full critical zone. In urban areas this extends from the top of the vegetation and building canopy, to a subsurface depth including natural soils, fill, saprolite and bedrock. In addition to matric and network flow in fracture systems, an urban "karst" includes multiple generations of current and past infrastructure, which has developed extensive subsurface pipe networks for supply and drainage, enhancing surface/groundwater flows and exchange. In this presentation, Band will discuss the need to focus on the urban critical zone, and the development and adaptation of new modeling and analytical approaches to understand and plan green infrastructure based on surface/groundwater/ecosystem interactions, and implications for the restoration and new design of cities.

  19. Shaw Air Force Base Infrastructure Project Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    environmental impact statement (E ) is n warranted. DATE This page is intentionally blank. Final Shaw Air Force Base Infrastructure...AFB viii This page is intentionally blank. Purpose and Need EA for Infrastructure at Shaw AFB 1-1 Shaw AFB Infrastructure EA Chapter 1.0... intentionally blank. Description of the Proposed Action and Alternatives EA for Infrastructure at Shaw AFB 2-1 2.0 DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED

  20. NGNP Infrastructure Readiness Assessment: Consolidation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Brian K Castle

    2011-02-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project supports the development, demonstration, and deployment of high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). The NGNP project is being reviewed by the Nuclear Energy Advisory Council (NEAC) to provide input to the DOE, who will make a recommendation to the Secretary of Energy, whether or not to continue with Phase 2 of the NGNP project. The NEAC review will be based on, in part, the infrastructure readiness assessment, which is an assessment of industry's current ability to provide specified components for the FOAK NGNP, meet quality assurance requirements, transport components, have the necessary workforce in place, and have the necessary construction capabilities. AREVA and Westinghouse were contracted to perform independent assessments of industry's capabilities because of their experience with nuclear supply chains, which is a result of their experiences with the EPR and AP-1000 reactors. Both vendors produced infrastructure readiness assessment reports that identified key components and categorized these components into three groups based on their ability to be deployed in the FOAK plant. The NGNP project has several programs that are developing key components and capabilities. For these components, the NGNP project have provided input to properly assess the infrastructure readiness for these components.

  1. Airborne EM for mine infrastructure planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijns, Chris

    2016-08-01

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys with near-surface vertical resolution provide rapid and comprehensive coverage of a mine site ahead of infrastructure planning. In environments of sufficient electrical conductivity contrast, the data will map variations in the depth to bedrock, providing guidance for expected excavation depths for solid building foundations, or mine pre-strip volumes. Continuous coverage overcomes the severe areal limitation of relying only on drilling and test pits. An AEM survey in northern Finland illustrates the success of this approach for guiding the placement of a mine crusher and related infrastructure. The cost of the EM data collection and interpretation is insignificant in comparison to the US$300 million capital cost of the mine infrastructure. This environment of shallow glacial cover challenges the limits of AEM resolution, yet analysis of subsequently collected three-dimensional (3D) surface seismic data and actual pre-strip excavation depths reinforces the predictive, but qualitative, mapping capability of the AEM. It also highlights the need to tune the modelling via petrophysics for the specific goal of the investigation, and exposes the limitations of visual drill core logging.

  2. Methane Gas Emissions - is Older Infrastructure Leakier?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, L. P.; Caulton, D.; Zondlo, M. A.; Lane, H.; Lu, J.; Golston, L.; Pan, D.

    2015-12-01

    Large gains in natural gas production from hydraulic fracturing is reinvigorating the US energy economy. It is a clean burning fuel with lower emissions than that of coal or oil. Studies show that methane (CH4) leaks from natural gas infrastructure vary widely. A broader question is whether leak rates of methane might offset the benefits of combustion of natural gas. Excess methane (CH4) is a major greenhouse gas with a radiative forcing constant of 25 times that of CO2 when projected over a 100-year period. An extensive field study of 250 wells in the Marcellus Shale conducted in July 2015 examined the emission rates of this region and identifed super-emitters. Spud production data will provide information as to whether older infrastructure is responsible for more of the emissions. Quantifying the emission rate was determined by extrapolating methane releases at a distance from private well pads using an inverse Gaussian plume model. Wells studied were selected by prevailing winds, distance from public roads, and topographical information using commercial (ARCGIS and Google Earth), non-profit (drillinginfo), and government (State of PA) databases. Data were collected from the mobile sensing lab (CH4, CO2 and H2O sensors), as well as from a stationary tower. Emission rates from well pads will be compared to their original production (spud dates) to evaluate whether infrastructure age and total production correlates with the observed leak rates. Very preliminary results show no statistical correlation between well pad production rates and observed leak rates.

  3. Data Updating Methods for Spatial Data Infrastructure that Maintain Infrastructure Quality and Enable its Sustainable Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, S.; Takemoto, T.; Ito, Y.

    2012-07-01

    The Japanese government, local governments and businesses are working closely together to establish spatial data infrastructures in accordance with the Basic Act on the Advancement of Utilizing Geospatial Information (NSDI Act established in August 2007). Spatial data infrastructures are urgently required not only to accelerate computerization of the public administration, but also to help restoration and reconstruction of the areas struck by the East Japan Great Earthquake and future disaster prevention and reduction. For construction of a spatial data infrastructure, various guidelines have been formulated. But after an infrastructure is constructed, there is a problem of maintaining it. In one case, an organization updates its spatial data only once every several years because of budget problems. Departments and sections update the data on their own without careful consideration. That upsets the quality control of the entire data system and the system loses integrity, which is crucial to a spatial data infrastructure. To ensure quality, ideally, it is desirable to update data of the entire area every year. But, that is virtually impossible, considering the recent budget crunch. The method we suggest is to update spatial data items of higher importance only in order to maintain quality, not updating all the items across the board. We have explored a method of partially updating the data of these two geographical features while ensuring the accuracy of locations. Using this method, data on roads and buildings that greatly change with time can be updated almost in real time or at least within a year. The method will help increase the availability of a spatial data infrastructure. We have conducted an experiment on the spatial data infrastructure of a municipality using those data. As a result, we have found that it is possible to update data of both features almost in real time.

  4. Commonwealth Infrastructure Funding for Australian Universities: 2004 to 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koshy, Paul; Phillimore, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent trends in the provision of general infrastructure funding by the Commonwealth for Australian universities (Table A providers) over the period 2004 to 2011. It specifically examines general infrastructure development and excludes funding for research infrastructure through the Australian Research Council or…

  5. 76 FR 17935 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Stakeholder Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... SECURITY Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National... the Critical Infrastructure Information Act of 2002, (Sections 211-215, Title II, Subtitle B of the... owners and operators of critical infrastructure and protected systems. The PCII Program is implemented...

  6. Geographically Based Hydrogen Consumer Demand and Infrastructure Analysis: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Melendez, M.; Milbrandt, A.

    2006-10-01

    In FY 2004 and 2005, NREL developed a proposed minimal infrastructure to support nationwide deployment of hydrogen vehicles by offering infrastructure scenarios that facilitated interstate travel. This report identifies key metropolitan areas and regions on which to focus infrastructure efforts during the early hydrogen transition.

  7. 78 FR 66603 - Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... November 5, 2013 Part III The President Proclamation 9047--Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience... Infrastructure Security and Resilience Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A... Infrastructure Security and Resilience Month, we resolve to remain vigilant against foreign and domestic...

  8. EPA Research Highlights: EPA Studies Aging Water Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nation's extensive water infrastructure has the capacity to treat, store, and transport trillions of gallons of water and wastewater per day through millions of miles of pipelines. However, some infrastructure components are more than 100 years old, and as the infrastructure ...

  9. 50 CFR 86.13 - What is boating infrastructure?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM BOATING INFRASTRUCTURE GRANT (BIG) PROGRAM General Information About the Grant Program § 86.13 What is boating infrastructure? Boating... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is boating infrastructure?...

  10. IT Infrastructure Projects: A Framework for Analysis. ECAR Research Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grochow, Jerrold M.

    2014-01-01

    Just as maintaining a healthy infrastructure of water delivery and roads is essential to the functioning of cities and towns, maintaining a healthy infrastructure of information technology is essential to the functioning of universities. Deterioration in IT infrastructure can lead to deterioration in research, teaching, and administration. Given…

  11. The Information Technology Infrastructure for the Translational Genomics Core and the Partners Biobank at Partners Personalized Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Boutin, Natalie; Holzbach, Ana; Mahanta, Lisa; Aldama, Jackie; Cerretani, Xander; Embree, Kevin; Leon, Irene; Rathi, Neeta; Vickers, Matilde

    2016-01-01

    The Biobank and Translational Genomics core at Partners Personalized Medicine requires robust software and hardware. This Information Technology (IT) infrastructure enables the storage and transfer of large amounts of data, drives efficiencies in the laboratory, maintains data integrity from the time of consent to the time that genomic data is distributed for research, and enables the management of complex genetic data. Here, we describe the functional components of the research IT infrastructure at Partners Personalized Medicine and how they integrate with existing clinical and research systems, review some of the ways in which this IT infrastructure maintains data integrity and security, and discuss some of the challenges inherent to building and maintaining such infrastructure. PMID:26805892

  12. The Information Technology Infrastructure for the Translational Genomics Core and the Partners Biobank at Partners Personalized Medicine.

    PubMed

    Boutin, Natalie; Holzbach, Ana; Mahanta, Lisa; Aldama, Jackie; Cerretani, Xander; Embree, Kevin; Leon, Irene; Rathi, Neeta; Vickers, Matilde

    2016-01-21

    The Biobank and Translational Genomics core at Partners Personalized Medicine requires robust software and hardware. This Information Technology (IT) infrastructure enables the storage and transfer of large amounts of data, drives efficiencies in the laboratory, maintains data integrity from the time of consent to the time that genomic data is distributed for research, and enables the management of complex genetic data. Here, we describe the functional components of the research IT infrastructure at Partners Personalized Medicine and how they integrate with existing clinical and research systems, review some of the ways in which this IT infrastructure maintains data integrity and security, and discuss some of the challenges inherent to building and maintaining such infrastructure.

  13. Development of a public health nursing data infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Monsen, Karen A; Bekemeier, Betty; P Newhouse, Robin; Scutchfield, F Douglas

    2012-01-01

    An invited group of national public health nursing (PHN) scholars, practitioners, policymakers, and other stakeholders met in October 2010 identifying a critical need for a national PHN data infrastructure to support PHN research. This article summarizes the strengths, limitations, and gaps specific to PHN data and proposes a research agenda for development of a PHN data infrastructure. Future implications are suggested, such as issues related to the development of the proposed PHN data infrastructure and future research possibilities enabled by the infrastructure. Such a data infrastructure has potential to improve accountability and measurement, to demonstrate the value of PHN services, and to improve population health.

  14. Explorations Around "Graceful Failure" in Transportation Infrastructure: Lessons Learned By the Infrastructure and Climate Network (ICNet)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, J. M.; Thomas, N.; Mo, W.; Kirshen, P. H.; Douglas, E. M.; Daniel, J.; Bell, E.; Friess, L.; Mallick, R.; Kartez, J.; Hayhoe, K.; Croope, S.

    2014-12-01

    Recent events have demonstrated that the United States' transportation infrastructure is highly vulnerable to extreme weather events which will likely increase in the future. In light of the 60% shortfall of the $900 billion investment needed over the next five years to maintain this aging infrastructure, hardening of all infrastructures is unlikely. Alternative strategies are needed to ensure that critical aspects of the transportation network are maintained during climate extremes. Preliminary concepts around multi-tier service expectations of bridges and roads with reference to network capacity will be presented. Drawing from recent flooding events across the U.S., specific examples for roads/pavement will be used to illustrate impacts, disruptions, and trade-offs between performance during events and subsequent damage. This talk will also address policy and cultural norms within the civil engineering practice that will likely challenge the application of graceful failure pathways during extreme events.

  15. Building a Cloud Infrastructure for a Virtual Environmental Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-khatib, Y.; Blair, G. S.; Gemmell, A. L.; Gurney, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    Environmental science is often fragmented: data is collected by different organizations using mismatched formats and conventions, and models are misaligned and run in isolation. Cloud computing offers a lot of potential in the way of resolving such issues by supporting data from different sources and at various scales, and integrating models to create more sophisticated and collaborative software services. The Environmental Virtual Observatory pilot (EVOp) project, funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council, aims to demonstrate how cloud computing principles and technologies can be harnessed to develop more effective solutions to pressing environmental issues. The EVOp infrastructure is a tailored one constructed from resources in both private clouds (owned and managed by us) and public clouds (leased from third party providers). All system assets are accessible via a uniform web service interface in order to enable versatile and transparent resource management, and to support fundamental infrastructure properties such as reliability and elasticity. The abstraction that this 'everything as a service' principle brings also supports mashups, i.e. combining different web services (such as models) and data resources of different origins (in situ gauging stations, warehoused data stores, external sources, etc.). We adopt the RESTful style of web services in order to draw a clear line between client and server (i.e. cloud host) and also to keep the server completely stateless. This significantly improves the scalability of the infrastructure and enables easy infrastructure management. For instance, tasks such as load balancing and failure recovery are greatly simplified without the need for techniques such as advance resource reservation or shared block devices. Upon this infrastructure, we developed a web portal composed of a bespoke collection of web-based visualization tools to help bring out relationships or patterns within the data. The portal was

  16. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Scott Staley

    2010-03-31

    This program was undertaken in response to the US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-PS30-03GO93010, resulting in this Cooperative Agreement with the Ford Motor Company and BP to demonstrate and evaluate hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and required fueling infrastructure. Ford initially placed 18 hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCV) in three geographic regions of the US (Sacramento, CA; Orlando, FL; and southeast Michigan). Subsequently, 8 advanced technology vehicles were developed and evaluated by the Ford engineering team in Michigan. BP is Ford's principal partner and co-applicant on this project and provided the hydrogen infrastructure to support the fuel cell vehicles. BP ultimately provided three new fueling stations. The Ford-BP program consists of two overlapping phases. The deliverables of this project, combined with those of other industry consortia, are to be used to provide critical input to hydrogen economy commercialization decisions by 2015. The program's goal is to support industry efforts of the US President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative in developing a path to a hydrogen economy. This program was designed to seek complete systems solutions to address hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle development, and possible synergies between hydrogen fuel electricity generation and transportation applications. This project, in support of that national goal, was designed to gain real world experience with Hydrogen powered Fuel Cell Vehicles (H2FCV) 'on the road' used in everyday activities, and further, to begin the development of the required supporting H2 infrastructure. Implementation of a new hydrogen vehicle technology is, as expected, complex because of the need for parallel introduction of a viable, available fuel delivery system and sufficient numbers of vehicles to buy fuel to justify expansion of the fueling infrastructure. Viability of the fuel structure means widespread, affordable hydrogen which can return a reasonable profit to the fuel provider, while

  17. Vulnerability of critical infrastructures : identifying critical nodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Roger Gary; Robinson, David Gerald

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this research was the development of tools and techniques for the identification of critical nodes within critical infrastructures. These are nodes that, if disrupted through natural events or terrorist action, would cause the most widespread, immediate damage. This research focuses on one particular element of the national infrastructure: the bulk power system. Through the identification of critical elements and the quantification of the consequences of their failure, site-specific vulnerability analyses can be focused at those locations where additional security measures could be effectively implemented. In particular, with appropriate sizing and placement within the grid, distributed generation in the form of regional power parks may reduce or even prevent the impact of widespread network power outages. Even without additional security measures, increased awareness of sensitive power grid locations can provide a basis for more effective national, state and local emergency planning. A number of methods for identifying critical nodes were investigated: small-world (or network theory), polyhedral dynamics, and an artificial intelligence-based search method - particle swarm optimization. PSO was found to be the only viable approach and was applied to a variety of industry accepted test networks to validate the ability of the approach to identify sets of critical nodes. The approach was coded in a software package called Buzzard and integrated with a traditional power flow code. A number of industry accepted test networks were employed to validate the approach. The techniques (and software) are not unique to power grid network, but could be applied to a variety of complex, interacting infrastructures.

  18. Sensing Models and Sensor Network Architectures for Transport Infrastructure Monitoring in Smart Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonis, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    Transport infrastructure monitoring and analysis is one of the focus areas in the context of smart cities. With the growing number of people moving into densely populated urban metro areas, precise tracking of moving people and goods is the basis for profound decision-making and future planning. With the goal of defining optimal extensions and modifications to existing transport infrastructures, multi-modal transport has to be monitored and analysed. This process is performed on the basis of sensor networks that combine a variety of sensor models, types, and deployments within the area of interest. Multi-generation networks, consisting of a number of sensor types and versions, are causing further challenges for the integration and processing of sensor observations. These challenges are not getting any smaller with the development of the Internet of Things, which brings promising opportunities, but is currently stuck in a type of protocol war between big industry players from both the hardware and network infrastructure domain. In this paper, we will highlight how the OGC suite of standards, with the Sensor Web standards developed by the Sensor Web Enablement Initiative together with the latest developments by the Sensor Web for Internet of Things community can be applied to the monitoring and improvement of transport infrastructures. Sensor Web standards have been applied in the past to pure technical domains, but need to be broadened now in order to meet new challenges. Only cross domain approaches will allow to develop satisfying transport infrastructure approaches that take into account requirements coming form a variety of sectors such as tourism, administration, transport industry, emergency services, or private people. The goal is the development of interoperable components that can be easily integrated within data infrastructures and follow well defined information models to allow robust processing.

  19. Perspectives in understanding open access to research data - infrastructure and technology challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigagli, Lorenzo; Sondervan, Jeroen

    2014-05-01

    The Policy RECommendations for Open Access to Research Data in Europe (RECODE) project, started in February 2013 with a duration of two years, has the objective to identify a series of targeted and over-arching policy recommendations for Open Access to European research data, based on existing good practice and addressing such hindering factors as stakeholder fragmentation, technical and infrastructural issues, ethical and legal issues, and financial and institutional policies. In this work we focus on the technical and infrastructural aspect, where by "infrastructure" we mean the technological assets (hardware and software), the human resources, and all the policies, processes, procedures and training for managing and supporting its continuous operation and evolution. The context targeted by RECODE includes heterogeneous networks, initiatives, projects and communities that are fragmented by discipline, geography, stakeholder category (publishers, academics, repositories, etc.) as well as other boundaries. Many of these organizations are already addressing key technical and infrastructural barriers to Open Access to research data. Such barriers may include: lack of automatic mechanisms for policy enforcement, lack of metadata and data models supporting open access, obsolescence of infrastructures, scarce awareness about new technological solutions, lack of training and/or expertise on IT and semantics aspects. However, these organizations are often heterogeneous and fragmented by discipline, geography, stakeholder category (publishers, academics, repositories, etc.) as well as other boundaries, and often work in isolation, or with limited contact with one another. RECODE has addressed these challenges, and the possible solutions to mitigate them, engaging all the identified stakeholders in a number of ways, including an online questionnaire, case studies interviews, literature review, a workshop. The conclusions have been validated by the RECODE Advisory Board and

  20. Computational infrastructure for law enforcement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lades, M.; Kunz, C.; Strikos, I.

    1997-02-01

    This project planned to demonstrate the leverage of enhanced computational infrastructure for law enforcement by demonstrating the face recognition capability at LLNL. The project implemented a face finder module extending the segmentation capabilities of the current face recognition so it was capable of processing different image formats and sizes and create the pilot of a network-accessible image database for the demonstration of face recognition capabilities. The project was funded at $40k (2 man-months) for a feasibility study. It investigated several essential components of a networked face recognition system which could help identify, apprehend, and convict criminals.

  1. FACETS -- Infrastructure for Integrated Fusion Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shasharina, Svetlana; Cary, John; Carlsson, Johan; Hakim, Ammar; Kruger, Scott; Miah, Mahmood; Pletzer, Alexander; Vadlamani, Srinath; Wade-Stein, David; Balay, Satish; McInnes, Lois; Zhang, Hong; Candy, Jeff; Fahey, Mark; Cohen, Ron; Epperly, Tom; Rognlien, Tom; Estep, Don; Pankin, Alexei; Malony, Allen; Morris, Alan; Shende, Sameer; Indireshkumar, Keshavamurthy; McCune, Douglas; Pigarov, Alexander

    2009-11-01

    It is desirable that an infrastructure for integrated fusion modeling has support for: legacy and new components used interchangeably; consistent management of components lifecycle; allocating parallel resources consistent with the nature of participating components and the problem scope; components written in multiple programming languages; composition of sequentially and concurrently executing components respecting dependencies; tight and loose coupling of components; testing and validation of separate and integrated components; and use of multiple platforms from desktops to LCFs. In this poster we will describe the status of the FACETS with respect to these features.

  2. Multi-Hazard Sustainability: Towards Infrastructure Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, T.

    2015-12-01

    Natural and anthropogenic hazards pose significant challenges to civil infrastructure. This presents opportunities in investigating site-specific hazards in structural engineering to aid mitigation and adaptation efforts. This presentation will highlight: (a) recent advances in hazard-consistent ground motion selection methodology for nonlinear dynamic analyses, (b) ongoing efforts in validation of earthquake simulations and their effects on tall buildings, and (c) a pilot study on probabilistic sea-level rise hazard analysis incorporating aleatory and epistemic uncertainties. High performance computing and visualization further facilitate research and outreach to improve resilience under multiple hazards in the face of climate change.

  3. Distributed telemedicine for the National Information Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Forslund, D.W.; Lee, Seong H.; Reverbel, F.C.

    1997-08-01

    TeleMed is an advanced system that provides a distributed multimedia electronic medical record available over a wide area network. It uses object-based computing, distributed data repositories, advanced graphical user interfaces, and visualization tools along with innovative concept extraction of image information for storing and accessing medical records developed in a separate project from 1994-5. In 1996, we began the transition to Java, extended the infrastructure, and worked to begin deploying TeleMed-like technologies throughout the nation. Other applications are mentioned.

  4. Critical Energy Infrastructure Protection in Canada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    que le gouvernement attache beaucoup d’importance à la protection des infrastructures énergétiques essentielles. Neuf ans après les attaques du 11...pour la défense Canada – CARO; Décembre 2010. Différents gouvernements ont prétendu que la gestion des urgences et la protection des...nouvelles menaces globales ont émergé et ainsi persuadé le gouvernement du Canada (GC) qu’une approche plus intégrée en matière de sécurité était

  5. Overcoming semantic heterogeneity in spatial data infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, M.; Sprado, J.; Klien, E.; Schubert, C.; Christ, I.

    2009-04-01

    In current spatial data infrastructures (SDIs), it is still often difficult to effectively exchange or re-use geographic data sets. A main reason for this is semantic heterogeneity, which occurs at different levels: at the metadata, the schema and the data content level. It is the goal of the work presented in this paper to overcome the problems caused by semantic heterogeneity on all three levels. We present a method based on ontologies and logical reasoning, which enhances the discovery, retrieval, interpretation and integration of geographic data in SDIs. Its benefits and practical use are illustrated with examples from the domains of geology and hydrology.

  6. Nevada Infrastructure for Climate Change Science, Education, and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dana, G. L.; Lancaster, N.; Mensing, S. A.; Piechota, T.

    2008-12-01

    Great Basin Ranges, one anticipated on a mountain range in southern Nevada and the second to be located in north-central Nevada. Climatic, hydrologic and ecological data from these transects will be downloaded into high capacity data storage units and made available to researchers through creation of the Nevada climate change portal. Our research will aim to answer two interdisciplinary science questions key to understanding the effects of future climate change on Great Basin mountain ecosystems and the potential management strategies for responding to these changes: 1) How will climate change affect water resources and linked ecosystem resources and human systems? And 2) How will climate change affect disturbance regimes (e.g., wildland fires, invasive species, insect outbreaks, droughts) and linked systems? Infrastructure developed through this project will provide new interdisciplinary capability to detect, analyze, and model effects of regional climate change in mountainous regions of the west and provide a major contribution to existing climate change research and monitoring networks.

  7. DRIHM: Distributed Research Infrastructure for Hydro-Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parodi, A.; Rebora, N.; Kranzlmueller, D.; Schiffers, M.; Clematis, A.; Tafferner, A.; Garrote, L. M.; Llasat Botija, M.; Caumont, O.; Richard, E.; Cros, P.; Dimitrijevic, V.; Jagers, B.; Harpham, Q.; Hooper, R. P.

    2012-12-01

    of European and possibly worldwide HMR communities and increase the awareness of ICT potential for HMR. Service activities will deploy the end-to-end DRIHM services and tools in support of HMR networks and virtual organizations on top of the existing European e-Infrastructures.

  8. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTNG NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalle; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn

    2003-07-01

    This report documents work performed in the third quarter of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report describes the following work: first field test; test data analysis.

  9. A prototype catalogue: DOE National Laboratory technologies for infrastructure modernization

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, J.W.; Wilfert, G.L.; March, F.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) with information about selected technologies under development in the Department of Energy (DOE) through its National Laboratory System and its Program Office operations. The technologies selected are those that have the potential to improve the performance of the nation's public works infrastructure. The product is a relational database that we refer to as a prototype catalogue of technologies.'' The catalogue contains over 100 entries of DOE-supported technologies having potential application to infrastructure-related problems. The work involved conceptualizing an approach, developing a framework for organizing technology information, and collecting samples of readily available data to be put into a prototype catalogue. In developing the catalogue, our objectives were to demonstrate the concept and provide readily available information to OTA. As such, the catalogue represents a preliminary product. The existing database is not exhaustive and likely represents only a fraction of relevant technologies developed by DOE. In addition, the taxonomy we used to classify technologies is based on the judgment of project staff and has received minimal review by individuals who have been involved in the development and testing of the technologies. Finally, end users will likely identify framework changes and additions that will strengthen the catalogue approach. The framework for the catalogue includes four components: a description of the technology, along with potential uses and other pertinent information; identification of the source of the descriptive information; identification of a person or group knowledgeable about the technology; and a classification of the described technology in terms of its type, application, life-cycle use, function, and readiness.

  10. Heteromultimerization of prokaryotic bacterial cyclic nucleotide-gated (bCNG) ion channels, members of the mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS) superfamily.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, Hannah R; Heo, Yoon-Young; Elmore, Donald E; Maurer, Joshua A

    2014-12-30

    Traditionally, prokaryotic channels are thought to exist as homomultimeric assemblies, while many eukaryotic ion channels form complex heteromultimers. Here we demonstrate that bacterial cyclic nucleotide-gated channels likely form heteromultimers in vivo. Heteromultimer formation is indicated through channel modeling, pull-down assays, and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Our observations demonstrate that prokaryotic ion channels can display complex behavior and regulation akin to that of their eukaryotic counterparts.

  11. Distribution of green infrastructure along walkable roads ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Low-income and minority neighborhoods frequently lack healthful resources to which wealthier communities have access. Though important, the addition of facilities such as recreation centers can be costly and take time to implement. Urban green infrastructure, such as street trees and other green space, can be a low-cost alternative to promote frequency and duration of outdoor physical activity. Street trees and other green space may increase outdoor physical activity levels by providing shade, improving aesthetics, and promoting social engagement. Though street trees and green space provide many benefits and are publicly accessible at all times, these resources are not evenly distributed between neighborhoods. An objective analysis of street tree cover and green space in 6,407 block groups across 10 urban areas was conducted using fine-scale land cover data. Distribution of green infrastructure was then analyzed by minority status, income, car ownership, housing density, and employment density. The objective measure of street tree cover and green space is based on 1-meter resolution land cover data from the U.S. EPA-led EnviroAtlas. Tree cover was analyzed along each side of walkable road centerlines in the areas where sidewalks are estimated to be. Green space was calculated within 25 meters of road centerlines. Percent tree cover and green space per city block were then summarized to census block group (CBG). CBG demographics from the U.S. Census and built env

  12. Unbundled infrastructure firms: Competition and continuing regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogendorn, Christiaan Paul

    Unbundled infrastructure firms provide conduits for electricity transmission, residential communications, etc. but are vertically disintegrated from "content" functions such as electricity generation or world-wide-web pages. These conduits are being deregulated, and this dissertation examines whether the deregulated conduits will behave in an efficient and competitive manner. The dissertation presents three essays, each of which develops a theoretical model of the behavior of conduit firms in a market environment. The first essay considers the prospects for competition between multiple conduits in the emerging market for broadband (high-speed) residential Internet access. It finds that such competition is likely to emerge as demand for these services increase. The second essay shows how a monopoly electricity or natural gas transmission conduit can facilitate collusion between suppliers of the good. It shows that this is an inefficient effect of standard price-cap regulation. The third essay considers the supply chain of residential Internet access and evaluates proposed "open access" regulation that would allow more than one firm to serve customers over the same physical infrastructure. It shows that the amount of content available to consumers does not necessarily increase under open access.

  13. National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Daniel, A

    2008-05-30

    In this document we describe work done under the SciDAC-1 Project National Computerational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory. The objective of this project was to construct the computational infrastructure needed to study quantim chromodynamics (QCD). Nearly all high energy and nuclear physicists in the United States working on the numerical study of QCD are involved in the project, as are Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab). A list of the serior participants is given in Appendix A.2. The project includes the development of community software for the effective use of the terascale computers, and the research and development of commodity clusters optimized for the study of QCD. The software developed as part of this effort is pubicly available, and is being widely used by physicists in the United States and abroad. The prototype clusters built with SciDAC-1 fund have been used to test the software, and are available to lattice guage theorists in the United States on a peer reviewed basis.

  14. Chronic care infrastructures and the home.

    PubMed

    Langstrup, Henriette

    2013-09-01

    In this article I argue that attention to the spatial and material dimensions of chronic disease management and its place-making effects is necessary if we are to understand the implications of the increased mobilisation--technologically or otherwise--of the home in chronic disease management. Analysing home treatment in asthma and haemophilia care, I argue that in relation to chronic disease management the home is not only always connected to the clinic but moreover, what the home is in part depends on the specificities of these attachments. Drawing primarily on the work of Susan Leigh Star and scholars of human geography I propose the concept of chronic care infrastructures designating the often inconspicuous socio-material elements (such as medication, control visits, phone calls, doses and daily routines), which are embedded in everyday life (of both the clinic and the home) and participate in producing the effect of treatment but also the effect of home. These chronic care infrastructures demand the emplacement of various objects and activities in everyday life and thus relate to negotiations of 'keepings'--hat to keep and care for and where to grant it room vis á vis other 'keepings'.

  15. Infrastructure for deployment of power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary effort in characterizing the types of stationary lunar power systems which may be considered for emplacement on the lunar surface from the proposed initial 100-kW unit in 2003 to later units ranging in power from 25 to 825 kW is presented. Associated with these power systems are their related infrastructure hardware including: (1) electrical cable, wiring, switchgear, and converters; (2) deployable radiator panels; (3) deployable photovoltaic (PV) panels; (4) heat transfer fluid piping and connection joints; (5) power system instrumentation and control equipment; and (6) interface hardware between lunar surface construction/maintenance equipment and power system. This report: (1) presents estimates of the mass and volumes associated with these power systems and their related infrastructure hardware; (2) provides task breakdown description for emplacing this equipment; (3) gives estimated heat, forces, torques, and alignment tolerances for equipment assembly; and (4) provides other important equipment/machinery requirements where applicable. Packaging options for this equipment will be discussed along with necessary site preparation requirements. Design and analysis issues associated with the final emplacement of this power system hardware are also described.

  16. AFDX Based Data Infrastructures in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Torsten

    2010-08-01

    An assessment on the requirements for the avionics infrastructure of future spacecraft like the Advanced Re-Entry Vehicle ARV has identified a distinctive lack of performance on the traditional MIL-STD-1553B installations and thus initiated a quest for an equally reliable but much more powerful successor. Ever increasing processing performance available for onboard computers opens opportunities for advanced applications like real time image processing for close range navigation. In a distributed data handling system these functions heavily rely on equally advanced and powerful network architecture. This paper will identify the requirements for modern avionics data-buses and evaluate the suitability of possible candidates. Subsequently a dedicated focus will be given to an Avionics Full DupleX Switched Ethernet (AFDX) infrastructure as backbone for future spacecraft control applications. A detailed section will focus on the central aspects that make AFDX an interesting choice for space network installations. It will cover specifically the enhancements of the underlying IEEE 802.3 Ethernet technology.

  17. Correcting Systemic Deficiencies in Our Scientific Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Doss, Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Scientific method is inherently self-correcting. When different hypotheses are proposed, their study would result in the rejection of the invalid ones. If the study of a competing hypothesis is prevented because of the faith in an unverified one, scientific progress is stalled. This has happened in the study of low dose radiation. Though radiation hormesis was hypothesized to reduce cancers in 1980, it could not be studied in humans because of the faith in the unverified linear no-threshold model hypothesis, likely resulting in over 15 million preventable cancer deaths worldwide during the past two decades, since evidence has accumulated supporting the validity of the phenomenon of radiation hormesis. Since our society has been guided by scientific advisory committees that ostensibly follow the scientific method, the long duration of such large casualties is indicative of systemic deficiencies in the infrastructure that has evolved in our society for the application of science. Some of these deficiencies have been identified in a few elements of the scientific infrastructure, and remedial steps suggested. Identifying and correcting such deficiencies may prevent similar tolls in the future. PMID:24910580

  18. Infrastructure development for human cell therapy translation.

    PubMed

    Dietz, A B; Padley, D J; Gastineau, D A

    2007-09-01

    The common conception of a drug is that of a chemical with defined medicinal effect. However, cells used as drugs remain critical to patient care. Cell therapy's origins began with the realization that complex tissues such as blood can retain function when transplanted to the patient. More complex transplantation followed, culminating with the understanding that transplantation of some tissues such as bone marrow may act medicinally. Administration of cells with an intended therapeutic effect is a hallmark of cellular therapy. While cells have been used as drugs for decades, testing a specific therapeutic effect of cells has begun clinical testing relatively recently. Lessons learned during the establishment of blood banking (including the importance of quality control, process control, sterility, and product tracking) are key components in the assurance of the safety and potency of cell therapy preparations. As more academic medical centers and private companies move toward exploiting the full potential of cells as drugs, needs arise for the development of the infrastructure necessary to support these investigations. Careful consideration of the design of the structure used to manufacture is important in terms of the significant capital outlay involved and the facility's role in achieving regulatory compliance. This development perspective describes the regulatory environment surrounding the infrastructure support for cell therapy and practical aspects for design consideration with particular focus on those activities associated with early clinical trials.

  19. Intelligent systems technology infrastructure for integrated systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry

    1991-01-01

    A system infrastructure must be properly designed and integrated from the conceptual development phase to accommodate evolutionary intelligent technologies. Several technology development activities were identified that may have application to rendezvous and capture systems. Optical correlators in conjunction with fuzzy logic control might be used for the identification, tracking, and capture of either cooperative or non-cooperative targets without the intensive computational requirements associated with vision processing. A hybrid digital/analog system was developed and tested with a robotic arm. An aircraft refueling application demonstration is planned within two years. Initially this demonstration will be ground based with a follow-on air based demonstration. System dependability measurement and modeling techniques are being developed for fault management applications. This involves usage of incremental solution/evaluation techniques and modularized systems to facilitate reuse and to take advantage of natural partitions in system models. Though not yet commercially available and currently subject to accuracy limitations, technology is being developed to perform optical matrix operations to enhance computational speed. Optical terrain recognition using camera image sequencing processed with optical correlators is being developed to determine position and velocity in support of lander guidance. The system is planned for testing in conjunction with Dryden Flight Research Facility. Advanced architecture technology is defining open architecture design constraints, test bed concepts (processors, multiple hardware/software and multi-dimensional user support, knowledge/tool sharing infrastructure), and software engineering interface issues.

  20. Intelligent systems technology infrastructure for integrated systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Significant advances have occurred during the last decade in intelligent systems technologies (a.k.a. knowledge-based systems, KBS) including research, feasibility demonstrations, and technology implementations in operational environments. Evaluation and simulation data obtained to date in real-time operational environments suggest that cost-effective utilization of intelligent systems technologies can be realized for Automated Rendezvous and Capture applications. The successful implementation of these technologies involve a complex system infrastructure integrating the requirements of transportation, vehicle checkout and health management, and communication systems without compromise to systems reliability and performance. The resources that must be invoked to accomplish these tasks include remote ground operations and control, built-in system fault management and control, and intelligent robotics. To ensure long-term evolution and integration of new validated technologies over the lifetime of the vehicle, system interfaces must also be addressed and integrated into the overall system interface requirements. An approach for defining and evaluating the system infrastructures including the testbed currently being used to support the on-going evaluations for the evolutionary Space Station Freedom Data Management System is presented and discussed. Intelligent system technologies discussed include artificial intelligence (real-time replanning and scheduling), high performance computational elements (parallel processors, photonic processors, and neural networks), real-time fault management and control, and system software development tools for rapid prototyping capabilities.