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Sample records for exonuclease activity residing

  1. Editing of misaligned 3'-termini by an intrinsic 3'-5' exonuclease activity residing in the PHP domain of a family X DNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Baños, Benito; Lázaro, José M; Villar, Laurentino; Salas, Margarita; de Vega, Miguel

    2008-10-01

    Bacillus subtilis gene yshC encodes a family X DNA polymerase (PolX(Bs)), whose biochemical features suggest that it plays a role during DNA repair processes. Here, we show that, in addition to the polymerization activity, PolX(Bs) possesses an intrinsic 3'-5' exonuclease activity specialized in resecting unannealed 3'-termini in a gapped DNA substrate. Biochemical analysis of a PolX(Bs) deletion mutant lacking the C-terminal polymerase histidinol phosphatase (PHP) domain, present in most of the bacterial/archaeal PolXs, as well as of this separately expressed protein region, allow us to state that the 3'-5' exonuclease activity of PolX(Bs) resides in its PHP domain. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis of PolX(Bs) His339 and His341 residues, evolutionary conserved in the PHP superfamily members, demonstrated that the predicted metal binding site is directly involved in catalysis of the exonucleolytic reaction. The implications of the unannealed 3'-termini resection by the 3'-5' exonuclease activity of PolX(Bs) in the DNA repair context are discussed.

  2. Nucleotide Specificity versus Complex Heterogeneity in Exonuclease Activity Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Enderlein, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    A recent publication reported on measurements of Exonuclease I activity using a real-time fluorescence method that measures the time required by molecules of Exonuclease I to hydrolyze single-stranded DNA that was synthesized to have two fluorescently labeled nucleotides. The observed fluorescence-intensity curves were interpreted as a sign of strong heterogeneity of the activity of Exonuclease I. Here, I propose a different model, which assumes that Exonuclease I activity is nucleotide-dependent, and that a fluorescent label bound to a nucleotide significantly slows its cleavage rate. The presented model fits the observed data equally well, but can be used to make specific predictions upon observable sequence dependence of measured fluorescence-intensity curves. PMID:17142274

  3. A 3′-5′ exonuclease activity embedded in the helicase core domain of Candida albicans Pif1 helicase

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiao-Bin; Zhang, Bo; Bazeille, Nicolas; Yu, Ying; Liu, Na-Nv; René, Brigitte; Mauffret, Olivier; Xi, Xu-Guang

    2017-01-01

    3′-5′ exonucleases are frequently found to be associated to polymerases or helicases domains in the same enzyme or could function as autonomous entities. Here we uncovered that Candida albicans Pif1 (CaPif1) displays a 3′-5′ exonuclease activity besides its main helicase activity. These two latter activities appear to reside on the same polypeptide and the new exonuclease activity could be mapped to the helicase core domain. We clearly show that CaPif1 displays exclusively exonuclease activity and unambiguously establish the directionality of the exonuclease activity as the 3′-to-5′ polarity. The enzyme appears to follow the two-metal-ion driven hydrolyzing activity exhibited by most of the nucleases, as shown by its dependence of magnesium and also by the identification of aspartic residues. Interestingly, an excellent correlation could be found between the presence of the conserved residues and the exonuclease activity when testing activities on Pif1 enzymes from eight fungal organisms. In contrast to others proteins endowed with the double helicase/exonuclease functionality, CaPif1 differs in the fact that the two activities are embedded in the same helicase domain and not located on separated domains. Our findings may suggest a biochemical basis for mechanistic studies of Pif1 family helicases. PMID:28216645

  4. Evidence that the DNA endonuclease ARTEMIS also has intrinsic 5'-exonuclease activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Sicong; Chang, Howard H; Niewolik, Doris; Hedrick, Michael P; Pinkerton, Anthony B; Hassig, Christian A; Schwarz, Klaus; Lieber, Michael R

    2014-03-14

    ARTEMIS is a member of the metallo-β-lactamase protein family. ARTEMIS has endonuclease activity at DNA hairpins and at 5'- and 3'-DNA overhangs of duplex DNA, and this endonucleolytic activity is dependent upon DNA-PKcs. There has been uncertainty about whether ARTEMIS also has 5'-exonuclease activity on single-stranded DNA and 5'-overhangs, because this 5'-exonuclease is not dependent upon DNA-PKcs. Here, we show that the 5'-exonuclease and the endonuclease activities co-purify. Second, we show that a point mutant of ARTEMIS at a putative active site residue (H115A) markedly reduces both the endonuclease activity and the 5'-exonuclease activity. Third, divalent cation effects on the 5'-exonuclease and the endonuclease parallel one another. Fourth, both the endonuclease activity and 5'-exonuclease activity of ARTEMIS can be blocked in parallel by small molecule inhibitors, which do not block unrelated nucleases. We conclude that the 5'-exonuclease is intrinsic to ARTEMIS, making it relevant to the role of ARTEMIS in nonhomologous DNA end joining.

  5. The exonuclease activity of DNA polymerase γ is required for ligation during mitochondrial DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Macao, Bertil; Uhler, Jay P.; Siibak, Triinu; Zhu, Xuefeng; Shi, Yonghong; Sheng, Wenwen; Olsson, Monica; Stewart, James B.; Gustafsson, Claes M.; Falkenberg, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymerase γ (POLγ) harbours a 3′–5′ exonuclease proofreading activity. Here we demonstrate that this activity is required for the creation of ligatable ends during mtDNA replication. Exonuclease-deficient POLγ fails to pause on reaching a downstream 5′-end. Instead, the enzyme continues to polymerize into double-stranded DNA, creating an unligatable 5′-flap. Disease-associated mutations can both increase and decrease exonuclease activity and consequently impair DNA ligation. In mice, inactivation of the exonuclease activity causes an increase in mtDNA mutations and premature ageing phenotypes. These mutator mice also contain high levels of truncated, linear fragments of mtDNA. We demonstrate that the formation of these fragments is due to impaired ligation, causing nicks near the origin of heavy-strand DNA replication. In the subsequent round of replication, the nicks lead to double-strand breaks and linear fragment formation. PMID:26095671

  6. Characterization of DNA polymerase X from Thermus thermophilus HB8 reveals the POLXc and PHP domains are both required for 3'-5' exonuclease activity.

    PubMed

    Nakane, Shuhei; Nakagawa, Noriko; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Masui, Ryoji

    2009-04-01

    The X-family DNA polymerases (PolXs) comprise a highly conserved DNA polymerase family found in all kingdoms. Mammalian PolXs are known to be involved in several DNA-processing pathways including repair, but the cellular functions of bacterial PolXs are less known. Many bacterial PolXs have a polymerase and histidinol phosphatase (PHP) domain at their C-termini in addition to a PolX core (POLXc) domain, and possess 3'-5' exonuclease activity. Although both domains are highly conserved in bacteria, their molecular functions, especially for a PHP domain, are unknown. We found Thermus thermophilus HB8 PolX (ttPolX) has Mg(2+)/Mn(2+)-dependent DNA/RNA polymerase, Mn(2+)-dependent 3'-5' exonuclease and DNA-binding activities. We identified the domains of ttPolX by limited proteolysis and characterized their biochemical activities. The POLXc domain was responsible for the polymerase and DNA-binding activities but exonuclease activity was not detected for either domain. However, the POLXc and PHP domains interacted with each other and a mixture of the two domains had Mn(2+)-dependent 3'-5' exonuclease activity. Moreover, site-directed mutagenesis revealed catalytically important residues in the PHP domain for the 3'-5' exonuclease activity. Our findings provide a molecular insight into the functional domain organization of bacterial PolXs, especially the requirement of the PHP domain for 3'-5' exonuclease activity.

  7. Label-free fluorescence strategy for sensitive detection of exonuclease activity using SYBR Green I as probe.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Li, Baoxin

    2015-01-01

    A label-free and sensitive fluorescence assay for exonuclease activity is developed using commercially available SYBR Green I (SG) dye as signal probe. A proof-of-concept of this assay has been demonstrated by using exonuclease III (Exo III) as a model enzyme. In this assay, double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) can bind SG, resulting in a strong fluorescence signal of SG. Upon the addition of Exo III, dsDNA would be digested, and SG emits very weak fluorescence. Thus, Exo III activity can be facilely measured with a simple fluorescence reader. This method has a linear detection range from 1 U/mL to 200 U/mL with a detection limit of 0.7 U/mL. This label-free approach is selective, simple, convenient and cost-efficient without any complex DNA sequence design or fluorescence dye label. The method not only provides a platform for monitoring activity and inhibition of exonuclease but also shows great potential in biological process researches, drug discovery, and clinic diagnostics.

  8. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 regulates both the exonuclease and helicase activities of the Werner syndrome protein.

    PubMed

    von Kobbe, Cayetano; Harrigan, Jeanine A; Schreiber, Valérie; Stiegler, Patrick; Piotrowski, Jason; Dawut, Lale; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2004-01-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is a genetic premature aging disorder in which patients appear much older than their chronological age. The gene mutated in WS encodes a nuclear protein (WRN) which possesses 3'-5' exonuclease and ATPase-dependent 3'-5' helicase activities. The genomic instability associated with WS cells and the biochemical characteristics of WRN suggest that WRN plays a role in DNA metabolic pathways such as transcription, replication, recombination and repair. Recently we have identified poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) as a new WRN interacting protein. In this paper, we further mapped the interacting domains. We found that PARP-1 bound to the N-terminus of WRN and to the C-terminus containing the RecQ-conserved (RQC) domain. WRN bound to the N-terminus of PARP-1 containing DNA binding and BRCA1 C-terminal (BRCT) domains. We show that unmodified PARP-1 inhibited both WRN exonuclease and helicase activities, and to our knowledge is the only known WRN protein partner that inactivates both of the WRN's catalytic activities suggesting a biologically significant regulation. Moreover, this dual inhibition seems to be specific for PARP-1, as PARP-2 did not affect WRN helicase activity and only slightly inhibited WRN exonuclease activity. The differential effect of PARP-1 and PARP-2 on WRN catalytic activity was not due to differences in affinity for WRN or the DNA substrate. Finally, we demonstrate that the inhibition of WRN by PARP-1 was influenced by the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation state of PARP-1. The biological relevance of the specific modulation of WRN catalytic activities by PARP-1 are discussed in the context of pathways in which these proteins may function together, namely in the repair of DNA strand breaks.

  9. Exonuclease IX of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Shafritz, K M; Sandigursky, M; Franklin, W A

    1998-01-01

    The bacteria Escherichia coli contains several exonucleases acting on both double- and single-stranded DNA and in both a 5'-->3' and 3'-->5' direction. These enzymes are involved in replicative, repair and recombination functions. We have identified a new exonuclease found in E.coli, termed exonuclease IX, that acts preferentially on single-stranded DNA as a 3'-->5' exonuclease and also functions as a 3'-phosphodiesterase on DNA containing 3'-incised apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites to remove the product trans -4-hydroxy-2-pentenal 5-phosphate. The enzyme showed essentially no activity as a deoxyribophosphodiesterase acting on 5'-incised AP sites. The activity was isolated as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein from a sequence of the E.coli genome that was 60% identical to a 260 bp region of the small fragment of the DNA polymerase I gene. The protein has a molecular weight of 28 kDa and is free of AP endonuclease and phosphatase activities. Exonuclease IX is expressed in E.coli , as demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR, and it may function in the DNA base excision repair and other pathways. PMID:9592142

  10. Cloning of thermostable DNA polymerases from hyperthermophilic marine Archaea with emphasis on Thermococcus sp. 9 degrees N-7 and mutations affecting 3'-5' exonuclease activity.

    PubMed Central

    Southworth, M W; Kong, H; Kucera, R B; Ware, J; Jannasch, H W; Perler, F B

    1996-01-01

    Five extremely thermophilic Archaea from hydrothermal vents were isolated, and their DNA polymerases were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Protein splicing elements (inteins) are present in many archaeal DNA polymerases, but only the DNA polymerase from strain GB-C contained an intein. Of the five cloned DNA polymerases, the Thermococcus sp. 9 degrees N-7 DNA polymerase was chosen for biochemical characterization. Thermococcus sp. 9 degrees N-7 DNA polymerase exhibited temperature-sensitive strand displacement activity and apparent Km values for DNA and dNTP similar to those of Thermococcus litoralis DNA polymerase. Six substitutions in the 3'-5' exonuclease motif I were constructed in an attempt to reduce the 3'-5' exonuclease activity of Thermococcus sp. 9 degrees N-7 DNA polymerase. Five mutants resulted in no detectable 3'-5' exonuclease activity, while one mutant (Glul43Asp) had <1% of wild-type activity. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8643567

  11. New spectrophotometric method for continuous recording of the spleen exonuclease activity.

    PubMed

    Dolapchiev, L B; Bakalova, A T

    1988-11-01

    Some of the synthetic chromophoric substrates of various enzymes cannot be used for direct spectrophotometric recording of the reactions, when a difference between the pH optimum of the enzyme reaction and the pH of maximum absorption of the released chromophore exists. In the present paper we describe a new method for following the time course of the spleen exonuclease-catalyzed reaction with thymidine 3'-monophospho-p-nitrophenyl ester as a substrate, based on the difference obtained in the absorbency of the substrate and its products in the far UV (at 330 nm). This difference, not published before, permits direct spectrophotometric recording of the amount of the hydrolyzed chromophoric substrate in acidic pH, whereas the maximum absorption of the product as accepted in the literature, is in alkaline pH. The molar absorption coefficient of the measurement at pH 5.7 is determined to be epsilon = 522 M-1.mm-1.

  12. A "turn-on" and label-free fluorescent assay for the rapid detection of exonuclease III activity based on Tb(3+)-induced G-quadruplex conjugates.

    PubMed

    Yang, WeiJuan; Ruan, YaJuan; Wu, WeiHua; Chen, PingPing; Xu, LiangJun; Fu, FengFu

    2014-07-01

    A "turn-on" and label-free fluorescent assay for the specific, rapid, and sensitive detection of 3' → 5' exonuclease III activity is reported in this study. The assay is based on the Tb(3+)-promoted G-quadruplex, which lead to the enhancement of Tb(3+) fluorescence due to the energy transfer from guanines. The proposed assay is highly simple, rapid, and cost-effective, and does not require sophisticated experimental techniques such as gel-based equipment or radioactive labels. It can be used for the rapid detection of exonuclease III activity with a detection limit of 0.8 U and a RSD (n = 6) <5 %. Notably, no dye was covalently conjugated to the DNA strands, which offers the advantages of low-cost and being interference-free.

  13. A general fluorescent sensor design strategy for "turn-on" activity detection of exonucleases and restriction endonucleases based on graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Kong, De-Ming

    2013-11-07

    Using graphene oxide (GO) as a nanoquencher, a universal sensor design strategy was developed on the basis of significantly different binding affinities of GO to single-stranded DNAs (ss-DNAs) with different lengths. The proposed sensors could be used for the activity detection of both exonucleases and restriction endonucleases. To achieve this, a single-labeled fluorescent oligonucleotide probe, which had a single-stranded structure or a hairpin structure with a long single-stranded loop, was used. Such a probe could be efficiently absorbed on the surface of GO, resulting in the quenching of the fluorescent signal. Excision of the single-stranded probe by exonucleases or site-specific cleavage at the double-stranded stem of the hairpin probe by restriction endonuclease released fluorophore-labeled nucleotide, which could not be efficiently absorbed by GO, thus leading to increase in fluorescence of the corresponding sensing system. As examples, three sensors, which were used for activity detection of the exonuclease Exo 1 and the restriction endonucleases EcoR I and Hind III, were developed. These three sensors could specifically and sensitively detect the activities of Exo 1, EcoR I and Hind III with detection limits of 0.03 U mL(-1), 0.06 U mL(-1) and 0.04 U mL(-1), respectively. Visual detection was also possible.

  14. Effects of transcription elongation rate and Xrn2 exonuclease activity on RNA polymerase II termination suggest widespread kinetic competition

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Nova; Brannan, Kristopher; Erickson, Benjamin; Kim, Hyunmin; Cortazar, Michael; Sheridan, Ryan M.; Nguyen, Tram; Karp, Shai; Bentley, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The torpedo model of transcription termination asserts that the exonuclease Xrn2 attacks the 5′PO4-end exposed by nascent RNA cleavage and chases down the RNA polymerase. We tested this mechanism using a dominant-negative human Xrn2 mutant and found that it delayed termination genome-wide. Xrn2 nuclease inactivation caused strong termination defects downstream of most poly(A) sites and modest delays at some histone and U snRNA genes suggesting that the torpedo mechanism is not limited to poly(A) site-dependent termination. A central untested feature of the torpedo model is that there is kinetic competition between the exonuclease and the pol II elongation complex. Using pol II rate mutants, we found that slow transcription robustly shifts termination upstream, and fast elongation extends the zone of termination further downstream. These results suggest that kinetic competition between elongating pol II and the Xrn2 exonuclease is integral to termination of transcription on most human genes. PMID:26474067

  15. The 3'-to-5' exonuclease activity of vaccinia virus DNA polymerase is essential and plays a role in promoting virus genetic recombination.

    PubMed

    Gammon, Don B; Evans, David H

    2009-05-01

    Poxviruses are subjected to extraordinarily high levels of genetic recombination during infection, although the enzymes catalyzing these reactions have never been identified. However, it is clear that virus-encoded DNA polymerases play some unknown yet critical role in virus recombination. Using a novel, antiviral-drug-based strategy to dissect recombination and replication reactions, we now show that the 3'-to-5' proofreading exonuclease activity of the viral DNA polymerase plays a key role in promoting recombination reactions. Linear DNA substrates were prepared containing the dCMP analog cidofovir (CDV) incorporated into the 3' ends of the molecules. The drug blocked the formation of concatemeric recombinant molecules in vitro in a process that was catalyzed by the proofreading activity of vaccinia virus DNA polymerase. Recombinant formation was also blocked when CDV-containing recombination substrates were transfected into cells infected with wild-type vaccinia virus. These inhibitory effects could be overcome if CDV-containing substrates were transfected into cells infected with CDV-resistant (CDV(r)) viruses, but only when resistance was linked to an A314T substitution mutation mapping within the 3'-to-5' exonuclease domain of the viral polymerase. Viruses encoding a CDV(r) mutation in the polymerase domain still exhibited a CDV-induced recombination deficiency. The A314T substitution also enhanced the enzyme's capacity to excise CDV molecules from the 3' ends of duplex DNA and to recombine these DNAs in vitro, as judged from experiments using purified mutant DNA polymerase. The 3'-to-5' exonuclease activity appears to be an essential virus function, and our results suggest that this might be because poxviruses use it to promote genetic exchange.

  16. The β2 clamp in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA polymerase III αβ2ε replicase promotes polymerization and reduces exonuclease activity

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Shoujin; Li, Wenjuan; Zhang, Hongtai; Fleming, Joy; Yang, Weiqiang; Wang, Shihua; Wei, Wenjing; Zhou, Jie; Zhu, Guofeng; Deng, Jiaoyu; Hou, Jian; Zhou, Ying; Lin, Shiqiang; Zhang, Xian-En; Bi, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    DNA polymerase III (DNA pol III) is a multi-subunit replication machine responsible for the accurate and rapid replication of bacterial genomes, however, how it functions in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) requires further investigation. We have reconstituted the leading-strand replication process of the Mtb DNA pol III holoenzyme in vitro, and investigated the physical and functional relationships between its key components. We verify the presence of an αβ2ε polymerase-clamp-exonuclease replicase complex by biochemical methods and protein-protein interaction assays in vitro and in vivo and confirm that, in addition to the polymerase activity of its α subunit, Mtb DNA pol III has two potential proofreading subunits; the α and ε subunits. During DNA replication, the presence of the β2 clamp strongly promotes the polymerization of the αβ2ε replicase and reduces its exonuclease activity. Our work provides a foundation for further research on the mechanism by which the replication machinery switches between replication and proofreading and provides an experimental platform for the selection of antimicrobials targeting DNA replication in Mtb. PMID:26822057

  17. The Drosophila Werner Exonuclease Participates in an Exonuclease-Independent Response to Replication Stress

    PubMed Central

    Bolterstein, Elyse; Rivero, Rachel; Marquez, Melissa; McVey, Mitch

    2014-01-01

    Members of the RecQ family of helicases are known for their roles in DNA repair, replication, and recombination. Mutations in the human RecQ helicases, WRN and BLM, cause Werner and Bloom syndromes, which are diseases characterized by genome instability and an increased risk of cancer. While WRN contains both a helicase and an exonuclease domain, the Drosophila melanogaster homolog, WRNexo, contains only the exonuclease domain. Therefore the Drosophila model system provides a unique opportunity to study the exonuclease functions of WRN separate from the helicase. We created a null allele of WRNexo via imprecise P-element excision. The null WRNexo mutants are not sensitive to double-strand break-inducing reagents, suggesting that the exonuclease does not play a key role in homologous recombination-mediated repair of DSBs. However, WRNexo mutant embryos have a reduced hatching frequency and larvae are sensitive to the replication fork-stalling reagent, hydroxyurea (HU), suggesting that WRNexo is important in responding to replication stress. The role of WRNexo in the HU-induced stress response is independent of Rad51. Interestingly, the hatching defect and HU sensitivity of WRNexo mutants do not occur in flies containing an exonuclease-dead copy of WRNexo, suggesting that the role of WRNexo in replication is independent of exonuclease activity. Additionally, WRNexo and Blm mutants exhibit similar sensitivity to HU and synthetic lethality in combination with mutations in structure-selective endonucleases. We propose that WRNexo and BLM interact to promote fork reversal following replication fork stalling and in their absence regressed forks are restarted through a Rad51-mediated process. PMID:24709634

  18. Kinetics and thermodynamics of DNA polymerases with exonuclease proofreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspard, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Kinetic theory and thermodynamics are applied to DNA polymerases with exonuclease activity, taking into account the dependence of the rates on the previously incorporated nucleotide. The replication fidelity is shown to increase significantly thanks to this dependence at the basis of the mechanism of exonuclease proofreading. In particular, this dependence can provide up to a 100-fold lowering of the error probability under physiological conditions. Theory is compared with numerical simulations for the DNA polymerases of T7 viruses and human mitochondria.

  19. NurA Is Endowed with Endo- and Exonuclease Activities that Are Modulated by HerA: New Insight into Their Role in DNA-End Processing

    PubMed Central

    De Falco, Mariarosaria; Catalano, Federico; Rossi, Mosè; Ciaramella, Maria; De Felice, Mariarita

    2015-01-01

    The nuclease NurA and the ATPase HerA are present in all known thermophilic archaea and cooperate with the highly conserved MRE11/RAD50 proteins to facilitate efficient DNA double-strand break end processing during homologous recombinational repair. However, contradictory results have been reported on the exact activities and mutual dependence of these two enzymes. To understand the functional relationship between these two enzymes we deeply characterized Sulfolobus solfataricus NurA and HerA proteins. We found that NurA is endowed with exo- and endonuclease activities on various DNA substrates, including linear (single-stranded and double stranded) as well as circular molecules (single stranded and supercoiled double-stranded). All these activities are not strictly dependent on the presence of HerA, require divalent ions (preferably Mn2+), and are inhibited by the presence of ATP. The endo- and exonculease activities have distinct requirements: whereas the exonuclease activity on linear DNA fragments is stimulated by HerA and depends on the catalytic D58 residue, the endonuclease activity on circular double-stranded DNA is HerA-independent and is not affected by the D58A mutation. On the basis of our results we propose a mechanism of action of NurA/HerA complex during DNA end processing. PMID:26560692

  20. The exonuclease ISG20 is directly induced by synthetic dsRNA via NF-kappaB and IRF1 activation.

    PubMed

    Espert, Lucile; Rey, Clémence; Gonzalez, Laure; Degols, Geneviève; Chelbi-Alix, Mounira Kmar; Mechti, Nadir; Gongora, Céline

    2004-06-03

    Many interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes are also induced by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), a component closely associated with the IFN system in the context of virus-host interactions. Recently, we demonstrated that the IFN-induced 3' --> 5' exonuclease ISG20 possesses antiviral activities against RNA viruses. Here we show that ISG20 induction by synthetic dsRNA (pIpC) is stronger and faster than its induction by IFN. Two families of transcription factors are implicated in the transcriptional activation of ISG20 by dsRNA. Initially, the NF-kappaB factors p50 and p65 bind and activate the kappaB element of the Isg20 promoter. This is followed by IRF1 binding to the ISRE. As pIpC often induces protein movements in the cells, we questioned whether it could influence ISG20 localization. Interestingly and contrary to IFN, dsRNA induces a nuclear matrix enrichment of the ISG20 protein. dsRNA induction of ISG20 via NF-kappaB and its antiviral activity led us to suggest that ISG20 could participate in the cellular response to virus infection.

  1. Characterization of 3'----5' exonuclease associated with DNA polymerase of silkworm nuclear polyhedrosis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Mikhailov, V S; Marlyev, K A; Ataeva, J O; Kullyev, P K; Atrazhev, A M

    1986-01-01

    3'----5' Exonuclease specific for single-stranded DNA copurified with DNA polymerase of nuclear polyhedrosis virus of silkworm Bombyx mori (BmNPV Pol). BmNPV Pol has no detectable 5'----3' exonuclease activity on single-stranded or duplex DNA. Analysis of the products of 3'----5' exonucleolytic reaction showed that deoxynucleoside monophosphates were released during the hydrolysis of single-stranded DNA. The exonuclease activity cosedimented with the polymerase activity during ultracentrifugation of BmNPV Pol in glycerol gradient. The polymerase and the exonuclease activities of BmNPV Pol were inactivated by heat with nearly identical kinetics. The mode of the hydrolysis of single-stranded DNA by BmNPV Pol-associated exonuclease was strictly distributive. The enzyme dissociated from single-stranded DNA after the release of a single dNMP and then reassociated with a next polynucleotide being degradated. Images PMID:3012482

  2. Tungsten disulfide nanosheet and exonuclease III co-assisted amplification strategy for highly sensitive fluorescence polarization detection of DNA glycosylase activity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingjin; Ma, Yefei; Kong, Rongmei; Zhang, Liangliang; Yang, Wen; Zhao, Shulin

    2015-08-05

    Herein, we introduced a tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanosheet and exonuclease III (Exo III) co-assisted signal amplification strategy for highly sensitive fluorescent polarization (FP) assay of DNA glycosylase activity. Two DNA glycosylases, uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) and human 8-oxoG DNA glycosylase 1 (hOGG1), were tested. A hairpin-structured probe (HP) which contained damaged bases in the stem was used as the substrate. The removal of damaged bases from substrate by DNA glycosylase would lower the melting temperature of HP. The HP was then opened and hybridized with a FAM dye-labeled single strand DNA (DP), generating a duplex with a recessed 3'-terminal of DP. This design facilitated the Exo III-assisted amplification by repeating the hybridization and digestion of DP, liberating numerous FAM fluorophores which could not be adsorbed on WS2 nanosheet. Thus, the final system exhibited a small FP signal. However, in the absence of DNA glycosylases, no hybridization between DP and HP was occurred, hampering the hydrolysis of DP by Exo III. The intact DP was then adsorbed on the surface of WS2 nanosheet that greatly amplified the mass of the labeled-FAM fluorophore, resulting in a large FP value. With the co-assisted amplification strategy, the sensitivity was substantially improved. In addition, this method was applied to detect UDG activity in cell extracts. The study of the inhibition of UDG was also performed. Furthermore, this method is simple in design, easy in implementation, and selective, which holds potential applications in the DNA glycosylase related mechanism research and molecular diagnostics.

  3. A Fluorescence-based Exonuclease Assay to Characterize DmWRNexo, Orthologue of Human Progeroid WRN Exonuclease, and Its Application to Other Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Penelope A.; Boubriak, Ivan; Cox, Lynne S.

    2013-01-01

    WRN exonuclease is involved in resolving DNA damage that occurs either during DNA replication or following exposure to endogenous or exogenous genotoxins. It is likely to play a role in preventing accumulation of recombinogenic intermediates that would otherwise accumulate at transiently stalled replication forks, consistent with a hyper-recombinant phenotype of cells lacking WRN. In humans, the exonuclease domain comprises an N-terminal portion of a much larger protein that also possesses helicase activity, together with additional sites important for DNA and protein interaction. By contrast, in Drosophila, the exonuclease activity of WRN (DmWRNexo) is encoded by a distinct genetic locus from the presumptive helicase, allowing biochemical (and genetic) dissection of the role of the exonuclease activity in genome stability mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate a fluorescent method to determine WRN exonuclease activity using purified recombinant DmWRNexo and end-labeled fluorescent oligonucleotides. This system allows greater reproducibility than radioactive assays as the substrate oligonucleotides remain stable for months, and provides a safer and relatively rapid method for detailed analysis of nuclease activity, permitting determination of nuclease polarity, processivity, and substrate preferences. PMID:24378758

  4. Predictors of Nursing Home Residents' Participation in Activity Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voelkl, Judith E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines the relationship between resident characteristics and time participating in activities. For the 2,672 nursing home residents studied, measures of resource use, cognitive abilities, depression, sense of initiative/involvement, activity repertoire, location preferences, and gender were all found to be significant in explaining the amount of…

  5. Structural basis for the dsRNA specificity of the Lassa virus NP exonuclease.

    PubMed

    Hastie, Kathryn M; King, Liam B; Zandonatti, Michelle A; Saphire, Erica Ollmann

    2012-01-01

    Lassa virus causes hemorrhagic fever characterized by immunosuppression. The nucleoprotein of Lassa virus, termed NP, binds the viral genome. It also has an additional enzymatic activity as an exonuclease that specifically digests double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). dsRNA is a strong signal to the innate immune system of viral infection. Digestion of dsRNA by the NP exonuclease activity appears to cause suppression of innate immune signaling in the infected cell. Although the fold of the NP enzyme is conserved and the active site completely conserved with other exonucleases in its DEDDh family, NP is atypical among exonucleases in its preference for dsRNA and its strict specificity for one substrate. Here, we present the crystal structure of Lassa virus NP in complex with dsRNA. We find that unlike the exonuclease in Klenow fragment, the double-stranded nucleic acid in complex with Lassa NP remains base-paired instead of splitting, and that binding of the paired complementary strand is achieved by "relocation" of a basic loop motif from its typical exonuclease position. Further, we find that just one single glycine that contacts the substrate strand and one single tyrosine that stacks with a base of the complementary, non-substrate strand are responsible for the unique substrate specificity. This work thus provides templates for development of antiviral drugs that would be specific for viral, rather than host exonucleases of similar fold and active site, and illustrates how a very few amino acid changes confer alternate specificity and biological phenotype to an enzyme.

  6. Activity Engagement: Perspectives from Nursing Home Residents with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Tak, Sunghee H.; Kedia, Satish; Tongumpun, Tera Marie; Hong, Song Hee

    2014-01-01

    Engagement in social and leisure activities is an indicator of quality of life and well-being in nursing homes. There are few studies in which nursing home residents with dementia self-reported their experiences in activity engagement. This qualitative study describes types of current activity involvement and barriers to activities as perceived by nursing home residents with dementia. Thirty-one residents participated in short, open-ended interviews and six in in-depth interviews. Thematic content analysis showed that participants primarily depended on activities organized by their nursing homes. Few participants engaged in self-directed activities such as walking, visiting other residents and family members, and attending in church services. Many residents felt they had limited opportunities and motivation for activities. They missed past hobbies greatly but could not continue them due to lack of accommodation and limitation in physical function. Environmental factors, along with fixed activity schedule, further prevented them from engaging in activities. Residents with dementia should be invited to participate in activity planning and have necessary assistance and accommodation in order to engage in activities that matter to them. Based on the findings, a checklist for individualizing and evaluating activities for persons with dementia is detailed. PMID:25489122

  7. Burnout and Physical Activity in Minnesota Internal Medicine Resident Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Shawn M.; Odo, Nnaemeka U.; Duran, Alisa M.; Pereira, Anne G.; Mandel, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Regular physical activity plays an important role in the amelioration of several mental health disorders; however, its relationship with burnout has not yet been clarified. Objective To determine the association between achievement of national physical activity guidelines and burnout in internal medicine resident physicians. Methods A Web-based survey of internal medicine resident physicians at the University of Minnesota and Hennepin County Medical Center was conducted from September to October 2012. Survey measures included the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results Of 149 eligible residents, 76 (51.0%) completed surveys, which were used in the analysis. Burnout prevalence, determined by the Maslach Burnout Inventory, was 53.9% (41 of 76). Prevalence of failure to achieve US Department of Health and Human Services physical activity guidelines was 40.8% (31 of 76), and 78.9% (60 of 76) of residents reported that their level of physical activity has decreased since they began medical training. Residents who were able to meet physical activity guidelines were less likely to be burned out than their fellow residents (OR, 0.38, 95% CI 0.147–0.99). Conclusions Among internal medicine resident physicians, achievement of national physical activity guidelines appears to be inversely associated with burnout. Given the high national prevalence of burnout and inactivity, additional investigation of this relationship appears warranted. PMID:26140116

  8. Lambda Exonuclease Digestion of CGG Trinucleotide Repeats

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, R.S.; Koretsky, A.P.; Moreland, J.

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome and other triplet repeat diseases are characterized by an elongation of a repeating DNA triplet. The ensemble-averaged lambda exonuclease digestion rate of different substrates, including one with an elongated FMR1 gene containing 120 CGG repeats, was measured using absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Using magnetic tweezers sequence-dependent digestion rates and pausing was measured for individual lambda exonucleases. Within the triplet repeats a lower average and narrower distribution of rates and a higher frequency of pausing was observed. PMID:19562332

  9. Mohs Surgical Reconstruction Educational Activity: a resident education tool

    PubMed Central

    Croley, Julie A; Malone, C Helen; Goodwin, Brandon P; Phillips, Linda G; Cole, Eric L; Wagner, Richard F

    2017-01-01

    Background Surgical reconstructive planning following Mohs surgery can be a difficult subject for dermatology residents to master. Prior research demonstrates that active learning is preferred and more effective compared to passive learning models and that dermatology residents desire greater complexity and volume in surgical training. We present a novel, active, problem-based learning tool for the education of Mohs reconstruction with the goal of improving residents’ ability to plan surgical reconstructions. Materials and methods The Mohs Surgical Reconstruction Educational Activity is an active, problem-based learning activity in which residents designed repairs for planned Mohs defects prior to surgery on an iPad application or on a printed photograph. The attending Mohs surgeon reviewed the reconstructive designs, provided feedback, guided discussion, and facilitated insight into additional issues requiring further review. Residents performed or observed the Mohs and reconstructive surgical procedures for respective repairs. Surveys were administered to participants before and after participating in the Mohs Surgical Reconstruction Educational Activity to assess the educational value of the activity. Survey responses were recorded on a 5-point Likert scale. Results Mean participant-reported confidence in flap and graft knowledge, flap and graft planning, and flap and graft performance increased 1.50–2.50 Likert scale points upon completion of the Mohs surgery rotation by residents participating in the educational activity. The observed trend was larger in the dermatology resident subset, with increases of 2.00–3.50 Likert scale points reported for these questions. Mean participant-reported likelihoods of performing flaps and grafts in the future increased 0.25–0.50 Likert scale points among all residents participating in the educational activity and 0.50–1.00 Likert scale points in the dermatology resident subset. All residents participating in the

  10. Agreeableness and activity engagement in nursing home residents with dementia.

    PubMed

    Hill, Nikki L; Kolanowski, Ann; Kürüm, Esra

    2010-09-01

    Residents with dementia are the least likely to be engaged in the nursing home and often spend most of their time doing nothing at all. However, resident participation in meaningful activities is important to promote both physical and psychological health. Tailoring activities to individual functional abilities and personality preferences improves both the time and level of participation. This pilot study used an analysis of covariance procedure to test the relationship between the personality trait of agreeableness and engagement when activities are ideally tailored to ability and interest. No significant difference was found between the high and low agreeableness groups, indicating that residents were more engaged when activities were individually tailored, regardless of their agreeableness level. Although low agreeableness may pose a challenge when implementing activities for people with dementia, the results of this study suggest that tailoring activities to functional ability and interest may overcome the effects.

  11. Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage PaP1 DNA polymerase is an A-family DNA polymerase demonstrating ssDNA and dsDNA 3'-5' exonuclease activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Binyan; Gu, Shiling; Liang, Nengsong; Xiong, Mei; Xue, Qizhen; Lu, Shuguang; Hu, Fuquan; Zhang, Huidong

    2016-08-01

    Most phages contain DNA polymerases, which are essential for DNA replication and propagation in infected host bacteria. However, our knowledge on phage-encoded DNA polymerases remains limited. This study investigated the function of a novel DNA polymerase of PaP1, which is the lytic phage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PaP1 encodes its sole DNA polymerase called Gp90 that was predicted as an A-family DNA polymerase with polymerase and 3'-5' exonuclease activities. The sequence of Gp90 is homologous but not identical to that of other A-family DNA polymerases, such as T7 DNA polymerases (Pol) and DNA Pol I. The purified Gp90 demonstrated a polymerase activity. The processivity of Gp90 in DNA replication and its efficiency in single-dNTP incorporation are similar to those of T7 Pol with processive thioredoxin (T7 Pol/trx). Gp90 can degrade ssDNA and dsDNA in 3'-5' direction at a similar rate, which is considerably lower than that of T7 Pol/trx. The optimized conditions for polymerization were a temperature of 37 °C and a buffer consisting of 40 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.0), 30 mM MgCl2, and 200 mM NaCl. These studies on DNA polymerase encoded by PaP1 help advance our knowledge on phage-encoded DNA polymerases and elucidate PaP1 propagation in infected P. aeruginosa.

  12. Choristoneura fumiferana nucleopolyhedrovirus encodes a functional 3'-5' exonuclease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dan-Hui; de Jong, Jondavid G; Makhmoudova, Amina; Arif, Basil M; Krell, Peter J

    2004-12-01

    The Choristoneura fumiferana nucleopolyhedrovirus (CfMNPV) encodes an ORF homologous to type III 3'-5' exonucleases. The CfMNPV v-trex ORF was cloned into the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression-vector system, expressed in insect Sf21 cells with an N-terminal His tag and purified to homogeneity by using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Biochemical characterization of the purified V-TREX confirmed that this viral protein is a functional 3'-5' exonuclease that cleaves oligonucleotides from the 3' end in a stepwise, distributive manner, suggesting a role in proofreading during viral DNA replication and DNA repair. Enhanced degradation of a 5'-digoxigenin- or 5'-(32)P-labelled oligo(dT)(30) substrate was observed at increasing incubation times or increased amounts of V-TREX. The 3'-excision activity of V-TREX was maximal at alkaline pH (9.5) in the presence of 5 mM MgCl(2), 2 mM dithiothreitol and 0.1 mg BSA ml(-1).

  13. Fostering Activities of Daily Living by Intact Nursing Home Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Charles E.; Glaister, Judy; Brown, Alston; Phillips, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    We assessed effectiveness of four education programs in providing nursing assistants with ability to produce a therapeutic milieu supportive of intact residents' activities of daily living, positive self-esteem and mood: (1) a combination of Orem's Systems of Nursing Care and Skinner's Applied Behavioral Analysis, (2) Applied Behavioral Analysis,…

  14. Exploring socioecological correlates of active living in retirement village residents.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Andrea; Wood, Lisa; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2014-01-01

    This study explored individual, social, and built environmental attributes in and outside of the retirement village setting and associations with various active living outcomes including objectively measured physical activity, specific walking behaviors, and social participation. Residents in Perth, Australia (N = 323), were surveyed on environmental perceptions of the village and surrounding neighborhood, self-reported physical activity, and demographic characteristics and wore accelerometers. Managers (N = 32) were surveyed on village characteristics, and objective neighborhood measures were generated in a Geographic Information System (GIS). Results indicated that built- and social-environmental attributes within and outside of retirement villages were associated with active living among residents; however, salient attributes varied depending on the specific outcome considered. Findings suggest that locating villages close to destinations is important for walking and that locating them close to previous and familiar neighborhoods is important for social participation. Further understanding and consideration into retirement village designs that promote both walking and social participation are needed.

  15. DNA secondary structure of the released strand stimulates WRN helicase action on forked duplexes without coordinate action of WRN exonuclease

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Byungchan; Bohr, Vilhelm A.

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} In this study, we investigated the effect of a DNA secondary structure on the two WRN activities. {yields} We found that a DNA secondary structure of the displaced strand during unwinding stimulates WRN helicase without coordinate action of WRN exonuclease. {yields} These results imply that WRN helicase and exonuclease activities can act independently. -- Abstract: Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive premature aging disorder characterized by aging-related phenotypes and genomic instability. WS is caused by mutations in a gene encoding a nuclear protein, Werner syndrome protein (WRN), a member of the RecQ helicase family, that interestingly possesses both helicase and exonuclease activities. Previous studies have shown that the two activities act in concert on a single substrate. We investigated the effect of a DNA secondary structure on the two WRN activities and found that a DNA secondary structure of the displaced strand during unwinding stimulates WRN helicase without coordinate action of WRN exonuclease. These results imply that WRN helicase and exonuclease activities can act independently, and we propose that the uncoordinated action may be relevant to the in vivo activity of WRN.

  16. Prescribing Activities that Engage Passive Residents. An Innovative Method

    PubMed Central

    Kolanowski, Ann; Buettner, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with dementia are often passive, which places them at risk for further cognitive and functional decline. Recreational activities have been used in research to reduce passive behaviors, but systematic reviews of these studies have found modest effect sizes for many activities. In this article, we describe the further theoretical development of an innovative method for prescribing activities that have a high likelihood of engaging nursing home residents who are passive and present examples for research application and clinical practice. This method may increase the effect size of activity interventions and encourage more widespread adoption of nonpharmacological interventions in practice. PMID:18274300

  17. Human Exonuclease 5 Is a Novel Sliding Exonuclease Required for Genome Stability*

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, Justin L.; Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, Mayank; Wold, Marc S.; Pandita, Tej K.; Burgers, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we characterized Saccharomyces cerevisiae exonuclease 5 (EXO5), which is required for mitochondrial genome maintenance. Here, we identify the human homolog (C1orf176; EXO5) that functions in the repair of nuclear DNA damage. Human EXO5 (hEXO5) contains an iron-sulfur cluster. It is a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-specific bidirectional exonuclease with a strong preference for 5′-ends. After loading at an ssDNA end, hEXO5 slides extensively along the ssDNA prior to cutting, hence the designation sliding exonuclease. However, the single-stranded binding protein human replication protein A (hRPA) restricts sliding and enforces a unique, species-specific 5′-directionality onto hEXO5. This specificity is lost with a mutant form of hRPA (hRPA-t11) that fails to interact with hEXO5. hEXO5 localizes to nuclear repair foci in response to DNA damage, and its depletion in human cells leads to an increased sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents, in particular interstrand cross-linking-inducing agents. Depletion of hEXO5 also results in an increase in spontaneous and damage-induced chromosome abnormalities including the frequency of triradial chromosomes, suggesting an additional defect in the resolution of stalled DNA replication forks in hEXO5-depleted cells. PMID:23095756

  18. Crystal structure of the protein from Arabidopsis thaliana gene At5g06450, a putative DnaQ-like exonuclease domain-containing protein with homohexameric assembly

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joon Sung; Kim, Kyung Rok; Yeom, Taeho; Lee, Ji Yeon; Kim, Do Jin; Bingman, Craig A.; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Jo, Kyubong; Han, Byung Woo; Phillips, George N.

    2015-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana gene At5g06450 encodes a putative DnaQ-like 3′-5′ exonuclease domain-containing protein (AtDECP). The DnaQ-like 3′-5′ exonuclease domain is often found as a proofreading domain of DNA polymerases. The overall structure of AtDECP adopts an RNase H fold that consists of a mixed β-sheet flanked by α-helices. Interestingly, AtDECP forms a homohexameric assembly with a central 6-fold symmetry, generating a central cavity. The ring-shaped structure and comparison with WRN-exo, the best structural homologue of AtDECP, suggest a possible mechanism for implementing its exonuclease activity using positively charged patch on the N-terminal side of the homohexameric assembly. The homohexameric structure of AtDECP provides unique information about the interaction between the DnaQ-like 3′-5′ exonuclease and its substrate nucleic acids. PMID:23616405

  19. Crystal structure of the protein from Arabidopsis thaliana gene At5g06450, a putative DnaQ-like exonuclease domain-containing protein with homohexameric assembly.

    PubMed

    Smith, David W; Han, Mi Ra; Park, Joon Sung; Kim, Kyung Rok; Yeom, Taeho; Lee, Ji Yeon; Kim, Do Jin; Bingman, Craig A; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Jo, Kyubong; Han, Byung Woo; Phillips, George N

    2013-09-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana gene At5g06450 encodes a putative DnaQ-like 3'-5' exonuclease domain-containing protein (AtDECP). The DnaQ-like 3'-5' exonuclease domain is often found as a proofreading domain of DNA polymerases. The overall structure of AtDECP adopts an RNase H fold that consists of a mixed β-sheet flanked by α-helices. Interestingly, AtDECP forms a homohexameric assembly with a central six fold symmetry, generating a central cavity. The ring-shaped structure and comparison with WRN-exo, the best structural homologue of AtDECP, suggest a possible mechanism for implementing its exonuclease activity using positively charged patch on the N-terminal side of the homohexameric assembly. The homohexameric structure of AtDECP provides unique information about the interaction between the DnaQ-like 3'-5' exonuclease and its substrate nucleic acids.

  20. Purification and characterization of DNase VII, a 3'. -->. 5'-directed exonuclease from human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Hollis, G.F.; Grossman, L.

    1981-01-01

    An exonuclease, DNase VII, has been purified 6000-fold from human placenta. The enzyme has an apparent molecular weight of 43,000, requires Mg/sup 2 +/ for activity, and has a pH optimum of 7.8. The enzyme hydrolyzes single-stranded and nicked duplex DNA at the same rate proceeding in a 3' ..-->.. 5' direction liberating 5'-mononucleotides. It does not measurably hydrolyze polyribonucleotides.

  1. Crystal structures of [lamda] exonuclease in complex with DNA suggest an electrostatic ratchet mechanism for processivity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jinjin; McCabe, Kimberly A.; Bell, Charles E.

    2011-07-19

    The {lambda} exonuclease is an ATP-independent enzyme that binds to dsDNA ends and processively digests the 5'-ended strand to form 5' mononucleotides and a long 3' overhang. The crystal structure of {lambda} exonuclease revealed a toroidal homotrimer with a central funnel-shaped channel for tracking along the DNA, and a mechanism for processivity based on topological linkage of the trimer to the DNA was proposed. Here, we have determined the crystal structure of {lambda} exonuclease in complex with DNA at 1.88-{angstrom} resolution. The structure reveals that the enzyme unwinds the DNA prior to cleavage, such that two nucleotides of the 5'-ended strand insert into the active site of one subunit of the trimer, while the 3'-ended strand passes through the central channel to emerge out the back of the trimer. Unwinding of the DNA is facilitated by several apolar residues, including Leu78, that wedge into the base pairs at the single/double-strand junction to form favorable hydrophobic interactions. The terminal 5' phosphate of the DNA binds to a positively charged pocket buried at the end of the active site, while the scissile phosphate bridges two active site Mg{sup 2+} ions. Our data suggest a mechanism for processivity in which wedging of Leu78 and other apolar residues into the base pairs of the DNA restricts backward movement, whereas attraction of the 5' phosphate to the positively charged pocket drives forward movement of the enzyme along the DNA at each cycle of the reaction. Thus, processivity of {lambda} exonuclease operates not only at the level of the trimer, but also at the level of the monomer.

  2. Understanding the challenges to facilitating active learning in the resident conferences: a qualitative study of internal medicine faculty and resident perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sawatsky, Adam P; Zickmund, Susan L; Berlacher, Kathryn; Lesky, Dan; Granieri, Rosanne

    2015-01-01

    Background In the Next Accreditation System, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education outlines milestones for medical knowledge and requires regular didactic sessions in residency training. There are many challenges to facilitating active learning in resident conferences, and we need to better understand resident learning preferences and faculty perspectives on facilitating active learning. The goal of this study was to identify challenges to facilitating active learning in resident conferences, both through identifying specific implementation barriers and identifying differences in perspective between faculty and residents on effective teaching and learning strategies. Methods The investigators invited core residency faculty to participate in focus groups. The investigators used a semistructured guide to facilitate discussion about learning preferences and teaching perspectives in the conference setting and used an 'editing approach' within a grounded theory framework to qualitative analysis to code the transcripts and analyze the results. Data were compared to previously collected data from seven resident focus groups. Results Three focus groups with 20 core faculty were conducted. We identified three domains pertaining to facilitating active learning in resident conferences: barriers to facilitating active learning formats, similarities and differences in faculty and resident learning preferences, and divergence between faculty and resident opinions about effective teaching strategies. Faculty identified several setting, faculty, and resident barriers to facilitating active learning in resident conferences. When compared to residents, faculty expressed similar learning preferences; the main differences were in motivations for conference attendance and type of content. Resident preferences and faculty perspectives differed on the amount of information appropriate for lecture and the role of active participation in resident conferences. Conclusion

  3. Nucleotide sequence of polypyrimidines from cloned mouse DNA as determined by base-specific blockage of exonuclease action

    SciTech Connect

    Deugau, K.V.; Mitchel, R.E.J.; Birnboim, H.C.

    1983-01-01

    Cloned fragments of mouse DNA have been screened for the presence of long polypyrimidine/polypurine segments. The polypyrimidine portion of one such segment (about 2000 nucleotides in length) has been isolated by acidic depurination of the entire cloned fragment and plasmid vector followed by selective precipitation and 5'-/sup 32/P labeling. This polypyrimidine has been used to demonstrate a new procedure for sequencing. Covalent modification of thymine with a water-soluble carbodiimide, or cytosine with glutaric anhydride, at low levels blocked in the action of snake venom exonuclease. After deblocking, separation of the products of digestion by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis yields a sequence ladder which can be used to determine the position of C and T residues as in other sequencing methods. A sequence of 72 residues adjacent to the 5' end had been established, consisting principally of the repeating tetranucleotide (CCTT)n. A low ratio of endonuclease to exonuclease is essential for application of this method to sequences of this size. Accordingly, a very sensitive modification of a fluorometric endonuclease assay was developed and used to optimize pH and Mg/sup 2 +/ conditions to favor exonuclease activity over the accompanying endonuclease activity. The results clearly indicate that long polypyrimidine tracts can be efficiently prepared and their sequences determined with this method using commercially available exonuclease preparations without additional purification. 26 references, 5 figures.

  4. Balancing act: approaches to healthy eating and physical activity among Boston public housing residents.

    PubMed

    Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen; Torres, Shioban; Wayman, Julie; Greenwood, Nechama; Thomas, Gerry; Kozlowski, Lauren; Bowen, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Boston public housing residents are more likely to report fair or poor health status, been diagnosed with obesity, and to be physically inactive compared with other Boston residents (Digenis-Bury, Brooks, Chen, Ostrem, & Horsburgh, 2008 ). Little is known about perceptions of and opportunities for healthy eating and physical activity in this population. We conducted eight focus groups at public housing developments to explore residents' views regarding opportunities and barriers to healthy eating and physical activity. Sixty-seven English- and Spanish-speaking residents participated. Transcripts were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. All residents described the challenge of balancing considerations of food quality, access, and affordability. Other findings included underutilized nutritional resources; abundant availability of unhealthy food; and economic and structural barriers to exercise. Transportation-related challenges were a dominant theme. Building opportunities for physical activity and providing access to affordable and quality food choices may be important interventions for promoting health among public housing residents.

  5. Biomarker monitoring of a population residing near uranium mining activities.

    PubMed Central

    Au, W W; Lane, R G; Legator, M S; Whorton, E B; Wilkinson, G S; Gabehart, G J

    1995-01-01

    We investigated whether residents residing near uranium mining operations (target population), who are potentially exposed to toxicants from mining waste, have increased genotoxic effects compared with people residing elsewhere (reference population). Population surveys were conducted, and 24 target and 24 reference residents were selected. The selected subjects and controls were matched on age and gender and they were nonsmokers. Blood samples were collected for laboratory studies. The standard cytogenetic assay was used to determine chromosome aberration frequencies, and the challenge assay was used to investigate DNA repair responses. We found that individuals who resided near uranium mining operations had a higher mean frequency of cells with chromosome aberrations and higher deletion frequency but lower dicentric frequency than the reference group, although the difference was not statistically significant. After cells were challenged by exposure to gamma-rays, the target population had a significantly higher frequency of cells with chromosome aberrations and deletion frequency than the reference group. The latter observation is indicative of abnormal DNA repair response in the target population. PMID:7656876

  6. Assessment of Activity Priorities and Design Preferences of Elderly Residents in Public Housing: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasar, Jack L.; Farokhpay, Mitra

    1985-01-01

    Presents a technique for assessing elderly residents' priorities and desired environmental characteristics for in-unit activities. Considered three components in design priority for activities: time spent, unit adequacy, and importance. Residents' high priority activites were sleeping, watching television, preparing food, resting, and eating. (NRB)

  7. The Impact of Library Resources and Services on the Scholarly Activity of Medical Faculty and Residents.

    PubMed

    Quesenberry, Alexandria C; Oelschlegel, Sandy; Earl, Martha; Leonard, Kelsey; Vaughn, Cynthia J

    2016-01-01

    Librarians at an academic medical center library gathered data to determine if library services and resources impacted scholarly activity. A survey was developed and sent out to faculty and residents asking how they used the library during scholarly activity. Sixty-five faculty members and residents responded to the survey. The majority of respondents involved with scholarly activity use the library's services and resources. PubMed is the most frequently used database. The positive results show the library impacts the scholarly activity of medical faculty and residents.

  8. Competency-based medical education and scholarship: Creating an active academic culture during residency.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, James A; Hategan, Ana; Azzam, Amin

    2015-10-01

    The competency-based medical education movement has been adopted in several medical education systems across the world. This has the potential to result in a more active involvement of residents in the educational process, inasmuch as scholarship is regarded as a major area of competency. Substantial scholarly activities are well within the reach of motivated residents, especially when faculty members provide sufficient mentoring. These academically empowered residents have the advantage of early experience in the areas of scholarly discovery, integration, application, and teaching. Herein, the authors review the importance of instituting the germinal stages of scholarly productivity in the creation of an active scholarly culture during residency. Clear and consistent institutional and departmental strategies to promote scholarly development during residency are highly encouraged.

  9. Evaluating the Workload of On-Call Psychiatry Residents: Which Activities Are Associated with Sleep Loss?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Brian K.; Cooke, Erinn O.; Sharfstein, Steven S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to review the workload inventory of on-call psychiatry residents and to evaluate which activities were associated with reductions in on-call sleep. Method: A prospective cohort study was conducted, following 20 psychiatry residents at a 231-bed psychiatry hospital, from July 1, 2008 through June 30, 2009.…

  10. WRN Exonuclease Structure, Molecular Mechanism, and DNA EndProcessing Role

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, J. Jefferson P.; Yannone, Steven M.; Holden, Lauren G.; Hitomi, Chiharu; Asaithamby, Aroumougame; Han, Seungil; Cooper, PriscillaK.; Chen, David J.; Tainer, John A.

    2006-02-15

    WRN is unique among the five human RecQ DNA helicases by having a functional exonuclease domain (WRN-exo) and being defective in the premature aging and cancer-related disorder Werner syndrome. Here, we characterize WRN-exo crystal structures, biochemical activity and participation in DNA end-joining. Metal ion complex structures, active site mutations and activity assays reveal a two-metal-ion mediated nuclease mechanism. The DNA end-binding Ku70/80 complex specifically stimulates WRN-exo activity, and structure-based mutational inactivation of WRN-exo alters DNA end-joining in human cells. We furthermore establish structural and biochemical similarities of WRN-exo to DnaQ family replicative proofreading exonucleases, with WRN-specific adaptations consistent with dsDNA specificity and functionally important conformational changes. These results indicate WRN-exo is a human DnaQ family member and support analogous proof-reading activities that are stimulated by Ku70/80 with implications for WRN functions in age related pathologies and maintenance of genomic integrity.

  11. Increasing enjoyable activities to treat depression in nursing home residents with dementia: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Travers, Catherine

    2017-02-01

    This pilot study aimed to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a behavioral activities intervention (BE-ACTIV) in Australian nursing homes. BE-ACTIV was developed by researchers at the University of Louisville, USA, to improve mood and quality of life (QOL) in nursing home residents with mild to moderate dementia. An eight-week trial was conducted and 10 residents with mild to moderate dementia received the BE-ACTIV intervention while eight residents received a Walking and Talking intervention. Measures of depression (GDS-12R) and QOL (QOL-AD-NH) were administered prior to and following the interventions. Qualitative feedback indicated residents benefited from BE-ACTIV, evident by improved mood, although no statistically significant treatment effect was found. Moreover, the intervention was found to be feasible and acceptable to Australian nursing home staff and our findings highlight the importance of individualizing activities for people with dementia, of which 1:1 staff attention was a key component.

  12. Identification of two conserved aspartic acid residues required for DNA digestion by a novel thermophilic Exonuclease VII in Thermotoga maritima

    PubMed Central

    Larrea, Andres A.; Pedroso, Ilene M.; Malhotra, Arun; Myers, Richard S.

    2008-01-01

    Exonuclease VII was first identified in 1974 as a DNA exonuclease that did not require any divalent cations for activity. Indeed, Escherichia coli ExoVII was identified in partially purified extracts in the presence of EDTA. ExoVII is comprised of two subunits (XseA and XseB) that are highly conserved and present in most sequenced prokaryotic genomes, but are not seen in eukaryotes. To better understand this exonuclease family, we have characterized an ExoVII homolog from Thermotoga maritima. Thermotoga maritima XseA/B homologs TM1768 and TM1769 were co-expressed and purified, and show robust nuclease activity at 80°C. This activity is magnesium dependent and is inhibited by phosphate ions, which distinguish it from E. coli ExoVII. Nevertheless, both E. coli and T. maritima ExoVII share a similar putative active site motif with two conserved aspartate residues in the large (XseA/TM1768) subunit. We show that these residues, Asp235 and Asp240, are essential for the nuclease activity of T. maritima ExoVII. We hypothesize that the ExoVII family of nucleases can be sub-divided into two sub-families based on EDTA resistance and that T. maritima ExoVII is the first member of the branch that is characterized by EDTA sensitivity and inhibition by phosphate. PMID:18812402

  13. [Participation of one children hospital residents in scientific and training activities of Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría].

    PubMed

    Davenport, María Carolina; Domínguez, Paula Alejandra; Martins, Andrea Elizabeth

    2012-04-01

    The Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría, SAP (Argentine Society of Pediatrics) offers courses and scientific activities for pediatricians and residents. We evaluated the participation of Pedro de Elizalde Hospital residents in the scientific and training activities of SAP and assessed the trend of participation throughout the residency; 107 residents were surveyed; 48% were members, and the participation increased significantly throughout the residence (p <0.01). None of the surveyed residents were part of any association; 84% did not know the "Pediatricians in Training Group"; 49% participated in continued training programs, with a growing tendency to participation through-out the residency (p <0.01); 80% considered that the SAP is a friendly entity. We concluded that participation of residents in the SAP is scarce during the first two years of training, and that it shows a growth in the senior residents' group. Encouraging the interest of first and second year residents in the activities is necessary.

  14. Improving Diet and Physical Activity Practices in Group Homes Serving Residents With Severe Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Glen; Ziegahn, Linda; Schuyler, Barlow; Rowlett, Al; Cassady, Diana

    2011-01-01

    Background People with severe mental illness (SMI) are at least 50% more likely to be overweight for various reasons, including poor nutrition, sedentary lifestyles, and side effects of antipsychotic medications. Objectives Among residents with SMI who live in group homes, we examined (1) factors that affected the motivations of both group home operators and residents around improvement of residents' diet and physical activity, (2) how operators and residents viewed responsibility for maintaining good health in group homes, and (3) strategies from operators and residents for improving diet and exercise. Methods The research team conducted 6 focus groups—3 with group home operators and 3 with residents, using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) process and qualitative data analysis. Results Both group home operators and residents discussed conflicting feelings about foods they know as healthy and foods they prefer to eat. Operators attributed barriers to better health to the perceived negative attitudes of residents and providers, lack of communication with health care providers, and poor working relationships with the state licensing body that protects individual rights on lifestyle choices. Residents reported barriers of their own negative attitudes, limited menu options, lack of organized activities, existing health problems, and side effects of medications. Conclusion Residents and operators had concrete suggestions for changes they could make individually, as well as recommendations for systemic changes to support healthier lifestyles. These recommendations provide a basis for designing an urgently needed pilot intervention program to address the current epidemic of obesity and diabetes in people with SMI residing in group homes. PMID:21169705

  15. Characterization of human herpesvirus 6A/B U94 as ATPase, helicase, exonuclease and DNA-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Trempe, Frédéric; Gravel, Annie; Dubuc, Isabelle; Wallaschek, Nina; Collin, Vanessa; Gilbert-Girard, Shella; Morissette, Guillaume; Kaufer, Benedikt B.; Flamand, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Human herpesvirus-6A (HHV-6A) and HHV-6B integrate their genomes into the telomeres of human chromosomes, however, the mechanisms leading to integration remain unknown. HHV-6A/B encode a protein that has been proposed to be involved in integration termed U94, an ortholog of adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2) Rep68 integrase. In this report, we addressed whether purified recombinant maltose-binding protein (MBP)-U94 fusion proteins of HHV-6A/B possess biological functions compatible with viral integration. We could demonstrate that MBP-U94 efficiently binds both dsDNA and ssDNA containing telomeric repeats using gel shift assay and surface plasmon resonance. MBP-U94 is also able to hydrolyze adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to ADP, providing the energy for further catalytic activities. In addition, U94 displays a 3′ to 5′ exonuclease activity on dsDNA with a preference for 3′-recessed ends. Once the DNA strand reaches 8–10 nt in length, the enzyme dissociates it from the complementary strand. Lastly, MBP-U94 compromises the integrity of a synthetic telomeric D-loop through exonuclease attack at the 3′ end of the invading strand. The preferential DNA binding of MBP-U94 to telomeric sequences, its ability to hydrolyze ATP and its exonuclease/helicase activities suggest that U94 possesses all functions required for HHV-6A/B chromosomal integration. PMID:25999342

  16. Active learning: a resident's reflection on the impact of a student-centred curriculum.

    PubMed

    Mickelson, Jennie J; Kaplan, William E; Macneily, Andrew E

    2009-10-01

    Classic medical education pedagogy typically involves the model of an active teacher and a passive student. There has been a shift in education theory to a more student-centred approach, and this is being reflected in resident education. Concepts, such as "competencies," "curricula" and "objectives," are becoming part of the fabric of the residency training equation. The University of British Columbia Department of Urologic Sciences had previously created a urology residency curriculum for its 15 residents in 2000. This curriculum was based on competencies and objectives outlined by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. In an attempt to address a required change in the formal curriculum, an "accidental" student-centred curriculum emerged. This paper outlines this active learning approach, its benefits and challenges in implementation.

  17. Immobilization of Lambda Exonuclease onto Polymer Micropillar Arrays for the Solid-Phase Digestion of dsDNAs

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The process of immobilizing enzymes onto solid supports for bioreactions has some compelling advantages compared to their solution-based counterpart including the facile separation of enzyme from products, elimination of enzyme autodigestion, and increased enzyme stability and activity. We report the immobilization of λ-exonuclease onto poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) micropillars populated within a microfluidic device for the on-chip digestion of double-stranded DNA. Enzyme immobilization was successfully accomplished using 3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) coupling to carboxylic acid functionalized PMMA micropillars. Our results suggest that the efficiency for the catalysis of dsDNA digestion using λ-exonuclease, including its processivity and reaction rate, were higher when the enzyme was attached to a solid support compared to the free solution digestion. We obtained a clipping rate of 1.0 × 103 nucleotides s–1 for the digestion of λ-DNA (48.5 kbp) by λ-exonuclease. The kinetic behavior of the solid-phase reactor could be described by a fractal Michaelis–Menten model with a catalytic efficiency nearly 17% better than the homogeneous solution-phase reaction. The results from this work will have important ramifications in new single-molecule DNA sequencing strategies that employ free mononucleotide identification. PMID:24628008

  18. Feasibility of providing computer activities for nursing home residents with dementia

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Cornelia; Hong, Song Hee

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nursing home residents with dementia need cognitively stimulating and enjoyable activities, and computer technology offers them a means of engaging in such activities. This study therefore examined the feasibility of providing a 12-week computer activity program (CAP) for nursing homes residents with dementia. Methods Fourteen participants completed the CAP, and 462 observational logs of CAP sessions were analyzed. Results On average, participants completed 33 sessions amounting to 936.5 minutes over 12 weeks. Participants with mild and moderate dementia preferred playing a cognitively challenging game such as solitaire, while those with severe dementia enjoyed watching slideshows with music. Conclusion The findings suggest that it is important to match computer activities to interests and cognitive ability in order to increase participation and satisfaction of NH residents with dementia. PMID:25343006

  19. THE EFFECT OF GAMBLING ACTIVITIES ON HAPPINESS LEVELS OF NURSING HOME RESIDENTS

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Mark R; Nastally, Becky L; Waterman, Amber

    2010-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effect of participating in simulated gambling activities on happiness levels of 3 nursing home residents. A 4-component analysis was used to measure objective responses associated with happiness during baseline, varying durations of engagement in simulated gambling activities, and 2 follow-up periods. Results indicated that all residents exhibited a higher percentage of happiness levels while engaged in simulated gambling activities compared with baseline. Follow-up assessment took place 10 min and 30 min following the intervention; no lasting effects were observed. PMID:21358915

  20. Kinetics and thermodynamics of exonuclease-deficient DNA polymerases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspard, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    A kinetic theory is developed for exonuclease-deficient DNA polymerases, based on the experimental observation that the rates depend not only on the newly incorporated nucleotide, but also on the previous one, leading to the growth of Markovian DNA sequences from a Bernoullian template. The dependencies on nucleotide concentrations and template sequence are explicitly taken into account. In this framework, the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of DNA replication, in particular, the mean growth velocity, the error probability, and the entropy production are calculated analytically in terms of the rate constants and the concentrations. Theory is compared with numerical simulations for the DNA polymerases of T7 viruses and human mitochondria.

  1. The Effect of Gambling Activities on Happiness Levels of Nursing Home Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Mark R.; Nastally, Becky L.; Waterman, Amber

    2010-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effect of participating in simulated gambling activities on happiness levels of 3 nursing home residents. A 4-component analysis was used to measure objective responses associated with happiness during baseline, varying durations of engagement in simulated gambling activities, and 2 follow-up periods. Results…

  2. 78 FR 20497 - Political Activity-Federal Employees Residing in Designated Localities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... partisan political office in accordance with the conditions specified in 5 CFR 733.103--733.106. The... MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 733 RIN 3206-AM80 Political Activity--Federal Employees Residing in Designated... Columbia a partial exemption from the political activity restrictions and adding the District of...

  3. Exonuclease TREX1 degrades double-stranded DNA to prevent spontaneous lupus-like inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Grieves, Jessica L; Fye, Jason M; Harvey, Scott; Grayson, Jason M; Hollis, Thomas; Perrino, Fred W

    2015-04-21

    The TREX1 gene encodes a potent DNA exonuclease, and mutations in TREX1 cause a spectrum of lupus-like autoimmune diseases. Most lupus patients develop autoantibodies to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), but the source of DNA antigen is unknown. The TREX1 D18N mutation causes a monogenic, cutaneous form of lupus called familial chilblain lupus, and the TREX1 D18N enzyme exhibits dysfunctional dsDNA-degrading activity, providing a link between dsDNA degradation and nucleic acid-mediated autoimmune disease. We determined the structure of the TREX1 D18N protein in complex with dsDNA, revealing how this exonuclease uses a novel DNA-unwinding mechanism to separate the polynucleotide strands for single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) loading into the active site. The TREX1 D18N dsDNA interactions coupled with catalytic deficiency explain how this mutant nuclease prevents dsDNA degradation. We tested the effects of TREX1 D18N in vivo by replacing the TREX1 WT gene in mice with the TREX1 D18N allele. The TREX1 D18N mice exhibit systemic inflammation, lymphoid hyperplasia, vasculitis, and kidney disease. The observed lupus-like inflammatory disease is associated with immune activation, production of autoantibodies to dsDNA, and deposition of immune complexes in the kidney. Thus, dysfunctional dsDNA degradation by TREX1 D18N induces disease in mice that recapitulates many characteristics of human lupus. Failure to clear DNA has long been linked to lupus in humans, and these data point to dsDNA as a key substrate for TREX1 and a major antigen source in mice with dysfunctional TREX1 enzyme.

  4. Exonuclease VII is involved in "reckless" DNA degradation in UV-irradiated Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Repar, Jelena; Briški, Nina; Buljubašić, Maja; Zahradka, Ksenija; Zahradka, Davor

    2013-01-20

    The recA mutants of Escherichia coli exhibit an abnormal DNA degradation that starts at sites of double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs), and is mediated by RecBCD exonuclease (ExoV). This "reckless" DNA degradation occurs spontaneously in exponentially growing recA cells, and is stimulated by DNA-damaging agents. We have previously found that the xonA and sbcD mutations, which inactivate exonuclease I (ExoI) and SbcCD nuclease, respectively, markedly suppress "reckless" DNA degradation in UV-irradiated recA cells. In the present work, we show that inactivation of exonuclease VII (ExoVII) by an xseA mutation contributes to attenuation of DNA degradation in UV-irradiated recA mutants. The xseA mutation itself has only a weak effect, however, it acts synergistically with the xonA or sbcD mutations in suppressing "reckless" DNA degradation. The quadruple xseA xonA sbcD recA mutants show no sign of DNA degradation during post-irradiation incubation, suggesting that ExoVII, together with ExoI and SbcCD, plays a crucial role in regulating RecBCD-catalyzed chromosome degradation. We propose that these nucleases act on DSBs to create blunt DNA ends, the preferred substrates for the RecBCD enzyme. In addition, our results show that in UV-irradiated recF recA(+) cells, the xseA, xonA, and sbcD mutations do not affect RecBCD-mediated DNA repair, suggesting that ExoVII, ExoI and SbcCD nucleases are not essential for the initial targeting of RecBCD to DSBs. It is possible that the DNA-blunting activity provided by ExoVII, ExoI and SbcCD is required for an exchange of RecBCD molecules on dsDNA ends during ongoing "reckless" DNA degradation.

  5. 77 FR 26659 - Political Activity-Federal Employees Residing in Designated Localities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... employees residing in King George County, Virginia, a partial exemption from the political activity restrictions in the Hatch Act, and to add King George County to its regulatory list of designated localities. The amendment reflects OPM's determination that King George County meets the criteria in the Hatch...

  6. Primary Care Resident Training for Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Counseling: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Antognoli, Elizabeth L; Seeholzer, Eileen L; Gullett, Heidi; Jackson, Brigid; Smith, Samantha; Flocke, Susan A

    2016-07-08

    National guidelines have been established to support the role of primary care physicians in addressing obesity. Preparing primary care residents to recognize and treat overweight/obesity has been identified as an essential component of postgraduate medical training that is currently lacking. This study aims to identify how primary care residency programs are preparing physicians to counsel about obesity, nutrition, and physical activity (ONPA) and to examine program members' perspectives regarding the place of ONPA counseling in the curriculum, and its relevance in primary care training. Using mixed methods, we collected and analyzed data on 25 family medicine, internal medicine, and obstetrics/gynecology residency programs across Ohio. Programs averaged 2.8 hours of ONPA-related didactics per year. Ten programs (42%) taught techniques for health behavior counseling. Having any ONPA-related didactics was associated with greater counseling knowledge (p = .01) among residents but poorer attitudes (p < .001) and poorer perceived professional norms (p = .004) toward ONPA counseling. Findings from interview data highlighted similar perceived barriers to ONPA counseling across all three specialties but variation in perception of responsibility to provide ONPA counseling. While widespread expectations that primary care physicians counsel their overweight and obese patients prevail, few residency programs provide training to support such counseling.

  7. Place of residence as a factor differentiating physical activity in the life style of Ukrainian students.

    PubMed

    Bergier, Józef; Bergier, Barbara; Tsos, Anatolii

    2016-12-23

    Determining the state of physical activity of societies as an important component of a health promoting life style is a very up-to-date problem. Studies of physical activity among students, the future elites in their environments, become of increasing importance. An important problem is the recognition of factors differentiating this activity on the example of place of residence. For this purpose, the study covered 2,125 students (60.8% females and 39.2% males) from the National Institute in Lutsk, Ukraine, aged 17-22 (mean age: 20.4). The method of a diagnostic survey was applied which included the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The following measures of physical activity according to the place of residence (rural area, small town with a population up to 100,000; medium-size town - 100,000-200,000 inhabitants; large city - over 200,000) were taken into consideration: level of physical activity, self-reported physical fitness, sports disciplines practiced by the respondents, and those which they would like to practice, and the BMI, and leisure time possessed. The study showed that the place of residence positively differentiated physical activity among students from medium-size towns and rural areas, compared to their contemporaries from small towns and large cities. Significant differences were also found with respect to the BMI, which was significantly less favourable among respondents from the rural environment. However, no differences were observed between the place of residence for leisure time, self-reported physical activity, and forms of physical activity practiced, and those which the respondents would like to practice.

  8. Effects of intergenerational Montessori-based activities programming on engagement of nursing home residents with dementia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Michelle M; Camp, Cameron J; Malone, Megan L

    2007-01-01

    Fourteen nursing home residents on a dementia special care unit at a skilled nursing facility took part in one-to-one intergenerational programming (IGP) with 15 preschool children from the facility’s on-site child care center. Montessori-based activities served as the interface for interactions between dyads. The amount of time residents demonstrated positive and negative forms of engagement during IGP and standard activities programming was assessed through direct observation using a tool developed for this purpose – the Myers Research Institute Engagement Scale (MRI-ES). These residents with dementia displayed the ability to successfully take part in IGP. Most successfully presented “lessons” to the children in their dyads, similar to the way that Montessori teachers present lessons to children, while persons with more severe cognitive impairment took part in IGP through other methods such as parallel play. Taking part in IGP was consistently related with higher levels of positive engagement and lower levels of negative forms of engagement in these residents with dementia than levels seen in standard activities programming on the unit. Implications of using this form of IGP, and directions for future research, are discussed. PMID:18044197

  9. Effects of intergenerational Montessori-based activities programming on engagement of nursing home residents with dementia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michelle M; Camp, Cameron J; Malone, Megan L

    2007-01-01

    Fourteen nursing home residents on a dementia special care unit at a skilled nursing facility took part in one-to-one intergenerational programming (IGP) with 15 preschool children from the facility's on-site child care center. Montessori-based activities served as the interface for interactions between dyads. The amount of time residents demonstrated positive and negative forms of engagement during IGP and standard activities programming was assessed through direct observation using a tool developed for this purpose--the Myers Research Institute Engagement Scale (MRI-ES). These residents with dementia displayed the ability to successfully take part in IGP. Most successfully presented "lessons" to the children in their dyads, similar to the way that Montessori teachers present lessons to children, while persons with more severe cognitive impairment took part in IGP through other methods such as parallel play. Taking part in IGP was consistently related with higher levels of positive engagement and lower levels of negative forms of engagement in these residents with dementia than levels seen in standard activities programming on the unit. Implications of using this form of IGP, and directions for future research, are discussed.

  10. Accessory proteins assist exonuclease-deficient bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase in replicating past an abasic site

    PubMed Central

    Blanca, Giuseppina; Delagoutte, Emmanuelle; Tanguy le gac, Nicolas; Johnson, Neil P.; Baldacci, Giuseppe; Villani, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    Replicative DNA polymerases, such as T4 polymerase, possess both elongation and 3′–5′ exonuclease proofreading catalytic activities. They arrest at the base preceding DNA damage on the coding DNA strand and specialized DNA polymerases have evolved to replicate across the lesion by a process known as TLS (translesion DNA synthesis). TLS is considered to take place in two steps that often require different enzymes, insertion of a nucleotide opposite the damaged template base followed by extension from the inserted nucleotide. We and others have observed that inactivation of the 3′–5′ exonuclease function of T4 polymerase enables TLS across a single site-specific abasic [AP (apurinic/apyrimidinic)] lesion. In the present study we report a role for auxiliary replicative factors in this reaction. When replication is performed with a large excess of DNA template over DNA polymerase in the absence of auxiliary factors, the exo− polymerase (T4 DNA polymerase deficient in the 3′–5′ exonuclease activity) inserts one nucleotide opposite the AP site but does not extend past the lesion. Addition of the clamp processivity factor and the clamp loader complex restores primer extension across an AP lesion on a circular AP-containing DNA substrate by the exo− polymerase, but has no effect on the wild-type enzyme. Hence T4 DNA polymerase exhibits a variety of responses to DNA damage. It can behave as a replicative polymerase or (in the absence of proofreading activity) as a specialized DNA polymerase and carry out TLS. As a specialized polymerase it can function either as an inserter or (with the help of accessory proteins) as an extender. The capacity to separate these distinct functions in a single DNA polymerase provides insight into the biochemical requirements for translesion DNA synthesis. PMID:17064253

  11. Directed evolution of nucleotide-based libraries using lambda exonuclease.

    PubMed

    Lim, Bee Nar; Choong, Yee Siew; Ismail, Asma; Glökler, Jörn; Konthur, Zoltán; Lim, Theam Soon

    2012-12-01

    Directed evolution of nucleotide libraries using recombination or mutagenesis is an important technique for customizing catalytic or biophysical traits of proteins. Conventional directed evolution methods, however, suffer from cumbersome digestion and ligation steps. Here, we describe a simple method to increase nucleotide diversity using single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) as a starting template. An initial PCR amplification using phosphorylated primers with overlapping regions followed by treatment with lambda exonuclease generates ssDNA templates that can then be annealed via the overlap regions. Double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) is then generated through extension with Klenow fragment. To demonstrate the applicability of this methodology for directed evolution of nucleotide libraries, we generated both gene shuffled and regional mutagenesis synthetic antibody libraries with titers of 2×108 and 6×107, respectively. We conclude that our method is an efficient and convenient approach to generate diversity in nucleic acid based libraries, especially recombinant antibody libraries.

  12. Length of Residence and Vehicle Ownership in Relation to Physical Activity Among U.S. Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Terasaki, Dale; Ornelas, India; Saelens, Brian

    2017-04-01

    Physical activity among U.S. immigrants over time is not well understood. Transportation may affect this trajectory. Using a survey of documented immigrants (N = 7240), we performed simple, then multivariable logistic regression to calculate ORs and 95 % CIs between length of residence (LOR) and both light-to-moderate (LPA) and vigorous (VPA) activity. We adjusted for demographic variables, then vehicle ownership to assess changes in ORs. Compared to new arrivals, all four LOR time-intervals were associated with lower odds of LPA and higher odds of VPA in simple analysis. All ORs for LPA remained significant after including demographics, but only one remained significant after adding vehicle ownership. Two ORs for VPA remained significant after including demographics and after adding vehicle ownership. Immigrants lower their light-to-moderate activity the longer they reside in the U.S., partly from substituting driving for walking. Efforts to maintain walking for transportation among immigrants are warranted.

  13. The RecJ2 Protein in the Thermophilic Archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum Is a 3' 5' Exonuclease and Associates with a DNA Replication Complex.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Hiromi; Ishino, Sonoko; Kohda, Daisuke; Ishino, Yoshizumi

    2017-03-16

    RecJ/cell division cycle 45 (Cdc45) proteins are widely conserved in the three domains of life, i.e., in Bacteria, Eukarya and Archaea. Bacterial RecJ is a 5' 3' exonuclease and functions in DNA repair pathways, while using its 5' 3' exonuclease activity. Eukaryotic Cdc45 has no identified enzymatic activity, but participates in the CMG complex so named because it is composed of Cdc45, minichromosome maintenance protein complex (MCM) proteins 2-7, and GINS complex proteins (Sld5, Psf11 to 3). Eukaryotic Cdc45 and bacterial/archaeal RecJ share similar amino acid sequences and are considered functional counterparts. In Archaea, a RecJ homolog in Thermococcus kodakarensis was shown to associate with GINS and accelerate its nuclease activity and was therefore designated GAN (GINS-associated nuclease); however, to date, no archaeal RecJ MCM GINS complex has been isolated. The thermophilic archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum has two RecJ like proteins, designated TaRecJ1 and TaRecJ2. TaRecJ1 exhibited DNA-specific 5' 3'exonuclease activity, while TaRecJ2 had 3' 5' exonuclease activity and preferred RNA over DNA. TaRecJ2, but not TaRecJ1, formed a stable complex with TaGINS in a 2:1 molar ratio. Furthermore, the TaRecJ2-TaGINS complex stimulated activity of TaMCM helicase in vitro, and the TaRecJ2-TaMCM-TaGINS complex was also observed in vivo. However, TaRecJ2 did not interact with TaMCM directly and was not required for the helicase activation in vitro. These findings suggest that the function of archaeal RecJ in DNA replication evolved divergently from Cdc45 despite conservation of the CMG-like complex formation between Archaea and Eukarya.

  14. Psychometric Properties of the Modified RESIDE Physical Activity Questionnaire among Low-Income Overweight Women

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sydney A.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Johnston, Larry F.; Trost, Stewart G.; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen; Jewell, David A.; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L.; Keyserling, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study explored the criterion-related validity and test-retest reliability of the modified RESIDential Enviroment (RESIDE) physical activity questionnaire and whether the instrument’s validity varied by body mass index (BMI), education, race/ethnicity, or employment status. Design Validation study using baseline data collected for randomized trial of a weight loss intervention. Method Participants recruited from health departments wore an ActiGraph accelerometer and self-reported non-occupational walking, moderate and vigorous physical activity on the modified RESIDE questionnaire. We assessed validity (n=152) using Spearman correlation coefficients (SCC), and reliability (n=57) using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Results When compared to steps, moderate physical activity, and bouts of moderate/vigorous physical activity measured by accelerometer, these questionnaire measures showed fair evidence for validity: recreational walking (SCC 0.23–0.36), total walking (SCC 0.24–0.37), and total moderate physical activity (SCC 0.18–0.36). Correlations for self-reported walking and moderate physical activity were higher among unemployed participants and women with lower BMIs. Generally no other variability in the validity of the instrument was found. Evidence for reliability of RESIDE measures of recreational walking, total walking, and total moderate physical activity was substantial (ICC 0.56–0.68). Conclusions Evidence for questionnaire validity and reliability varied by activity domain and was strongest for walking measures. The questionnaire may capture physical activity less accurately among women with higher BMIs and employed participants. Capturing occupational activity, specifically walking at work, may improve questionnaire validity. PMID:24462117

  15. Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Exposure and Subjective Symptoms in Residents Participating in Clean-Up Activities

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Lee, Jong Seong; Kwon, Hojang; Ha, Eun-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Choi, Yeyong; Jeong, Woo-Chul; Hur, Jongil; Lee, Seung-Min; Kim, Eun-Jung; Im, Hosub

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to examine the relationship between crude oil exposure and physical symptoms among residents participating in clean-up work associated with the Hebei Spirit oil spill, 2007 in Korea. Methods A total of 288 residents responded to a questionnaire regarding subjective physical symptoms, sociodemographic characteristics and clean-up activities that occurred between two and eight weeks after the accident. Additionally, the urine of 154 of the respondents was analyzed for metabolites of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals. To compare the urinary levels of exposure biomarkers, the urine of 39 inland residents who were not directly exposed to the oil spill were analyzed. Results Residents exposed to oil remnants through clean-up work showed associations between physical symptoms and the exposure levels defined in various ways, including days of work, degree of skin contamination, and levels of some urinary exposure biomarkers of VOCs, metabolites and metals, although no major abnormalities in urinary exposure biomarkers were observed. Conclusions This study provides evidence of a relationship between crude oil exposure and acute human health effects and suggests the need for follow-up to evaluate the exposure status and long-term health effects of clean-up participants. PMID:22125768

  16. The Actively Caring for People Movement at Virginia Tech and Beyond: Cultivating Compassion and Relationships in Residence Halls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Shane M.; Mullins, Taris G.; Geller, E. Scott; Shushok, Frank, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    A professor and a group of student leaders initiated the Actively Caring for People (AC4P) Movement to establish a more civil, compassionate, and inclusive culture by inspiring intentional acts of kindness. This article explores the AC4P Movement in a first-year residence hall at Virginia Tech and a second-year residence hall at University of…

  17. The Exonuclease Trex2 Shapes Psoriatic Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Manils, Joan; Casas, Eduard; Viña-Vilaseca, Arnau; López-Cano, Marc; Díez-Villanueva, Anna; Gómez, Diana; Marruecos, Laura; Ferran, Marta; Benito, Carmen; Perrino, Fred W; Vavouri, Tanya; de Anta, Josep Maria; Ciruela, Francisco; Soler, Concepció

    2016-12-01

    Trex2 is a keratinocyte-specific 3'-deoxyribonuclease that participates in the maintenance of skin homeostasis after DNA damage. Here, we show that this exonuclease is strongly upregulated in human psoriasis, a hyperproliferative and inflammatory skin disease. Similarly, the imiquimod (IMQ)- and Il23-induced mouse psoriasis was associated with a substantial upregulation of Trex2, which was recruited into fragmented chromatin in keratinocytes that were undergoing impaired proliferation, differentiation, and cell death, indicating an important role in DNA processing. Using Trex2 knockout mice, we have found that Trex2 deficiency attenuated IMQ-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation and enhanced IMQ-induced parakeratosis. Also, Il23-induced ear swelling was diminished in Trex2 knockout mice in comparison with wild-type (wt) mice. Transcriptome analysis identified multiple genes that were deregulated by Trex2 loss after treatment with IMQ. Specifically, immune response genes and pathways normally associated with inflammation were downregulated, whereas those related to skin differentiation and chromatin biology showed increased expression. Interestingly, Trex2 deficiency led to decreased IMQ-induced keratinocyte death via both cell autonomous and noncell autonomous mechanisms. Hence, our data indicate that Trex2 acts as a critical factor in the pathogenesis of psoriasis by promoting keratinocyte apoptosis and enucleation and thereby influencing skin immune responses.

  18. Structural Determinant for Switching between the Polymerase and Exonuclease Modes in the PCNA-Replicative DNA Polymerase Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Hirokazu; Mayanagi, Kouta; Ishino, Yoshizumi; Morikawa, Kosuke

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is responsible for the processivity of DNA polymerase. We determined the crystal structure of Pyrococcus furiosus DNA polymerase (PfuPol) complexed with a cognate monomeric PCNA, which allowed us to construct a convincing model of the polymerase-PCNA ring interaction. Electron microscopy analyses confirmed that this complex structure exists among the multiple functional configurations in solution. Together with data from mutational analyses, this structural study indicated that the novel interaction between a stretched loop of PCNA and the PfuPol Thumb domain is quite important, in addition to the authentic PCNA-polymerase recognition site (PIP box). A comparison of the present structures with the previously reported structures of polymerases complexed with DNA suggested that the second interaction site plays a crucial role in switching between the polymerase and exonuclease modes, by stabilizing only the polymerase mode. This proposed mechanism of fidelity control of replicative DNA polymerases was supported by experiments, in which a mutation within the second interaction site caused an enhancement in the exonuclease activity in the presence of PCNA.

  19. Linear mtDNA fragments and unusual mtDNA rearrangements associated with pathological deficiency of MGME1 exonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, Thomas J.; Zsurka, Gábor; Peeva, Viktoriya; Schöler, Susanne; Szczesny, Roman J.; Cysewski, Dominik; Reyes, Aurelio; Kornblum, Cornelia; Sciacco, Monica; Moggio, Maurizio; Dziembowski, Andrzej; Kunz, Wolfram S.; Minczuk, Michal

    2014-01-01

    MGME1, also known as Ddk1 or C20orf72, is a mitochondrial exonuclease found to be involved in the processing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) during replication. Here, we present detailed insights on the role of MGME1 in mtDNA maintenance. Upon loss of MGME1, elongated 7S DNA species accumulate owing to incomplete processing of 5′ ends. Moreover, an 11-kb linear mtDNA fragment spanning the entire major arc of the mitochondrial genome is generated. In contrast to control cells, where linear mtDNA molecules are detectable only after nuclease S1 treatment, the 11-kb fragment persists in MGME1-deficient cells. In parallel, we observed characteristic mtDNA duplications in the absence of MGME1. The fact that the breakpoints of these mtDNA rearrangements do not correspond to either classical deletions or the ends of the linear 11-kb fragment points to a role of MGME1 in processing mtDNA ends, possibly enabling their repair by homologous recombination. In agreement with its functional involvement in mtDNA maintenance, we show that MGME1 interacts with the mitochondrial replicase PolgA, suggesting that it is a constituent of the mitochondrial replisome, to which it provides an additional exonuclease activity. Thus, our results support the viewpoint that MGME1-mediated mtDNA processing is essential for faithful mitochondrial genome replication and might be required for intramolecular recombination of mtDNA. PMID:24986917

  20. Structural determinant for switching between the polymerase and exonuclease modes in the PCNA-replicative DNA polymerase complex

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Hirokazu; Mayanagi, Kouta; Kiyonari, Shinichi; Sato, Yuichi; Oyama, Takuji; Ishino, Yoshizumi; Morikawa, Kosuke

    2009-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is responsible for the processivity of DNA polymerase. We determined the crystal structure of Pyrococcus furiosus DNA polymerase (PfuPol) complexed with the cognate monomeric PCNA, which allowed us to construct a convincing model of the polymerase-PCNA ring interaction, with unprecedented configurations of the two molecules. Electron microscopic analyses indicated that this complex structure exists in solution. Our structural study revealed that an interaction occurs between a stretched loop of PCNA and the PfuPol Thumb domain, in addition to the authentic PCNA-polymerase recognition site (PIP box). Comparisons of the present structure with the previously reported structures of polymerases complexed with DNA, suggested that the second interaction plays a crucial role in switching between the polymerase and exonuclease modes, by inducing a PCNA-polymerase complex configuration that favors synthesis over editing. This putative mechanism for fidelity control of replicative DNA polymerases is supported by experiments, in which mutations at the second interaction site caused enhancements in the exonuclease activity in the presence of PCNA. PMID:19934045

  1. The Drosophila prage Gene, Required for Maternal Transcript Destabilization in Embryos, Encodes a Predicted RNA Exonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jun; Lai, Yun Wei; Sartain, Caroline V.; Zuckerman, Rebecca M.; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    2016-01-01

    Egg activation, the transition of mature oocytes into developing embryos, is critical for the initiation of embryogenesis. This process is characterized by resumption of meiosis, changes in the egg’s coverings and by alterations in the transcriptome and proteome of the egg; all of these occur in the absence of new transcription. Activation of the egg is prompted by ionic changes in the cytoplasm (usually a rise in cytosolic calcium levels) that are triggered by fertilization in some animals and by mechanosensitive cues in others. The egg’s transcriptome is dramatically altered during the process, including by the removal of many maternal mRNAs that are not needed for embryogenesis. However, the mechanisms and regulators of this selective RNA degradation are not yet fully known. Forward genetic approaches in Drosophila have identified maternal-effect genes whose mutations prevent the transcriptome changes. One of these genes, prage (prg), was identified by Tadros et al. in a screen for mutants that fail to destabilize maternal transcripts. We identified the molecular nature of the prg gene through a combination of deficiency mapping, complementation analysis, and DNA sequencing of both extant prg mutant alleles. We find that prg encodes a ubiquitously expressed predicted exonuclease, consistent with its role in maternal mRNA destabilization during egg activation. PMID:27172196

  2. Innate Response Activator (IRA) B Cells Reside in Human Tonsils and Internalize Bacteria In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Chiappini, Nico; Cantisani, Rocco; Pancotto, Laura; Ruggiero, Paolo; Rosa, Domenico; Manetti, Andrea; Romano, Antonio; Montagnani, Francesca; Bertholet, Sylvie; Castellino, Flora; Del Giudice, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Innate response activator (IRA) B cells have been described in mice as a subset of B-1a B cells that produce granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and have been found in the spleen upon activation. In humans, identification, tissue localization and functionality of these lymphocytes are poorly understood. We hypothesized that IRA B cells could reside in human palatine tonsils, which are a first line of defense from infection of the upper respiratory tract. In the present work, we used flow cytometry and confocal microscopy to identify and characterize human IRA (hIRA) B cells in tonsils. We show that CD19⁺CD20⁺GM-CSF⁺ B cells are present in the tonsils of all the subjects studied at a frequency ranging between ~0.2% and ~0.4% of the conventional CD19⁺CD20⁺GM-CSF⁻ B cells. These cells reside within the B cell follicles, are mostly IgM⁺IgD⁺, express CD5 and show phagocytic activity. Our results support a role for hIRA B cells in the effector immune response to infections in tonsils.

  3. Innate Response Activator (IRA) B Cells Reside in Human Tonsils and Internalize Bacteria In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Pancotto, Laura; Ruggiero, Paolo; Rosa, Domenico; Manetti, Andrea; Romano, Antonio; Montagnani, Francesca; Bertholet, Sylvie; Castellino, Flora; Del Giudice, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Innate response activator (IRA) B cells have been described in mice as a subset of B-1a B cells that produce granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and have been found in the spleen upon activation. In humans, identification, tissue localization and functionality of these lymphocytes are poorly understood. We hypothesized that IRA B cells could reside in human palatine tonsils, which are a first line of defense from infection of the upper respiratory tract. In the present work, we used flow cytometry and confocal microscopy to identify and characterize human IRA (hIRA) B cells in tonsils. We show that CD19+CD20+GM-CSF+ B cells are present in the tonsils of all the subjects studied at a frequency ranging between ~0.2% and ~0.4% of the conventional CD19+CD20+GM-CSF- B cells. These cells reside within the B cell follicles, are mostly IgM+IgD+, express CD5 and show phagocytic activity. Our results support a role for hIRA B cells in the effector immune response to infections in tonsils. PMID:26066485

  4. The Telomere Binding Protein Cdc13 and the Single-Stranded DNA Binding Protein RPA Protect Telomeric DNA from Resection by Exonucleases.

    PubMed

    Greetham, Matthew; Skordalakes, Emmanuel; Lydall, David; Connolly, Bernard A

    2015-09-25

    The telomere is present at the ends of all eukaryotic chromosomes and usually consists of repetitive TG-rich DNA that terminates in a single-stranded 3' TG extension and a 5' CA-rich recessed strand. A biochemical assay that allows the in vitro observation of exonuclease-catalyzed degradation (resection) of telomeres has been developed. The approach uses an oligodeoxynucleotide that folds to a stem-loop with a TG-rich double-stranded region and a 3' single-stranded extension, typical of telomeres. Cdc13, the major component of the telomere-specific CST complex, strongly protects the recessed strand from the 5'→3' exonuclease activity of the model exonuclease from bacteriophage λ. The isolated DNA binding domain of Cdc13 is less effective at shielding telomeres. Protection is specific, not being observed in control DNA lacking the specific TG-rich telomere sequence. RPA, the eukaryotic single-stranded DNA binding protein, also inhibits telomere resection. However, this protein is non-specific, equally hindering the degradation of non-telomere controls.

  5. Structure of the dimeric exonuclease TREX1 in complex with DNA displays a proline-rich binding site for WW Domains.

    PubMed

    Brucet, Marina; Querol-Audí, Jordi; Serra, Maria; Ramirez-Espain, Ximena; Bertlik, Kamila; Ruiz, Lidia; Lloberas, Jorge; Macias, Maria J; Fita, Ignacio; Celada, Antonio

    2007-05-11

    TREX1 is the most abundant mammalian 3' --> 5' DNA exonuclease. It has been described to form part of the SET complex and is responsible for the Aicardi-Goutières syndrome in humans. Here we show that the exonuclease activity is correlated to the binding preferences toward certain DNA sequences. In particular, we have found three motifs that are selected, GAG, ACA, and CTGC. To elucidate how the discrimination occurs, we determined the crystal structures of two murine TREX1 complexes, with a nucleotide product of the exonuclease reaction, and with a single-stranded DNA substrate. Using confocal microscopy, we observed TREX1 both in nuclear and cytoplasmic subcellular compartments. Remarkably, the presence of TREX1 in the nucleus requires the loss of a C-terminal segment, which we named leucine-rich repeat 3. Furthermore, we detected the presence of a conserved proline-rich region on the surface of TREX1. This observation points to interactions with proline-binding domains. The potential interacting motif "PPPVPRPP" does not contain aromatic residues and thus resembles other sequences that select SH3 and/or Group 2 WW domains. By means of nuclear magnetic resonance titration experiments, we show that, indeed, a polyproline peptide derived from the murine TREX1 sequence interacted with the WW2 domain of the elongation transcription factor CA150. Co-immunoprecipitation studies confirmed this interaction with the full-length TREX1 protein, thereby suggesting that TREX1 participates in more functional complexes than previously thought.

  6. Delineation of structural domains and identification of functionally important residues in DNA repair enzyme exonuclease VII

    PubMed Central

    Poleszak, Katarzyna; Kaminska, Katarzyna H.; Dunin-Horkawicz, Stanislaw; Lupas, Andrei; Skowronek, Krzysztof J.; Bujnicki, Janusz M.

    2012-01-01

    Exonuclease VII (ExoVII) is a bacterial nuclease involved in DNA repair and recombination that hydrolyses single-stranded DNA. ExoVII is composed of two subunits: large XseA and small XseB. Thus far, little was known about the molecular structure of ExoVII, the interactions between XseA and XseB, the architecture of the nuclease active site or its mechanism of action. We used bioinformatics methods to predict the structure of XseA, which revealed four domains: an N-terminal OB-fold domain, a middle putatively catalytic domain, a coiled-coil domain and a short C-terminal segment. By series of deletion and site-directed mutagenesis experiments on XseA from Escherichia coli, we determined that the OB-fold domain is responsible for DNA binding, the coiled-coil domain is involved in binding multiple copies of the XseB subunit and residues D155, R205, H238 and D241 of the middle domain are important for the catalytic activity but not for DNA binding. Altogether, we propose a model of sequence–structure–function relationships in ExoVII. PMID:22718974

  7. Lipopolysaccharide preconditioning facilitates M2 activation of resident microglia after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Kentaro; Okazaki, Rentaro; Morioka, Kazuhito; Nakamura, Kozo; Tanaka, Sakae; Ogata, Toru

    2014-12-01

    The inflammatory response following spinal cord injury (SCI) has both harmful and beneficial effects; however, it can be modulated for therapeutic benefit. Endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preconditioning, a well-established method for modifying the immune reaction, has been shown to attenuate damage induced by stroke and brain trauma in rodent models. Although such effects likely are conveyed by tissue-repairing functions of the inflammatory response, the mechanisms that control the effects have not yet been elucidated. The present study preconditioned C57BL6/J mice with 0.05 mg/kg of LPS 48 hr before inducing contusion SCI to investigate the effect of LPS preconditioning on the activation of macrophages/microglia. We found that LPS preconditioning promotes the polarization of M1/M2 macrophages/microglia toward an M2 phenotype in the injured spinal cord on quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunohistochemical analyses. Flow cytometric analyses reveal that LPS preconditioning facilitates M2 activation in resident microglia but not in infiltrating macrophages. Augmented M2 activation was accompanied by vascularization around the injured lesion, resulting in improvement in both tissue reorganization and functional recovery. Furthermore, we found that M2 activation induced by LPS preconditioning is regulated by interleukin-10 gene expression, which was preceded by the transcriptional activation of interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3, as demonstrated by Western blotting and an IRF-3 binding assay. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that LPS preconditioning has a therapeutic effect on SCI through the modulation of M1/M2 polarization of resident microglia. The present study suggests that controlling M1/M2 polarization through endotoxin signal transduction could become a promising therapeutic strategy for various central nervous system diseases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The effect of space microgravity on the physiological activity of mammalian resident cardiac stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belostotskaya, Galina; Zakharov, Eugeny

    Prolonged exposure to weightlessness during space flights is known to cause depression of heart function in mammals. The decrease in heart weight and its remodeling under the influence of prolonged weightlessness (or space microgravity) is assumed to be due to both morphological changes of working cardiomyocytes and their progressive loss, as well as to possible depletion of resident cardiac stem cells (CSCs) population, or their inability to self-renewal and regeneration of muscle tissue under conditions of weightlessness. We have previously shown that the presence of different maturity clones formed by resident CSCs not only in culture but also in the mammalian myocardium can be used as an indicator of the regenerative activity of myocardial cells [Belostotskaya, et al., 2013: 2014]. In this study, we were interested to investigate whether the 30-day near-Earth space flight on the spacecraft BION-M1 affects the regenerative potential of resident CSCs. Immediately after landing of the spacecraft, we had examined the presence of resident c-kit+, Sca-1+ and Isl1+ CSCs and their development in suspension of freshly isolated myocardial cells of C57BL mice in comparison to controls. Cardiac cell suspension was obtained by enzymatic digestion of the heart [Belostotskaya and Golovanova, 2014]. Immunocytochemically stained preparations of fixed cells were analyzed with confocal microscope Leica TCS SP5 (Germany) in the Resource Center of St-Petersburg State University. CSCs were labeled with appropriate antibodies. CSCs differentiation into mature cardiomyocytes was verified using antibodies to Sarcomeric α-Actinin and Cardiac Troponin T. Antibodies to Connexin43 were used to detect cell-cell contacts. All antibodies were conjugated with Alexa fluorochromes (488, 532, 546, 568, 594 and/or 647 nm), according to Zenon-technology (Invitrogen). It has been shown that, under identical conditions of cell isolation, more complete digestion of heart muscle was observed in

  9. Staphylococcus epidermidis Csm1 is a 3'-5' exonuclease.

    PubMed

    Ramia, Nancy F; Tang, Li; Cocozaki, Alexis I; Li, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) offer an adaptive immune system that protects bacteria and archaea from nucleic acid invaders through an RNA-mediated nucleic acid cleavage mechanism. Our knowledge of nucleic acid cleavage mechanisms is limited to three examples of widely different ribonucleoprotein particles that target either DNA or RNA. Staphylococcus epidermidis belongs to the Type III-A CRISPR system and has been shown to interfere with invading DNA in vivo. The Type III-A CRISPR system is characterized by the presence of Csm1, a member of Cas10 family of proteins, that has a permuted histidine-aspartate domain and a nucleotidyl cyclase-like domain, both of which contain sequence features characteristic of nucleases. In this work, we show in vitro that a recombinant S. epidermidis Csm1 cleaves single-stranded DNA and RNA exonucleolytically in the 3'-5' direction. We further showed that both cleavage activities are divalent-metal-dependent and reside in the GGDD motif of the cyclase-like domain. Our data suggest that Csm1 may work in the context of an effector complex to degrade invading DNA and participate in CRISPR RNA maturation.

  10. Structural and Biochemical Studies of a Moderately Thermophilic Exonuclease I from Methylocaldum szegediense

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Li; Tian, SiSi; Moysey, Ruth; Misca, Mihaela; Barker, John J.; Smith, Myron A.; McEwan, Paul A.; Pilka, Ewa S.; Crawley, Lauren; Evans, Tom; Sun, Dapeng

    2015-01-01

    A novel exonuclease, designated as MszExo I, was cloned from Methylocaldum szegediense, a moderately thermophilic methanotroph. It specifically digests single-stranded DNA in the 3ʹ to 5ʹ direction. The protein is composed of 479 amino acids, and it shares 47% sequence identity with E. coli Exo I. The crystal structure of MszExo I was determined to a resolution of 2.2 Å and it aligns well with that of E. coli Exo I. Comparative studies revealed that MszExo I and E. coli Exo I have similar metal ion binding affinity and similar activity at mesophilic temperatures (25–47°C). However, the optimum working temperature of MszExo I is 10°C higher, and the melting temperature is more than 4°C higher as evaluated by both thermal inactivation assays and DSC measurements. More importantly, two thermal transitions during unfolding of MszExo I were monitored by DSC while only one transition was found in E. coli Exo I. Further analyses showed that magnesium ions not only confer structural stability, but also affect the unfolding of MszExo I. MszExo I is the first reported enzyme in the DNA repair systems of moderately thermophilic bacteria, which are predicted to have more efficient DNA repair systems than mesophilic ones. PMID:25658953

  11. Assessing the Influence of a Fitbit Physical Activity Monitor on the Exercise Practices of Emergency Medicine Residents: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Targeted interventions have improved physical activity and wellness of medical residents. However, no exercise interventions have focused on emergency medicine residents. Objective This study aimed to measure the effectiveness of a wearable device for tracking physical activity on the exercise habits and wellness of this population, while also measuring barriers to adoption and continued use. Methods This pre-post cohort study enrolled 30 emergency medicine residents. Study duration was 6 months. Statistical comparisons were conducted for the primary end point and secondary exercise end points with nonparametric tests. Descriptive statistics were provided for subjective responses. Results The physical activity tracker did not increase the overall self-reported median number of days of physical activity per week within this population: baseline 2.5 days (interquartile range, IQR, 1.9) versus 2.8 days (IQR 1.5) at 1 month (P=.36). There was a significant increase in physical activity from baseline to 1 month among residents with median weekly physical activity level below that recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention at study start, that is, 1.5 days (IQR 0.9) versus 2.4 days (IQR 1.2; P=.04), to 2.0 days (IQR 2.0; P=.04) at 6 months. More than half (60%, 18/30) of participants reported a benefit to their overall wellness, and 53% (16/30) reported a benefit to their physical activity. Overall continued use of the device was 67% (20/30) at 1 month and 33% (10/30) at 6 months. Conclusions The wearable physical activity tracker did not change the overall physical activity levels among this population of emergency medicine residents. However, there was an improvement in physical activity among the residents with the lowest preintervention physical activity. Subjective improvements in overall wellness and physical activity were noted among the entire study population. PMID:28143805

  12. Effects of using nursing home residents to serve as group activity leaders: lessons learned from the RAP project.

    PubMed

    Skrajner, Michael J; Haberman, Jessica L; Camp, Cameron J; Tusick, Melanie; Frentiu, Cristina; Gorzelle, Gregg

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that persons with early to moderate stage dementia are capable of leading small group activities for persons with more advanced dementia. In this study, we built upon this previous work by training residents in long-term care facilities to fill the role of group activity leaders using a Resident-Assisted Programming (RAP) training regimen. There were two stages to the program. In the first stage, RAP training was provided by researchers. In the second stage, RAP training was provided to residents by activities staff members of long-term care facilities who had been trained by researchers. We examine the effects of RAP implemented by researchers and by activities staff member on long-term care resident with dementia who took part in these RAP activities. We also examined effects produced by two types of small group activities: two Montessori-based activities and an activity which focuses on persons with more advanced dementia, based on the work of Jitka Zgola. Results demonstrate that levels of positive engagement seen in players during RAP (resident-led activities) were typically higher than those observed during standard activities programming led by site staff. In general, Montessori-Based Dementia Programming® produced more constructive engagement than Zgola-based programming (ZBP), though ZBP did increase a positive form of engagement involving observing activities with interest. In addition, RAP implemented by activities staff members produced effects that were, on the whole, similar to those produced when RAP was implemented by researchers. Implications of these findings for providing meaningful social roles for persons with dementia residing in long-term care, and suggestions for further research in this area, are discussed.

  13. Comparison of activities of rifapentine and rifampin against Mycobacterium tuberculosis residing in human macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Mor, N; Simon, B; Mezo, N; Heifets, L

    1995-01-01

    The activities of rifapentine and rifampin against Mycobacterium tuberculosis residing in human monocyte-derived macrophages were determined. The MICs and MBCs of rifapentine for intracellular bacteria were two- to fourfold lower than those of rifampin. For extracellular bacteria, this difference was less noticeable. Nevertheless, the more favorable pharmacokinetics of rifapentine over rifampin was addressed in other experimental models. These models showed substantial differences after short pulsed exposures of the infected macrophages to the drugs and when the infected macrophages were exposed to changing drug concentrations that imitated the pharmacokinetic curves observed in blood. Once-a-week exposures to rifapentine concentrations equivalent to those attained in blood after one 600-mg dose resulted during the first week in a dramatic decline in the number of bacteria, and this decline was maintained at a minimal level for a period of four weeks. The results of this study have shown the suitability of rifapentine for intermittent-treatment regimens. The prolonged effect of rifapentine found in this study may be associated with high ratios of intracellular accumulation, which were four- to fivefold higher than those found for rifampin. Further studies on the intracellular distribution of rifamycins and on the sites of actual interaction between the drugs and bacteria residing in macrophages are necessary. PMID:8540718

  14. Effects of a Community-Based, Professionally Supervised Intervention on Physical Activity Levels Among Residents of Recife, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Hallal, Pedro; Pratt, Michael; Ramos, Luiz; Munk, Marcia; Damascena, Wilson; Parra Perez, Diana; Hoehner, Christine M.; Gilbertz, David; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Brownson, Ross C.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effects of a community-based intervention, the Academia da Cidade program (ACP), on increasing leisure-time physical activity among residents of Recife, Brazil. Methods. We used the International Physical Activity Questionnaire to assess leisure-time physical activity and transport physical activity (i.e., activities involved in traveling from place to place) levels in a random sample of 2047 Recife residents surveyed in 2007. We also examined factors related to exposure to ACP (participation in the intervention, residing near an intervention site, hearing about or seeing intervention activities). We estimated prevalence odds ratios (ORs) of moderate to high leisure-time and transport physical activity levels via intervention exposures adjusted for sociodemographic, health, and environmental variables. Results. Prevalence ORs for moderate to high levels of leisure-time physical activity were higher among former (prevalence OR = 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0, 3.9) and current (prevalence OR = 11.3; 95% CI = 3.5, 35.9) intervention participants and those who had heard about or seen an intervention activity (prevalence OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.5). Transport physical activity levels were inversely associated with residing near an ACP site. Conclusions. The ACP program appears to be an effective public health strategy to increase population-level physical activity in urban developing settings. PMID:19008499

  15. Transplantable Subcutaneous Hepatoma 22a Affects Functional Activity of Resident Tissue Macrophages in Periphery

    PubMed Central

    Kisseleva, Ekaterina P.; Krylov, Andrei V.; Stepanova, Olga I.; Lioudyno, Victoria I.

    2011-01-01

    Tumors spontaneously develop central necroses due to inadequate blood supply. Recent data indicate that dead cells and their products are immunogenic to the host. We hypothesized that macrophage tumor-dependent reactions can be mediated differentially by factors released from live or dead tumor cells. In this study, functional activity of resident peritoneal macrophages was investigated in parallel with tumor morphology during the growth of syngeneic nonimmunogenic hepatoma 22a. Morphometrical analysis of tumor necroses, mitoses and leukocyte infiltration was performed in histological sections. We found that inflammatory potential of peritoneal macrophages in tumor-bearing mice significantly varied depending on the stage of tumor growth and exhibited two peaks of activation as assessed by nitroxide and superoxide anion production, 5′-nucleotidase activity and pinocytosis. Increased inflammatory reactions were not followed by the enhancement of angiogenic potential as assessed by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor mRNA expression. Phases of macrophage activity corresponded to the stages of tumor growth characterized by high proliferative potential. The appearance and further development of necrotic tissue inside the tumor did not coincide with changes in macrophage behavior and therefore indirectly indicated that activation of macrophages was a reaction mostly to the signals produced by live tumor cells. PMID:21760797

  16. Remaining activity determination of the resid desulfurization catalyst in a commerical plant

    SciTech Connect

    Yung-Ji Tarng; Sheng-Yang Ju

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to present a method to determine the remaining catalyst activity of the resid desulfurization plant. Using the daily available operating data, we can establish a performance curve which is a temperature versus days on stream curve. By the use of the performance curve, we can in situ predict how much the catalyst life remains. With the knowledge of the catalyst life remaining, plant engineers are able to control the operating conditions to meet the specified run length of the catalyst suggested by the catalyst venders and refinery planning department. There are five heavy oil desulfurization (RDS) plants in Chinese Petroleum Corporation (CPC) to produce the low sulfur fuel oil and low metal content feed stocks for the downstream processes. In general four or five reactors are connected in series for the reacting system and catalysts of various types are loaded in each reactor. 3 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  17. Disparities in Adolescents' Residence in Neighborhoods Supportive of Physical Activity - United States, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Watson, Kathleen B; Harris, Carmen D; Carlson, Susan A; Dorn, Joan M; Fulton, Janet E

    2016-06-17

    In 2013, only 27% of adolescents in grades 9-12 met the current federal guideline for aerobic physical activity (at least 60 minutes of physical activity each day*), and sex and racial/ethnic disparities in meeting the guideline exist (1). The Community Preventive Services Task Force has recommended a range of community-level evidence-based approaches(†) to increase physical activity by improving neighborhood supports for physical activity.(§) To assess the characteristics of adolescents who live in neighborhoods that are supportive of physical activity, CDC analyzed data on U.S. children and adolescents aged 10-17 years (defined as adolescents for this report) from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH). Overall, 65% of U.S. adolescents live in neighborhoods supportive of physical activity, defined as neighborhoods that are perceived as safe and have sidewalks or walking paths and parks, playgrounds, or recreation centers. Adolescents who were Hispanic and non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity; who lived in lower-income households, households with less educated parents, and rural areas; or who were overweight or obese were less likely to live in neighborhoods supportive of physical activity than were white adolescents and adolescents from higher income households, with a more highly educated parent, living in urban areas, and not overweight or obese. Within demographic groups, the largest disparity in the percentage of adolescents living in these neighborhoods was observed between adolescents living in households with a family income <100% of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL) (51%) and adolescents living in households with a family income ≥400% of the FPL (76%). Efforts to improve neighborhood supports, particularly in areas with a substantial percentage of low-income and minority residents, might increase physical activity among adolescents and reduce health disparities.

  18. Strength and ability to implement the activities of daily living in elderly resident in rural areas

    PubMed Central

    Souza dos Santos, Samara; Carneiro Vasconcelos, Lélia Renata; Alves dos Santos, Clarice

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between muscle strength and the ability to perform basic and instrumental activities of daily living in elderly resident in rural areas of Jequie, Brazil. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional design study with a population of 104 individuals aged sixty or older, registered in the Family Health Unit of the district of Itajuru, Jequie-Brazil. Data collection was performed using a standardized instrument used as an interview, followed by the application of tests (bending arm with dumbbell and rising from a chair 30 sec). The basic and instrumental activities of daily living were investigated through the Katz and Lawton scales, respectively. The chi-square test with p ≤0.05 was used as a measure of statistical significance for bivariate analyzes between muscle strength and ability to perform daily activities. Results: The results showed a significant association between muscle strength and dynamic ability to perform activities of daily living. Conclusion: Reduced muscle strength is an important predictor of the functional ability of the elderly. Accordingly, it is recommended to observe muscle strength in actions directed at the elderly. PMID:27821897

  19. Differences between Depressed and Non-Depressed Residents of Nursing Homes on Measures of Daily Activity Involvement and Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voelkl, Judith E.; Mathieu, Mary A.

    1993-01-01

    This study examined how depressed and nondepressed nursing home residents differed on measures of frequency of daily activity involvement and accompanying affect. Interviews indicated the groups differed significantly on frequency of activity involvement and affect. Depressed subjects spent large portions of time watching television. Nondepressed…

  20. Factors that Influence Physical Activity in Long-Term Care: Perspectives of Residents, Staff, and Significant Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Kathleen; Edwards, Nancy; Guitard, Paulette; Murray, Mary Ann; Caswell, Wenda; Perrier, Marie Josee

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity has been linked to positive health outcomes for frail seniors. However, our understanding of factors that influence the physical activity of residents in the long-term care (LTC) setting is limited. This article describes our work with focus groups, one component of a multi-component study that examined factors influencing the…

  1. The development of the MIBBO: A measure of resident preferences for physical activity in long term care settings.

    PubMed

    Kleynen, Melanie; Braun, Susy M; van Vijven, Kim; van Rossum, Erik; Beurskens, Anna J

    2015-01-01

    Offering physical activities matching with the preferences of residents in long-term care facilities could increase compliance and contribute to client-centered care. A measure to investigate meaningful activities by using a photo-interview has been developed ("MIBBO"). In two pilot studies including 133 residents living on different wards in long-term care facilities, feasibility, most chosen activities, and consistency of preferences were investigated. It was possible to conduct the MIBBO on average in 30 min with the majority (86.4%) of residents. The most frequently chosen activities were: gymnastics and orchestra (each 28%), preparing a meal (31%), walking (outside, 33%), watering plants (38%), and feeding pets (40%). In a retest one week after the initial interview 69.4% agreement of chosen activities was seen. The MIBBO seems a promising measure to help health care professionals in identifying residents' preferred activities. Future research should focus on the implementation of the tailored activity plan, incorporating it into the daily routine.

  2. Ultrasensitive fluorescence polarization DNA detection by target assisted exonuclease III-catalyzed signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Guan, Yi-Meng; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2011-03-28

    Single stranded DNA sequences can be detected by target assisted exonuclease III-catalyzed signal amplification fluorescence polarization (TAECA-FP). The method offers an impressive detection limit of 83 aM within one hour for DNA detection and exhibits high discrimination ability even against a single base mismatch.

  3. Analyzing Exonuclease-Induced Hyperchromicity by Uv Spectroscopy: An Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Megan M.; Ricciardi, Christopher; Weiss, David; Chant, Alan; Kraemer-Chant, Christina M.

    2016-01-01

    An undergraduate biochemistry laboratory experiment is described that utilizes free online bioinformatics tools along with readily available exonucleases to study the effects of base stacking and hydrogen bonding on the UV absorbance of DNA samples. UV absorbance of double-stranded DNA at the ?[subscript max] is decreased when the DNA bases are…

  4. 75 FR 62186 - Proposed Information Collection (Residency Verification Report-Veterans and Survivors) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... at the full-dollar rate continues to meet the United States residency requirements. DATES: Written... receiving service-connected compensation benefits and survivors receiving service connected death benefits at the full-dollar rate, actually resides in the United States as United States citizens or as...

  5. Diversity in sound pressure levels and estimated active space of resident killer whale vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Miller, Patrick J O

    2006-05-01

    Signal source intensity and detection range, which integrates source intensity with propagation loss, background noise and receiver hearing abilities, are important characteristics of communication signals. Apparent source levels were calculated for 819 pulsed calls and 24 whistles produced by free-ranging resident killer whales by triangulating the angles-of-arrival of sounds on two beamforming arrays towed in series. Levels in the 1-20 kHz band ranged from 131 to 168 dB re 1 microPa at 1 m, with differences in the means of different sound classes (whistles: 140.2+/-4.1 dB; variable calls: 146.6+/-6.6 dB; stereotyped calls: 152.6+/-5.9 dB), and among stereotyped call types. Repertoire diversity carried through to estimates of active space, with "long-range" stereotyped calls all containing overlapping, independently-modulated high-frequency components (mean estimated active space of 10-16 km in sea state zero) and "short-range" sounds (5-9 km) included all stereotyped calls without a high-frequency component, whistles, and variable calls. Short-range sounds are reported to be more common during social and resting behaviors, while long-range stereotyped calls predominate in dispersed travel and foraging behaviors. These results suggest that variability in sound pressure levels may reflect diverse social and ecological functions of the acoustic repertoire of killer whales.

  6. Estimation of ground water residence times in the Critical zone: insight from U activity ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabaux, Francois; Ackerer, Julien; Lucas, Yann; viville, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The use of radioactive disequilibria as tracers and chronometers of weathering processes and related mass transfers has been recognized since the 60'. The development, over the last two decades, of analytical methods for measuring very precisely U-series nuclides (especially, 234U, 230Th and 226Ra) in environmental samples has opened up new scientific applications in Earth Surface Sciences. Here, we propose to present the potential of U activity ratios in surface waters as chronometer of water transfers at a watershed scale. This will be illustrated from studies performed at different scales, with the analysis of U activity ratios in surface waters from small watersheds (Strengbach and Ringelbach watersheds in the Vosges Mountain, France) but also from watersheds of much more regional extension (e.g., the Upper Rhine basin or the Ganges basin). These various studies show that variations of U activity ratios in surface waters are mainly associated with 234U-238U fractionations occurring during the water transfer within the bedrock, which intensity depends on two main parameters: the petro-physical characteristics of the aquifer, principally the geometry of water-rock interfaces and the duration of the water-rock interactions. This readily explains why different U activity ratios (UAR) can be observed in the different aquifers of a continental hydrosystem and hence why UAR can be used to trace the source of river waters. For a hydrological system developed on a substratum marked by fairly homogeneous petro-physical characteristics, the main parameter controlling the UAR in waters draining such a system would be the duration of the water-rock interactions. Variations of UAR in stream or spring waters of such a system can therefore be modeled using simple reactive transport model, which allows the estimation of both the dissolution rate of the bedrock and the residence time of the waters within the aquifer.

  7. Associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms of human exonuclease 1 and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Shengkui; Qin, Ruoyun; Zhu, Xiaonian; Tan, Chao; Song, Jiale; Qin, Linyuan; Liu, Liu; Huang, Xiong; Li, Anhua; Qiu, Xiaoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Human exonuclease 1 (hEXO1) is an important nuclease involved in mismatch repair system that contributes to maintain genomic stability and modulate DNA recombination. This study is aimed to explore the associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of hEXO1 and the hereditary susceptibility of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). SNPs rs1047840, rs1776148, rs3754093, rs4149867, rs4149963, and rs1776181 of hEXO1 were examined from a hospital-based case-control study including 1,196 cases (HCC patients) and 1,199 controls (non-HCC patients) in Guangxi, China. We found the rs3754093 AG genotype decreased the risk of HCC (OR=0.714, 95% CI: 0.539∼0.946). According to the results of stratification analysis, rs3754093 mutant genotype AG/GG decreased the risk of HCC with some HCC protective factors such as non-smoking, non-alcohol consumption and non-HCC family history, but also decreased the risk of HCC with HBV infection. Moreover, it was correlated to non-tumor metastasis and increased the survival of HCC patients. The results from gene-environment interaction assay indicated all hEXO1 SNPs interacted with smoking, alcohol consumption, HBV infection in pathogenesis of HCC. However, gene-gene interaction assay suggested the interaction between rs3754093 and other 5 SNPs were associated with reducing the HCC risk. These results suggest rs3754093 exhibits a protective activity to decrease the incidence risk of HCC in Guangxi, China. In addition, all SNPs in this study interacted with environment risk factors in pathogenesis of HCC. PMID:27894089

  8. Exonuclease-mediated degradation of nascent RNA silences genes linked to severe malaria.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingfeng; Siegel, T Nicolai; Martins, Rafael M; Wang, Fei; Cao, Jun; Gao, Qi; Cheng, Xiu; Jiang, Lubin; Hon, Chung-Chau; Scheidig-Benatar, Christine; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Turner, Louise; Jensen, Anja T R; Claes, Aurelie; Guizetti, Julien; Malmquist, Nicholas A; Scherf, Artur

    2014-09-18

    Antigenic variation of the Plasmodium falciparum multicopy var gene family enables parasite evasion of immune destruction by host antibodies. Expression of a particular var subgroup, termed upsA, is linked to the obstruction of blood vessels in the brain and to the pathogenesis of human cerebral malaria. The mechanism determining upsA activation remains unknown. Here we show that an entirely new type of gene silencing mechanism involving an exonuclease-mediated degradation of nascent RNA controls the silencing of genes linked to severe malaria. We identify a novel chromatin-associated exoribonuclease, termed PfRNase II, that controls the silencing of upsA var genes by marking their transcription start site and intron-promoter regions leading to short-lived cryptic RNA. Parasites carrying a deficient PfRNase II gene produce full-length upsA var transcripts and intron-derived antisense long non-coding RNA. The presence of stable upsA var transcripts overcomes monoallelic expression, resulting in the simultaneous expression of both upsA and upsC type PfEMP1 proteins on the surface of individual infected red blood cells. In addition, we observe an inverse relationship between transcript levels of PfRNase II and upsA-type var genes in parasites from severe malaria patients, implying a crucial role of PfRNase II in severe malaria. Our results uncover a previously unknown type of post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism in malaria parasites with repercussions for other organisms. Additionally, the identification of RNase II as a parasite protein controlling the expression of virulence genes involved in pathogenesis in patients with severe malaria may provide new strategies for reducing malaria mortality.

  9. Subcellular localization of the PGE2 synthesis activity in mouse resident peritoneal macrophages

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this work was to establish, on a quantitative basis, the subcellular distribution of the enzyme system that converts arachidonic acid into prostaglandin (PG) E2 in mouse resident peritoneal (MRP) macrophages. Kinetic studies were conducted on cell-free extracts derived from cells cultivated for 1 d, using [1-14C]arachidonic acid as substrate and measuring the label in PGE2 after extraction and thin layer chromatography. The activity was synergistically enhanced by L- adrenaline and reduced glutathione, inhibited by indomethacin, and linearly related to the concentration of the cell-free extract. It was labile at 0 degrees C in the medium used for homogenization and fractionation of the cells (half-life less than 2 h). Addition of catalase (0.15 mg/ml) to the suspension medium increased the initial activity (by congruent to 70%) and the stability (half-life congruent to 6 h) of the enzyme in cytoplasmic extracts. It enabled us to establish the density distribution after isopycnic centrifugation in a linear gradient of sucrose. The sample centrifuged consisted of untreated cytoplasmic extracts, or cytoplasmic extracts treated with digitonin and Na pyrophosphate. Comparison of the centrifugation behavior of PGE2 synthesis activity with that of various enzymes used as reference for the major subcellular entities has revealed that PGE2 synthesis fairly fits the density profile of sulfatase C in each case. The conclusion is that at least the rate-limiting reaction in the conversion of arachidonic acid into PGE2 is catalyzed by an enzyme associated with the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:6420497

  10. Exonuclease domain of the Lassa virus nucleoprotein is critical to avoid RIG-I signaling and to inhibit the innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Reynard, Stéphanie; Russier, Marion; Fizet, Alexandra; Carnec, Xavier; Baize, Sylvain

    2014-12-01

    Lassa virus (LASV), which causes a viral hemorrhagic fever, inhibits the innate immune response. The exonuclease (ExoN) domain of its nucleoprotein (NP) is implicated in the suppression of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) signaling. We show here that a LASV in which ExoN function has been abolished strongly activates innate immunity and that this effect is dependent on RIG-I signaling. These results highlight the key role of NP ExoN function in the immune evasion that occurs during LASV infection.

  11. Primary Care Residents' Knowledge, Attitudes, Self-Efficacy, and Perceived Professional Norms Regarding Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Counseling

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Samantha; Seeholzer, Eileen L.; Gullett, Heidi; Jackson, Brigid; Antognoli, Elizabeth; Krejci, Susan A.; Flocke, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity and being overweight are both significant risk factors for multiple chronic conditions. Primary care physicians are in a position to provide health behavior counseling to the majority of US adults, yet most report insufficient training to deliver effective counseling for obesity. Objective To assess the degree to which residents training in adult primary care programs are prepared to provide obesity, nutrition, and physical activity (ONPA) counseling. Methods Senior residents (postgraduate year [PGY]-3 and PGY-4) from 25 Ohio family medicine, internal medicine, and obstetrics and gynecology programs were surveyed regarding their knowledge about obesity risks and effective counseling, as well as their attitudes, self-efficacy, and perceived professional norms toward ONPA counseling. We examined summary scores, and used regression analyses to assess associations with resident demographics and training program characteristics. Results A total of 219 residents participated (62% response rate). Mean ONPA counseling knowledge score was 50.8 (± 15.6) on a 0 to 100 scale. Specialty was associated with counseling self-efficacy (P < .001) and perceived norms (P = .002). Residents who reported having engaged in an elective rotation emphasizing ONPA counseling had significantly higher self-efficacy and more positive attitudes and professional norms scores. Conclusions Our findings suggest that primary care residents' knowledge of ONPA assessment and management strategies has room for improvement. Attitudes, self-efficacy, and perceived norms also are low and vary by training program characteristics. A deeper understanding of curricula associated with improved performance in these domains could inform interventions to enhance residents' ONPA counseling skills and prevent chronic disease. PMID:26457144

  12. Healthy Active Living: A Residence Community-Based Intervention to Increase Physical Activity and Healthy Eating during the Transition to First-Year University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Denver M. Y.; Bray, Steve R.; Beatty, Kevin R.; Kwan, Matthew Y. W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of a Healthy Active Living (HAL) community intervention on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC), and psychosocial mediators of physical activity among students transitioning into university. Methods: Sixty undergraduate students were assigned to reside in either the…

  13. A Crystallographic Study of the Role of Sequence Context in Thymine Glycol Bypass by a Replicative DNA Polymerase Serendipitously Sheds Light on the Exonuclease Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Aller, Pierre; Duclos, Stéphanie; Wallace, Susan S.; Doublié, Sylvie

    2012-06-27

    Thymine glycol (Tg) is the most common oxidation product of thymine and is known to be a strong block to replicative DNA polymerases. A previously solved structure of the bacteriophage RB69 DNA polymerase (RB69 gp43) in complex with Tg in the sequence context 5'-G-Tg-G shed light on how Tg blocks primer elongation: The protruding methyl group of the oxidized thymine displaces the adjacent 5'-G, which can no longer serve as a template for primer elongation [Aller, P., Rould, M. A., Hogg, M, Wallace, S. S. and Doublie S. (2007). A structural rationale for stalling of a replicative DNA polymerase at the most common oxidative thymine lesion, thymine glycol. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104, 814-818.]. Several studies showed that in the sequence context 5'-C-Tg-purine, Tg is more likely to be bypassed by Klenow fragment, an A-family DNA polymerase. We set out to investigate the role of sequence context in Tg bypass in a B-family polymerase and to solve the crystal structures of the bacteriophage RB69 DNA polymerase in complex with Tg-containing DNA in the three remaining sequence contexts: 5'-A-Tg-G, 5'-T-Tg-G, and 5'-C-Tg-G. A combination of several factors - including the associated exonuclease activity, the nature of the 3' and 5' bases surrounding Tg, and the cis-trans interconversion of Tg - influences Tg bypass. We also visualized for the first time the structure of a well-ordered exonuclease complex, allowing us to identify and confirm the role of key residues (Phe123, Met256, and Tyr257) in strand separation and in the stabilization of the primer strand in the exonuclease site.

  14. Crop rotation of flooded rice with upland maize impacts the resident and active methanogenic microbial community.

    PubMed

    Breidenbach, Björn; Blaser, Martin B; Klose, Melanie; Conrad, Ralf

    2016-09-01

    Crop rotation of flooded rice with upland crops is a common management scheme allowing the reduction of water consumption along with the reduction of methane emission. The introduction of an upland crop into the paddy rice ecosystem leads to dramatic changes in field conditions (oxygen availability, redox conditions). However, the impact of this practice on the archaeal and bacterial communities has scarcely been studied. Here, we provide a comprehensive study focusing on the crop rotation between flooded rice in the wet season and upland maize (RM) in the dry season in comparison with flooded rice (RR) in both seasons. The composition of the resident and active microbial communities was assessed by 454 pyrosequencing targeting the archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA gene and 16S rRNA. The archaeal community composition changed dramatically in the rotational fields indicated by a decrease of anaerobic methanogenic lineages and an increase of aerobic Thaumarchaeota. Members of Methanomicrobiales, Methanosarcinaceae, Methanosaetaceae and Methanocellaceae were equally suppressed in the rotational fields indicating influence on both acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens. On the contrary, members of soil crenarchaeotic group, mainly Candidatus Nitrososphaera, were higher in the rotational fields, possibly indicating increasing importance of ammonia oxidation during drainage. In contrast, minor effects on the bacterial community were observed. Acidobacteria and Anaeromyxobacter spp. were enriched in the rotational fields, whereas members of anaerobic Chloroflexi and sulfate-reducing members of Deltaproteobacteria were found in higher abundance in the rice fields. Combining quantitative polymerase chain reaction and pyrosequencing data revealed increased ribosomal numbers per cell for methanogenic species during crop rotation. This stress response, however, did not allow the methanogenic community to recover in the rotational fields during re-flooding and rice

  15. Atomic structure of an archaeal GAN suggests its dual roles as an exonuclease in DNA repair and a CMG component in DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Oyama, Takuji; Ishino, Sonoko; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Yamagami, Takeshi; Nagata, Mariko; Ogino, Hiromi; Kusunoki, Masami; Ishino, Yoshizumi

    2016-01-01

    In eukaryotic DNA replication initiation, hexameric MCM (mini-chromosome maintenance) unwinds the template double-stranded DNA to form the replication fork. MCM is activated by two proteins, Cdc45 and GINS, which constitute the ‘CMG’ unwindosome complex together with the MCM core. The archaeal DNA replication system is quite similar to that of eukaryotes, but only limited knowledge about the DNA unwinding mechanism is available, from a structural point of view. Here, we describe the crystal structure of an archaeal GAN (GINS-associated nuclease) from Thermococcus kodakaraensis, the homolog of eukaryotic Cdc45, in both the free form and the complex with the C-terminal domain of the cognate Gins51 subunit (Gins51C). This first archaeal GAN structure exhibits a unique, ‘hybrid’ structure between the bacterial RecJ and the eukaryotic Cdc45. GAN possesses the conserved DHH and DHH1 domains responsible for the exonuclease activity, and an inserted CID (CMG interacting domain)-like domain structurally comparable to that in Cdc45, suggesting its dual roles as an exonuclease in DNA repair and a CMG component in DNA replication. A structural comparison of the GAN–Gins51C complex with the GINS tetramer suggests that GINS uses the mobile Gins51C as a hook to bind GAN for CMG formation. PMID:27599844

  16. 76 FR 52287 - Political Activity-Federal Employees Residing In Designated Localities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ...: OPM proposes to amend its regulations at 5 CFR part 733 by granting Federal employees residing in King....C. 7323(a)(2) and (3), and adding King George County to its regulatory list of designated localities in 5 CFR 733.107(c). The proposed amendment reflects OPM's determination that King George...

  17. 77 FR 59409 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application To Register Permanent Residence or Adjust...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... Permanent Residence or Adjust Status, Form I-485 and Supplements A, C, and E, Revision of a Currently... DHS sponsoring the collection: Form I-485 and Supplements A, C, and E; USCIS. (4) Affected public who...) Instructions for Form I-485, Supplement C; OMB Control No. 1615-0024, in Form I-485 instructions under...

  18. 77 FR 65708 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Petition To Remove the Conditions on Residence, Form...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... Conditions on Residence. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component of the DHS sponsoring...: 60-Day Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and Immigration... directed to: DHS, USCIS, Office of Policy and Strategy, Chief, Regulatory Coordination Division,...

  19. 78 FR 5194 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Petition To Remove the Conditions on Residence, Form I...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... Conditions on Residence. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component of the DHS sponsoring...-Day notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and Immigration... at 77 FR 65708, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS did receive 3 comments...

  20. Experiential Team Building for Student Leaders in Union Activities and Residence Halls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Don; And Others

    This guide offers college or university student union and housing office personnel assistance in developing experiential team building workshops for student leaders. The rationale for providing such training is discussed in terms of the following: (1) resident assistants are usually vital compus leaders, with the potential to be vital student…

  1. Atmospheric residence time of (210)Pb determined from the activity ratios with its daughter radionuclides (210)Bi and (210)Po.

    PubMed

    Semertzidou, P; Piliposian, G T; Appleby, P G

    2016-08-01

    The residence time of (210)Pb created in the atmosphere by the decay of gaseous (222)Rn is a key parameter controlling its distribution and fallout onto the landscape. These in turn are key parameters governing the use of this natural radionuclide for dating and interpreting environmental records stored in natural archives such as lake sediments. One of the principal methods for estimating the atmospheric residence time is through measurements of the activities of the daughter radionuclides (210)Bi and (210)Po, and in particular the (210)Bi/(210)Pb and (210)Po/(210)Pb activity ratios. Calculations used in early empirical studies assumed that these were governed by a simple series of equilibrium equations. This approach does however have two failings; it takes no account of the effect of global circulation on spatial variations in the activity ratios, and no allowance is made for the impact of transport processes across the tropopause. This paper presents a simple model for calculating the distributions of (210)Pb, (210)Bi and (210)Po at northern mid-latitudes (30°-65°N), a region containing almost all the available empirical data. By comparing modelled (210)Bi/(210)Pb activity ratios with empirical data a best estimate for the tropospheric residence time of around 10 days is obtained. This is significantly longer than earlier estimates of between 4 and 7 days. The process whereby (210)Pb is transported into the stratosphere when tropospheric concentrations are high and returned from it when they are low, significantly increases the effective residence time in the atmosphere as a whole. The effect of this is to significantly enhance the long range transport of (210)Pb from its source locations. The impact is illustrated by calculations showing the distribution of (210)Pb fallout versus longitude at northern mid-latitudes.

  2. Montessori-based activities for long-term care residents with advanced dementia: effects on engagement and affect.

    PubMed

    Orsulic-Jeras, S; Judge, K S; Camp, C J

    2000-02-01

    Sixteen residents in long-term care with advanced dementia (14 women; average age = 88) showed significantly more constructive engagement (defined as motor or verbal behaviors in response to an activity), less passive engagement (defined as passively observing an activity), and more pleasure while participating in Montessori-based programming than in regularly scheduled activities programming. Principles of Montessori-based programming, along with examples of such programming, are presented. Implications of the study and methods for expanding the use of Montessori-based dementia programming are discussed.

  3. Exonuclease-Catalyzed Target Recycling Amplification and Immobilization-free Electrochemical Aptasensor.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yue; Wei, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Peilong; Qiu, Bin; Guo, Longhua; Lin, Zhenyu; Yang, Huang-Hao

    2015-12-01

    A simple, sensitive, and selective immobilization-free electrochemical aptasensor had been developed which combines the advantages of the discrimination of the aggregation of long and short DNA on a negatively charged indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode, high selectivity of the aptamer, and high efficiency of exonuclease-catalyzed target recycling amplification. Ochratoxin A (OTA), a type of mycotoxin, has been chosen as the model target. Methylene blue (MB) labeled probe DNA had been hybridized with the OTA aptamer first, which cannot diffuse freely to the negative charged ITO electrode surface due to the repulsion of the negative charges, since the hybridized DNA contains large negative charges. In the presence of target (OTA), the aptamer prefers to form an OTA-aptamer complex in lieu of an aptamer-DNA duplex, which results in the dissociation of probe DNA from the probe DNA-aptamer complex. The released probe DNA could be digested into mononucleotides, including a MB-labeled electroactive mononucleotide (eT), due to the employment of the RecJf exonuclease, a single-stranded DNA specific exonuclease. Since the eT contains little negative charge, it can diffuse easily to the negative charged ITO electrode surface, which results in the enhanced electrochemical response detected. At the same time, the aptamer in the OTA-aptamer complex can be digested by RecJf exonuclease also to liberate the target, which can participate in the next reaction cycling and realize the electrochemical signal amplification. Based on this strategy, an ultrasensitive homogeneous immobilization-free electrochemical aptasensor for OTA can be developed with a low detection limit (LOD) of 0.004 ng mL(-1) (S/N = 3). The proposed biosensor combines the advantages of the simplicity of immobilization-free homogeneous ITO based electrochemical determination, high efficiency of exonuclease-catalyzed target recycling, and high selectivity of the aptamer. The fabricated biosensor has been applied to

  4. Relationship between membrane potential changes and superoxide-releasing capacity in resident and activated mouse peritoneal macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Kitagawa, S.; Johnston, R.B. Jr.

    1985-11-01

    To understand better the molecular basis for the enhanced respiratory burst of activated macrophages (M phi), the relationship between the stimulus-induced changes in membrane potential and release of superoxide anion (O/sub 2//sup -/) in mouse peritoneal M phi was investigated. Resident M phi and M phi elicited by injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-M phi) or obtained from animals infected with bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG-M phi) were used. LPS-M phi and BCG-M phi showed more pronounced changes in membrane potential (depolarization) and greater release of O/sub 2//sup -/ on contact with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) than did resident macrophages. The lag time between addition of stimulus and onset of release of O/sub 2//sup -/ was reduced in activated compared with resident cells. Membrane potential changes began 60 to 90 sec before release of O/sub 2//sup -/ could be detected in each cell type. The dose-response curves for triggering of membrane potential changes and O/sub 2//sup -/ release by PMA were identical. The magnitude of membrane potential changes and of O/sub 2//sup -/ release in LPS-M phi and BCG-M phi declined progressively during in vitro culture, and values on day 3 approached those in resident macrophages (deactivation). Extracellular glucose was required for effective stimulated change in membrane potential and O/sub 2//sup -/ release. These findings indicate that membrane potential changes are closely associated with O/sub 2//sup -/-releasing capacity in macrophages, and that the systems that mediate membrane potential changes and production of O/sub 2//sup -/ develop or decline concomitantly during activation or deactivation of the cells.

  5. The 3'-5' exonuclease site of DNA polymerase III from gram-positive bacteria: definition of a novel motif structure.

    PubMed

    Barnes, M H; Spacciapoli, P; Li, D H; Brown, N C

    1995-11-07

    The primary structure of the 3'-5' exonuclease (Exo) site of the Gram+ bacterial DNA polymerase III (Pol III) was examined by site-directed mutagenesis of Bacillus subtilis Pol III (BsPol III). It was found to differ significantly from the conventional three-motif substructure established for the Exo site of DNA polymerase I of Escherichia coli (EcPol I) and the majority of other DNA polymerase-exonucleases. Motifs I and II were conventionally organized and anchored functionally by the predicted carboxylate residues. However, the conventional downstream motif, motif III, was replaced by motif III epsilon, a novel 55-amino-acid (aa) segment incorporating three essential aa (His565, Asp533 and Asp570) which are strictly conserved in three Gram+ Pol III and in the Ec Exo epsilon (epsilon). Despite its unique substructure, the Gram+ Pol III-specific Exo site was conventionally independent of Pol, the site of 2'-deoxyribonucleoside 5-triphosphate (dNTP) binding and polymerization. The entire Exo site, including motif III epsilon, could be deleted without profoundly affecting the enzyme's capacity to polymerize dNTPs. Conversely, Pol and all other sequences downstream of the Exo site could be deleted with little apparent effect on Exo activity. Whether the three essential aa within the unique motif III epsilon substructure participate in the conventional two-metal-ion mechanism elucidated for the model Exo site of EcPol I, remains to be established.

  6. Factors favoring a degradation or an improvement in activities of daily living (ADL) performance among nursing home (NH) residents: a survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Bürge, Elisabeth; von Gunten, Armin; Berchtold, André

    2013-01-01

    Different factors influence ADL performance among nursing home (NH) residents in long term care. The aim was to investigate which factors were associated with a significant change of ADL performance in NH residents, and whether or not these factors were gender-specific. The design was a survival analysis. The 10,199 participants resided in ninety Swiss NHs. Their ADL performance had been assessed by the Resident Assessment Instrument Minimum Data Set (RAI-MDS) in the period from 1997 to 2007. Relevant change in ADL performance was defined as 2 levels of change on the ADL scale between two successive assessments. The occurrence of either an improvement or a degradation of the ADL status) was analyzed using the Cox proportional hazard model. The analysis included a total of 10,199 NH residents. Each resident received between 2 and 23 assessments. Poor balance, incontinence, impaired cognition, a low BMI, impaired vision, no daily contact with proxies, impaired hearing and the presence of depression were, by hierarchical order, significant risk factors for NH residents to experience a degradation of ADL performance. Residents, who were incontinent, cognitively impaired or had a high BMI were significantly less likely to improve their ADL abilities. Male residents with cancer were prone to see their ADL improve. The year of NH entry was significantly associated with either degradation or improvement of ADL performance. Measures aiming at improving balance and continence, promoting physical activity, providing appropriate nourishment and cognitive enhancement are important for ADL performance in NH residents.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of investing in sidewalks as a means of increasing physical activity: a RESIDE modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Veerman, J Lennert; Zapata-Diomedi, Belen; Gunn, Lucy; McCormack, Gavin R; Cobiac, Linda J; Mantilla Herrera, Ana Maria; Giles-Corti, Billie; Shiell, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies consistently find that supportive neighbourhood built environments increase physical activity by encouraging walking and cycling. However, evidence on the cost-effectiveness of investing in built environment interventions as a means of promoting physical activity is lacking. In this study, we assess the cost-effectiveness of increasing sidewalk availability as one means of encouraging walking. Methods Using data from the RESIDE study in Perth, Australia, we modelled the cost impact and change in health-adjusted life years (HALYs) of installing additional sidewalks in established neighbourhoods. Estimates of the relationship between sidewalk availability and walking were taken from a previous study. Multistate life table models were used to estimate HALYs associated with changes in walking frequency and duration. Sensitivity analyses were used to explore the impact of variations in population density, discount rates, sidewalk costs and the inclusion of unrelated healthcare costs in added life years. Results Installing and maintaining an additional 10 km of sidewalk in an average neighbourhood with 19 000 adult residents was estimated to cost A$4.2 million over 30 years and gain 24 HALYs over the lifetime of an average neighbourhood adult resident population. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was A$176 000/HALY. However, sensitivity results indicated that increasing population densities improves cost-effectiveness. Conclusions In low-density cities such as in Australia, installing sidewalks in established neighbourhoods as a single intervention is unlikely to cost-effectively improve health. Sidewalks must be considered alongside other complementary elements of walkability, such as density, land use mix and street connectivity. Population density is particularly important because at higher densities, more residents are exposed and this improves the cost-effectiveness. Health gain is one of many benefits of enhancing neighbourhood

  8. Multiplex detection of microRNAs by combining molecular beacon probes with T7 exonuclease-assisted cyclic amplification reaction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yacui; Zhang, Jiangyan; Tian, Jingxiao; Fan, Xiaofei; Geng, Hao; Cheng, Yongqiang

    2017-01-01

    A simple, highly sensitive, and specific assay was developed for the homogeneous and multiplex detection of microRNAs (miRNAs) by combining molecular beacon (MB) probes and T7 exonuclease-assisted cyclic amplification. An MB probe with five base pairs in the stem region without special modification can effectively prevent the digestion by T7 exonuclease. Only in the presence of target miRNA is the MB probe hybridized with the target miRNA, and then digested by T7 exonuclease in the 5' to 3' direction. At the same time, the target miRNA is released and subsequently initiates the nuclease-assisted cyclic digestion process, generating enhanced fluorescence signal significantly. The results show that the combination of T7 exonuclease-assisted cyclic amplification reaction and MB probe possesses higher sensitivity for miRNA detection. Moreover, multiplex detection of miRNAs was successfully achieved by designing two MB probes labeled with FAM and Cy3, respectively. As a result, the method opens a new pathway for the sensitive and multiplex detection of miRNAs as well as clinical diagnosis. Graphical Abstract A simple, highly sensitive, and specific assay was developed for the detection of microRNAs by combining molecular beacon probes with T7 exonuclease-assisted cyclic amplification reaction.

  9. Exonuclease processivity of archaeal replicative DNA polymerase in association with PCNA is expedited by mismatches in DNA

    PubMed Central

    Yoda, Takuya; Tanabe, Maiko; Tsuji, Toshiyuki; Yoda, Takao; Ishino, Sonoko; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Ishino, Yoshizumi; Takeyama, Haruko; Nishida, Hirokazu

    2017-01-01

    Family B DNA polymerases comprise polymerase and 3′ −>5′ exonuclease domains, and detect a mismatch in a newly synthesized strand to remove it in cooperation with Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), which encircles the DNA to provide a molecular platform for efficient protein–protein and protein–DNA interactions during DNA replication and repair. Once the repair is completed, the enzyme must stop the exonucleolytic process and switch to the polymerase mode. However, the cue to stop the degradation is unclear. We constructed several PCNA mutants and found that the exonuclease reaction was enhanced in the mutants lacking the conserved basic patch, located on the inside surface of PCNA. These mutants may mimic the Pol/PCNA complex processing the mismatched DNA, in which PCNA cannot interact rigidly with the irregularly distributed phosphate groups outside the dsDNA. Indeed, the exonuclease reaction with the wild type PCNA was facilitated by mismatched DNA substrates. PCNA may suppress the exonuclease reaction after the removal of the mismatched nucleotide. PCNA seems to act as a “brake” that stops the exonuclease mode of the DNA polymerase after the removal of a mismatched nucleotide from the substrate DNA, for the prompt switch to the DNA polymerase mode. PMID:28300173

  10. Effects of oyster harvest activities on Louisiana reef habitat and resident nekton communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beck, Steve; LaPeyre, Megan K.

    2015-01-01

    Oysters are often cited as “ecosystem engineers” because they modify their environment. Coastal Louisiana contains extensive oyster reef areas that have been harvested for decades, and whether differences in habitat functions exist between those areas and nonharvested reefs is unclear. We compared reef physical structure and resident community metrics between these 2 subtidal reef types. Harvested reefs were more fragmented and had lower densities of live eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and hooked mussels (Ischadium recurvum) than the nonharvested reefs. Stable isotope values (13C and 15N) of dominant nekton species and basal food sources were used to compare food web characteristics. Nonpelagic source contributions and trophic positions of dominant species were slightly elevated at harvested sites. Oyster harvesting appeared to have decreased the number of large oysters and to have increased the percentage of reefs that were nonliving by decreasing water column filtration and benthopelagic coupling. The differences in reef matrix composition, however, had little effect on resident nekton communities. Understanding the thresholds of reef habitat areas, the oyster density or oyster size distribution below which ecosystem services may be compromised, remains key to sustainable management.

  11. Tritium activity concentrations and residence times of groundwater collected in Rokkasho, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hidenao; Ueda, Shinji; Akata, Naofumi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2015-11-01

    Tritium ((3)H) concentrations were measured in groundwater samples from four surface wells (4-10 m deep), four shallow wells (24-26.5 m deep) and a 150-m-deep well in the Futamata River catchment area, which is adjacent to the large-scale commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Rokkasho, Japan. The (3)H concentrations in most of the surface- and shallow-well samples (<0.03-0.57 Bq l(-1)) were similar to those in precipitation (annual mean: 0.31-0.79 Bq l(-1)), suggesting that the residence time of the water in those wells was 0-15 y. The (3)H concentrations in the samples from a 26-m-deep well and the 150-m-deep well were lower than those in the other wells, indicating that groundwater with a long residence time exists in deep aquifers and the estuary area of the catchment. It is not clear whether (3)H released during test operation of the plant with actual spent nuclear fuel affected the (3)H concentrations observed in this study.

  12. Rewarding the Resident Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Jennifer M.; Drake, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Residents routinely make significant contributions to the education of medical students. However, little attention has been paid to rewarding these individuals for their involvement in these academic activities. This report describes a program that rewards resident teachers with an academic appointment as a Clinical Instructor. The residents…

  13. Coordinated destruction of cellular messages in translation complexes by the gammaherpesvirus host shutoff factor and the mammalian exonuclease Xrn1.

    PubMed

    Covarrubias, Sergio; Gaglia, Marta M; Kumar, G Renuka; Wong, Wesley; Jackson, Andrew O; Glaunsinger, Britt A

    2011-10-01

    Several viruses encode factors that promote host mRNA degradation to silence gene expression. It is unclear, however, whether cellular mRNA turnover pathways are engaged to assist in this process. In Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus this phenotype is enacted by the host shutoff factor SOX. Here we show that SOX-induced mRNA turnover is a two-step process, in which mRNAs are first cleaved internally by SOX itself then degraded by the cellular exonuclease Xrn1. SOX therefore bypasses the regulatory steps of deadenylation and decapping normally required for Xrn1 activation. SOX is likely recruited to translating mRNAs, as it cosediments with translation initiation complexes and depletes polysomes. Cleaved mRNA intermediates accumulate in the 40S fraction, indicating that recognition occurs at an early stage of translation. This is the first example of a viral protein commandeering cellular mRNA turnover pathways to destroy host mRNAs, and suggests that Xrn1 is poised to deplete messages undergoing translation in mammalian cells.

  14. Suppression of Recj Exonuclease Mutants of Escherichia Coli by Alterations in DNA Helicases II (Uvrd) and IV (Held)

    PubMed Central

    Lovett, S. T.; Sutera-Jr., V. A.

    1995-01-01

    The recJ gene encodes a single-strand DNA-specific exonuclease involved in homologous recombination. We have isolated a pseudorevertant strain in which recJ mutant phenotypes were alleviated. Suppression of recJ was due to at least three mutations, two of which we have identified as alterations in DNA helicase genes. A recessive amber mutation, ``uvrD517(am),'' at codon 503 of the gene encoding helicase II was sufficient to suppress recJ partially. The uvrD517(am) mutation does not eliminate uvrD function because it affects UV survival only weakly; moreover, a uvrD insertion mutation could not replace uvrD517(am) as a suppressor. However, suppression may result from differential loss of uvrD function: mutation rate in a uvrD517(am) derivative was greatly elevated, equal to that in a uvrD insertion mutant. The second cosuppressor mutation is an allele of the helD gene, encoding DNA helicase IV, and could be replaced by insertion mutations in helD. The identity of the third cosuppressor ``srjD'' is not known. Strains carrying the three cosuppressor mutations exhibited hyperrecombinational phenotypes including elevated excision of repeated sequences. To explain recJ suppression, we propose that loss of antirecombinational helicase activity by the suppressor mutations stabilizes recombinational intermediates formed in the absence of recJ. PMID:7635292

  15. A novel magneto-DNA duplex probe for bacterial DNA detection based on exonuclease III-aided cycling amplification.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan; Wan, Yi; Zhang, Dun; Qi, Peng

    2015-01-01

    A novel magneto-DNA duplex probe for bacterial DNA detection based on exonuclease III (Exo-III) aided cycling amplification has been developed. This magneto-DNA duplex probe contains a partly hybrid fluorophore-modified capture probe and a fluorophore-modified signal probe with magnetic microparticle as carrier. In the presence of a perfectly matched target bacterial DNA, blunt 3'-terminus of the capture probe is formed, activating the Exo-III aided cycling amplification. Thus, Exo-III catalyzes the stepwise removal of mononucleotides from this terminus, releasing both fluorophore-modified signal probe, fluorescent dyes of the capture probe and target DNA. The released target DNA then starts a new cycle, while released fluorescent fragments are recovered with magnetic separation for fluorescence signal collection. This system exhibited sensitive detection of bacterial DNA, with a detection limit of 14 pM because of the unique cleavage function of Exo-III, high fluorescence intensity, and separating function of magneto-DNA duplex probes. Besides this sensitivity, this strategy exhibited excellent selectivity with mismatched bacterial DNA targets and other bacterial species targets and good applicability in real seawater samples, hence, this strategy could be potentially used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of bacteria.

  16. Critical determinants for substrate recognition and catalysis in the M. tuberculosis class II AP-endonuclease/3'-5' exonuclease III.

    PubMed

    Khanam, Taran; Shukla, Ankita; Rai, Niyati; Ramachandran, Ravishankar

    2015-05-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis AP-endonuclease/3'-5' exodeoxyribonuclease (MtbXthA) is an important player in DNA base excision repair (BER). We demonstrate that the enzyme has robust apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease activity, 3'-5' exonuclease, phosphatase, and phosphodiesterase activities. The enzyme functions as an AP-endonuclease at high ionic environments, while the 3'-5'-exonuclease activity is predominant at low ionic environments. Our molecular modelling and mutational experiments show that E57 and D251 are critical for catalysis. Although nicked DNA and gapped DNA are fair substrates of MtbXthA, the gap-size did not affect the excision activity and furthermore, a substrate with a recessed 3'-end is preferred. To understand the determinants of abasic-site recognition, we examined the possible roles of (i) the base opposite the abasic site, (ii) the abasic ribose ring itself, (iii) local distortions in the AP-site, and (iv) conserved residues located near the active site. Our experiments demonstrate that the first three determinants do not play a role in MtbXthA, and in fact the enzyme exhibits robust endonucleolytic activity against single-stranded AP DNA also. Regarding the fourth determinant, it is known that the catalytic-site of AP endonucleases is surrounded by conserved aromatic residues and intriguingly, the exact residues that are directly involved in abasic site recognition vary with the individual proteins. We therefore, used a combination of mutational analysis, kinetic assays, and structure-based modelling, to identify that Y237, supported by Y137, mediates the formation of the MtbXthA-AP-DNA complex and AP-site incision.

  17. The relationship between apathy and participation in therapeutic activities in nursing home residents with dementia: Evidence for an association and directions for further research.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Julie M; Doyle, Colleen J; Selvarajah, Suganya

    2016-07-01

    Apathy is one of the most frequent and early symptoms of dementia. Because apathy is characterised by lack of initiative and motivation, it leads to considerable burden being placed on carers to ensure that the person living with dementia has a reasonable quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between apathy and participation in therapeutic activities for older people with dementia living in nursing homes. Ninety residents were recruited into the study, and apathy was measured by nursing home staff using the Apathy Evaluation Scale Clinician version. Staff also compiled data on each resident's involvement in therapeutic activities. Among this sample, the mean age was 84.8 years, and mean length of stay in the nursing home was 1.8 years. The mean apathy score was 50.4, indicating that on average the residents had a moderate level of apathy. Overall, residents participated in six activities per week and those residents who were involved in the most activities had the lowest levels of apathy. This paper provides evidence that residents involved in therapeutic activities have lower levels of apathy. Further research should be conducted on the direction of causality, whether apathy levels can be changed through participation in therapeutic activities, the relationship between dementia severity and modifiability of apathy, and the intensity of therapeutic activities required to maintain functioning.

  18. The relationships between urban parks, residents' physical activity, and mental health benefits: A case study from Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongxiao; Li, Feng; Li, Juanyong; Zhang, Yuyang

    2017-04-01

    The role of urban parks in improving public health has been analyzed in the context of urban design in developed countries, but has seldom been considered in developing countries such as China. Previous studies have found positive correlations between parks and residents' physical activity and mental health status. In this study, we conducted a questionnaire survey to investigate respondents' physical activity status and its relationship with urban parks. The impact of different activities engaged in during park use on positive mental health was examined. The average physical activity level of the sample was 92.7 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day. Park users were more active in all forms of physical activity, except transport walking, than non-users. The presence of a park within 500 m from home and park use were significantly associated with total physical activity. Physical activity in parks significantly restored visitors' moods and energy levels, and interaction with nature brought mental health benefits in terms of relaxation and self-perceived confidence. Overall, this study found a positive correlation of urban parks with public physical activity and positive mental health benefits. However, further research is needed to improve the understanding of this relationship in the context of China.

  19. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Theory-Based Activities for the Behavioral Symptoms of Dementia in Nursing Home Residents

    PubMed Central

    Kolanowski, Ann; Litaker, Mark; Buettner, Lin; Moeller, Joyel; Costa, Paul T.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To test the main and interactive effects of activities derived from the Need-driven Dementia-compromised Behavior model for responding to behavioral symptoms in nursing home residents. Activities tailored to functional level and personality style of interest were hypothesized to improve behavioral outcomes to a greater extent than partially- tailored or non-tailored activities. DESIGN Randomized clinical trial, double-blind. SETTING Nine community-based nursing homes. PARTICIPANTS One hundred and twenty eight cognitively impaired residents randomly assigned to activities tailored to: functional level (FL) (n= 32); personality style of interest (PSI) (n= 33); functional level and personality style of interest (FL+PSI) (n= 31); or active control (AC) (n= 32). INTERVENTION Three weeks of activities provided twice daily. MEASUREMENTS Agitation, passivity, engagement, affect, and mood assessed from video-recordings and real time observations during baseline, intervention, random times outside of intervention, and one week post-intervention. RESULTS Compared to baseline all treatments improved outcomes during intervention except mood which worsened under AC. During intervention the PSI group demonstrated greater engagement, alertness, and attention than the other groups; the FL+PSI group demonstrated greater pleasure. During random times, engagement returned to baseline levels except in the FL group where it decreased. There was also less agitation and passivity in groups with a tailored to personality style of interest component. One week post intervention mood, anxiety and passivity improved over baseline; there was significantly less pleasure displayed following withdrawal of treatment. CONCLUSION The hypothesis was partially supported. Personality style of interest is a critical component of individualized activity prescription. PMID:21649633

  20. A Survey of Non-Resident Lending and Borrowing Activity in Massachusetts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggford, Roland R.; And Others

    This survey presenting raw data for the planning of resource sharing and other cooperative library activities in Massachusetts focuses on the borrowing and lending characteristics of libraries with regard to nonresident borrowing activity. It is intended to provide up-to-date estimates of such activity, formulate long term solutions to fiscal…

  1. Understanding dog owners' increased levels of physical activity: results from RESIDE.

    PubMed

    Cutt, Hayley; Giles-Corti, Billie; Knuiman, Matthew; Timperio, Anna; Bull, Fiona

    2008-01-01

    We examined the influence of dog ownership on physical activity, independent of demographic, intrapersonal, and perceived environmental factors, in a cross-sectional survey of 1813 adults. Although only 23% of the dog owners walked their dogs 5 or more times per week, the adjusted odds of achieving sufficient physical activity and walking were 57% to 77% higher among dog owners compared with those not owning dogs (P< .05). Dog ownership was independently associated with physical activity and walking. Actively encouraging more dog walking may increase community physical activity levels.

  2. Risk of carotid atherosclerosis is associated with low serum paraoxonase (PON1) activity among arsenic exposed residents in Southwestern Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.-F.; Sun, C.-W.; Cheng, T.-J.; Chang, K.-H.; Chen, C.-J.; Wang, S.-L.

    2009-04-15

    To understand whether human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) would modulate the risk for arsenic-related atherosclerosis, we studied 196 residents from an arseniasis-endemic area in Southwestern Taiwan and 291 age- and sex-matched residents from a nearby control area where arsenic exposure was found low. Carotid atherosclerosis was defined by a carotid artery intima-media wall thickness (IMT) of > 1.0 mm. Prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis was increased in the arseniasis-endemic area as compared to the control area after adjustment for conventional risk factors (OR = 2.20, p < 0.01). The prevalence was positively associated with cumulative arsenic exposure (mg/L-year) in a dose-dependent manner. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that in the endemic group, low serum PON1 activity was an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis (OR = 4.18 low vs. high, p < 0.05). For those of low PON1 activity and high cumulative arsenic exposure, the odds ratio for the prevalence of atherosclerosis was further increased up to 5.68 (p < 0.05). No significant association was found between atherosclerosis and four polymorphisms of the PON gene cluster (PON1 - 108C/T, PON1 Q192R, PON2 A148G, PON2 C311S). However, genetic frequencies of certain alleles including PON1 Q192, PON2 G148 and PON2 C311 were found increased in the endemic group as compared to the controls and a general Chinese population, indicating a possible survival selection in the endemic group after a long arsenic exposure history. Our results showed a significant joint effect between arsenic exposure and serum PON1 activity on carotid atherosclerosis, suggesting that subjects of low PON1 activity may be more susceptible to arsenic-related cardiovascular disease.

  3. Para-chlorophenol containing synthetic wastewater treatment in an activated sludge unit: effects of hydraulic residence time.

    PubMed

    Kargi, Fikret; Konya, Isil

    2007-07-01

    Due to the toxic nature of chlorophenol compounds present in some chemical industry effluents, biological treatment of such wastewaters is usually realized with low treatment efficiencies. Para-chlorophenol (4-chlorophenol, 4-CP) containing synthetic wastewater was treated in an activated sludge unit at different hydraulic residence times (HRT) varying between 5 and 30 h while the feed COD (2500 mg l(-1)), 4-CP (500 mg l(-1)) and sludge age (SRT, 10 days) were constant. Effects of HRT variations on COD, 4-CP, toxicity removals and on settling characteristics of the sludge were investigated. Percent COD removals increased and the effluent COD concentrations decreased when HRT increased from 5 to 15 h and remained almost constant for larger HRT levels. Nearly, 91% COD and 99% 4-CP removals were obtained at HRT levels above 15 h. Because of the highly concentrated microbial population at HRT levels of above 15 h, low effluent (reactor) 4-CP concentrations and almost complete toxicity removals were obtained. High biomass concentrations obtained at HRT levels above 15 h were due to low 4-CP contents in the aeration tank yielding negligible inhibition effects and low maintenance requirements. The sludge volume index (SVI) decreased with increasing HRT up to 15 h due to high biomass concentrations at high HRT levels resulting in well settling sludge with low SVI values. Hydraulic residence times above 15 h resulted in more than 90% COD and complete 4-CP and toxicity removals along with well settling sludge.

  4. The anti-cancer effects of carotenoids and other phytonutrients resides in their combined activity.

    PubMed

    Linnewiel-Hermoni, Karin; Khanin, Marina; Danilenko, Michael; Zango, Gabriel; Amosi, Yaara; Levy, Joseph; Sharoni, Yoav

    2015-04-15

    Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is strongly associated with reduced risk of developing chronic diseases, such as cancer. It is now accepted that the actions of any specific phytonutrient alone do not explain the observed health benefits of diets rich in fruits and vegetables as nutrients that were taken alone in clinical trials did not show consistent preventive effects. The considerable cost and complexity of such clinical trials requires prudent selection of combinations of ingredients rather than single compounds. Indeed, synergistic inhibition of prostate and mammary cancer cell growth was evident when using combinations of low concentrations of various carotenoids or carotenoids with retinoic acid and the active metabolite of vitamin-D. In this study we aimed to develop simple and sensitive in vitro methods which provide information on potent combinations suitable for inclusion in clinical studies for cancer prevention. We, thus, used reporter gene assays of the transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor in hormone-dependent prostate cancer cells and of the electrophile/antioxidant response element (EpRE/ARE) transcription system. We found that combinations of several carotenoids (e.g., lycopene, phytoene and phytofluene), or carotenoids and polyphenols (e.g., carnosic acid and curcumin) and/or other compounds (e.g., vitamin E) synergistically inhibit the androgen receptor activity and activate the EpRE/ARE system. The activation of EpRE/ARE was up to four fold higher than the sum of the activities of the single ingredients, a robust hallmark of synergy. Such combinations can further be tested in the more complex in vivo models and human studies.

  5. ARGONAUTE10 promotes the degradation of miR165/6 through the SDN1 and SDN2 exonucleases in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Jixian; Chen, Jiayi; Luscher, Elizabeth; Gao, Lei; Liu, Chunyan; Cao, Xiaofeng; Mo, Beixin; Ma, Jinbiao; Meyers, Blake C.

    2017-01-01

    The degradation of small RNAs in plants and animals is associated with small RNA 3′ truncation and 3′ uridylation and thus relies on exonucleases and nucleotidyl transferases. ARGONAUTE (AGO) proteins associate with small RNAs in vivo and are essential for not only the activities but also the stability of small RNAs. AGO1 is the microRNA (miRNA) effector in Arabidopsis, and its closest homolog, AGO10, maintains stem cell homeostasis in meristems by sequestration of miR165/6, a conserved miRNA acting through AGO1. Here, we show that SMALL RNA DEGRADING NUCLEASES (SDNs) initiate miRNA degradation by acting on AGO1-bound miRNAs to cause their 3′ truncation, and the truncated species are uridylated and degraded. We report that AGO10 reduces miR165/6 accumulation by enhancing its degradation by SDN1 and SDN2 in vivo. In vitro, AGO10-bound miR165/6 is more susceptible to SDN1-mediated 3′ truncation than AGO1-bound miR165/6. Thus, AGO10 promotes the degradation of miR165/6, which is contrary to the stabilizing effect of AGO1. Our work identifies a class of exonucleases responsible for miRNA 3′ truncation in vivo and uncovers a mechanism of specificity determination in miRNA turnover. This work, together with previous studies on AGO10, suggests that spatially regulated miRNA degradation underlies stem cell maintenance in plants. PMID:28231321

  6. Importance of Quality Recreation Activities for Older Adults Residing in Nursing Homes: Considerations for Gerontologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberkost, Michael; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Based on a needs assessment survey (66 responses from 101 nursing home activity coordinators), a recreation manual and training program was developed and tested with 25 coordinators/recreation staff. The 14 who completed evaluations increased their understanding of such topics as depression; goals of nursing home recreation programs; motivation of…

  7. 78 FR 26647 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application To Replace Permanent Resident Card, Form I...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Application To... Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services... Security sponsoring the collection: Form I-90, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. (4)...

  8. 78 FR 63236 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application To Replace Permanent Resident Card, Form...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Application To...-Day Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting the following information collection request to the Office...

  9. Functional fitness and physical activity of Portuguese community-residing older adults.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Élvio R; Maia, José A; Beunen, Gaston P; Blimkie, Cameron J; Fena, Ercília M; Freitas, Duarte L

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to generate functional-fitness norms for Portuguese older adults, to determine age and sex differences, and to analyze the physical activity-associated variation in functional fitness. The sample was composed of 802 older adults, 401 men and 401 women, age 60-79 yr. Functional fitness was assessed using the Senior Fitness Test. Physical activity level was estimated via the Baecke questionnaire. The P50 values decreased from 60 to 64 to 75 to 79 yr of age. A significant main effect for age group was found in all functional-fitness tests. Men scored significantly better than women in the chair stand, 8-ft up-and-go, and 6-min walk. Women scored significantly better than men in chair sit-and-reach and back scratch. Active participants scored better in functional-fitness tests than their average and nonactive peers. This study showed a decline in functional fitness with age, better performance of men, and increased proficiency in active participants.

  10. Factors Influencing Expectations of Physical Activity for Adolescents Residing in Appalachia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Rebecca L.; Nabors, Laura; King, Keith; Vidourek, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Background: Appalachian adolescents are at an increased risk for sedentary behavior; little research has addressed this concern. Purpose: This study examined adolescents' expectations for engaging in physical activity (PA), chiefly expectations for relaxation and fitness. Independent variables were self-efficacy expectations (SEEs) to overcome…

  11. Permanent resident.

    PubMed

    Fisher, John F

    2016-01-01

    The training of physicians in the past century was based primarily on responsibility and the chain-of-command. Those with the bulk of that responsibility in the fields of pediatrics and internal medicine were residents. Residents trained the medical students and supervised them carefully in caring for patients. Most attending physicians supervised their teams at arm's length, primarily serving as teachers of the finer points of diagnosis and treatment during set periods of the day or week with a perfunctory signature on write-ups or progress notes. Residents endeavored to protect the attending physician from being heavily involved unless they were unsure about a clinical problem. Before contacting the attending physician, a more senior resident would be called. Responsibility was the ultimate teacher. The introduction of diagnosis-related groups by the federal government dramatically changed the health care delivery system, placing greater emphasis on attending physician visibility in the medical record, ultimately resulting in more attending physician involvement in day-to-day care of patients in academic institutions. Without specified content in attending notes, hospital revenues would decline. Although always in charge technically, attending physicians increasingly have assumed the role once dominated by the resident. Using biographical experiences of more than 40 years, the author acknowledges and praises the educational role of responsibility in his own training and laments its declining role in today's students and house staff.

  12. Antimicrobial Activity of Medicated Soaps Commonly Used By Dar es Salaam Residents in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwambete, K D; Lyombe, F

    2011-01-01

    An in vitro evaluation of the anti-microbial activity of medicated soaps was conducted using ditch-plate and hand washing techniques. Strains of reference microbes namely Candida albicans (ATCC90028), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923), Pseudomonas aureginosa (ATCC27853) and Escherichia coli (ATCC25922) were tested at three different soaps' concentrations (1.0, 4.0 and 8.0 mg/ml). A total of 16 medicated soaps were assayed for their antimicrobial efficacy. Of these, 13 were medicated and 3 non-medicated soaps, which served as control. Ciprofloxacin and ketaconazole were employed as positive controls. Label disclosure for the soaps' ingredients and other relevant information were absorbed. The most common antimicrobial active ingredients were triclosan, trichloroxylenol and trichlorocarbanilide. ANOVA for means of zones of inhibition revealed variability of antimicrobial activity among the medicated soaps. Positive correlation (r=0.318; P<0.01) between zones of inhibition and soaps' concentrations was evidenced. Hand washing frequencies positively correlated with microbial counts. Roberts(®) soap exhibited the largest zone of inhibition (34 mm) on S. aureus. Candida albicans was the least susceptible microbe. Regency(®) and Dalan(®) exhibited the least zone of inhibition on the tested bacteria. Protex(®), Roberts(®), Family(®) and Protector(®) were equally effective (P<0.01) against S. aureus. In conclusion, majority of the assayed medicated soaps have satisfactory antibacterial activity; though lack antifungal effect with exception of Linda(®) liquid soap. The hand washing technique has proved to be inappropriate for evaluation of soaps' antimicrobial efficacy due to presence of the skin microflora.

  13. Antimicrobial Activity of Medicated Soaps Commonly Used By Dar es Salaam Residents in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mwambete, K. D.; Lyombe, F.

    2011-01-01

    An in vitro evaluation of the anti-microbial activity of medicated soaps was conducted using ditch-plate and hand washing techniques. Strains of reference microbes namely Candida albicans (ATCC90028), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923), Pseudomonas aureginosa (ATCC27853) and Escherichia coli (ATCC25922) were tested at three different soaps’ concentrations (1.0, 4.0 and 8.0 mg/ml). A total of 16 medicated soaps were assayed for their antimicrobial efficacy. Of these, 13 were medicated and 3 non-medicated soaps, which served as control. Ciprofloxacin and ketaconazole were employed as positive controls. Label disclosure for the soaps’ ingredients and other relevant information were absorbed. The most common antimicrobial active ingredients were triclosan, trichloroxylenol and trichlorocarbanilide. ANOVA for means of zones of inhibition revealed variability of antimicrobial activity among the medicated soaps. Positive correlation (r=0.318; P<0.01) between zones of inhibition and soaps’ concentrations was evidenced. Hand washing frequencies positively correlated with microbial counts. Roberts® soap exhibited the largest zone of inhibition (34 mm) on S. aureus. Candida albicans was the least susceptible microbe. Regency® and Dalan® exhibited the least zone of inhibition on the tested bacteria. Protex®, Roberts®, Family® and Protector® were equally effective (P<0.01) against S. aureus. In conclusion, majority of the assayed medicated soaps have satisfactory antibacterial activity; though lack antifungal effect with exception of Linda® liquid soap. The hand washing technique has proved to be inappropriate for evaluation of soaps’ antimicrobial efficacy due to presence of the skin microflora. PMID:22131630

  14. The biological activities of protein/oleic acid complexes reside in the fatty acid.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Angelo; Spolaore, Barbara; Polverino de Laureto, Patrizia

    2013-06-01

    A complex formed by human α-lactalbumin (α-LA) and oleic acid (OA), named HAMLET, has been shown to have an apoptotic activity leading to the selective death of tumor cells. In numerous publications it has been reported that in the complex α-LA is monomeric and adopts a partly folded or "molten globule" state, leading to the idea that partly folded proteins can have "beneficial effects". The protein/OA molar ratio initially has been reported to be 1:1, while recent data have indicated that the OA-complex is given by an oligomeric protein capable of binding numerous OA molecules per protein monomer. Proteolytic fragments of α-LA, as well as other proteins unrelated to α-LA, can form OA-complexes with biological activities similar to those of HAMLET, thus indicating that a generic protein can form a cytotoxic complex under suitable experimental conditions. Moreover, even the selective tumoricidal activity of HAMLET-like complexes has been questioned. There is recent evidence that the biological activity of long chain unsaturated fatty acids, including OA, can be ascribed to their effect of perturbing the structure of biological membranes and consequently the function of membrane-bound proteins. In general, it has been observed that the cytotoxic effects exerted by HAMLET-like complexes are similar to those reported for OA alone. Overall, these findings can be interpreted by considering that the protein moiety does not have a toxic effect on its own, but merely acts as a solubilising agent for the inherently toxic fatty acid.

  15. The Costs and Benefits of Active Coping for Adolescents Residing in Urban Poverty.

    PubMed

    Carothers, Kristin J; Arizaga, Jessica A; Carter, Jocelyn Smith; Taylor, Jeremy; Grant, Kathryn E

    2016-07-01

    The present study addresses the lack of specificity and diversity highlighted in recent stress literature reviews by examining active coping in relationships between exposure to violence and internalizing and externalizing symptoms in a sample of urban youth from predominantly low-income, African American and Latino backgrounds. Two hundred and forty-one youth (mean age at Time 1 = 13 years; 66 % female; 41 % African American, 28 % Latino, 14 % European American, 6 % Asian American, 7 % mixed/biracial, 1 % American Indian/native American, .5 % Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, 2 % other) and their parents participated in this three-wave study. Hierarchical regression analyses tested for moderation, and a cross lag panel path analysis tested for mediation. The results provide greater support for active coping as a variable that changes the relationship between exposure to community violence and externalizing symptoms, or moderation, rather than one that explains or mediates it. Further, specificity did not emerge for type of psychological outcome but did emerge for gender, such that active coping exacerbated the association between exposure to community violence and both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for girls, but not boys. These findings highlight the importance of contextual and demographic factors in influencing stress and coping processes during adolescence.

  16. Alternate radiolabeled markers for detecting metabolic activity of Mycobacterium leprae residing in murine macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, H.K.; Hastings, R.C.

    1985-05-01

    This study demonstrated the utility of using 4% NaOH as a murine macrophage cell-solubilizing agent to discriminate between host macrophage metabolism and that of intracellular Mycobacterium leprae. A 4% concentration of NaOH had no deleterious effect on labeled mycobacteria. Thereby, alternate radiolabeled indicators of the metabolic activity of intracellular M. leprae could be experimented with. Significant incorporation of /sup 14/C-amino acid mixture, (/sup 14/C)leucine, (/sup 14/C)uridine, and carrier-free /sup 32/P was observed in cultures containing freshly extracted (''live'') strains of M. leprae as compared with control cultures containing autoclaved bacilli.

  17. Slow-Onset Inhibition of the FabI Enoyl Reductase from Francisella tularensis: Residence Time and in Vivo Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, H.; England, K; Ende, C; Truglio, J; Luckner, S; Reddy, B; Marlenee, N; Knudson, S; Knudson, D; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent and contagious Gram-negative intracellular bacterium that causes the disease tularemia in mammals. The high infectivity and the ability of the bacterium to survive for weeks in a cool, moist environment have raised the possibility that this organism could be exploited deliberately as a potential biological weapon. Fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS-II) is essential for bacterial viability and has been validated as a target for the discovery of novel antibacterials. The FAS-II enoyl reductase ftuFabI has been cloned and expressed, and a series of diphenyl ethers have been identified that are subnanomolar inhibitors of the enzyme with MIC90 values as low as 0.00018 ?g mL-1. The existence of a linear correlation between the Ki and MIC values strongly suggests that the antibacterial activity of the diphenyl ethers results from direct inhibition of ftuFabI within the cell. The compounds are slow-onset inhibitors of ftuFabI, and the residence time of the inhibitors on the enzyme correlates with their in vivo activity in a mouse model of tularemia infection. Significantly, the rate of breakdown of the enzyme-inhibitor complex is a better predictor of in vivo activity than the overall thermodynamic stability of the complex, a concept that has important implications for the discovery of novel chemotherapeutics that normally rely on equilibrium measurements of potency.

  18. Characterization of Cardiac-Resident Progenitor Cells Expressing High Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Roehrich, Marc-Estienne; Spicher, Albert; Milano, Giuseppina; Vassalli, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    High aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity has been associated with stem and progenitor cells in various tissues. Human cord blood and bone marrow ALDH-bright (ALDHbr) cells have displayed angiogenic activity in preclinical studies and have been shown to be safe in clinical trials in patients with ischemic cardiovascular disease. The presence of ALDHbr cells in the heart has not been evaluated so far. We have characterized ALDHbr cells isolated from mouse hearts. One percent of nonmyocytic cells from neonatal and adult hearts were ALDHbr. ALDHvery-br cells were more frequent in neonatal hearts than adult. ALDHbr cells were more frequent in atria than ventricles. Expression of ALDH1A1 isozyme transcripts was highest in ALDHvery-br cells, intermediate in ALDHbr cells, and lowest in ALDHdim cells. ALDH1A2 expression was highest in ALDHvery-br cells, intermediate in ALDHdim cells, and lowest in ALDHbr cells. ALDH1A3 and ALDH2 expression was detectable in ALDHvery-br and ALDHbr cells, unlike ALDHdim cells, albeit at lower levels compared with ALDH1A1 and ALDH1A2. Freshly isolated ALDHbr cells were enriched for cells expressing stem cell antigen-1, CD34, CD90, CD44, and CD106. ALDHbr cells, unlike ALDHdim cells, could be grown in culture for more than 40 passages. They expressed sarcomeric α-actinin and could be differentiated along multiple mesenchymal lineages. However, the proportion of ALDHbr cells declined with cell passage. In conclusion, the cardiac-derived ALDHbr population is enriched for progenitor cells that exhibit mesenchymal progenitor-like characteristics and can be expanded in culture. The regenerative potential of cardiac-derived ALDHbr cells remains to be evaluated. PMID:23484127

  19. Design and operation specifications of an active monitoring system for detecting southern resident killer whales

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Xu, Jinshan; Martinez, Jayson J.; Weiland, Mark A.; Mueller, Robert P.; Myers, Joshua R.; Jones, Mark E.

    2011-09-30

    Before final approval is given to the Snohomish County Public Utility District No. 1 for deploying the first tidal power devices in the United States in an open water environment, a system to manage the potential risk of injury to killer whales due to collision with moving turbine blades must be demonstrated. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is tasked with establishing the performance requirements for, constructing, and testing a prototype marine animal alert system for triggering temporary turbine shutdown when there is risk of collision with a killer whale. To develop a system that relies on active sonar two critical areas must be investigated - the target strength of killer whales and the frequency content of commercially available active sonar units. PNNL studied three target strength models: a simple model, the Fourier matching model, and the Kirchoff-ray mode model. Using target strength measurements of bottlenose dolphins obtained by previous researchers and assuming killer whales share similar morphology and structure, PNNL extrapolated the target strength of an adult killer whale 7.5 m in length at a frequency of 67 kHz. To study the frequency content of a commercially available sonar unit, direct measurements of the signal transmitted by the sonar were obtained by using a hydrophone connected to a data acquisition system in both laboratory and field conditions. The measurements revealed that in addition to the primary frequency of 200 kHz, there is a secondary frequency component at 90 kHz, which is within the hearing range of killer whales. The amplitude of the 90-kHz frequency component is above the hearing threshold of killer whales but below the threshold for potential injuries.

  20. Teaching, leadership, scholarly productivity, and level of activity in the chiropractic profession: a study of graduates of the Los Angeles College of Chiropractic radiology residency program

    PubMed Central

    Young, Kenneth J.; Siordia, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to track the graduates of the Los Angeles College of Chiropractic (LACC) radiology residency program, review their scholarly productivity, and report those involved in teaching and leadership positions. Methods Former LACC residents’ career information was identified through publicly available electronic documents including Web sites and social media. PubMed and the Index to Chiropractic Literature databases were searched for chiropractic graduate job surveys, and proportional comparisons were made between the career paths of LACC radiology residency graduates and those of non–residency-trained chiropractors. Results Of 47 former LACC residents, 28 (60%) have or previously had careers in tertiary (chiropractic) education; and 12 (26%) have attained a department chair position or higher at tertiary teaching institutions. Twenty-two (47%) have or previously had private radiology practices, whereas 11 (23%) have or previously had clinical chiropractic practices. Often, residency graduates hold or have held 2 of these positions at once; and one, all 3. Chapters or books were authored by 13 (28%). Conclusion Radiology residency LACC graduates are professionally active, particularly in education, and demonstrate scholarly productivity. PMID:23966885

  1. What Medical Oncologist Residents Think about the Italian Speciality Schools: A Survey of the Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM) on Educational, Clinical and Research Activities

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Anna; De Angelis, Carmine; Lambertini, Matteo; Cremolini, Chiara; Imbimbo, Martina; Berardi, Rossana; Di Maio, Massimo; Cascinu, Stefano; La Verde, Nicla

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Relevant heterogeneity exists among Postgraduate Schools in Medical Oncology, also within the same country. In order to provide a comprehensive overview of the landscape of Italian Postgraduate Schools in Medical Oncology, the Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM) undertook an online survey, inviting all the residents to describe their daily activities and to express their overall satisfaction about their programs. Methods A team composed of five residents and three consultants in medical oncology prepared a 38 items questionnaire that was published online in a reserved section, accessible through a link sent by e-mail. Residents were invited to anonymously fill in the questionnaire that included the following sub-sections: quality of teaching, clinical and research activity, overall satisfaction. Results Three-hundred and eleven (57%) out of 547 invited residents filled in the questionnaire. Two-hundred and twenty-three (72%) participants declared that attending lessons was frequently difficult and 153 (49%) declared they did not gain substantial improvement in their knowledge from them. Fifty-five percent stated that they did not receive lessons on palliative care. Their overall judgment about didactic activity was low in 63% of the interviewed. The satisfaction for clinical activity was in 86% of cases good: 84% recognized that, during the training period, they acquired a progressive independence on patients' management. About research activity, the majority (79%) of participants in the survey was actively engaged in managing patients included in clinical trials but the satisfaction level for the involvement in research activities was quite low (54%). Overall, 246 residents (79%) gave a positive global judgment of their Medical Oncology Schools. Conclusions The landscape of Italian Postgraduate Schools in Medical Oncology is quite heterogeneous across the country. Some improvements in the organization of teaching and in the

  2. Does Concern Motivate Behavior Change?: Exploring the Relationship between Physical Activity and Body Mass Index among Low-Income Housing Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamers, Sara L.; Allen, Jennifer; Yang, May; Stoddard, Anne; Harley, Amy; Sorensen, Glorian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore relationships between concerns and physical activity and body mass index (BMI) among a racially/ethnically diverse low-income population. Method: A cross-sectional survey documented behavioral risks among racially/ethnically diverse low-income residents in the Boston area (2005-2009). Multivariable logistic regressions were…

  3. The decision, implementation and assessment of a credit-bearing activity class by faculty in residence: A case study.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Janet; Harrison, Geoff; Humphrey, Michael; Sielaff, Cala; Wintrow, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    This case study reports on a programmatic decision to require a credit-bearing course that was made by Faculty in Residence (FIR), including its implementation and results over a two-year period from 2010-2012. The focus is on FIR and on the impact of their decision upon the students enrolled in their Living Learning Communities (LLCs). The credit-bearing course was a Kinesiology Activities class taken by all seven LLCs at Boise State University. Anonymous feedback from students was obtained via end of semester surveys; results were used to improve the course. Survey feedback was analyzed to assess the value students perceived to have gained from the course. The majority of students reported gaining value from the class. Students noted that it positively affected their time management/personal accountability, that it decreased their stress level and that it increased their awareness of the Recreational Center offerings. Some students were critical of the course, reporting little to no value or even resentment about the course requirement. The decision, implementation and improvements of the course required faculty leadership and full participation of all LLCs; perceptions of the FIR in terms of the effects of adding the required course on their LLC are reported.

  4. Residents of highly walkable neighbourhoods in Canadian urban areas do substantially more physical activity: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Thielman, Justin; Manson, Heather; Chiu, Maria; Copes, Ray; Rosella, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    groups, this difference was approximately one-half to two-thirds of the amount recommended in guidelines for physical activity. Substantially higher MVPA levels suggest that residents of highly walkable areas may have greater health benefits. PMID:28018887

  5. Resident-to-Resident Violence Triggers in Nursing Homes

    PubMed Central

    Snellgrove, Susan; Beck, Cornelia; Green, Angela; McSweeney, Jean C.

    2014-01-01

    Certified nurses’ assistants (CNAs) employed by a rural nursing home in Northeast Arkansas described their perceptions of resident-to-resident violence in order to provide insight on factors, including unmet needs, that may trigger the phenomenon. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 11 CNAs. Data were analyzed using content analysis and constant comparison. Two categories of triggers emerged from the data—active and passive. Active triggers involved the actions of other residents that were intrusive in nature, such as wandering into a residents’ personal space, taking a resident’s belongings, and so forth. Passive triggers did not involve the actions of residents but related to the internal and external environment of the residents. Examples were factors such as boredom, competition for attention and communication difficulties. Results indicate that there are factors, including unmet needs within the nursing home environment that may be identified and altered to prevent violence between residents. PMID:23447361

  6. The Rtr1p CTD phosphatase autoregulates its mRNA through a degradation pathway involving the REX exonucleases

    PubMed Central

    Hodko, Domagoj; Ward, Taylor; Chanfreau, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Rtr1p is a phosphatase that impacts gene expression by modulating the phosphorylation status of the C-terminal domain of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II. Here, we show that Rtr1p is a component of a novel mRNA degradation pathway that promotes its autoregulation through turnover of its own mRNA. We show that the 3′UTR of the RTR1 mRNA contains a cis element that destabilizes this mRNA. RTR1 mRNA turnover is achieved through binding of Rtr1p to the RTR1 mRNP in a manner that is dependent on this cis element. Genetic evidence shows that Rtr1p-mediated decay of the RTR1 mRNA involves the 5′-3′ DExD/H-box RNA helicase Dhh1p and the 3′-5′ exonucleases Rex2p and Rex3p. Rtr1p and Rex3p are found associated with Dhh1p, suggesting a model for recruiting the REX exonucleases to the RTR1 mRNA for degradation. Rtr1p-mediated decay potentially impacts additional transcripts, including the unspliced BMH2 pre-mRNA. We propose that Rtr1p may imprint its RNA targets cotranscriptionally and determine their downstream degradation mechanism by directing these transcripts to a novel turnover pathway that involves Rtr1p, Dhh1p, and the REX family of exonucleases. PMID:26843527

  7. Sensitive detection for coralyne and mercury ions based on homo-A/T DNA by exonuclease signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hailiang; Shi, Shuo; Zheng, Xuyue; Yao, Tianming

    2015-09-15

    Based on specific homo-A/T DNA binding properties, a strategy for coralyne and mercury ions detection was realised by exonuclease-aided signal amplification. Coralyne could specifically bind homo-A DNA and protect it from the hydrolysis of exonuclease I. The coralyne-protected DNA was subsequently used as a trigger strand to hydrolyze DNA2 in exonuclease-aided signal amplification process. Thiazole orange was used to quantify the remainder DNA2. Under the optimal condition, the fluorescence intensity was linearly proportional to the concentration of coralyne in the range of 0.2-100 nM with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.31 nM, which presented the lowest LOD for coralyne among all reported. With homo-T and Hg(2+) taking the place of homo-A DNA and coralyne, respectively, the system could also be used for Hg(2+) detection. The experiments in real samples also showed good results. This method was label-free, low-cost, easy-operating and highly repeatable for the detection of coralyne and mercury ions. It could also be extended to detect various analytes, such as other metal ions, proteins and small molecules by using appropriate aptamers.

  8. Greater Independence in Activities of Daily Living is Associated with Higher Health-Related Quality of Life Scores in Nursing Home Residents with Dementia.

    PubMed

    Chan, Charice S; Slaughter, Susan E; Jones, C Allyson; Wagg, Adrian S

    2015-06-30

    Health-related quality of life (HRQL) for nursing home residents is important, however, the concept of quality of life is broad, encompasses many domains and is difficult to assess in people with dementia. Basic activities of daily living (ADL) are measured routinely in nursing homes using the Resident Assessment Instrument-Minimum Data Set Version 2.0 (RAI-MDS) and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) instrument. We examined the relationship between HRQL and ADL to assess the future possibility of ADL dependency level serving as a surrogate measure of HRQL in residents with dementia. To assess ADL, measures derived from the RAI-MDS and FIM data were gathered for 111 residents at the beginning of our study and at 6-month follow-up. Higher scores for independence in ADL were correlated with higher scores for a disease-specific HRQL measure, the Quality of Life-Alzheimer's Disease Scale. Preliminary evidence suggests that FIM-assessed ADL is associated with HRQL for these residents. The associations of the dressing and toileting items with HRQL were particularly strong. This finding suggests the importance of ADL function in HRQL. The RAI-MDS ADL scales should be used with caution to evaluate HRQL.

  9. Greater Independence in Activities of Daily Living is Associated with Higher Health-Related Quality of Life Scores in Nursing Home Residents with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Charice S.; Slaughter, Susan E.; Jones, C. Allyson; Wagg, Adrian S.

    2015-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQL) for nursing home residents is important, however, the concept of quality of life is broad, encompasses many domains and is difficult to assess in people with dementia. Basic activities of daily living (ADL) are measured routinely in nursing homes using the Resident Assessment Instrument-Minimum Data Set Version 2.0 (RAI-MDS) and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) instrument. We examined the relationship between HRQL and ADL to assess the future possibility of ADL dependency level serving as a surrogate measure of HRQL in residents with dementia. To assess ADL, measures derived from the RAI-MDS and FIM data were gathered for 111 residents at the beginning of our study and at 6-month follow-up. Higher scores for independence in ADL were correlated with higher scores for a disease-specific HRQL measure, the Quality of Life—Alzheimer’s Disease Scale. Preliminary evidence suggests that FIM-assessed ADL is associated with HRQL for these residents. The associations of the dressing and toileting items with HRQL were particularly strong. This finding suggests the importance of ADL function in HRQL. The RAI-MDS ADL scales should be used with caution to evaluate HRQL. PMID:27417776

  10. Relationship between activity of daily living and asteatosis in the lower legs among elderly residents in long-term care institutions: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Nakagami, Gojiro; Kimura, Nao; Takehara, Kimie; Nakamura, Tetsuro; Kawashima, Makoto; Tsunemi, Yuichiro; Sanada, Hiromi

    2015-10-01

    This cross-sectional observational study investigated the relationship between the level of activities of daily living (ADL) and asteatosis in the lower legs among elderly residents. We enrolled 173 residents from a long-term care health facility and two special nursing homes for elderly persons in the Tokyo metropolitan area and Oshima Island, Japan. The level of ADL was measured by the Barthel Index. The relationship between the Barthel Index total score and the presence of asteatosis in the lower legs diagnosed by a dermatologist was analysed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Among the residents, 79·2% had asteatosis in their lower legs. An increase of 1 point in the Barthel Index total score was significantly associated with a decreased probability of lower leg asteatosis after adjusting for age, sex and the type of institution (adjusted odds ratio = 0·982; 95% confidence interval: 0·966-0·998). A higher level of ADL is associated with a lower probability of having asteatosis in the lower legs among residents in long-term care institutions. Nurses should pay specific attention to residents with limited ADL for initiating preventive care for asteatosis.

  11. Target-protecting dumbbell molecular probe against exonucleases digestion for sensitive detection of ATP and streptavidin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinyang; Liu, Yucheng; Ji, Xinghu; He, Zhike

    2016-09-15

    In this work, a versatile dumbbell molecular (DM) probe was designed and employed in the sensitively homogeneous bioassay. In the presence of target molecule, the DM probe was protected from the digestion of exonucleases. Subsequently, the protected DM probe specifically bound to the intercalation dye and resulted in obvious fluorescence signal which was used to determine the target molecule in return. This design allows specific and versatile detection of diverse targets with easy operation and no sophisticated fluorescence labeling. Integrating the idea of target-protecting DM probe with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) involved ligation reaction, the DM probe with 5'-end phosphorylation was successfully constructed for ATP detection, and the limitation of detection was found to be 4.8 pM. Thanks to its excellent selectivity and sensitivity, this sensing strategy was used to detect ATP spiked in human serum as well as cellular ATP. Moreover, the proposed strategy was also applied in the visual detection of ATP in droplet-based microfluidic platform with satisfactory results. Similarly, combining the principle of target-protecting DM probe with streptavidin (SA)-biotin interaction, the DM probe with 3'-end biotinylation was developed for selective and sensitive SA determination, which demonstrated the robustness and versatility of this design.

  12. Ultrasensitive Electrochemical Biosensor for HIV Gene Detection Based on Graphene Stabilized Gold Nanoclusters with Exonuclease Amplification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yijia; Bai, Xiaoning; Wen, Wei; Zhang, Xiuhua; Wang, Shengfu

    2015-08-26

    Because human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been one of the most terrible viruses in recent decades, early diagnosis of the HIV gene is of great importance for all scientists around the world. In our work, we developed a novel electrochemical biosensor based on one-step ultrasonic synthesized graphene stabilized gold nanocluster (GR/AuNC) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with an exonuclease III (Exo III)-assisted target recycling amplification strategy for the detection of HIV DNA. It is the first time that GR/AuNCs have been used as biosensor platform and aptamer with cytosine-rich base set as capture probe to construct the biosensor. With the combination of cytosine-rich capture probe, good conductivity and high surfaces of GR/AuNCs, and Exo III-assisted target recycling amplification, we realized high sensitivity and good selectivity detection of target HIV DNA with a detection limit of 30 aM (S/N = 3). Furthermore, the proposed biosensor has a promising potential application for target detection in human serum analysis.

  13. Complementation between polymerase- and exonuclease-deficient mitochondrial DNA polymerase mutants in genomically engineered flies

    PubMed Central

    Macao, Bertil; Grönke, Sebastian; Siibak, Triinu; Stewart, James B; Baggio, Francesca; Dols, Jacqueline; Partridge, Linda; Falkenberg, Maria; Wredenberg, Anna; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2016-01-01

    Replication errors are the main cause of mtDNA mutations and a compelling approach to decrease mutation levels would therefore be to increase the fidelity of the catalytic subunit (POLγA) of the mtDNA polymerase. Here we genomically engineered the tamas locus, encoding fly POLγA, and introduced alleles expressing exonuclease- (exo-) and polymerase-deficient (pol-) POLγA versions. The exo- mutant leads to accumulation of point mutations and linear deletions of mtDNA, whereas pol- mutants cause mtDNA depletion. The mutant tamas alleles are developmentally lethal but can complement each other in trans resulting in viable flies with clonally expanded mtDNA mutations. Reconstitution of human mtDNA replication in vitro confirms that replication is a highly dynamic process where POLγA goes on and off the template to allow complementation during proofreading and elongation. The created fly models are valuable tools to study germ line transmission of mtDNA and the pathophysiology of POLγA mutation disease. PMID:26554610

  14. Exonuclease III-assisted graphene oxide amplified fluorescence anisotropy strategy for ricin detection.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xue; Tao, Jing; Zhang, Hong Zhi; Huang, Cheng Zhi; Zhen, Shu Jun

    2016-11-15

    Graphene oxide (GO) is an excellent fluorescence anisotropy (FA) amplifier. However, in the conventional GO amplified FA strategy, one target can only induce the FA change of one fluorophore on probe, which limits the detection sensitivity. Herein, we developed an exonuclease III (Exo III) aided GO amplified FA strategy by using aptamer as an recognition element and ricin B-chain as a proof-of-concept target. The aptamer was hybridized with a blocker sequence and linked onto the surface of magnetic beads (MBs). Upon the addition of ricin B-chain, blocker was released from the surface of MBs and hybridized with the dye-modified probe DNA on the surface of GO through the toehold-mediated strand exchange reaction. The formed blocker-probe DNA duplex triggered the Exo III-assisted cyclic signal amplification by repeating the hybridization and digestion of probe DNA, liberating the fluorophore with several nucleotides (low FA value). Thus, ricin B-chain could be sensitively detected by the significantly decreased FA. The linear range was from 1.0μg/mL to 13.3μg/mL and the limit of detection (LOD) was 400ng/mL. This method improved the sensitivity of FA assay and it could be generalized to any kind of target detection based on the use of an appropriate aptamer.

  15. The residence time of an active versus a passive tracer in the Gulf of Aqaba: A box model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Jacob; Gildor, Hezi

    A simple box model of the Gulf of Aqaba, northern Red Sea, was used in order to study the effects of large scale processes in the Gulf and Red Sea (e.g. changes in thermohaline circulation or heat input from the Red Sea) as well as the influence of human activities (e.g. tourism, urbanization and mariculture) on the nutrient budget of the Gulf. The model employs available data from the literature together with General Circulation Model output data for monthly average temperature and salinity in the upper 200 m of the northern Red Sea, and monthly average meteorological data from the northern Gulf of Aqaba for heat flux and evaporation calculations. The model was shown to be most sensitive to changes in the thermohaline flux of Red Sea water through the Tiran Strait. Simulations of temperature and salinity best agreed with measurements when an annually varying thermohaline flux (0.045 Sv in January and 0.005 Sv in July) with decoupling of the thermohaline flow from the intermediate boxes during the summer (April-October) was employed. Additionally, periodic decrease of heat input from the Red Sea associated with regional weather patterns caused prolonged vertical mixing periods during the winters and shortening the residence time of phosphate in the Gulf. Hence, warming of Red Sea water would result in shorter periods of vertical mixing in the Gulf during the winter and accumulation of phosphate in the deep reservoir. The increase in deep reservoir phosphate can also be caused by an increase in the export flux of particulate organic matter to the deep reservoir. Hence, even a small increase in net primary production perhaps resulting from external nutrient input to the Gulf will result in nutrient accumulation in the deep reservoir. According to our model a return to pre-perturbation levels of phosphate in the Gulf would take on the order of 10 2 years.

  16. Murine retroviral neurovirulence correlates with an enhanced ability ofvirus to infect selectively, replicate in, and activate resident microglial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Baszler, T. V.; Zachary, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    To determine the biologic basis of ts1 MoMuLV neurovirulence in vivo, newborn CFW/D mice were inoculated with neurovirulent ts1 MoMuLV and nonneurovirulent wt MoMuLV and the temporal response to virus infection in the central nervous system (CNS), spleen, and thymus was studied comparatively. Experimental procedures included single and double labeling in situ immunohistochemistry with selective morphometric analyses, and steady state immunoblotting of viral proteins. Cellular targets for virus infection were identical for both ts1 and wt MoMuLV and consisted sequentially of 1) splenic megakaryocytes, 2) splenic and thymic lymphocytes, 3) CNS capillary endothelial cells, and 4) CNS pericytes and microglia. Resident microglial cells served as the major reservor and amplifier of virus infection in the CNS of ts1 MoMuLV-infected mice; a similar but much less significant role was played by microglia in wt MoMuLV-infected mice. The genesis and progression of severe spongiform lesions in ts1 MoMuLV-infected mice were both temporally and spatially correlated with amplified virus infection of microglia, and hyperplasia and hypertrophy of both virus-infected and nonvirus-infected microglial cells. Direct virus infection of neurons was never observed. The development of clinical neurologic disease and spongiform lesions in ts1 MoMuLV-infected mice correlated with the accumulation of both viral gag and env gene products in the CNS; there was no selective accumulation of env precursor polyprotein Pr80env. When compared to wt MoMuLV-infected mice, the neurovirulence of ts1 MoMuLV-infected mice occurred by an enhanced ability to replicate in the CNS and to infect and activate more microglia, rather than by a fundamental change in cellular tropism or topography of virus infection. Images Figure 5 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 p666-a Figure 8 PMID:2000941

  17. Residents' diverse perspectives of the impact of neighbourhood renewal on quality of life and physical activity engagement: Improvements but unresolved issues

    PubMed Central

    Coulson, J.C.; Fox, K.R.; Lawlor, D.A.; Trayers, T.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have been published on the reactions of residents to modifications of their residential landscape. We explored residents' experiences of home zone remodelling and construction of a new cycle-walkway in a deprived neighbourhood with a particular focus on aspects of quality of life and physical activity participation. Focus groups (n=5 groups, 21 individuals) were used to investigate residents' perceptions of the effects of neighbourhood change on their lives. Consultation by planners was received positively. Several aspects of the neighbourhood were perceived to have improved, including spatial aesthetics, lighting and streetscape planting. However, influence on physical activity was minimal. Car-focused behaviour and ownership remained dominant, and safety related concerns limited behavioural choices. Residents highlighted many socio-environmental challenges that remained such as sense of neighbourhood safety, poor public transport provision, people's parking behaviour locally, and problem neighbours, and these tended to dominate conversations. Infrastructural intervention may be one important part of multi-layered solutions to improved neighbourhood life. PMID:21145277

  18. Evolution of DNA polymerases: an inactivated polymerase-exonuclease module in Pol ε and a chimeric origin of eukaryotic polymerases from two classes of archaeal ancestors

    PubMed Central

    Tahirov, Tahir H; Makarova, Kira S; Rogozin, Igor B; Pavlov, Youri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2009-01-01

    Background Evolution of DNA polymerases, the key enzymes of DNA replication and repair, is central to any reconstruction of the history of cellular life. However, the details of the evolutionary relationships between DNA polymerases of archaea and eukaryotes remain unresolved. Results We performed a comparative analysis of archaeal, eukaryotic, and bacterial B-family DNA polymerases, which are the main replicative polymerases in archaea and eukaryotes, combined with an analysis of domain architectures. Surprisingly, we found that eukaryotic Polymerase ε consists of two tandem exonuclease-polymerase modules, the active N-terminal module and a C-terminal module in which both enzymatic domains are inactivated. The two modules are only distantly related to each other, an observation that suggests the possibility that Pol ε evolved as a result of insertion and subsequent inactivation of a distinct polymerase, possibly, of bacterial descent, upstream of the C-terminal Zn-fingers, rather than by tandem duplication. The presence of an inactivated exonuclease-polymerase module in Pol ε parallels a similar inactivation of both enzymatic domains in a distinct family of archaeal B-family polymerases. The results of phylogenetic analysis indicate that eukaryotic B-family polymerases, most likely, originate from two distantly related archaeal B-family polymerases, one form giving rise to Pol ε, and the other one to the common ancestor of Pol α, Pol δ, and Pol ζ. The C-terminal Zn-fingers that are present in all eukaryotic B-family polymerases, unexpectedly, are homologous to the Zn-finger of archaeal D-family DNA polymerases that are otherwise unrelated to the B family. The Zn-finger of Polε shows a markedly greater similarity to the counterpart in archaeal PolD than the Zn-fingers of other eukaryotic B-family polymerases. Conclusion Evolution of eukaryotic DNA polymerases seems to have involved previously unnoticed complex events. We hypothesize that the archaeal

  19. The 3′–5′ DNA Exonuclease TREX1 Directly Interacts with Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase-1 (PARP1) during the DNA Damage Response*

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Takuya; Kim, Yong-Soo; Yoon, Jeongheon; Wang, Hongsheng; Suzuki, Teruhiko; Morse, Herbert C.

    2014-01-01

    The main function of the 3′–5′ DNA exonuclease TREX1 is to digest cytosolic single-stranded DNA to prevent activation of cell-intrinsic responses to immunostimulatory DNA. TREX1 translocates to the nucleus following DNA damage with its nuclear activities being less well defined. Although mutations in human TREX1 have been linked to autoimmune/inflammatory diseases, the mechanisms contributing to the pathogenesis of these diseases remain incompletely understood. Here, using mass spectrometry and co-immunoprecipitation assays and in vivo overexpression models, we show that TREX1 interacts with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1), a nuclear enzyme involved in the DNA damage response. Two zinc finger domains at the amino terminus of PARP1 were required for the interaction with TREX1 that occurs after nuclear translocation of TREX1 in response to DNA damage. Functional studies suggested that TREX1 may contribute to stabilization of PARP1 levels in the DNA damage response and its activity. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms of single-stranded DNA repair following DNA damage and alterations induced by gene mutations. PMID:25278026

  20. Coagulation effect on the activity size distributions of long lived radon progeny aerosols and its application to atmospheric residence time estimation techniques.

    PubMed

    Anand, S; Mayya, Y S

    2015-03-01

    The long lived naturally occurring radon progeny species in the atmosphere, namely (210)Pb, (210)Bi and (210)Po, have been used as important tracers for understanding the atmospheric mixing processes and estimating aerosol residence times. Several observations in the past have shown that the activity size distribution of these species peaks at larger particle sizes as compared to the short lived radon progeny species - an effect that has been attributed to the process of coagulation of the background aerosols to which they are attached. To address this issue, a mathematical equation is derived for the activity-size distribution of tracer species by formulating a generalized distribution function for the number of tracer atoms present in coagulating background particles in the presence of radioactive decay and removal. A set of these equations is numerically solved for the progeny chain using Fuchs coagulation kernel combined with a realistic steady-state aerosol size spectrum that includes nucleation, accumulation and coarse mode components. The important findings are: (i) larger shifts in the modal sizes of (210)Pb and (210)Po at higher aerosol concentrations such as that found in certain Asian urban regions (ii) enrichment of tracer specific activity on particles as compared to that predicted by pure attachment laws (iii) sharp decline of daughter-to-parent activity ratios for decreasing particle sizes. The implication of the results to size-fractionated residence time estimation techniques is highlighted. A coagulation corrected graphical approach is presented for estimating the residence times from the size-segregated activity ratios of (210)Bi and (210)Po with respect to (210)Pb. The discrepancy between the residence times predicted by conventional formula and the coagulation corrected approach for specified activity ratios increases at higher atmospheric aerosol number concentrations (>10(10) #/m(3)) for smaller sizes (<1 μm). The results are further

  1. The combined effects of activity space and neighbourhood of residence on participation in preventive health-care activities: The case of cervical screening in the Paris metropolitan area (France).

    PubMed

    Vallée, Julie; Cadot, Emmanuelle; Grillo, Francesca; Parizot, Isabelle; Chauvin, Pierre

    2010-09-01

    Estimates from multilevel regression of 1768 women living in the Paris metropolitan area showed that women who reported concentrating their daily activities in their perceived neighbourhood of residence had a statistically greater likelihood of not having undergone cervical screening during the previous 2 years. Furthermore, the characteristics of the administrative neighbourhood of residence (such as the practitioner density or the proportion of residents with a recent preventive consultation) had a statistically greater impact in terms of delayed cervical screening on women who concentrated the vast majority of their daily activities within their perceived neighbourhood of residence than among those who did not. The residential environment might promote or damage, to a greater extent, the health behaviour of people whose daily activities are concentrated within their perceived neighbourhood, since we can assume that their exposure to their neighbourhood characteristics is stronger. It could thus be useful to study more often the combined effects of activity space and neighbourhood of residence on participation in preventive health-care activities.

  2. Engaging nursing home residents with dementia in activities: The effects of modeling, presentation order, time of day, and setting characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Thein, Khin; Dakheel-Ali, Maha; Marx, Marcia S.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the impact of setting characteristics and presentation effects on engagement with stimuli in a group of 193 nursing home residents with dementia (recruited from a total of seven nursing homes). Engagement was assessed through systematic observations using the Observational Measurement of Engagement (OME), and data pertaining to setting characteristics (background noise, light, and number of persons in proximity) were recorded via the environmental portion of the Agitation Behavior Mapping Inventory (ABMI; Cohen-Mansfield, Werner, & Marx, (1989). An observational study of agitation in agitated nursing home residents. International Psychogeriatrics, 1, 153–165). Results revealed that study participants were engaged more often with moderate levels of sound and in the presence of a small group of people (from four to nine people). As to the presentation effects, multiple presentations of the same stimulus were found to be appropriate for the severely impaired as well as the moderately cognitively impaired. Moreover, modeling of the appropriate behavior significantly increased engagement, with the severely cognitively impaired residents receiving the greatest benefit from modeling. These findings have direct implications for the way in which caregivers could structure the environment in the nursing home and how they could present stimuli to residents in order to optimize engagement in persons with dementia. PMID:20455123

  3. Can Speaking Activities of Residents in a Virtual World Make Difference toTheir Self-Expression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soojeong

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to search for any difference in self-expression of Second Life residents with different levels of shyness. For this purpose, we used sixty students from two fifth-grade elementary school classes. Thirty students were assigned to the high shyness group and the rest to the low shyness group. Each group completed pre- and…

  4. Something Larger than Ourselves: Redefining the Young Artists at Work Program as an Art-as-Activism Residency for Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Laurel

    2014-01-01

    The Young Artists at Work Program at the Yerba Buena Center for the Arts (YBCA) recently shifted its model from an afterschool arts program to a young artists' residency. This decision arose from a desire to reposition the youth program as a priority within the larger organization, coupled with a commitment to deepening the pedagogical values of…

  5. Association between three exonuclease 1 polymorphisms and cancer risks: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zi-Yu; Zheng, Si-Rong; Zhong, Jie-Hui; Zhuang, Xiao-Duan; Zhou, Jue-Yu

    2016-01-01

    To date, the results of studies exploring the relation between exonuclease 1 (Exo1) polymorphisms and cancer risks have differed. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the effect of the three most extensively studied Exo1 polymorphisms (Pro757Leu, Glu589Lys, and Glu670Gly) on cancer susceptibility. The related studies published before August 5, 2015, were collected by searching the PubMed and EMBASE databases. We found 16 publications containing studies that were eligible for our study, including 10 studies for Pro757Leu polymorphism (4,093 cases and 3,834 controls), 12 studies for Glu589Lys polymorphism (6,479 cases and 6,550 controls), and 7 studies for Glu670Gly polymorphism (3,700 cases and 3,496 controls). Pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to assess the strength of the associations, and all the statistical analyses were calculated using the software program STATA version 12.0. Our results revealed that the Pro757Leu polymorphism was significantly associated with a reduced cancer risk, whereas an inverse association was found for the Glu589Lys polymorphism. Furthermore, subgroup analysis of smoking status indicated that the Glu589Lys polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased cancer risk in smokers, but not in nonsmokers. However, no evidence was found for an association between the Glu670Gly polymorphism and cancer risk. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that the Pro757Leu polymorphism may provide protective effects against cancer, while the Glu589Lys polymorphism may be a risk factor for cancer. Moreover, the Glu670Gly polymorphism may have no influence on cancer susceptibility. In the future, large-scaled and well-designed studies are needed to achieve a more precise and comprehensive result. PMID:26966378

  6. Incorporating resident research into the dermatology residency program

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Richard F; Raimer, Sharon S; Kelly, Brent C

    2013-01-01

    Programmatic changes for the dermatology residency program at The University of Texas Medical Branch were first introduced in 2005, with the faculty goal incorporating formal dermatology research projects into the 3-year postgraduate training period. This curriculum initially developed as a recommendation for voluntary scholarly project activity by residents, but it evolved into a program requirement for all residents in 2009. Departmental support for this activity includes assignment of a faculty mentor with similar interest about the research topic, financial support from the department for needed supplies, materials, and statistical consultation with the Office of Biostatistics for study design and data analysis, a 2-week elective that provides protected time from clinical activities for the purpose of preparing research for publication and submission to a peer-reviewed medical journal, and a departmental award in recognition for the best resident scholarly project each year. Since the inception of this program, five classes have graduated a total of 16 residents. Ten residents submitted their research studies for peer review and published their scholarly projects in seven dermatology journals through the current academic year. These articles included three prospective investigations, three surveys, one article related to dermatology education, one retrospective chart review, one case series, and one article about dermatopathology. An additional article from a 2012 graduate about dermatology education has also been submitted to a journal. This new program for residents was adapted from our historically successful Dermatology Honors Research Program for medical students at The University of Texas Medical Branch. Our experience with this academic initiative to promote dermatology research by residents is outlined. It is recommended that additional residency programs should consider adopting similar research programs to enrich resident education. PMID:23901305

  7. Ultrasensitive electrochemical DNA biosensor based on functionalized gold clusters/graphene nanohybrids coupling with exonuclease III-aided cascade target recycling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Bao, Ting; Zeng, Xi; Xiong, Huayu; Wen, Wei; Zhang, Xiuhua; Wang, Shengfu

    2017-05-15

    In this work, a novel and ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor was constructed for DNA detection based on functionalized gold clusters/graphene nanohybrids (AuNCs/GR nanobybrids) and exonuclease III (Exo III)-aided cascade target recycling. By utilizing the capacity of GR as universal template, different metal nanoclusters including AuNCs/GR nanobybrids and PtNCs/GR nanohybrids were synthesized through convenient ultrasonic method. Exo III-aided cascade recycling was initiated by target DNA, generating the final cleavage product (S2), which acted as a linkage between capture probe and the functionalized metal nanoclusters/GR conjugates in the construction of the biosensor. The AuNCs/GR-DNA-enzyme conjugates acted as interfaces of enzyme-catalyzed silver deposition reaction, achieving DNA detection ranging from 0.02 fM to 20 pM with a detection limit of 0.057 fM. In addition, PtNCs/GR-DNA conjugates presented peroxidase-like activity and the functionalized PtNCs/GR nanohybrids-based electrochemical biosensor also realized DNA detection by catalyzing the 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine-hydrogen peroxide (TMB-H2O2) system to produce electrochemical signal. This metal clusters/GR-based multiple-amplified electrochemical biosensor provided an universal method for DNA detection.

  8. Resident T Cells Are Unable To Control Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Activity in the Brain Ependymal Region during Latency.

    PubMed

    Menendez, Chandra M; Jinkins, Jeremy K; Carr, Daniel J J

    2016-08-15

    HSV type 1 (HSV-1) is one of the leading etiologies of sporadic viral encephalitis. Early antiviral intervention is crucial to the survival of herpes simplex encephalitis patients; however, many survivors suffer from long-term neurologic deficits. It is currently understood that HSV-1 establishes a latent infection within sensory peripheral neurons throughout the life of the host. However, the tissue residence of latent virus, other than in sensory neurons, and the potential pathogenic consequences of latency remain enigmatic. In the current study, we characterized the lytic and latent infection of HSV-1 in the CNS in comparison with the peripheral nervous system following ocular infection in mice. We used RT-PCR to detect latency-associated transcripts and HSV-1 lytic cycle genes within the brain stem, the ependyma (EP), containing the limbic and cortical areas, which also harbor neural progenitor cells, in comparison with the trigeminal ganglia. Unexpectedly, HSV-1 lytic genes, usually identified during acute infection, are uniquely expressed in the EP 60 d postinfection when animals are no longer suffering from encephalitis. An inflammatory response was also mounted in the EP by the maintenance of resident memory T cells. However, EP T cells were incapable of controlling HSV-1 infection ex vivo and secreted less IFN-γ, which correlated with expression of a variety of exhaustion-related inhibitory markers. Collectively, our data suggest that the persistent viral lytic gene expression during latency is the cause of the chronic inflammatory response leading to the exhaustion of the resident T cells in the EP.

  9. Application of exonuclease III-aided target recycling in flow cytometry: DNA detection sensitivity enhanced by orders of magnitude.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jie; Paulsen, Ian T; Jin, Dayong

    2013-09-03

    DNA-functionalized microspheres in conjugation with flow cytometry detection are widely used for high-throughput nucleic acid assays. Although such assays are rapid and capable of simultaneous analysis of multiple nucleic acid analytes in a single test, the intrinsic limitation in sensitivity remains challenging. Here we report a simple, highly sensitive, and reproducible method based on Exonuclease III-aided target recycling technique applied for DNA quantification in flow cytometry. By loading a high density of Cy5-labeled probe DNA on microspheres (15 μm), we achieved hitherto unreported DNA detection limit of 3.2 pM in flow cytometry bead assay, enhancing the sensitivity by a factor of over 56.8 compared to the conventional direct hybridization bead assay. Furthermore, we evaluated multiplexing capability by simultaneous detections of two target DNAs with FAM and Cy5 reporter conjugated probes. Therefore, the novel Exonuclease III-amplified flow cytometry bead assay has great potential for the rapid, sensitive, and accurate detection and quantification of nucleic acids in clinical diagnosis and biomedical research.

  10. Exonuclease mutations in DNA polymerase epsilon reveal replication strand specific mutation patterns and human origins of replication.

    PubMed

    Shinbrot, Eve; Henninger, Erin E; Weinhold, Nils; Covington, Kyle R; Göksenin, A Yasemin; Schultz, Nikolaus; Chao, Hsu; Doddapaneni, HarshaVardhan; Muzny, Donna M; Gibbs, Richard A; Sander, Chris; Pursell, Zachary F; Wheeler, David A

    2014-11-01

    Tumors with somatic mutations in the proofreading exonuclease domain of DNA polymerase epsilon (POLE-exo*) exhibit a novel mutator phenotype, with markedly elevated TCT→TAT and TCG→TTG mutations and overall mutation frequencies often exceeding 100 mutations/Mb. Here, we identify POLE-exo* tumors in numerous cancers and classify them into two groups, A and B, according to their mutational properties. Group A mutants are found only in POLE, whereas Group B mutants are found in POLE and POLD1 and appear to be nonfunctional. In Group A, cell-free polymerase assays confirm that mutations in the exonuclease domain result in high mutation frequencies with a preference for C→A mutation. We describe the patterns of amino acid substitutions caused by POLE-exo* and compare them to other tumor types. The nucleotide preference of POLE-exo* leads to increased frequencies of recurrent nonsense mutations in key tumor suppressors such as TP53, ATM, and PIK3R1. We further demonstrate that strand-specific mutation patterns arise from some of these POLE-exo* mutants during genome duplication. This is the first direct proof of leading strand-specific replication by human POLE, which has only been demonstrated in yeast so far. Taken together, the extremely high mutation frequency and strand specificity of mutations provide a unique identifier of eukaryotic origins of replication.

  11. An exonuclease I-based label-free fluorometric aptasensor for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) detection with a wide concentration range.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yanli; Chen, Yanxia; Li, Huanhuan; Shuang, Shaomin; Dong, Chuan; Wang, Gufeng

    2015-01-15

    A novel aptamer-based label-free assay for sensitive and selective detection of ATP was developed. This assay employs a new aptamer/fluorescent probe system that shows resistance to exonuclease I (Exo I) digestion upon binding to ATP molecules. In the absence of ATP, the complex between the ATP-binding aptamer (ATP-aptamer) and a DNA binding dye, berberine, is digested upon the addition of exonuclease I, leading to the release of berberine into solution and consequently, quenched berberine fluorescence. In the presence of ATP, the ATP-binding aptamer folds into a G-quadruplex structure that is resistant to Exo I digestion. Accordingly, berberine is protected in the G-quadruplex structure and high fluorescence intensity is observed. As such, based on the fluorescence signal change, a label-free fluorescence assay for ATP was developed. Factors affecting the analysis of ATP including the concentration of ATP-binding aptamer, reaction time, temperature and the concentration of Exo I were comprehensively investigated. Under optimal conditions, the fluorescence intensity of the sensing system displayed a response for ATP in a wide range up to 17.5 mM with a detection limit of 140 nM.

  12. Aerosol residence times and changes in radioiodine-131I and radiocaesium-137 Cs activity over Central Poland after the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear reactor accident.

    PubMed

    Długosz-Lisiecka, Magdalena; Bem, Henryk

    2012-05-01

    The first detectable activities of radioiodine (131)I, and radiocaesium (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the air over Central Poland were measured in dust samples collected by the ASS-500 station in the period of 21(st) to 24(th) of March, 2011. However, the highest activity of both fission products, (131)I and (137)Cs: 8.3 mBq m(-3) and 0.75 mBq m(-3), respectively, were obtained in the samples collected on 30(th) March, i.e.∼18 days after the beginning of the fission products' discharge from the damaged units of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The simultaneously determined corrected aerosol residence time for the same samples by (210)Pb/(210)Bi and (210)Pb/(210)Po methods was equal to 10 days. Additionally, on the basis of the activity ratio of two other natural cosmogenic radionuclides, (7)Be and (22)Na in these aerosol samples, it was possible to estimate the aerosol residence time at ∼150 days for the solid particles coming from the stratospheric fallout. These data, as well as the differences in the activity size distribution of (7)Be and (131)I in the air particulate matter, show, in contrast to the Chernobyl discharge, a negligible input of stratospheric transport of Fukushima-released fission products.

  13. Structural comparison of AP endonucleases from the exonuclease III family reveals new amino acid residues in human AP endonuclease 1 that are involved in incision of damaged DNA.

    PubMed

    Redrejo-Rodríguez, Modesto; Vigouroux, Armelle; Mursalimov, Aibek; Grin, Inga; Alili, Doria; Koshenov, Zhanat; Akishev, Zhiger; Maksimenko, Andrei; Bissenbaev, Amangeldy K; Matkarimov, Bakhyt T; Saparbaev, Murat; Ishchenko, Alexander A; Moréra, Solange

    2016-01-01

    Oxidatively damaged DNA bases are substrates for two overlapping repair pathways: DNA glycosylase-initiated base excision repair (BER) and apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease-initiated nucleotide incision repair (NIR). In the BER pathway, an AP endonuclease cleaves DNA at AP sites and 3'-blocking moieties generated by DNA glycosylases, whereas in the NIR pathway, the same AP endonuclease incises DNA 5' to an oxidized base. The majority of characterized AP endonucleases possess classic BER activities, and approximately a half of them can also have a NIR activity. At present, the molecular mechanism underlying DNA substrate specificity of AP endonucleases remains unclear mainly due to the absence of a published structure of the enzyme in complex with a damaged base. To identify critical residues involved in the NIR function, we performed biochemical and structural characterization of Bacillus subtilis AP endonuclease ExoA and compared its crystal structure with the structures of other AP endonucleases: Escherichia coli exonuclease III (Xth), human APE1, and archaeal Mth212. We found conserved amino acid residues in the NIR-specific enzymes APE1, Mth212, and ExoA. Four of these positions were studied by means of point mutations in APE1: we applied substitution with the corresponding residue found in NIR-deficient E. coli Xth (Y128H, N174Q, G231S, and T268D). The APE1-T268D mutant showed a drastically decreased NIR activity and an inverted Mg(2+) dependence of the AP site cleavage activity, which is in line with the presence of an aspartic residue at the equivalent position among other known NIR-deficient AP endonucleases. Taken together, these data show that NIR is an evolutionarily conserved function in the Xth family of AP endonucleases.

  14. Creating new library services through collaboration with resident groups : Aimimg at human resource development and information literacy education in ways only libraries can do : Study on activities of an NPO called Ueda Library Club

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Utako

    Creating new library services through collaboration with resident groups : Aimimg at human resource development and information literacy education in ways only libraries can do : Study on activities of an NPO called Ueda Library Club

  15. Identification of caveolar resident proteins in ventricular myocytes using a quantitative proteomic approach: dynamic changes in caveolar composition following adrenoceptor activation.

    PubMed

    Wypijewski, Krzysztof J; Tinti, Michele; Chen, Wenzhang; Lamont, Douglas; Ashford, Michael L J; Calaghan, Sarah C; Fuller, William

    2015-03-01

    The lipid raft concept proposes that membrane environments enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids cluster certain proteins and form platforms to integrate cell signaling. In cardiac muscle, caveolae concentrate signaling molecules and ion transporters, and play a vital role in adrenergic regulation of excitation-contraction coupling, and consequently cardiac contractility. Proteomic analysis of cardiac caveolae is hampered by the presence of contaminants that have sometimes, erroneously, been proposed to be resident in these domains. Here we present the first unbiased analysis of the proteome of cardiac caveolae, and investigate dynamic changes in their protein constituents following adrenoreceptor (AR) stimulation. Rat ventricular myocytes were treated with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) to deplete cholesterol and disrupt caveolae. Buoyant caveolin-enriched microdomains (BCEMs) were prepared from MβCD-treated and control cell lysates using a standard discontinuous sucrose gradient. BCEMs were harvested, pelleted, and resolubilized, then alkylated, digested, and labeled with iTRAQ reagents, and proteins identified by LC-MS/MS on a LTQ Orbitrap Velos Pro. Proteins were defined as BCEM resident if they were consistently depleted from the BCEM fraction following MβCD treatment. Selective activation of α-, β1-, and β2-AR prior to preparation of BCEMs was achieved by application of agonist/antagonist pairs for 10 min in populations of field-stimulated myocytes. We typically identified 600-850 proteins per experiment, of which, 249 were defined as high-confidence BCEM residents. Functional annotation clustering indicates cardiac BCEMs are enriched in integrin signaling, guanine nucleotide binding, ion transport, and insulin signaling clusters. Proteins possessing a caveolin binding motif were poorly enriched in BCEMs, suggesting this is not the only mechanism that targets proteins to caveolae. With the notable exception of the cavin family, very few proteins show

  16. Human lung-resident macrophages express CB1 and CB2 receptors whose activation inhibits the release of angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, Rosaria I.; Loffredo, Stefania; Borriello, Francesco; Iannotti, Fabio Arturo; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Orlando, Pierangelo; Secondo, Agnese; Granata, Francescopaolo; Lepore, Maria Teresa; Fiorelli, Alfonso; Varricchi, Gilda; Santini, Mario; Triggiani, Massimo; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Marone, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are pivotal effector cells in immune responses and tissue remodeling by producing a wide spectrum of mediators, including angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors. Activation of cannabinoid receptor types 1 and 2 has been suggested as a new strategy to modulate angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. We investigated whether human lung-resident macrophages express a complete endocannabinoid system by assessing their production of endocannabinoids and expression of cannabinoid receptors. Unstimulated human lung macrophage produce 2-arachidonoylglycerol, N-arachidonoyl-ethanolamine, N-palmitoyl-ethanolamine, and N-oleoyl-ethanolamine. On LPS stimulation, human lung macrophages selectively synthesize 2-arachidonoylglycerol in a calcium-dependent manner. Human lung macrophages express cannabinoid receptor types 1 and 2, and their activation induces ERK1/2 phosphorylation and reactive oxygen species generation. Cannabinoid receptor activation by the specific synthetic agonists ACEA and JWH-133 (but not the endogenous agonist 2-arachidonoylglycerol) markedly inhibits LPS-induced production of vascular endothelial growth factor-A, vascular endothelial growth factor-C, and angiopoietins and modestly affects IL-6 secretion. No significant modulation of TNF-α or IL-8/CXCL8 release was observed. The production of vascular endothelial growth factor-A by human monocyte-derived macrophages is not modulated by activation of cannabinoid receptor types 1 and 2. Given the prominent role of macrophage-assisted vascular remodeling in many tumors, we identified the expression of cannabinoid receptors in lung cancer-associated macrophages. Our results demonstrate that cannabinoid receptor activation selectively inhibits the release of angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors from human lung macrophage but not from monocyte-derived macrophages. Activation of cannabinoid receptors on tissue-resident macrophages might be a novel strategy to modulate macrophage-assisted vascular

  17. Human lung-resident macrophages express CB1 and CB2 receptors whose activation inhibits the release of angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Staiano, Rosaria I; Loffredo, Stefania; Borriello, Francesco; Iannotti, Fabio Arturo; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Orlando, Pierangelo; Secondo, Agnese; Granata, Francescopaolo; Lepore, Maria Teresa; Fiorelli, Alfonso; Varricchi, Gilda; Santini, Mario; Triggiani, Massimo; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Marone, Gianni

    2016-04-01

    Macrophages are pivotal effector cells in immune responses and tissue remodeling by producing a wide spectrum of mediators, including angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors. Activation of cannabinoid receptor types 1 and 2 has been suggested as a new strategy to modulate angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. We investigated whether human lung-resident macrophages express a complete endocannabinoid system by assessing their production of endocannabinoids and expression of cannabinoid receptors. Unstimulated human lung macrophage produce 2-arachidonoylglycerol,N-arachidonoyl-ethanolamine,N-palmitoyl-ethanolamine, and N-oleoyl-ethanolamine. On LPS stimulation, human lung macrophages selectively synthesize 2-arachidonoylglycerol in a calcium-dependent manner. Human lung macrophages express cannabinoid receptor types 1 and 2, and their activation induces ERK1/2 phosphorylation and reactive oxygen species generation. Cannabinoid receptor activation by the specific synthetic agonists ACEA and JWH-133 (but not the endogenous agonist 2-arachidonoylglycerol) markedly inhibits LPS-induced production of vascular endothelial growth factor-A, vascular endothelial growth factor-C, and angiopoietins and modestly affects IL-6 secretion. No significant modulation of TNF-α or IL-8/CXCL8 release was observed. The production of vascular endothelial growth factor-A by human monocyte-derived macrophages is not modulated by activation of cannabinoid receptor types 1 and 2. Given the prominent role of macrophage-assisted vascular remodeling in many tumors, we identified the expression of cannabinoid receptors in lung cancer-associated macrophages. Our results demonstrate that cannabinoid receptor activation selectively inhibits the release of angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors from human lung macrophage but not from monocyte-derived macrophages. Activation of cannabinoid receptors on tissue-resident macrophages might be a novel strategy to modulate macrophage-assisted vascular remodeling

  18. Ultrasensitive sensing platform for platelet-derived growth factor BB detection based on layered molybdenum selenide-graphene composites and Exonuclease III assisted signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ke-Jing; Shuai, Hong-Lei; Zhang, Ji-Zong

    2016-03-15

    A highly sensitive and ultrasensitive electrochemical aptasensor for platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) detection is fabricated based on layered molybdenum selenide-graphene (MoSe2-Gr) composites and Exonuclease III (Exo III)-aided signal amplification. MoSe2-Gr is prepared by a simple hydrothermal method and used as a promising sensing platform. Exo III has a specifical exo-deoxyribonuclease activity for duplex DNAs in the direction from 3' to 5' terminus, however its activity is limited on the duplex DNAs with more than 4 mismatched terminal bases at 3' ends. Herein, aptamer and complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences are designed with four thymine bases on 3' ends. In the presence of target protein, the aptamer associates with it and facilitates the formation of duplex DNA between cDNA and signal DNA. The duplex DNA then is digested by Exo III and releases cDNA, which hybridizes with signal DNA to perform a new cleavage process. Nevertheless, in the absence of target protein, the aptamer hybridizes with cDNA will inhibit the Exo III-assisted nucleotides cleavage. The signal DNA then hybridizes with capture DNA on the electrode. Subsequently, horse radish peroxidase is fixed on electrode by avidin-biotin reaction and then catalyzes hydrogen peroxide and hydroquinone to produce electrochemical response. Therefore, a bridge can be established between the concentration of target protein and the degree of the attenuation of the obtained signal, providing a quantitative measure of target protein with a broad detection range of 0.0001-1 nM and a detection limit of 20 fM.

  19. [Novel mechanism of 3' exonuclease of polymerase in maintenance of DNA replication fidelity and its application in SNP assay].

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin-Ling; Zhang, Jia; Peng, Cui-Ying; Liao, Duan-Fang; Li, Hong-Jian; Gao, Han-Lin; Li, Kai

    2005-03-01

    Polymerase with 3' to 5'exonulcease plays an important role in the maintenance of in vivo DNA replication fidelity. In order to develop more reliable SNP assays, we revisit the underlying molecular mechanisms by which DNA polymerases with 3' exonucleases maintain high fidelity of DNA replication. In addition to mismatch removal by proofreading, we recently discovered a premature termination of polymerization by a new mechanism of OFF-switch. This novel ON/OFF switch turns off DNA polymerization from mismatched primers and turns on DNA polymerization from matched primers. Two SNP assays were developed based on the proofreading and the newly identified OFF-switch respectively: terminal labeled primer extension and the ON/OFF switch operated SNP assay. These two new methods are well adapted to conventional techniques such as electrophoresis, real time PCR, microplates, and microarray. Application of these reliable SNP assays will greatly facilitate genetic and biomedical studies in the post-genome era.

  20. Health Risks to Children and Adults Residing in Riverine Environments where Surficial Sediments Contain Metals Generated by Active Gold Mining in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Armah, Frederick Ato; Gyeabour, Elvis Kyere

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the current status of metal pollution in the sediment from rivers, lakes, and streams in active gold mining districts in Ghana. Two hundred and fifty surface sediment samples from 99 locations were collected and analyzed for concentrations of As, Hg, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, and Mn using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Metal concentrations were then used to assess the human health risks to resident children and adults in central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) scenarios. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, and As were almost twice the threshold values established by the Hong Kong Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines (ISQG). Hg, Cu, and Cr concentrations in sediment were 14, 20, and 26 times higher than the Canadian Freshwater Sediment Guidelines for these elements. Also, the concentrations of Pb, Cu, Cr, and Hg were 3, 11, 12, and 16 times more than the Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) sediment guideline values. The results of the human health risk assessment indicate that for ingestion of sediment under the central tendency exposure (CTE) scenario, the cancer risks for child and adult residents from exposure to As were 4.18 × 10−6 and 1.84 × 10−7, respectively. This suggests that up to 4 children out of one million equally exposed children would contract cancer if exposed continuously to As over 70 years (the assumed lifetime). The hazard index for child residents following exposure to Cr(VI) in the RME scenario was 4.2. This is greater than the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) threshold of 1, indicating that adverse health effects to children from exposure to Cr(VI) are possible. This study demonstrates the urgent need to control industrial emissions and the severe heavy metal pollution in gold mining environments. PMID:24278631

  1. Evaluation of quantitative imaging methods for organ activity and residence time estimation using a population of phantoms having realistic variations in anatomy and uptake

    SciTech Connect

    He Bin; Du Yong; Segars, W. Paul; Wahl, Richard L.; Sgouros, George; Jacene, Heather; Frey, Eric C.

    2009-02-15

    Estimating organ residence times is an essential part of patient-specific dosimetry for radioimmunotherapy (RIT). Quantitative imaging methods for RIT are often evaluated using a single physical or simulated phantom but are intended to be applied clinically where there is variability in patient anatomy, biodistribution, and biokinetics. To provide a more relevant evaluation, the authors have thus developed a population of phantoms with realistic variations in these factors and applied it to the evaluation of quantitative imaging methods both to find the best method and to demonstrate the effects of these variations. Using whole body scans and SPECT/CT images, organ shapes and time-activity curves of 111In ibritumomab tiuxetan were measured in dosimetrically important organs in seven patients undergoing a high dose therapy regimen. Based on these measurements, we created a 3D NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT)-based phantom population. SPECT and planar data at realistic count levels were then simulated using previously validated Monte Carlo simulation tools. The projections from the population were used to evaluate the accuracy and variation in accuracy of residence time estimation methods that used a time series of SPECT and planar scans. Quantitative SPECT (QSPECT) reconstruction methods were used that compensated for attenuation, scatter, and the collimator-detector response. Planar images were processed with a conventional (CPlanar) method that used geometric mean attenuation and triple-energy window scatter compensation and a quantitative planar (QPlanar) processing method that used model-based compensation for image degrading effects. Residence times were estimated from activity estimates made at each of five time points. The authors also evaluated hybrid methods that used CPlanar or QPlanar time-activity curves rescaled to the activity estimated from a single QSPECT image. The methods were evaluated in terms of mean relative error and standard deviation of the

  2. Endonuclease IV and exonuclease III are involved in the repair and mutagenesis of DNA lesions induced by UVB in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Souza, L L; Eduardo, I R; Pádula, M; Leitão, A C

    2006-03-01

    Exonuclease III (Exo III) and endonuclease IV (Endo IV) play a critical role in the base excision repair (BER) of Escherichia coli. Both are endowed with AP endonucleolytic activity, cleaving the 5' phosphodiester bond adjacent to spontaneous or induced abasic sites in DNA. Although mutants defective in Exo III (xthA) are usually hypersensitive to oxidative agents such as hydrogen peroxide, near-UV-light and X-rays, mutants defective in Endo IV (nfo) are not as sensitive as the xthA strain. To further investigate the roles of these AP endonucleases in DNA repair, we evaluated the sensitivity and mutagenesis of xthA and nfo strains after UVB and compared with UVC light. Our results revealed that xthA but not nfo strain was hypersensitive to UVB. The use of Fe(+2) ion chelator (dipyridyl), prior to irradiation, completely protected the xthA mutant against UVB lethal lesions, suggesting the generation of toxic oxidative lesions mediated by transition metal reactions. The nfo strain displayed increased UVB-induced mutagenesis, which was significantly suppressed by pre-treatment with dipyridyl. Although xthA strain did not display increased mutagenesis after UVC and UVB treatments, this phenotype was not related to xthA mutation, but rather to an unknown secondary mutation specifying an antimutator phenotype. After UVB irradiation, the base substitution spectra of nfo strain revealed a bias towards AT-->GC transitions and GC-->CG transversions, which were also suppressed by previous treatment with the iron chelator. Overall, on the basis of the differential sensitivities and mutational spectra displayed after UVC and UVB treatments, we propose a role for Endo IV and Exo III to counteract DNA damage induced by the oxidative counterpart of UVB in E.coli.

  3. Microwave-assisted preparation and adsorption performance of activated carbon from biodiesel industry solid reside: influence of operational parameters.

    PubMed

    Foo, K Y; Hameed, B H

    2012-01-01

    Preparation of activated carbon has been attempted using KOH as activating agent by microwave heating from biodiesel industry solid residue, oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFBAC). The significance of chemical impregnation ratio (IR), microwave power and activation time on the properties of activated carbon were investigated. The optimum condition has been identified at the IR of 1.0, microwave power of 600 W and activation time of 7 min. EFBAC was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption isotherm. The surface chemistry was examined by zeta potential measurement, determination of surface acidity/basicity, while the adsorptive property was quantified using methylene blue as dye model compound. The optimum conditions resulted in activated carbon with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 395.30 mg/g and carbon yield of 73.78%, while the BET surface area and total pore volume were corresponding to 1372 m2/g and 0.76 cm3/g, respectively.

  4. Estimation of Citation-Based Scholarly Activity Among Radiation Oncology Faculty at Domestic Residency-Training Institutions: 1996-2007

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Mehee; Fuller, Clifton D.; Thomas, Charles R.

    2009-05-01

    Purpose: Advancement in academic radiation oncology is largely contingent on research productivity and the perceived external influence of an individual's scholarly work. The purpose of this study was to use the Hirsch index (h-index) to estimate the research productivity of current radiation oncology faculty at U.S. academic institutions between 1996 and 2007. Methods and Materials: We performed bibliometric citation database searches for available radiation oncology faculty at domestic residency-training institutions (n = 826). The outcomes analyzed included the total number of manuscripts, total number of citations, and the h-index between 1996 and 2007. Analysis of overall h-index rankings with stratification by academic ranking, junior vs. senior faculty status, and gender was performed. Results: Of the 826 radiation oncologists, the mean h-index was 8.5. Of the individuals in the top 10% by the h-index, 34% were chairpersons, 88% were senior faculty, and 13% were women. A greater h-index was associated with a higher academic ranking and senior faculty status. Recursive partitioning analysis revealed an h-index threshold of 15 (p <0.0001) as an identified breakpoint between the senior and junior faculty. Overall, women had lower h-indexes compared with men (mean, 6.4 vs. 9.4); however, when stratified by academic ranking, the gender differential all but disappeared. Conclusion: Using the h-index as a partial surrogate for research productivity, it appears that radiation oncologists in academia today comprise a prolific group, however, with a highly skewed distribution. According to the present analysis, the h-index correlated with academic ranking. Thus, it potentially has utility in the process of promotion decisions. Overall, women in radiation oncology were less academically productive than men; the possible reasons for the gender differential are discussed.

  5. Effects of mutations in the Exo III motif of the herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase gene on enzyme activities, viral replication, and replication fidelity.

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Y T; Liu, B Y; Coen, D M; Hwang, C B

    1997-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase catalytic subunit, which has intrinsic polymerase and 3'-5' exonuclease activities, contains sequence motifs that are homologous to those important for 3'-5' exonuclease activity in other polymerases. The role of one such motif, Exo III, was examined in this study. Mutated polymerases containing either a single tyrosine-to-histidine change at residue 577 or this change plus an aspartic acid-to-alanine at residue 581 in the Exo III motif exhibited defective or undetectable exonuclease activity, respectively, yet retained substantial polymerase activity. Despite the defects in exonuclease activity, the mutant polymerases were able to support viral replication in transient complementation assays, albeit inefficiently. Viruses replicated via the action of these mutant polymerases exhibited substantially increased frequencies of mutants resistant to ganciclovir. Furthermore, when the Exo III mutations were incorporated into the viral genome, the resulting mutant viruses displayed only modestly defect in replication in Vero cells and exhibited substantially increased mutation frequencies. The results suggest that herpes simplex virus can replicate despite severely impaired exonuclease activity and that the 3'-5' exonuclease contributes substantially to the fidelity of viral DNA replication. PMID:9311864

  6. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles prepared by chemical vapor condensation method with different precursor concentration and residence time.

    PubMed

    Chin, Sungmin; Park, Eunseuk; Kim, Minsu; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Jurng, Jongsoo

    2011-10-15

    Nanosized TiO(2) photocatalysts were synthesized using a chemical vapor condensation method under a range of synthesis conditions (precursor vapor concentration and residence time in a tubular electric furnace). X-ray diffraction showed that the prepared TiO(2) powders consisted mainly of anatase (>94%) with a small amount of rutile. The mean particle diameter from the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area and transmission electron microscopy measurements ranged from 9.4 to 16.6 nm. The specific surface area (92.5-163.5 m(2) g(-1)) of the prepared TiO(2) powders was found to be dependent on the synthesis conditions. The content of hydroxyl groups on the surface of the prepared TiO(2) sample was higher than those on commercial TiO(2), resulting in increased photocatalytic oxidation. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO(2) samples prepared in a methylene blue solution was strongly dependent on the crystallinity and specific surface area, which were affected by the TTIP vapor concentration and residence time.

  7. Regular physical activity prevents chronic pain by altering resident muscle macrophage phenotype and increasing IL-10 in mice

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Audrey; Gregory, Nicholas S.; Allen, Lee-Ann H.; Sluka, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity in healthy individuals prevents development of chronic musculoskeletal pain; however, the mechanisms underlying this exercise-induced analgesia are not well understood. Interleukin-10(IL-10), an anti-inflammatory cytokine which can reduce nociceptor sensitization, increases during regular physical activity. Since macrophages play a major role in cytokine production and are present in muscle tissue, we propose that physical activity alters macrophage phenotype to increase IL-10 and prevent chronic pain. Physical activity was induced by allowing C57BL/6J mice free access to running wheels for 8 weeks and compared to sedentary mice with no running wheels. Using immunohistochemical staining of the gastrocnemius muscle to label regulatory (M2, secretes anti-inflammatory cytokines) and classical (M1, secretes proinflammatory cytokines) macrophages, the percentage of M2-macrophages increased significantly in physically active mice (68.5±4.6% of total) compared to sedentary mice (45.8±7.1% of total). Repeated acid injections into the muscle enhanced mechanical sensitivity of the muscle and paw in sedentary animals that does not occur in physically active mice; no sex differences occur in either sedentary or physically active mice. Blockade of IL-10 systemically or locally prevented the analgesia in physically active mice, i.e. mice developed hyperalgesia. Conversely, sedentary mice pretreated systemically or locally with IL-10 had reduced hyperalgesia after repeated acid injections. Thus, these results suggest that regular physical activity increases the percentage of regulatory macrophages in muscle and that IL-10 is an essential mediator in the analgesia produced by regular physical activity. PMID:26230740

  8. Endoplasmic Reticulum Exit of Golgi-resident Defective for SREBP Cleavage (Dsc) E3 Ligase Complex Requires Its Activity.

    PubMed

    Raychaudhuri, Sumana; Espenshade, Peter J

    2015-06-05

    Layers of quality control ensure proper protein folding and complex formation prior to exit from the endoplasmic reticulum. The fission yeast Dsc E3 ligase is a Golgi-localized complex required for sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) transcription factor activation that shows architectural similarity to endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation E3 ligases. The Dsc E3 ligase consists of five integral membrane proteins (Dsc1-Dsc5) and functionally interacts with the conserved AAA-ATPase Cdc48. Utilizing an in vitro ubiquitination assay, we demonstrated that Dsc1 has ubiquitin E3 ligase activity that requires the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc4. Mutations that specifically block Dsc1-Ubc4 interaction prevent SREBP cleavage, indicating that SREBP activation requires Dsc E3 ligase activity. Surprisingly, Golgi localization of the Dsc E3 ligase complex also requires Dsc1 E3 ligase activity. Analysis of Dsc E3 ligase complex formation, glycosylation, and localization indicated that Dsc1 E3 ligase activity is specifically required for endoplasmic reticulum exit of the complex. These results define enzyme activity-dependent sorting as an autoregulatory mechanism for protein trafficking.

  9. [Effects of empathy on fund-raising activities on behalf of victims of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, focusinig on the residents in the South Kanto area].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Youichi; Yoo, Seonyoung; Matsui, Yutaka

    2015-02-01

    Fund-raising activities on behalf of victims of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake during the year after the earthquake were investigated in residents of the South Kanto area (N = 749), which is adjacent to the disaster area. The percentage of people that raised funds was 67.4%. We investigated the effects of the following on fundraising activities: demographic variables (sex, age, and educational background), trait empathy (empathic concern, perspective taking, and personal distress), former experience with fund-raising activities, effects of similarity to victims (e.g., experienced inconveniences because of the disaster, or had problems returning home), and psychological closeness to victims (e.g, have family members or acquaintances that suffered from the disaster, or that once lived in the disaster area). The results indicated that fund-raising activities were affected by former experience with fund-raising, similarity to victims, psychological closeness to victims, empathic concern, and being female. The relationship between fund-raising activities for victims and empathy are discussed.

  10. Life After Residency.

    PubMed

    Sorrel, Amy Lynn

    2016-04-01

    Many residents don't receive any formal business training. The University of Texas at Austin Dell Medical School created a crash course to teach residents some of the business and job-hunting basics they'll need.

  11. The Enzyme-mimic Activity of Ferric Nano-Core Residing in Ferritin and Its Biosensing Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Zhiwen; Wu, Hong J.; Zhang, Youyu; Li, Zhaohui; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-11-15

    Ferritins are nano-scale globular protein cages encapsulating a ferric core. They widely exist in animals, plants, and microbes, playing indispensable roles in iron homeostasis. Interestingly, our study clearly demonstrates that ferritin has an enzyme-mimic activity derived from its ferric nano-core, but not the protein cage. Further study revealed that the mimic-enzyme activity of ferritin is more thermally stable and pH-tolerant compared with horseradish peroxidase. Considering the abundance of ferritin in numerous organisms, this finding may indicate a new role of ferritin in antioxidant and detoxification metabolisms. In addition, as a natural protein-caged nanoparticle with an enzyme-mimic activity, ferritin is readily conjugated with biomolecules to construct nano-biosensors, thus holds promising potential for facile and biocompatible labeling for sensitive and robust bioassays in biomedical applications.

  12. Perspective: Competencies, outcomes, and controversy--linking professional activities to competencies to improve resident education and practice.

    PubMed

    Jones, M Douglas; Rosenberg, Adam A; Gilhooly, Joseph T; Carraccio, Carol L

    2011-02-01

    Regulatory organizations have recently emphasized the importance of structuring graduate medical education around mastery of core competencies. The difficulty is that core competencies attempt to distill a range of professional behaviors into arguable abstractions. As such, competencies can be difficult to grasp for trainees and faculty, who see them as unrelated to the intricacies of daily patient care. In this article, the authors describe how two initiatives are converging in a way that should make competencies tangible and relevant. One initiative is based on the idea that competencies will be more meaningful if trainees understand specifically how they relate to important professional activities in their own specialty. The authors suggest that there is a dyadic relationship between competencies and major professional activities in pediatric medicine. They also suggest that these relationships should be discussed as part of the process by which trainees are entrusted to perform clinical activities without direct supervision. The other initiative proposes to construct narrative milestones that provide a picture of what progression toward mastery of core competencies might look like. Together, the authors argue, these two initiatives should illuminate the core competencies by providing relevant clinical context and valuable educational substance.

  13. Cryptic chemotactic activity of fibronectin for human monocytes resides in the 120-kDa fibroblastic cell-binding fragment.

    PubMed

    Clark, R A; Wikner, N E; Doherty, D E; Norris, D A

    1988-08-25

    Monocytes and lymphocytes form a second wave of infiltrating blood leukocytes in areas of tissue injury. The mechanisms for monocyte accumulation at these sites are not completely understood. Recently, however, fragments from extracellular matrix proteins including collagen, elastin, and fibronectin have been shown to induce monocyte chemotaxis. In this report we demonstrate that chemotactic activity for human monocytes is expressed when a 120-kDa fragment containing the RGDS cell-binding peptide is released from intact fibronectin or from larger fibronectin fragments. Monocytes, either from mononuclear cell Ficoll-Hypaque preparations (10-20% monocytes, 89-90% lymphocytes) or from elutriation preparations (95% monocytes, 5% lymphocytes), but not lymphocytes, migrated toward 120-kDa fragment preparations (10(-7) M) in blind-end chambers when the cells were separated from the chemoattractant by a 5-micron pore polycarbonate filter either alone or overlying a 0.45-micron pore nitrocellulose filter. Neutrophils migrated toward zymosan-activated serum but not toward 10(-5)-10(-8) M concentrations of the 120-kDa fragment. Intact fibronectin had no chemotactic activity for human monocytes. Fibronectin was isolated from citrated human plasma by sequential gelatin-Sepharose affinity and DEAE ion-exchange chromatography in the presence of buffers containing 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride to prevent fragmentation. Controlled enzymatic digestion with thermolysin cleaved fibronectin into 30 kDa fibrin, 45 kDa collagen, and 150/160-kDa cell and heparin domains. Upon prolonged digestion, purified 150/160-kDa fragments were cleaved into 120-kDa cell and 30/40-kDa heparin-binding fragments. Even though the intact fibronectin molecule, the 150/160-kDa fragments, and the 120-kDa fragment, have cell binding activity for Chinese hamster ovary fibroblasts, only the 120-kDa fragment expressed chemotactic activity for human monocytes. Thus, the 120-kDa fibroblastic cell

  14. "Womanhood does not reside in documentation": Queer and feminist student activism for transgender women's inclusion at women's colleges.

    PubMed

    Weber, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    This article considers queer-driven student activism at Smith College, as well as admissions policy shifts at a number of prominent U.S. women's colleges for transgender women's inclusion. The author illustrates how student attempts to dismantle the transmisogyny at Smith as a purportedly feminist "women's" space, as well as some women's colleges' shifts in admissions policy, challenge divisions between transgender and cisgender women. This paradigmatic shift reflects the campuses as comparative havens for gender and sexual exploration, the influence of postmodern gender theory in understanding identity, and the growth of "queer" as an all-encompassing signifier for sexual and gender transgression.

  15. Geophysical exploration of an active pockmark field in the Bay of Concarneau, southern Brittany, and implications for resident suspension feeders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltzer, Agnès; Ehrhold, Axel; Rigolet, Carinne; Souron, Aurélie; Cordier, Céline; Clouet, Hélène; Dubois, Stanislas F.

    2014-06-01

    About a decade ago, a large field of pockmarks (individual features up to 30 m in diameter and <2 m deep) was discovered in water depths of 15-40 m in the Bay of Concarneau in southern Brittany along the French Atlantic coast, covering an overall area of 36 km2 and characterised by unusually high pockmark densities in places reaching 2,500 per square kilometre. As revealed by geophysical swath and subbottom profile data ground-truthed by sediment cores collected during two campaigns in 2005 and 2009, the confines of the pockmark field show a spectacular spatial association with those of a vast expanse of tube mats formed by a benthic community of the suspension-feeding amphipod Haploops nirae. The present study complements those findings with subbottom chirp profiles, seabed sonar imagery and ultrasonic backscatter data from the water column acquired in April 2011. Results show that pockmark distribution is influenced by the thickness of Holocene deposits covering an Oligocene palaeo-valley system. Two groups of pockmarks were identified: (1) a group of large (>10 m diameter), more widely scattered pockmarks deeply rooted (up to 8 ms two-way travel time, TWTT) in the Holocene palaeo-valley infills, and (2) a group of smaller, more densely spaced pockmarks shallowly rooted (up to 2 ms TWTT) in interfluve deposits. Pockmark pore water analyses revealed high methane concentrations peaking at ca. 400 μl/l at 22 and 30 cm core depth in silty sediments immediately above Haploops-bearing layers. Water column data indicate acoustic plumes above pockmarks, implying ongoing pockmark activity. Pockmark gas and/or fluid expulsion resulting in increased turbidity (resuspension of, amongst others, freshly settled phytoplankton) could at least partly account for the strong spatial association with the phytoplankton-feeding H. nirae in the Bay of Concarneau, exacerbating impacts of anthropogenically induced eutrophication and growing offshore trawling activities. Tidally driven

  16. Plasmodium falciparum Werner homologue is a nuclear protein and its biochemical activities reside in the N-terminal region.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Farhana; Tarique, Mohammed; Ahmad, Moaz; Tuteja, Renu

    2016-01-01

    RecQ helicases, also addressed as a gatekeeper of genome, are an inevitable family of genome scrutiny proteins conserved from prokaryotes to eukaryotes and play a vital role in DNA metabolism. The deficiencies of three RecQ proteins out of five are involved in genetic abnormalities like Bloom syndrome (BS), Werner syndrome (WS), and Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS). It is noteworthy that Plasmodium falciparum contains only two members of the RecQ family as opposed to five members present in the host Homo sapiens. In the present study, we report the biochemical characterization of the homologue of Werner (Wrn) helicase from P. falciparum 3D7 strain. Although there are significant sequence conservations between Wrn helicases of both H. sapiens and P. falciparum as well as among all the other Plasmodium species, they contain some peculiar differences also. In silico studies reveal that PfWrn is evolutionarily close to the bacterial RecQ protein. The N-terminal fragment (PfWrnN) contains all the helicase motifs along with all the functional domains and the predicted structure resembles with the human RecQ1 protein, whereas the C-terminal fragment (PfWrnC) contains no significant domain. Biochemical characterization further revealed that purified recombinant PfWrnN shows ATPase and DNA helicase activity in 3' to 5' direction, but PfWrnC lacks the ATPase and helicase activities. Immunofluorescence study shows that PfWrn is expressed in all the stages of intraerythrocytic development of the P. falciparum 3D7 strain and localizes distinctly in the nucleus. This study can be used for further characterization of RecQ helicases that will aid in understanding the physiological significance of these helicases in the malaria parasite.

  17. Conversations with Holocaust survivor residents.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Sandra P; LeNavenec, Carole Lynne; Aldiabat, Khaldoun

    2011-03-01

    Traumatic events in one's younger years can have an impact on how an individual copes with later life. One traumatic experience for Jewish individuals was the Holocaust. Some of these people are moving into long-term care facilities. It was within this context that the research question emerged: What are Holocaust survivor residents' perceptions of a life lived as they move into a long-term care facility? For this qualitative study, Holocaust survivors were individually interviewed. Findings emphasize that nursing care needs to ensure that Holocaust survivor residents participate in activities, receive timely health care, and receive recognition of their life experiences.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of a novel adhesive containing chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) against the resident microflora in human volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Carty, Neal; Wibaux, Anne; Ward, Colleen; Paulson, Daryl S.; Johnson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of a new, transparent composite film dressing, whose adhesive contains chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG), against the native microflora present on human skin. Methods CHG-containing adhesive film dressings and non-antimicrobial control film dressings were applied to the skin on the backs of healthy human volunteers without antiseptic preparation. Dressings were removed 1, 4 or 7 days after application. The bacterial populations underneath were measured by quantitative cultures (cylinder-scrub technique) and compared with one another as a function of time. Results The mean baseline microflora recovery was 3.24 log10 cfu/cm2. The mean log reductions from baseline measured from underneath the CHG-containing dressings were 0.87, 0.78 and 1.30 log10 cfu/cm2 on days 1, 4 and 7, respectively, compared with log reductions of 0.67, −0.87 and −1.29 log10 cfu/cm2 from underneath the control film dressings. There was no significant difference between the log reductions of the two treatments on day 1, but on days 4 and 7 the log reduction associated with the CHG adhesive was significantly higher than that associated with the control adhesive. Conclusions The adhesive containing CHG was associated with a sustained antimicrobial effect that was not present in the control. Incorporating the antimicrobial into the adhesive layer confers upon it bactericidal properties in marked contrast to the non-antimicrobial adhesive, which contributed to bacterial proliferation when the wear time was ≥4 days. PMID:24722839

  19. mRNA decapping factors and the exonuclease Xrn2 function in widespread premature termination of RNA polymerase II transcription.

    PubMed

    Brannan, Kris; Kim, Hyunmin; Erickson, Benjamin; Glover-Cutter, Kira; Kim, Soojin; Fong, Nova; Kiemele, Lauren; Hansen, Kirk; Davis, Richard; Lykke-Andersen, Jens; Bentley, David L

    2012-05-11

    We report a function of human mRNA decapping factors in control of transcription by RNA polymerase II. Decapping proteins Edc3, Dcp1a, and Dcp2 and the termination factor TTF2 coimmunoprecipitate with Xrn2, the nuclear 5'-3' exonuclease "torpedo" that facilitates transcription termination at the 3' ends of genes. Dcp1a, Xrn2, and TTF2 localize near transcription start sites (TSSs) by ChIP-seq. At genes with 5' peaks of paused pol II, knockdown of decapping or termination factors Xrn2 and TTF2 shifted polymerase away from the TSS toward upstream and downstream distal positions. This redistribution of pol II is similar in magnitude to that caused by depletion of the elongation factor Spt5. We propose that coupled decapping of nascent transcripts and premature termination by the "torpedo" mechanism is a widespread mechanism that limits bidirectional pol II elongation. Regulated cotranscriptional decapping near promoter-proximal pause sites followed by premature termination could control productive pol II elongation.

  20. Homogeneous Electrochemical Biosensor for Melamine Based on DNA Triplex Structure and Exonuclease III-Assisted Recycling Amplification.

    PubMed

    Fu, Caili; Liu, Chang; Li, Ying; Guo, Yajing; Luo, Fang; Wang, Peilong; Guo, Longhua; Qiu, Bin; Lin, Zhenyu

    2016-10-03

    Abasic site (AP site) in the triplex structure can recognize specific target with high selectivity. In this study, this character was first applied to develop a simple, sensitive, and selective homogeneous electrochemical biosensor for melamine determination. The assay combines the advantage of the high selectivity of the DNA triplex structure containing an AP site to melamine and high efficiency of exonuclease (Exo) III-assisted recycling amplification. DNA-1 (T1), DNA-2 (T2), poly[dA] probe containing an AP site (8A) and methylene blue-labeled DNA probe (dMB probe) were carefully designed. Melamine can specifically locate in the AP site through hydrogen bonding interaction between thymine and melamine to make T1, T2, and 8A close to each other, therefore, forming a stable T-melamine-T DNA triplex structure. Under the optimal conditions, the differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) response had a linear relationship with the logarithm of melamine concentration in the range of 1 nM∼0.5 μM. The developed biosensor has been successfully applied to detect the migration of melamine from melamine bowl. Result showed that the migration in 4% acetic acid solvent was the largest, which is similar to that detected by high performance liquid chromatography. This homogeneous electrochemical sensor may have a potential prospect in detecting melamine in dairy products and migration of melamine from multicategory food packaging or application materials.

  1. The study protocol of a cluster-randomised controlled trial of family-mediated personalised activities for nursing home residents with dementia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Following admission to a nursing home, the feelings of depression and burden that family carers may experience do not necessarily diminish. Additionally, they may experience feelings of guilt and grief for the loss of a previously close relationship. At the same time, individuals with dementia may develop symptoms of depression and agitation (BPSD) that may be related to changes in family relationships, social interaction and stimulation. Until now, interventions to alleviate carer stress and BPSD have treated carers and relatives separately rather than focusing on maintaining or enhancing their relationships. One-to-one structured activities have been shown to reduce BPSD and also improve the caring experience, but barriers such as a lack of resources impede the implementation of activities in aged care facilities. The current study will investigate the effect of individualised activities based on the Montessori methodology administered by family carers in residential care. Methods/Design We will conduct a cluster-randomised trial to train family carers in conducting personalised one-to-one activities based on the Montessori methodology with their relatives. Montessori activities derive from the principles espoused by Maria Montessori and subsequent educational theorists to promote engagement in learning, namely task breakdown, guided repetition, progression in difficulty from simple to complex, and the careful matching of demands to levels of competence. Persons with dementia living in aged care facilities and frequently visiting family carers will be included in the study. Consented, willing participants will be randomly assigned by facility to a treatment condition using the Montessori approach or a control waiting list condition. We hypothesise that family carers conducting Montessori-based activities will experience improvements in quality of visits and overall relationship with the resident as well as higher self-rated mastery, fewer depressive

  2. [REAL AND UNREAL BACKLASHES OF AEROSPACE ACTIVITY FOR THE HEALTH OF POPULATION RESIDING NEAR AREAS OF FALL OF BEING SEPARATED PARTS OF CARRIER ROCKETS].

    PubMed

    Meshkov, N A; Valtseva, E A; Kharlamova, E N; Kulikova, A Z

    2015-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, the ongoing debate about the consequences of the rocket-space activities for the health of people residing near areas offall ofseparatingfrom parts of rockets. Some scientists (Kolyado IB et al., 2001, 2013; Shoikhet YN et al., 2005, 2008; Skrebtsova NV 2005, 2006, Sidorov PI et al., 2007) argue that the main cause of morbidity is the effect of unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH). However, environmentalists find it only in areas offalling fragments of separated parts of carrier rockets. Presented in the article data were obtained as a result of perennial epidemiological and hygienic research. There was performed a hygienic assessment of the content of chemical substances in water soil andfood, nutritional status and health risk near areas of the district of falling 310 and 326. There were studied conditions of work and the health of military personnel at the sites of storage of propellant components. The relationship between revealed diseases and UDMH was not established, but there was their causality due to the influence of environmental factors characteristic of territories and living conditions. In the settlements near the area of falling district 310 the share of extremely anxious persons was shown to be 1.8 times higher than in controls, which is caused by cases of falling fragments stages of carrier rockets in the territory of settlements.

  3. The Anxiolytic Etifoxine Binds to TSPO Ro5-4864 Binding Site with Long Residence Time Showing a High Neurosteroidogenic Activity.

    PubMed

    Costa, Barbara; Cavallini, Chiara; Da Pozzo, Eleonora; Taliani, Sabrina; Da Settimo, Federico; Martini, Claudia

    2017-04-04

    The low binding affinity of the approved anxiolytic drug etifoxine (Stresam) at the steroidogenic 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) has questioned the specific contribution of this protein in mediating the etifoxine neurosteroidogenic efficacy. Residence time (RT) at the binding site of the classical TSPO ligand PK11195 is emerging as a relevant neurosteroidogenic efficacy measure rather than the binding affinity. Here etifoxine was evaluated for (i) the in vitro neurosteroidogenic activity in comparison to poorly neurosteroidogenic reference TSPO ligands (PK11195 and Ro5-4864) and (ii) the affinity and RT at [(3)H]PK11195 and [(3)H]Ro5-4864 binding sites in rat kidney membranes. Etifoxine shows (i) high neurosteroidogenic efficacy and (ii) low affinity/short RT at the [(3)H]PK11195 site and low affinity/long RT at the [(3)H]Ro5-4864 site, at which etifoxine competitively bound. These findings suggest that the long RT of etifoxine at the Ro5-4864 binding site could account for its high neurosteroidogenic efficacy.

  4. A Study of the Combined Effects of Physical Activity and Air Pollution on Mortality in Elderly Urban Residents: The Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Cohort

    PubMed Central

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Mendez, Michelle Ann; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Hertel, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    K, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ. 2015. A study of the combined effects of physical activity and air pollution on mortality in elderly urban residents: the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort. Environ Health Perspect 123:557–563; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408698 PMID:25625237

  5. Optimizing the customized residency plan.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Holly; Wilkinson, Samaneh T; Buck, Brian

    2013-06-01

    Residents and residency program directors (RPDs) understand that the goal of the residency year is to earn a residency certificate through achievement of established goals and objectives. The customized residency plan provides a map for the resident and RPD to follow throughout the course of the residency year, helping to keep everyone on track to accomplish the established goals and objectives of the program. It also provides information that allows preceptors to take the individual resident's plan into consideration when customizing a learning experience. This article will focus on the process for developing a customized residency plan and implementing it over the course of the residency year.

  6. Rain Forest Dance Residency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Dawn

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the author's experience as a dancer and choreographer artist-in-residence with third graders at a public elementary school, providing a cultural arts experience to tie in with a theme study of the rain forest. Details the residency and the insights she gained working with students, teachers, and theme. (SR)

  7. A fluorescent biosensing platform based on the polydopamine nanospheres intergrating with Exonuclease III-assisted target recycling amplification.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Weibing; Wang, Xi; Li, Wei; Chen, Xiang; Li, Hui; Xu, Danke

    2015-09-15

    Rapid, cost-effective, sensitive and specific analysis of biomolecules is important in the modern healthcare system. Here, a fluorescent biosensing platform based on the polydopamine nanospheres (PDANS) intergrating with Exonuclease III (Exo III) was developed. Due to the interaction between the ssDNA and the PDANS, the fluorescence of 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM) labelled in the probe would been quenched by PDANS through FRET. While, in the present of the target DNA, the probe DNA would hybridize with the target DNA to form the double-strand DNA complex. Thus, Exo III could catalyze the stepwise removal of mononucleotides from 3'-terminus in the probe DNA, releasing the target DNA. As the FAM was released from the probe DNA, the fluorescence would no longer been quenched, led to the signal on. As one target DNA molecule could undergo a number of cycles to trigger the degradation of abundant probe DNA, Exo III-assisted target recycling would led to the amplification of the signal. The detection limit for DNA was 5 pM, which was 20 times lower than that without Exo III. And the assay time was largely shortened due to the faster signal recovery kinetics. What is more, this target recycling strategy was also applied to conduct an aptamer-based biosensing platform. The fluorescence intensity was also enhanced for the assay of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). For the Exo III-assisted target recycling amplification, DNA and ATP were fast detected with high sensitivity and selectivity. This work provides opportunities to develop simple, rapid, economical, and sensitive biosensing platforms for biomedical diagnostics.

  8. A conserved apomixis-specific polymorphism is correlated with exclusive exonuclease expression in premeiotic ovules of apomictic boechera species.

    PubMed

    Corral, José M; Vogel, Heiko; Aliyu, Olawale M; Hensel, Götz; Thiel, Thomas; Kumlehn, Jochen; Sharbel, Timothy F

    2013-12-01

    Apomixis (asexual seed production) is characterized by meiotically unreduced egg cell production (apomeiosis) followed by its parthenogenetic development into offspring that are genetic clones of the mother plant. Fertilization (i.e. pseudogamy) of the central cell is important for the production of a functional endosperm with a balanced 2:1 maternal:paternal genome ratio. Here, we present the APOLLO (for apomixis-linked locus) gene, an Aspartate Glutamate Aspartate Aspartate histidine exonuclease whose transcripts are down-regulated in sexual ovules entering meiosis while being up-regulated in apomeiotic ovules at the same stage of development in plants of the genus Boechera. APOLLO has both "apoalleles," which are characterized by a set of linked apomixis-specific polymorphisms, and "sexalleles." All apomictic Boechera spp. accessions proved to be heterozygous for the APOLLO gene (having at least one apoallele and one sexallele), while all sexual genotypes were homozygous for sexalleles. Apoalleles contained a 20-nucleotide polymorphism present in the 5' untranslated region that contains specific transcription factor-binding sites for ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA HOMEOBOX PROTEIN5, LIM1 (for LINEAGE ABNORMAL11, INSULIN1, MECHANOSENSORY PROTEIN3), SORLIP1AT (for SEQUENCES OVERREPRESENTED IN LIGHT-INDUCED PROMOTERS IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA1), SORLIP2AT, and POLYA SIGNAL1. In the same region, sexalleles contain transcription factor-binding sites for DNA BINDING WITH ONE FINGER2, DNA BINDING WITH ONE FINGER3, and PROLAMIN BOX-BINDING FACTOR. Our results suggest that the expression of a single deregulated allele could induce the cascade of events leading to asexual female gamete formation in an apomictic plant.

  9. The Residency Training Experience in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery.

    PubMed

    Shofler, David; Chuang, Taijung; Argade, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The podiatric medicine and surgery residency is currently characterized by 3 years of comprehensive training. Contemporary issues have recently influenced the direction of training in the profession of podiatric medicine. Formal investigation into the residency training experience has, nonetheless, been limited. The purpose of the present study was to conduct a learning needs assessment of podiatric residency training. An electronic survey was developed, with comparable versions for program directors and residents. The specific topics investigated included the use of minimum activity volume numbers, learning resources, duty hours, strengths and weaknesses of residents, motivation of hosting student externship positions, noncognitive residency traits, meetings between residents and directors, resident satisfaction, and director satisfaction. A total of 197 program directors nationwide were sent the survey electronically, and 109 (53%) responded. Of 230 residents receiving the survey, 159 (78%) responded. Several statistically significant differences, and notable similarities, were observed between the 2 groups encompassing many aspects of the survey. A majority opinion, among both directors and residents, was found that the use of procedural assessment tools might improve resident evaluation. The responding directors and residents agreed that the following 3 topics were weaknesses in podiatric training: practice management, biomechanics, and performing podiatric research. Direct feedback immediately after surgery was the most valuable learning resource reported by the residents. The results of our study reflect the current status of the podiatric medicine and surgery residency and could facilitate improvement in the residency training experience.

  10. The Spatial Clustering of ROSAT All-Sky Survey Active Galactic Nuclei. IV. More Massive Black Holes Reside in More Massive Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumpe, Mirko; Miyaji, Takamitsu; Husemann, Bernd; Fanidakis, Nikos; Coil, Alison L.; Aceves, Hector

    2015-12-01

    This is the fourth paper in a series that reports on our investigation of the clustering properties of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) identified in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). In this paper we investigate the cause of the X-ray luminosity dependence of the clustering of broad-line, luminous AGNs at 0.16\\lt z\\lt 0.36. We fit the Hα line profile in the SDSS spectra for all X-ray and optically selected broad-line AGNs, determine the mass of the supermassive black hole (SMBH), {M}{BH}, and infer the accretion rate relative to Eddington (L/{L}{EDD}). Since {M}{BH} and L/{L}{EDD} are correlated, we create AGN subsamples in one parameter while maintaining the same distribution in the other parameter. In both the X-ray and optically selected AGN samples, we detect a weak clustering dependence with {M}{BH} and no statistically significant dependence on L/{L}{EDD}. We find a difference of up to 2.7σ when comparing the objects that belong to the 30% least and 30% most massive {M}{BH} subsamples, in that luminous broad-line AGNs with more massive black holes reside in more massive parent dark matter halos at these redshifts. These results provide evidence that higher accretion rates in AGNs do not necessarily require dense galaxy environments, in which more galaxy mergers and interactions are expected to channel large amounts of gas onto the SMBH. We also present semianalytic models that predict a positive {M}{DMH} dependence on {M}{BH}, which is most prominent at {M}{BH}˜ {10}8-9 {M}⊙ .

  11. The general status of patients and limited physical activity as risk factors of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus occurrence in long-term care facilities residents in Krakow, Poland

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology and resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from long-term care facilities (LTCF) residents and to analyze the potential risk factors for MRSA occurrence, defined as MRSA colonization and/or infection. Methods Point prevalence (PPS) and prospective incidence continuous study (CS) was carried out on a group of 193 residents in 2009-2010. Results Overall MRSA occurred (with or without infection) among 17.6% of residents. There was 16 cases of infections with SA aetiology, of which 10 (58.8%) were caused by MRSA. The MRSA prevalence in PPS was 12.9%, in CS infection incidence rate was 5.2%. Factors associated with MRSA occurrence were: general status of patients, limited physical activity, wound infections (odds ratio, OR 4.6), ulcers in PPS (OR 2.1), diabetes (OR 1.6), urinary catheterization (OR 1.6) and stool incontinence (OR 1.2). Conclusions Our data indicate a need for screening of MRSA before hospitalization or transfer to rehabilitation centres, especially in a group of residents with limitations in physical activity – i.e. with the highest risk of MRSA. Results also suggest the need for contact precautions in patients with high risk of MRSA occurrence, only. Focus on the high-risk population might be a solution for the cost-effective surveillance. PMID:24885020

  12. 42 CFR 415.206 - Services of residents in nonprovider settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Services of residents in nonprovider settings. 415..., SUPERVISING PHYSICIANS IN TEACHING SETTINGS, AND RESIDENTS IN CERTAIN SETTINGS Services of Residents § 415.206 Services of residents in nonprovider settings. Patient care activities of residents in approved...

  13. 42 CFR 415.206 - Services of residents in nonprovider settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Services of residents in nonprovider settings. 415... PHYSICIANS IN TEACHING SETTINGS, AND RESIDENTS IN CERTAIN SETTINGS Services of Residents § 415.206 Services of residents in nonprovider settings. Patient care activities of residents in approved GME...

  14. Competition between the Rex1 exonuclease and the La protein affects both Trf4p-mediated RNA quality control and pre-tRNA maturation

    PubMed Central

    Copela, Laura A.; Fernandez, Cesar F.; Sherrer, R. Lynn; Wolin, Sandra L.

    2008-01-01

    Although nascent noncoding RNAs can undergo maturation to functional RNAs or degradation by quality control pathways, the events that influence the choice of pathway are not understood. We report that the targeting of pre-tRNAs and certain other noncoding RNAs for decay by the TRAMP pathway is strongly influenced by competition between the La protein and the Rex1 exonuclease for access to their 3′ ends. The La protein binds the 3′ ends of many nascent noncoding RNAs, protecting them from exonucleases. We demonstrate that unspliced, end-matured, partially aminoacylated pre-tRNAs accumulate in yeast lacking the TRAMP subunit Trf4p, indicating that these pre-tRNAs normally undergo decay. By comparing RNA extracted from wild-type and mutant yeast strains, we show that Rex1p is the major exonuclease involved in pre-tRNA trailer trimming and may also function in nuclear CCA turnover. As the accumulation of end-matured pre-tRNAs in trf4Δ cells requires Rex1p, these pre-tRNAs are formed by exonucleolytic trimming. Accumulation of truncated forms of 5S rRNA and SRP RNA in trf4Δ cells also requires Rex1p. Overexpression of the La protein Lhp1p reduces both exonucleolytic pre-tRNA trimming in wild-type cells and the accumulation of defective RNAs in trf4Δ cells. Our experiments reveal that one consequence of Rex1p-dependent 3′ trimming is the generation of aberrant RNAs that are targeted for decay by TRAMP. PMID:18456844

  15. Facilty Focus: Residence Halls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunnewell, James F., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Western Ridge Residence at Colorado College and Beard Hall at Wheaton College. The buildings feature multiple levels that take advantage of views and also help create a "homey" feeling. (EV)

  16. A DNA nanomachine based on rolling circle amplification-bridged two-stage exonuclease III-assisted recycling strategy for label-free multi-amplified biosensing of nucleic acid.

    PubMed

    Xue, Qingwang; Lv, Yanqin; Cui, Hui; Gu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Shuqiu; Liu, Jifeng

    2015-01-26

    An autonomous DNA nanomachine based on rolling circle amplification (RCA)-bridged two-stage exonuclease III (Exo III)-induced recycling amplification (Exo III-RCA-Exo III) was developed for label-free and highly sensitive homogeneous multi-amplified detection of DNA combined with sensitive fluorescence detection technique. According to the configuration, the analysis of DNA is accomplished by recognizing the target to a unlabeled molecular beacon (UMB) that integrates target-binding and signal transducer within one multifunctional design, followed by the target-binding of UMB in duplex DNA removed stepwise by Exo III accompanied by the releasing of target DNA for the successive hybridization and cleavage process and autonomous generation of the primer that initiate RCA process with a rational designed padlock DNA. The RCA products containing thousands of repeated catalytic sequences catalytically hybridize with a hairpin reporter probe that includes a "caged" inactive G-quadruplex sequence (HGP) and were then detected by Exo III-assisted recycling amplification, liberating the active G-quadruplex and generating remarkable ZnPPIX/G-quadruplex fluorescence signals with the help of zinc(II)-protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX). The proposed strategy showed a wide dynamic range over 7 orders of magnitude with a low limit of detection of 0.51 aM. In addition, this designed protocol can discriminate mismatched DNA from perfectly matched target DNA, and holds a great potential for early diagnosis in gene-related diseases.

  17. Residents' Perspectives on Professionalism

    PubMed Central

    Krain, Lewis P.; Lavelle, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Background Research defining professionalism exists, yet little is known about how residents view this important attribute for medical practice. Knowing more about residents' interpretations of professionalism and about how they value professionalism would enhance definitions and facilitate support for the development of professionalism skills and behaviors at the graduate level. Purpose The purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate how residents think about professionalism, how they value it, and how it plays out in their educational lives. Methods This study uses qualitative methods, employing 5 focus groups representative of a range of disciplines. Methods include providing unstructured prompts, member checking and informant feedback to support credibility, and content analysis to discern significant patterns. Results Content analysis supported that residents highly value professionalism and see it as a complex construct, dependent on the situation, discipline, and on personal experience. Challenges to professionalism are common in graduate medical education and a great concern for residents. Conclusions Physician educators often discuss professionalism as an overarching concept in medicine, especially in classes during the preclinical years. Although some general principles are applicable, residents relate more deeply to aspects of professionalism that concern their own clinical practice, situation, and specialty. Implications for measurement of professional skills and for further research are included in this report. PMID:21975982

  18. Satisfaction with Clinical Encounters among Residents and Geriatric Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lynda A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A study of internal medicine residents' attitudes toward specific older patients' health status, adjustment to medical care, and expected benefits of health education activities found that residents' attitudes correlated with their satisfaction and that patients tended to express greater satisfaction than residents. (Author/MSE)

  19. Does Psychiatry Residency Training Reflect the "Real World" of Psychiatry Practice? A Survey of Residency Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Timothy; Fava, Maurizio; Alpert, Jonathan E.; Vorono, Sienna; Sanders, Kathy M.; Mischoulon, David

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors determine whether Massachusetts General Hospital's residency graduates believed their training reflected their current practice activities. Method: The authors surveyed 134 graduates from MGH and MGH-McLean residency classes from 1983 to 2003. Subjects ranked their satisfaction with different components of training on a…

  20. Satisfaction among residents in ASHP-accredited pharmacy residency programs.

    PubMed

    VanDenBerg, C; Murphy, J E

    1997-07-01

    The level of work satisfaction among pharmacists in ASHP-accredited residencies was studied. In March 1996 a questionnaire designed to measure residency satisfaction was mailed to 697 individuals in ASHP-accredited pharmacy practice and specialty practice residencies. Subjects responded to 16 statements relating to intrinsic and extrinsic determinants of work satisfaction on a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 = strongly disagree and 5 = strongly agree. Questionnaires were returned by 413 (59%) of the residents. The respondents were predominantly women (76%), and most (86%) had at least a Pharm. D. degree. Hospitals were the primary work setting (88%). Of the 413 residents, 305 were in pharmacy practice residencies and 108 were in specialized residencies. None of the mean scores indicated disagreement (scores < 3) with the positively worded statements or agreement (scores > 3) with the negatively worded statements. The median and mode were equal to 2 (disagree) for the three negatively worded items and 4 (agree) for all but three positively worded items. Only 8% of the residents indicated that they would not accept the residency again if given the chance. Specialized residents tended to rate positively worded statements higher and negatively worded statements lower than pharmacy practice residents. Female residents indicated greater satisfaction than male residents. Pay and benefits were rated slightly better than neutral. Pharmacy residents appeared generally satisfied with their residencies. Specialized pharmacy residents were more satisfied than pharmacy practice residents, and women were more satisfied than men.

  1. Burnout Syndrome During Residency

    PubMed Central

    Turgut, Namigar; Karacalar, Serap; Polat, Cengiz; Kıran, Özlem; Gültop, Fethi; Kalyon, Seray Türkmen; Sinoğlu, Betül; Zincirci, Mehmet; Kaya, Ender

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is identified the degree of Burnout Syndrome (BOS) and find out its correlation with years of recidency and sociodemograpfic chareacteristics, training, sleeping habits, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. Methods After approval from the Hospital Ethics Committee and obtaining informed consent, First, second, third, fourth and fifth year of recidency staff (n=127) working in our hospital were involved in this study. The standardized Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used in this study. Results Fifty six male (44.1%) and seventy one female (55.9%) residents were enroled in this study (Coranbach Alfa(α)=0.873). 57% of the first year residents smokes cigaret and 54% of them use alcohol. 2% of them gets one day off after hospital night shift, 61% of them suffers from disturbed sleep. 60% of them had been stated that they willingly selected their profession. 61% of them prefers talking to friends and 32% of them prefers shopping to overcome stress. There were statistical difference acording to years of recidency in MBI, Emotional Burnout (EB) and desensitisation scale (DS) points. EB scale points of the second year of residency group was statisticaly higher than fourth year of residency group. DS points of second year of residency group was also statisticaly higher than the third and fourth year of residency group. There was no statistical difference between any groups in Personal Success. Conclusion BOS is a frequent problem during residency in anaesthesia. Appropriate definition and awareness are the first important steps to prevent this syndrome. Further administrative approaches should be evaluated with regard to their effects. PMID:27909607

  2. Annual Report on Resident Fish Activities, 1985 Fiscal Year, Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program, Action Item 41.8.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1985-09-01

    This report addresses the status for resident fish projects currently implemented by the Bonneville Power Administration under the amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Projects that have been in place for a sufficient length of time are discussed in greater detail with a brief evaluation presented.

  3. Obstetrics and Gynecology Residency and Fertility Needs.

    PubMed

    Aghajanova, Lusine; Hoffman, Jacquelyn; Mok-Lin, Evelyn; Herndon, Christopher N

    2017-03-01

    Infertility is a common reproductive disease, with a prevalence of 9% to 18% of the general population. To date, no studies have attempted to examine the prevalence and experience of infertility among resident physicians in the United States. In female obstetrics and gynecology (Ob/Gyn) residents of age where infertility becomes more prevalent, ability to seek fertility may be influenced by rigorous professional demands and low remuneration. We seek to understand the prevalence of infertility, as well as experience and utilization of infertility services among Ob/Gyn residents. Cross-sectional descriptive survey was distributed among US Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited Ob/Gyn programs. Demographics, intentions to conceive during residency, fertility problems, fertility treatment, affordability of care, and perceptions of support were surveyed. A total of 241 responses were received in an equal distribution between junior (n = 120) and senior (n = 121) residents. The majority of respondents were female (91%), 25 to 35 years old (94%), and married (54%). Eighty-five percent (195 of 230) did not actively pursue fertility during residency. Twenty-nine percent (68 of 235) considered fertility preservation, but only 2% sought consultation. Twenty-nine percent of those interested in fertility (22 of 75) experienced infertility of some degree. Sixty-three percent felt low or no support from the program. Thirty-five percent reported stigma associated with their infertility. In conclusion, infertility is a prevalent reproductive health impairment among Ob/Gyn residents. The majority of residents defer childbearing during residency despite advancing reproductive age. A majority felt little or no support from training programs in addressing their fertility care. Further studies are indicated to understand the barriers and impact among resident trainees.

  4. Patrick Browne M. D. (c. 1720-1790), an Irish doctor in the Caribbean: his residence on Saint Croix (1757-1765) and his unpublished accounts of volcanic activity on Montserrat.

    PubMed

    Nelson, E C

    2001-02-01

    Patrick Browne resided on the Caribbean islands of Saint Croix (a Danish possession) and Montserrat (an English possession) during the 1750s and 1760s. He collected and recorded the flora of Saint Croix; some of his notes about the plants of the island have survived and are transcribed. On Montserrat he made observations on the active volcano; the surviving manuscript accounts of the sulphur-rich springs are transcribed.

  5. A T7exonuclease-assisted target recycling amplification with graphene oxide acting as the signal amplifier for fluorescence polarization detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) DNA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijun; Tian, Jianniao; Yang, Wen; Zhao, Yanchun; Zhao, Shulin

    2016-03-01

    We report a fluorescence polarization (FP) platform for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) DNA detection based on T7exonuclease-assisted target recycling amplification with graphene oxide (GO) acting as a FP signal amplifier. In the sensing method, the presence of the target DNA leads to target recycling with the assistance of T7exonuclease, furthermore, the amplification products are absorbed onto the surface of GO, so the all FP values are enhanced by GO. More importantly, this FP sensor exhibits high detection sensitivity; under optimal conditions, the change in FP is linear with the concentration of the target DNA within a concentration range of 50-2000 pmol/L, and the detection limit of this method is as low as 38.6 pmol/L. This FP sensor also exhibits high selectivity, even single-base mismatched DNA can be effectively discriminated from complementary target DNA. Above all, the proposed FP sensor may serve as a general platform for the sensitive assay of disease-related genes.

  6. Treatment of PCR products with exonuclease I and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase improves the visibility of combined bisulfite restriction analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Kousuke; Emoto, Noriko; Sunohara, Mitsuhiro; Kawakami, Masanori; Kage, Hidenori; Nagase, Takahide; Ohishi, Nobuya; Takai, Daiya

    2010-08-27

    Research highlights: {yields} Incubating PCR products at a high temperature causes smears in gel electrophoresis. {yields} Smears interfere with the interpretation of methylation analysis using COBRA. {yields} Treatment with exonuclease I and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase eliminates smears. {yields} The elimination of smears improves the visibility of COBRA. -- Abstract: DNA methylation plays a vital role in the regulation of gene expression. Abnormal promoter hypermethylation is an important mechanism of inactivating tumor suppressor genes in human cancers. Combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA) is a widely used method for identifying the DNA methylation of specific CpG sites. Here, we report that exonuclease I and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase can be used for PCR purification for COBRA, improving the visibility of gel electrophoresis after restriction digestion. This improvement is observed when restriction digestion is performed at a high temperature, such as 60 {sup o}C or 65 {sup o}C, with BstUI and TaqI, respectively. This simple method can be applied instead of DNA purification using spin columns or phenol/chloroform extraction. It can also be applied to other situations when PCR products are digested by thermophile-derived restriction enzymes, such as PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis.

  7. Financing Residency Training Redesign

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Patricia A.; Waller, Elaine; Green, Larry A.; Crane, Steven; Garvin, Roger D.; Pugno, Perry A.; Kozakowski, Stanley M.; Douglass, Alan B.; Jones, Samuel; Eiff, M. Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Background Redesign in the health care delivery system creates a need to reorganize resident education. How residency programs fund these redesign efforts is not known. Methods Family medicine residency program directors participating in the Preparing Personal Physicians for Practice (P4) project were surveyed between 2006 and 2011 on revenues and expenses associated with training redesign. Results A total of 6 university-based programs in the study collectively received $5,240,516 over the entire study period, compared with $4,718,943 received by 8 community-based programs. Most of the funding for both settings came from grants, which accounted for 57.8% and 86.9% of funding for each setting, respectively. Department revenue represented 3.4% of university-based support and 13.1% of community-based support. The total average revenue (all years combined) per program for university-based programs was just under $875,000, and the average was nearly $590,000 for community programs. The vast majority of funds were dedicated to salary support (64.8% in university settings versus 79.3% in community-based settings). Based on the estimated ratio of new funding relative to the annual costs of training using national data for a 3-year program with 7 residents per year, training redesign added 3% to budgets for university-based programs and about 2% to budgets for community-based programs. Conclusions Residencies undergoing training redesign used a variety of approaches to fund these changes. The costs of innovations marginally increased the estimated costs of training. Federal and local funding sources were most common, and costs were primarily salary related. More research is needed on the costs of transforming residency training. PMID:26140119

  8. An Assigned Teaching Resident Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels-Brady, Catherine; Rieder, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors' adult psychiatry residency training program identified several educational needs for residents at their institution. Junior residents needed enhanced learning of clinical interviewing skills and learning connected to the inpatient psychiatry ward rotations, and senior residents needed opportunities to prepare for the…

  9. 24 CFR 598.610 - Resident benefit standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES URBAN EMPOWERMENT ZONES: ROUND TWO AND THREE DESIGNATIONS Empowerment Zone Grants § 598.610 Resident benefit standards. The project or activity described in...

  10. Selection of Anesthesiology Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, J. David, III; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Selection data for all Medical University of South Carolina anesthesiology residency applicants (about 200 per year) and the 8 selected per year were compared for 4 years. Results showed standardized test scores, grades, and class ranks of those selected were not higher than of others, but interview and recommendation scores were higher.…

  11. Observing Community Residences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Steven J.; Bogdan, Robert

    The document offers guidelines effectively monitoring the quality of care provided in community residences serving people with disabilities. An initial section offers suggestions on observation and evaluation procedures. The remainder of the document lists possible questions to be asked in 19 areas: location, building and yard, relations with the…

  12. Residence Hall Fires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Dorothy

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how one college's experience with a tragic fire in one of its residence halls prompted a reevaluation of its fire-prevention-and-response strategies. Staff training, sprinkler installation, new alarm systems, and exit hardware to help make building exiting more efficient are discussed. (GR)

  13. A Fine Arts Residency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Patricia L.

    1982-01-01

    A four-week writer-in-residence program designed to stimulate the creativity of K-5 students was held in the Briar Glen Library Media Center, Wheaton, Illinois, with poet Joan Colby. This description of the program includes information on planning, funding, and future plans. (CHC)

  14. Resident-Assisted Montessori Programming (RAMP): use of a small group reading activity run by persons with dementia in adult day health care and long-term care settings.

    PubMed

    Skrajner, Michael J; Camp, Cameron J

    2007-01-01

    Six persons in the early to middle stages of dementia ("leaders") were trained in Resident-Assisted Montessori Programming (RAMP) to lead a reading activity for 22 persons with more advanced dementia ("participants") in an adult day health center (ADHC) and a special care unit (SCU) in a skilled nursing facility. Researchers assessed the leaders' abilities to learn and follow the procedures of leading a group, as well as their satisfaction with their roles. In addition, participants' engagement and affect were measured, both during standard activities programming and during client-led activities. Results of this study suggest that persons with dementia can indeed successfully lead small group activities, if several important prerequisites are met. Furthermore, the engagement and affect of participants was more positive in client-led activities than in standard activities programming.

  15. A Pediatric Residency Research Requirement to Improve Collaborative Resident and Faculty Publication Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Kogachi, Kaitlin; Yamane, Maya; Ly, Catherine L; Foster, Jennifer H; Masaki-Tesoro, Traci; Murai, Daniel; Rudoy, Raul

    2012-01-01

    Involvement in a research project can teach training physicians about the scientific process involved in medicine. For this reason, the University of Hawai‘i pediatrics department developed a Residency Research Requirement and Program (RRRP) in 2001. We studied a 14-year time period before and after the RRRP was initiated, and found a greater then ten-fold increase in resident publications and faculty involvement in these projects. Many of these manuscripts were the result of resident collaboration and this also increased significantly. The residents who later went into fellowship training were found to be more likely to publish their work. An RRRP encourages residents and faculty to become involved in research publications and other scholarly activities. Its development may help to motivate training physicians to learn important research skills. PMID:22900238

  16. Global Health Simulation During Residency

    PubMed Central

    Rosenman, Jane R.; Fischer, Philip R.; Arteaga, Grace M.; Hulyalkar, Manasi; Butteris, Sabrina M.; Pitt, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Resident participation in international health electives (IHEs) has been shown to be beneficial, yet not all residents have the opportunity to participate. We sought to determine whether participating in simulated global health cases, via the standardized Simulation Use for Global Away Rotations (SUGAR) curriculum, was useful for all pediatric residents, not merely those planning to go on an IHE. Pediatric residents in our program took part in 2 SUGAR cases and provided feedback via an online survey. Thirty-six of 40 residents participated (90%); 72% responded to the survey. Three of 10 residents not previously planning to work in resource-limited settings indicated participation in SUGAR made them more likely to do so. Nearly all residents (88%) felt SUGAR should be part of the residency curriculum. All felt better prepared for working cross-culturally. While designed to prepare trainees for work in resource-limited settings, SUGAR may be beneficial for all residents. PMID:27583300

  17. Resident vascular progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Torsney, Evelyn; Xu, Qingbo

    2011-02-01

    Homeostasis of the vessel wall is essential for maintaining its function, including blood pressure and patency of the lumen. In physiological conditions, the turnover rate of vascular cells, i.e. endothelial and smooth muscle cells, is low, but markedly increased in diseased situations, e.g. vascular injury after angioplasty. It is believed that mature vascular cells have an ability to proliferate to replace lost cells normally. On the other hand, recent evidence indicates stem/progenitor cells may participate in vascular repair and the formation of neointimal lesions in severely damaged vessels. It was found that all three layers of the vessels, the intima, media and adventitia, contain resident progenitor cells, including endothelial progenitor cells, mesenchymal stromal cells, Sca-1+ and CD34+ cells. Data also demonstrated that these resident progenitor cells could differentiate into a variety of cell types in response to different culture conditions. However, collective data were obtained mostly from in vitro culture assays and phenotypic marker studies. There are many unanswered questions concerning the mechanism of cell differentiation and the functional role of these cells in vascular repair and the pathogenesis of vascular disease. In the present review, we aim to summarize the data showing the presence of the resident progenitor cells, to highlight possible signal pathways orchestrating cell differentiation toward endothelial and smooth muscle cells, and to discuss the data limitations, challenges and controversial issues related to the role of progenitors. This article is part of a special issue entitled, "Cardiovascular Stem Cells Revisited".

  18. The Fundamentals of Resident Dismissal.

    PubMed

    Schenarts, Paul J; Langenfeld, Sean

    2017-02-01

    Residents have the rights and responsibilities of both students and employees. Dismissal of a resident from a training program is traumatic and has lasting repercussions for the program director, the faculty, the dismissed resident, and the residency. A review of English language literature was performed using PUBMED and OVID databases, using the search terms, resident dismissal, resident termination, student dismissal, student and resident evaluation, legal aspects of education, and remediation. The references of each publication were also reviewed to identify additional appropriate citations. If the Just Cause threshold has been met, educators have the absolute discretion to evaluate academic and clinical performance. Legal opinion has stated that it is not necessary to wait until a patient is harmed to dismiss a resident. Evaluations should be standard and robust. Negative evaluations are not defamatory as the resident gave consent to be evaluated. Provided departmental and institutional polices have been followed, a resident can be dismissed without a formal hearing. Residencies are entitled to modify academic requirements and dismissal is not considered a breach of contract. Although there is anxiety regarding resident dismissal, the courts have uniformly supported faculty having this role. When indicated, failure to dismiss a resident also places the program director and the faculty at risk for educational malpractice.

  19. Real-time PCR Detection of Brucella Abortus: A Comparative Study of SYBR Green I, 5'-exonuclease, and Hybridization Probe Assays

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, Deborah Trishelle; Hadfield, Ted; Roberto, Francisco Figueroa

    2003-08-01

    Real-time PCR provides a means of detecting and quantifying DNA targets by monitoring PCR product accumulation during cycling as indicated by increased fluorescence. A number of different approaches can be used to generate the fluorescence signal. Three approaches—SYBR Green I (a double-stranded DNA intercalating dye), 5'-exonuclease (enzymatically released fluors), and hybridization probes (fluorescence resonance energy transfer)—were evaluated for use in a real-time PCR assay to detect Brucella abortus. The three assays utilized the same amplification primers to produce an identical amplicon. This amplicon spans a region of the B. abortus genome that includes portions of the alkB gene and the IS711 insertion element. All three assays were of comparable sensitivity, providing a linear assay over 7 orders of magnitude (from 7.5 ng down to 7.5 fg). However, the greatest specificity was achieved with the hybridization probe assay.

  20. [Proposal of residency integrated with medical masters degree at the UFMG Medical School: an evaluation among residents].

    PubMed

    Lamounier, J A; Pereira, A A; de Oliveira, H N

    1996-01-01

    A project which integrates medical RESIDENCY with medical masters degree has been discussed and is expected to be set up at UFMG Medical School in the near future. Such project is optional for the entering residents and aims those who are interested in becoming researchers. This paper's objective is to raise the residents' opinion on the project as well as their interests in post graduation level. A 240 university hospital residents (HC-UFMG) and a 114 non-university hospital (IPSEMG) were studied through questionnaire application. From the total population of 354 residents we had a 50% questionnaire devolution, 120 (68%) from HC-UFMG and 57 (32%) from IPSEMG. Residents of different clinical and surgical areas were included, 55% male and 45% female. Most of them work exclusively in residency activities, 69% have interest in specialize after residency, 55% in taking medical masters degree, 52% in taking up academic life and 67% in applying for the integrated residency-master degree program. Twelve (7%) are not particularly interested in join the program because they are not sure whether they are able to carry on adequately both residency and research activities at the same time. This study shows that residents are highly receptive to the UFMG's program and that more detailed information concerning its contents should be handed out in order to generate further discussion.

  1. A triple-amplification colorimetric assay for antibiotics based on magnetic aptamer-enzyme co-immobilized platinum nanoprobes and exonuclease-assisted target recycling.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yangbao; Gan, Ning; Ren, Hong-Xia; Li, Tianhua; Cao, Yuting; Hu, Futao; Yan, Zhongdan; Chen, Yinji

    2015-11-21

    Herein, an ultrasensitive and selective colorimetric assay for antibiotics, using chloramphenicol (CAP) as the model analyte, was developed based on magnetic aptamer-HRP-platinum composite probes and exonuclease-assisted target recycling. The composite probes were prepared through immunoreactions between the double stranded DNA antibody (anti-DNA) labeled on core-shell Fe3O4@Au nanoparticles (AuMNP-anti-DNA) as the capture probe, and the double stranded aptamer (aptamer hybrid with its complementary oligonucleotides) labeled on Pt@HRP nanoparticles as the nanotracer (ds-Apt-HRP-PtNPs). When the CAP samples were incubated with the probes for 30 min at room temperature, they could be captured by the aptamer to form a nanotracer-CAP complex, which was then released into the supernatant after magnetic separation. This is because the anti-DNA on the capture probes cannot recognize the single strand aptamer-CAP complex. The exonuclease I (Exo I) added into the supernatant can further digest the aptamer-CAP from the 3'-end of the aptamer and the CAP in the aptamer-CAP complex can be released again, which can further participate in a new cycling process to react with the probes. Pt and HRP in the nanotracer could both catalyze and dual amplify the absorbance at 650 nm ascribed to the 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB)-H2O2 system. Moreover, Exo I can assist the target recycling, which can further amplify the signal. Thus, the triple amplified signal can be quantified by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The experimental results showed that the CAP detection possessed a linear range of 0.001-10 ng mL(-1) and a detection limit of 0.0003 ng mL(-1) (S/N = 3). The assay was successfully employed to detect CAP in milk, which is much more facile, time saving, and sensitive than the commercial ELISA kits.

  2. Anti-Ephrin Type-B Receptor 2 (EphB2) and Anti-Three Prime Histone mRNA EXonuclease 1 (THEX1) Autoantibodies in Scleroderma and Lupus

    PubMed Central

    Azzouz, Doua F.; Martin, Gabriel V.; Arnoux, Fanny; Balandraud, Nathalie; Martin, Thierry; Dubucquoi, Sylvain; Hachulla, Eric; Farge-Bancel, Dominique; Tiev, Kiet; Cabane, Jean; Bardin, Nathalie; Chiche, Laurent; Martin, Marielle; Caillet, Eléonore C.; Kanaan, Sami B.; Harlé, Jean Robert; Granel, Brigitte; Diot, Elisabeth; Roudier, Jean; Auger, Isabelle; Lambert, Nathalie C.

    2016-01-01

    In a pilot ProtoArray analysis, we identified 6 proteins out of 9483 recognized by autoantibodies (AAb) from patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). We further investigated the 6 candidates by ELISA on hundreds of controls and patients, including patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), known for high sera reactivity and overlapping AAb with SSc. Only 2 of the 6 candidates, Ephrin type-B receptor 2 (EphB2) and Three prime Histone mRNA EXonuclease 1 (THEX1), remained significantly recognized by sera samples from SSc compared to controls (healthy or with rheumatic diseases) with, respectively, 34% versus 14% (P = 2.10−4) and 60% versus 28% (P = 3.10−8). Above all, EphB2 and THEX1 revealed to be mainly recognized by SLE sera samples with respectively 56%, (P = 2.10−10) and 82% (P = 5.10−13). As anti-EphB2 and anti-THEX1 AAb were found in both diseases, an epitope mapping was realized on each protein to refine SSc and SLE diagnosis. A 15-mer peptide from EphB2 allowed to identify 35% of SLE sera samples (N = 48) versus only 5% of any other sera samples (N = 157), including SSc sera samples. AAb titers were significantly higher in SLE sera (P<0.0001) and correlated with disease activity (p<0.02). We could not find an epitope on EphB2 protein for SSc neither on THEX1 for SSc or SLE. We showed that patients with SSc or SLE have AAb against EphB2, a protein involved in angiogenesis, and THEX1, a 3’-5’ exoribonuclease involved in histone mRNA degradation. We have further identified a peptide from EphB2 as a specific and sensitive tool for SLE diagnosis. PMID:27617966

  3. Evaluation of a Core Curriculum for Optometric Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiberger, Michael H.; Suchoff, Irvin B.

    1989-01-01

    A survey of residents and residency supervisors at three Veterans' Administration hospitals affiliated with one school of optometry investigated attitudes toward core optometry curriculum activities. Activities were generally rated well for content and effectiveness of presentation, and the study also provided information for program improvement.…

  4. [Resident foreigners in Spain].

    PubMed

    Solana, A M; Pascual De Sans, A

    1994-01-01

    The authors review trends in the size of the resident foreign population in Spain over time since the 1940s. A continuing growth over time, with temporal fluctuations, is noted, with a rapid rise in immigration in the 1980s, leading to new legislation designed to control immigration in 1985-1986 and 1991. The authors note that Europeans, particularly from countries of the European Union, make up a large percentage of the foreign population, but that the number of immigrants from developing countries has increased significantly in the last 10 years.

  5. Associations between the perceived environment and physical activity among adults aged 55-65 years: does urban-rural area of residence matter?

    PubMed

    Cleland, Verity; Sodergren, Marita; Otahal, Petr; Timperio, Anna; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; Salmon, Jo; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether associations between the perceived environment and physical activity are moderated by urban-rural status among midolder aged adults. Environmental (safety, aesthetics, physical activity environment) and physical activity (total, leisure, transport) data from 3,888 adults (55 to 65 years) from urban and rural areas of Victoria, Australia, were analyzed. Multinomial logistic regression examined interactions between urban-rural status and environments in associations with physical activity. Significant (P < .05) interactions were evident and indicated positive associations only among older rural adults for both safety and aesthetics with total and transport physical activity (e.g., rural adults reporting higher safety were 91% to 118% more likely to have higher activity than rural adults reporting low safety). In contrast, the physical activity environment was positively associated with leisure activity among only urban adults. Findings suggest that some tailoring of physical activity promotion strategies targeting the environment may be required for urban and rural midolder aged adults.

  6. Cytokine Regulation by MAPK Activated Kinase 2 in Keratinocytes Exposed to Sulfur Mustard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-10

    per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and...completing and reviewing this collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information...mRNA levels by destabilizing transcripts via mechanisms that involve exosome recruitment and increased exonuclease activity (Anderson, 2008

  7. Guidelines for resident teaching experiences.

    PubMed

    Havrda, Dawn E; Engle, Janet P; Anderson, Keri C; Ray, Shaunta' M; Haines, Seena L; Kane-Gill, Sandra L; Ballard, Stephanie L; Crannage, Andrew J; Rochester, Charmaine D; Parman, Malinda G

    2013-07-01

    Postgraduate year one (PGY1) and postgraduate year two (PGY2) residencies serve to develop pharmacists into skillful clinicians who provide advanced patient-centered care in various general and specialized areas of pharmacy practice. Pharmacy residencies are a minimum requirement for many clinical pharmacy positions, as well as for positions in academia. The role of clinical pharmacists typically includes teaching, regardless of whether they pursue an academic appointment. Common teaching duties of pharmacist-clinicians include giving continuing education or other invited presentations, providing education to colleagues regarding clinical initiatives, precepting pharmacy students (early and advanced experiences) and residents, and educating other health care professionals. Although ASHP provides accreditation standards for PGY1 and PGY2 residencies, the standards pertaining to teaching or education training are vague. Through the years, teaching certificate programs that develop residents' teaching skills and better prepare residents for a diverse pharmacy job market have increased in popularity; moreover, teaching certificate programs serve as an attractive recruitment tool. However, the consistency of requirements for teaching certificate programs is lacking, and standardization is needed. The Task Force on Residencies developed two sets of guidelines to define teaching experiences within residencies. The first guideline defines the minimum standards for teaching experiences in any residency-training program. The second guideline is for programs offering a teaching certificate program to provide standardization, ensuring similar outcomes and quality on program completion. One of the main differences between the guidelines is the recommendation that residency programs offering a teaching certificate program be affiliated with an academic institution to provide the pedagogy and variety of teaching experiences for the resident. Residency program directors should

  8. Colorectal Surgeons Teaching General Surgery Residents: Current Challenges and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Connie C.; Chow, Christopher J.; Rothenberger, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Effective teaching for general surgery residents requires that faculty members with colorectal expertise actively engage in the education process and fully understand the current context for residency training. In this article, we review important national developments with respect to graduate medical education that impact resident supervision, curriculum implementation, resident assessment, and program evaluation. We argue that establishing a culture of respect and professionalism in today's teaching environment is one of the most important legacies that surgical educators can leave for the coming generation. Faculty role modeling and the process of socializing residents is highlighted. We review the American College of Surgeons' Code of Professional Conduct, summarize some of the current strategies for teaching and assessing professionalism, and reflect on principles of motivation that apply to resident training both for the trainee and the trainer. PMID:23997668

  9. Effects of Green House nursing homes on residents' families.

    PubMed

    Lum, Terry Y; Kane, Rosalie A; Cutler, Lois J; Yu, Tzy-Chyi

    2008-01-01

    A longitudinal quasi-experimental study with two comparison groups was conducted to test the effects of a Green House (GH) nursing home program on residents' family members. The GHs are individual residences, each serving 10 elders, where certified nursing assistant (CNA)-level resident assistants form primary relationships with residents and family, family is encouraged to visits, and professionals adapted their roles to support the model. GH family were somewhat less involved in providing assistance to their residents although family contact did not differ among the settings at any time period. GH family were more satisfied with their resident's care and with their own experience as family members, and had no greater family burden. Issues in studying family outcomes are discussed as well as implications for roles of various personnel, including social service and activities staff in a GH model.

  10. Factors influencing resident participation in the AAOS Political Action Committee.

    PubMed

    Shah, Roshan P; Froelich, John M; Weinstein, Stuart L; Mehta, Samir

    2013-06-01

    Resident participation in the political action committee (PAC) is important for professional advocacy and for ensuring access to quality musculoskeletal care. The following questions were asked: Would faculty contribution-matching increase donation rates and amounts among orthopedic surgery residents at a single institution? What barriers do residents self-identify that prevent or delay PAC participation? How do residents perceive a faculty contribution-matching program? Residents at 1 institution were encouraged to participate in the PAC before and after the introduction of a faculty contribution-matching program. In addition, telephone follow-up was performed and resident perceptions were assessed regarding the program and barriers to participation. Rates of participation, amounts donated, and perceptions are reported. Resident participation in the PAC increased from 10% to 95% following the introduction of a faculty contribution-matching program. The second group of residents contributed 67 cents for every dollar given by the first group. Significant barriers identified included time constraints and an inability to access the PAC Web portal. Ninety-four percent of the initial nonresponders said that they made joining the PAC a priority after learning about the faculty contribution-matching program. They specifically cite giving greater attention to an issue that the faculty value. Four months after the initial e-mail, 100% of residents had contributed. Residents believe that professional activism is important but ascribe it a lower priority than other professional duties. Residency programs might facilitate resident involvement in the PAC by instituting faculty contribution-matching and by assisting junior residents with their American Association of Orthopaedic Surgeons login information.

  11. Interpersonal Networks and Quality of Life of Nursing Home Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBerardinis, James; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Measured residents' perceptions of quality care and satisfaction with how well their needs are being met. Found that residents' perceptions of quality care (attitude of staff, food, and social activities) and satisfaction with roommates are significant predictors of perceived needs being met. Stressed that self-selected roommates are more…

  12. 24 CFR 964.100 - Role of resident council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 964.100 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... satisfaction and participate in self-help initiatives to enable residents to create a positive living environment for families living in public housing. Resident councils may actively participate through...

  13. 24 CFR 964.100 - Role of resident council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 964.100 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... satisfaction and participate in self-help initiatives to enable residents to create a positive living environment for families living in public housing. Resident councils may actively participate through...

  14. 24 CFR 964.100 - Role of resident council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 964.100 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... satisfaction and participate in self-help initiatives to enable residents to create a positive living environment for families living in public housing. Resident councils may actively participate through...

  15. Homogeneous electrochemical immunoassay of aflatoxin B1 in foodstuff using proximity-hybridization-induced omega-like DNA junctions and exonuclease III-triggered isothermal cycling signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Tang, Juan; Huang, Yapei; Liu, Huiqiong; Zhang, Cengceng; Tang, Dianping

    2016-12-01

    A new homogeneous electrochemical immunosensing platform was designed for sensitive detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in foodstuff. The system consisted of anti-AFB1 antibody labeled DNA1 (Ab-DNA1), AFB1-bovine serum albumin (BSA)-conjugated DNA2 (AFB1-DNA2), and methylene blue functionalized hairpin DNA. Owing to a specific antigen-antibody reaction between anti-AFB1 and AFB1-BSA, the immunocomplex formed assisted the proximity hybridization of DNA1 with DNA2, thus resulting in the formation of an omega-like DNA junction. Thereafter, the junction opened the hairpin DNA to construct a new double-stranded DNA, which could be readily cleaved by exonuclease III to release the omega-like DNA junction and methylene blue. The dissociated DNA junction could repeatedly hybridize with residual hairpin DNA molecules with exonuclease III-based isothermal cycling amplification, thereby releasing numerous free methylene blue molecules into the detection solution. The as-produced free methylene blue molecules could be captured by a negatively charged indium tin oxide electrode, each of which could produce an electronic signal within the applied potentials. On introduction of target AFB1, the analyte competed with AFB1-DNA2 for the conjugated anti-AFB1 on the Ab-DNA1, subsequently decreasing the amount of omega-like DNA junctions formed, hence causing methylene blue labeled hairpin DNA to move far away from the electrode surface. Under optimal conditions the detectable electrochemical signal decreased with increasing amount of target AFB1 in a dynamic working range of 0.01-30 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 4.8 pg mL(-1). In addition, the precision and reproducibility of this system were acceptable. Finally, the method was further evaluated for analysis of naturally contaminated or AFB1-spiked peanut samples, giving results that matched well with those obtained with a commercial AFB1 ELISA kit.

  16. Burnout During Residency Training: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    IsHak, Waguih William; Lederer, Sara; Mandili, Carla; Nikravesh, Rose; Seligman, Laurie; Vasa, Monisha; Ogunyemi, Dotun; Bernstein, Carol A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Burnout is a state of mental and physical exhaustion related to work or care giving activities. Burnout during residency training has gained significant attention secondary to concerns regarding job performance and patient care. This article reviews the relevant literature on burnout in order to provide information to educators about its prevalence, features, impact, and potential interventions. Methods Studies were identified through a Medline and PsychInfo search from 1974 to 2009. Fifty-one studies were identified. Definition and description of burnout and measurement methods are presented followed by a thorough review of the studies. Results An examination of the burnout literature reveals that it is prevalent in medical students (28%–45%), residents (27%–75%, depending on specialty), as well as practicing physicians. Psychological distress and physical symptoms can impact work performance and patient safety. Distress during medical school can lead to burnout, which in turn can result in negative consequences as a working physician. Burnout also poses significant challenges during early training years in residency. Time demands, lack of control, work planning, work organization, inherently difficult job situations, and interpersonal relationships, are considered factors contributing to residents' burnout. Potential interventions include workplace-driven and individual-driven measures. Workplace interventions include education about burnout, workload modifications, increasing the diversity of work duties, stress management training, mentoring, emotional intelligence training, and wellness workshops. Individual-driven behavioral, social, and physical activities include promoting interpersonal professional relations, meditation, counseling, and exercise. Conclusions Educators need to develop an active awareness of burnout and ought to consider incorporating relevant instruction and interventions during the process of training resident physicians

  17. Resident Care Guide. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodbridge State School, NJ.

    The third edition of the Woodbridge State School Cottage Life Department Resident Care Guide is explained to be a developmental status scale devised in 1969 as part of a 5-year study for the purposes of measuring the entire population's self-help training abilities. The department is said to serve 954 residents; 424 are non-ambulatory and 530 are…

  18. Substance Abuse by Anesthesiology Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutsky, Irving; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The analysis of 183 responses to a survey of former anesthesiology residents of the Medical College of Wisconsin found that 29 had been self-administered problematic substance abusers during their residencies, 23 had been alcohol dependent, and 6 had been drug dependent. More than 85 percent of respondents considered the drug policy information…

  19. Residence Hall Seating That Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Describes the seating chosen for residence halls at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the University of New England. The seating required depends on ergonomics, aesthetics, durability, cost, and code requirements. In addition, residence halls must have a range of seating types to accommodate various uses. (SLD)

  20. The Artist-in-Residence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, James W.

    1977-01-01

    Institutions are bringing the professional artist into their instructional and cultural environments through five approaches: concert performances, extended performances, master classes, part-time residencies, and full-time residencies. The effect of each program on the artist and the college or university is examined. (Author/LBH)

  1. Medical Residency Goes to School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boatright, Beth; Gallucci, Chrysan; Swanson, Judy; Van Lare, Michelle; Yoon, Irene

    2009-01-01

    The Highline School District, located roughly 10 miles south of Seattle, Washington, has begun to implement a residency model for professional learning. Like the medical model, current teachers often traveled from other schools to be "in residency" at a previously selected classroom for six half-day sessions during the 2005-06 school year. Some…

  2. Exonuclease III-Assisted Target Recycling Amplification Coupled with Liposome-Assisted Amplification: One-Step and Dual-Amplification Strategy for Highly Sensitive Fluorescence Detection of DNA.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fulin; Li, Baoxin

    2015-07-21

    Detection of ultralow concentration of specific DNA sequence is a central challenge in the early diagnosis of gene-related disease and biodefense application. Herein, we report a dual-amplification strategy for highly sensitive fluorescence detection of DNA. In this proposed strategy, a dumbbell-shaped DNA probe is designed to integrate target binding, magnetic separation, and signal response. In the presence of specific DNA target, the multifunctional dumbbell probe can initiate exonuclease III (Exo III)-aided target recycling amplification, and, in the meantime, generate a large number of fluorescein (FAM)-encapsulated liposomes. The developed method offers very high sensitivity due to primary amplification via numerous FAM from a liposome and secondary amplification via target recycling amplification. The detection limit of the proposed method can reach 4 aM, which is much lower than that of the Exo III-aided target recycling technique applied for DNA quantification without FAM-encapsulated liposomes amplification. Moreover, the dual-signal amplification process can be completed one-step in this system. Therefore, this method provides a simple, isothermal, and low-cost approach for sensitive detection of DNA and holds a great potential for early diagnosis in gene-related diseases.

  3. A label-free signal amplification assay for DNA detection based on exonuclease III and nucleic acid dye SYBR Green I.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Aihua; Luo, Ming; Xiang, Dongshan; Xiang, Xia; Ji, Xinghu; He, Zhike

    2013-09-30

    We have developed a new fluorescence method for specific single-stranded DNA sequences with exonuclease III (Exo III) and nucleic acid dye SYBR Green I. It is demonstrated by a reverse transcription oligonucleotide sequence (target DNA, 27 bases) of RNA fragment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as a model system. In the absence of the target DNA, the hairpin-probe is in the stem-closed structure, the fluorescence of SYBR Green I is very strong. In the presence of the target DNA, the hairpin-probe hybridizes with the target DNA to form double-stranded structure with a blunt 3'-terminus. Thus, in the presence of Exo III, only the 3'-terminus of probe is subjected to digestion. Exo III catalyzes the stepwise removal of mononucleotides from this terminus, releasing the target DNA. The released target DNA then hybridizes with another probe, whence the cycle starts anew. The signal of SYBR Green I decreases greatly. This system provides a detection limit of 160 pM, which is comparable to the existing signal amplification methods that utilized Exo III as a signal amplification nuclease. Due to the unique property of Exo III, this method shows excellent detection selectivity for single-base discrimination. More importantly, superiors to other methods based on Exo III, these probes have the advantages of easier to design, synthesize, purify and thus are much cheaper and more applicable. This new approach could be widely applied to sensitive and selective nucleic acids detection.

  4. Fluorometric detection of mutant DNA oligonucleotide based on toehold strand displacement-driving target recycling strategy and exonuclease III-assisted suppression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong Guo; Ren, Wang; Jia, Jing; Feng, Ji; Gao, Zhong Feng; Li, Nian Bing; Luo, Hong Qun

    2016-03-15

    We describe here a fluorometric assay for sensitive detection of oligonucleotides, based on a target recycling amplification strategy driven by toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction and on exonuclease III (Exo Ш)-assisted fluorescence background suppression strategy. The network consists of a pair of partially complementary DNA hairpins (HP1 and HP2) with 3' overhang ends, between which the spontaneous hybridization is kinetically hindered by the stems. The target DNA is repeatedly used to trigger a recycling progress between the hairpins, generating numerous HP1-HP2 duplex complexes. Exo III was then employed to digest the double strand parts of the residual hairpins and the intermediate products. The fluorescent dye, SYBR Green I, binds to the double-strand DNA products and emits strong fluorescence to achieve sensitive detection of the target DNA with the detection limit of 5.34 pM. Moreover, this proposed strategy showed high discrimination efficiency towards target DNA against mismatched DNA and was successfully applied in the analysis of human serum sample.

  5. Determination of Neutrophil Antigen HNA-3a and HNA-3b Genotype Frequencies in Six Racial Groups by High-Throughput 5’ Exonuclease Assay

    PubMed Central

    Bowens, Krista L.; Sullivan, Mia J.; Curtis, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND People with the human neutrophil antigen (HNA)-3b/3b type can make HNA-3a antibodies, which have been reported to cause immune neutropenia disorders, and are especially prone to cause severe cases of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). However, knowledge of HNA-3 allele frequencies outside Caucasian populations is limited. We developed a high-throughput genotyping assay and determined the HNA-3a/3b genotype frequencies in 6 different racial and ethnic groups. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Genotyping utilized Taqman 5’ exonuclease chemistry and real-time PCR. A total of 742 DNA samples from 6 different racial and ethnic groups were genotyped for HNA-3a and HNA-3b. RESULTS The genotyping assay showed 100% sensitivity and specificity compared to sequencing and phenotyping and had high throughput. A significant percentage of Caucasians (6.5%), Han Chinese (16%), and Asian Indians (6%) typed HNA-3b/3b, but only a small percentage of Hispanics (1%) and no African or Native Americans. CONCLUSIONS The HNA-3 genotyping assay had high sensitivity, specificity, and sample throughput. HNA-3b/b genotype results determined for 742 individuals representing 6 different racial and ethnic groups showed that there could be a significant risk of producing anti-HNA-3a in Chinese, as well as in Caucasian and Asian Indian blood donor populations, but a very low risk in Hispanic, African or Native American populations. PMID:22414054

  6. Physical interaction between the herpes simplex virus type 1 exonuclease, UL12, and the DNA double-strand break-sensing MRN complex.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Nandakumar; Bai, Ping; Buchek, Gregory; Korza, George; Weller, Sandra K

    2010-12-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) alkaline nuclease, encoded by the UL12 gene, plays an important role in HSV-1 replication, as a UL12 null mutant displays a severe growth defect. The HSV-1 alkaline exonuclease UL12 interacts with the viral single-stranded DNA binding protein ICP8 and promotes strand exchange in vitro in conjunction with ICP8. We proposed that UL12 and ICP8 form a two-subunit recombinase reminiscent of the phage lambda Red α/β recombination system and that the viral and cellular recombinases contribute to viral genome replication through a homologous recombination-dependent DNA replication mechanism. To test this hypothesis, we identified cellular interaction partners of UL12 by using coimmunoprecipitation. We report for the first time a specific interaction between UL12 and components of the cellular MRN complex, an important factor in the ATM-mediated homologous recombination repair (HRR) pathway. This interaction is detected early during infection and does not require viral DNA or other viral or cellular proteins. The region of UL12 responsible for the interaction has been mapped to the first 125 residues, and coimmunoprecipitation can be abolished by deletion of residues 100 to 126. These observations support the hypothesis that cellular and viral recombination factors work together to promote efficient HSV-1 growth.

  7. A theory-informed, process-oriented Resident Scholarship Program

    PubMed Central

    Thammasitboon, Satid; Darby, John B.; Hair, Amy B.; Rose, Karen M.; Ward, Mark A.; Turner, Teri L.; Balmer, Dorene F.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires residency programs to provide curricula for residents to engage in scholarly activities but does not specify particular guidelines for instruction. We propose a Resident Scholarship Program that is framed by the self-determination theory (SDT) and emphasize the process of scholarly activity versus a scholarly product. Methods The authors report on their longitudinal Resident Scholarship Program, which aimed to support psychological needs central to SDT: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. By addressing those needs in program aims and program components, the program may foster residents’ intrinsic motivation to learn and to engage in scholarly activity. To this end, residents’ engagement in scholarly processes, and changes in perceived autonomy, competence, and relatedness were assessed. Results Residents engaged in a range of scholarly projects and expressed positive regard for the program. Compared to before residency, residents felt more confident in the process of scholarly activity, as determined by changes in increased perceived autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Scholarly products were accomplished in return for a focus on scholarly process. Conclusions Based on our experience, and in line with the SDT, supporting residents’ autonomy, competence, and relatedness through a process-oriented scholarship program may foster the curiosity, inquisitiveness, and internal motivation to learn that drives scholarly activity and ultimately the production of scholarly products. PMID:27306995

  8. The pediatric resident training on tobacco project: interim findings.

    PubMed Central

    Hymowitz, Norman; Schwab, Joseph; Haddock, Christopher Keith; Pyle, Sara; Meshberg, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Pediatric Residency Training on Tobacco Project is a four-year randomized prospective study of the efficacy of training pediatric residents to intervene on tobacco. At the start of the study (baseline), the pediatric residents uniformly agreed that environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and tobacco use pose serious threats to the health of young people, and pediatricians should play a leadership role in the antismoking arena. However, very few went beyond advising patients and parents to modify their behavior by providing actual assistance, and many of them lacked necessary tobacco intervention skills and knowledge. We hypothesized that both standard training and special training programs would yield positive changes in intervention skills and activities, although the changes would be greater in residents exposed to the special training condition. In the present report, we present two-year outcome data from the resident tobacco surveys and objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) administered to independent waves of third-year residents in each experimental condition at baseline and year 2. METHODS: Fifteen pediatric residency training programs in the New York/New Jersey metropolitan area were assigned randomly to special and standard training conditions (eight to special and seven to standard training). Resident tobacco surveys and OSCEs were administered to third-year residents at the start of the training programs (baseline) and at years 1 and 2 of the study. Comparisons between sequential waves of third-year residents with no (baseline) or two-year exposure to the training programs permitted assessment of changes in resident beliefs, intervention activities and intervention skills within each experimental condition. RESULTS: By year 2, the residents associated with each training condition benefited from the training program, but the annual surveys and OSCEs revealed more significant positive changes for waves of residents in the special

  9. Early resident-to-resident physics education in diagnostic radiology.

    PubMed

    Kansagra, Akash P

    2014-01-01

    The revised ABR board certification process has updated the method by which diagnostic radiology residents are evaluated for competency in clinical radiologic physics. In this work, the author reports the successful design and implementation of a resident-taught physics course consisting of 5 weekly, hour-long lectures intended for incoming first-year radiology residents in their first month of training. To the author's knowledge, this is the first description of a course designed to provide a very early framework for ongoing physics education throughout residency without increasing the didactic burden on faculty members. Twenty-six first-year residents spanning 2 academic years took the course and reported subjective improvement in their knowledge (90%) and interest (75%) in imaging physics and a high level of satisfaction with the use of senior residents as physics educators. Based on the success of this course and the minimal resources required for implementation, this work may serve as a blueprint for other radiology residency programs seeking to develop revised physics curricula.

  10. Toward a consensus on radiobiology teaching to radiation oncology residents.

    PubMed

    Dynlacht, Joseph R; Dewhirst, Mark W; Hall, Eric J; Rosenstein, Barry S; Zeman, Elaine M

    2002-05-01

    There are approximately 82 radiation oncology residency programs in the United States, which provide training opportunities for about 400 residents. All accredited radiation oncology residency programs must have at least one basic scientist on the faculty, and it is these individuals who often assume, wholly or in part, the responsibility of teaching radiation and cancer biology to radiation oncology residents in preparation for the American College of Radiology (ACR) In-Training Examination in Radiation Oncology and the American Board of Radiology (ABR) written examinations. In response to a perceived lack of uniformity in radiation and cancer biology curricula currently being taught to residents and a perceived lack of guidance for instructors in formulating course content for this population, a special session was presented at the Forty-eighth Annual Radiation Research Society meeting on April 23, 2001. The session, entitled "Toward a Consensus on Radiobiology Teaching to Radiation Oncology Residents", was focused on issues related to teaching radiobiology to radiation oncology residents and targeted for individuals who actively teach radiation and cancer biology as well as coordinators of residency training programs. The speakers addressed current challenges and future problems facing instructors and programs. Among these were lack of feedback on resident performance on ABR and ACR written examinations and on course content, uncertainty about what topics residents must know to pass the ABR examination, and, in the near future, a reduction (due to retirement) of instructors qualified to teach radiobiology. This article provides a synopsis of the information that was presented during that session, offers a glimpse into how the ABR and ACR examinations are prepared and details of the content of past and future examinations, and summarizes the activities of the Joint Working Group on Radiobiology Teaching which was formed to educate instructors, to establish a

  11. Applying Expectancy Theory to residency training: proposing opportunities to understand resident motivation and enhance residency training.

    PubMed

    Shweiki, Ehyal; Martin, Niels D; Beekley, Alec C; Jenoff, Jay S; Koenig, George J; Kaulback, Kris R; Lindenbaum, Gary A; Patel, Pankaj H; Rosen, Matthew M; Weinstein, Michael S; Zubair, Muhammad H; Cohen, Murray J

    2015-01-01

    Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national priority for decades, exemplified initially through the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education and then superseded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A recent Special Report in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, has described resident educational programs to date as prescriptive, noting an absence of innovation in education. Current aims of contemporary medical resident education are thus being directed at ensuring quality in learning as well as in patient care. Achievement and work-motivation theories attempt to explain people's choice, performance, and persistence in tasks. Expectancy Theory as one such theory was reviewed in detail, appearing particularly applicable to surgical residency training. Correlations between Expectancy Theory as a work-motivation theory and residency education were explored. Understanding achievement and work-motivation theories affords an opportunity to gain insight into resident motivation in training. The application of Expectancy Theory in particular provides an innovative perspective into residency education. Afforded are opportunities to promote the development of programmatic methods facilitating surgical resident motivation in education.

  12. Learning styles of orthodontic residents.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Janeen M; Fallis, Drew W; Peel, Jennifer L; Murchison, David F

    2009-03-01

    Significant challenges face many orthodontic residency programs, particularly a shortage of full-time experienced faculty members. Due to this shortage, it is critical that program directors design comprehensive curricula that incorporate the most effective and efficient teaching methods. It is theorized that teaching effectiveness and efficiency are optimized when the course design and content closely match students' learning preferences. This survey study was designed to distinguish the learning preferences of orthodontic residents utilizing Felder and Soloman's Index of Learning Styles, which assesses student learning preferences in four dimensions using dichotomous scales, thereby providing insight into how teaching strategies can best be structured. As a secondary focus, additional questions on the survey were asked to gain information about residents' access to the Internet and comfort level with online learning so as to address acceptance of web-based courses in response to the shortage of full-time faculty members. Orthodontic residents, contacted via email, were requested to complete an online survey; 261 responses were collected. The results indicate that orthodontic residents are highly visual learners and show a preference for sensing and sequential learning strategies. In terms of information technology, the residents are comfortable with and have adequate access to current technological assets; therefore, they may be well suited for inclusion of computer-based teaching modules and other multimedia devices in their residency curriculum.

  13. The Impact of Residence Design on Freshman Outcomes: Dormitories versus Suite-Style Residences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodger, Susan C.; Johnson, Andrew W.

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to measure affective, behavioral, and cognitive variables in a sample of 3159 first-year students, and to compare these variables by the type of residence building in which the student lived. Students living in suite-style buildings reported a greater sense of belonging, and higher activity levels than students living in…

  14. VOCs in representative canadian residences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otson, Rein; Fellin, Philip; Tran, Quang

    Stored extracts of passive samplers exposed in 757 randomly selected Canadian residences provided a unique opportunity for retrospective determination of the occurrence of airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Aliquots of the individual extracts were pooled to form a composite exposure sample and a corresponding blank sample. To identify and quantitate potentially hazardous organics in the samples, GC-MS analyses were conducted by several approaches. The amounts of 52 target compounds in the the composite sample were estimated based on selected ion monitoring (SIM) results, extraction recoveries, average air volume sampled, and 3M OVM 3500 passive sampling rates. Forty of the organics were detected and were present in amounts equivalent to airborne concentrations ranging from <1 to 104 μg m -3. Several other compounds were also tentatively identified by full scan analysis. Many of the detected organics have been reported to be associated with activities such as tobacco smoking and the presence of consumer products and plastic materials indoors. The analytical results have been useful in risk assessments and establishment of a new Canadian priority substances list (PSL).

  15. Transmyocardial drilling revascularization combined with heparinized bFGF-incorporating stent activates resident cardiac stem cells via SDF-1/CXCR4 axis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Guang-Wei; Wen, Ti; Gu, Tian-Xiang; Li-Ling, Jesse; Wang, Chun; Zhao, Ye; Liu, Jing; Wang, Ying; Liu, Tian-Jun; Lue, Feng

    2012-02-15

    Objective: To investigate whether transmyocardial drilling revascularization combined with heparinized basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-incorporating degradable stent implantation (TMDRSI) can promote myocardial regeneration after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods: A model of AMI was generated by ligating the mid-third of left anterior descending artery (LAD) of miniswine. After 6 h, the animals were divided into none-treatment (control) group (n = 6) and TMDRSI group (n = 6). For TMDRSI group, two channels with 3.5 mm in diameter were established by a self-made drill in the AMI region, into which a stent was implanted. Expression of stromal cell-derived factor-1{sub {alpha}} (SDF-1{sub {alpha}}) and CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), cardiac stem cell (CSC)-mediated myocardial regeneration, myocardial apoptosis, myocardial viability, and cardiac function were assessed at various time-points. Results: Six weeks after the operation, CSCs were found to have differentiated into cardiomyocytes to repair the infarcted myocardium, and all above indices showed much improvement in the TMDRSI group compared with the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The new method has shown to be capable of promoting CSCs proliferation and differentiation into cardiomyocytes through activating the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis, while inhibiting myocardial apoptosis, thereby enhancing myocardial regeneration following AMI and improving cardiac function. This may provide a new strategy for myocardial regeneration following AMI. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of TMDR and bFGF-stent on myocardial regeneration were studied in a pig model of AMI. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TMDR and bFGF-stent implantation activated CSCs via the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CSC-mediated myocardial regeneration improved cardiac function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It may be a new therapeutic strategy for AMI.

  16. International Child Health Elective for Pediatric Residents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are increasing evidence highlighting the importance of incorporating issues of global health into pre- and post-graduate medical curricula. Medical international cooperation is a fundamental component of strategies to include global health issues in post-graduate medical curricula. Methods Here we describe a seven-year cooperation between the Non Governmental Organization (NGO) “Doctors for Africa CUAMM” and the Pediatric Residency Program (PRP) of the University of Padua (Italy) that offers residents a well-articulated personalized international child’s health (ICH) elective in Africa, called “Junior Project Officer”. The elective includes: a careful candidate selection process; pre-departure educational course; preceptorship in Padua and Africa, personalized learning objectives, a personalized job description, a six-month hands-on learning experience in Africa, evaluation of the experience, and formal private and open feed-backs/reports. Results Between 2006 and 2012, 14 residents aged from 27 to 31 years, six attending the III, nine the IV and two the V year of residency completed the six-month stage in Africa. All worked in pediatric in-patient units; seven also worked in out-patient clinics, six in emergency rooms and seven in community health centers. Eleven were involved in teaching activities and four in clinical research projects. All residents claimed to have achieved their learning objectives. Conclusions A strong partnership between the NGO and the PRP, and well-articulated personalized learning objectives and job description contributed to a successful ICH elective. PMID:24499625

  17. Helping Residents Protect Water Sources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Building on the successful early engagement of the Plain Sect agricultural community, the Eastern Lancaster County Source Water Protection Collaborative is expanding its efforts to involve local residents in the work of protecting drinking water sources.

  18. US dermatology residency program rankings.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Lisa L; Wen, Ge; Wu, Jashin J

    2014-10-01

    Unlike many other adult specialties, US News & World Report does not rank dermatology residency programs annually. We conducted a study to rank individual US dermatology residency programs based on set criteria. For each residency program, data from 2008 related to a number of factors were collected, including annual amount of National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Dermatology Foundation (DF) funding received; number of publications from full-time faculty members; number of faculty lectures given at 5 annual society meetings; and number of full-time faculty members who were on the editorial boards of 6 dermatology journals with the highest impact factors. Most of the data were obtained through extensive Internet searches, and missing data were obtained by contacting individual residency programs. The programs were ranked based on the prior factors according to a weighted ranking algorithm. A list of overall rankings also was created.

  19. Center Gets Commuters, Residents Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1979

    1979-01-01

    The new student center at Trenton State College is situated on the walkway between the central campus and the commuter parking areas. The location brings resident and commuter students together. (Author/MLF)

  20. The Optometric Residency: Its Bloom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleything, Willard B.

    1979-01-01

    Guidelines for proposed residencies in optometry are presented for pediatric, rehabilitative, and hospital optometry. Their significance in terms of costs, patient population, faculty expertise, and critical mass are discussed. (JMF)

  1. Emergency Medicine Resident Orientation: How Training Programs Get Their Residents Started

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Jillian; Barrie, Michael; Way, David P.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The first formal orientation program for incoming emergency medicine (EM) residents was started in 1976. The last attempt to describe the nature of orientation programs was by Brillman in 1995. Now almost all residencies offer orientation to incoming residents, but little is known about the curricular content or structure of these programs. The purpose of this project was to describe the current composition and purpose of EM resident orientation programs in the United States. Methods In autumn of 2014, we surveyed all U.S. EM residency program directors (n=167). We adapted our survey instrument from one used by Brillman (1995). The survey was designed to assess the orientation program’s purpose, structure, content, and teaching methods. Results The survey return rate was 63% (105 of 167). Most respondents (77%) directed three-year residencies, and all but one program offered intern orientation. Orientations lasted an average of nine clinical (Std. Dev.=7.3) and 13 non-clinical days (Std. Dev.=9.3). The prototypical breakdown of program activities was 27% lectures, 23% clinical work, 16% skills training, 10% administrative activities, 9% socialization and 15% other activities. Most orientations included activities to promote socialization among interns (98%) and with other members of the department (91%). Many programs (87%) included special certification courses (ACLS, ATLS, PALS, NRP). Course content included the following: use of electronic medical records (90%), physician wellness (75%), and chief complaint-based lectures (72%). Procedural skill sessions covered ultrasound (94%), airway management (91%), vascular access (90%), wound management (77%), splinting (67%), and trauma skills (62%). Conclusion Compared to Brillman (1995), we found that more programs (99%) are offering formal orientation and allocating more time to them. Lectures remain the most common educational activity. We found increases in the use of skills labs and specialty

  2. 24 CFR 964.140 - Resident training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... training. (a) Resident training opportunities. HUD encourages a partnership between the residents, the HA...: (1) Community organization and leadership training; (2) Organizational development training for... training resources may include: (1) Resident organizations; (2) Housing authorities; (3) Local...

  3. 38 CFR 51.70 - Resident rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.70 Resident rights. The resident has a...; (iii) Physicians of the resident's choice (to provide care in the nursing home, physicians must...

  4. 38 CFR 51.70 - Resident rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.70 Resident rights. The resident has a...; (iii) Physicians of the resident's choice (to provide care in the nursing home, physicians must...

  5. 38 CFR 51.70 - Resident rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.70 Resident rights. The resident has a...; (iii) Physicians of the resident's choice (to provide care in the nursing home, physicians must...

  6. 38 CFR 51.70 - Resident rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.70 Resident rights. The resident has a...; (iii) Physicians of the resident's choice (to provide care in the nursing home, physicians must...

  7. The catalytic activity of the endoplasmic reticulum-resident protein microsomal epoxide hydrolase towards carcinogens is retained on inversion of its membrane topology.

    PubMed Central

    Friedberg, T; Holler, R; Löllmann, B; Arand, M; Oesch, F

    1996-01-01

    Diol epoxides formed by the sequential action of cytochrome P-450 and the microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) represent an important class of ultimate carcinogenic metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The role of the membrane orientation of cytochrome P-450 and mEH relative to each other in this catalytic cascade is not known. Cytochrome P-450 is known to have a type I topology. According to the algorithm of Hartman, Rapoport and Lodish [(1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86, 5786-5790], which allows the prediction of the membrane topology of proteins, mEH should adopt a type II membrane topology. Experimentally, mEH membrane topology has been disputed. Here we demonstrate that, in contrast with the theoretical prediction, the rat mEH has exclusively a type I membrane topology. Moreover we show that this topology can be inverted without affecting the catalytic activity of mEH. Our conclusions are supported by the observation that two mEH constructs (mEHg1 and mEHg2), containing engineered potential glycosylation sites at two separate locations after the C-terminal site of the membrane anchor, were not glycosylated in fibroblasts. However, changing the net charge at the N-terminus of these engineered mEH proteins by +3 resulted in proteins (++mEHg1 and ++mEHg2) that became glycosylated and consequently had a type II topology. The sensitivity of these glycosylated proteins to endoglycosidase H indicated that, like the native mEH, they are still retained in the ER. The engineered mEH proteins were integrated into membranes as they were resistant to alkaline extraction. Interestingly, an insect mEH with a charge distribution in its N-terminus similar to ++mEHg1 has recently been isolated. This enzyme might well display a type II topology instead of the type I topology of the rat mEH. Importantly, mEHg1, having the natural cytosolic orientation, as well as ++mEHg1, having an artificial huminal orientation, displayed rather

  8. [How Can we provide better services for demented nursing home residents suffering from apathy?].

    PubMed

    Treusch, Yvonne; Jerosch, Daniela; Majic, Tomislav; Heinz, Andreas; Gutzmann, Hans; Rapp, Michael A

    2010-03-01

    Behavioural and psychological symptoms of Dementia include agitation, depression and apathy. Apathy is a common condition and a major challenge especially in nursing home residents. The development of a brief intervention for nursing home residents combining physical activation and reminiscence therapy in order to reactivating apathic residents and increasing their quality of life will be described.

  9. Label-free fluorescence dual-amplified detection of adenosine based on exonuclease III-assisted DNA cycling and hybridization chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiewei; Jiang, Wei; Zhu, Jing; Li, Wei; Wang, Lei

    2015-08-15

    In this work, we constructed a label-free and dual-amplified fluorescence aptasensor for sensitive analysis of adenosine based on exonuclease III (Exo III)-assisted DNA cycling and hybridization chain reaction (HCR). Firstly, we fabricated a trifunctional probe that consisting of the catalytic strand, the aptamer sequence and a streptavidin-magnetic nanobead (streptavidin-MNB). The streptavidin-MNB played a role of enrichment and separation to achieve a low background. The aptamer sequence was employed as a recognition element to bind the target adenosine, leading to the releasing of the catalytic stand. Then, the catalytic strand induced the Exo III-assisted DNA cycling reaction and produced a large amount of DNA fragments, which got a primary amplification. Subsequently, the DNA fragments acted as trigger strands to initiate HCR, forming nicked double helices with multiple G-quadruplex structures, which achieved a secondary amplification. Finally, the G-quadruplex structures bonded with the N-nethyl mesopor-phyrin IX (NMM) and yielded an enhanced fluorescence signal, realizing the label-free detection. In the proposed strategy, a small amount of adenosine can be converted to a large amount of DNA triggers, leading to a significant amplification for the target. This method exhibited a high sensitivity toward adenosine with a detection limit of 4.2×10(-7) mol L(-1), which was about 10 times lower than that of the reported label-free strategies. Moreover, this assay can significantly distinguish the content of adenosine in urine samples of cancer patients and normal human, indicating that our method will offer a new strategy for reliable quantification of adenosine in medical research and early clinical diagnosis.

  10. A Conserved Apomixis-Specific Polymorphism Is Correlated with Exclusive Exonuclease Expression in Premeiotic Ovules of Apomictic Boechera Species1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Corral, José M.; Vogel, Heiko; Aliyu, Olawale M.; Hensel, Götz; Thiel, Thomas; Kumlehn, Jochen; Sharbel, Timothy F.

    2013-01-01

    Apomixis (asexual seed production) is characterized by meiotically unreduced egg cell production (apomeiosis) followed by its parthenogenetic development into offspring that are genetic clones of the mother plant. Fertilization (i.e. pseudogamy) of the central cell is important for the production of a functional endosperm with a balanced 2:1 maternal:paternal genome ratio. Here, we present the APOLLO (for apomixis-linked locus) gene, an Aspartate Glutamate Aspartate Aspartate histidine exonuclease whose transcripts are down-regulated in sexual ovules entering meiosis while being up-regulated in apomeiotic ovules at the same stage of development in plants of the genus Boechera. APOLLO has both “apoalleles,” which are characterized by a set of linked apomixis-specific polymorphisms, and “sexalleles.” All apomictic Boechera spp. accessions proved to be heterozygous for the APOLLO gene (having at least one apoallele and one sexallele), while all sexual genotypes were homozygous for sexalleles. Apoalleles contained a 20-nucleotide polymorphism present in the 5′ untranslated region that contains specific transcription factor-binding sites for ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA HOMEOBOX PROTEIN5, LIM1 (for LINEAGE ABNORMAL11, INSULIN1, MECHANOSENSORY PROTEIN3), SORLIP1AT (for SEQUENCES OVERREPRESENTED IN LIGHT-INDUCED PROMOTERS IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA1), SORLIP2AT, and POLYA SIGNAL1. In the same region, sexalleles contain transcription factor-binding sites for DNA BINDING WITH ONE FINGER2, DNA BINDING WITH ONE FINGER3, and PROLAMIN BOX-BINDING FACTOR. Our results suggest that the expression of a single deregulated allele could induce the cascade of events leading to asexual female gamete formation in an apomictic plant. PMID:24163323

  11. Exonuclease I-aided homogeneous electrochemical strategy for organophosphorus pesticide detection based on enzyme inhibition integrated with a DNA conformational switch.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuzhong; Dong, Shanshan; Hou, Ting; Liu, Lei; Liu, Xiaojuan; Li, Feng

    2016-03-07

    A novel enzyme inhibition-based homogeneous electrochemical biosensing strategy was designed for an organophosphorus pesticide assay based on exploiting the resistance of a mercury ion-mediated helper probe (HP) toward nuclease-catalyzed digestion and the remarkable diffusivity difference between HPs and the mononucleotides toward a negatively charged indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. In particular, the mercury ion-mediated T-Hg(2+)-T base pairs facilitate the HP labeled with methylene blue (MB) to fold into a hairpin structure, preventing its digestion by exonuclease I, and thus resulting in a low electrochemical response because of the large electrostatic repulsion between the negatively charged ITO electrode and the HPs. The competitive binding by a thiol group (-SH), produced in the hydrolysis reaction of acetylthiocholine (ACh) chloride with acetylcholinesterase (AChE), removes mercury ions from the base pairs, causing a nuclease-catalyzed digestion, and the subsequent electrochemical response increase due to the weak electrostatic repulsion between the product-mononucleotides and the ITO electrode. Mercury ion-mediated HPs were first designed for pesticide detection and diazinon was chosen as the model target. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the approach exhibited high sensitivity for diazinon detection with a detection limit of 0.25 μg L(-1). The satisfactory results in the determination of diazinon in real samples demonstrate that the method possesses great potential for detecting organophosphorus pesticides. This new approach is expected to promote the exploitation of mercury-mediated base pair-based homogenous electrochemical biosensors in biochemical studies and in the food safety field.

  12. Interferon stimulated exonuclease gene 20kDa links psychiatric events to distinct Hepatitis C Virus responses in Human Immunodeficiency Virus positive patients

    PubMed Central

    Katsounas, Antonios; Rasimas, Joseph J.; Schlaak, Joerg F.; Lempicki, Richard A.; Rosenstein, Donald L.; Kottilil, Shyam

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection occurs frequently in patients with preexisting mental illness. Treatment for chronic hepatitis C using interferon formulations often increases risk for neuropsychiatric symptoms. Pegylated-Interferon-α (PegIFN-α) remains crucial for attaining sustained virologic response (SVR); however, PegIFN-α based treatment is associated with psychiatric adverse effects, which require dose reduction and/or interruption. This study's main objective was to identify genes induced by PegIFN-α and expressed in the central nervous system and immune system, which could mediate the development of psychiatric toxicity in association with antiviral outcome. Using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/HCV co-infected donors (N=28), DNA microarray analysis was performed and 21 differentially regulated genes were identified in patients with psychiatric toxicity vs. those without. Using these 21 expression profiles a two-way-ANOVA was performed to select genes based on antiviral outcome and occurrence of neuropsychiatric adverse events. Microarray analysis demonstrated that Interferon-stimulated-exonuclease-gene 20kDa (ISG20) and Interferon-alpha-inducible-protein 27 (IFI27) were the most regulated genes (P<0.05) between three groups that were built by combining antiviral outcome and neuropsychiatric toxicity. Validation by bDNA assay confirmed that ISG20 expression levels were significantly associated with these outcomes (P<0.035). Baseline levels and induction of ISG20 correlated independently with no occurrence of psychiatric adverse events and non-response to therapy (P<0.001). Among the 21 genes that were associated with psychiatric adverse events and 20 Interferon-inducible genes (IFIGs) used as controls, only ISG20 expression was able to link PegIFN-α related neuropsychiatric toxicity to distinct HCV-responses in patients co-infected with HIV and HCV in vivo. PMID:24782267

  13. A Label-Free and Sensitive Fluorescent Qualitative Assay for Bisphenol A Based on Rolling Circle Amplification/Exonuclease III-Combined Cascade Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xia; Song, Juan; Xue, Qing-Wang; You, Fu-Heng; Lu, Xia; Kong, Yan-Cong; Ma, Shu-Yi; Jiang, Wei; Li, Chen-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) detection in drinking water and food packaging materials has attracted much attention since the discovery that BPA can interfere with normal physiological processes and cause adverse health effects. Here, we constructed a label-free aptamer fluorescent assay for selective and sensitive detection of BPA based on the rolling circle amplification (RCA)/Exonuclease III (Exo III)-combined cascade amplification strategy. First, the duplex DNA probe (RP) with anti-BPA aptamer and trigger sequence was designed for BPA recognition and signal amplification. Next, under the action of BPA, the trigger probe was liberated from RP to initiate RCA reaction as primary amplification. Subsequently, the RCA products were used to trigger Exo III assisted secondary amplification with the help of hairpin probes, producing plenty of “G-quadruplex” in lantern-like structures. Finally, the continuously enriched “G-quadruplex lanterns” were lightened by zinc(II)-protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX) generating enhanced fluorescence signals. By integrating the primary RCA and secondary Exo III mediated cascade amplification strategy, this method displayed an excellent sensitivity with the detection limits of 5.4 × 10−17 M. In addition, the anti-BPA aptamer exhibits high recognition ability with BPA, guaranteeing the specificity of detection. The reporter signal probe (G-quadruplex with ZnPPIX) provides a label-free fluorescence signals readout without complicated labeling procedures, making the method simple in design and cost-effective in operation. Moreover, environmental samples analysis was also performed, suggesting that our strategy was reliable and had a great potential application in environmental monitoring. PMID:28335318

  14. The effect of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae endo-exonuclease NUD1 gene expression on the resistance of HeLa cells to DNA-damaging agents.

    PubMed

    Semionov, A; Cournoyer, D; Chow, T Y

    1999-04-09

    HeLa cells transiently transfected with a mammalian expression DNA vector expressing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae endo-exonuclease (EE) NUD1 gene have exhibited changes in cell survival frequencies after treatment with different DNA-damaging agents as compared to HeLa cells transfected with a control plasmid. The NUD1-transfected cells showed a dose-dependent increase in sensitivity to UV irradiation resulting in up to 58% decrease in cell survival. In response to gamma-irradiation NUD1 transfected cells featured an increased survival at doses equal to and greater than 2.0 Gy, reaching a maximum enhancement in survival frequency of 17%. At the same time, the NUD1-transfectants featured an increase in resistance to 0.25 microM-0.5 microM cis-platin (up to 58% increase in cell survival) and 1.0 mM EMS (11% increase). At higher concentrations of EMS NUD1 expression resulted in a decreased cell survival of the transfected cells (17% decrease for 2.5 mM EMS). No difference in cell survival frequencies between the NUD1-transfectants and the controls was observed after treatment with different concentrations of chlorambucil and mechlorethamine. These results suggest possible roles played by EEs in different DNA repair pathways--being stimulatory for the repair of certain types of DNA lesions, such as double strand breaks (DSBs), and interfering with the endogenous DNA repair systems for the repair of other types of lesions. Furthermore, these results also provide additional indirect evidence for the role of EEs in homologous recombination.

  15. Affinity-Mediated Homogeneous Electrochemical Aptasensor on a Graphene Platform for Ultrasensitive Biomolecule Detection via Exonuclease-Assisted Target-Analog Recycling Amplification.

    PubMed

    Ge, Lei; Wang, Wenxiao; Sun, Ximei; Hou, Ting; Li, Feng

    2016-02-16

    As is well-known, graphene shows a remarkable difference in affinity toward nonstructured single-stranded (ss) DNA and double-stranded (ds) DNA. This property makes it popular to prepare DNA-based optical sensors. In this work, taking this unique property of graphene in combination with the sensitive electrochemical transducer, we report a novel affinity-mediated homogeneous electrochemical aptasensor using graphene modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) as the sensing platform. In this approach, the specific aptamer-target recognition is converted into an ultrasensitive electrochemical signal output with the aid of a novel T7 exonuclease (T7Exo)-assisted target-analog recycling amplification strategy, in which the ingeniously designed methylene blue (MB)-labeled hairpin DNA reporters are digested in the presence of target and, then, converted to numerous MB-labeled long ssDNAs. The distinct difference in differential pulse voltammetry response between the designed hairpin reporters and the generated long ssDNAs on the graphene/GCE allows ultrasensitive detection of target biomolecules. Herein, the design and working principle of this homogeneous electrochemical aptasensor were elucidated, and the working conditions were optimized. The gel electrophoresis results further demonstrate that the designed T7Exo-assisted target-analog recycling amplification strategy can work well. This electrochemical aptasensor realizes the detection of biomolecule in a homogeneous solution without immobilization of any bioprobe on electrode surface. Moreover, this versatile homogeneous electrochemical sensing system was used for the determination of biomolecules in real serum samples with satisfying results.

  16. 24 CFR 964.140 - Resident training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Resident Management Corporations and duly elected Resident Councils; (3) Public housing policies, programs, rights and responsibilities training; and (4) Business entrepreneurial training, planning and job...

  17. 24 CFR 964.140 - Resident training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Resident Management Corporations and duly elected Resident Councils; (3) Public housing policies, programs, rights and responsibilities training; and (4) Business entrepreneurial training, planning and job...

  18. Crossing the Rubicon. Preparing residents for professional life after residency.

    PubMed

    McCombs, Peter R

    2004-01-01

    In addition to clinical skill and knowledge of basic science, graduating residents need decision-making and communication skills, and an understanding of the cultural and prejudicial divides that sometimes create conflicts and misunderstandings in the clinical arena. This paper summarizes a program that one institution has adopted, which attempts to introduce topics in the humanities into the conventional curriculum. The goal is to enable graduating residents to think and to express their views more creatively and assertively, and to give them a greater understanding of some of the individual and cultural attitudes they are certain to encounter in practice.

  19. Incorporating simulation into a residency curriculum.

    PubMed

    Takayesu, James K; Nadel, Eric S; Bhatia, Kriti; Walls, Ron M

    2010-07-01

    The integration of simulation into a medical postgraduate curriculum requires informed implementation in ways that take advantage of simulation's unique ability to facilitate guided application of new knowledge. It requires review of all objectives of the training program to ensure that each of these is mapped to the best possible learning method. To take maximum advantage of the training enhancements made possible by medical simulation, it must be integrated into the learning environment, not simply added on. This requires extensive reorganization of the resident didactic schedule. Simulation planning is supported by clear learning objectives that define the goals of the session, promote learner investment in active participation and allow for structured feedback for individual growth. Teaching to specific objectives using simulation requires an increased time commitment from teaching faculty and careful logistical planning to facilitate flow of learners through a series of simulations in ways that maximize learning. When applied appropriately, simulation offers a unique opportunity for learners to acquire and apply new knowledge under direct supervision in ways that complement the rest of the educational curriculum. In addition, simulation can improve the learning environment and morale of residents, provide additional methods of resident evaluation, and facilitate the introduction of new technologies and procedures into the clinical environment.

  20. Sleep Quality Among Psychiatry Residents

    PubMed Central

    das Chagas Medeiros, Francisco; Meireles Sales de Bruin, Veralice; Pinheiro Santana, José Abraão; Bastos Lima, Alexandre; De Francesco Daher, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Medical residency programs are traditionally known for long working hours, which can be associated with a poor quality of sleep and daytime sleepiness. However, few studies have focused on this theme. Our objective was to investigate sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and their relation with anxiety, social phobia, and depressive symptoms. Methods: This cross-sectional observational study involved 59 psychiatry residents. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) were used to measure the quality of sleep and excessive daytime sleepiness ([EDS] and ESS > 10), respectively. Results: Among the 59 psychiatry residents, 59.3% had poor sleep quality (PSQI > 5) and 28.8% had EDS. Poor sleep quality was associated with higher EDS (P = 0.03) and the year of residency program (P = 0.03). Only 20% of residents with poor sleep had consulted at least once for sleep problems; 54.2% had used medications for sleep; and 16.9% were using medications at the time of interview. Only 30% obtained medication during medical consultations. Poor sleep was associated with irregular sleep hours (P = 0.001) and long periods lying down without sleep (P = 0.03). Poor sleep quality was also associated with high scores of anxiety symptoms (P < 0.001) and social phobia symptoms (P = 0.02). Conclusion: Psychiatry residents frequently have poor sleep quality and EDS. Considering that sleep disorders can affect quality of life, predispose to metabolic syndrome, and be associated with worse performance at work, attention to this clinical problem is needed. PMID:27582452

  1. Enhancing Mutual Respect among Nursing Assistants, Residents, and Residents' Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiselman, Terry; Noelker, Linda S.

    1991-01-01

    Interviewed nursing assistants (n=40) and nursing facility residents (n=37) regarding ways they experienced respect, disrespect, attachment, and distancing in their relationships with each other. As a result of finding evidence of disrespect, an inservice session on gaining respect as a nursing assistant was presented. (ABL)

  2. Restructuring Residence Hall Programming: Residence Hall Educators with a Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckner, Donald R.

    1977-01-01

    Development of residence hall learning environments through comprehensive educational programming has been inhibited by both the generalist nature of live-in professional staff positions and the retention of a student committee-centered programming philosophy. A rationale is developed in this article for a revised staffing pattern and a different…

  3. Predictors of Success in an Anesthesiology Residency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrick, Shirley S.; Crumrine, Robert S.

    1986-01-01

    Factors that contributed to successful residency performance by anesthesiology residents were examined in order to assist the program's selection committee in developing selection criteria. The best predictor of a resident's academic average in the anethesiology program was the number of years the resident had spent in other specialities.…

  4. 28 CFR 115.233 - Resident education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Resident education. 115.233 Section 115... STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Training and Education § 115.233 Resident education... resident is transferred to a different facility. (c) The agency shall provide resident education in...

  5. 28 CFR 115.233 - Resident education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Resident education. 115.233 Section 115... STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Training and Education § 115.233 Resident education... resident is transferred to a different facility. (c) The agency shall provide resident education in...

  6. 28 CFR 115.233 - Resident education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Resident education. 115.233 Section 115... STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Training and Education § 115.233 Resident education... resident is transferred to a different facility. (c) The agency shall provide resident education in...

  7. Cytoplasmic 5′-3′ exonuclease Xrn1p is also a genome-wide transcription factor in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Daniel A.; Jordán-Pla, Antonio; Millán-Zambrano, Gonzalo; Chávez, Sebastián; Choder, Mordechai; Pérez-Ortín, José E.

    2013-01-01

    The 5′ to 3′ exoribonuclease Xrn1 is a large protein involved in cytoplasmatic mRNA degradation as a critical component of the major decaysome. Its deletion in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is not lethal, but it has multiple physiological effects. In a previous study, our group showed that deletion of all tested components of the yeast major decaysome, including XRN1, results in a decrease in the synthetic rate and an increase in half-life of most mRNAs in a compensatory manner. Furthermore, the same study showed that the all tested decaysome components are also nuclear proteins that bind to the 5′ region of a number of genes. In the present work, we show that disruption of Xrn1 activity preferentially affects both the synthesis and decay of a distinct subpopulation of mRNAs. The most affected mRNAs are the transcripts of the highly transcribed genes, mainly those encoding ribosome biogenesis and translation factors. Previously, we proposed that synthegradases play a key role in regulating both mRNA synthesis and degradation. Evidently, Xrn1 functions as a synthegradase, whose selectivity might help coordinating the expression of the protein synthetic machinery. We propose to name the most affected genes “Xrn1 synthegradon.” PMID:24567736

  8. Use of Team-Based Learning Pedagogy for Internal Medicine Ambulatory Resident Teaching

    PubMed Central

    Balwan, Sandy; Fornari, Alice; DiMarzio, Paola; Verbsky, Jennifer; Pekmezaris, Renee; Stein, Joanna; Chaudhry, Saima

    2015-01-01

    Background Team-based learning (TBL) is used in undergraduate medical education to facilitate higher-order content learning, promote learner engagement and collaboration, and foster positive learner attitudes. There is a paucity of data on the use of TBL in graduate medical education. Our aim was to assess resident engagement, learning, and faculty/resident satisfaction with TBL in internal medicine residency ambulatory education. Methods Survey and nominal group technique methodologies were used to assess learner engagement and faculty/resident satisfaction. We assessed medical learning using individual (IRAT) and group (GRAT) readiness assurance tests. Results Residents (N = 111) involved in TBL sessions reported contributing to group discussions and actively discussing the subject material with other residents. Faculty echoed similar responses, and residents and faculty reported a preference for future teaching sessions to be offered using the TBL pedagogy. The average GRAT score was significantly higher than the average IRAT score by 22%. Feedback from our nominal group technique rank ordered the following TBL strengths by both residents and faculty: (1) interactive format, (2) content of sessions, and (3) competitive nature of sessions. Conclusions We successfully implemented TBL pedagogy in the internal medicine ambulatory residency curriculum, with learning focused on the care of patients in the ambulatory setting. TBL resulted in active resident engagement, facilitated group learning, and increased satisfaction by residents and faculty. To our knowledge this is the first study that implemented a TBL program in an internal medicine residency curriculum. PMID:26692979

  9. Teaching Medical Ethics during Residency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Henry S.

    1989-01-01

    Three reasons for teaching medical ethics during residency are presented. Key ethical concepts to be addressed include moral aspects of medical practice, obtaining informed consent, dealing with incompetent patients and those who refuse treatment, knowing when to withhold or disclose clinical information, and using medical resources properly. (MSE)

  10. Predictors of Residence Hall Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arboleda, Ana; Wang, Yongyi; Shelley, Mack C., II; Whalen, Donald F.

    2003-01-01

    Residence hall students' (N = 1,186, 52% male, 90% White, 66% freshmen) involvement in their living community is influenced significantly by precollege student characteristics (gender, ethnicity), classification, attitudes (toward hall director, house cabinet, academic comfort, social environment, group study), and environmental variables (noise,…

  11. Training Psychiatry Residents in Professionalism in the Digital World.

    PubMed

    John, Nadyah Janine; Shelton, P G; Lang, Michael C; Ingersoll, Jennifer

    2016-10-29

    Professionalism is an abstract concept which makes it difficult to define, assess and teach. An additional layer of complexity is added when discussing professionalism in the context of digital technology, the internet and social media - the digital world. Current physicians-in-training (residents and fellows) are digital natives having been raised in a digital, media saturated world. Consequently, their use of digital technology and social media has been unconstrained - a reflection of it being integral to their social construct and identity. Cultivating the professional identity and therefore professionalism is the charge of residency training programs. Residents have shown negative and hostile attitudes to formalized professionalism curricula in training. Approaches to these curricula need to consider the learning style of Millennials and incorporate more active learning techniques that utilize technology. Reviewing landmark position papers, guidelines and scholarly work can therefore be augmented with use of vignettes and technology that are available to residency training programs for use with their Millennial learners.

  12. 28 CFR 115.216 - Residents with disabilities and residents who are limited English proficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Residents with disabilities and residents... Facilities Prevention Planning § 115.216 Residents with disabilities and residents who are limited English proficient. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure that residents with disabilities...

  13. 28 CFR 115.216 - Residents with disabilities and residents who are limited English proficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Residents with disabilities and residents... Facilities Prevention Planning § 115.216 Residents with disabilities and residents who are limited English proficient. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure that residents with disabilities...

  14. Learning on human resources management in the radiology residency program*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Aparecido Ferreira; Lederman, Henrique Manoel; Batista, Nildo Alves

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the process of learning on human resource management in the radiology residency program at Escola Paulista de Medicina - Universidade Federal de São Paulo, aiming at improving radiologists' education. Materials and Methods Exploratory study with a quantitative and qualitative approach developed with the faculty staff, preceptors and residents of the program, utilizing a Likert questionnaire (46), taped interviews (18), and categorization based on thematic analysis. Results According to 71% of the participants, residents have clarity about their role in the development of their activities, and 48% said that residents have no opportunity to learn how to manage their work in a multidisciplinary team. Conclusion Isolation at medical records room, little interactivity between sectors with diversified and fixed activities, absence of a previous culture and lack of a training program on human resources management may interfere in the development of skills for the residents' practice. There is a need to review objectives of the medical residency in the field of radiology, incorporating, whenever possible, the commitment to the training of skills related to human resources management thus widening the scope of abilities of the future radiologists. PMID:25741056

  15. Practical Implications for an Effective Radiology Residency Quality Improvement Program for Milestone Assessment.

    PubMed

    Leddy, Rebecca; Lewis, Madelene; Ackerman, Susan; Hill, Jeanne; Thacker, Paul; Matheus, Maria; Tipnis, Sameer; Gordon, Leonie

    2017-01-01

    Utilization of a radiology resident-specific quality improvement (QI) program and curriculum based on the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) milestones can enable a program's assessment of the systems-based practice component and prepare residents for QI implementation post graduation. This article outlines the development process, curriculum, QI committee formation, and resident QI project requirements of one institution's designated radiology resident QI program. A method of mapping the curriculum to the ACGME milestones and assessment of resident competence by postgraduate year level is provided. Sample projects, challenges to success, and lessons learned are also described. Survey data of current trainees and alumni about the program reveal that the majority of residents and alumni responders valued the QI curriculum and felt comfortable with principles and understanding of QI. The most highly valued aspect of the program was the utilization of a resident education committee. The majority of alumni responders felt the residency quality curriculum improved understanding of QI, assisted with preparation for the American Board of Radiology examination, and prepared them for QI in their careers. In addition to the survey results, outcomes of resident project completion and resident scholarly activity in QI are evidence of the success of this program. It is hoped that this description of our experiences with a radiology resident QI program, in accordance with the ACGME milestones, may facilitate the development of successful QI programs in other diagnostic radiology residencies.

  16. Determinants of resident autonomy in assisted living facilities: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sikorska-Simmons, Elzbieta; Wright, James D

    2007-01-01

    Assisted living (AL) stresses the importance of resident autonomy in the provision of good quality care. Resident autonomy has been linked to better resident well-being, less reliance on supportive services, and greater participation in social activities. Little is known, however, about factors that foster resident autonomy in AL. This article reviews what is currently known about organizational determinants of resident autonomy in AL. The open-natural systems approach to organizational effectiveness, which views organizations in relation to their environment, provides a broad conceptual framework for this analysis. Factors that influence resident autonomy in AL are classified into two categories: (a) external environmental conditions (e.g., ownership status, chain membership, regulatory environment) and (b) internal organizational structures and processes (e.g., facility size, residents' functional ability, resident social resources, and staff work environment). Environmental conditions represent the most antecedent set of factors that influence resident autonomy, indirectly through their effects on internal organizational structures and processes. Internal organizational factors influence resident autonomy through their impact on policies that enable resident choice and control in the facility. More research is needed to better understand the complex mechanism(s) through which organizational factors influence resident autonomy.

  17. THE ETHICAL EDUCATION OF OPHTHALMOLOGY RESIDENTS: AN EXPERIMENT

    PubMed Central

    Packer, Samuel

    2005-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the effect of ethics education on a resident’s ability to answer questions that relate to moral dilemmas and on the clinical evaluations of residents by faculty. Methods The curriculum for the ethics education that was used for this study was designed by the author and consisted of 10 lectures of 1.5 hours each. Five residencies were included in the project. One residency received one lecture, two residencies received three lectures, and two residencies received 10 lectures. To evaluate the moral skills of the residents at the beginning of the course and at the end, the residents were given the Defining Issues Test (DIT-2) developed by James Rest, which involves answering standardized questions about four moral dilemmas. Faculty evaluations were completed before and after the ethics lectures were given. At the beginning of the ethics course, each resident was given a social survey that was designed to assess participation in community, religious, political, and societal activities as well as attitudes about these activities. All residents were also asked demographic information, including their age, gender, and year of residency. Results The results of the DIT-2 taken before and after the ethics lectures were compared. No correlations were found in faculty evaluations of clinical performance of the residents before and after the course (P = .052). Associations between DIT-2 scores and questions on community and religion in the social survey were noted. Conclusion The finding that the effect of an ethics course on residents’ ability to answer moral dilemmas did not achieve statistical significance should be accepted with the understanding that this was a first attempt at standardization of many variables, especially the format of the curriculum and materials used. The use of faculty evaluations to assess clinical performance needs to be standardized, and the faculty members need additional training to ensure validity of the results. The

  18. DNA binding residues in the RQC domain of Werner protein are critical for its catalytic activities.

    PubMed

    Tadokoro, Takashi; Kulikowicz, Tomasz; Dawut, Lale; Croteau, Deborah L; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2012-06-01

    Werner protein (WRN), member of the RecQ helicase family, is a helicase and exonuclease, and participates in multiple DNA metabolic processes including DNA replication, recombination and DNA repair. Mutations in the WRN gene cause Werner syndrome, associated with premature aging, genome instability and cancer predisposition. The RecQ C-terminal (RQC) domain of WRN, containing α2-α3 loop and β-wing motifs, is important for DNA binding and for many protein interactions. To better understand the critical functions of this domain, we generated recombinant WRN proteins (using a novel purification scheme) with mutations in Arg-993 within the α2-α3 loop of the RQC domain and in Phe-1037 of the -wing motif. We then studied the catalytic activities and DNA binding of these mutant proteins as well as some important functional protein interactions. The mutant proteins were defective in DNA binding and helicase activity, and interestingly, they had deficient exonuclease activity and strand annealing function. The RQC domain of WRN has not previously been implicated in exonuclease or annealing activities. The mutant proteins could not stimulate NEIL1 incision activity as did the wild type. Thus, the Arg-993 and Phe-1037 in the RQC domain play essential roles in catalytic activity, and in functional interactions mediated by WRN.

  19. Redesigning journal club in residency

    PubMed Central

    Al Achkar, Morhaf

    2016-01-01

    The gap between production and implementation of knowledge is the main reason for the suboptimal quality of health care. To eliminate this gap and improve the quality of patient care, journal club (JC) in graduate medical education provides an opportunity for learning the skills of evidence-based medicine. JC, however, continues to face many challenges mainly due to poorly defined goals, inadequate preparation, and lack of interest. This article presents an innovative model to prepare and present JC based on three pillars: dialogical learning through group discussion, mentored residents as peer teachers, and including JC as part of a structured curriculum to learn evidence-based medicine. This engaging model has the potential to transform JC from a moribund session that is daunting for residents into a lively discussion to redefine clinical practice using the most current evidence. PMID:27313486

  20. Reconceptualizing Benchmarks for Residency Training

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Postgraduate medical education (PGME) is currently transitioning to a competency-based framework. This model clarifies the desired outcome of residency training - competence. However, since the popularization of Ericsson's work on the effect of time and deliberate practice on performance level, his findings have been applied in some areas of residency training. Though this may be grounded in a noble effort to maximize patient well-being, it imposes unrealistic expectations on trainees. This work aims to demonstrate the fundamental flaws of this application and therefore the lack of validity in using Ericsson's work to develop training benchmarks at the postgraduate level as well as expose potential harms in doing so.

  1. [Medical ethics in residency training].

    PubMed

    Civaner, Murat; Sarikaya, Ozlem; Balcioğlu, Harun

    2009-04-01

    Medical ethics education in residency training is one of the hot topics of continuous medical education debates. Its importance and necessity is constantly stressed in declarations and statements on national and international level. Parallel to the major structural changes in the organization and the finance model of health care system, patient-physician relationship, identity of physicianship, social perception and status of profession are changing. Besides, scientific developments and technological advancements create possibilities that never exists before, and bring new ethical dilemmas along with. To be able to transplant human organs has created two major problems for instance; procurement of organs in sufficient numbers, and allocating them to the patients in need by using some prioritizing criteria. All those new and challenging questions force the health care workers to find authentic and justifiable solutions while keeping the basic professional values. In that sense, proper medical ethics education in undergraduate and postgraduate term that would make physician-to-be's and student-physicians acquire the core professional values and skill to notice, analyze and develop justifiable solutions to ethical problems is paramount. This article aims to express the importance of medical ethics education in residency training, and to propose major topics and educational methods to be implemented into. To this aim, first, undergraduate medical education, physician's working conditions, the exam of selection for residency training, and educational environment were revised, and then, some topics and educational methods, which are oriented to educate physicians regarding the professional values that they should have, were proposed.

  2. The United States Air force optometry residency program.

    PubMed

    Kent, J F

    1995-04-01

    The USAF Optometry Residency Program promotes an educational climate that facilitates the education and development of the resident doctor not only as an optometrist but also as a military officer. Development of self-directed education and decision making within the training period is emphasized. Residents are encouraged to examine and challenge existing ideas and to develop physiological concepts and principles so the practical application of these skills is reflected in active clinical practice and effective professional relationships. The Air Force Optometry Residency Program will train career-oriented Air Force optometrists in advanced clinical and diagnostic techniques, aerospace optometry, and clinic management including the latest continuous quality improvement concepts. Recent changes have enlarged the scope of practice for Air Force optometrists. This expanded scope of practice has created a need for a nucleus of residency-trained optometrists, skilled in the latest techniques of eye care, who return to the field and train their associates in these advanced techniques. Over 40 percent of Air Force optometry clinics are manned by one doctor of optometry. Residency-trained optometrists are able to provide a high level of comprehensive optometric care at these facilities. Through this program the Air Force can keep pace with the evolution of optometry and meet the challenge of providing the highest quality care to our patients.

  3. Variability in veterans' alcohol use by place of residence.

    PubMed

    Vander Weg, Mark W; Cai, Xueya

    2012-01-01

    Rates of risky alcohol use appear to be elevated among active duty and veteran military personnel. Little is known, however, about characteristics associated with alcohol misuse in these groups. Furthermore, although there is evidence to suggest that patterns of alcohol use differ according to place of residence, no prior studies have investigated variability in alcohol use according to level of rurality and geographic region in US military veterans. The present study evaluated variations in alcohol use (ie, past 30-day use, heavy use, and binge drinking) and drinking and driving according to place of residence among 55,452 US military veterans participating in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Veterans residing in rural areas were significantly less likely than those from suburban and urban areas to have consumed alcohol in the past 30 days (p < .001). Conversely, rural-dwelling veterans who did drink alcohol had higher odds of binge drinking (p < .005) and (relative to urban residents) drinking and driving (p = .013). Veterans residing in the South were significantly less likely than those from other geographic regions to report past 30-day alcohol use (p < .001). In addition, veterans living in the Midwest were significantly more likely than those from the South to report drinking and driving (p = .017). No differences in heavy alcohol use were observed based on location of residence. 

  4. Resident and Faculty Perceptions of Program Strengths and Opportunities for Improvement: Comparison of Site Visit Reports and ACGME Resident Survey Data in 5 Surgical Specialties.

    PubMed

    Caniano, Donna A; Yamazaki, Kenji; Yaghmour, Nicholas; Philibert, Ingrid; Hamstra, Stanley J

    2016-05-01

    Background Resident and faculty views of program strengths and opportunities for improvement (OFIs) offer insight into how stakeholders assess key elements of the learning environment. Objective This study sought (1) to assess the degree to which residents and faculty in 359 programs in 5 surgical specialties (obstetrics and gynecology, orthopaedic surgery, otolaryngology, plastic surgery, and surgery) were aligned or divergent in their respective views of program strengths and OFIs; and (2) to evaluate whether responses to selected questions on the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Resident Survey correlated with strengths or OFIs identified by the residents during the site visit. Methods Faculty and resident lists of program strengths and OFIs in site visit reports for 2012 and 2013 were aggregated, analyzed, and compared to responses on the Resident Survey. Results While there was considerable alignment in resident and faculty perceptions of program strengths and OFIs, some attributes were more important to one or the other group. Collegiality was valued highly by both stakeholder groups. Responses to 2 questions on the ACGME Resident Survey were associated with resident-identified OFIs in site visit reports pertaining to aspects of the didactic program and responsiveness to resident suggestions for improvement. Conclusions The findings offer program leadership additional insight into how 2 key stakeholder groups view elements of the learning environment as program strengths or OFIs and may serve as useful focal areas for ongoing improvement activities.

  5. Changing conversations: teaching safety and quality in residency training.

    PubMed

    Voss, John D; May, Natalie B; Schorling, John B; Lyman, Jason A; Schectman, Joel M; Wolf, Andrew M D; Nadkarni, Mohan M; Plews-Ogan, Margaret

    2008-11-01

    Improving patient safety and quality in health care is one of medicine's most pressing challenges. Residency training programs have a unique opportunity to meet this challenge by training physicians in the science and methods of patient safety and quality improvement (QI).With support from the Health Resources and Services Administration, the authors developed an innovative, longitudinal, experiential curriculum in patient safety and QI for internal medicine residents at the University of Virginia. This two-year curriculum teaches the critical concepts and skills of patient safety and QI: systems thinking and human factors analysis, root cause analysis (RCA), and process mapping. Residents apply these skills in a series of QI and patient safety projects. The constructivist educational model creates a learning environment that actively engages residents in improving the quality and safety of their medical practice.Between 2003 and 2005, 38 residents completed RCAs of adverse events. The RCAs identified causes and proposed useful interventions that have produced important care improvements. Qualitative analysis demonstrates that the curriculum shifted residents' thinking about patient safety to a systems-based approach. Residents completed 237 outcome assessments during three years. Results indicate that seminars met predefined learning objectives and were interactive and enjoyable. Residents strongly believe they gained important skills in all domains.The challenge to improve quality and safety in health care requires physicians to learn new knowledge and skills. Graduate medical education can equip new physicians with the skills necessary to lead the movement to safer and better quality of care for all patients.This article is part of a theme issue of Academic Medicine on the Title VII health professions training programs.

  6. Coordinated nuclease activities counteract Ku at single-ended DNA double-strand breaks

    PubMed Central

    Chanut, Pauline; Britton, Sébastien; Coates, Julia; Jackson, Stephen P.; Calsou, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Repair of single-ended DNA double-strand breaks (seDSBs) by homologous recombination (HR) requires the generation of a 3′ single-strand DNA overhang by exonuclease activities in a process called DNA resection. However, it is anticipated that the highly abundant DNA end-binding protein Ku sequesters seDSBs and shields them from exonuclease activities. Despite pioneering works in yeast, it is unclear how mammalian cells counteract Ku at seDSBs to allow HR to proceed. Here we show that in human cells, ATM-dependent phosphorylation of CtIP and the epistatic and coordinated actions of MRE11 and CtIP nuclease activities are required to limit the stable loading of Ku on seDSBs. We also provide evidence for a hitherto unsuspected additional mechanism that contributes to prevent Ku accumulation at seDSBs, acting downstream of MRE11 endonuclease activity and in parallel with MRE11 exonuclease activity. Finally, we show that Ku persistence at seDSBs compromises Rad51 focus assembly but not DNA resection. PMID:27641979

  7. Clinical Evaluation in a Family Medicine Residency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, James M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A study assessed (1) the validity of the Bowman Gray School of Medicine evaluation instrument regarding the occurrence of halo effects and (2) possible relationships between the faculty's evaluations of the residents and the residents' cognitive knowledge and productivity. (MLW)

  8. 38 CFR 51.110 - Resident assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.110 Resident assessment. The...) Review of assessments. The nursing facility management must examine each resident no less than once...

  9. 38 CFR 51.110 - Resident assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.110 Resident assessment. The...) Review of assessments. The nursing facility management must examine each resident no less than once...

  10. 38 CFR 51.110 - Resident assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.110 Resident assessment. The...) Review of assessments. The nursing facility management must examine each resident no less than once...

  11. 38 CFR 51.110 - Resident assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.110 Resident assessment. The...) Review of assessments. The nursing facility management must examine each resident no less than once...

  12. A Comparison between Emergency Medicine Residency Training Programs in the United States and Saudi Arabia from the Residents' Perception

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study was designed to compare the trainees' perception of emergency medicine (EM) training in the United States (US) and Saudi Arabia (SA) and to identify residents' levels of confidence and points of satisfaction in education, procedural skills, and work environment. Method. An IRB-exempt anonymous web-based survey was distributed to five EM residency training programs in the USA and three residency regions in SA. Results. 342 residents were polled with a 20% response rate (16.8% USA and 25.8% SA). The Saudi residents responded less positively to the questions about preparation for their boards' examinations, access to multiple educational resources, and weekly academic activities. The Saudi trainees felt less competent in less common procedures than US trainees. American trainees also more strongly agree that they have more faculty interest in their education compared to the Saudi trainees. The Saudi residents see more patients per hour compared to their US peers. Conclusion. These findings may be due to the differences in training techniques including less formal didactics and simulation experience in SA and more duty hour regulations in the USA. PMID:24563784

  13. 24 CFR 964.340 - Resident compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Resident compensation. 964.340 Section 964.340 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...) Program § 964.340 Resident compensation. Residents employed to provide services or renovation...

  14. 24 CFR 964.340 - Resident compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resident compensation. 964.340 Section 964.340 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...) Program § 964.340 Resident compensation. Residents employed to provide services or renovation...

  15. 24 CFR 964.340 - Resident compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Resident compensation. 964.340 Section 964.340 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...) Program § 964.340 Resident compensation. Residents employed to provide services or renovation...

  16. 24 CFR 964.340 - Resident compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Resident compensation. 964.340 Section 964.340 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...) Program § 964.340 Resident compensation. Residents employed to provide services or renovation...

  17. 24 CFR 964.340 - Resident compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Resident compensation. 964.340 Section 964.340 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...) Program § 964.340 Resident compensation. Residents employed to provide services or renovation...

  18. Sexual Health Education: A Psychiatric Resident's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waineo, Eva; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Morreale, Mary K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This report discusses psychiatric residents' perceptions of sexual health education and their opinions regarding curricular improvements. Methods: An anonymous, web-based survey was sent to residents in one general psychiatry program (N = 33). The response rate was 69.7%. Results: Residents reported inadequate experience in multiple…

  19. Interventional radiology residency: steps to implementation.

    PubMed

    Marx, M Victoria; Sabri, Saher S

    2015-08-01

    Implementation of an interventional radiology (IR) residency program requires significant planning, as well as clear communication and consensus among departmental and institutional stakeholders. The goal of this short article is to highlight key decisions and steps that are needed to launch an IR residency, and to illustrate a possible timeline for implementation of the integrated and independent IR residency models.

  20. Toolbox for Evaluating Residents as Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coverdale, John H.; Ismail, Nadia; Mian, Ayesha; Dewey, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors review existing assessment tools related to evaluating residents' teaching skills and teaching effectiveness. Methods: PubMed and PsycInfo databases were searched using combinations of keywords including "residents," "residents as teachers," "teaching skills," and "assessments" or "rating scales." Results: Eleven evaluation…

  1. 42 CFR 483.10 - Resident rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Resident rights. 483.10 Section 483.10 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...) Exercise of rights. (1) The resident has the right to exercise his or her rights as a resident of...

  2. Recommendations for nurse practitioner residency programs.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kameka; Poppe, Anne; Kaminetzky, Catherine; Wipf, Joyce; Woods, Nancy Fugate

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and prioritize critical aspects needed in the design and execution of new nurse practitioner (NP) residency programs. Subjects answered a series of questions on formulating residency programs and on key outcomes and cost measures related to their sustainability. These results serve as potential guideposts for future work in NP residency standardization and sustainability development.

  3. Perceived value and outcomes of residency projects.

    PubMed

    Murphy, J E; Downhour, N

    2001-05-15

    Residency program directors' attitudes toward residency projects were studied. A questionnaire about the residency project experience was mailed in January 2000 to 446 pharmacy practice residency program and specialty residency program directors in the program database of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Recipients responded to opinion statements on a 5-point scale. Responses to the opinion statements were separated into seven categories for analysis. A total of 278 usable questionnaires were returned, for a raw response rate of 63.6%. During the preceding three years, residency directors had served as primary advisors on 917 projects; 171 had served as advisor on at least one of every type of project allowed in the accreditation standards. Of the 917 projects, 364 were presented at national professional meetings, 124 were published, and 484 were believed to have resulted in a positive change in pharmacy services. There were no significant differences in total response scores among any of the subgroups analyzed. There was strong agreement that residency projects were valuable and should continue to be part of the residency program experience. The directors' views of the importance of original research as a project option were more neutral. Overall residency program directors had positive perceptions of the value of residency projects to both residents and institutions and believed that they should continue to be a requirement of residency programs.

  4. 19 CFR 141.38 - Resident corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resident corporations. 141.38 Section 141.38... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Powers of Attorney § 141.38 Resident corporations. A power of attorney shall not be required if the person signing Customs documents on behalf of a resident...

  5. Teaching Communication Skills to Radiology Residents.

    PubMed

    Itri, Jason N; Yacob, Sammy; Mithqal, Ayman

    2017-01-17

    The transition of health care in the United States from volume to value requires a systems-based approach aligning clinical services across the continuum of care. The ability to communicate effectively and resolve conflict is a critical skill within the systems-based model. Recognizing the essential role of communication in medicine, the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education has designated interpersonal and communication skills a core competency for all residents regardless of specialty. Yet, communication skills are often developed through on-the-job training or not at all. Traditional educational curricula use a predominantly didactic approach without opportunities for trainees to observe, actively experiment, or reflect on what is learned as a part of the learning process. In this article, we describe a 1-day experiential communication skills workshop customized for radiology residents that consists of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and conflict management sessions designed to develop interpersonal, communication, and conflict management skills through group discussion, role-play, and simulation. The purpose of this educational initiative was to determine the perceived value of an experiential communication skills workshop designed for radiology trainees.

  6. RecBC enzyme activity is required for far-UV induced respiration shutoff in Escherichia coli K12.

    PubMed

    Swenson, P A; Norton, I L

    1986-01-01

    Shutoff of respiration is one of a number of recA+ lexA+ dependent (SOS) responses caused by far ultraviolet (245 nm) radiation (UV) damage of DNA in Escherichia coli cells. Thus far no rec/lex response has been shown to require the recB recC gene product, the RecBC enzyme. We report in this paper that UV-induced respiration shutoff did not occur in either of these radiation-sensitive derivatives of K12 strain AB1157 nor in the recB recC double mutant. The sbcB gene product is exonuclease I and it has been reported that the triple mutant strain recB recC sbcB has near normal recombination efficiency and resistance to UV. The sbcB strain shut off its respiration after UV but the triple mutant did not show UV-induced respiration shutoff; the shutoff and death responses were uncoupled. We concluded that respiration shutoff requires RecBC enzyme activity. The RecBC enzyme has ATP-dependent double-strand exonuclease activity, helicase activity and several other activities. We tested a recBC+ (double dagger) mutant strain (recC 1010) that had normal recombination efficiency and resistance to UV but which possessed no ATP-dependent double-strand exonuclease activity. This strain did not shut off its respiration. The presence or absence of other RecBC enzyme activities in this mutant is not known. These results support the hypothesis that ATP-dependent double-strand exonuclease activity is necessary for UV-induced respiration shutoff.

  7. Research by residents: obstacles and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Torous, John; Padmanabhan, Jaya

    2015-02-01

    As the psychiatric field continues to evolve in a world with nascent mobile technology (Hilty et al., 2014), novel neuroscience and genetic research, and new payment and care models (Fried et al., 2014) it is likely that the psychiatry residents learn today will not match what they will be practicing tomorrow. Residents have the opportunity to help shape that future through conducting research today. While the prospect of research can initially seem daunting to the busy resident, here we examine, from psychiatry residents' perspective, the common pitfalls and rewards of research during residency.

  8. 2003 survey of Canadian radiation oncology residents

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, Don . E-mail: donyee@cancerboard.ab.ca; Fairchild, Alysa; Keyes, Mira; Butler, Jim; Dundas, George

    2005-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation oncology's popularity as a career in Canada has surged in the past 5 years. Consequently, resident numbers in Canadian radiation oncology residencies are at all-time highs. This study aimed to survey Canadian radiation oncology residents about their opinions of their specialty and training experiences. Methods and Materials: Residents of Canadian radiation oncology residencies that enroll trainees through the Canadian Resident Matching Service were identified from a national database. Residents were mailed an anonymous survey. Results: Eight of 101 (7.9%) potential respondents were foreign funded. Fifty-two of 101 (51.5%) residents responded. A strong record of graduating its residents was the most important factor residents considered when choosing programs. Satisfaction with their program was expressed by 92.3% of respondents, and 94.3% expressed satisfaction with their specialty. Respondents planning to practice in Canada totaled 80.8%, and 76.9% plan to have academic careers. Respondents identified job availability and receiving adequate teaching from preceptors during residency as their most important concerns. Conclusions: Though most respondents are satisfied with their programs and specialty, job availability and adequate teaching are concerns. In the future, limited time and resources and the continued popularity of radiation oncology as a career will magnify the challenge of training competent radiation oncologists in Canada.

  9. [Perception of mistreatment during medical residency training].

    PubMed

    Mejía, Raul; Diego, Andrea; Alemán, María; Maliandi, María del Rosario; Lasala, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    Because previous investigations show that mistreatment during residency is frequent we undertook this research to assess the prevalence of psychological abuse, physical violence and sexual harassment in residency training programs and the professional status of perpetrators. Through a literature review and a previous qualitative study we developed a self-administered questionnaire. Thirteen events that could be experienced by residents and ten possible perpetrators were described in the questionnaire. Residents were asked to record whether they had experienced these events, at least once, and who was responsible. This survey was distribuided among the residents from three hospitals of Buenos Aires city. A total of 322 residents answered the questionnaire (55% women) 72% of whom worked in clinical programs, 22% in surgical programs, and 6% in diagnostic programs. Mistreatment was reported by 89% of the residents. On average each resident recorded 8 different episodes of mistreatment, such as being criticized for not completing administrative work (75%), being shouted at (64%), being humiliated in public (57%), sexual harassment (10%), being exposed to pornographic material without permission (7%), being hit or pushed (15%), suffering racial or religious discrimination (10%). The most common perpetrators were senior residents (26%), chief resident (19%), attending physicians (14%), and nurses (8%). Mistreatment and abuse are commonly experienced by residents in training programs. A multidisciplinary approach is needed to address this problem in the training environment.

  10. Emotional problems of residents in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Russell, A T; Pasnau, R O; Taintor, Z C

    1975-03-01

    The authors used a questionnaire technique to determine the magnitude of the problem of emotional illness and poor performance during psychiatric residency, the procedures that are used to screen for or help disturbed residents, and characteristics that differentiate residents who are at risk. The data indicated that residents who have problems that lead to termination are rarely free of emotional disturbance. The general belief that women, foreign medical graduates, and minority group members are at higher risk for problems during residency was not supported; however, younger residents and transfers from other programs appeared to be at risk. A disturbing finding was the high rate of suicide reported. The authors stress the need for further work with the "marginal" resident and for research on screening and supportive procedures.

  11. Ultrasensitive Label-Free Resonance Rayleigh Scattering Aptasensor for Hg(2+) Using Hg(2+)-Triggered Exonuclease III-Assisted Target Recycling and Growth of G-Wires for Signal Amplification.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wang; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Hong Guo; Gao, Zhong Feng; Li, Nian Bing; Luo, Hong Qun

    2016-01-19

    A novel signal-on and label-free resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) aptasensor was constructed for detection of Hg(2+) based on Hg(2+)-triggered Exonuclease III-assisted target recycling and growth of G-quadruplex nanowires (G-wires) for signal amplification. The hairpin DNA (H-DNA) was wisely designed with thymine-rich recognition termini and a G-quadruplex sequence in the loop and employed as a signal probe for specially recognizing trace Hg(2+) by a stable T-Hg(2+)-T structure, which automatically triggered Exonuclease III (Exo-III) digestion to recycle Hg(2+) and liberate the G-quadruplex sequence. The free G-quadruplex sequences were self-assembled into guanine nanowire (G-wire) superstructure in the presence of Mg(2+) and demonstrated by gel electrophoresis. The RRS intensity was dramatically amplified by the resultant G-wires, and the maximum RRS signal at 370 nm was linear with the logarithm of Hg(2+) concentration in the range of 50.0 pM to 500.0 nM (R = 0.9957). Selectivity experiments revealed that the as-prepared RRS sensor was specific for Hg(2+), even coexisting with high concentrations of other metal ions. This optical aptasensor was successfully applied to identify Hg(2+) in laboratory tap water and river water samples. With excellent sensitivity and selectivity, the proposed RRS aptasensor was potentially suitable for not only routine detection of Hg(2+) in environmental monitoring but also various target detection just by changing the recognition sequence of the H-DNA probe.

  12. 24 CFR 248.173 - Resident homeownership program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., to the extent proceeds of the sale remain after paying off other outstanding debt incurred in... outstanding debt incurred in connection with the purchase of the property, and paying any other amounts due in... describe the resident council's current abilities and proposed capacity-building activities to...

  13. An Ambulatory Program for Surgical Residents and Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Margaret

    1988-01-01

    A pilot program based in a freestanding ambulatory surgery center at the Chicago Medical School Department of Surgery is described, its curriculum outlined, and the daily activities of the residents and medical students are detailed. A brief history of ambulatory surgery is given. (Author/MLW)

  14. Quality improvement skills for pediatric residents: from lecture to implementation and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Philibert, Ingrid; Gonzalez Del Rey, Javier A; Lannon, Carole; Lieh-Lai, Mary; Weiss, Kevin B

    2014-01-01

    Quality improvement (QI) skills are relevant to efforts to improve the health care system. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) program requirements call for resident participation in local and institutional QI efforts, and the move to outcomes-based accreditation is resulting in greater focus on the resulting learning and clinical outcomes. Many programs have enhanced practice-based learning and improvement (PBLI) and systems based practice (SBP) curricula, although efforts to actively involve residents in QI activities appear to be lagging. Using information from the extensive experience of Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, we offer recommendations for how to create meaningful QI experiences for residents meet ACGME requirements and the expectations of the Clinical Learning Environment Review (CLER) process. Resident involvement in QI requires a multipronged approach that overcomes barriers and limitations that have frustrated earlier efforts to move this education from lectures to immersion experiences at the bedside and in the clinic. We present 5 dimensions of effective programs that facilitate active resident participation in improvement work and enhance their QI skills: 1) providing curricula and education models that ground residents in QI principles; 2) ensuring faculty development to prepare physicians for their role in teaching QI and demonstrating it in day-to-day practice; 3) ensuring all residents receive meaningful QI education and practical exposure to improvement projects; 4) overcoming time and other constraints to allow residents to apply their newly developed QI skills; and 5) assessing the effect of exposure to QI on resident competence and project outcomes.

  15. Assessing health-related resources in senior living residences

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Carlson, Jordan A.; Sallis, James F.; Rosenberg, Dori; Leak, Chikarlo R.; Saelens, Brian E.; Chapman, James E.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Cain, Kelli L.; Conway, Terry L.; King, Abby C.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated a new tool, “The Audit of Physical Activity Resources for Seniors” (APARS), which assesses the physical activity environment in Senior Living Residences (SLRs). Audits were conducted in 29 SLRs and inter-rater reliability was assessed. Pearson correlations were examined between APARS items and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time, and self-rated health, collected from residents at a subset of 12 SLRs (N=147). Eighty-nine of the 90 items (98.9%) demonstrated Kappa or ICC values above .70 and/or percent agreement above 80%. The 90 items were summarized into nine scales. Two scales (outside supportive physical activity features/functionality and outside exercise facilities) were related to greater physical activity and less sedentary time. Four scales (inside social facilities, onsite services, exercise programs, and social activities) were related to greater sedentary time and better self-rated health. APARS items demonstrated adequate inter-rater reliability and some evidence for construct validity to assess health-related environments in retirement facilities. Social activities in SLRs could benefit residents by incorporating more physical activity. Use of APARS could inform more health-promoting designs of senior living facilities. PMID:27168700

  16. Unique needs of women pharmacy residents.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M W

    1982-12-01

    The needs of women residents in hospital pharmacy programs are discussed with respect to the responsibilities of preceptors to help residents prepare for a successful career. Women were a small minority within the profession of pharmacy until recently. More than half of the current hospital pharmacy residents are women, while over 95% of the preceptors of residency training programs are men. Hospital pharmacy preceptors can help meet the unique needs of women residents, so that women pharmacists can achieve the career successes of which they are capable. Preceptors can help women residents make career decisions and develop career goals and strategies. Preceptors should ensure that women residents develop the broad base of knowledge and skills necessary for advancement. Women residents should be encouraged to get involved in pharmacy organizations, and the importance of networking should be stressed. It is important that women residents develop a business style so that they are perceived as confident and competent. Preceptors must recognize that most women will have conflicts in their roles of career woman, wife, and mother. Preceptors can also help women residents by making managerial changes (e.g., offering part-time positions and flexible scheduling) that will facilitate integration of the professional and personal responsibilities of women.

  17. Indicators of a new depression diagnosis in nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Lorraine J; Rantz, Marilyn; Petroski, Gregory F

    2011-01-01

    Depression affects approximately 30% to 40% of nursing home residents but frequently goes unrecognized. Using the Missouri Minimum Data Set, we aimed to determine whether changes in clinical status, other than mood changes, were associated with new depression diagnosis in residents 65 and older without a recorded depression diagnosis. Of 127,587 potential participants, 14,371 met inclusion criteria and were not depressed at baseline (Time 0). At the next quarterly assessment (Time 1), 1,342 (9.3%) had acquired a new diagnosis of depression. Residents with new depression were significantly younger and less cognitively impaired. Nearly 30% had a decline in activities of daily living (ADL) performance. The multivariate model predicting depression showed that increased verbal aggression, urinary incontinence, increased pain, weight loss, change in care needs, cognitive decline, and ADL decline significantly increased the likelihood of new depression diagnosis. The pattern of decline identified here may provide additional clues to the presence of underlying depression.

  18. [Knowledge of breastfeeding management among residents in pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Temboury Molina, M C

    2003-03-01

    The staff of maternity wards and clinics for maternal and child health should receive appropriate basic and in-service training on the health benefits of breastfeeding and on lactation management. Pediatricians should not only be knowledgeable about the health, nutritional and physiological aspects of appropriate feeding, they should also be familiar with the mechanics of breastfeeding, its various psychosocial influences, possible difficulties and how to overcome them. To evaluate knowledge of breastfeeding among pediatrics residents throughout Spain, a survey was conducted. A total of 250 questionnaires were collected. Significant differences were observed among provinces. In most areas, residents' training was insufficient. To achieve an appropriate level of knowledge among pediatrics residents in a subject as important to mother and child health as breastfeeding, courses should be given and repeated at regular intervals. Professional associations should be actively involved in promoting appropriate training for health professionals.

  19. Costs Associated With Residency Training.

    PubMed

    Bready, Lois L; Luber, M Philip

    2016-02-01

    Texas needs more physicians to care for a rapidly growing population, and new physicians who complete medical training in Texas are likely to remain in the state to practice. The expansion of existing Texas medical schools, along with the development of new schools, has created a need for a corresponding increase in residency and fellowship (graduate medical education, or GME) positions in Texas, and the 2013 and 2015 legislative sessions have funded expanded GME support. While the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services pays for the majority of GME positions nationally, those numbers were capped in 1997. Growing populations, particularly in the southern states, have led many institutions--when funds are available--to increase GME positions "over the cap." Texas physicians need to be aware of costs associated with development of accredited GME positions, as well as other measures being taken to support the growth of the physician workforce in the state.

  20. Variable residence time vortex combustor

    DOEpatents

    Melconian, Jerry O.

    1987-01-01

    A variable residence time vortex combustor including a primary combustion chamber for containing a combustion vortex, and a plurality of louvres peripherally disposed about the primary combustion chamber and longitudinally distributed along its primary axis. The louvres are inclined to impel air about the primary combustion chamber to cool its interior surfaces and to impel air inwardly to assist in driving the combustion vortex in a first rotational direction and to feed combustion in the primary combustion chamber. The vortex combustor also includes a second combustion chamber having a secondary zone and a narrowed waist region in the primary combustion chamber interconnecting the output of the primary combustion chamber with the secondary zone for passing only lower density particles and trapping higher density particles in the combustion vortex in the primary combustion chamber for substantial combustion.

  1. A case-based approach for teaching professionalism to residents with online discussions

    PubMed Central

    NADEAU, MARK T.; TYSINGER, JAMES; WIEMERS, MARCY

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Programs must demonstrate that their residents are taught and assessed in professionalism. Most programs struggle with finding viable ways to teach and assess this critical competency. UTHSCSA Family and Community Medicine Residency developed an innovative option for interactive learning and assessment of residents in this competency which would be transferrable to other programs and specialties. Methods The innovative approach uses an asynchronous online format on Blackboard. Threaded discussions on Blackboard require thoughtful reflective writing after case assessment and critical evaluation of other resident posts. Participation, content and progress of all resident postings are monitored by administrative staff and faculty. Faculty can further engage the residents at any point to deepen the discussion and learning. Results 100% of all senior residents attained the required learning objectives. All were actively engaged in the assignments. Six cases have been developed using a Learning Matrix to demonstrate evaluation areas from the specialty specific competencies. Written feedback from residents verified the validity of case content in context of their current clinical practice. Postings by residents have provided value and insight for the faculty to access the professional development of our Family Medicine residents.  The Clinical Competency Committee evaluates all third year residents using this information specific to the professionalism milestones. By using an asynchronous online approach to case discussion, all residents are involved with all aspects of this curriculum. Conclusions More specific measurable learning outcomes are possible using this approach. Resident participation and engagement is easier to track and monitor than a lecture-based format and easier to capture valuable data than relying on evaluation feedback. Our Annual Review process will identify areas for improvement in the existing cases and help create supplemental cases

  2. Using Resident Reports of Quality of Life to Distinguish among Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Robert L.; Bershadsky, Boris; Kane, Rosalie A.; Degenholtz, Howard H.; Liu, Jiexin; Giles, Katherine; Kling, Kristen C.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: We used measures created to assess the quality of life (QOL) of nursing home residents to distinguish among nursing facilities. Design and Methods: We statistically adjusted scores for 10 QOL domains derived from standardized interviews with nursing home residents for age, gender, activities of daily living functioning, cognitive…

  3. Effectiveness of Advanced Illness Care Teams for Nursing Home Residents with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Dennis G.; Toseland, Ronald W.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of advanced illness care teams (AICTs) for nursing home residents with advanced dementia. The AICTs used a holistic approach that focused on four domains: (1) medical, (2) meaningful activities, (3) psychological, and (4) behavioral. The authors recruited 118 residents in two nursing homes for this study and…

  4. Reaction Reading: A Tool for Providing Fantasy Imagery for Long-Term Care Facility Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asmuth, M. Violet

    1995-01-01

    Describes a project utilizing reaction reading, the choral reading of poetry in small groups. Mentally alert long-term care residents are provided with an opportunity to react to the poetry, and the activity can be led by a nonprofessional. Residents are encouraged to share their memories and fantasies as inspired by poetic images. (JPS)

  5. Culture Change in Long-Term Care: Participatory Action Research and the Role of the Resident

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shura, Robin; Siders, Rebecca A.; Dannefer, Dale

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study's purpose was to advance the process of culture change within long-term care (LTC) and assisted living settings by using participatory action research (PAR) to promote residents' competence and nourish the culture change process with the active engagement and leadership of residents. Design and Methods: Seven unit-specific PAR…

  6. Continuous Certification Within Residency: An Educational Model.

    PubMed

    Rachlin, Susan; Schonberger, Alison; Nocera, Nicole; Acharya, Jay; Shah, Nidhi; Henkel, Jacqueline

    2015-10-01

    Given that maintaining compliance with Maintenance of Certification is necessary for maintaining licensure to practice as a radiologist and provide quality patient care, it is important for radiology residents to practice fulfilling each part of the program during their training not only to prepare for success after graduation but also to adequately learn best practices from the beginning of their professional careers. This article discusses ways to implement continuous certification (called Continuous Residency Certification) as an educational model within the residency training program.

  7. Staff Member Reactions to Same-Gender, Resident-to-Resident Sexual Behavior Within Long-Term Care Facilities.

    PubMed

    Ahrendt, Andrew; Sprankle, Eric; Kuka, Alex; McPherson, Keagan

    2016-10-13

    The current study assesses ageism and heterosexism relating to older adult sexual activity within long-term care facilities. To assess caregiver reactions, 153 residential care facility staff members read one of three vignettes. Each vignette described a scenario in which a staff member walks in on two residents (male/female, male/male, or female/female) engaging in sexual activity. Although no main effects were discovered for vignette type, exploratory analyses revealed that the facility where participants were employed was significantly related to their ratings of approval. Furthermore, an interaction effect between vignette and facility types was also discovered for caregivers' approval of sexual activity among residents. Additionally, a strong overall approval rating of older adult sexuality was reported by staff members. The results of this study warrant that further research is necessary regarding older adults' perception of caregiver bias, as well as further investigation of caregivers' perceptions of older adults' sexual activity.

  8. Putting Residents First: Strategies Developed by CNAs to Prevent and Manage Resident-to-Resident Violence in Nursing Homes

    PubMed Central

    Snellgrove, Susan; Beck, Cornelia; Green, Angela; McSweeney, Jean C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Resident-to-resident violence (RRV) in nursing homes (NHs) is common and threatens the safety and quality of life of both residents and caregivers. The purpose of this portion of a larger qualitative study was to explore strategies developed by certified nurses’ assistants (CNAs) to prevent and manage RRV in NHs. Design and Methods: Semistructured interviews were used to collect data. Data were analyzed utilizing content analysis and constant comparison. Results: Analysis revealed one overriding theme, “Putting Residents First” which the CNAs described as a conscious effort to put themselves or a beloved family member in the place of the resident while administering care. Within this theme, there were three related subthemes: (a) Knowing the Residents, (b) Keeping Residents Safe, and (c) Spending Quality Time. Implications: Together, these themes suggest that the formulation of strategies for decreasing and managing RRV was influenced significantly by the ability of the CNAs to empathize with the residents for whom they were caring. The results indicate that in the absence of evidence-based interventions, CNAs have developed their own strategies for the management and prevention of RRV. These strategies may provide a foundation for the development and testing of interventions aimed at preventing and managing RRV in NHs. PMID:26055786

  9. Medical Decision-Making by Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Mallakh, Rif; Zinner, Jill; Mackey, Amanda; Tamas, Rebecca L.; Martin, Chanley M.; Dalton, Jerad; Dhaliwal, Nitu; Luddington, Nicole; Numan, Farhad U.; Nunes, Ross; Taylor, Stephen; Ye, Lu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Several conspiring factors have resulted in an increase in the level of medical burden in psychiatric patients. Psychiatry residents require increasing levels of medical sophistication. To assess the medical decision-making of psychiatry residents, the authors examined the outcome in subjects initially seen in the emergency psychiatric…

  10. Suicide Intervention Skills among Japanese Medical Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujisawa, Daisuke; Suzuki, Yuriko; Kato, Takahiro A.; Hashimoto, Naoki; Sato, Ryoko; Aoyama-Uehara, Kumi; Fukasawa, Maiko; Tomita, Masayuki; Watanabe, Koichiro; Kashima, Haruo; Otsuka, Kotaro

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Patient suicide is a tragic occurrence, and it can be a demoralizing experience for medical residents. Few studies, however, have assessed suicide management skills among these front-line healthcare professionals. This study evaluated the self-assessed competence and confidence of medical residents with regard to the management of…

  11. Creating a Career Hotline for Rural Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppner, Mary J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a career information hotline for rural and farm residents affected by the farm crisis as one way a university career center and extension division can make resources more generally available to residents. Discusses typical callers and benefits to the career center. (Author/ABL)

  12. Residence Hall Furnishings Top 20 List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tampke, Dale

    1999-01-01

    Provides advice on how to best meet the furniture needs of student residents now and in the future to ensure their privacy and value from the residence hall experience. Twenty tips are highlighted that include considering fire safety, upholstering, lifecycle costs, input from stakeholders, the Americans with Disabilities Act, comfort, lighting,…

  13. Residents as Educators: A Modern Model.

    PubMed

    Kensinger, Clark D; McMaster, William G; Vella, Michael A; Sexton, Kevin W; Snyder, Rebecca A; Terhune, Kyla P

    2015-01-01

    Education during surgical residency has changed significantly. As part of the shifting landscape, the importance of an organized and structured curriculum has increased. However, establishing this is often difficult secondary to clinical demands and pressure both on faculty and residents. We present a peer-assisted learning model for academic institutions without professional non-clinical educations. The "resident as educator" (RAE) model empowers residents to be the organizers of the education curriculum. RAE is built on a culture of commitment to education, skill development and team building, allowing the upper level residents to develop and execute the curriculum. Several modules designed to address junior level residents and medical students' educational needs have been implemented, including (1) intern boot camp, (2) summer school, (3) technical skill sessions, (4) trauma orientation, (5) weekly teaching conferences, and (4) a fourth year medical student surgical preparation course. Promoting residents as educators leads to an overall benefit for the program by being cost-effective and time-efficient, while simultaneously promoting professional development of residents and a culture of education.

  14. 28 CFR 115.333 - Resident education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Resident education. 115.333 Section 115.333 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL... provide comprehensive age-appropriate education to residents either in person or through video...

  15. 28 CFR 115.333 - Resident education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Resident education. 115.333 Section 115.333 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL... provide comprehensive age-appropriate education to residents either in person or through video...

  16. 28 CFR 115.333 - Resident education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Resident education. 115.333 Section 115.333 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL... provide comprehensive age-appropriate education to residents either in person or through video...

  17. A Clinical Evaluation System for Anesthesiology Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viets, J. L.; Foster, Scot D.

    1988-01-01

    Baylor College of Medicine's system for evaluating the clinical progress of anesthesiology residents, developed in response to problems of standards, staff cooperation, and student dissatisfaction with evaluation, assesses resident progress in terms of performance levels based on case complexity and degree of staff intervention. (Author/MSE)

  18. Teaching Forensic Psychiatry to General Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Catherine F.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires that general psychiatry residency training programs provide trainees with exposure to forensic psychiatry. Limited information is available on how to develop a core curriculum in forensic psychiatry for general psychiatry residents and few articles have been…

  19. Current Practices in Resident Assistant Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Virginia Albaneso

    2016-01-01

    Developing resident assistant (RA) training is a challenge for most housing and residence life staff. Grounded in the author's doctoral research on the curricular design of RA training programs, this study summarizes current practices in three types of RA training programs--preservice training, in-service training, and academic courses--and…

  20. Arthroscopic training resources in orthopedic resident education.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Ryan; John, Tamara; Lawler, Jeffrey; Moorman, Claude; Nicandri, Gregg

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of use, perceived effectiveness, and preference for arthroscopic surgical skill training resources. An electronic survey was sent to orthopedics residents, residency program directors, and orthopedic sports medicine attending physicians in the United States. The frequency and perceived effectiveness of 10 types of adjunctive arthroscopic skills training was assessed. Residents and faculty members were asked to rate their confidence in resident ability to perform common arthroscopic procedures. Surveys were completed by 40 of 152 (26.3%) orthopedic residency program directors, 70 of 426 (16.4%) sports medicine faculty, and 235 of 3,170 (7.4%) orthopedic residents. The use of adjunctive methods of training varied from only 9.8% of programs with virtual reality training to 80.5% of programs that used reading of published materials to develop arthroscopic skill. Practice on cadaveric specimens was viewed as the most effective and preferred adjunctive method of training. Residents trained on cadaveric specimens reported increased confidence in their ability to perform arthroscopic procedures. The resources for developing arthroscopic surgical skill vary considerably across orthopedic residency programs in the United States. Adjunctive training methods were perceived to be effective at supplementing traditional training in the operating room.

  1. An Environmental Redesign Program for Residence Halls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daher, Douglas M.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The Resident Environment Adaptation Program (REAP) is a five-stage service designed to enable students to heighten the match between their needs and their residence hall environment. In addition to a description of the program, the article includes pilot project conclusions and further recommendations for development. (Author)

  2. Resident Performance and Sleep Deprivation: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asken, Michael J.; Raham, David C.

    1983-01-01

    A review of the literature on resident performance and sleep deprivation suggests that current research is sparse and inconclusive, and existing research suggests potentially severe negative effects. It is proposed that justifications for sleep-depriving night call schedules remain untested, and their use as part of residency training should be…

  3. 28 CFR 115.251 - Resident reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Resident reporting. 115.251 Section 115.251 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Reporting § 115.251 Resident reporting. (a)...

  4. 28 CFR 115.351 - Resident reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Resident reporting. 115.351 Section 115.351 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Reporting § 115.351 Resident reporting. (a) The agency...

  5. 28 CFR 115.351 - Resident reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Resident reporting. 115.351 Section 115.351 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Reporting § 115.351 Resident reporting. (a) The agency...

  6. 28 CFR 115.251 - Resident reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Resident reporting. 115.251 Section 115.251 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Reporting § 115.251 Resident reporting. (a)...

  7. 28 CFR 115.251 - Resident reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Resident reporting. 115.251 Section 115.251 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Reporting § 115.251 Resident reporting. (a)...

  8. 28 CFR 115.351 - Resident reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Resident reporting. 115.351 Section 115.351 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Reporting § 115.351 Resident reporting. (a) The agency...

  9. Encountering Patient Suicide: A Resident's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Farrah; Kemp, Janet; Jawandha, Arshdeep; Juros, Jakub; Long, Laura; Nanayakkara, Sonali; Stepansky, Christian; Thompson, L. Brian; Anzia, Joan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors reviewed the current literature for psychiatry residents' reactions to the suicide of a patient. This review also examines the responses of training programs to residents after such an incident. Method: Using Ovid Medline, the authors conducted a review of the scientific literature from 1966 to 2006, with search phrases…

  10. Selected Health Practices Among Ohio's Rural Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, G. Howard; Pugh, Albert

    Using a stratified random sample of 12 of Ohio's 88 counties, this 1967 study had as its objectives (1) to measure the level of participation in selected health practices by Ohio's rural residents, (2) to compare the level of participation in selected health practices of farm and rural nonfarm residents, and (3) to examine levels of participation…

  11. Putting "Rural" into Psychiatry Residency Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, William A.; Pomerantz, Andrew; Schwartz, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Evidence indicates disparities in the number of psychiatrists practicing in rural America compared to urban areas suggesting the need for a greater emphasis on rural psychiatry in residency training programs. The authors offer suggestions for integrating a rural focus in psychiatry residency training to foster greater competency and…

  12. Co-Dependency and Resident Assistants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetherington, Cheryl; Kerr, Barbara

    1988-01-01

    Proposes that an important psychological variable, codependence, may help to account for the phenomenon of burnout among resident assistants and other high-achieving, socially able college students. Explores characteristics of codependency. Suggests ways that institutional policy can help to decrease resident assistant burnout and related…

  13. A Sexuality Curriculum for Gynecology Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Stephen B.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The summary report of an educational research program conducted with the obstetrics and gynecology residents at University Hospitals of Cleveland in 1976 is presented. The goals were to provide residents with basic knowledge about female sexual problems, assess skill and comfort in interviewing patients with sexual problems, document the effects…

  14. Study of Teaching Residents How to Teach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Janine C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness of a teaching skills program for residents at Louisiana State University Medical Center was evaluated among 22 residents in obstetrics and gynecology, medicine, and family medicine who were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups. There was greater increase in the scores of the experimental than the control groups.…

  15. Accommodating to Restrictions on Residents' Working Hours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Henry W., Jr.; Seltzer, Vicki L.

    1991-01-01

    In response to New York State legislation limiting house staff working hours, a survey of obstetrics and gynecology resident programs (n=26) was conducted. Results were used to construct a prototype call schedule and a hypothetical monthly schedule indicating how a single resident would function without violating any state regulations. (MSE)

  16. 38 CFR 51.70 - Resident rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... responsibilities during the stay in the facility. Such notification must be made prior to or upon admission and... protecting personal funds, under paragraph (c) of this section; (ii) A statement that the resident may file a... facility management may not require residents to deposit their personal funds with the facility....

  17. 7 CFR 273.3 - Residency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... resident of a shelter for battered women and children as defined in § 271.2 and was a member of a household containing the person who had abused him or her. Residents of shelters for battered women and children...

  18. 20th Annual Residence Hall Construction Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Even in difficult economic times, colleges and universities continue to invest in residence hall construction projects as a way to attract new students and keep existing ones on campus. According to data from "American School & University"'s 20th annual Residence Hall Construction Report, the median new project completed in 2008 was…

  19. 19th Annual Residence Hall Construction Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2008-01-01

    The construction of residence hall facilities at colleges and universities continues to be strong, as institutions scramble to meet the housing needs and varied demands of a growing student population. This article presents data collected from 39 new residence hall projects completed in 2007. According to American School & University's 19th…

  20. Adult neurology training during child neurology residency.

    PubMed

    Schor, Nina F

    2012-08-21

    As it is currently configured, completion of child neurology residency requires performance of 12 months of training in adult neurology. Exploration of whether or not this duration of training in adult neurology is appropriate for what child neurology is today must take into account the initial reasons for this requirement and the goals of adult neurology training during child neurology residency.

  1. Simulation and resident education in spinal neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Bohm, Parker E.; Arnold, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A host of factors have contributed to the increasing use of simulation in neurosurgical resident education. Although the number of simulation-related publications has increased exponentially over the past two decades, no studies have specifically examined the role of simulation in resident education in spinal neurosurgery. Methods: We performed a structured search of several databases to identify articles detailing the use of simulation in spinal neurosurgery education in an attempt to catalogue potential applications for its use. Results: A brief history of simulation in medicine is given, followed by current trends of spinal simulation utilization in residency programs. General themes from the literature are identified that are integral for implementing simulation into neurosurgical residency curriculum. Finally, various applications are reported. Conclusion: The use of simulation in spinal neurosurgery education is not as ubiquitous in comparison to other neurosurgical subspecialties, but many promising methods of simulation are available for augmenting resident education. PMID:25745588

  2. Child Neurology Education for Pediatric Residents.

    PubMed

    Albert, Dara V F; Patel, Anup D; Behnam-Terneus, Maria; Sautu, Beatriz Cunill-De; Verbeck, Nicole; McQueen, Alisa; Fromme, H Barrett; Mahan, John D

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the current state of child neurology education during pediatric residency provides adequate preparation for pediatric practice. A survey was sent to recent graduates from 3 pediatric residency programs to assess graduate experience, perceived level of competence, and desire for further education in child neurology. Responses from generalists versus subspecialists were compared. The response rate was 32%, half in general pediatric practice. Only 22% feel very confident in approaching patients with neurologic problems. This may represent the best-case scenario as graduates from these programs had required neurology experiences, whereas review of Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education-accredited residency curricula revealed that the majority of residencies do not. Pediatric neurologic problems are common, and pediatric residency graduates do encounter such problems in practice. The majority of pediatricians report some degree of confidence; however, some clear areas for improvement are apparent.

  3. Enhancing Teamwork Between Chief Residents and Residency Program Directors: Description and Outcomes of an Experiential Workshop

    PubMed Central

    McPhillips, Heather A.; Frohna, John G.; Murad, M. Hassan; Batra, Maneesh; Panda, Mukta; Miller, Marsha A.; Brigham, Timothy P.; Doughty, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Background An effective working relationship between chief residents and residency program directors is critical to a residency program's success. Despite the importance of this relationship, few studies have explored the characteristics of an effective program director-chief resident partnership or how to facilitate collaboration between the 2 roles, which collectively are important to program quality and resident satisfaction. We describe the development and impact of a novel workshop that paired program directors with their incoming chief residents to facilitate improved partnerships. Methods The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education sponsored a full-day workshop for residency program directors and their incoming chief residents. Sessions focused on increased understanding of personality styles, using experiential learning, and open communication between chief residents and program directors, related to feedback and expectations of each other. Participants completed an anonymous survey immediately after the workshop and again 8 months later to assess its long-term impact. Results Participants found the workshop to be a valuable experience, with comments revealing common themes. Program directors and chief residents expect each other to act as a role model for the residents, be approachable and available, and to be transparent and fair in their decision-making processes; both groups wanted feedback on performance and clear expectations from each other for roles and responsibilities; and both groups identified the need to be innovative and supportive of changes in the program. Respondents to the follow-up survey reported that workshop participation improved their relationships with their co-chiefs and program directors. Conclusion Participation in this experiential workshop improved the working relationships between chief residents and program directors. The themes that were identified can be used to foster communication between incoming chief

  4. Enhancement of human DNA polymerase η activity and fidelity is dependent upon a bipartite interaction with the Werner syndrome protein.

    PubMed

    Maddukuri, Leena; Ketkar, Amit; Eddy, Sarah; Zafar, Maroof K; Griffin, Wezley C; Eoff, Robert L

    2012-12-07

    We have investigated the interaction between human DNA polymerase η (hpol η) and the Werner syndrome protein (WRN). Functional assays revealed that the WRN exonuclease and RecQ C-terminal (RQC) domains are necessary for full stimulation of hpol η-catalyzed formation of correct base pairs. We find that WRN does not stimulate hpol η-catalyzed formation of mispairs. Moreover, the exonuclease activity of WRN prevents stable mispair formation by hpol η. These results are consistent with a proofreading activity for WRN during single-nucleotide additions. ATP hydrolysis by WRN appears to attenuate stimulation of hpol η. Pre-steady-state kinetic results show that k(pol) is increased 4-fold by WRN. Finally, pulldown assays reveal a bipartite physical interaction between hpol η and WRN that is mediated by the exonuclease and RQC domains. Taken together, these results are consistent with alteration of the rate-limiting step in polymerase catalysis by direct protein-protein interactions between WRN and hpol η. In summary, WRN improves the efficiency and fidelity of hpol η to promote more effective replication of DNA.

  5. Why Carba-LNA-modified oligonucleotides show considerably improved 3'-exonuclease stability compared to that of the LNA modified or the native counterparts: A Michaelis-Menten kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuanzheng; Chattopadhyaya, Jyoti

    2010-04-02

    In this study, 12 different native or LNA, carba-LNA-modified dinucleoside phosphates were designed as simple chemical models to study how carba-LNA modifications improve the 3'-exonuclease (SVPDE in this study) resistance of internucleotidic phosphate compared to those exhibited by LNA-modified and the native counterparts. Michaelis-Menten kinetic studies for dimers 3 - 7, in which the LNA or carba-LNA modifications are located at the 5'-end, showed that (i) increased 3'-exonuclease resistance of (5')[LNA-T](p)T (3) compared to the native (5')T(p)T (1) was mainly attributed to steric hindrance imposed by the LNA modification that retards the nuclease binding (K(M)) and (ii) digestion of (5')[carba-LNA-dT](p)T (4) and (5')[LNA-T](p)T (3), however, exhibit similar K(M)s, whereas the former shows a 100x decrease in K(cat) and is hence more stable than the latter. By studying the correlation between log k(cat) and pK(a) of the departing 3'(or 6')-OHs for 3-7, we found the pK(a) of 3'-OH of carba-LNA-T was 1.4 pK(a) units higher than that of LNA-T, and this relatively less acidic character of the 3'-OH in the former leads to the 100x decrease in the catalytic efficiency for the digestion of (5')[carba-LNA-T](p)T (4). In contrast, Michaelis-Menten kinetic studies for dimers 9-12, with the LNA or carba-LNA modifications at the 3'-end, showed that the digestion of (5')T(p)[LNA-T] (9) exhibited similar K(M) but k(cat) decreased around 40 times compared to that of the native (5')T(p)T (1). Similar k(cat) values have been observed for digestion of (5')T(p)[carba-LNA-T] (10) and (5')T(p)[LNA-T] (9). The higher stability of carba-LNA modified dimer 10 compared with LNA modified dimer 9 comes solely from the increased K(M).

  6. Understanding Resident Learning Preferences Within an Internal Medicine Noon Conference Lecture Series: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Sawatsky, Adam P.; Zickmund, Susan L.; Berlacher, Kathryn; Lesky, Dan; Granieri, Rosanne

    2014-01-01

    Background The lecture remains the most common approach for didactic offerings in residency programs despite conflicting evidence about the effectiveness of this format. Objective The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of internal medicine residents toward conferences held in the lecture format. Methods The investigators invited internal medicine residents (N  =  144) to participate in focus groups discussing their perspectives about noon conference lectures. The investigators used a semistructured guide to ask about motivations for attendance and effectiveness of noon conferences, transcribed the recordings, coded the discussions, and analyzed the results. Results Seven focus groups with a total of 41 residents were held. This identified 4 major domains: (1) motivations for attendance; (2) appropriate content; (3) effective teaching methods; and (4) perspectives on active participation. Residents' motivations were categorized into external factors, including desire for a break and balance to their workload, and intrinsic attributes, including the learning opportunity, topic, and speaker. Appropriate content was described as clinically relevant, practical, and presenting a balance of evidence. Identified effective teaching methods included shorter teaching sessions focused on high-yield learning points structured around cases and questions. While active participation increases residents' perceived level of stress, the benefits of this format include increased attention and learning. Conclusions This study furthers our knowledge of the learning preferences of internal medicine residents within the changing environment of residency education and can be used in conjunction with principles of adult learning to reform how we deliver core medical knowledge. PMID:24701307

  7. Enhancing interest in nephrology careers during medical residency.

    PubMed

    Jhaveri, Kenar D; Shah, Hitesh H; Mattana, Joseph

    2012-09-01

    Promoting interest in nephrology as a career is vital to sustain a workforce adequate to meet the projected demand for nephrologists. The educational experiences that internal medicine residents have may play an important role in influencing such choices, and attempts to enrich such experiences could prove a useful strategy to help facilitate interest in careers in nephrology. Like many electives, nephrology rotations typically consist of activities heavily weighted toward inpatient care. This type of elective is unlikely to provide a representative exposure to the breadth of nephrologists' roles and may lack sufficient mentoring opportunities. We describe an innovative design for a nephrology elective that provides residents with educational experiences in both inpatient and outpatient venues and exposure to faculty with diverse interests and areas of expertise. Our experience with this elective in comparison to a traditional inpatient-based elective suggests that the combined elective format is perceived favorably by medical residents and provides them with a better educational experience, more representative exposure to nephrology, positive mentoring experiences, and the potential for greater interest in pursuing nephrology as a career. Our findings offer the possibility that interventions at the level of medical resident education might be a means to help promote interest in careers in nephrology.

  8. Consequences of contextual factors on clinical reasoning in resident physicians.

    PubMed

    McBee, Elexis; Ratcliffe, Temple; Picho, Katherine; Artino, Anthony R; Schuwirth, Lambert; Kelly, William; Masel, Jennifer; van der Vleuten, Cees; Durning, Steven J

    2015-12-01

    Context specificity and the impact that contextual factors have on the complex process of clinical reasoning is poorly understood. Using situated cognition as the theoretical framework, our aim was to evaluate the verbalized clinical reasoning processes of resident physicians in order to describe what impact the presence of contextual factors have on their clinical reasoning. Participants viewed three video recorded clinical encounters portraying straightforward diagnoses in internal medicine with select patient contextual factors modified. After watching each video recording, participants completed a think-aloud protocol. Transcripts from the think-aloud protocols were analyzed using a constant comparative approach. After iterative coding, utterances were analyzed for emergent themes with utterances grouped into categories, themes and subthemes. Ten residents participated in the study with saturation reached during analysis. Participants universally acknowledged the presence of contextual factors in the video recordings. Four categories emerged as a consequence of the contextual factors: (1) emotional reactions (2) behavioral inferences (3) optimizing the doctor patient relationship and (4) difficulty with closure of the clinical encounter. The presence of contextual factors may impact clinical reasoning performance in resident physicians. When confronted with the presence of contextual factors in a clinical scenario, residents experienced difficulty with closure of the encounter, exhibited as diagnostic uncertainty. This finding raises important questions about the relationship between contextual factors and clinical reasoning activities and how this relationship might influence the cost effectiveness of care. This study also provides insight into how the phenomena of context specificity may be explained using situated cognition theory.

  9. West Nile Virus in Resident Birds from Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Andrea; Sotomayor-Bonilla, Jesus; Monge, Otto; Ramírez, Abigaíl; Galindo, Francisco; Sarmiento-Silva, Rosa Elena; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A; Suzán, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) in the Americas is thought to be transported at large spatial scales by migratory birds and locally spread and amplified by resident birds. Local processes, including interspecific interactions and dominance of passerine species recognized as competent reservoirs, may boost infection and maintain endemic cycles. Change in species composition has been recognized as an important driver for infection dynamics. Due to migration and changes in species diversity and composition in wintering grounds, changes in infection prevalence are expected. To these changes, we used PCR to estimate the prevalence of WNV in wild resident birds during the dry and rainy seasons of 2012 in Yucatan, Mexico. Serum samples were obtained from 104 wild birds, belonging to six orders and 35 species. We detected WNV in 14 resident birds, representing 11 species and three orders. Prevalences by order was Passeriformes (27%), Columbiformes (6%), and Piciformes (33%). Resident birds positive to WNV from Yucatan may be indicative of local virus circulation and evidence of past virus transmission activity.

  10. Hair mercury levels of residents in China, Indonesia, and Japan.

    PubMed

    Feng, Q; Suzuki, Y; Hisashige, A

    1998-01-01

    The authors used gold-amalgamation cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry and ECD-gas chromatography to analyze total mercury and methylmercury levels in hair samples obtained from 362 residents in Harbin, China; Medan, Indonesia; and Tokushima, Japan. In this study, the authors initially questioned whether mercury levels in hair differed among different study areas, and if there were differences, they questioned the contributing factors. In the three countries surveyed, total mercury and methylmercury levels in hair were lowest in residents of China and were highest in residents of Japan. In the district of Tokushima, Japan, total mercury and methylmercury levels were highest in the coastal district, followed by the middle district; the lowest levels occurred in the mountainous district. In Japan, an individual's total mercury level correlated very closely with that person's methylmercury level; in China and Indonesia, the correlation between these 2 parameters was low. No subjects in China or Indonesia had high levels of methylmercury in hair; this was true even if their total mercury levels were high. This finding suggests that the high total mercury levels observed in some residents of China and Indonesia reflected exposure to inorganic mercury. In Japan, mercury (especially methylmercury) levels in hair samples were quite high. Fish and shellfish, caught in seas uncontaminated by human activity, appeared to be major sources of the high levels of hair mercury in Japanese subjects.

  11. Educational outcomes necessary to enter pharmacy residency training.

    PubMed

    Hester, Elizabeth Kelly; McBane, Sarah E; Bottorff, Michael B; Carnes, Tristan A; Dell, Kamila; Gonyeau, Michael J; Greco, Angelo J; McConnell, Karen J; Skaar, Debra J; Splinter, Michele Y; Trujillo, Toby C

    2014-01-01

    It is the position of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) that formal postgraduate residency training, or equivalent experience, is required to enter direct patient care practice. Therefore, it is important to align professional degree educational outcomes with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to enter residency training. This position statement addresses the outcomes necessary in the professional degree program curriculum to ensure the ability of pharmacy graduates to transition effectively into postgraduate year one residency training. Five key outcome areas are identified: communication, direct patient care, professionalism, research, and practice management. The position statement examines how performance in each of the five outcome areas should be addressed by professional degree programs. The ACCP believes that for the student to achieve the clinical proficiency necessary to enter residency training, the professional degree program should emphasize, assess, and provide adequate opportunities for students to practice: communication with patients, caregivers, and members of the health care team in direct patient care environments; provision of direct patient care in a wide variety of practice settings, especially those involving patient-centered, team-based care; professionalism under the supervision and guidance of faculty and preceptors who model and teach the traits of a health care professional; application of principles of research that engender an appreciation for the role of research and scholarship in one's professional development; and application of practice management, including documentation of direct patient care activities that affect drug-related outcomes.

  12. Mating success of resident versus non-resident males in a territorial butterfly

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Martin; Gotthard, Karl; Berger, David; Olofsson, Martin; Kemp, Darrell J; Wiklund, Christer

    2007-01-01

    Male–male competition over territorial ownership suggests that winning is associated with considerable benefits. In the speckled wood butterfly, Pararge aegeria, males fight over sunspot territories on the forest floor; winners gain sole residency of a sunspot, whereas losers patrol the forest in search of females. It is currently not known whether residents experience greater mating success than non-residents, or whether mating success is contingent on environmental conditions. Here we performed an experiment in which virgin females of P. aegeria were allowed to choose between a resident and a non-resident male in a large enclosure containing one territorial sunspot. Resident males achieved approximately twice as many matings as non-residents, primarily because matings were most often preceded by a female being discovered when flying through a sunspot. There was no evidence that territorial residents were more attractive per se, with females seen to reject them as often as non-residents. Furthermore, in the cases where females were discovered outside of the sunspot, they were just as likely to mate with non-residents as residents. We hypothesize that the proximate advantage of territory ownership is that light conditions in a large sunspot greatly increase the male's ability to detect and intercept passing receptive females. PMID:17472909

  13. Effective Research Strategies for Trainees in Internal Medicine Residency Programs

    PubMed Central

    Wiederman, Michael W.; Sawyer, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    For most training programs, the development of research endeavors among trainees is an ongoing challenge. In this article, we review various considerations when attempting to undertake research activities within an internal medicine residency training program, including availability of institutional resources (eg, dedicated research time for trainees and faculty, available faculty mentors, accessible adjunctive personnel), engagement of residents into research, classic project quagmires in training programs, the institutional review board, publication options (eg, letters to the editor, case reports, literature reviews, original research reports), and journal submission strategies. Given that research entails multiple components and distinct skills, the overall program goal should be to make research an educationally understandable process for trainees. Research can be a rewarding activity when nurtured in a facilitating educational environment. PMID:26137359

  14. 29 CFR 785.23 - Employees residing on employer's premises or working at home.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WORKED Application of Principles Sleeping Time and Certain Other Activities § 785.23 Employees residing..., sleeping, entertaining, and other periods of complete freedom from all duties when he may leave...

  15. 29 CFR 785.23 - Employees residing on employer's premises or working at home.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WORKED Application of Principles Sleeping Time and Certain Other Activities § 785.23 Employees residing..., sleeping, entertaining, and other periods of complete freedom from all duties when he may leave...

  16. 29 CFR 785.23 - Employees residing on employer's premises or working at home.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... WORKED Application of Principles Sleeping Time and Certain Other Activities § 785.23 Employees residing..., sleeping, entertaining, and other periods of complete freedom from all duties when he may leave...

  17. 29 CFR 785.23 - Employees residing on employer's premises or working at home.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... WORKED Application of Principles Sleeping Time and Certain Other Activities § 785.23 Employees residing..., sleeping, entertaining, and other periods of complete freedom from all duties when he may leave...

  18. 29 CFR 785.23 - Employees residing on employer's premises or working at home.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... WORKED Application of Principles Sleeping Time and Certain Other Activities § 785.23 Employees residing..., sleeping, entertaining, and other periods of complete freedom from all duties when he may leave...

  19. The Language Abilities of Resident Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Lourdes R.; Morales, Leo S.; Moreno, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The Joint Commission mandates that health care systems provide culturally and linguistically appropriate care for patients. Similarly, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires that resident physicians learn to communicate effectively across cultures. The purpose of this study was to analyze residents’ self-report of fluency in a second language and level of training in the use of interpreters to assess the institution’s preparation of residents to meet mandates regarding the delivery of cross-cultural care. METHODS Seven hundred and twenty two (722) surveys were analyzed from resident physicians in 62 different ACGME accredited programs. Language ability was measured with a survey question asking about comfort providing patient care in a language other than English. Knowledge of working with interpreters was measured by a survey question asking about amount of training received. Survey questions on gender, post-graduate year (PGY), specialty, and underrepresented minority (URM) status were examined using c2 and independent samples Mann-Whitney U test. Logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratio by variable. RESULTS Fifty-five percent of all of the resident physicians endorsed feeling comfortable providing patient care in a language other than English, and Spanish was the most common language (77%). Almost 20% percent of residents reported little or no training in the use of interpreters. In bivariate analysis, race-ethnicity was associated (P-value <.001) with comfort in providing patient care in a language other than English. Primary care resident physicians had a 1.67 adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18, 2.37; p value = 0.004) of feeling comfortable providing patient care in a language other than English compared to resident physicians from other specialties. CONCLUSIONS Primary care resident physicians are more likely to report feeling comfortable in providing patient care in a

  20. The potential for using non-physicians to compensate for the reduced availability of residents.

    PubMed

    Knickman, J R; Lipkin, M; Finkler, S A; Thompson, W G; Kiel, J

    1992-07-01

    Both the number of residents and the amount of time existing residents have in which to carry out their activities may soon be decreasing. To consider the potential for alternative ways of staffing teaching hospitals, it is necessary to know how residents spend their time. The authors sought to learn this by conducting a time-motion study of eight internal medicine residents at two urban hospitals in New York City in 1988. The residents' activities were observed and coded by premedical students, and the authors independently classified the possible activities into (1) those that had to be done by a physician, (2) those that were educational only, and (3) those that could be done by a non-physician. A total of 1,726 activities of 67 kinds were coded, averaging 7.75 minutes each. The authors analyze and project their data using two models--the traditional model of care in which the physician is the primary medical manager of the patient, and an alternative model in which a midlevel practitioner, such as a nurse practitioner, would perform the day-to-day monitoring of patients. For example, the data indicate that in the traditional model, almost half of a resident's time is spent in activities that must be done by a physician, meaning that another kind of physician would be needed to do those activities if the resident were unavailable; but in the midlevel practitioner model, only around 20% of the activities would require a physician. The authors give detailed breakdowns of their data, estimate the kinds and numbers of non-physician health care professionals necessary to substitute for residents in appropriate activities, and review possible difficulties in implementing such substitutions.

  1. Longitudinal Changes in Nursing Home Resident-Reported Quality of Life: The Role of Facility Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Shippee, Tetyana P; Hong, Hwanhee; Henning-Smith, Carrie; Kane, Robert L

    2015-08-01

    Improving quality of nursing homes (NHs) is a major social priority, yet few studies examine the role of facility characteristics for residents' quality of life (QOL). This study goes beyond cross-sectional analyses by examining the predictors of NH residents' QOL on the facility level over time. We used three data sources, namely resident interviews using a multidimensional measure of QOL collected in all Medicaid-certified NHs in Minnesota (N = 369), resident clinical data from the minimum data set, and facility-level characteristics. We examined change in six QOL domains from 2007 to 2010, using random coefficient models. Eighty-one facilities improved across most domains and 85 facilities declined. Size, staffing levels (especially activities staff), and resident case mix are some of the most salient predictors of QOL over time, but predictors differ by facility performance status. Understanding the predictors of facility QOL over time can help identify facility characteristics most appropriate for targeting with policy and programmatic interventions.

  2. Factors associated with Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis infection among permanent residents of three endemic areas in Colombia.

    PubMed Central

    Cadavid, D.; Restrepo, A.

    1993-01-01

    The natural habitat of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the aetiologic agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, has not been determined. Consequently, the events leading to the acquisition of infection remain controversial. To identify factors associated with infection in endemic areas we conducted a survey in three rural communities in Colombia where we had previously diagnosed paracoccidioidomycosis in children. Permanent residents were surveyed taking into consideration environmental and occupational variables. Skin tests were used to classify subjects as infected or non-infected. Variables found associated with infection were: (i) community A: previous residence around Porce river and agriculture in vegetable gardens; (ii) community C: frequent use of specific water sources; (iii) community V: housekeeping activities, and (iv) total group: age > 25 years and contact with bats. Residents in communities with higher prevalence of infection were older, had more complex residence history, and referred more contact with armadillos than residents of communities with lower infection. PMID:8348926

  3. Factors associated with Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis infection among permanent residents of three endemic areas in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cadavid, D; Restrepo, A

    1993-08-01

    The natural habitat of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the aetiologic agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, has not been determined. Consequently, the events leading to the acquisition of infection remain controversial. To identify factors associated with infection in endemic areas we conducted a survey in three rural communities in Colombia where we had previously diagnosed paracoccidioidomycosis in children. Permanent residents were surveyed taking into consideration environmental and occupational variables. Skin tests were used to classify subjects as infected or non-infected. Variables found associated with infection were: (i) community A: previous residence around Porce river and agriculture in vegetable gardens; (ii) community C: frequent use of specific water sources; (iii) community V: housekeeping activities, and (iv) total group: age > 25 years and contact with bats. Residents in communities with higher prevalence of infection were older, had more complex residence history, and referred more contact with armadillos than residents of communities with lower infection.

  4. Characteristics That Define a Successful Pharmacy Resident as Perceived by Residency Programs

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Victor; Rab, Saba; Likourezos, Antonios

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the subjective and objective characteristics that pharmacy residency programs use to define a successful resident and to determine what percentage of their 2009-2010 residency class they felt were successful. Methods: An electronic survey was sent via e-mail to all residency program directors (RPDs) of postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) and postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) pharmacy residency programs in the United States. A 3-part survey instrument was developed following validation of questions for clarity and reliability using a pilot survey. Respondents were asked to rank the importance of 20 subjective characteristics for a resident to possess in order to be considered successful and the importance of different objective measurements of accomplishment in the definition of a “successful” resident using a Likert scale where 1 = not at all important, 2 = some importance, 3 = very important, and 4 = critical. Results: Of the 1,081 surveys sent to RPDs, 473 respondents answered at least one question, yielding a response rate of 43.8%. The most critically important subjective characteristics in defining a successful resident as ranked among PGY1 residency programs are dependability, professionalism, self-motivation/initiative, and work ethic. PGY2 programs ranked clinical knowledge and skills, critical thinking, and dependability as the most important. The most critically important objective characteristic in defining a successful resident as ranked among both PGY1 and PGY2 programs is obtaining a clinical position. The majority of PGY1 and PGY2 respondents felt that 76% to 100% of their 2009-2010 residency class was successful based on the characteristics they rated most important. Conclusion: Identification of the characteristics that pharmacy residency programs use to define success will allow them to identify predictors of success and optimal methods of selecting residents who possess these characteristics. PMID:27729675

  5. Sexual abuse of nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Burgess, A W; Dowdell, E B; Prentky, R A

    2000-06-01

    1. A new subgroup of rape victims resides in nursing homes. 2. Nursing home victims can suffer both compounded and silent rape trauma. 3. Innovative therapies are needed for treating elder rape trauma.

  6. 42 CFR 483.20 - Resident assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the resident's status. (h) Coordination. A registered nurse must conduct or coordinate each assessment with the appropriate participation of health professionals. (i) Certification. (1) A registered nurse... interdisciplinary team, that includes the attending physician, a registered nurse with responsibility for...

  7. 42 CFR 483.20 - Resident assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the resident's status. (h) Coordination. A registered nurse must conduct or coordinate each assessment with the appropriate participation of health professionals. (i) Certification. (1) A registered nurse... interdisciplinary team, that includes the attending physician, a registered nurse with responsibility for...

  8. 42 CFR 483.20 - Resident assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the resident's status. (h) Coordination. A registered nurse must conduct or coordinate each assessment with the appropriate participation of health professionals. (i) Certification. (1) A registered nurse... interdisciplinary team, that includes the attending physician, a registered nurse with responsibility for...

  9. 42 CFR 483.10 - Resident rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... eligibility for Medicaid or SSI. (6) Conveyance upon death. Upon the death of a resident with a personal fund..., including smoking materials, notions and novelties, and confections. (D) Cosmetic and grooming items...

  10. 42 CFR 483.10 - Resident rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... eligibility for Medicaid or SSI. (6) Conveyance upon death. Upon the death of a resident with a personal fund..., including smoking materials, notions and novelties, and confections. (D) Cosmetic and grooming items...

  11. The Baylor pediatric nutrition handbook for residents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Baylor Pediatric Nutrition Handbook for Residents provides basic resource information about the assessment of growth, the nutritional status assessment and feeding guidelines, biochemical evaluation of nutritional status, infant nutrition, enteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition, nutritional man...

  12. Social Networks among Residents in Recovery Homes.

    PubMed

    Jason, Leonard; Stevens, Ed; Ferrari, Joseph R; Thompson, Erin; Legler, Ray

    2012-05-26

    Although evidence exists that substance abuse abstinence is enhanced when individuals in recovery are embedded in social networks that are cohesive, few studies examined the network structures underlying recovery home support systems. In two studies, we investigated the mechanisms through which social environments affect health outcomes among two samples of adult residents of recovery homes. Findings from Study 1 (n = 150) indicated that network size and the presence of relationships with other Oxford House (OH) residents both predicted future abstinence. Study 2 (n = 490) included individuals who lived in an OH residence for up to 6 months, and their personal relationship with other house residents predicted future abstinence. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  13. Residents' experiences of abuse, discrimination and sexual harassment during residency training. McMaster University Residency Training Programs.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, D J; Liutkus, J F; Risdon, C L; Griffith, L E; Guyatt, G H; Walter, S D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of psychological abuse, physical assault, and discrimination on the basis of gender and sexual orientation, and to examine the prevalence and impact of sexual harassment in residency training programs. DESIGN: Self-administered questionnaire. SETTING: McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont. PARTICIPANTS: Residents in seven residency training programs during the academic year from July 1993 to June 1994. Of 225 residents 186 (82.7%) returned a completed questionnaire, and 50% of the respondents were women. OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of psychological abuse, physical assault and discrimination on the basis of gender and sexual orientation experienced by residents during medical training, prevalence and residents' perceived frequency of sexual harassment. RESULTS: Psychological abuse was reported by 50% of the residents. Some of the respondents reported physical assault, mostly by patients and their family members (14.7% reported assaults by male patients and family members, 9.8% reported assaults by female patients and family members), 5.4% of the female respondents reported assault by male supervising physicians. Discrimination on the basis of gender was reported to be common and was experienced significantly more often by female residents than by male residents (p < 0.01). Ten respondents, all female, reported having experienced discrimination on the basis of their sexual orientation. Most of the respondents experienced sexual harassment, especially in the form of sexist jokes, flirtation and unwanted compliments on their dress or figure. On average, 40% of the respondents, especially women (p < 0.01), reported experiencing offensive body language and receiving sexist teaching material and unwanted compliments on their dress. Significantly more female respondents than male respondents stated that they had reported events of sexual harassment to someone (p < 0.001). The most frequent emotional reactions to sexual harassment were

  14. Induction process of trainees in pathology residency

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Imran; Ali, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the evolution of the induction process of pathology residency at The Aga Khan University hospital. The Department of Postgraduate Medical Education was established in 1985. The induction process is an exhaustive exercise that includes an admission test held simultaneously in Karachi, Hyderabad, Lahore, and Rawalpindi, followed by an interview of the shortlisted candidates. The pathology residency program was started 25 years ago and since then the induction process has undergone major changes with the course of time. PMID:27313487

  15. The resident retreat for future academicians.

    PubMed

    Culton, Donna A; Rubenstein, David S; Diaz, Luis A

    2010-07-01

    The first Resident Retreat for Future Academicians was held in 2001 with the goal of recruiting and encouraging talented residents interested in careers in academia. In this issue of the JID, Hill et al. present findings to suggest that the retreat has indeed fulfilled its goal. It is our hope that the retreat, which is now in its tenth year, will continue to enlist the future leaders of our specialty.

  16. Learning Styles and Teaching Perspectives of Canadian Pharmacy Practice Residents and Faculty Preceptors

    PubMed Central

    Jelescu-Bodos, Anca

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To characterize and compare learning styles of pharmacy practice residents and their faculty preceptors, and identify teaching perspectives of faculty preceptors. Methods. Twenty-nine pharmacy residents and 306 pharmacy faculty members in British Columbia were invited to complete the Pharmacists’ Inventory of Learning Styles (PILS). Faculty preceptors also were asked to complete the Teaching Perspectives Inventory (TPI). Results. One hundred percent of residents and 61% of faculty members completed the PILS, and 31% of faculty members completed the TPI. The most common dominant learning style among residents and faculty preceptors was assimilator, and 93% were assimilators, convergers, or both. The distribution of dominant learning styles between residents and faculty members was not different (p=0.77). The most common dominant teaching perspective among faculty members was apprenticeship. Conclusion. Residents and preceptors mostly exhibited learning styles associated with abstract over concrete thinking or watching over doing. Residency programs should steer residents more toward active learning and doing, and maximize interactions with patients and other caregivers. PMID:24159204

  17. Study skills course in medical education for postgraduate residents.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, M D

    2007-01-01

    The learners have to take active parts in the teaching learning activities. To make them aware and to help them develop the skills required, the need of the study skills course in medical education early in the part of their training has been realized for the postgraduate residents. The important areas of the study skills course focusing in the requirement of clinical components of the postgraduate residents are 1) Interpersonal and communications skills, 2) Teaching, learning and presentation skills, 3) Language, reading and computer use, 4) Evidence based medicine and diagnosis and management, 5) Assessment principles and strategies, 6) Time management strategies to get the best out of the training, 7) Reflection, portfolio and self-directed lifelong learning, and 8) Follow-up presentation. The methodologies that could be used in such study skills course are interactive lectures, brainstorming, presentations by the trainees, demonstration to and by the trainees, small group discussion, group work and presentation, group and individual feedback, practice sessions, role play, short relevant video movies, video recording of the trainees and viewing with feedback. With their already tight training schedule and posting and other similar other mandatory courses required for the postgraduate residents, much time cannot be allocated for the study skills course in medical education alone. Similar study skills course in medical education may need to be arranged for the undergraduate medical students as well.

  18. Mentorship in physical medicine and rehabilitation residencies.

    PubMed

    Galicia, A R; Klima, R R; Date, E S

    1997-01-01

    Mentorship is considered by many authorities as being possibly the most important developmental tool for the progression of a professional in training. In recent years, progressively increasing support of mentoring programs has been documented, especially in business, academia, and overall career development. Despite its recognized importance, there is a paucity of literature examining the needs of physicians in residency training programs in regard to mentorship. A 21-item questionnaire was sent to all physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) residents in training in United States residency programs in May of 1993. The objectives of this survey were 3-fold: to assess interest in mentorship among PM&R residents, to determine the effect of preresidency mentorship on candidates choosing PM&R as a specialty, and to identify the factors that establish a successful mentorship in PM&R residency. A response rate of 36.2% (406/1123) was obtained. Analysis of the results indicated that 97.3% (390/401) of the respondents were interested in mentorship programs during PM&R residency; however, only 28.1% (114/406) had a mentor at the time of the survey. Before residency, 35.4% (143/404) of the respondents had a mentor, and of those, 75.9% (107/141) indicated that mentorship had a positive effect on their decision to choose PM&R as a specialty. Regarding the current mentorship, respondents benefited the most in the categories of increased knowledge of PM&R, 72.8% (83/114), and improved clinical skills, 65.8% (75/114). The least satisfaction was with the mentor's assistance with a research project, 46% (52/113), and with the effect of mentorship on the resident's visibility and reputation, 38.6% (44/114). Overall resident satisfaction with mentorship was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in mentorships formed by free choice compared with those that were formally assigned by the residency program. Success of mentorship significantly correlated (P < 0.0001) with frequency of

  19. Rural Residents' Perspectives on Multiple Morbidity Management and Disease Prevention.

    PubMed

    Bardach, Shoshana H; Schoenberg, Nancy E; Tarasenko, Yelena N; Fleming, Steven T

    2011-12-01

    Middle-aged and older adults often experience several simultaneously occurring chronic conditions or "multiple morbidity" (MM). The task of both managing MM and preventing chronic conditions can be overwhelming, particularly in populations with high disease burdens, low socioeconomic status, and health care provider shortages. This article sought to understand Appalachian residents' perspectives on MM management and prevention. Forty-one rural Appalachian residents aged 50 and above with MM were interviewed about disease management and colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention. Transcripts were examined for overall analytic categories and coded using techniques to enhance transferability and rigor. Participants indicate facing various challenges to prevention due, in part, to conditions within their rural environment. Patients and providers spend significant time and energy on MM management, often precluding prevention activities. This article discusses implications of MM management for CRC prevention and strategies to increase disease prevention among this rural, vulnerable population burdened by MM.

  20. 42 CFR 413.343 - Resident assessment data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Prospective Payment for Skilled Nursing Facilities § 413.343 Resident assessment data. (a) Submission of resident assessment...

  1. 42 CFR 413.343 - Resident assessment data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Prospective Payment for Skilled Nursing Facilities § 413.343 Resident assessment data. (a) Submission of resident assessment...

  2. 1. July 1988 EAST (MAIN) ELEVATION, PROTECTION ASSISTANT'S RESIDENCE (BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. July 1988 EAST (MAIN) ELEVATION, PROTECTION ASSISTANT'S RESIDENCE (BUILDING 1092) - Glacier Ranger Station, Protection Assistant's Residence, Washington State Route 542, Glacier, Whatcom County, WA

  3. 42 CFR 413.343 - Resident assessment data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Prospective Payment for Skilled Nursing Facilities § 413.343 Resident assessment data. (a) Submission of resident assessment...

  4. 24 CFR 248.173 - Resident homeownership program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Formation of resident council. Tenants seeking to purchase eligible low income housing in accordance with... resident council shall enter into an agreement, which shall include, among other matters,...

  5. Educational objectives in psychiatric residency training: a survey of training directors and residents.

    PubMed

    Bowden, C L; Sledge, W H; Humphrey, F J; Kromer, M

    1983-10-01

    The authors surveyed 200 physicians completing their psychiatric residencies on the importance and achievement of 124 core training objectives. One hundred thirty (65%) of the residents and all 23 of the training directors of the programs selected responded. As a group, residents viewed a substantial number of the objectives as less important, and less well accomplished, than did their training directors. The discordantly rated objectives fell in several basic areas of psychiatric competence, such as the management of schizophrenia and drug side effects. Certain objectives were rated at a lower level of accomplishment by residents from smaller programs. Possible factors accounting for these differences are briefly considered.

  6. Emergency preparedness: addressing a residency training gap.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Sayeedha Ghori; Barnett, Daniel J; Parker, Cindy L; Links, Jonathan M; Alexander, Miriam

    2008-03-01

    As the importance of physician involvement and leadership in crisis preparedness is recognized, the literature suggests that few physicians are adequately trained to practice effectively in a large-scale crisis situation. A logical method for addressing the emergency preparedness training deficiency identified across several medical specialties is to include disaster and emergency preparedness training in residency curricula. In this article, the authors outline the development and implementation of an emergency preparedness curriculum for the Johns Hopkins General Preventive Medicine Residency (JHGPMR) from 2004 to 2006. The curriculum consists of two components. The first was developed for the academic year in the JHGPMR and includes didactic lectures, practical exercises to apply new knowledge, and an opportunity to integrate the knowledge and skills in a real-world exercise. The second, developed for the practicum year of the residency, includes Web-based lectures and online content and culminates in a tabletop preparedness exercise. Topics for both components include weapons of mass destruction, risk communication and personal preparedness, aspects of local emergency response planning, and mental health and psychological aspects of terrorism. On the basis of the emergency preparedness training gap that has been identified in the literature, and the success of the three-year experience in implementing a preparedness training curriculum in the JHGPMR, the authors recommend incorporation of competency-based emergency preparedness training for residencies of all specialties, and offer insights into how the described curriculum could be adapted for use in other residency settings.

  7. Gout treatment: survey of Brazilian rheumatology residents.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Rodrigo Balbino Chaves; Vargas-Santos, Ana Beatriz; Pereira, Leticia Rocha; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; da Rocha Castelar-Pinheiro, Geraldo

    2017-01-19

    To assess the current practices in gout management among Brazilian rheumatology residents. We performed a cross-sectional online survey among all the rheumatology residents and those rheumatologists who had just completed their training (post-residency (PR)) regarding their approach to gout management. Results were compared with the 2012 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) gout guidelines and with the responses of a previous survey with a representative sample of practicing Brazilian rheumatologists (RHE). We received 224 responses (83%) from 271 subjects. Among all respondents, the first-choice treatment for gout flares was the combination of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug + colchicine for otherwise healthy patients. A target serum urate <6 mg/dL for patients without tophi was reported by >75%. Less than 70% reported starting allopurinol at low doses (≤100 mg/day) for patients with normal renal function and <50% reported maintaining urate-lowering therapy indefinitely for patients without tophi. Among residents and PR, the residency stage was the main predictor of concordance with the ACR guidelines, with PR achieving the greatest rates. Reported practices were commonly concordant with the 2012 ACR gout guidelines, especially among PR. However, some important aspects of gout management need improvement. These results will guide the development of a physician education program to improve the management of gout patients in Brazil.

  8. Using Simulation Technology to Teach Diabetes Care Management Skills to Resident Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Sperl-Hillen, John; O’Connor, Patrick; Ekstrom, Heidi; Rush, William; Asche, Stephen; Fernandes, Omar; Appana, Deepika; Amundson, Gerald; Johnson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background Simulation is widely used to teach medical procedures. Our goal was to develop and implement an innovative virtual model to teach resident physicians the cognitive skills of type 1 and type 2 diabetes management. Methods A diabetes educational activity was developed consisting of (a) a curriculum using 18 explicit virtual cases, (b) a web-based interactive interface, (c) a simulation model to calculate physiologic outcomes of resident actions, and (d) a library of programmed feedback to critique and guide resident actions between virtual encounters. Primary care residents in 10 U.S. residency programs received the educational activity. Satisfaction and changes in knowledge and confidence in managing diabetes were analyzed with mixed quantitative and qualitative methods. Results Pre- and post-education surveys were completed by 92/142 (65%) of residents. Likert scale (five-point) responses were favorably higher than neutral for general satisfaction (94%), recommending to colleagues (91%), training adequacy (91%), and navigation ease (92%). Finding time to complete cases was difficult for 50% of residents. Mean ratings of knowledge (on a five-point scale) posteducational activity improved by +0.5 (p < .01) for use of all available drug classes, +0.9 (p < .01) for how to start and adjust insulin, +0.8 (p < .01) for interpreting blood glucose values, +0.8 (p < .01) for individualizing treatment goals, and +0.7 (p < .01) for confidence in managing diabetes patients. Conclusions A virtual diabetes educational activity to teach cognitive skills to manage diabetes to primary care residents was successfully developed, implemented, and well liked. It significantly improved self-assessed knowledge and confidence in diabetes management. PMID:24124951

  9. Reaction reading: a tool for providing fantasy imagery for long-term care facility residents.

    PubMed

    Asmuth, M V

    1995-06-01

    Reaction reading, the choral reading of poetry in small groups, gives mentally alert long-term care residents an opportunity to react to poetry with knowledge, opinion, emotion, and imagination. The activity can be led by a nonprofessional. Residents are encouraged to share their reflective fantasy (memory of past places and events) and projective fantasy (ideas of places beyond the contemporary setting) as inspired by poetic images. Application of the reaction reading method and its benefits are described.

  10. Four Residents' Narratives on Abortion Training: A Residency Climate of Reflection, Support, and Mutual Respect.

    PubMed

    Singer, Janet; Fiascone, Stephen; Huber, Warren J; Hunter, Tiffany C; Sperling, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    The decision on the part of obstetrics and gynecology residents to opt in or out of abortion training is, for many, a complex one. Although the public debate surrounding abortion can be filled with polarizing rhetoric, residents often discover that the boundaries between pro-choice and pro-life beliefs are not so neatly divided. We present narratives from four residents, training at a 32-resident program in the Northeast, who have a range of views surrounding abortion. Their stories reveal how some struggle with the real-life experience of providing abortions, while others feel angst over lacking the skills to terminate a life-threatening pregnancy. These residents have found that close relationships with coworkers from all sides of this issue, along with a residency program that encourages open conversation, have fostered understanding. Their narratives demonstrate that reasonable providers can disagree fundamentally and still work effectively with one another and that the close relationships formed in residency can allow both sides to see beyond the black and white of the public abortion debate. Our objectives in this commentary are to encourage a more nuanced discussion of abortion among obstetrician-gynecologists, to describe the aspects of our residency program that facilitate open dialogue and respect across diverse viewpoints, and to demonstrate that the clear distinction between being pro-life and pro-choice often breaks down when one is immediately responsible for the care of pregnant women.

  11. The Relationship between Psychiatry Residency Applicant Evaluations and Subsequent Residency Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, Karon; Ekstrom, R. David; Malthie, Allan; Golden, Robert N.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to measure the predictive value of applicant evaluations for a psychiatry residency in terms of the subsequent performance of those who matriculated in the program. METHOD: The match lists for resident cohorts beginning their course of training over 4 years were divided into thirds, which served as our…

  12. 28 CFR 115.316 - Residents with disabilities and residents who are limited English proficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Residents with disabilities and residents who are limited English proficient. 115.316 Section 115.316 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile...

  13. 28 CFR 115.316 - Residents with disabilities and residents who are limited English proficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Residents with disabilities and residents who are limited English proficient. 115.316 Section 115.316 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile...

  14. Exploring the experience of residents during the first six months of family medicine residency training

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Dawn; Nasmith, Louise; Takahashi, Susan Glover; Harvey, Bart J.

    2017-01-01

    Background The shift from undergraduate to postgraduate education signals a new phase in a doctor’s training. This study explored the resident’s perspective of how the transition from undergraduate to postgraduate (PGME) training is experienced in a Family Medicine program as they first meet the reality of feeling and having the responsibility as a doctor. Methods Qualitative methods explored resident experiences using interpretative inquiry through monthly, individual in-depth interviews with five incoming residents during the first six months of training. Focus groups were also held with residents at various stages of training to gather their reflection about their experience of the first six months. Residents were asked to describe their initial concerns, changes that occurred and the influences they attributed to those changes. Results Residents do not begin a Family Medicine PGME program knowing what it means to be a Family Physician, but learn what it means to fulfill this role. This process involves adjusting to significant shifts in responsibility in the areas of Knowledge, Practice Management, and Relationships as they become more responsible for care outcomes. Conclusion This study illuminated the resident perspective of how the transition is experienced. This will assist medical educators to better understand the early training experiences of residents, how these experiences contribute to consolidating their new professional identity, and how to better align teaching strategies with resident learning needs. PMID:28344713

  15. Receptivity of Community Residents to Tenants of Community Mental Health Residences as Neighbours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubry, Tim; And Others

    Using a theoretical model developed from Ajzen's and Fishbein's (1980) theory of reasoned action, researchers investigated the neighboring intentions of community residents toward mentally disabled individuals. A random sample of 345 residents in Winnipeg, Canada, responded to a survey by mail. Questionnaires were randomly assigned one of eight…

  16. The transformative process of residency education.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C E

    2000-06-01

    The author explores a model for transformative learning proposed by the education scholar Victoria Marsick. He begins by outlining Marsick's eight principles (or outcomes) of transformative learning: increased autonomy; increased independence; the ability to separate one's feelings and opinions from those of others; the ability to critically and respectfully examine the views of others; the ability to set personal and professional goals; the ability to see how one's actions affect the system in which one works; the ability to balance and choose among conflicting priorities and at some point transcend self-interest; and the ability to acknowledge one's role in constructing one's reality. Using illustrative examples from his experiences as a resident and a teacher of residents, the author describes each principle of the transformative model. He then suggests how educators can use these principles to ensure a transformative residency experience by which novice professionals become reflective and confident practitioners.

  17. Residency selection process: description and annotated bibliography.

    PubMed Central

    Aaron, P R; Frye, T L

    1979-01-01

    Specialty and residency training choices of medical students will affect the quality, mode, and geographic location of their future practice; the importance of such choices should not be underestimated. Medical school librarians have largely ignored the opportunity to interact with both medical students and medical school officials in providing sources needed to assist these career decisions, and for the most part students and administrators have ignored the opportunity to utilize the medical library in this process. This article presents an overview of the processes and procedures in which third- and fourth-year medical students are involved in selecting specialty and residency training, and provides a detailed description of the resources which the medical student should consult in order to make thoughtful, informed career decisions. The article urges medical school advisers and medical librarians to work as partners in providing information on specialty and residency selection to medical students. PMID:385087

  18. Identifying inaccuracies on emergency medicine residency applications

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Eric D; Shockley, Lee; Kass, Lawrence; Howes, David; Tupesis, Janis P; Weaver, Christopher; Sayan, Osman R; Hogan, Victoria; Begue, Jason; Vrocher, Diamond; Frazer, Jackie; Evans, Timothy; Hern, Gene; Riviello, Ralph; Rivera, Antonio; Kinoshita, Keith; Ferguson, Edward

    2005-01-01

    Background Previous trials have showed a 10–30% rate of inaccuracies on applications to individual residency programs. No studies have attempted to corroborate this on a national level. Attempts by residency programs to diminish the frequency of inaccuracies on applications have not been reported. We seek to clarify the national incidence of inaccuracies on applications to emergency medicine residency programs. Methods This is a multi-center, single-blinded, randomized, cohort study of all applicants from LCME accredited schools to involved EM residency programs. Applications were randomly selected to investigate claims of AOA election, advanced degrees and publications. Errors were reported to applicants' deans and the NRMP. Results Nine residencies reviewed 493 applications (28.6% of all applicants who applied to any EM program). 56 applications (11.4%, 95%CI 8.6–14.2%) contained at least one error. Excluding "benign" errors, 9.8% (95% CI 7.2–12.4%), contained at least one error. 41% (95% CI 35.0–47.0%) of all publications contained an error. All AOA membership claims were verified, but 13.7% (95%CI 4.4–23.1%) of claimed advanced degrees were inaccurate. Inter-rater reliability of evaluations was good. Investigators were reluctant to notify applicants' dean's offices and the NRMP. Conclusion This is the largest study to date of accuracy on application for residency and the first such multi-centered trial. High rates of incorrect data were found on applications. This data will serve as a baseline for future years of the project, with emphasis on reporting inaccuracies and warning applicants of the project's goals. PMID:16105178

  19. American diagnostic radiology residency and fellowship programmes.

    PubMed

    Rumack, Carol Masters

    2011-03-01

    American Diagnostic Radiology Residency and Fellowship programmes are Graduate Medical Education programmes in the United States (US) equivalent to the Postgraduate Medical Education programmes in Singapore. Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) accredited diagnostic radiology residency programmes require 5 years total with Post Graduate Year (PGY) 1 year internship in a clinical specialty, e.g. Internal Medicine following medical school. PGY Years 2 to 5 are the core years which must include Radiology Physics, Radiation Biology and rotations in 9 required subspecialty rotations: Abdominal, Breast, Cardiothoracic, Musculoskeletal, Neuroradiology, Nuclear and Paediatric Radiology, Obstetric & Vascular Ultrasound and Vascular Interventional Radiology. A core curriculum of lectures must be organised by the required 9 core subspecialty faculty. All residents (PGY 2 to 4) take a yearly American College of Radiology Diagnostic In-Training Examination based on national benchmarks of medical knowledge in each subspecialty. Because the American Board of Radiology (ABR) examinations are changing, until 2012, residents have to take 3 ABR examinations: (i) ABR physics examination in the PGY 2 to 3 years, (ii) a written examination at the start of the PGY 5 year and (iii) an oral exam at the end of the PGY 5 year. Beginning in 2013, there will be only 2 examinations: (i) the physics and written examinations after PGY 4 will become a combined core radiology examination. Beginning in 2015, the final certifying examination will be given 15 months after the completion of residency. After residency, ACGME fellowships in PGY 6 are all one-year optional programmes which focus on only one subspecialty discipline. There are 4 ACGME accredited fellowships which have a Board Certifi cation Examination: Neuroradiology, Nuclear, Paediatric and Vascular Interventional Radiology. Some ACGME fellowships do not have a certifying examination: Abdominal, Endovascular

  20. Adoption of information technology by resident physicians.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Selene G; Nazarian, David G; Lim, Charles K

    2004-04-01

    The Internet represents a technological revolution that is transforming our society. In the healthcare industry, physicians have been typified as slow adopters of information technology. However, young physicians, having been raised in a computer-prevalent society, may be more likely to embrace technology. We attempt to characterize the use and acceptance of the Internet and information technology among resident physicians in a large academic medical center and to assess concerns regarding privacy, security, and credibility of information on the Internet. A 41-question survey was distributed to 150 pediatric, medical, and surgical residents at an urban, academic medical center. One hundred thirty-five residents completed the survey (response rate of 90%). Responses were evaluated and statistical analysis was done. The majority of resident physicians in our survey have adopted the tools of information technology. Ninety-eight percent used the Internet and 96% use e-mail. Two-thirds of the respondents used the Internet for healthcare-related purposes and a similar percentage thought that the Internet has affected their practice of medicine positively. The majority of residents thought that Internet healthcare services such as electronic medical records, peer-support websites, and remote patient monitoring would be beneficial for the healthcare industry. However, they are concerned about the credibility, privacy, and security of health and medical information online. The majority of resident physicians in our institution use Internet and information technology in their practice of medicine. Most think that the Internet will continue to have a beneficial role in the healthcare industry.

  1. Establishing a new radiology residency research track.

    PubMed

    Costello, James R; Mullins, Mark E; Votaw, John R; Karolyi, Dan R; Kalb, Bobby; Gonzales, Patrick; Fornwalt, Brandon; Meltzer, Carolyn C

    2013-02-01

    The authors describe the establishment of a radiology residency research track at their institution. Based on growing biomedical technology needs and the tremendous increase in imaging-based research, the importance of training and cultivating future clinical investigators continues to grow. Within the framework of a supportive environment, a residency research track exposes motivated radiologists-in-training to the tools, challenges, and successes of a career in academics. The authors describe their program's design, admissions process, curriculum, and expectations. Lastly, the authors share the insight of their experience and seek feedback from readers who have been involved in similar endeavors.

  2. Emergency Medicine Resident Perceptions of Medical Professionalism

    PubMed Central

    Jauregui, Joshua; Gatewood, Medley O.; Ilgen, Jonathan S.; Schaninger, Caitlin; Strote, Jared

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Medical professionalism is a core competency for emergency medicine (EM) trainees; but defining professionalism remains challenging, leading to difficulties creating objectives and performing assessment. Because professionalism is dynamic, culture-specific, and often taught by modeling, an exploration of trainees’ perceptions can highlight their educational baseline and elucidate the importance they place on general conventional professionalism domains. To this end, our objective was to assess the relative value EM residents place on traditional components of professionalism. Methods We performed a cross-sectional, multi-institutional survey of incoming and graduating EM residents at four programs. The survey was developed using the American Board of Internal Medicine’s “Project Professionalism” and the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education definition of professionalism competency. We identified 27 attributes within seven domains: clinical excellence, humanism, accountability, altruism, duty and service, honor and integrity, and respect for others. Residents were asked to rate each attribute on a 10-point scale. We analyzed data to assess variance across attributes as well as differences between residents at different training levels or different institutions. Results Of the 114 residents eligible, 100 (88%) completed the survey. The relative value assigned to different professional attributes varied considerably, with those in the altruism domain valued significantly lower and those in the “respect for others” and “honor and integrity” valued significantly higher (p<0.001). Significant differences were found between interns and seniors for five attributes primarily in the “duty and service” domain (p<0.05). Among different residencies, significant differences were found with attributes within the “altruism” and “duty and service” domains (p<0.05). Conclusion Residents perceive differences in the relative

  3. Ontario Radiation Oncology Residents' Needs in the First Postgraduate Year-Residents' Perspective Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Szumacher, Ewa Warner, Eiran; Zhang Liying; Kane, Gabrielle; Ackerman, Ida; Nyhof-Young, Joyce; Agboola, Olusegun; Metz, Catherine de; Rodrigues, George; Rappolt, Susan

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To assess radiation oncology residents' needs and satisfaction in their first postgraduate year (PGY-1) in the province of Ontario. Methods and Materials: Of 62 radiation oncology residents, 58 who had completed their PGY-1 and were either enrolled or had graduated in 2006 were invited to participate in a 31-item survey. The questionnaire explored PGY-1 residents' needs and satisfaction in four domains: clinical workload, faculty/learning environment, stress level, and discrimination/harassment. The Fisher's exact and Wilcoxon nonparametric tests were used to determine relationships between covariate items and summary scores. Results: Of 58 eligible residents, 44 (75%) responded. Eighty-four percent of residents felt that their ward and call duties were appropriate. More than 50% of respondents indicated that they often felt isolated from their radiation oncology program. Only 77% agreed that they received adequate feedback, and 40% received sufficient counseling regarding career planning. More than 93% of respondents thought that faculty members had contributed significantly to their learning experience. Approximately 50% of residents experienced excessive stress and inadequate time for leisure or for reading the medical literature. Less than 10% of residents indicated that they had been harassed or experienced discrimination. Eighty-three percent agreed or strongly agreed that their PGY-1 experience had been outstanding. Conclusions: Most Ontario residents were satisfied with their PGY-1 training program. More counseling by radiation oncology faculty members should be offered to help residents with career planning. The residents might also benefit from more exposure to 'radiation oncology' and an introduction to stress management strategies.

  4. Nursing Effort and Quality of Care for Nursing Home Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arling, Greg; Kane, Robert L.; Mueller, Christine; Bershadsky, Julie; Degenholtz, Howard B.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between nursing home staffing level, care received by individual residents, and resident quality-related care processes and functional outcomes. Design and Methods: Nurses recorded resident care time for 5,314 residents on 156 units in 105 facilities in four states (Colorado,…

  5. 26 CFR 25.2702-5 - Personal residence trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... provision of lodging (e.g. a hotel or a bed and breakfast). A residence is not a personal residence if... provision of lodging (e.g., a hotel or a bed and breakfast). A residence is not a personal residence...

  6. Financial Implications of Residency Programs for Sponsoring Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiberger, Michael H.

    1997-01-01

    Explores cost implications of residency programs within the Veterans Administration health care system, particularly the costs and benefits of residencies in family medicine, osteopathic medicine, and general dentistry, because they resemble optometric residencies most closely. Costs of an existing vision therapy residency are examined, and…

  7. 26 CFR 25.2702-5 - Personal residence trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... section will, nonetheless, be treated as satisfying these requirements if the trust is modified, by... provision of lodging (e.g. a hotel or a bed and breakfast). A residence is not a personal residence if... provision of lodging (e.g., a hotel or a bed and breakfast). A residence is not a personal residence...

  8. 22 CFR 42.22 - Returning resident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returning resident aliens. 42.22 Section 42.22... Returning resident aliens. (a) Requirements for returning resident status. An alien shall be classifiable as... presented that: (1) The alien had the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence at...

  9. 31 CFR 515.335 - Permanent resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Permanent resident alien. 515.335... Definitions § 515.335 Permanent resident alien. As used in § 515.208, the term permanent resident alien means an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence into the United States....

  10. 22 CFR 42.22 - Returning resident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Returning resident aliens. 42.22 Section 42.22... Returning resident aliens. (a) Requirements for returning resident status. An alien shall be classifiable as... presented that: (1) The alien had the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence at...

  11. 22 CFR 42.22 - Returning resident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Returning resident aliens. 42.22 Section 42.22... Returning resident aliens. (a) Requirements for returning resident status. An alien shall be classifiable as... presented that: (1) The alien had the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence at...

  12. 31 CFR 515.335 - Permanent resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Permanent resident alien. 515.335... Definitions § 515.335 Permanent resident alien. As used in § 515.208, the term permanent resident alien means an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence into the United States....

  13. 31 CFR 515.335 - Permanent resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Permanent resident alien. 515.335... Definitions § 515.335 Permanent resident alien. As used in § 515.208, the term permanent resident alien means an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence into the United States....

  14. 22 CFR 42.22 - Returning resident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Returning resident aliens. 42.22 Section 42.22... Returning resident aliens. (a) Requirements for returning resident status. An alien shall be classifiable as... presented that: (1) The alien had the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence at...

  15. 22 CFR 42.22 - Returning resident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Returning resident aliens. 42.22 Section 42.22... Returning resident aliens. (a) Requirements for returning resident status. An alien shall be classifiable as... presented that: (1) The alien had the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence at...

  16. 31 CFR 515.335 - Permanent resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Permanent resident alien. 515.335... Definitions § 515.335 Permanent resident alien. As used in § 515.208, the term permanent resident alien means an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence into the United States....

  17. 31 CFR 515.335 - Permanent resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permanent resident alien. 515.335... Definitions § 515.335 Permanent resident alien. As used in § 515.208, the term permanent resident alien means an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence into the United States....

  18. 24 CFR 963.10 - Eligible resident-owned businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Eligible resident-owned businesses... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING-CONTRACTING WITH RESIDENT-OWNED BUSINESSES Contracting With Resident-Owned Businesses § 963.10 Eligible resident-owned businesses. To be eligible for the...

  19. Characteristics of Optometric Residencies in the Veterans Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Daniel J.; Newcomb, Robert D.

    1986-01-01

    Results of a study of the characteristics of 10 Veterans Administration optometric residency programs are presented and compared with results of an earlier survey. Factors analyzed include resident characteristics, specializations, program design, residents' salaries and health insurance, and post-residency employment options. (MSE)

  20. 24 CFR 990.295 - Resident Management Corporation operating subsidy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resident Management Corporation... Managed by Resident Management Corporations (RMCs) § 990.295 Resident Management Corporation operating subsidy. (a) General. This part applies to all projects managed by a Resident Management Corporation...