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Sample records for exophiala dermatitidis evidence

  1. The Transcriptome of Exophiala dermatitidis during Ex-vivo Skin Model Infection

    PubMed Central

    Poyntner, Caroline; Blasi, Barbara; Arcalis, Elsa; Mirastschijski, Ursula; Sterflinger, Katja; Tafer, Hakim

    2016-01-01

    The black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis is a widespread polyextremophile and human pathogen, that is found in extreme natural habitats and man-made environments such as dishwashers. It can cause various diseases ranging from phaeohyphomycosis and systemic infections, with fatality rates reaching 40%. While the number of cases in immunocompromised patients are increasing, knowledge of the infections, virulence factors and host response is still scarce. In this study, for the first time, an artificial infection of an ex-vivo skin model with Exophiala dermatitidis was monitored microscopically and transcriptomically. Results show that Exophiala dermatitidis is able to actively grow and penetrate the skin. The analysis of the genomic and RNA-sequencing data delivers a rich and complex transcriptome where circular RNAs, fusion transcripts, long non-coding RNAs and antisense transcripts are found. Changes in transcription strongly affect pathways related to nutrients acquisition, energy metabolism, cell wall, morphological switch, and known virulence factors. The L-Tyrosine melanin pathway is specifically upregulated during infection. Moreover the production of secondary metabolites, especially alkaloids, is increased. Our study is the first that gives an insight into the complexity of the transcriptome of Exophiala dermatitidis during artificial skin infections and reveals new virulence factors. PMID:27822460

  2. New Biosynthetic Step in the Melanin Pathway of Wangiella (Exophiala) dermatitidis: Evidence for 2-Acetyl-1,3,6,8-Tetrahydroxynaphthalene as a Novel Precursor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The predominant cell wall melanin of Wangiella dermatitidis, a black fungal pathogen of humans, is synthesized from 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (D2HN). An early precursor, 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene (T4HN), in the pathway leading to D2HN is reportedly produced as a pentaketide directly by an iter...

  3. Consistent high prevalence of Exophiala dermatitidis, a neurotropic opportunist, on railway sleepers.

    PubMed

    Yazdanparast, S A; Mohseni, S; De Hoog, G S; Aslani, N; Sadeh, A; Badali, H

    2017-02-09

    Environmental isolation of black yeasts potentially causing human disorders is essential for understanding ecology and routes of infection. Several Exophiala species show prevalence for man-made environments rich in monoaromatic compounds, such as creosote-treated or petroleum-stained railway sleepers. Ambient climatic conditions play a role in species composition in suitable habitats. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to establish the composition of Exophiala species in railway stations as a potential source of human infections in a subtropical region with evaluation of their antifungal susceptibility profiles. We examined 150 railway samples using cotton swabs moistened with sterile physiological saline. Black yeasts and relatives were selected on theirs colony morphology and identified based on ITS rDNA sequencing. Overall, 36 (24%) of samples were positive for black yeast-like fungi, i.e., Exophiala dermatitidis (n=20, 55.6%) was predominant, followed by E. phaeomuriformis (n=9, 25%), E. heteromorpha (n=5, 13.9%), and E. xenobiotica (n=2, 5.6%). Massive contaminations of E. dermatitidis were seen on railway sleepers on creosoted oak wood at the region close to the sea level, while in cold climates were primarily contaminated with clinically insignificant or rare human opportunists (E. crusticola). It seems that, high temperature and humidity are significant effect on species diversity. Moreover, the MIC results for all E. dermatitidis and E. phaeomuriformis strains revealed the widest range and the highest MICs to caspofungin (range 1-16mg/L, Geometric mean 4.912mg/L), and the lowest MIC for posaconazole (0.016-0.031mg/L, G mean 0.061mg/L). However, their clinical effectiveness in the treatment of Exophiala infections remains to be determined.

  4. From Glacier to Sauna: RNA-Seq of the Human Pathogen Black Fungus Exophiala dermatitidis under Varying Temperature Conditions Exhibits Common and Novel Fungal Response.

    PubMed

    Blasi, Barbara; Tafer, Hakim; Tesei, Donatella; Sterflinger, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Exophiala dermatitidis (Wangiella dermatitidis) belongs to the group of the so-called black yeasts. Thanks in part to its thick and strongly melanized cell walls, E. dermatitidis is extremely tolerant to various kinds of stress, including extreme pH, temperature and desiccation. E. dermatitidis is also the agent responsible for various severe illnesses in humans, such as pneumonia and keratitis, and might lead to fatal brain infections. Due to its association with the human environment, its poly-extremophilic lifestyle and its pathogenicity in humans, E. dermatitidis has become an important model organism. In this study we present the functional analysis of the transcriptional response of the fungus at 1°C and 45°C, in comparison with that at 37°C, for two different exposition times, i.e. 1 hour and 1 week. At 1°C, E. dermatitidis uses a large repertoire of tools to acclimatize, such as lipid membrane fluidization, trehalose production or cytoskeleton rearrangement, which allows the fungus to remain metabolically active. At 45°C, the fungus drifts into a replicative state and increases the activity of the Golgi apparatus. As a novel finding, our study provides evidence that, apart from the protein coding genes, non-coding RNAs, circular RNAs as well as fusion-transcripts are differentially regulated and that the function of the fusion-transcripts can be related to the corresponding temperature condition. This work establishes that E. dermatitidis adapts to its environment by modulating coding and non-coding gene transcription levels and through the regulation of chimeric and circular RNAs.

  5. From Glacier to Sauna: RNA-Seq of the Human Pathogen Black Fungus Exophiala dermatitidis under Varying Temperature Conditions Exhibits Common and Novel Fungal Response

    PubMed Central

    Tesei, Donatella; Sterflinger, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Exophiala dermatitidis (Wangiella dermatitidis) belongs to the group of the so-called black yeasts. Thanks in part to its thick and strongly melanized cell walls, E. dermatitidis is extremely tolerant to various kinds of stress, including extreme pH, temperature and desiccation. E. dermatitidis is also the agent responsible for various severe illnesses in humans, such as pneumonia and keratitis, and might lead to fatal brain infections. Due to its association with the human environment, its poly-extremophilic lifestyle and its pathogenicity in humans, E. dermatitidis has become an important model organism. In this study we present the functional analysis of the transcriptional response of the fungus at 1°C and 45°C, in comparison with that at 37°C, for two different exposition times, i.e. 1 hour and 1 week. At 1°C, E. dermatitidis uses a large repertoire of tools to acclimatize, such as lipid membrane fluidization, trehalose production or cytoskeleton rearrangement, which allows the fungus to remain metabolically active. At 45°C, the fungus drifts into a replicative state and increases the activity of the Golgi apparatus. As a novel finding, our study provides evidence that, apart from the protein coding genes, non-coding RNAs, circular RNAs as well as fusion-transcripts are differentially regulated and that the function of the fusion-transcripts can be related to the corresponding temperature condition. This work establishes that E. dermatitidis adapts to its environment by modulating coding and non-coding gene transcription levels and through the regulation of chimeric and circular RNAs. PMID:26061625

  6. The Black Yeast Exophiala dermatitidis and Other Selected Opportunistic Human Fungal Pathogens Spread from Dishwashers to Kitchens

    PubMed Central

    Zupančič, Jerneja; Novak Babič, Monika; Zalar, Polona; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the diversity and distribution of fungi in nine different sites inside 30 residential dishwashers. In total, 503 fungal strains were isolated, which belong to 10 genera and 84 species. Irrespective of the sampled site, 83% of the dishwashers were positive for fungi. The most frequent opportunistic pathogenic species were Exophiala dermatitidis, Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Exophiala phaeomuriformis, Fusarium dimerum, and the Saprochaete/Magnusiomyces clade. The black yeast E. dermatitidis was detected in 47% of the dishwashers, primarily at the dishwasher rubber seals, at up to 106 CFU/cm2; the other fungi detected were in the range of 102 to 105 CFU/cm2. The other most heavily contaminated dishwasher sites were side nozzles, doors and drains. Only F. dimerum was isolated from washed dishes, while dishwasher waste water contained E. dermatitidis, Exophiala oligosperma and Sarocladium killiense. Plumbing systems supplying water to household appliances represent the most probable route for contamination of dishwashers, as the fungi that represented the core dishwasher mycobiota were also detected in the tap water. Hot aerosols from dishwashers contained the human opportunistic yeast C. parapsilosis, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and E. dermatitidis (as well as common air-borne genera such as Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma and Cladosporium). Comparison of fungal contamination of kitchens without and with dishwashers revealed that virtually all were contaminated with fungi. In both cases, the most contaminated sites were the kitchen drain and the dish drying rack. The most important difference was higher prevalence of black yeasts (E. dermatitidis in particular) in kitchens with dishwashers. In kitchens without dishwashers, C. parapsilosis strongly prevailed with negligible occurrence of E. dermatitidis. F. dimerum was isolated only from kitchens with dishwashers, while Saprochaete/Magnusiomyces isolates were only found within dishwashers. We

  7. The Black Yeast Exophiala dermatitidis and Other Selected Opportunistic Human Fungal Pathogens Spread from Dishwashers to Kitchens.

    PubMed

    Zupančič, Jerneja; Novak Babič, Monika; Zalar, Polona; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the diversity and distribution of fungi in nine different sites inside 30 residential dishwashers. In total, 503 fungal strains were isolated, which belong to 10 genera and 84 species. Irrespective of the sampled site, 83% of the dishwashers were positive for fungi. The most frequent opportunistic pathogenic species were Exophiala dermatitidis, Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Exophiala phaeomuriformis, Fusarium dimerum, and the Saprochaete/Magnusiomyces clade. The black yeast E. dermatitidis was detected in 47% of the dishwashers, primarily at the dishwasher rubber seals, at up to 106 CFU/cm2; the other fungi detected were in the range of 102 to 105 CFU/cm2. The other most heavily contaminated dishwasher sites were side nozzles, doors and drains. Only F. dimerum was isolated from washed dishes, while dishwasher waste water contained E. dermatitidis, Exophiala oligosperma and Sarocladium killiense. Plumbing systems supplying water to household appliances represent the most probable route for contamination of dishwashers, as the fungi that represented the core dishwasher mycobiota were also detected in the tap water. Hot aerosols from dishwashers contained the human opportunistic yeast C. parapsilosis, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and E. dermatitidis (as well as common air-borne genera such as Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma and Cladosporium). Comparison of fungal contamination of kitchens without and with dishwashers revealed that virtually all were contaminated with fungi. In both cases, the most contaminated sites were the kitchen drain and the dish drying rack. The most important difference was higher prevalence of black yeasts (E. dermatitidis in particular) in kitchens with dishwashers. In kitchens without dishwashers, C. parapsilosis strongly prevailed with negligible occurrence of E. dermatitidis. F. dimerum was isolated only from kitchens with dishwashers, while Saprochaete/Magnusiomyces isolates were only found within dishwashers. We

  8. The neurotropic black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis has a possible origin in the tropical rain forest

    PubMed Central

    Sudhadham, M.; Prakitsin, S.; Sivichai, S.; Chaiyarat, R.; Dorrestein, G. M.; Menken, S.B.J.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    The black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis is known as a rare etiologic agent of neurotropic infections in humans, occurring particularly in East and Southeast Asia. In search of its natural habitat, a large sampling was undertaken in temperate as well as in tropical climates. Sampling sites were selected on the basis of the origins of previously isolated strains, and on the basis of physiological properties of the species, which also determined a selective isolation protocol. The species was absent from outdoor environments in the temperate climate, but present at low abundance in comparable habitats in the tropics. Positive outdoor sites particularly included faeces of frugivorous birds and bats, in urban as well as in natural areas. Tropical fruits were found E. dermatitidis positive at low incidence. Of the human-made environments sampled, railway ties contaminated by human faeces and oily debris in the tropics were massively positive, while the known abundance of the fungus in steam baths was confirmed. On the basis of the species' oligotrophy, thermotolerance, acidotolerance, moderate osmotolerance, melanization and capsular yeast cells a natural life cycle in association with frugivorous animals in foci in the tropical rain forest, involving passage of living cells through the intestinal tract was hypothesized. The human-dominated environment may have become contaminated by ingestion of wild berries carrying fungal propagules PMID:19287537

  9. Biofilm formation of the black yeast-like fungus Exophiala dermatitidis and its susceptibility to antiinfective agents

    PubMed Central

    Kirchhoff , Lisa; Olsowski, Maike; Zilmans, Katrin; Dittmer, Silke; Haase, Gerhard; Sedlacek, Ludwig; Steinmann, Eike; Buer, Jan; Rath, Peter-Michael; Steinmann, Joerg

    2017-01-01

    Various fungi have the ability to colonize surfaces and to form biofilms. Fungal biofilm-associated infections are frequently refractory to targeted treatment because of resistance to antifungal drugs. One fungus that frequently colonises the respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is the opportunistic black yeast–like fungus Exophiala dermatitidis. We investigated the biofilm-forming ability of E. dermatitidis and its susceptibility to various antiinfective agents and natural compounds. We tested 58 E. dermatitidis isolates with a biofilm assay based on crystal violet staining. In addition, we used three isolates to examine the antibiofilm activity of voriconazole, micafungin, colistin, farnesol, and the plant derivatives 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-b-D-glucopyranose (PGG) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) with an XTT reduction assay. We analysed the effect of the agents on cell to surface adhesion, biofilm formation, and the mature biofilm. The biofilms were also investigated by confocal laser scan microscopy. We found that E. dermatitidis builds biofilm in a strain-specific manner. Invasive E. dermatitidis isolates form most biomass in biofilm. The antiinfective agents and the natural compounds exhibited poor antibiofilm activity. The greatest impact of the compounds was detected when they were added prior cell adhesion. These findings suggest that prevention may be more effective than treatment of biofilm-associated E. dermatitidis infections. PMID:28211475

  10. Roles of the pH signaling transcription factor PacC in Wangiella (Exophiala) dermatitidis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qin; Szaniszlo, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    To study the function of the PacC transcription factor in Wangiella dermatitidis, a black, polymorphic fungal pathogen of humans with yeast-phase predominance, the PACC gene was cloned, sequenced, disrupted and expressed. Three zinc finger DNA-binding motifs were found at the N-terminus, and a signaling protease cleavage site at the C-terminus. PACC was more expressed at neutral-alkaline pH than at acidic pH. Truncation at about 40 residues of the coding sequence upstream of the conserved protease processing cleavage site of PacC affected growth on a nutrient-rich medium, increased sensitivity to Na+ stress, decreased yeast growth at neutral-alkaline pH, and repressed hyphal growth on a nutrient-poor medium at 25°C.Truncation at the coding sequence for the conserved signaling protease box of PacC impaired growth and reduced RNA expression of the class II chitin synthase gene at acidic pH. The results suggested that PacC is important not only for the adaptation of W. dermatitidis to different ambient pH conditions and Na+ stress conditions, but also for influencing yeast-hyphal transitions in this agent of phaeohyphomycosis. PMID:19501183

  11. Analyses of black fungi by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS): species-level identification of clinical isolates of Exophiala dermatitidis.

    PubMed

    Kondori, Nahid; Erhard, Marcel; Welinder-Olsson, Christina; Groenewald, Marizeth; Verkley, Gerard; Moore, Edward R B

    2015-01-01

    Conventional mycological identifications based on the recognition of morphological characteristics can be problematic. A relatively new methodology applicable for the identification of microorganisms is based on the exploitation of taxon- specific mass patterns recorded from abundant cell proteins directly from whole-cell preparations, using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). This study reports the application of MALDI-TOF MS for the differentiation and identifications of black yeasts, isolated from the respiratory tracts of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Initial phenotypic and DNA sequence-based analyses identified these isolates to be Exophiala dermatitidis. The type strains of E. dermatitidis (CBS 207.35(T)) and other species of Exophiala were included in the MALDI-TOF MS analyses to establish the references for comparing the mass spectra of the clinical isolates of Exophiala. MALDI-TOF MS analyses exhibited extremely close relationships among the clinical isolates and with the spectra generated from the type strain of E. dermatitidis. The relationships observed between the E. dermatitidis strains from the MALDI-TOF MS profiling analyses were supported by DNA sequence-based analyses of the rRNA ITS1 and ITS2 regions. These data demonstrated the applicability of MALDI-TOF MS as a reliable, rapid and cost-effective method for the identification of isolates of E. dermatitidis and other clinically relevant fungi and yeasts that typically are difficult to identify by conventional methods.

  12. [Differentiation and characterization of yeasts pathogenic for humans (Candida albicans, Exophiala dermatitidis) and algae pathogenic for animals (Prototheca spp.) using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in comparison with conventional methods].

    PubMed

    Schmalreck, A F; Tränkle, P; Vanca, E; Blaschke-Hellmessen, R

    1998-01-01

    Due to the Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) of strain specific traits demonstrated to be a suitable and efficient method for diagnostic and epidemiological determinations for the yeasts Candida albicans, Exophiala dermatitidis and the chlorophylless algae of the genus Prototheca. FT-IR leads in a rapid and economical way to reproducible results according to the spectral differences of intact cells (IR-fingerprints). Different genera, species and sub-species respectively, different strains can be recognized and grouped into different clusters and subclusters. The FT-IR analysis of Candida albicans isolates (n = 150) of 22 newborns-at-risk of an intensive care unit showed, that 86% of the children were colonised with several (2-4) different strains in the oral cavities and faeces. Stationary cross-infections could definitely be determined. Exophiala dermatitidis isolates (n = 31), mostly isolated repetitively within a period of 3 years from sputa of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis could be characterized and grouped patient-specifically over the total sampling period. Of 6 from 8 patients (75%) their individual strains remain the same and could be tracked over the three years. Cross-infections during the stationary treatment could be clearly identified by FT-IR. The Prototheca isolate (n = 43) from live-stock and farm environment showed clear distinguishable clusters differentiating the species P. wickerhamii, P. zopfii and P. stagnora. In addition, the biotypes of P. zopfii could be distinguished, especially the subclusters of variants II and III. It could be demonstrated, that FT-IR is suitable for the routine identification and differentiation of yeasts and algae. However, in spite of the gain of knowledge by using FT-IR for the characterization of microorganisms, the conventional phenotyping and/or genetic analysis of yeast or algae strains cannot be replaced completely. For a final taxonomic classification a combination of conventional

  13. WdCHS3, a Gene That Encodes a Class III Chitin Synthase in Wangiella (Exophiala) dermatitidis, Is Expressed Differentially under Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zheng; Szaniszlo, Paul J.

    2000-01-01

    Class III chitin synthases are important for hyphal growth in some filamentous fungi but are not found in yeasts. Using a specific PCR product that encodes a portion of the class III chitin synthase of W. dermatitidis as a probe, we isolated the chitin synthase gene, WdCHS3, from this polymorphic melanized pathogen of humans. Northern blotting showed that WdCHS3 was highly expressed under stress conditions, such as the shift of cells to temperatures commensurate with infection, or to conditions that induce cellular morphogenesis in this fungus. Analysis of the 5′ upstream sequence of WdCHS3 provided evidence for a negative regulatory element at between −780 and −1600 bp. Western blotting indicated that the production of the WdChs3p was temperature dependent and temporally regulated. Disruption of WdCHS3 in a wild-type strain and in two temperature-sensitive morphological mutants resulted in significantly reduced chitin synthase activities but did not obviously affect their morphologies, growth rates, chitin contents, or virulence. This paradox suggested that the contributions of the high levels of WdCHS3 gene expression and WdChs3p production in strains subjected to stress reside in unknown or unexamined parts of the life cycle of this ecologically poorly known member of the Fungi Imperfecti. Nonetheless, this report presents the first evidence that transcription of a chitin synthase gene is regulated by a negative regulatory element in its 5′ upstream sequence. PMID:10648509

  14. WdChs4p, a Homolog of Chitin Synthase 3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Alone Cannot Support Growth of Wangiella (Exophiala) dermatitidis at the Temperature of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zheng; Zheng, Li; Hauser, Melinda; Becker, Jeffery M.; Szaniszlo, Paul J.

    1999-01-01

    By using improved transformation methods for Wangiella dermatitidis, and a cloned fragment of its chitin synthase 4 structural gene (WdCHS4) as a marking sequence, the full-length gene was rescued from the genome of this human pathogenic fungus. The encoded chitin synthase product (WdChs4p) showed high homology with Chs3p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other class IV chitin synthases, and Northern blotting showed that WdCHS4 was expressed at constitutive levels under all conditions tested. Reduced chitin content, abnormal yeast clumpiness and budding kinetics, and increased melanin secretion resulted from the disruption of WdCHS4 suggesting that WdChs4p influences cell wall structure, cellular reproduction, and melanin deposition, respectively. However, no significant loss of virulence was detected when the wdchs4Δ strain was tested in an acute mouse model. Using a wdchs1Δ wdchs2Δ wdchs3Δ triple mutant of W. dermatitidis, which grew poorly but adequately at 25°C, we assayed WdChs4p activity in the absence of activities contributed by its three other WdChs proteins. Maximal activity required trypsin activation, suggesting a zymogenic nature. The activity also had a pH optimum of 7.5, was most stimulated by Mg2+, and was more inhibited by polyoxin D than by nikkomycin Z. Although the WdChs4p activity had a broad temperature optimum between 30 to 45°C in vitro, this activity alone did not support the growth of the wdchs1Δ wdchs2Δ wdchs3Δ triple mutant at 37°C, a temperature commensurate with infection. PMID:10569783

  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of WdTUP1, a gene that encodes a potential transcriptional repressor important for yeast-hyphal transitions in Wangiella (Exophiala) dermatitidis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongbo; Abramczyk, Dariusz; Cooper, Chester R; Zheng, Li; Park, Changwon; Szaniszlo, Paul. J.

    2008-01-01

    The general transcriptional repressor Tup1p is known to influence cell development in many fungi. To determine whether the Tup1p ortholog (WdTup1p) of Wangiella dermatitidis also influences cellular development in this melanized, polymorphic human pathogen, the gene (WdTUP1) that encodes this transcription factor was isolated, sequenced and disrupted. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the WdTup1p sequence was closely related to homologues in other polymorphic, conidiogenous fungi. Disruption of WdTUP1 produced mutants (wdtup1Δ) with pronounced growth and cellular abnormalities, including slow growth on various agar media and exclusively as a filamentous morphotype in liquid media. We concluded that WdTup1p represents an important switch regulator that controls the yeast-to-filamentous growth transition. However, detailed observations of the filamentous growth of the disruption mutant showed that the hyphae produced by the wdtup1Δ mutants, unlike those of the wild type, were arrested at a stage prior to the formation of true hyphae and subsequent conidia production. PMID:18061494

  16. Evidence for two cell division cycle (CDC) genes that govern yeast bud emergence in the pathogenic fungus Wangiella dermatitidis.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, C R; Szaniszlo, P J

    1993-01-01

    Strains Mc2 and Mc3 are morphological mutants of the melanized, pathogenic fungus Wangiella dermatitidis. These strains possess temperature-sensitive (ts) mutations designated mcm2 and mcm3, respectively. At the restrictive temperature (37 degrees C), uninucleate yeast cells of strains Mc2 and Mc3 cease budding and initiate an isotropic mode of cellular development, which is reflected in the formation of a multicellular and multinucleate morphology. Because W. dermatitidis either lacks or has an undiscovered sexual cycle, parasexual methods of analysis were used to confirm that mcm2 and mcm3 define separate bud emergence control genes in the wild-type strain. Spheroplasts of albino auxotrophs derived from strains Mc2 and Mc3 were fused and then regenerated on minimal medium. The resulting fusion products grew as darkly pigmented, prototrophic colonies. When incubated at 37 degrees C, all fusion products exhibited polarized growth predominantly as uninucleate, budding yeasts and less frequently as pseudohyphae and moniliform hyphae. Subsequent analysis of cultures derived from albino, ts segregants, which were induced from fusion products by using methyl benzimidazole-2-yl-carbamate, revealed three types of cell populations. Two resembled those expressed by strain Mc2 or Mc3. The third consisted of a cell population unlike the former, suggesting the presence of both ts mutations in all cells. These results imply that yeast development in the fusion products resulted from intergenic complementation of mcm2 and mcm3, i.e., they are nonallelic. Because mcm2 and mcm3 are equivalent to certain cdc lesions in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we have renamed the analogous genes defined by the mutations in W. dermatitidis as CDC1 and CDC2. To our knowledge, these are the first CDC genes identified in a dematiaceous fungus. Images PMID:8478096

  17. Species diversity, antifungal susceptibility and phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of Exophiala spp. infecting patients in different medical centres in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Wendy C; Gonçalves, Sarah S; Santos, Daniel W C L; Padovan, Ana Carolina B; Bizerra, Fernando C; Melo, Analy S A

    2017-05-01

    The Exophiala genus is responsible for many superficial and invasive infections resulting from black fungi. Identification of Exophiala at the species level is based on morphological observations complemented by molecular tests. The aim of this study was to identify 23 clinical isolates of Exophiala spp. and evaluate the antifungal susceptibility to seven different agents. Molecular identification was based on an analysis of ITS region of rDNA using genomic databases. The micromorphology was evaluated by microculture and scanning electron microscopy. The susceptibility tests were performed using the antifungal agents 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), amphotericin B (AMB), itraconazole (ITC), voriconazole (VRC), posaconazole (PSC), caspofungin (CFG) and terbinafine (TRB). The ITS analysis identified 100% of the following isolates as: E. dermatitidis (8), E. xenobiotica (6), E. bergeri (4), E. oligosperma (3), E. spinifera (1) and E. mesophila (1). The antifungal susceptibility tests showed that the triazoles compounds were in vitro the most active agents against Exophiala. ITS sequencing enabled the accurate identification of the 23 tested isolates. The triazoles, particularly itraconazole and posaconazole, exhibited MIC values lower than AMB, CAS and 5-FC. Although the guidelines do not indicate AMB for treatment against Exophiala spp., this study showed activity for all of the tested species, except E. mesophila.

  18. Diverse strategies conferring extreme cadmium (Cd) tolerance in the dark septate endophyte (DSE), Exophiala pisciphila: evidence from RNA-seq data.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dake; Li, Tao; Shen, Mi; Wang, Junling; Zhao, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    Dark septate endophytes (DSE) ubiquitously colonize the roots of plants growing in extreme heavy metals (HMs)-contaminated soils. Little is known about the overall molecular response of DSE to excessive HMs. Therefore, RNA-seq was performed through Illumina Hiseq 2000 sequencing based on two cDNA libraries of the DSE strain Exophiala pisciphila, cultured under cadmium (Cd)-free and Cd-stressed conditions, and 21,376 unigenes were generated. In total, 575 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained. Approximately 40% of the DEGs (228 unigenes) were involved in 10 well-known HMs-tolerant pathways, conferring the extreme cadmium (Cd) tolerance of E. pisciphila, including metal ion binding and transportation, organic acid metabolism and transportation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging, redox homeostasis, transcription factors production, sulfate assimilation, DNA repair and cell wall integrity maintenance, etc. Our results indicate that integral tactics associated with the collaboration of extracellular and intracellular mechanisms contribute to the enhanced HMs tolerance of this fungus. This study represents the first investigation of the transcriptome of DSE under Cd stress, and our results provide valuable information for future molecular studies of HMs tolerance in fungi.

  19. Red Fox as Sentinel for Blastomyces dermatitidis, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Nicole M; Campbell, G Douglas; Oesterle, Paul T; Shirose, Lenny; McEwen, Beverly; Jardine, Claire M

    2016-07-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis, a fungus that can cause fatal infection in humans and other mammals, is not readily recoverable from soil, its environmental reservoir. Because of the red fox's widespread distribution, susceptibility to B. dermatitidis, close association with soil, and well-defined home ranges, this animal has potential utility as a sentinel for this fungus.

  20. Red Fox as Sentinel for Blastomyces dermatitidis, Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, G. Douglas; Oesterle, Paul T.; Shirose, Lenny; McEwen, Beverly; Jardine, Claire M.

    2016-01-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis, a fungus that can cause fatal infection in humans and other mammals, is not readily recoverable from soil, its environmental reservoir. Because of the red fox’s widespread distribution, susceptibility to B. dermatitidis, close association with soil, and well-defined home ranges, this animal has potential utility as a sentinel for this fungus. PMID:27314650

  1. Immunomodulation by Blastomyces dermatitidis: functional activity of murine peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, L S; Cozad, G C

    1983-01-01

    Cell-mediated immunity plays the dominant role in the immune response of mice to Blastomyces dermatitidis infections. Since macrophages play an important role in cell-mediated immunity, the interactions between sensitized murine peritoneal macrophages and the yeast phase of B. dermatitidis were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the sensitized macrophages readily phagocytized B. dermatitidis yeast cells. In addition, there appeared to be activation of metabolic pathways within the sensitized macrophages, as indicated by increased chemiluminescence activity during phagocytosis. Sensitized macrophages were significantly better at controlling intracellular proliferation of the yeast cells when compared to nonsensitized cells. This was determined by disruption of macrophages and plating for viable yeasts. Scanning electron microscope observations offered further substantiation. Experiments with Candida albicans indicated that B. dermatitidis non-specifically activated macrophages. At 2 h postphagocytosis, 30% fewer C. albicans in B. dermatitidis-activated macrophages were able to form germ tubes. These studies demonstrated the multiple potential of activated macrophages with regard to their functional activity. Images PMID:6840859

  2. 21 CFR 866.3060 - Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents. 866.3060 Section 866.3060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3060 - Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents. 866.3060 Section 866.3060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3060 - Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents. 866.3060 Section 866.3060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3060 - Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents. 866.3060 Section 866.3060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  6. Detection of Blastomyces dermatitidis antigen in patients with newly diagnosed blastomycosis.

    PubMed

    Bariola, J Ryan; Hage, Chadi A; Durkin, Michelle; Bensadoun, Eric; Gubbins, Paul O; Wheat, L Joseph; Bradsher, Robert W

    2011-02-01

    Blastomycosis is a serious and potentially fatal infection, and diagnosis can be difficult at times. We evaluated the diagnostic utility of a commercially available assay for detection of Blastomyces dermatitidis antigen, recently modified to permit quantitation, in subjects with newly diagnosed blastomycosis. Twenty-three of 27 (85.1%) subjects had detectable B. dermatitidis antigenuria. In 2 of these 23, positive results were obtained after concentration of the urine specimen. Nine of 11 (81.8%) subjects had detectable B. dermatitidis antigen in serum, including 3 subjects with negative results before treatment of serum with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and positive results after EDTA treatment. B. dermatitidis antigen was not detected in specimens from 50 control subjects but was detected in 15 patients with histoplasmosis. B. dermatitidis antigen was detected in most of the patients with blastomycosis and can be a useful tool for timely diagnosis.

  7. Monosaccharide and Chitin Content of Cell Walls of Histoplasma capsulatum and Blastomyces dermatitidis

    PubMed Central

    Domer, Judith E.

    1971-01-01

    Cell walls of Histoplasma capsulatum and Blastomyces dermatitidis, obtained by mechanical breakage of yeast- and mycelial-phase cultures, were lipid-extracted and then fractionated with ethylenediamine. Unextracted cell walls, lipid-extracted cell walls, and the three fractions resulting from ethylenediamine treatment were examined for monosaccharide and chitin content. The yeast-phase cell walls of five strains of H. capsulatum fell into two categories, designated chemotypes I and II, one of which, chemotype II, was similar to yeast-phase cell walls derived from three strains of B. dermatitidis. H. capsulatum chemotype I cell walls were characterized by lower content of material soluble in ethylenediamine, higher chitin content, and lower monosaccharide content than H. capsulatum chemotype II or B. dermatitidis cell walls. Approximately 80% of the monosaccharides of chemotype I cell walls was combined in forms susceptible to attack by mild acid hydrolysis, compared with about 50% of the monosaccharides of chemotype II and B. dermatitidis. H. capsulatum and B. dermatitidis yeast-phase cell walls could be distinguished, however, by their susceptibility to attack by a crude enzyme system derived from a Streptomyces sp. incubated with chitin as the only carbon source. Both glucose and acetylglucosamine were released from H. capsulatum cell walls, regardless of chemotype, during enzymatic hydrolysis, whereas only acetylglucosamine was released from B. dermatitidis yeast-phase cell walls. Mycelial-phase cell walls of H. capsulatum and B. dermatitidis were characterized by lower content of material soluble in ethylenediamine, higher proportions of mannose, and lower chitin content than their respective yeast phases. Glucose and acetylglucosamine were both released from all mycelial-phase cell walls, whether H. capsulatum or B. dermatitidis, by the crude enzyme system. PMID:5095293

  8. Blastomyces dermatitidis prostatic and testicular infection in eight dogs (1992-2005).

    PubMed

    Totten, Amy Kaye; Ridgway, Marcella D; Sauberli, Debra S

    2011-01-01

    This was a retrospective case study of eight dogs diagnosed with prostatic or testicular B. dermatitidis infection. Signalment, clinical presentation, diagnostic procedures, and treatment options were evaluated. Review of medical records of dogs diagnosed with blastomycosis at the University of Illinois Veterinary Teaching Hospital from 1992 to 2005 yielded four dogs with prostatic blastomycosis (PB) and four dogs with testicular blastomycosis (TB). Three of the four dogs with PB and all four dogs with TB had evidence of urogenital disease. Three dogs with PB had an elevated body temperature and all had systemic disease. All dogs with TB had a normal body temperature, and three had systemic disease and one had clinical signs limited to testicular disease. Cytology or histopathology was used to diagnose PB or TB. Treatment included itraconazole or fluconazole with or without nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. PB and TB are infrequently recognized and may be under diagnosed due to failure to specifically evaluate these tissues. PB or TB should be considered in the evaluation and staging of male dogs with blastomycosis. Male dogs with urogenital signs should be evaluated via prostatic or testicular cytology or histopathology since proper identification and management of PB or TB may improve overall treatment success.

  9. RAPID QUANTITATIVE METHOD FOR MEASURING THE SENSITIVITY OF BLASTOMYCES DERMATITIDIS TO FUNGISTATIC AGENTS.

    PubMed

    GUIDRY, D J; MAIER, F

    1963-03-01

    Guidry, D. J. (Louisiana State University School of Medicine, New Orleans) and Findlay Maier. Rapid quantitative method for measuring the sensitivity of Blastomyces dermatitidis to fungistatic agents. J. Bacteriol. 85:504-508. 1963.-Isolates of Blastomyces dermatitidis (yeast phase) were grown in continuous shake liquid culture. When sufficient cells were added to impart an initial optical density of 0.100 to the inoculated medium, growth was rapid, and the time required to assay fungistatic agents was reduced to 48 hr. Standard curves on light transmittance and direct cell count facilitated preparation of inoculum and measurement of growth. Generation time was determined for various growth phases of B. dermatitidis, and the data were applied to selection of the optimal period of growth for assaying fungistatic agents. Four isolates of B. dermatitidis were tested for their sensitivity to amphotericin and 2-hydroxystilbamidine. An amphotericin B concentration of 1.4 mug/ml was sufficient for maximal inhibition of all isolates tested; there were differences among isolates in sensitivity to lower concentrations of the drug. A 2-hydroxystilbamidine concentration of 62.5 mug/ml was sufficient for maximal inhibition of two isolates; the two remaining isolates required a concentration of 125 mug/ml. A latent period in inhibition of growth occurred when amphotericin B and 2-hydroxystilbamidine were added to cultures of B. dermatitidis. This latent period, together with generation time of the yeast cells, determined the maximal degree of inhibition which could be attained.

  10. A case of Exophiala oligosperma successfully treated with voriconazole.

    PubMed

    Rimawi, Bassam H; Rimawi, Ramzy H; Mirdamadi, Meena; Steed, Lisa L; Marchell, Richard; Sutton, Deanna A; Thompson, Elizabeth H; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Lindner, Jonathan R; Boger, M Sean

    2013-09-08

    Exophiala oligosperma is an uncommon pathogen associated with human infections, predominantly in immunocompromised hosts. Case reports of clinical infections related to E. oligosperma have been limited to 6 prior publications, all of which have shown limited susceptibility to conventional antifungal therapies, including amphotericin B, itraconazole, and fluconazole. We describe the first case of an E. oligosperma induced soft-tissue infection successfully treated with a 3-month course of voriconazole without persisting lesions.

  11. A case of Exophiala oligosperma successfully treated with voriconazole☆

    PubMed Central

    Rimawi, Bassam H.; Rimawi, Ramzy H.; Mirdamadi, Meena; Steed, Lisa L.; Marchell, Richard; Sutton, Deanna A.; Thompson, Elizabeth H.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Lindner, Jonathan R.; Boger, M. Sean

    2013-01-01

    Exophiala oligosperma is an uncommon pathogen associated with human infections, predominantly in immunocompromised hosts. Case reports of clinical infections related to E. oligosperma have been limited to 6 prior publications, all of which have shown limited susceptibility to conventional antifungal therapies, including amphotericin B, itraconazole, and fluconazole. We describe the first case of an E. oligosperma induced soft-tissue infection successfully treated with a 3-month course of voriconazole without persisting lesions. PMID:24432241

  12. [Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycose due to Exophiala jeanselmir. Report of 3 cases in patients with a kidney transplant].

    PubMed

    Sabbaga, E; Tedesco-Marchesi, L M; Lacaz, C da S; Cucé, L C; Salebian, A; Heins-Vaccari, E M; Sotto, M N; Valente, N Y; Porto, E; Levy Neto, M

    1994-01-01

    We report three cases of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis due to Exophiala jeanselmei (Langeron) McGinnis et Padhye 1977, in kidney transplant patients. Exophiala jeanselmei is a dematious fungus having also ability to rarely procedure eumycetoma (black grains). According to KWON-CHUNG & BENNETT (1992) such fungus is antigenically very heterogeneous, since so far three serotypes have been identified; each serotype including subgroups. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis is becoming more and more frequent in kidney transplant patients submitted to an immunosuppressive treatment. As Exophiala jeanselmei has already been isolated from the environment it becomes difficult to explain the pathogenicity of these cases by a reactivation of quiescent processes. The authors suggest an occasional fungistatic action of cyclosporine A upon Exophiala jeanselmei.

  13. Dual infection with Pythium insidiosum and Blastomyces dermatitidis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Sara L; Frank, Chad; Thompson, Craig A; Van Alstine, William G; Gelb, Hylton; Heng, Hock Gan; Klosterman, Emily; Kiupel, Matti; Grooters, Amy M

    2012-09-01

    A 4-year-old male neutered Labrador Retriever with severe gastrointestinal signs, but no respiratory signs, was diagnosed with multifocal pyogranulomatous gastritis, enteritis, and lymphadenitis with intralesional hyphae and multifocal pyogranulomatous pneumonia with intralesional yeast. Based on cytologic evaluation, histologic examination with special stains, and immunohistochemical analysis of tissues collected antemortem or at necropsy, dual infections with Pythium insidiosum and Blastomyces dermatitidis were detected and are reported for the first time.

  14. Molecular Genetic Variation in Emmonsia crescens and Emmonsia parva, Etiologic Agents of Adiaspiromycosis, and Their Phylogenetic Relationship to Blastomyces dermatitidis (Ajellomyces dermatitidis) and Other Systemic Fungal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Stephen W.; Sigler, Lynne

    1998-01-01

    Emmonsia crescens, an agent of adiaspiromycosis, Blastomyces dermatitidis, the agent of blastomycosis, and Histoplasma capsulatum, the agent of histoplasmosis, are known to form meiotic (sexual) stages in the ascomycete genus Ajellomyces (Onygenaceae, Onygenales), but no sexual stage is known for E. parva, the type species of the genus Emmonsia. To evaluate relationships among members of the putative Ajellomyces clade, large-subunit ribosomal and internal transcribed spacer region DNA sequences were determined from PCR-amplified DNA fragments. Sequences were analyzed phylogenetically to evaluate the genetic variation within the genus Emmonsia and evolutionary relationships to other taxa. E. crescens and E. parva are distinct species. E. crescens isolates are placed into two groups that correlate with their continents of origin. Considerable variation occurred among isolates previously classified as E. parva. Most isolates are placed into two closely related groups, but the remaining isolates, including some from human sources, are phylogenetically distinct and represent undescribed species. Strains of B. dermatitidis are a sister species of E. parva. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Histoplasma capsulatum are ancestral to most Emmonsia isolates, and P. brasiliensis, which has no known teleomorph, falls within the Ajellomyces clade. PMID:9738044

  15. Exophiala pisciphila: a novel cause of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis

    PubMed Central

    Mador, M. Jeffery

    2016-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) is a hypersensitivity reaction to fungal antigens, which may particularly plague uncontrolled asthmatics. Non-aspergillus fungal organisms may be implicated and may elicit a more severe immunologic response. Exophiala pisciphila, a marine organism, has not been reported as a culprit yet. However, this report indicates it may be implicated in unrelenting symptoms in a severe asthmatic patient who had become dependent on corticosteroids. Proper identification and adequate therapy of this organism led to complete resolution of respiratory symptoms, with adequate subsequent control of the asthma. ABPM may complicate asthma and lead to a lack of its control. Proper awareness, testing and treatment of non-aspergillus pulmonary mycosis is essential to proper asthma care and beneficial for its control. PMID:27499992

  16. Phylogeographic Analysis of Blastomyces dermatitidis and Blastomyces gilchristii Reveals an Association with North American Freshwater Drainage Basins

    PubMed Central

    McTaggart, Lisa R.; Brown, Elizabeth M.; Richardson, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis and Blastomyces gilchristii are dimorphic fungal pathogens that cause serious pulmonary and systemic infections in humans. Although their natural habitat is in the environment, little is known about their specific ecologic niche(s). Here, we analyzed 25 microsatellite loci from 169 strains collected from various regions throughout their known endemic range in North America, representing the largest and most geographically diverse collection of isolates studied to date. Genetic analysis of multilocus microsatellite data divided the strains into four populations of B. dermatitidis and four populations of B. gilchristii. B. dermatitidis isolates were recovered from areas throughout North America, while the B. gilchristii strains were restricted to Canada and some northern US states. Furthermore, the populations of both species were associated with major freshwater drainage basins. The four B. dermatitidis populations were partitioned among (1) the Nelson River drainage basin, (2) the St. Lawrence River and northeast Atlantic Ocean Seaboard drainage basins, (3) the Mississippi River System drainage basin, and (4) the Gulf of Mexico Seaboard and southeast Atlantic Ocean Seaboard drainage basins. A similar partitioning of the B. gilchristii populations was observed among the more northerly drainage basins only. These associations suggest that the ecologic niche where the sexual reproduction, growth, and dispersal of B. dermatitidis and B. gilchristii occur is intimately linked to freshwater systems. For most populations, sexual reproduction was rare enough to produce significant linkage disequilibrium among loci but frequent enough that mating-type idiomorphic ratios were not skewed from 1:1. Furthermore, the evolutionary divergence of B. dermatitidis and B. gilchristii was estimated at 1.9 MYA during the Pleistocene epoch. We suggest that repeated glaciations during the Pleistocene period and resulting biotic refugia may have provided the

  17. INK128 Exhibits Synergy with Azoles against Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp.

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lujuan; Sun, Yi; He, Chengyan; Li, Ming; Zeng, Tongxiang; Lu, Qiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Infections of Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp. are often chronic and recalcitrant. Systemic disseminations, which mostly occur in immunocompromised patients, are often refractory to available antifungal therapies. The conserved target of rapamycin (TOR) orchestrates cell growth and proliferation in response to nutrients and growth factors, which are important for pathogenicity and virulence. INK128 is a second-generation ATP-competitive TOR inhibitor, which binds the TOR catalytic domain and selectively inhibits TOR. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro activities of INK128 alone and the interactions of INK128 with conventional antifungal drugs including itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and amphotericin B against 18 strains of Exophiala spp. and 10 strains of Fusarium spp. via broth microdilution checkerboard technique system adapted from Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method M38-A2. INK128 alone was inactive against all isolates tested. However, favorable synergistic effects between INK128 and voriconazole were observed in 61% Exophiala strains and 60% Fusarium strains, despite Fusarium strains exhibited high MIC values (4–8 μg/ml) against voriconazole. In addition, synergistic effects of INK128/itraconazole were shown in 33% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains, while synergy of INK128/posaconazole were observed in 28% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains. The effective working ranges of INK128 were 0.125–2 μg/ml and 1–4 μg/ml against Exophiala isolates and Fusarium isolates, respectively. No synergistic effect was observed when INK128 was combined with amphotericin B. No antagonism was observed in all combinations. In conclusion, INK128 could enhance the in vitro antifungal activity of voriconazole, itraconazole and posaconazole against Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp., suggesting that azoles, especially voriconazole, combined with TOR kinase inhibitor might provide a potential strategy

  18. Immunological Activation of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils for Fungal Killing: Studies with Murine Cells and Blastomyces dermatitidis In Vitro,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The interaction of elicited murine polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and the thermally dimorphic fungal pathogen Blastomyces dermatitidis in vitro...albicans compared to normal PMN. Fungicidal activity was abrogated in the presence of catalase , implicating hydrogen peroxide generation as the killing mechanism in the activated cells.

  19. Population genetic structure of clinical and environmental isolates of Blastomyces dermatitidis, Based on 27 Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meece, J.K.; Anderson, J.L.; Fisher, M.C.; Henk, D.A.; Sloss, Brian L.; Reed, K.D.

    2011-01-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis, a thermally dimorphic fungus, is the etiologic agent of North American blastomycosis. Clinical presentation is varied, ranging from silent infections to fulminant respiratory disease and dissemination to skin and other sites. Exploration of the population genetic structure of B. dermatitidis would improve our knowledge regarding variation in virulence phenotypes, geographic distribution, and difference in host specificity. The objective of this study was to develop and test a panel of microsatellite markers to delineate the population genetic structure within a group of clinical and environmental isolates of B. dermatitidis. We developed 27 microsatellite markers and genotyped B. dermatitidis isolates from various hosts and environmental sources (n = 112). Assembly of a neighbor-joining tree of allele-sharing distance revealed two genetically distinct groups, separated by a deep node. Bayesian admixture analysis showed that two populations were statistically supported. Principal coordinate analysis also reinforced support for two genetic groups, with the primary axis explaining 61.41% of the genetic variability. Group 1 isolates average 1.8 alleles/locus, whereas group 2 isolates are highly polymorphic, averaging 8.2 alleles/locus. In this data set, alleles at three loci are unshared between the two groups and appear diagnostic. The mating type of individual isolates was determined by PCR. Both mating type-specific genes, the HMG and ??-box domains, were represented in each of the genetic groups, with slightly more isolates having the HMG allele. One interpretation of this study is that the species currently designated B. dermatitidis includes a cryptic subspecies or perhaps a separate species. ?? 2011, American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Population genetic structure of clinical and environmental isolates of Blastomyces dermatitidis based on 27 polymorphic microsatellite markers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meece, Jennifer K.; Anderson, Jennifer L.; Fisher, Matthew C.; Henk, Daniel A.; Sloss, Brian L.; Reed, Kurt D.

    2011-01-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis, a thermally dimorphic fungus, is the etiologic agent of North American blastomycosis. Clinical presentation is varied, ranging from silent infections to fulminant respiratory disease and dissemination to skin and other sites. Exploration of the population genetic structure of B. dermatitidis would improve our knowledge regarding variation in virulence phenotypes, geographic distribution, and difference in host specificity. The objective of this study was to develop and test a panel of microsatellite markers to delineate the population genetic structure within a group of clinical and environmental isolates of B. dermatitidis. We developed 27 microsatellite markers and genotyped B. dermatitidis isolates from various hosts and environmental sources (n=112). Assembly of a neighbor-joining tree of allele-sharing distance revealed two genetically distinct groups, separated by a deep node. Bayesian admixture analysis showed that two populations were statistically supported. Principal coordinate analysis also reinforced support for two genetic groups, with the primary axis explaining 61.41% of the genetic variability. Group 1 isolates average 1.8 alleles/locus, whereas group 2 isolates are highly polymorphic, averaging 8.2 alleles/locus. In this data set, alleles at three loci are unshared between the two groups and appear diagnostic. The mating type of individual isolates was determined by PCR. Both mating type-specific genes, the HMG and α-box domains, were represented in each of the genetic groups, with slightly more isolates having the HMG allele. One interpretation of this study is that the species currently designated B. dermatitidis includes a cryptic subspecies or perhaps a separate species.

  1. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Exophiala polymorpha sp. nov. Isolated from Sporotrichoid Lymphocutaneous Lesions in a Patient with Myasthenia Gravis

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Lee K.; Sutton, Deanna A.; Lindner, Jonathan R.; Fan, Hongxin; Sanders, Carmita; Guarro, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Exophiala species are capable of causing cutaneous and subcutaneous infections in immunocompromised patients. An Exophiala isolate was cultured from a biopsy specimen of a lesion on the forearm of a patient with myasthenia gravis. The patient also had lesions on the palm and distal aspects of the hand, which were successfully treated with a long-term course of itraconazole. A detailed morphological and molecular characterization of the isolate was undertaken. Phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region and portions of the β-tubulin and translation elongation factor 1-alpha genes indicated that the isolate was a novel species closely related to but genetically distinct from species within the Exophiala spinifera clade; the name Exophiala polymorpha sp. nov. is proposed. Morphologically, E. polymorpha most closely resembles E. xenobiotica but it differs in possessing phialides bearing prominent, wide collarettes, and it does not produce chlamydospores. PMID:26085612

  2. Fungal Morphology, Iron Homeostasis, and Lipid Metabolism Regulated by a GATA Transcription Factor in Blastomyces dermatitidis

    PubMed Central

    Marty, Amber J.; Broman, Aimee T.; Zarnowski, Robert; Dwyer, Teigan G.; Bond, Laura M.; Lounes-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa; Fontaine, Joël; Ntambi, James M.; Keleş, Sündüz; Kendziorski, Christina; Gauthier, Gregory M.

    2015-01-01

    In response to temperature, Blastomyces dermatitidis converts between yeast and mold forms. Knowledge of the mechanism(s) underlying this response to temperature remains limited. In B. dermatitidis, we identified a GATA transcription factor, SREB, important for the transition to mold. Null mutants (SREBΔ) fail to fully complete the conversion to mold and cannot properly regulate siderophore biosynthesis. To capture the transcriptional response regulated by SREB early in the phase transition (0–48 hours), gene expression microarrays were used to compare SREB∆ to an isogenic wild type isolate. Analysis of the time course microarray data demonstrated SREB functioned as a transcriptional regulator at 37°C and 22°C. Bioinformatic and biochemical analyses indicated SREB was involved in diverse biological processes including iron homeostasis, biosynthesis of triacylglycerol and ergosterol, and lipid droplet formation. Integration of microarray data, bioinformatics, and chromatin immunoprecipitation identified a subset of genes directly bound and regulated by SREB in vivo in yeast (37°C) and during the phase transition to mold (22°C). This included genes involved with siderophore biosynthesis and uptake, iron homeostasis, and genes unrelated to iron assimilation. Functional analysis suggested that lipid droplets were actively metabolized during the phase transition and lipid metabolism may contribute to filamentous growth at 22°C. Chromatin immunoprecipitation, RNA interference, and overexpression analyses suggested that SREB was in a negative regulatory circuit with the bZIP transcription factor encoded by HAPX. Both SREB and HAPX affected morphogenesis at 22°C; however, large changes in transcript abundance by gene deletion for SREB or strong overexpression for HAPX were required to alter the phase transition. PMID:26114571

  3. The C-Type Lectin Receptor MCL Mediates Vaccine-Induced Immunity against Infection with Blastomyces dermatitidis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huafeng; Li, Mengyi; Lerksuthirat, Tassanee; Klein, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) are essential in shaping the immune response to fungal pathogens. Vaccine-induced resistance requires Dectin-2 to promote differentiation of antifungal Th1 and Th17 cells. Since Dectin-2 and MCL heterodimerize and both CLRs use FcRγ as the signaling adaptor, we investigated the role of MCL in vaccine immunity to the fungal pathogen Blastomyces dermatitidis. MCL−/− mice showed impaired vaccine resistance against B. dermatitidis infection compared to that of wild-type animals. The lack of resistance correlated with the reduced recruitment of Th17 cells to the lung upon recall following experimental challenge and impaired interleukin-17 (IL-17) production by vaccine antigen-stimulated splenocytes in vitro. Soluble MCL fusion protein recognized and bound a water-soluble ligand from the cell wall of vaccine yeast, but the addition of soluble Dectin-2 fusion protein did not augment ligand recognition by MCL. Taken together, our data indicate that MCL regulates the development of vaccine-induced Th17 cells and protective immunity against lethal experimental infection with B. dermatitidis. PMID:26667836

  4. Development of a highly sensitive and specific blastomycosis antibody enzyme immunoassay using Blastomyces dermatitidis surface protein BAD-1.

    PubMed

    Richer, Sarah M; Smedema, Melinda L; Durkin, Michelle M; Brandhorst, T Tristan; Hage, Chadi A; Connolly, Patricia A; Leland, Diane S; Davis, Thomas E; Klein, Bruce S; Wheat, L Joseph

    2014-02-01

    Serologic tests for antibodies to Blastomyces dermatitidis are not thought to be useful for the diagnosis of blastomycosis, in part due to the low sensitivity of immunodiffusion and complement fixation. Earlier studies have shown that the enzyme immunoassay improves the sensitivity of antibody detection for the diagnosis of blastomycosis. Microplates coated with the B. dermatitidis surface protein BAD-1 were used for testing sera from patients with proven blastomycosis or histoplasmosis and controls. Semiquantification was accomplished by using standards containing human anti-B. dermatitidis antibodies. The antibodies were detected in 87.8% of the patients with blastomycosis by the enzyme immunoassay compared to 15.0% by immunodiffusion. The specificities were 99.2% for patients with nonfungal infections and healthy subjects and 94.0% for patients with histoplasmosis. The results were highly reproducible on repeat testing. When combined with antigen testing, antibody testing improved the sensitivity from 87.8% to 97.6%. Enzyme immunoassay detection of antibodies against BAD-1 is highly specific, has greatly improved sensitivity over immunodiffusion, and may identify cases with negative results by antigen testing. This assay has the potential to aid in the diagnosis of blastomycosis.

  5. Exophilin A, a new antibiotic from a marine microorganism Exophiala pisciphila.

    PubMed

    Doshida, J; Hasegawa, H; Onuki, H; Shimidzu, N

    1996-11-01

    Exophilin A, a new antibacterial compound, was discovered in the culture of the marine microorganism Exophiala pisciphila NI10102, which was isolated from a marine sponge Mycale adhaerens. The absolute chemical structure of exophilin A was elucidated as a trimer of (3R,5R)-3,5-dihydroxydecanoic acid by spectroscopic methods and analyses of a degradative product. Exophilin A showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria.

  6. Phaeohyphomycosis due to Exophiala xenobiotica as a cause of fungal arthritis in an HIV-infected patient.

    PubMed

    Morio, Florent; Berre, Jean-Yves Le; Garcia-Hermoso, Dea; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; de Hoog, Sybren; Benard, Laurent; Michau, Christophe

    2012-07-01

    Black yeasts including Exophiala species are increasingly recognized as agents of human disease. In recent years, progress in molecular phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Exophiala has led to the description of numerous novel species. The 'classical' but highly variable species Exophiala jeanselmei was split into a number of morphological siblings, which, however, were phylogenetically and clinically remote from each other. E. jeanselmei was restricted to an uncommon species causing subcutaneous infections. Hence only limited information is available on the segregants, among which is E. xenobiotica. We describe a case of an HIV-patient presenting with fungal arthritis and subcutaneous nodules caused by the latter species, which was identified by means of phenotypic and molecular methods.

  7. Adaptation of the Black Yeast Wangiella dermatitidis to Ionizing Radiation: Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Kelly L.; Mostaghim, Anahita; Cuomo, Christina A.; Soto, Carissa M.; Lebedev, Nikolai; Bailey, Robert F.; Wang, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Observations of enhanced growth of melanized fungi under low-dose ionizing radiation in the laboratory and in the damaged Chernobyl nuclear reactor suggest they have adapted the ability to survive or even benefit from exposure to ionizing radiation. However, the cellular and molecular mechanism of fungal responses to such radiation remains poorly understood. Using the black yeast Wangiella dermatitidis as a model, we confirmed that ionizing radiation enhanced cell growth by increasing cell division and cell size. Using RNA-seq technology, we compared the transcriptomic profiles of the wild type and the melanin-deficient wdpks1 mutant under irradiation and non-irradiation conditions. It was found that more than 3000 genes were differentially expressed when these two strains were constantly exposed to a low dose of ionizing radiation and that half were regulated at least two fold in either direction. Functional analysis indicated that many genes for amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism and cell cycle progression were down-regulated and that a number of antioxidant genes and genes affecting membrane fluidity were up-regulated in both irradiated strains. However, the expression of ribosomal biogenesis genes was significantly up-regulated in the irradiated wild-type strain but not in the irradiated wdpks1 mutant, implying that melanin might help to contribute radiation energy for protein translation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that long-term exposure to low doses of radiation significantly increased survivability of both the wild-type and the wdpks1 mutant, which was correlated with reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased production of carotenoid and induced expression of genes encoding translesion DNA synthesis. Our results represent the first functional genomic study of how melanized fungal cells respond to low dose ionizing radiation and provide clues for the identification of biological processes, molecular pathways and individual genes

  8. Early diagnosis of Exophiala CAPD peritonitis by 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing and its clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y; Chiu, Siu-kau; Leung, Kit-wah; Yung, Raymond W H; Yuen, Kwok-yung

    2003-06-01

    Phenotypic identification of fungi in clinical microbiology laboratories is often difficult and late, especially for slow growing and rarely encountered fungi. We describe the application of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing in the early diagnosis of a case of Exophiala peritonitis. A yeast-like fungus was isolated from the dialysate fluid of a 66-year-old man undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. It grew slowly after 12 days of incubation to yield mature cultures to permit recognition of microscopic features resembling those of Exophiala, a dematiacerous mold. 18S rRNA gene sequencing provided results 12 days earlier than phenotypic identification and revealed 15 base difference (0.9%) between the isolate and Exophiala sp. strain GHP 1205 (GenBank Accession no. AJ232954), indicating that the isolate most closely resembles a strain of Exophiala species. The patient responded to 4 weeks of intravenous amphotericin B therapy. Early identification of the fungus was important for the choice of anti-fungal regimen. As opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised patients are globally emerging problems, the development of molecular techniques for fungal identification is crucial for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

  9. Shared Physiological Traits of Exophiala Species in Cold-Blooded Vertebrates, as Opportunistic Black Yeasts.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Mariana Machado Fidelis; de Hoog, G Sybren; Gomes, Renata Rodrigues; Furuie, Jason Lee; Gelinski, Jane Mary Lafayette; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Boeger, Walter Antonio Pereira; Vicente, Vania Aparecida

    2016-06-01

    Several species of the genus Exophiala are found as opportunistic pathogens on humans, while others cause infections in cold-blooded waterborne vertebrates. Opportunism of these fungi thus is likely to be multifactorial. Ecological traits [thermotolerance and pH tolerance, laccase activity, assimilation of mineral oil, and decolorization of Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR)] were studied in a set of 40 strains of mesophilic Exophiala species focused on the salmonis-clade mainly containing waterborne species. Thermophilic species and waterborne species outside the salmonis-clade were included for comparison. Strains were able to tolerate a wide range of pHs, although optimal growth was observed between pH 4.0 and 5.5. All strains tested were laccase positive. Strains were able to grow in the presence of the compounds (mineral oil and RBBR) with some differences in assimilation patterns between strains tested and also were capable of degrading the main chromophore of RBBR. The study revealed that distantly related mesophilic species behave similarly, and no particular trend in evolutionary adaptation was observed.

  10. Tolerance and antioxidant response of a dark septate endophyte (DSE), Exophiala pisciphila, to cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Fangdong; He, Yongmei; Li, Tao; Yang, Yun-ya; Toor, Gurpal S; Zhao, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    The growth, oxidative damage and antioxidant response of Exophiala pisciphila ACCC32496, a dark septate endophyte isolated from an abandoned lead-zinc mining area, were measured at cadmium (Cd) concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg L(-1). The EC50 values of E. pisciphila ACCC32496 to Cd were 332.2 mg L(-1) after 30 days on solid medium and 111.2 mg L(-1) after 7 days in liquid medium. Cd stress markedly stimulated the production of superoxide anion, H2O2 and malondialdehyde in the fungal mycelia. The activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase reached their maxima at 100 mg L(-1) Cd. The glutathione and non-protein thiol contents, along with the total antioxidant capability, reached their maxima at 50 mg L(-1) Cd. Low Cd concentrations induced a noticeable increase in antioxidant defense, while high Cd concentrations decreased the antioxidant defense.

  11. Genetic diversity in clinical isolates of the dimorphic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis detected by a PCR-based random amplified polymorphic DNA assay.

    PubMed

    Yates-Siilata, K E; Sander, D M; Keath, E J

    1995-08-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis is a dimorphic fungus causing localized or systemic infection in areas where the organism is endemic in the central and southeastern United States. In this study, 19 independent isolates of B. dermatitidis from Little Rock, Ark., were grouped into three classes based on restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns in mitochondrial DNA with a heterologous probe from Histoplasma capsulatum. One large class of 15 isolates and two smaller classes (classes 2 and 3), each consisting of two isolates, were observed in BglII digests. Strain-specific arrays of PCR-amplified DNA products were obtained with arbitrarily selected primers (18 to 29 nucleotides long; G+C contents, 33 to 56%). In the large class 1 group, 13 isolates could be differentiated by the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method with various primers. The two remaining class 1 isolates were obtained from the same patients and produced identical RAPD arrays. Dissimilar RAPD patterns were obtained from the smaller class 2 group but not from the class 3 isolates. Significant genetic diversity in clinical isolates of B. dermatitidis was observed; this may underscore a similar environmental diversification. Further application of the typing techniques may provide significant insight into the epidemiology of blastomycosis and aid in the assessment of specific virulence phenotypes.

  12. Purification and characterization of the major antigen WI-1 from Blastomyces dermatitidis yeasts and immunological comparison with A antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, B S; Jones, J M

    1994-01-01

    The lack of well-defined antigens from Blastomyces dermatitidis has hampered the ability to reliably diagnose human infection and study the immunobiology of blastomycosis. We recently discovered a novel surface protein on B. dermatitidis yeasts, designated WI-1, and demonstrated it to be a key antigenic target of humoral and cellular responses during infection. In the present article, we purified and characterized WI-1 and compared it immunologically with the only Blastomyces antigen commercially available, A antigen. WI-1 was purified by high-performance liquid chromatography over a DEAE-cellulose column. It eluted from the column at a point on the salt gradient corresponding to 460 to 490 mM NaCl, reflecting its acidic pI of approximately equal to 5.2. Purified WI-1 had a molecular mass of 120 kDa and contained a large amount of cysteine (85 residues) and aromatic amino acids but undetectable carbohydrate. In contrast, A antigen had a molecular mass of 135 kDa and contained 37% carbohydrate. Immunological comparison of the two antigens showed that, when radiolabeled, WI-1 was more reactive with anti-Blastomyces antisera than A antigen but did not cross-react with anti-Histoplasma antisera. Proteinase digestion of WI-1 eliminated its recognition by anti-WI-1 and anti-Blastomyces antisera. Proteinase treatment of A antigen had no effect on its recognition by anti-Blastomyces or anti-Histoplasma antisera, but periodate treatment abolished recognition by anti-Histoplasma antisera, indicating that the cross-reactive determinant(s) of A antigen is displayed on the accompanying carbohydrate. In further studies, anti-WI-1 antiserum reacted with A antigen and, conversely, anti-A antiserum and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) reacted with WI-1, indicating a shared determinant on the two antigens. A recombinant 25-amino-acid repeat, recently cloned from WI-1 and found to be the major target of antibody recognition of WI-1, reacted strongly with anti-A antiserum and MAbs. In MAb

  13. Exophiala spinifera as a Cause of Cutaneous Phaeohyphomycosis: Case Study and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Harris, John E.; Sutton, Deanna A.; Rubin, Adam; Wickes, Brian; de Hoog, G.S.; Kovarik, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    Summary Exophiala spinifera has been reported as an agent of cutaneous disease eighteen times in the literature. Clinical presentations of cutaneous lesions vary widely, including erythematous papules, verrucous plaques, and deep subcutaneous abscesses. The clinical distribution and course of disease are also variable, depending on the age and immune competency of the patient. Histologic appearance occurs in one of two patterns – phaeohyphomycosis or chromoblastomycosis. While E. spinifera appears to be susceptible to multiple antimicrobial agents in vitro, clinical experience with treatment modalities has been variable. Prior to the availability of sequencing methods for speciation, identification was made based on the histopathologic presentation in tissue and morphologic features in culture. It is likely that E. spinifera cutaneous infection is underreported due to incorrect species identification based on earlier methods. We report an additional case of E. spinifera phaeohyphomycosis, the first to be definitively identified by sequencing, and summarize the variable clinical, histopathologic, and morphologic features, as well as treatment responses in previously reported cutaneous infections by E. spinifera. PMID:19101838

  14. Isolation and characterization of a nitrile hydrolysing acidotolerant black yeast-Exophiala oligosperma R1.

    PubMed

    Rustler, Sven; Stolz, Andreas

    2007-06-01

    Different nitriles were used as sole sources of nitrogen in a series of enrichments under acidic conditions to isolate acidotolerant nitriles hydrolysing microorganisms. From an enrichment in Na-citrate-phosphate buffer at pH 4 with glucose as carbon source and phenylacetonitrile as sole source of nitrogen, a black yeast (strain R1) was obtained which was identified by subsequent 18S rRNA gene sequencing as Exophiala oligosperma. The growth conditions of the organism were optimized for the production of cell material and the induction of the nitrile converting activity. Resting cell experiments demonstrated that phenylacetonitrile was converted via phenylacetic acid and 2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid. The organism could grow at pH 4 with phenylacetonitrile as sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. The nitriles hydrolysing activity was also detected in cell-free extracts and indications for a nitrilase activity were found. The cell-free extracts converted, in addition to phenylacetonitrile, also different substituted phenylacetonitriles. Whole cells of E. oligosperma R1 converted phenylacetonitrile with almost the same reaction rates in the pH range from pH 1.5-pH 9.

  15. Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium in a dark septate endophyte (DSE), Exophiala pisciphila.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Fangdong; He, Yongmei; Li, Yuan; Li, Tao; Yang, Yun-Ya; Toor, Gurpal S; Zhao, Zhiwei

    2015-11-01

    Our objective was to understand the cadmium (Cd) tolerance mechanisms by investigating the subcellular distribution, chemical forms of Cd and adsorptive groups in the mycelia of Exophiala pisciphila. We grew E. pisciphila in the liquid media with increasing Cd concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg L(-1)). Increased Cd in the media caused a proportional increase in the Cd uptake by E. pisciphila. Subcellular distribution indicated that 81 to 97% of Cd was associated with the cell walls. The largest amount and proportion (45-86%) of Cd was extracted with 2% acetic acid, and a concentration-dependent extraction was observed, both of which suggest that Cd-phosphate complexes were the major chemical form in E. pisciphila. A large distribution of phosphate and Cd on the mycelia surface was observed by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS). The precipitates associated with the mycelia were observed to contain Cd by transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDX). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) identified that hydroxyl, amine, carboxyl, and phosphate groups were responsible for binding Cd. We conclude that Cd associated with cell walls and integrated with phosphate might be responsible for the tolerance of E. pisciphila to Cd.

  16. Chromoblastomycosis Associated with Bone and Central Nervous Involvement System in an Immunocompetent Child Caused by Exophiala Spinifera

    PubMed Central

    Srinivas, Sahana M; Gowda, Vykuntaraju K; Mahantesh, S; Mannapur, Rajeshwari; Shivappa, Sanjay K

    2016-01-01

    Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic granulomatous infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by specific group of dematiaceous fungi. The infection results from traumatic injury and is seen more commonly on feet and lower legs. It is rarely seen in children and metastatic spread to other systems is exceptionally rare. We report a 12-year-old immunocompetent male child diagnosed with chromoblastomycosis on the lower leg, who in a span of few months developed osteomyelitis and left hemiparesis. Fungal culture showed growth of Exophiala spinifera. Child showed good improvement with voriconazole and itraconazole after 1 year of treatment. Skin lesions healed with minimal scarring and his power improved. PMID:27293256

  17. WI-1, a novel 120-kilodalton surface protein on Blastomyces dermatitidis yeast cells, is a target antigen of cell-mediated immunity in human blastomycosis.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, B S; Sondel, P M; Jones, J M

    1992-01-01

    A large body of experimental data has demonstrated the central role of T cells in acquired resistance to the dimorphic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis. We examined the human T-cell response to WI-1, a 120-kDa B. dermatitidis yeast cell surface protein recently shown to be an immunodominant antigen of the B-cell response in infected humans. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from 10 blastomycosis patients studied proliferated in response to WI-1 (mean, 19,431 cpm) and to the standard, crude cell wall antigen, Blastomyces alkali- and water-soluble antigen (B-ASWS) (mean, 19,131 cpm); lymphocytes from 10 histoplasmosis patients and 10 normal control subjects did not respond to WI-1. WI-1 stimulation of patient lymphocytes and rechallenge with WI-1 or B-ASWS showed that the antigens share immunodominant epitopes. Of 100 WI-1-responsive T-cell clones derived from peripheral blood, 10 were studied in detail to assess the phenotype, function, and ligands recognized. The clones exhibit the CD3+ CD4+ phenotype of helper T cells; 2 of 10 clones (and 21% of antigen-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes) use the V beta 8 T-cell receptor gene element to respond to WI-1. All the clones proliferate in response to both WI-1 and B-ASWS but not other fungal antigens, and some mediate potent cytolytic effects on WI-1- and B-ASWS-labeled targets. WI-1 recognition requires antigen processing and presentation of epitopes in association with HLA-DR (to noncytolytic clones) and HLA-DP (to cytolytic clones). From these findings, we conclude that CD4+ T cells with regulatory and cytolytic properties are involved in the development of acquired resistance of B. dermatitidis, that the cells are directed against WI-1, and that the manner of display of WI-1 peptide epitopes in conjunction with major histocompatibility complex class II may influence the profile of the immune response. PMID:1383148

  18. Isolation, purification, and radiolabeling of a novel 120-kD surface protein on Blastomyces dermatitidis yeasts to detect antibody in infected patients

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, B.S.; Jones, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    No well-defined Blastomyces-specific antigens are currently available. We used sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting to identify immunologically active molecules in the cell wall of B. dermatitidis. A major immunoreactive 120-kD protein (WI-1) was present in all five strains studied and comprised 5% of the protein in the cell wall extract obtained after freezing and thawing yeast cells. WI-1 was recognized by serum from all 10 patients with blastomycosis but by none of those from 5 patients with histoplasmosis. It was purified by electroelution, radiolabeled with 125I, and incorporated into a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for serodiagnosis of blastomycosis. Antibody to WI-1 was detected in 58 (85%) of 68 patients with blastomycosis (geometric mean titer, 1:2,981), in two (3%) of 73 patients with histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, sporotrichosis, or candidiasis (titers, 1:86 and 1:91) and in none of 44 healthy persons. WI-1 was shown to be a surface molecule abundant on B. dermatitidis yeasts that were indirectly stained with serum from a rabbit immunized with WI-1. Approximately 0.93 pg of WI-1 or 4.7 x 10(6) WI-1 molecules were found on the surface of an individual yeast using an antigen-inhibition RIA; none was found on Histoplasma capsulatum or Candida albicans yeasts. We conclude that WI-1 is a novel, immunologically active surface molecule on the invasive form of B. dermatitidis and that WI-1 can be used to reliably detect antibody and study the immunopathogenesis of blastomycosis.

  19. Evaluation of the Effects of Photodynamic Therapy Alone and Combined with Standard Antifungal Therapy on Planktonic Cells and Biofilms of Fusarium spp. and Exophiala spp.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lujuan; Jiang, Shaojie; Sun, Yi; Deng, Meiqi; Wu, Qingzhi; Li, Ming; Zeng, Tongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Infections of Fusarium spp. and Exophiala spp. are often chronic, recalcitrant, resulting in significant morbidity, causing discomfort, disfigurement, social isolation. Systemic disseminations happen in compromised patients, which are often refractory to available antifungal therapies and thereby lead to death. The antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been demonstrated to effectively inactivate multiple pathogenic fungi and is considered as a promising alternative treatment for mycoses. In the present study, we applied methylene blue (8, 16, and 32 μg/ml) as a photosensitizing agent and light emitting diode (635 ± 10 nm, 12 and 24 J/cm(2)), and evaluated the effects of photodynamic inactivation on five strains of Fusarium spp. and five strains of Exophiala spp., as well as photodynamic effects on in vitro susceptibility to itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole and amphotericin B, both planktonic and biofilm forms. Photodynamic therapy was efficient in reducing the growth of all strains tested, exhibiting colony forming unit-reductions of up to 6.4 log10 and 5.6 log10 against planktonic cultures and biofilms, respectively. However, biofilms were less sensitive since the irradiation time was twice longer than that of planktonic cultures. Notably, the photodynamic effects against Fusarium strains with high minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of ≥16, 4-8, 4-8, and 2-4 μg/ml for itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole and amphotericin B, respectively, were comparable or even superior to Exophiala spp., despite Exophiala spp. showed relatively better antifungal susceptibility profile. MIC ranges against planktonic cells of both species were up to 64 times lower after aPDT treatment. Biofilms of both species showed high sessile MIC50 (SMIC50) and SMIC80 of ≥16 μg/ml for all azoles tested and variable susceptibilities to amphotericin B, with SMIC ranging between 1 and 16 μg/ml. Biofilms subjected to aPDT exhibited a distinct reduction in

  20. Evaluation of the Effects of Photodynamic Therapy Alone and Combined with Standard Antifungal Therapy on Planktonic Cells and Biofilms of Fusarium spp. and Exophiala spp.

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lujuan; Jiang, Shaojie; Sun, Yi; Deng, Meiqi; Wu, Qingzhi; Li, Ming; Zeng, Tongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Infections of Fusarium spp. and Exophiala spp. are often chronic, recalcitrant, resulting in significant morbidity, causing discomfort, disfigurement, social isolation. Systemic disseminations happen in compromised patients, which are often refractory to available antifungal therapies and thereby lead to death. The antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been demonstrated to effectively inactivate multiple pathogenic fungi and is considered as a promising alternative treatment for mycoses. In the present study, we applied methylene blue (8, 16, and 32 μg/ml) as a photosensitizing agent and light emitting diode (635 ± 10 nm, 12 and 24 J/cm2), and evaluated the effects of photodynamic inactivation on five strains of Fusarium spp. and five strains of Exophiala spp., as well as photodynamic effects on in vitro susceptibility to itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole and amphotericin B, both planktonic and biofilm forms. Photodynamic therapy was efficient in reducing the growth of all strains tested, exhibiting colony forming unit-reductions of up to 6.4 log10 and 5.6 log10 against planktonic cultures and biofilms, respectively. However, biofilms were less sensitive since the irradiation time was twice longer than that of planktonic cultures. Notably, the photodynamic effects against Fusarium strains with high minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of ≥16, 4-8, 4-8, and 2-4 μg/ml for itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole and amphotericin B, respectively, were comparable or even superior to Exophiala spp., despite Exophiala spp. showed relatively better antifungal susceptibility profile. MIC ranges against planktonic cells of both species were up to 64 times lower after aPDT treatment. Biofilms of both species showed high sessile MIC50 (SMIC50) and SMIC80 of ≥16 μg/ml for all azoles tested and variable susceptibilities to amphotericin B, with SMIC ranging between 1 and 16 μg/ml. Biofilms subjected to aPDT exhibited a distinct reduction in SMIC

  1. Evaluation of the API 20C yeast identification system for the differentiation of some dematiaceous fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Espinel-Ingroff, A; McGinnis, M R; Pincus, D H; Goldson, P R; Kerkering, T M

    1989-01-01

    Ninety-seven isolates of Cladosporium spp., Exophiala spp., Fonsecaea spp., Lecythophora hoffmannii, Phaeoannellomyces werneckii, Phialophora spp., Wangiella dermatitidis, and Xylohypha bantiana were used to evaluate the API 20C Yeast Identification System for the differentiation of dematiaceous fungi. Using the API 20C system, we were able to distinguish most species of Phialophora and Cladosporium and to separate L. hoffmannii from the species of Phialophora tested; X. bantiana from C. carrionii, C. resinae, and C. sphaerospermum; and W. dermatitidis from Exophiala jeanselmei and Exophiala spinifera. Ninety-two (60.1%) of 153 possible species-pair combinations were separated. PMID:2808678

  2. Functional and transcript analysis of a novel metal transporter gene EpNramp from a dark septate endophyte (Exophiala pisciphila).

    PubMed

    Wei, Yun-Fang; Li, Tao; Li, Ling-Fei; Wang, Jun-Ling; Cao, Guan-Hua; Zhao, Zhi-Wei

    2016-02-01

    Various metal transporters mediate sub-cellular sequestration of diverse metal ions, contribute to cellular metal tolerance, and control metal partitioning, particularly under conditions of high rates of metal influx into organisms. In the current study, a ubiquitous and evolutionary conserved metal transporter gene, homology to natural resistance associated macrophage protein (Nramp), was cloned from a metal-tolerant isolate of dark septate endophyte (DSE, Exophiala pisciphila), and its functional and transcript characterization were analyzed. The full-length Nramp gene from E. pisciphila (named EpNramp) was 1716 bp and expected to encode a polypeptide of 571 amino acid residues. EpNramp fused to green fluorescent protein suggested that EpNramp was a plasma membrane metal transporter, which was consistent with the results of bioinformatics analysis with 11 transmembrane domains. Yeast functional complementation revealed that EpNramp could complement the growth defect of Fe-uptake yeast mutant (fet3fet4 double mutant) by mediating the transport of Fe(2+). Expression of EpNramp increased Cd(2+) sensitivity and Cd(2+) accumulation in yeast. In addition, qPCR data revealed that E. pisciphila significantly down-regulated EpNramp expression with elevated Cd(2+) exposure. Altogether, EpNramp is a bivalent cation transporter localized in cell membrane, which is necessary for efficient translocation of both Fe and Cd, and its activities partly attributed to the tolerance of DSE to toxic and excessive Cd(2+) supplements.

  3. Improved tolerance of maize (Zea mays L.) to heavy metals by colonization of a dark septate endophyte (DSE) Exophiala pisciphila.

    PubMed

    Li, T; Liu, M J; Zhang, X T; Zhang, H B; Sha, T; Zhao, Z W

    2011-02-15

    Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are ubiquitous and abundant in stressful environments including heavy metal (HM) stress. However, our knowledge about the roles of DSE in improving HM tolerance of their host plants is poor. In this study, maize (Zea mays L.) was inoculated with a HM tolerant DSE strain Exophiala pisciphila H93 in lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) contaminated soils. E. pisciphila H93 successfully colonized and formed typical DSE structures in the inoculated maize roots. Colonization of E. pisciphila H93 alleviated the deleterious effects of excessive HM supplements and promoted the growth of maize (roots and shoots) under HM stress conditions, though it significantly decreased the biomass of inoculated maize under no HM stress. Further analysis showed that the colonization of E. pisciphila H93 improved the tolerance of maize to HM by restricting the translocation of HM ions from roots to shoots. This study demonstrated that under higher HM stress, such a mutual symbiosis between E. pisciphila and its host (maize) may be an efficient strategy to survive in the stressful environments.

  4. Effects of Tricyclazole on Cadmium Tolerance and Accumulation Characteristics of a Dark Septate Endophyte (DSE), Exophiala pisciphila.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Fangdong; He, Yongmei; Yang, Yiyan; Li, Yuan; Li, Tao; Zhao, Zhiwei

    2016-02-01

    Exophiala pisciphila is a cadmium-tolerant fungus, and produces 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene melanin which can be inhibited by tricyclazole. Tricyclazole at higher levels (20 and 40 µg mL−1) reduced the growth and sporulation of E. pisciphila, but toxicity was not observed at a low concentration (2.5 µg mL−1). Under cadmium (Cd) stress (50, 100 and 200 mg L−1), 2.5 µg mL−1 of tricyclazole reduced fungal growth and sporulation. These reduces indicated a decrease on Cd tolerance of E. pisciphila. For both the 0 and 2.5 µg mL−1 tricyclazole treatments, Cd was associated mostly with cell walls and was extracted by 2 % acetic acid and 1 M NaCl. The FTIR spectra of the E. pisciphila mycelia were similar for both 0 and 2.5 µg mL−1 tricyclazole treatments, which showed hydroxyl, amine, carboxyl and phosphate groups. Thus inhibition of melanin synthesis by tricyclazole did not change Cd accumulation characteristics in E. pisciphila. Results suggested that melanin played a protective role for E. pisciphila against Cd stress, but inhibition of melanin synthesis did not have a remarkable impact on Cd accumulation in E. pisciphila.

  5. Evaluation of proteolytic activity to differentiate some dematiaceous fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Espinel-Ingroff, A; Goldson, P R; McGinnis, M R; Kerkering, T M

    1988-01-01

    A total of 123 isolates of Cladosporium spp., Exophiala spp., Fonsecaea spp., Lecythophora hoffmannii, Phaeoannellomyces werneckii, Phialophora spp., Wangiella dermatitidis, and Xylohypha bantiana were tested for proteolytic activity by using 26 different formulations of gelatin, milk, casein, and Loeffler media. Other physiological properties examined included hydrolysis of tyrosine and xanthine, sodium nitrate utilization in Czapek Dox agar, and thermotolerance. Isolates of Exophiala jeanselmei, Fonsecaea compacta, Fonsecaea pedrosoi, W. dermatitidis, and X. bantiana lacked proteolytic activity. Proteolytic activity was variable among the remaining species, depending on the type of medium used. Thermotolerance had value in distinguishing some taxa. PMID:3343325

  6. Heterotrophic Bioleaching of Sulfur, Iron, and Silicon Impurities from Coal by Fusarium oxysporum FE and Exophiala spinifera FM with Growing and Resting Cells.

    PubMed

    Etemadzadeh, Shekoofeh Sadat; Emtiazi, Giti; Etemadifar, Zahra

    2016-06-01

    Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel containing sulfur and other elements which promote environmental pollution after burning. Also the silicon impurities make the transportation of coal expensive. In this research, two isolated fungi from oil contaminated soil with accessory number KF554100 (Fusarium oxysporum FE) and KC925672 (Exophiala spinifera FM) were used for heterotrophic biological leaching of coal. The leaching were detected by FTIR, CHNS, XRF analyzer and compared with iron and sulfate released in the supernatant. The results showed that E. spinifera FM produced more acidic metabolites in growing cells, promoting the iron and sulfate ions removal while resting cells of F. oxysporum FE enhanced the removal of aromatic sulfur. XRF analysis showed that the resting cells of E. spinifera FM proceeded maximum leaching for iron and silicon (48.8, 43.2 %, respectively). CHNS analysis demonstrated that 34.21 % of sulfur leaching was due to the activities of resting cells of F. oxysporum FE. Also F. oxysporum FE removed organic sulfur more than E. spinifera FM in both growing and resting cells. FTIR data showed that both fungi had the ability to remove pyrite and quartz from coal. These data indicated that inoculations of these fungi to the coal are cheap and impurity removals were faster than autotrophic bacteria. Also due to the removal of dibenzothiophene, pyrite, and quartz, we speculated that they are excellent candidates for bioleaching of coal, oil, and gas.

  7. Identification of glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes from a dark septate endophytic fungus (Exophiala pisciphila) and their expression patterns under varied metals stress.

    PubMed

    Shen, Mi; Zhao, Da-Ke; Qiao, Qin; Liu, Lei; Wang, Jun-Ling; Cao, Guan-Hua; Li, Tao; Zhao, Zhi-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) compose a family of multifunctional enzymes that play important roles in the detoxification of xenobiotics and the oxidative stress response. In the present study, twenty four GST genes from the transcriptome of a metal-tolerant dark septate endophyte (DSE), Exophiala pisciphila, were identified based on sequence homology, and their responses to various heavy metal exposures were also analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 24 GST genes from E. pisciphila (EpGSTs) were divided into eight distinct classes, including seven cytosolic classes and one mitochondrial metaxin 1-like class. Moreover, the variable expression patterns of these EpGSTs were observed under different heavy metal stresses at their effective concentrations for inhibiting growth by 50% (EC50). Lead (Pb) exposure caused the up-regulation of all EpGSTs, while cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) treatments led to the significant up-regulation of most of the EpGSTs (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). Furthermore, although heavy metal-specific differences in performance were observed under various heavy metals in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) transformed with EpGSTN-31, the over-expression of this gene was able to enhance the heavy metal tolerance of the host cells. These results indicate that E. Pisciphila harbored a diverse of GST genes and the up-regulated EpGSTs are closely related to the heavy metal tolerance of E. pisciphila. The study represents the first investigation of the GST family in E. pisciphila and provides a primary interpretation of heavy metal detoxification for E. pisciphila.

  8. Identification of Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) Genes from a Dark Septate Endophytic Fungus (Exophiala pisciphila) and Their Expression Patterns under Varied Metals Stress

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Qin; Liu, Lei; Wang, Jun-Ling; Cao, Guan-Hua; Li, Tao; Zhao, Zhi-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) compose a family of multifunctional enzymes that play important roles in the detoxification of xenobiotics and the oxidative stress response. In the present study, twenty four GST genes from the transcriptome of a metal-tolerant dark septate endophyte (DSE), Exophiala pisciphila, were identified based on sequence homology, and their responses to various heavy metal exposures were also analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 24 GST genes from E. pisciphila (EpGSTs) were divided into eight distinct classes, including seven cytosolic classes and one mitochondrial metaxin 1-like class. Moreover, the variable expression patterns of these EpGSTs were observed under different heavy metal stresses at their effective concentrations for inhibiting growth by 50% (EC50). Lead (Pb) exposure caused the up-regulation of all EpGSTs, while cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) treatments led to the significant up-regulation of most of the EpGSTs (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). Furthermore, although heavy metal-specific differences in performance were observed under various heavy metals in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) transformed with EpGSTN-31, the over-expression of this gene was able to enhance the heavy metal tolerance of the host cells. These results indicate that E. Pisciphila harbored a diverse of GST genes and the up-regulated EpGSTs are closely related to the heavy metal tolerance of E. pisciphila. The study represents the first investigation of the GST family in E. pisciphila and provides a primary interpretation of heavy metal detoxification for E. pisciphila. PMID:25884726

  9. Recovery of melanized yeasts from Eastern Mediterranean beach sand associated with the prevailing geochemical and marine flora patterns.

    PubMed

    Efstratiou, Maria A; Velegraki, Aristea

    2010-03-01

    The melanized opportunistic pathogens Exophiala dermatitidis (Chaetothyriales) and Aureobasidium pullulans (Dothideales) were sporadically isolated from beach sand. This is the first time they are reported from bathing beach sand, thus providing updates on the conditions influencing the in situ black yeast community structure and raising public health concerns.

  10. Infections caused by dematiaceous fungi and their anatomoclinical correlations.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Camila de Camargo; Danucalov, Itamara Pereira; Purim, Katia Sheylla Malta; Queiroz-Telles, Flavio

    2011-01-01

    The Exophiala genus comprises dimorphic melanized fungi responsible for a spectrum of diseases including phaeohyphomycosis, mycetoma, chromoblastomycosis and fungemia. The E. jeanselmei species is predominant in such infections, followed by E. dermatitidis. This paper aims at reporting four cases and at discussing clinical, histologycal, mycologycal and epidemiologycal aspects for its diagnosis.

  11. Ecology Drives the Distribution of Specialized Tyrosine Metabolism Modules in Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Greene, George H.; McGary, Kriston L.; Rokas, Antonis; Slot, Jason C.

    2014-01-01

    Gene clusters encoding accessory or environmentally specialized metabolic pathways likely play a significant role in the evolution of fungal genomes. Two such gene clusters encoding enzymes associated with the tyrosine metabolism pathway (KEGG #00350) have been identified in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. The l-tyrosine degradation (TD) gene cluster encodes a functional module that facilitates breakdown of the phenolic amino acid, l-tyrosine through a homogentisate intermediate, but is also involved in the production of pyomelanin, a fungal pathogenicity factor. The gentisate catabolism (GC) gene cluster encodes a functional module likely involved in phenolic compound degradation, which may enable metabolism of biphenolic stilbenes in multiple lineages. Our investigation of the evolution of the TD and GC gene clusters in 214 fungal genomes revealed spotty distributions partially shaped by gene cluster loss and horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Specifically, a TD gene cluster shows evidence of HGT between the extremophilic, melanized fungi Exophiala dermatitidis and Baudoinia compniacensis, and a GC gene cluster shows evidence of HGT between Sordariomycete and Dothideomycete grass pathogens. These results suggest that the distribution of specialized tyrosine metabolism modules is influenced by both the ecology and phylogeny of fungal species. PMID:24391152

  12. Black yeast diversity on creosoted railway sleepers changes with ambient climatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Gümral, Ramazan; Tümgör, Ayşegül; Saraçlı, Mehmet Ali; Yıldıran, Şinasi Taner; Ilkit, Macit; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2014-11-01

    The environmental isolation of opportunistic pathogenic black yeasts, which are responsible for a wide spectrum of human infections, is essential to understanding the ecology of clinical fungi. Extreme outdoor environments polluted with aromatic hydrocarbons support the growth of black yeasts in unlikely places, such as railway sleepers. However, there are limited data concerning the diversity of these fungi growing on polluted railway sleepers. In this investigation, we examined 845 railway sleeper samples, obtained from 11 Turkish cities representing altitudes from 25 to 1,893 m, and inoculated the samples onto mycological media for the isolation of black yeasts. Ninety-four samples (11.1 %) yielded positive results for black yeast, with creosoted oak sleepers having a significantly higher number of isolates than concrete sleepers (p < 0.05). Identification based on the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer region revealed the highest prevalence of Exophiala phaeomuriformis, followed by Exophiala dermatitidis, Exophiala heteromorpha, Exophiala xenobiotica, and Exophiala crusticola. This study revealed that railway sleepers harboring black yeasts were predominantly (>75 %) populated with thermophilic species. We observed that altitude might have a significant effect on species diversity. Briefly, E. phaeomuriformis exhibited growth over a wide altitude range, from 30 to 1,893 m. In contrast, E. dermatitidis had a remarkable aversion to low altitudes and exhibited maximum growth at 1,285 m. In conclusion, we speculate that one can predict what species will be found on railway sleepers and their probability and that species diversity primarily depends on sleeper type and altitude height. We believe that this study can contribute new insights into the ecology of black yeasts on railway sleepers and the railway factors that influence their diversity.

  13. Interpreting Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munsart, Craig A.

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity that allows students to experience the type of discovery process that paleontologists necessarily followed during the early dinosaur explorations. Students are read parts of a story taken from the "American Journal of Science" and interpret the evidence leading to the discovery of Triceratops and Stegosaurus. (PR)

  14. 21 CFR 866.3060 - Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to Blastomyces determatitidis in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of blastomycosis...) disease, which may be limited to the skin or lung or may be widely disseminated in the body resulting...

  15. Evidence Study Guide.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    involving novel scientific evidence, e.g., the drug-induced or hypnosis -induced interview of a witness. Although the rules on experts contain no reference...under the Fed.R.Evid. Among the evidence which Nil.R.Evid. 803(6) makes admissible are forensic laboratory reports and chain of custody documents. The...34 inclusion of forensic laboratory reports and chain of custody documents in this Mil.R.Evid. is in conflict with the legislative history of

  16. Evidence and evidence gaps in tinnitus therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hesse, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    A nearly endless number of procedures has been tried and in particular sold for the treatment of tinnitus, unfortunately they have not been evaluated appropriately in an evidence-based way. A causal therapy, omitting the tinnitus still does not exist, actually it cannot exist because of the various mechanisms of its origin. However or perhaps because of that, medical interventions appear and reappear like fashion trends that can never be proven by stable and reliable treatment success. This contribution will discuss and acknowledge all current therapeutic procedures and the existing or non-existing evidence will be assessed. Beside external evidence, the term of evidence also encompasses the internal evidence, i.e. the experience of the treating physician and the patient’s needs shall be included. While there is no evidence for nearly all direct procedures that intend modulating or stimulating either the cochlea or specific cervical regions such as the auditory cortex, there are therapeutic procedures that are acknowledged in clinical practice and have achieved at least a certain degree of evidence and generate measurable effect sizes. Those are in particular habituation therapy and psychotherapeutic measures, especially if they are combined with concrete measures for improved audio perception (hearing aids, CI, hearing therapies). PMID:28025604

  17. Evidence and evidence gaps in tinnitus therapy.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    A nearly endless number of procedures has been tried and in particular sold for the treatment of tinnitus, unfortunately they have not been evaluated appropriately in an evidence-based way. A causal therapy, omitting the tinnitus still does not exist, actually it cannot exist because of the various mechanisms of its origin. However or perhaps because of that, medical interventions appear and reappear like fashion trends that can never be proven by stable and reliable treatment success. This contribution will discuss and acknowledge all current therapeutic procedures and the existing or non-existing evidence will be assessed. Beside external evidence, the term of evidence also encompasses the internal evidence, i.e. the experience of the treating physician and the patient's needs shall be included. While there is no evidence for nearly all direct procedures that intend modulating or stimulating either the cochlea or specific cervical regions such as the auditory cortex, there are therapeutic procedures that are acknowledged in clinical practice and have achieved at least a certain degree of evidence and generate measurable effect sizes. Those are in particular habituation therapy and psychotherapeutic measures, especially if they are combined with concrete measures for improved audio perception (hearing aids, CI, hearing therapies).

  18. [Evidence based medicine].

    PubMed

    Cuestas, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    Evidence based medicine is a systematic method employed to secure the best scientific available evidence when making clinical decisions. Several steps are taken in these process, describing a clinical scenario, formulating a specific clinical question, searching the literature for the pertinent studies, selecting the relevant articles using rules of evidence, understanding and calculating measures of effect, and finally incorporating the evidence and patients preferences in the clinical decision process.

  19. "Evidence! Evidence! All You People Talk about is Evidence!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Sheldon M.

    2000-01-01

    Explains that using a document that belonged to Evelyn Lincoln, the personal secretary of John F. Kennedy from 1952-1963, can provide the basis for a case study for teaching high school and college students about the process of verifying historical evidence. Discusses the process of verifying Ms. Lincoln's document. (CMK)

  20. A Question of Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Ross J.

    2008-01-01

    Broadly defined, evidence-based practice (EBP) is fundamentally about professional practice being informed and guided by best available evidence of what works. The EBP movement had its origins in the early 1990s in the United Kingdom in medicine and health care services. Sackett et al. defined evidence-based medicine as the "conscientious,…

  1. Evidence and evidence gaps - an introduction.

    PubMed

    Dreier, Gabriele; Löhler, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Medical treatment requires the implementation of existing evidence in the decision making process in order to be able to find the best possible diagnostic, therapeutic or prognostic measure for the individual patient based on the physician's own expertise. Clinical trials form the evidence base and ideally, their results are assembled, analyzed, summarized, and made available in systematic review articles. Beside planning, conducting, and evaluating clinical trials in conformity with GCP (good clinical practice), it is essential that all results of conducted studies are publicly available in order to avoid publication bias. This includes also the public registration of planned and cancelled trials. History: During the last 25 years, evidence-based medicine became increasingly important in medical care and research. It is closely associated with the names of Archibald Cochrane and David Sackett. About 15 years ago, the Deutsche Cochrane Zentrum (Cochrane Germany) and the Deutsche Netzwerk Evidenzbasierte Medizin e.V. (German Network for Evidence-based Medicine, DNEbM) were founded in Germany. In the International Cochrane Collaboration, clinicians and methodologists come together on an interdisciplinary level to further develop methods of evidence-based medicine and to discuss the topics of evidence generation and processing as well as knowledge transfer. Problem: Evidence is particularly important for physicians in the process of decision making, however, at the same time it is the base of a scientific proof of benefit for the patient and finally for the payers in health care. The closure of evidence gaps requires enormously high staff and financial resources, significant organizational efforts, and it is only successful when clinical and methodical expertise as well as specific knowledge in the field of clinical research are included. On the other hand, the knowledge has to be transferred into practice. For this purpose, practice guidelines, meetings

  2. Evidence and evidence gaps – an introduction

    PubMed Central

    Dreier, Gabriele; Löhler, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Medical treatment requires the implementation of existing evidence in the decision making process in order to be able to find the best possible diagnostic, therapeutic or prognostic measure for the individual patient based on the physician’s own expertise. Clinical trials form the evidence base and ideally, their results are assembled, analyzed, summarized, and made available in systematic review articles. Beside planning, conducting, and evaluating clinical trials in conformity with GCP (good clinical practice), it is essential that all results of conducted studies are publicly available in order to avoid publication bias. This includes also the public registration of planned and cancelled trials. History: During the last 25 years, evidence-based medicine became increasingly important in medical care and research. It is closely associated with the names of Archibald Cochrane and David Sackett. About 15 years ago, the Deutsche Cochrane Zentrum (Cochrane Germany) and the Deutsche Netzwerk Evidenzbasierte Medizin e.V. (German Network for Evidence-based Medicine, DNEbM) were founded in Germany. In the International Cochrane Collaboration, clinicians and methodologists come together on an interdisciplinary level to further develop methods of evidence-based medicine and to discuss the topics of evidence generation and processing as well as knowledge transfer. Problem: Evidence is particularly important for physicians in the process of decision making, however, at the same time it is the base of a scientific proof of benefit for the patient and finally for the payers in health care. The closure of evidence gaps requires enormously high staff and financial resources, significant organizational efforts, and it is only successful when clinical and methodical expertise as well as specific knowledge in the field of clinical research are included. On the other hand, the knowledge has to be transferred into practice. For this purpose, practice guidelines, meetings

  3. Evidence-based neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Esene, Ignatius N.; Baeesa, Saleh S.; Ammar, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Medical evidence is obtainable from approaches, which might be descriptive, analytic and integrative and ranked into levels of evidence, graded according to quality and summarized into strengths of recommendation. Sources of evidence range from expert opinions through well-randomized control trials to meta-analyses. The conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions related to the care of individual patients defines the concept of evidence-based neurosurgery (EBN). We reviewed reference books of clinical epidemiology, evidence-based practice and other previously related articles addressing principles of evidence-based practice in neurosurgery. Based on existing theories and models and our cumulative years of experience and expertise conducting research and promoting EBN, we have synthesized and presented a holistic overview of the concept of EBN. We have also underscored the importance of clinical research and its relationship to EBN. Useful electronic resources are provided. The concept of critical appraisal is introduced. PMID:27356649

  4. Measurement of Evidence and Evidence of Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Vieland, Veronica J; Hodge, Susan E

    2011-01-01

    One important use of statistical methods in application to biological data is measurement of evidence, or assessment of the degree to which data support one or another hypothesis. While there is a small literature on this topic, it seems safe to say that consensus has not yet been reached regarding how best, or most accurately, to measure statistical evidence. Here, we propose considering the problem as a measurement problem, rather than as a statistical problem per se, and we explore the consequences of this shift in perspective. Our arguments here are part of an ongoing research program focused on exploiting deep parallelisms between foundations of thermodynamics and foundations of “evidentialism,” in order to derive an absolute scale for the measurement of evidence, a general framework in the context of which that scale is validated, and the many ancillary benefits that come from having such a framework in place.

  5. Synthesizing Evidence: Synthesis Methods for Evidence Clearinghouses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Jeff; Lau, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Following the theme of the first two presentations, this presentation will focus on the choices available for research synthesis when summarizing research evidence. The presenters will describe the current research synthesis practice of the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) as well as several alternative models, including inverse-variance weighted…

  6. [Evidence-based medicine].

    PubMed

    Saad, E D; Grunspun, H

    1996-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine has been described as a new approach to teaching and practicing clinical medicine. Although the search for evidence is an established practice among physicians, what is being proposed is the systematic gathering and critical interpretation of data, which can then be used in the appropriate context. The main objective is to provide better care for patients. This is accomplished by transforming clinical problems in specific questions to be answered by searching the literature for the levels of evidence favoring the possible interventions for one particular case. This has to be done in a systematic and conscientious fashion. Through its method, evidence-based medicine places less value on clinical experience, the study understanding of pathophysiology, and common sense; instead, it emphasizes observation, levels of evidence, and critical interpretation of original literature. In this manner, evidence-based medicine may be seen by the authoritarian physician as a threat. Other obstacles to the acceptance of the method include lack of time and lack of familiarity with computers. One important limitation of evidence-based medicine is the incomplete or contradictory evidence available in many areas of clinical medicine, or the so-called "grey zones". We outline the main aspects of evidence-based medicine, expecting a growing interest among brazilian physicians for this useful clinical tool.

  7. [The paradigm of evidence].

    PubMed

    Bolańos, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    This article is a critical review about the concept of evidence in statistics and their impact in the based evidence medicine. The basic types of hypothesis used in clinical trials are explored and their meanings in epistemology. This review is a practical introduction about key issues in statistics applied in clinical research.

  8. Observational Evidence for Atoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Edwin R., Jr.; Childers, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the development of the concept of atomicity and some of the many which can be used to establish its validity. Chemical evidence, evidence from crystals, Faraday's law of electrolysis, and Avogadro's number are among the areas which show how the concept originally developed from a purely philosophical idea. (JN)

  9. [Evidence-based physiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Bender, Tamás

    2013-12-01

    This article on physiotherapy presents some current evidence stating the strengths and weaknesses of the physiotherapeutic procedures. In the area of physiotherapy empirical data obtained during decades were overtaken by evidence from current studies. The author points out the great problem of physiotherapy, namely the heterogeneity of the applied parameters. Knowledge of current evidence may be very important and helpful for the physicians, but the author proposes, from the practical point of view, that physiotherapeutical procedures based on exprience and used for many years should not be entirely neglected. Nowadays physiotherapy plays an important role in the treament of locomotor diseases but its use is increasing in other fields of medicine, as well.

  10. Putting evidence into practice.

    PubMed

    Feight, Deborah; Baney, Tara; Bruce, Susan; McQuestion, Maurene

    2011-10-01

    Radiation dermatitis, or radiodermatitis, is a significant symptom caused by radiation therapy for the treatment of cancerous and noncancerous conditions. Radiodermatitis can negatively affect patients' physical functioning and quality of life. The Oncology Nursing Society coordinated a Putting Evidence Into Practice (PEP) project team to develop a PEP resource summarizing current evidence for the management of patients with radiodermatitis. Oncology nurses play an important role in educating, assessing, and monitoring patients for this symptom. Many common nursing interventions for radiodermatitis are based on tradition or opinion and have not been researched thoroughly. In addition, evidence to support some current interventions in practice is lacking. This article presents information concerning radiodermatitis, summarizes the evidence-based review for its prevention and management, and identifies gaps in the literature, as well as opportunities for research, education, and practice.

  11. Imidazolylchromanones containing non-benzylic oxime ethers: synthesis and molecular modeling study of new azole antifungals selective against Cryptococcus gattii.

    PubMed

    Babazadeh-Qazijahani, Mojtaba; Badali, Hamid; Irannejad, Hamid; Afsarian, Mohammad Hosein; Emami, Saeed

    2014-04-09

    A series of imidazolylchromanone oximes containing phenoxyethyl ether moiety, as found in omoconazole, were synthesized and evaluated against yeasts (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus gattii) and filamentous fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus and Exophiala dermatitidis). Although the title compounds showed marginal activity against filamentous fungi but all of them exhibited potent activity against C. gattii (MIC values ≤4 μg/mL). Among them, (3-chlorophenoxy)ethyl analog 7c with MIC value of 0.5 μg/mL was the most potent compound. Further molecular docking studies provided a better insight into the binding of designed compounds within the homology modeled active site of CnCYP51 (Cryptococcus CYP51-14α-demethylase).

  12. LTDNA Evidence on Trial.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. The section titled Expert Evidence as Forensic Epistemic Warrant addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1) expert competence; (2) disciplinary domain; (3) methodological validity; (4) materiality; and (5) legal admissibility. This generic model of expert authority, highlighting law's fundamentally normative character, applies to all modern forms of criminal adjudication, across Europe and farther afield. The section titled LTDNA Evidence in UK Criminal Trials then examines English and Northern Irish courts' attempts to get to grips with LTDNA evidence in recent cases. Better appreciating the ways in which UK courts have addressed the challenges of LTDNA evidence may offer some insights into parallel developments in other legal systems. Appellate court rulings follow a predictable judicial logic, which might usefully be studied and reflected upon by any forensic scientist or statistician seeking to operate effectively in criminal proceedings. Whilst each legal jurisdiction has its own unique blend of jurisprudence, institutions, cultures and historical traditions, there is considerable scope for comparative analysis and cross-jurisdictional borrowing and instruction. In the spirit of promoting more nuanced and sophisticated international interdisciplinary dialogue, this article examines UK judicial approaches to LTDNA evidence and begins to elucidate their underlying institutional logic. Legal argument and broader policy debates are not confined to considerations of scientific validity, contamination risks and evidential integrity, or associated judgments of legal admissibility or exclusion. They also crucially

  13. LTDNA Evidence on Trial

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. The section titled Expert Evidence as Forensic Epistemic Warrant addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1) expert competence; (2) disciplinary domain; (3) methodological validity; (4) materiality; and (5) legal admissibility. This generic model of expert authority, highlighting law's fundamentally normative character, applies to all modern forms of criminal adjudication, across Europe and farther afield. The section titled LTDNA Evidence in UK Criminal Trials then examines English and Northern Irish courts' attempts to get to grips with LTDNA evidence in recent cases. Better appreciating the ways in which UK courts have addressed the challenges of LTDNA evidence may offer some insights into parallel developments in other legal systems. Appellate court rulings follow a predictable judicial logic, which might usefully be studied and reflected upon by any forensic scientist or statistician seeking to operate effectively in criminal proceedings. Whilst each legal jurisdiction has its own unique blend of jurisprudence, institutions, cultures and historical traditions, there is considerable scope for comparative analysis and cross-jurisdictional borrowing and instruction. In the spirit of promoting more nuanced and sophisticated international interdisciplinary dialogue, this article examines UK judicial approaches to LTDNA evidence and begins to elucidate their underlying institutional logic. Legal argument and broader policy debates are not confined to considerations of scientific validity, contamination risks and evidential integrity, or associated judgments of legal admissibility or exclusion. They also crucially

  14. Evidence and scientific research.

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, S N; Royall, R

    1988-01-01

    This commentary reviews the arguments for and against the use of p-values put forward in the Journal and other forums, and shows that they are all missing both a measure and concept of "evidence." The mathematics and logic of evidential theory are presented, with the log-likelihood ratio used as the measure of evidence. The profoundly different philosophy behind evidential methods (as compared to traditional ones) is presented, as well as a comparative example showing the difference between the two approaches. The reasons why we mistakenly ascribe evidential meaning to p-values and related measures are discussed. Unfamiliarity with the technology and philosophy of evidence is seen as the main reason why certain arguments about p-values persist, and why they are frequently contradictory and confusing. PMID:3189634

  15. Presenting the right evidence.

    PubMed

    MacStravic, R S

    1987-09-01

    The primary focus in any marketing communication is its theme--the conclusion that audiences are intended to reach as the result of seeing or hearing the message. Two kinds of conclusions are possible. The first type, factual conclusions, are an awareness and acceptance of objective, verifiable information such as services or technologies offered, location, hours, and charges. The second type of conclusion, an opinion, is a conviction that a given healthcare organization offers a positive subjective attribute, such as compassion, competence, or friendliness. To increase the credibility of subjective attribute claims, marketers can provide seven basic forms of evidence: Statistics; Stories; Exhibits; Demonstrations; Examples; Promises; Testimony. To be effective, the evidence presented must be the right evidence. An organization must determine and respond to what signifies and demonstrates specific subjective attributes to its customers. Organizations must known what quality of patient care means in customer terms, as well as in professional terms. Organizations that deliver the right evidence of quality will enjoy the strongest market positions.

  16. Evidence-Centered Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow-Leong, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Assessing student understanding is a critical part of a teacher's routine. Most assessments are reviewed with a quick eye, but the evidence-centered assessment strategy encourages us to slow down and look more carefully at student work samples. In this article, the author proposes guidelines for the close examination of student work. These…

  17. What Counts as Evidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

  18. Evidence of Absence software

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalthorp, Daniel; Huso, Manuela M. P.; Dail, David; Kenyon, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Evidence of Absence software (EoA) is a user-friendly application used for estimating bird and bat fatalities at wind farms and designing search protocols. The software is particularly useful in addressing whether the number of fatalities has exceeded a given threshold and what search parameters are needed to give assurance that thresholds were not exceeded. The software is applicable even when zero carcasses have been found in searches. Depending on the effectiveness of the searches, such an absence of evidence of mortality may or may not be strong evidence that few fatalities occurred. Under a search protocol in which carcasses are detected with nearly 100 percent certainty, finding zero carcasses would be convincing evidence that overall mortality rate was near zero. By contrast, with a less effective search protocol with low probability of detecting a carcass, finding zero carcasses does not rule out the possibility that large numbers of animals were killed but not detected in the searches. EoA uses information about the search process and scavenging rates to estimate detection probabilities to determine a maximum credible number of fatalities, even when zero or few carcasses are observed.

  19. Turning Evidence into Practice

    Cancer.gov

    CGH CRTA, Hillary Topazian, attended the National Cancer Institute’s 3rd Symposium on Global Cancer Research; a satellite meeting to the 6th Annual Consortium of Universities for Global Health (CUGH) Conference in Boston. The Symposium centered on the theme of implementation science, a field which studies the integration of research findings and evidence into healthcare policy and practice.

  20. Evidence of Sway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chryst, Carolyn; McKay, Zanna; Lassonde, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses the metaphor of trees and their tendency to sway with the wind and grow new leaves and branches to represent teacher candidates as diverse learners who come to our classes with their own experiences and understandings. This collaborative research study analyzed a particular cohort of candidates' evidence of sway and how the sway…

  1. Multiple Lines of Evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Amidan, Brett G.; Venzin, Alexander M.; Bramer, Lisa M.

    2015-06-03

    This paper discusses the process of identifying factors that influence the contamination level of a given decision area and then determining the likelihood that the area remains unacceptable. This process is referred to as lines of evidence. These lines of evidence then serve as inputs for the stratified compliance sampling (SCS) method, which requires a decision area to be divided into strata based upon contamination expectations. This is done in order to focus sampling efforts more within stratum where contamination is more likely and to use the domain knowledge about these likelihoods of the stratum remaining unacceptable to buy down the number of samples necessary, if possible. Two different building scenarios were considered as an example (see Table 3.1). SME expertise was elicited concerning four lines of evidence factors (see Table 3.2): 1) amount of contamination that was seen before decontamination, 2) post-decontamination air sampling information, 3) the applied decontaminant information, and 4) the surface material. Statistical experimental design and logistic regression modelling were used to help determine the likelihood that example stratum remained unacceptable for a given example scenario. The number of samples necessary for clearance was calculated by applying the SCS method to the example scenario, using the estimated likelihood of each stratum remaining unacceptable as was determined using the lines of evidence approach. The commonly used simple random sampling (SRS) method was also used to calculate the number of samples necessary for clearance for comparison purposes. The lines of evidence with SCS approach resulted in a 19% to 43% reduction in total number of samples necessary for clearance (see Table 3.6). The reduction depended upon the building scenario, as well as the level of percent clean criteria. A sensitivity analysis was also performed showing how changing the estimated likelihoods of stratum remaining unacceptable affect the number

  2. NCCN Evidence Blocks.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Robert W; Jonasch, Eric

    2016-05-01

    NCCN has developed a series of Evidence Blocks: graphics that provide ratings for each recommended treatment regimen in terms of efficacy, toxicity, quality and consistency of the supporting data, and affordability. The NCCN Evidence Blocks are currently available in 10 tumor types within the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines). At a glance, patients and providers can understand how a given treatment was assessed by the NCCN Guidelines Panel and get a sense of how a given treatment may match individual needs and preferences. Robert W. Carlson, MD, CEO of NCCN, described the reasoning behind this new feature and how the tool is used, and Eric Jonasch, MD, Professor of Genitourinary Medical Oncology at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, and Vice Chair of the NCCN Kidney Cancer Panel, described its applicability in the management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

  3. Evidence and Clinical Trials.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Steven N.

    1989-11-01

    This dissertation explores the use of a mathematical measure of statistical evidence, the log likelihood ratio, in clinical trials. The methods and thinking behind the use of an evidential measure are contrasted with traditional methods of analyzing data, which depend primarily on a p-value as an estimate of the statistical strength of an observed data pattern. It is contended that neither the behavioral dictates of Neyman-Pearson hypothesis testing methods, nor the coherency dictates of Bayesian methods are realistic models on which to base inference. The use of the likelihood alone is applied to four aspects of trial design or conduct: the calculation of sample size, the monitoring of data, testing for the equivalence of two treatments, and meta-analysis--the combining of results from different trials. Finally, a more general model of statistical inference, using belief functions, is used to see if it is possible to separate the assessment of evidence from our background knowledge. It is shown that traditional and Bayesian methods can be modeled as two ends of a continuum of structured background knowledge, methods which summarize evidence at the point of maximum likelihood assuming no structure, and Bayesian methods assuming complete knowledge. Both schools are seen to be missing a concept of ignorance- -uncommitted belief. This concept provides the key to understanding the problem of sampling to a foregone conclusion and the role of frequency properties in statistical inference. The conclusion is that statistical evidence cannot be defined independently of background knowledge, and that frequency properties of an estimator are an indirect measure of uncommitted belief. Several likelihood summaries need to be used in clinical trials, with the quantitative disparity between summaries being an indirect measure of our ignorance. This conclusion is linked with parallel ideas in the philosophy of science and cognitive psychology.

  4. In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Nikkomycin Z in Combination with Fluconazole or Itraconazole

    PubMed Central

    Li, R. K.; Rinaldi, M. G.

    1999-01-01

    Nikkomycins are nucleoside-peptide antibiotics produced by Streptomyces species with antifungal activities through the inhibition of chitin synthesis. We investigated the antifungal activities of nikkomycin Z alone and in combination with fluconazole and itraconazole. Checkerboard synergy studies were carried out by a macrobroth dilution procedure with RPMI 1640 medium at pH 6.0. At least 10 strains of the following fungi were tested: Candida albicans, other Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, Coccidioides immitis, Aspergillus spp., and dematiacious fungi (including Exophiala jeanselmei, Exophiala spinifera, Bipolaris spicifera, Wangiella dermatitidis, Ochroconis humicola, Phaeoannellomyces werneckii, and Cladophialophora bantiana), and 2 strains each of Fusarium, Scedosporium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, and Trichoderma spp. A total of 110 isolates were examined. Inocula of fungal elements were standardized by hemacytometer counting or spectrophotometrically. MICs and minimum lethal concentrations (MLCs) were determined visually by comparison of growth in drug-treated tubes with growth in drug-free control tubes. Additive and synergistic interactions between nikkomycin and either fluconazole or itraconazole were observed against C. albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Coccidioides immitis. Marked synergism was also observed between nikkomycin and itraconazole against Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. No antagonistic interaction between the drugs was observed with any of the strains tested. PMID:10348760

  5. Adaptation of the Black Yeast Wangiella dermatitidis to Ionizing Radiation: Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    laboratory and in the damaged Chernobyl nuclear reactor suggest they have adapted the ability to survive or even benefit from exposure to ionizing...damaged nuclear reactor at Chernobyl , which are constantly exposed to ionizing radiation, harbor large of amounts of microorganisms, including fungal...species [3,4]. Furthermore, Zhdanova et al. reported that beta and gamma radiation promoted directional growth of fungi isolated from the Chernobyl

  6. Emdogain: evidence of efficacy.

    PubMed

    Greenstein, G

    2000-04-01

    This article addresses the use of enamel matrix proteins (Emdogain) to enhance regeneration of the periodontium. Information regarding the role of Emdogain to induce cementogenesis and histologic evidence in animals and humans that it can initiate regeneration of diseased sites are discussed. Several clinical trials have indicated that Emdogain plus modified Widman flap surgery provide a better result than the surgery alone. Several other investigations have indicated that flap surgery plus Emdogain or a bioabsorbable membrane achieve similar results. However, this latter finding needs further validation. Clinical examples of successful therapy with Emdogain are presented.

  7. Cephalopod consciousness: behavioural evidence.

    PubMed

    Mather, Jennifer A

    2008-03-01

    Behavioural evidence suggests that cephalopod molluscs may have a form of primary consciousness. First, the linkage of brain to behaviour seen in lateralization, sleep and through a developmental context is similar to that of mammals and birds. Second, cephalopods, especially octopuses, are heavily dependent on learning in response to both visual and tactile cues, and may have domain generality and form simple concepts. Third, these animals are aware of their position, both within themselves and in larger space, including having a working memory of foraging areas in the recent past. Thus if using a 'global workspace' which evaluates memory input and focuses attention is the criterion, cephalopods appear to have primary consciousness.

  8. Evidence for homosexuality gene

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, R.

    1993-07-16

    A genetic analysis of 40 pairs of homosexual brothers has uncovered a region on the X chromosome that appears to contain a gene or genes for homosexuality. When analyzing the pedigrees of homosexual males, the researcheres found evidence that the trait has a higher likelihood of being passed through maternal genes. This led them to search the X chromosome for genes predisposing to homosexuality. The researchers examined the X chromosomes of pairs of homosexual brothers for regions of DNA that most or all had in common. Of the 40 sets of brothers, 33 shared a set of five markers in the q28 region of the long arm of the X chromosome. The linkage has a LOD score of 4.0, which translates into a 99.5% certainty that there is a gene or genes in this area that predispose males to homosexuality. The chief researcher warns, however, that this one site cannot explain all instances of homosexuality, since there were some cases where the trait seemed to be passed paternally. And even among those brothers where there was no evidence that the trait was passed paternally, seven sets of brothers did not share the Xq28 markers. It seems likely that homosexuality arises from a variety of causes.

  9. 20 CFR 404.709 - Preferred evidence and other evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... formal decision about your benefit rights. Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Preferred evidence and other evidence. 404.709 Section 404.709 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS...

  10. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years spurred by examples where evidence indicated that certain treatments recommended by expert opinions increased death rates. We suggest that scientific evidence should also take priority over expert opinion in the regulation of genetically modified crops (GM). Examples of regulatory data requirements that are not justified based on the mass of evidence are described, and it is suggested that expertise in risk assessment should guide evidence-based regulation of GM crops. PMID:24637724

  11. Evidence-Based Medicine: Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Lee, Matthew K; Most, Sam P

    2015-08-01

    Evidence-based medicine has become increasingly prominent in the climate of modern day healthcare. The practice of evidence-based medicine involves the integration of the best available evidence with clinical experience and expertise to help guide clinical decision-making. The essential tenets of evidence-based medicine can be applied to both functional and aesthetic rhinoplasty. Current outcome measures in functional and aesthetic rhinoplasty, including objective, subjective, and clinician-reported measures, is summarized and the current data is reviewed.

  12. Synthesizing Quantitative Evidence for Evidence-based Nursing: Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Oh, Eui Geum

    2016-06-01

    As evidence-based practice has become an important issue in healthcare settings, the educational needs for knowledge and skills for the generation and utilization of healthcare evidence are increasing. Systematic review (SR), a way of evidence generation, is a synthesis of primary scientific evidence, which summarizes the best evidence on a specific clinical question using a transparent, a priori protocol driven approach. SR methodology requires a critical appraisal of primary studies, data extraction in a reliable and repeatable way, and examination for validity of the results. SRs are considered hierarchically as the highest form of evidence as they are a systematic search, identification, and summarization of the available evidence to answer a focused clinical question with particular attention to the methodological quality of studies or the credibility of opinion and text. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an overview of the fundamental knowledge, principals and processes in SR. The focus of this paper is on SR especially for the synthesis of quantitative data from primary research studies that examines the effectiveness of healthcare interventions. To activate evidence-based nursing care in various healthcare settings, the best and available scientific evidence are essential components. This paper will include some examples to promote understandings.

  13. [Evidence and Lack of Evidence in the Treatment of Tinnitus].

    PubMed

    Hesse, G

    2016-04-01

    A broad variety of therapeutic regimen is proposed, introduced and sold against tinnitus, but most of these approaches lack scientific validation and evidence. Up to date a causal, tinnitus eliminating therapy is not available. Most probably this will not be possible at all, as the mechanism of tinnitus generation are multiple and include peripheral as well as central or cortical reactions. Like in fashion and design however, therapeutic medical interventions against tinnitus come in waves again and again over the last decades, without being able to prove lasting and scientifically evident effects.This review presents, discusses and assesses almost all available therapies regarding their evidence. Evidence should include besides external evidence through publications and available data also internal evidence, e.g. including experience of the therapist and needs of the patients.Almost all interventions that try to influence the inner ear or the auditory cortex either pharmaceutically or by direct stimulation or modulation do not reach evidence. However, there are procedures that have proven to be effective and show at least certain degrees of evidence with proven strength of effect. These are habituation therapies and psychotherapeutic interventions like cognitive behavioural therapy, especially when they are combined with concrete measures to improve auditory perception like hearing-aids, cochlear implants or hearing-therapy.

  14. When Lack of Evidence Is Evidence of Lack.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Neil

    2015-12-01

    In their recent article "A Gentle Ethical Defence of Homeopathy," Levy, Gadd, Kerridge, and Komesaroff use the claim that "lack of evidence is not equivalent to evidence of lack" as a component of their ethical defence of homeopathy. In response, this article argues that they cannot use this claim to shore up their ethical arguments. This is because it is false.

  15. Engaging Critically with Scientific Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolson, Siobhan

    2011-01-01

    Working with evidence is a fundamental part of scientific enquiry. Children should be taught to consider evidence and evaluate it. They should make simple comparisons, comparing what happened with what they expected to happen, and try to explain what happened through drawing on their knowledge and understanding. In this article, the author…

  16. Using evidence to make decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Charles

    2014-12-01

    Bayesian evidence ratios give a very attractive way of comparing models, and being able to quote the odds on a particular model seems a very clear motivation for making a choice. Jeffreys' scale of evidence is often used in the interpretation of evidence ratios. A natural question is, how often will you get it right when you choose on the basis of some threshold value of the evidence ratio? The evidence ratio will be different in different realizations of the data, and its utility can be examined in a Neyman-Pearson like way to see what the trade-offs are between statistical power (the chance of "getting it right") versus the false alarm rate, picking the alternative hypothesis when the null is actually true. I will show some simple examples which show that there can be a surprisingly large range for an evidence ratio under different realizations of the data. It seems best not to simply rely on Jeffrey's scale when decisions have to be taken, but also to examine the probability of taking the "wrong" decision if some evidence ratio is taken to be decisive. Interestingly, Turing knew this and applied it during WWII, although (like much else) he did not publish it.

  17. Standardized description of scientific evidence using the Evidence Ontology (ECO).

    PubMed

    Chibucos, Marcus C; Mungall, Christopher J; Balakrishnan, Rama; Christie, Karen R; Huntley, Rachael P; White, Owen; Blake, Judith A; Lewis, Suzanna E; Giglio, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The Evidence Ontology (ECO) is a structured, controlled vocabulary for capturing evidence in biological research. ECO includes diverse terms for categorizing evidence that supports annotation assertions including experimental types, computational methods, author statements and curator inferences. Using ECO, annotation assertions can be distinguished according to the evidence they are based on such as those made by curators versus those automatically computed or those made via high-throughput data review versus single test experiments. Originally created for capturing evidence associated with Gene Ontology annotations, ECO is now used in other capacities by many additional annotation resources including UniProt, Mouse Genome Informatics, Saccharomyces Genome Database, PomBase, the Protein Information Resource and others. Information on the development and use of ECO can be found at http://evidenceontology.org. The ontology is freely available under Creative Commons license (CC BY-SA 3.0), and can be downloaded in both Open Biological Ontologies and Web Ontology Language formats at http://code.google.com/p/evidenceontology. Also at this site is a tracker for user submission of term requests and questions. ECO remains under active development in response to user-requested terms and in collaborations with other ontologies and database resources. Database URL: Evidence Ontology Web site: http://evidenceontology.org.

  18. Surgical hand antisepsis: the evidence.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Judith

    2008-08-01

    For 150 years members of the surgical team have been washing their hands with solutions designed to remove micro-organisms and therefore reduce surgical site infections in patients. This article discusses the evidence surrounding aspects of surgical hand antisepsis.

  19. Forensic Botany: Evidence and Analysis.

    PubMed

    Coyle, H M

    2009-01-01

    Forensic botany is the use of plant evidence in matters of law. While plant fragments are often collected as trace evidence, they are only occasionally identified using microscopy and are still more rarely assessed using molecular biology techniques for individualization and sourcing of a sample. There are many different methods useful for DNA typing of plants; this review focuses on those techniques (DNA sequencing, STR, AFLP, RAPD) most relevant to the forensic science community and on those methods currently in practice. Plant evidence is commonly associated with homicides, with clandestine graves, as trace pollen on clothing, vehicles, or packaging, or in the transport of illicit drugs. DNA can be especially useful for the identification of minute quantity of samples, for differentiation of plants that lack distinguishing morphological features, and for generating a unique identifier for associative forensic evidence.

  20. Gravitational Waves: The Evidence Mounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wick, Gerald L.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews the work of Weber and his colleagues in their attempts at detecting extraterrestial gravitational waves. Coincidence events recorded by special detectors provide the evidence for the existence of gravitational waves. Bibliography. (LC)

  1. NASA 2010 Pharmacology Evidence Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the Institute of Medicine reviewed NASA's Human Research Program Evidence in assessing the Pharmacology risk identified in NASA's Human Research Program Requirements Document (PRD). Since this review there was a major reorganization of the Pharmacology discipline within the HRP, as well as a re-evaluation of the Pharmacology evidence. This panel is being asked to review the latest version of the Pharmacology Evidence Report. Specifically, this panel will: (1) Appraise the descriptions of the human health-related risk in the HRP PRD. (2) Assess the relevance and comprehensiveness of the evidence in identifying potential threats to long-term space missions. (3) Assess the associated gaps in knowledge and identify additional areas for research as necessary.

  2. Evidence-Based Cancer Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Khorasani, Ramin

    2017-01-01

    With the advances in the field of oncology, imaging is increasingly used in the follow-up of cancer patients, leading to concerns about over-utilization. Therefore, it has become imperative to make imaging more evidence-based, efficient, cost-effective and equitable. This review explores the strategies and tools to make diagnostic imaging more evidence-based, mainly in the context of follow-up of cancer patients. PMID:28096722

  3. The Future of Indirect Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Efron, Bradley

    2009-01-01

    Familiar statistical tests and estimates are obtained by the direct observation of cases of interest: a clinical trial of a new drug, for instance, will compare the drug’s effects on a relevant set of patients and controls. Sometimes, though, indirect evidence may be temptingly available, perhaps the results of previous trials on closely related drugs. Very roughly speaking, the difference between direct and indirect statistical evidence marks the boundary between frequentist and Bayesian thinking. Twentieth-century statistical practice focused heavily on direct evidence, on the grounds of superior objectivity. Now, however, new scientific devices such as microarrays routinely produce enormous data sets involving thousands of related situations, where indirect evidence seems too important to ignore. Empirical Bayes methodology offers an attractive direct/indirect compromise. There is already some evidence of a shift toward a less rigid standard of statistical objectivity that allows better use of indirect evidence. This article is basically the text of a recent talk featuring some examples from current practice, with a little bit of futuristic speculation. PMID:21243111

  4. 42 CFR 423.1048 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Evidence. 423.1048 Section 423.1048 Public Health... Penalties § 423.1048 Evidence. Evidence may be received at the hearing even though inadmissible under the rules of evidence applicable to court procedure. The ALJ rules on the admissibility of evidence....

  5. 42 CFR 423.1048 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Evidence. 423.1048 Section 423.1048 Public Health... Penalties § 423.1048 Evidence. Evidence may be received at the hearing even though inadmissible under the rules of evidence applicable to court procedure. The ALJ rules on the admissibility of evidence....

  6. 42 CFR 422.1048 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Evidence. 422.1048 Section 422.1048 Public Health... Evidence. Evidence may be received at the hearing even though inadmissible under the rules of evidence applicable to court procedure. The ALJ rules on the admissibility of evidence....

  7. 42 CFR 423.1048 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evidence. 423.1048 Section 423.1048 Public Health....1048 Evidence. Evidence may be received at the hearing even though inadmissible under the rules of evidence applicable to court procedure. The ALJ rules on the admissibility of evidence....

  8. 31 CFR 8.64 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 8.64 Section 8.64 Money and... AND FIREARMS Disciplinary Proceedings § 8.64 Evidence. (a) Rules of evidence. The rules of evidence... shall exclude evidence which is irrelevant, immaterial, or unduly repetitious. (b)...

  9. 31 CFR 8.64 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evidence. 8.64 Section 8.64 Money and... AND FIREARMS Disciplinary Proceedings § 8.64 Evidence. (a) Rules of evidence. The rules of evidence... shall exclude evidence which is irrelevant, immaterial, or unduly repetitious. (b)...

  10. 42 CFR 422.1048 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evidence. 422.1048 Section 422.1048 Public Health... Evidence. Evidence may be received at the hearing even though inadmissible under the rules of evidence applicable to court procedure. The ALJ rules on the admissibility of evidence....

  11. 13 CFR 134.223 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence. 134.223 Section 134.223... OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS Rules of Practice § 134.223 Evidence. (a) Federal Rules of Evidence... Evidence will be used as a general guide in all cases before OHA. (b) Hearsay. Hearsay evidence...

  12. 27 CFR 71.83 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evidence. 71.83 Section 71... General § 71.83 Evidence. Any evidence which would be admissible under the rules of evidence governing... his case or defense by oral or documentary evidence, depositions, duly authenticated copies of...

  13. 42 CFR 422.1048 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Evidence. 422.1048 Section 422.1048 Public Health... Evidence. Evidence may be received at the hearing even though inadmissible under the rules of evidence applicable to court procedure. The ALJ rules on the admissibility of evidence....

  14. 42 CFR 423.1048 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evidence. 423.1048 Section 423.1048 Public Health... Penalties § 423.1048 Evidence. Evidence may be received at the hearing even though inadmissible under the rules of evidence applicable to court procedure. The ALJ rules on the admissibility of evidence....

  15. 13 CFR 134.223 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence. 134.223 Section 134.223... OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS Rules of Practice § 134.223 Evidence. (a) Federal Rules of Evidence... Evidence will be used as a general guide in all cases before OHA. (b) Hearsay. Hearsay evidence...

  16. 31 CFR 8.64 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evidence. 8.64 Section 8.64 Money and... AND FIREARMS Disciplinary Proceedings § 8.64 Evidence. (a) Rules of evidence. The rules of evidence... shall exclude evidence which is irrelevant, immaterial, or unduly repetitious. (b)...

  17. 42 CFR 423.1048 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 423.1048 Section 423.1048 Public Health....1048 Evidence. Evidence may be received at the hearing even though inadmissible under the rules of evidence applicable to court procedure. The ALJ rules on the admissibility of evidence....

  18. 31 CFR 8.64 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evidence. 8.64 Section 8.64 Money and... AND FIREARMS Disciplinary Proceedings § 8.64 Evidence. (a) Rules of evidence. The rules of evidence... shall exclude evidence which is irrelevant, immaterial, or unduly repetitious. (b)...

  19. Coarticulatory evidence in stuttered disfluencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbisi-Kelm, Timothy

    2005-09-01

    While the disfluencies produced in stuttered speech surface at a significantly higher rate than those found in normal speech, it is less clear from the previous stuttering literature how exactly these disfluency patterns might differ in kind [Wingate (1988)]. One tendency found in normal speech is for disfluencies to remove acoustic evidence of coarticulation patterns [Shriberg (1999)]. This appears attributable to lexical search errors which prevent a speaker from accessing a word's phonological form; that is, coarticulation between words will fail to occur when segmental material from the following word is not retrieved. Since stuttering is a disorder which displays evidence of phonological but not lexical impairment, it was predicted that stuttered disfluencies would differ from normal errors in that the former would reveal acoustic evidence of word transitions. Eight speakers four stutterers and four control subjects participated in a narrative-production task, spontaneously describing a picture book. Preliminary results suggest that while both stutterers and controls did produce similar rates of disfluencies occurring without coarticulatory evidence, only the stutterers regularly produced disfluencies reflecting this transitional evidence. These results support the argument that disfluencies proper to stuttering result from a phonological deficit, while normal disfluencies are generally lexically based.

  20. [Expert Evidence in Whiplash Injury].

    PubMed

    Bucur, Florin M; Schwarze, Martin; Schiltenwolf, Marcus

    2017-01-12

    The assessment of cervical spine injuries is not a problem - provided full evidence of primary physical damage can be ensured. MRI examinations of the cervical spine carried out soon after the accident provide the best evidence. The assessment is more difficult if only clinical abnormalities are documented by the doctors after the accident in the diagnosis of cervical spine distortion, as functional results of this type are not specific and are also common in the general population. The legal rules of evidence must be taken into account in the summary assessment of the consequences of cervical spine injuries. Testing schemes are available which allow structured assessment of cervical spine injuries and help to avoid incorrect assessments.

  1. Epidemiological evidence in forensic pharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Persaud, Nav; Healy, David

    2012-01-01

    Until recently epidemiological evidence was not regarded as helpful in determining cause and effect. It generated associations that then had to be explained in terms of bio-mechanisms and applied to individual patients. A series of legal cases surrounding possible birth defects triggered by doxylamine (Bendectin) and connective tissue disorders linked to breast implants made it clear that in some instances epidemiological evidence might have a more important role, but the pendulum swung too far so that epidemiological evidence has in recent decades been given an unwarranted primacy, partly perhaps because it suits the interests of certain stakeholders. Older and more recent epidemiological studies on doxylamine and other antihistamines are reviewed to bring out the ambiguities and pitfalls of an undue reliance on epidemiological studies.

  2. Evidence on global medical travel

    PubMed Central

    Záliš, Ladislav; Meurice, Christopher R; Hilton, Ian; Ly, Terry-Lisa; Zupan, Zorana; Hinrichs, Saba

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The potential benefits of travelling across national borders to obtain medical treatment include improved care, decreased costs and reduced waiting times. However, medical travel involves additional risks, compared to obtaining treatment domestically. We review the publicly-available evidence on medical travel. We suggest that medical travel needs to be understood in terms of its potential risks and benefits so that it can be evaluated against alternatives by patients who are seeking care. We propose three domains –quality standards, informed decision-making, economic and legal protection – in which better evidence could support the development of medical travel policies. PMID:26549906

  3. Current evidence for osteoarthritis treatments.

    PubMed

    Anandacoomarasamy, Ananthila; March, Lyn

    2010-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and the leading cause of chronic disability among older people. The burden of the disease is expected to rise with an aging population and the increasing prevalence of obesity. Despite this, there is as yet no cure for OA. However, in recent years, a number of potential therapeutic advances have been made, in part due to improved understanding of the underlying pathophysiology. This review provides the current evidence for symptomatic management of OA including nonpharmacological, pharmacological and surgical approaches. The current state of evidence for disease-modifying therapy in OA is also reviewed.

  4. Evidence for homeopathy in childbirth.

    PubMed

    Smith, Valerie

    2013-09-01

    Homeopathy has been described as 'a fascinating field of study and a natural complement to the science and art of midwifery' (Brennan 1999: 298). Supported by the Royal College of Midwives' (RCM) campaign for normal birth and resulting from a growing desire by women to avoid conventional medicine, the use of homeopathic remedies in childbirth is gaining momentum. Midwives are ideally positioned to discuss homeopathy with women. To enable informed discussions, however, midwives must have evidence on homeopathy use. This article explores the evidence on homeopathy use in childbirth.

  5. Evidence on global medical travel.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Kai; Záliš, Ladislav; Meurice, Christopher R; Hilton, Ian; Ly, Terry-Lisa; Zupan, Zorana; Hinrichs, Saba

    2015-11-01

    The potential benefits of travelling across national borders to obtain medical treatment include improved care, decreased costs and reduced waiting times. However, medical travel involves additional risks, compared to obtaining treatment domestically. We review the publicly-available evidence on medical travel. We suggest that medical travel needs to be understood in terms of its potential risks and benefits so that it can be evaluated against alternatives by patients who are seeking care. We propose three domains -quality standards, informed decision-making, economic and legal protection - in which better evidence could support the development of medical travel policies.

  6. Learning Styles: Where's the Evidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Doug; Pashler, Harold

    2012-01-01

    Whereas modern medicine owes much of its success to its reliance upon evidence-based treatments, most popular techniques of instruction have not been subjected to thorough empirical scrutiny. A particularly glaring and costly result of this, we argue, is the wide acceptance of the idea that instruction should be tailored to a student's so-called…

  7. What Good Is Soft Evidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdach, Allison D.

    2010-01-01

    Along with other helping professions, social work is today struggling to become a more "evidence-based" activity. This article explores some of the issues raised by this reevaluation of social work, especially as it relates to the issue of direct social work practice. Despite the current push to base social work helping methods on scientific…

  8. School Centered Evidence Based Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milligan, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Achievement scores drive much of the effort in today's accountability system, however, there is much more that occurs in every school, every day. School Centered Evidence Based Accountability can be used from micro to macro giving School Boards and Administration a process for monitoring the results of the entire school operation effectively and…

  9. Experimental Evidence for the Pentaquark

    SciTech Connect

    D.S. Carman

    2005-02-01

    The present experimental evidence for the existence of light pentaquarks is reviewed, including both positive and null results. I also discuss the CLAS experiments at Jefferson Laboratory that are forthcoming in the near future to address questions regarding existence, mass, width, and other quantum numbers of these five-quark baryon states.

  10. 32 CFR 644.62 - Title evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Title evidence. 644.62 Section 644.62 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Acquisition Procurement of Title Evidence, Title Clearance, and Closings § 644.62 Title evidence. (a) Acceptable Types of Title Evidence....

  11. 32 CFR 644.62 - Title evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Title evidence. 644.62 Section 644.62 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Acquisition Procurement of Title Evidence, Title Clearance, and Closings § 644.62 Title evidence. (a) Acceptable Types of Title Evidence....

  12. 32 CFR 644.62 - Title evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Title evidence. 644.62 Section 644.62 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Acquisition Procurement of Title Evidence, Title Clearance, and Closings § 644.62 Title evidence. (a) Acceptable Types of Title Evidence....

  13. 32 CFR 644.62 - Title evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Title evidence. 644.62 Section 644.62 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Acquisition Procurement of Title Evidence, Title Clearance, and Closings § 644.62 Title evidence. (a) Acceptable Types of Title Evidence....

  14. 21 CFR 17.39 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence. 17.39 Section 17.39 Food and Drugs FOOD... HEARINGS § 17.39 Evidence. (a) The presiding officer shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b... Evidence.” However, the presiding officer may apply the “Federal Rules of Evidence” when appropriate,...

  15. 42 CFR 422.678 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Evidence. 422.678 Section 422.678 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE... Evidence. The hearing officer rules on the admissibility of evidence and may admit evidence that would...

  16. 22 CFR 521.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evidence. 521.34 Section 521.34 Foreign... Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence. However, the ALJ may apply the...

  17. 16 CFR 1025.43 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 1025.43 Section 1025.43 Commercial... § 1025.43 Evidence. (a) Applicability of Federal Rules of Evidence. Unless otherwise provided by statute or these rules, the Federal Rules of Evidence shall apply to all proceedings held pursuant to...

  18. 14 CFR 13.222 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 13.222 Section 13.222 Aeronautics... AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice in FAA Civil Penalty Actions § 13.222 Evidence. (a... evidence, to submit rebuttal evidence, and to conduct any cross-examination that may be required for a...

  19. 29 CFR 511.13 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 511.13 Section 511.13 Labor Regulations Relating... AMERICAN SAMOA § 511.13 Evidence. In accordance with the notice of hearing, the committee and any... they are not refuted by evidence received at the hearing. Other pertinent evidence available to...

  20. 29 CFR 1603.214 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evidence. 1603.214 Section 1603.214 Labor Regulations... GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEE RIGHTS ACT OF 1991 Hearings § 1603.214 Evidence. The administrative law judge shall accept relevant non-privileged evidence in accordance with the Federal Rules of Evidence (28...

  1. 42 CFR 422.678 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evidence. 422.678 Section 422.678 Public Health... PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Medicare Contract Determinations and Appeals § 422.678 Evidence. The hearing officer rules on the admissibility of evidence and may admit evidence that would be...

  2. 49 CFR 511.43 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evidence. 511.43 Section 511.43 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Hearings § 511.43 Evidence. (a) Applicability of Federal Rules of Evidence. The Federal Rules of Evidence shall apply to proceedings held under this part only...

  3. 5 CFR 831.1109 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evidence. 831.1109 Section 831.1109...) RETIREMENT Prohibition on Payments of Annuities § 831.1109 Evidence. (a) Rules of evidence are not strictly applied, but the presiding officer shall exclude irrelevant or unduly repetitious evidence. (b)...

  4. 7 CFR 1.332 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence. 1.332 Section 1.332 Agriculture Office of... Under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1986 § 1.332 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided herein, the Federal Rules of Evidence are not applicable...

  5. 14 CFR 13.59 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence. 13.59 Section 13.59 Aeronautics... AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice for FAA Hearings § 13.59 Evidence. (a) Each party to a hearing may present the party's case or defense by oral or documentary evidence, submit evidence...

  6. 22 CFR 224.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Evidence. 224.34 Section 224.34 Foreign....34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence. However, the ALJ may apply...

  7. 5 CFR 831.1109 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence. 831.1109 Section 831.1109...) RETIREMENT Prohibition on Payments of Annuities § 831.1109 Evidence. (a) Rules of evidence are not strictly applied, but the presiding officer shall exclude irrelevant or unduly repetitious evidence. (b)...

  8. 7 CFR 1.332 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence. 1.332 Section 1.332 Agriculture Office of... Under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1986 § 1.332 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided herein, the Federal Rules of Evidence are not applicable...

  9. 20 CFR 498.217 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence. 498.217 Section 498.217 Employees... § 498.217 Evidence. (a) The ALJ will determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ will not be bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence, but may be guided by them...

  10. 45 CFR 213.25 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Evidence. 213.25 Section 213.25 Public Welfare... Evidence. (a) Testimony. Testimony shall be given orally under oath or affirmation by witnesses at the... hearing if the presiding officer so requires. (c) Rules of evidence. Technical rules of evidence shall...

  11. 20 CFR 410.641 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence. 410.641 Section 410.641 Employees..., Finality of Decisions, and Representation of Parties § 410.641 Evidence. Evidence may be received at the hearing even though inadmissible under rules of evidence applicable to court procedures....

  12. 45 CFR 672.15 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 672.15 Section 672.15 Public Welfare... PROCEDURES § 672.15 Evidence. (a) General. The Presiding Officer shall admit all evidence which is not.... Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, evidence relating to settlement which would be excluded in the...

  13. 31 CFR 315.23 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evidence. 315.23 Section 315.23 Money... Caveats Permitted § 315.23 Evidence. (a) General. To establish the validity of judicial proceedings... supported by appropriate evidence of appointment and qualification. The evidence must be certified by...

  14. 29 CFR 1603.214 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evidence. 1603.214 Section 1603.214 Labor Regulations... GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEE RIGHTS ACT OF 1991 Hearings § 1603.214 Evidence. The administrative law judge shall accept relevant non-privileged evidence in accordance with the Federal Rules of Evidence (28...

  15. 22 CFR 224.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence. 224.34 Section 224.34 Foreign....34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence. However, the ALJ may apply...

  16. 31 CFR 315.23 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evidence. 315.23 Section 315.23 Money... Caveats Permitted § 315.23 Evidence. (a) General. To establish the validity of judicial proceedings... supported by appropriate evidence of appointment and qualification. The evidence must be certified by...

  17. 34 CFR 81.15 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evidence. 81.15 Section 81.15 Education Office of the... Evidence. (a) The Federal Rules of Evidence do not apply to proceedings under this part. However, the ALJ accepts only evidence that is— (1) Relevant; (2) Material; (3) Not unduly repetitious; and (4)...

  18. 42 CFR 426.440 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Evidence. 426.440 Section 426.440 Public Health... an LCD § 426.440 Evidence. (a) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ is not bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence. However, the ALJ may apply the Federal Rules of Evidence when appropriate,...

  19. 42 CFR 422.678 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evidence. 422.678 Section 422.678 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE... Evidence. The hearing officer rules on the admissibility of evidence and may admit evidence that would...

  20. 45 CFR 1386.105 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Evidence. 1386.105 Section 1386.105 Public Welfare... § 1386.105 Evidence. (a) Testimony. Testimony by witnesses at the hearing is given orally under oath or... hearing if the presiding officer requires it. (c) Rules of evidence. Technical rules of evidence do...

  1. 39 CFR 959.17 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evidence. 959.17 Section 959.17 Postal Service... STATUTES § 959.17 Evidence. (a) Except as otherwise provided in these rules, the rules of evidence... repetitious evidence. (b) Testimony shall be under oath or affirmation and witnesses shall be subject to...

  2. 45 CFR 1386.105 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evidence. 1386.105 Section 1386.105 Public Welfare... § 1386.105 Evidence. (a) Testimony. Testimony by witnesses at the hearing is given orally under oath or... hearing if the presiding officer requires it. (c) Rules of evidence. Technical rules of evidence do...

  3. 14 CFR 13.222 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence. 13.222 Section 13.222 Aeronautics... AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice in FAA Civil Penalty Actions § 13.222 Evidence. (a... evidence, to submit rebuttal evidence, and to conduct any cross-examination that may be required for a...

  4. 42 CFR 423.659 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evidence. 423.659 Section 423.659 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE....659 Evidence. The hearing officer rules on the admissibility of evidence and may admit evidence...

  5. 43 CFR 35.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evidence. 35.34 Section 35.34 Public Lands... STATEMENTS § 35.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence. However, the ALJ...

  6. 37 CFR 351.10 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evidence. 351.10 Section 351... JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES PROCEEDINGS § 351.10 Evidence. (a) Admissibility. All evidence that is... authenticated or identified in order to be admissible as evidence. The requirement of authentication...

  7. 40 CFR 27.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evidence. 27.34 Section 27.34... Evidence. (a) The presiding officer shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the presiding officer shall not be bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence. However,...

  8. 22 CFR 521.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Evidence. 521.34 Section 521.34 Foreign... Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence. However, the ALJ may apply the...

  9. 24 CFR 180.620 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence. 180.620 Section 180.620 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development OFFICE OF ASSISTANT... Evidence. The Federal Rules of Evidence apply to the presentation of evidence in hearings under this part....

  10. 29 CFR 511.13 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evidence. 511.13 Section 511.13 Labor Regulations Relating... AMERICAN SAMOA § 511.13 Evidence. In accordance with the notice of hearing, the committee and any... they are not refuted by evidence received at the hearing. Other pertinent evidence available to...

  11. 10 CFR 2.711 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 2.711 Section 2.711 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... Adjudications § 2.711 Evidence. (a) General. Every party to a proceeding has the right to present oral or documentary evidence and rebuttal evidence and to conduct, in accordance with an approved...

  12. 22 CFR 521.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Evidence. 521.34 Section 521.34 Foreign... Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence. However, the ALJ may apply the...

  13. 42 CFR 426.440 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evidence. 426.440 Section 426.440 Public Health... an LCD § 426.440 Evidence. (a) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ is not bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence. However, the ALJ may apply the Federal Rules of Evidence when appropriate,...

  14. 45 CFR 672.15 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evidence. 672.15 Section 672.15 Public Welfare... PROCEDURES § 672.15 Evidence. (a) General. The Presiding Officer shall admit all evidence which is not.... Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, evidence relating to settlement which would be excluded in the...

  15. 14 CFR 406.149 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence. 406.149 Section 406.149... Transportation Adjudications § 406.149 Evidence. (a) General. A party is entitled to present the party's case or defense by oral, documentary, or demonstrative evidence, to submit rebuttal evidence, and to conduct...

  16. 49 CFR 511.43 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evidence. 511.43 Section 511.43 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Hearings § 511.43 Evidence. (a) Applicability of Federal Rules of Evidence. The Federal Rules of Evidence shall apply to proceedings held under this part only...

  17. 34 CFR 81.15 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evidence. 81.15 Section 81.15 Education Office of the... Evidence. (a) The Federal Rules of Evidence do not apply to proceedings under this part. However, the ALJ accepts only evidence that is— (1) Relevant; (2) Material; (3) Not unduly repetitious; and (4)...

  18. 42 CFR 426.540 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evidence. 426.540 Section 426.540 Public Health... an NCD § 426.540 Evidence. (a) Except as provided in this part, the Board is not bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence. However, the Board may apply the Federal Rules of Evidence when appropriate,...

  19. 49 CFR 511.43 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Evidence. 511.43 Section 511.43 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Hearings § 511.43 Evidence. (a) Applicability of Federal Rules of Evidence. The Federal Rules of Evidence shall apply to proceedings held under this part only...

  20. 45 CFR 672.15 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Evidence. 672.15 Section 672.15 Public Welfare... PROCEDURES § 672.15 Evidence. (a) General. The Presiding Officer shall admit all evidence which is not.... Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, evidence relating to settlement which would be excluded in the...

  1. 31 CFR 315.23 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evidence. 315.23 Section 315.23 Money... Caveats Permitted § 315.23 Evidence. (a) General. To establish the validity of judicial proceedings... supported by appropriate evidence of appointment and qualification. The evidence must be certified by...

  2. 16 CFR 3.43 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evidence. 3.43 Section 3.43 Commercial... ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 3.43 Evidence. (a) Burden of proof. Counsel representing the Commission, or... reliable evidence shall be admitted. Irrelevant, immaterial, and unreliable evidence shall be...

  3. 22 CFR 18.16 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Evidence. 18.16 Section 18.16 Foreign Relations... Enforcement Proceedings § 18.16 Evidence. The rules of evidence prevailing in courts of law and equity are not controlling in hearings under this part. However, the hearing examiner shall exclude evidence which...

  4. 20 CFR 901.45 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence. 901.45 Section 901.45 Employees... § 901.45 Evidence. (a) In general. The rules of evidence prevailing in courts of law and equity are not... actuaries. However, the Administrative Law Judge shall exclude evidence which is irrelevant, immaterial,...

  5. 29 CFR 1603.214 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evidence. 1603.214 Section 1603.214 Labor Regulations... GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEE RIGHTS ACT OF 1991 Hearings § 1603.214 Evidence. The administrative law judge shall accept relevant non-privileged evidence in accordance with the Federal Rules of Evidence (28...

  6. 39 CFR 959.17 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 959.17 Section 959.17 Postal Service... STATUTES § 959.17 Evidence. (a) Except as otherwise provided in these rules, the rules of evidence... repetitious evidence. (b) Testimony shall be under oath or affirmation and witnesses shall be subject to...

  7. 7 CFR 1.332 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evidence. 1.332 Section 1.332 Agriculture Office of... Under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1986 § 1.332 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided herein, the Federal Rules of Evidence are not applicable...

  8. 42 CFR 422.1048 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 422.1048 Section 422.1048 Public Health... PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Appeal procedures for Civil Money Penalties § 422.1048 Evidence. Evidence may be received at the hearing even though inadmissible under the rules of evidence applicable...

  9. 10 CFR 2.711 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence. 2.711 Section 2.711 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... Adjudications § 2.711 Evidence. (a) General. Every party to a proceeding has the right to present oral or documentary evidence and rebuttal evidence and to conduct, in accordance with an approved...

  10. 10 CFR 2.711 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence. 2.711 Section 2.711 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... Adjudications § 2.711 Evidence. (a) General. Every party to a proceeding has the right to present oral or documentary evidence and rebuttal evidence and to conduct, in accordance with an approved...

  11. 43 CFR 35.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Evidence. 35.34 Section 35.34 Public Lands... STATEMENTS § 35.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence. However, the ALJ...

  12. 14 CFR 13.222 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence. 13.222 Section 13.222 Aeronautics... AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice in FAA Civil Penalty Actions § 13.222 Evidence. (a... evidence, to submit rebuttal evidence, and to conduct any cross-examination that may be required for a...

  13. 40 CFR 27.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evidence. 27.34 Section 27.34... Evidence. (a) The presiding officer shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the presiding officer shall not be bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence. However,...

  14. 22 CFR 18.16 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence. 18.16 Section 18.16 Foreign Relations... Enforcement Proceedings § 18.16 Evidence. The rules of evidence prevailing in courts of law and equity are not controlling in hearings under this part. However, the hearing examiner shall exclude evidence which...

  15. 5 CFR 831.1109 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence. 831.1109 Section 831.1109...) RETIREMENT Prohibition on Payments of Annuities § 831.1109 Evidence. (a) Rules of evidence are not strictly applied, but the presiding officer shall exclude irrelevant or unduly repetitious evidence. (b)...

  16. 31 CFR 360.23 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evidence. 360.23 Section 360.23 Money... BONDS, SERIES I Judicial Proceedings § 360.23 Evidence. (a) General. To establish the validity of... must be supported by appropriate evidence of appointment and qualification. The evidence must...

  17. 21 CFR 17.39 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evidence. 17.39 Section 17.39 Food and Drugs FOOD... HEARINGS § 17.39 Evidence. (a) The presiding officer shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b... Evidence.” However, the presiding officer may apply the “Federal Rules of Evidence” when appropriate,...

  18. 42 CFR 426.540 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evidence. 426.540 Section 426.540 Public Health... § 426.540 Evidence. (a) Except as provided in this part, the Board is not bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence. However, the Board may apply the Federal Rules of Evidence when appropriate, for example,...

  19. 20 CFR 498.217 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evidence. 498.217 Section 498.217 Employees... § 498.217 Evidence. (a) The ALJ will determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ will not be bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence, but may be guided by them...

  20. 49 CFR 821.38 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Evidence. 821.38 Section 821.38 Transportation... PRACTICE IN AIR SAFETY PROCEEDINGS Hearing § 821.38 Evidence. Each party shall have the right to present a case-in-chief, or defense, by oral and documentary evidence, to submit evidence in rebuttal, and...

  1. 31 CFR 15.737-21 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evidence. 15.737-21 Section 15.737-21... Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 15.737-21 Evidence. (a) In general. The rules of evidence prevailing in... exclude evidence which is irrelevant, immaterial, or unduly repetitious. (b) Depositions. The...

  2. 16 CFR 1025.43 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence. 1025.43 Section 1025.43 Commercial... § 1025.43 Evidence. (a) Applicability of Federal Rules of Evidence. Unless otherwise provided by statute or these rules, the Federal Rules of Evidence shall apply to all proceedings held pursuant to...

  3. 14 CFR 406.149 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 406.149 Section 406.149... Transportation Adjudications § 406.149 Evidence. (a) General. A party is entitled to present the party's case or defense by oral, documentary, or demonstrative evidence, to submit rebuttal evidence, and to conduct...

  4. 22 CFR 224.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence. 224.34 Section 224.34 Foreign....34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence. However, the ALJ may apply...

  5. 14 CFR 13.59 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evidence. 13.59 Section 13.59 Aeronautics... AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice for FAA Hearings § 13.59 Evidence. (a) Each party to a hearing may present the party's case or defense by oral or documentary evidence, submit evidence...

  6. 49 CFR 821.38 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evidence. 821.38 Section 821.38 Transportation... PRACTICE IN AIR SAFETY PROCEEDINGS Hearing § 821.38 Evidence. Each party shall have the right to present a case-in-chief, or defense, by oral and documentary evidence, to submit evidence in rebuttal, and...

  7. 45 CFR 1386.105 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evidence. 1386.105 Section 1386.105 Public Welfare... § 1386.105 Evidence. (a) Testimony. Testimony by witnesses at the hearing is given orally under oath or... hearing if the presiding officer requires it. (c) Rules of evidence. Technical rules of evidence do...

  8. 7 CFR 1.332 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 1.332 Section 1.332 Agriculture Office of... Under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1986 § 1.332 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided herein, the Federal Rules of Evidence are not applicable...

  9. 20 CFR 498.217 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Evidence. 498.217 Section 498.217 Employees... § 498.217 Evidence. (a) The ALJ will determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ will not be bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence, but may be guided by them...

  10. 31 CFR 360.23 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evidence. 360.23 Section 360.23 Money... BONDS, SERIES I Judicial Proceedings § 360.23 Evidence. (a) General. To establish the validity of... must be supported by appropriate evidence of appointment and qualification. The evidence must...

  11. 20 CFR 901.45 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Evidence. 901.45 Section 901.45 Employees... § 901.45 Evidence. (a) In general. The rules of evidence prevailing in courts of law and equity are not... actuaries. However, the Administrative Law Judge shall exclude evidence which is irrelevant, immaterial,...

  12. 42 CFR 426.440 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evidence. 426.440 Section 426.440 Public Health... § 426.440 Evidence. (a) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ is not bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence. However, the ALJ may apply the Federal Rules of Evidence when appropriate, for example,...

  13. 14 CFR 406.149 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evidence. 406.149 Section 406.149... Transportation Adjudications § 406.149 Evidence. (a) General. A party is entitled to present the party's case or defense by oral, documentary, or demonstrative evidence, to submit rebuttal evidence, and to conduct...

  14. 45 CFR 213.25 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Evidence. 213.25 Section 213.25 Public Welfare... Evidence. (a) Testimony. Testimony shall be given orally under oath or affirmation by witnesses at the... hearing if the presiding officer so requires. (c) Rules of evidence. Technical rules of evidence shall...

  15. 24 CFR 180.620 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Evidence. 180.620 Section 180.620 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development OFFICE OF ASSISTANT... Evidence. The Federal Rules of Evidence apply to the presentation of evidence in hearings under this part....

  16. 45 CFR 213.25 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Evidence. 213.25 Section 213.25 Public Welfare... Evidence. (a) Testimony. Testimony shall be given orally under oath or affirmation by witnesses at the... hearing if the presiding officer so requires. (c) Rules of evidence. Technical rules of evidence shall...

  17. 40 CFR 27.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 27.34 Section 27.34... Evidence. (a) The presiding officer shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the presiding officer shall not be bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence. However,...

  18. 37 CFR 351.10 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evidence. 351.10 Section 351... JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES PROCEEDINGS § 351.10 Evidence. (a) Admissibility. All evidence that is... authenticated or identified in order to be admissible as evidence. The requirement of authentication...

  19. 22 CFR 224.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evidence. 224.34 Section 224.34 Foreign....34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence. However, the ALJ may apply...

  20. 22 CFR 18.16 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evidence. 18.16 Section 18.16 Foreign Relations... Enforcement Proceedings § 18.16 Evidence. The rules of evidence prevailing in courts of law and equity are not controlling in hearings under this part. However, the hearing examiner shall exclude evidence which...

  1. 22 CFR 521.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Evidence. 521.34 Section 521.34 Foreign... Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence. However, the ALJ may apply the...

  2. 42 CFR 422.678 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Evidence. 422.678 Section 422.678 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE... Evidence. The hearing officer rules on the admissibility of evidence and may admit evidence that would...

  3. 42 CFR 423.659 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 423.659 Section 423.659 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE....659 Evidence. The hearing officer rules on the admissibility of evidence and may admit evidence...

  4. 49 CFR 511.43 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Evidence. 511.43 Section 511.43 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Hearings § 511.43 Evidence. (a) Applicability of Federal Rules of Evidence. The Federal Rules of Evidence shall apply to proceedings held under this part only...

  5. 5 CFR 185.126 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence. 185.126 Section 185.126... § 185.126 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence. However, the ALJ may apply...

  6. 16 CFR 3.43 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evidence. 3.43 Section 3.43 Commercial... ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 3.43 Evidence. (a) Burden of proof. Counsel representing the Commission, or... reliable evidence shall be admitted. Irrelevant, immaterial, and unreliable evidence shall be...

  7. 43 CFR 35.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Evidence. 35.34 Section 35.34 Public Lands... STATEMENTS § 35.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence. However, the ALJ...

  8. 20 CFR 901.45 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evidence. 901.45 Section 901.45 Employees... § 901.45 Evidence. (a) In general. The rules of evidence prevailing in courts of law and equity are not... actuaries. However, the Administrative Law Judge shall exclude evidence which is irrelevant, immaterial,...

  9. 21 CFR 17.39 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Evidence. 17.39 Section 17.39 Food and Drugs FOOD... HEARINGS § 17.39 Evidence. (a) The presiding officer shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b... Evidence.” However, the presiding officer may apply the “Federal Rules of Evidence” when appropriate,...

  10. 21 CFR 17.39 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence. 17.39 Section 17.39 Food and Drugs FOOD... HEARINGS § 17.39 Evidence. (a) The presiding officer shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b... Evidence.” However, the presiding officer may apply the “Federal Rules of Evidence” when appropriate,...

  11. 24 CFR 180.620 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evidence. 180.620 Section 180.620 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development OFFICE OF ASSISTANT... Evidence. The Federal Rules of Evidence apply to the presentation of evidence in hearings under this part....

  12. 37 CFR 11.50 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evidence. 11.50 Section 11.50... Proceedings; Jurisdiction, Sanctions, Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.50 Evidence. (a) Rules of evidence. The rules of evidence prevailing in courts of law and equity are not controlling in hearings...

  13. 31 CFR 15.737-21 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evidence. 15.737-21 Section 15.737-21... Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 15.737-21 Evidence. (a) In general. The rules of evidence prevailing in... exclude evidence which is irrelevant, immaterial, or unduly repetitious. (b) Depositions. The...

  14. 42 CFR 426.440 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Evidence. 426.440 Section 426.440 Public Health... an LCD § 426.440 Evidence. (a) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ is not bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence. However, the ALJ may apply the Federal Rules of Evidence when appropriate,...

  15. 42 CFR 422.678 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 422.678 Section 422.678 Public Health... PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Medicare Contract Determinations and Appeals § 422.678 Evidence. The hearing officer rules on the admissibility of evidence and may admit evidence that would be...

  16. 22 CFR 18.16 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence. 18.16 Section 18.16 Foreign Relations... Enforcement Proceedings § 18.16 Evidence. The rules of evidence prevailing in courts of law and equity are not controlling in hearings under this part. However, the hearing examiner shall exclude evidence which...

  17. 42 CFR 422.1048 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evidence. 422.1048 Section 422.1048 Public Health... PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Appeal procedures for Civil Money Penalties § 422.1048 Evidence. Evidence may be received at the hearing even though inadmissible under the rules of evidence applicable...

  18. 37 CFR 11.50 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evidence. 11.50 Section 11.50... Proceedings; Jurisdiction, Sanctions, Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.50 Evidence. (a) Rules of evidence. The rules of evidence prevailing in courts of law and equity are not controlling in hearings...

  19. 31 CFR 15.737-21 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evidence. 15.737-21 Section 15.737-21... Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 15.737-21 Evidence. (a) In general. The rules of evidence prevailing in... exclude evidence which is irrelevant, immaterial, or unduly repetitious. (b) Depositions. The...

  20. 45 CFR 213.25 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evidence. 213.25 Section 213.25 Public Welfare... Evidence. (a) Testimony. Testimony shall be given orally under oath or affirmation by witnesses at the... hearing if the presiding officer so requires. (c) Rules of evidence. Technical rules of evidence shall...

  1. 42 CFR 423.659 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Evidence. 423.659 Section 423.659 Public Health... Appeals § 423.659 Evidence. The hearing officer rules on the admissibility of evidence and may admit evidence that is inadmissible under rules applicable to court procedures....

  2. 31 CFR 15.737-21 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 15.737-21 Section 15.737-21... Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 15.737-21 Evidence. (a) In general. The rules of evidence prevailing in... exclude evidence which is irrelevant, immaterial, or unduly repetitious. (b) Depositions. The...

  3. 14 CFR 13.59 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence. 13.59 Section 13.59 Aeronautics... AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice for FAA Hearings § 13.59 Evidence. (a) Each party to a hearing may present the party's case or defense by oral or documentary evidence, submit evidence...

  4. 49 CFR 821.38 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 821.38 Section 821.38 Transportation... PRACTICE IN AIR SAFETY PROCEEDINGS Hearing § 821.38 Evidence. Each party shall have the right to present a case-in-chief, or defense, by oral and documentary evidence, to submit evidence in rebuttal, and...

  5. 45 CFR 213.25 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 213.25 Section 213.25 Public Welfare... Evidence. (a) Testimony. Testimony shall be given orally under oath or affirmation by witnesses at the... hearing if the presiding officer so requires. (c) Rules of evidence. Technical rules of evidence shall...

  6. 45 CFR 1386.105 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Evidence. 1386.105 Section 1386.105 Public Welfare... § 1386.105 Evidence. (a) Testimony. Testimony by witnesses at the hearing is given orally under oath or... hearing if the presiding officer requires it. (c) Rules of evidence. Technical rules of evidence do...

  7. 29 CFR 511.13 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evidence. 511.13 Section 511.13 Labor Regulations Relating... AMERICAN SAMOA § 511.13 Evidence. In accordance with the notice of hearing, the committee and any... they are not refuted by evidence received at the hearing. Other pertinent evidence available to...

  8. 42 CFR 426.540 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Evidence. 426.540 Section 426.540 Public Health... an NCD § 426.540 Evidence. (a) Except as provided in this part, the Board is not bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence. However, the Board may apply the Federal Rules of Evidence when appropriate,...

  9. 22 CFR 18.16 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence. 18.16 Section 18.16 Foreign Relations... Enforcement Proceedings § 18.16 Evidence. The rules of evidence prevailing in courts of law and equity are not controlling in hearings under this part. However, the hearing examiner shall exclude evidence which...

  10. 49 CFR 511.43 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 511.43 Section 511.43 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Hearings § 511.43 Evidence. (a) Applicability of Federal Rules of Evidence. The Federal Rules of Evidence shall apply to proceedings held under this part only...

  11. 39 CFR 959.17 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evidence. 959.17 Section 959.17 Postal Service... STATUTES § 959.17 Evidence. (a) Except as otherwise provided in these rules, the rules of evidence... repetitious evidence. (b) Testimony shall be under oath or affirmation and witnesses shall be subject to...

  12. 42 CFR 423.659 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Evidence. 423.659 Section 423.659 Public Health... Appeals § 423.659 Evidence. The hearing officer rules on the admissibility of evidence and may admit evidence that is inadmissible under rules applicable to court procedures....

  13. 31 CFR 360.23 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evidence. 360.23 Section 360.23 Money... BONDS, SERIES I Judicial Proceedings § 360.23 Evidence. (a) General. To establish the validity of... must be supported by appropriate evidence of appointment and qualification. The evidence must...

  14. 37 CFR 351.10 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evidence. 351.10 Section 351... JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES PROCEEDINGS § 351.10 Evidence. (a) Admissibility. All evidence that is... authenticated or identified in order to be admissible as evidence. The requirement of authentication...

  15. 14 CFR 13.222 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evidence. 13.222 Section 13.222 Aeronautics... AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice in FAA Civil Penalty Actions § 13.222 Evidence. (a... evidence, to submit rebuttal evidence, and to conduct any cross-examination that may be required for a...

  16. 39 CFR 959.17 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evidence. 959.17 Section 959.17 Postal Service... STATUTES § 959.17 Evidence. (a) Except as otherwise provided in these rules, the rules of evidence... repetitious evidence. (b) Testimony shall be under oath or affirmation and witnesses shall be subject to...

  17. 14 CFR 13.59 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evidence. 13.59 Section 13.59 Aeronautics... AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice for FAA Hearings § 13.59 Evidence. (a) Each party to a hearing may present the party's case or defense by oral or documentary evidence, submit evidence...

  18. 40 CFR 27.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evidence. 27.34 Section 27.34... Evidence. (a) The presiding officer shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the presiding officer shall not be bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence. However,...

  19. 45 CFR 672.15 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evidence. 672.15 Section 672.15 Public Welfare... PROCEDURES § 672.15 Evidence. (a) General. The Presiding Officer shall admit all evidence which is not.... Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, evidence relating to settlement which would be excluded in the...

  20. 29 CFR 511.13 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evidence. 511.13 Section 511.13 Labor Regulations Relating... AMERICAN SAMOA § 511.13 Evidence. In accordance with the notice of hearing, the committee and any... they are not refuted by evidence received at the hearing. Other pertinent evidence available to...

  1. 5 CFR 185.126 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evidence. 185.126 Section 185.126... § 185.126 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence. However, the ALJ may apply...

  2. 16 CFR 1025.43 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence. 1025.43 Section 1025.43 Commercial... § 1025.43 Evidence. (a) Applicability of Federal Rules of Evidence. Unless otherwise provided by statute or these rules, the Federal Rules of Evidence shall apply to all proceedings held pursuant to...

  3. 34 CFR 81.15 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 81.15 Section 81.15 Education Office of the... Evidence. (a) The Federal Rules of Evidence do not apply to proceedings under this part. However, the ALJ accepts only evidence that is— (1) Relevant; (2) Material; (3) Not unduly repetitious; and (4)...

  4. 17 CFR 10.67 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Evidence. 10.67 Section 10.67... Evidence. (a) Admissibility. Relevant, material and reliable evidence shall be admitted. Irrelevant, immaterial, unreliable and unduly repetitious evidence shall be excluded. (b) Official notice. (1)...

  5. 37 CFR 11.50 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evidence. 11.50 Section 11.50... Proceedings; Jurisdiction, Sanctions, Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.50 Evidence. (a) Rules of evidence. The rules of evidence prevailing in courts of law and equity are not controlling in hearings...

  6. 14 CFR 13.59 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 13.59 Section 13.59 Aeronautics... AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice for FAA Hearings § 13.59 Evidence. (a) Each party to a hearing may present the party's case or defense by oral or documentary evidence, submit evidence...

  7. 42 CFR 423.659 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evidence. 423.659 Section 423.659 Public Health... Appeals § 423.659 Evidence. The hearing officer rules on the admissibility of evidence and may admit evidence that is inadmissible under rules applicable to court procedures....

  8. 42 CFR 426.540 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Evidence. 426.540 Section 426.540 Public Health... an NCD § 426.540 Evidence. (a) Except as provided in this part, the Board is not bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence. However, the Board may apply the Federal Rules of Evidence when appropriate,...

  9. 21 CFR 17.39 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence. 17.39 Section 17.39 Food and Drugs FOOD... HEARINGS § 17.39 Evidence. (a) The presiding officer shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b... Evidence.” However, the presiding officer may apply the “Federal Rules of Evidence” when appropriate,...

  10. 39 CFR 959.17 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evidence. 959.17 Section 959.17 Postal Service... STATUTES § 959.17 Evidence. (a) Except as otherwise provided in these rules, the rules of evidence... repetitious evidence. (b) Testimony shall be under oath or affirmation and witnesses shall be subject to...

  11. 37 CFR 11.50 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evidence. 11.50 Section 11.50... Proceedings; Jurisdiction, Sanctions, Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.50 Evidence. (a) Rules of evidence. The rules of evidence prevailing in courts of law and equity are not controlling in hearings...

  12. 37 CFR 11.50 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 11.50 Section 11.50... Proceedings; Jurisdiction, Sanctions, Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.50 Evidence. (a) Rules of evidence. The rules of evidence prevailing in courts of law and equity are not controlling in hearings...

  13. 29 CFR 1603.214 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evidence. 1603.214 Section 1603.214 Labor Regulations... GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEE RIGHTS ACT OF 1991 Hearings § 1603.214 Evidence. The administrative law judge shall accept relevant non-privileged evidence in accordance with the Federal Rules of Evidence (28...

  14. 29 CFR 511.13 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evidence. 511.13 Section 511.13 Labor Regulations Relating... AMERICAN SAMOA § 511.13 Evidence. In accordance with the notice of hearing, the committee and any... they are not refuted by evidence received at the hearing. Other pertinent evidence available to...

  15. 22 CFR 224.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence. 224.34 Section 224.34 Foreign....34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence. However, the ALJ may apply...

  16. Best Available Evidence: Three Complementary Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slocum, Timothy A.; Spencer, Trina D.; Detrich, Ronnie

    2012-01-01

    The best available evidence is one of the three critical features of evidence-based practice. Best available evidence is often considered to be synonymous with extremely high standards for research methodology. However, this notion may limit the scope and impact of evidence based practice to those educational decisions on which high quality…

  17. 15 CFR 25.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 25.34 Section 25.34 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROGRAM Fraud Civil Remedies § 25.34 Evidence... of Evidence where appropriate, e.g., to exclude unreliable evidence. (c) The ALJ shall...

  18. WEIGHT OF EVIDENCE IN ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides guidance on methods for weighing ecological evidence using a a standard framework consisting of three steps: assemble evidence, weight evidence and weigh the body of evidence. Use of the methods will improve the consistency and reliability of WoE-based asse...

  19. Physical evidence for dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Scranton, Ryan; Connolly, Andrew J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Stebbins, Albert; Szapudi, Istvan; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Afshordi, Niayesh; Budavari, Tamas; Csabai, Istvan; Frieman, Joshua A.; Gunn, James E.; Johnston, David; Loh, Yeong-Shang; Lupton, Robert H.; Miller, Christopher J.; Sheldon, Erin Scott; Sheth, Ravi K.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Tegmark, Max; Xu, Yongzhong; Anderson, Scott F.; /Pittsburgh U. /Carnegie Mellon U. /Fermilab /Inst. Astron., Honolulu /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ. /Princeton U. Observ. /Johns Hopkins U. /Eotvos U. /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /KICP, Chicago /Pennsylvania U. /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Apache Point Observ. /Illinois U., Urbana, Astron. Dept. /Tokyo U., ICRR /LLNL, Livermore /Sussex U., Astron. Ctr. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Michigan U. /Naval Observ., Flagstaff /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.

    2003-07-01

    The authors present measurements of the angular cross-correlation between luminous red galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the cosmic microwave background temperature maps from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. They find a statistically significant achromatic positive correlation between these two data sets, which is consistent with the expected signal from the late Integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect. they do not detect any anti-correlation on small angular scales as would be produced from a large Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect, although they do see evidence for some SZ effect for their highest redshift samples. Assuming a flat universe, their preliminary detection of the ISW effect provides independent physical evidence for the existence of dark energy.

  20. From evidence based bioethics to evidence based social policies

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    In this issue, Norwegian authors demonstrate that causes of early expulsion out the workforce are rooted in childhood. They reconstruct individual biographies in administrative databases linked by an unique national identification number, looking forward 15 years in early adulthood and looking back 20 years till birth with close to negligible loss to follow up. Evidence based bioethics suggest that it is better to live in a country that allows reconstructing biographies in administrative databases then in countries that forbid access by restrictive legislation based on privacy considerations. The benefits of gained knowledge from existing and accessible information are tangible, particularly for the weak and the poor, while the harms of theoretical privacy invasion have not yet materialised. The study shows once again that disadvantage runs in families. Low parental education, parental disability and unstable marital unions predict early disability pensions and premature expulsion out gainful employment. The effect of low parental education is mediated by low education of the index person. However, in a feast of descriptive studies of socio-economic causes of ill health we still face a famine of evaluative intervention studies. An evidence based social policy should be based on effective interventions that are able to break the vicious circles of disability handed down from generation to generation. PMID:17657572

  1. Learning Styles: Concepts and Evidence.

    PubMed

    Pashler, Harold; McDaniel, Mark; Rohrer, Doug; Bjork, Robert

    2008-12-01

    The term "learning styles" refers to the concept that individuals differ in regard to what mode of instruction or study is most effective for them. Proponents of learning-style assessment contend that optimal instruction requires diagnosing individuals' learning style and tailoring instruction accordingly. Assessments of learning style typically ask people to evaluate what sort of information presentation they prefer (e.g., words versus pictures versus speech) and/or what kind of mental activity they find most engaging or congenial (e.g., analysis versus listening), although assessment instruments are extremely diverse. The most common-but not the only-hypothesis about the instructional relevance of learning styles is the meshing hypothesis, according to which instruction is best provided in a format that matches the preferences of the learner (e.g., for a "visual learner," emphasizing visual presentation of information). The learning-styles view has acquired great influence within the education field, and is frequently encountered at levels ranging from kindergarten to graduate school. There is a thriving industry devoted to publishing learning-styles tests and guidebooks for teachers, and many organizations offer professional development workshops for teachers and educators built around the concept of learning styles. The authors of the present review were charged with determining whether these practices are supported by scientific evidence. We concluded that any credible validation of learning-styles-based instruction requires robust documentation of a very particular type of experimental finding with several necessary criteria. First, students must be divided into groups on the basis of their learning styles, and then students from each group must be randomly assigned to receive one of multiple instructional methods. Next, students must then sit for a final test that is the same for all students. Finally, in order to demonstrate that optimal learning requires

  2. Reporting New Evidence of Gravitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Paul T.

    This paper proposes a new approach to the graviton and reports on supporting evidence. Here the graviton is defined as the field particle which provides quantum particles with the dimensions of space and time, whereby curvature of spacetime is but one consequence. Both general relativity and quantum theory are extended by proposing that each incident graviton provides space and time in equal measure, thus making c a constant. The approach overcomes problems of renormalization and leads to a derivation of the unification equation (containing G, c, and h). From this equation the frequency of incident gravitons is 1.48 × 1042 s-1, hence the graviton is a high-energy particle, which is a description that is in keeping with the evidence presented here. The Compton scattering angle for gravitons encountering hydrogen atoms and hydrogen nuclei is calculated to be 8.5 × 10-32 and 1.8 × 10-29 radians, respectively. This prediction concurs with a scattering angle of 10-30-10-29 radians, obtained from the distances at which rotation curves deviate from Newtonian mechanics. It is argued that scattering by stellar bodies produces diffraction patterns of gravitons that radiate far beyond galactic disks as variations in energy density. Based on the diameter of atoms and scattering angle, it is predicted that as the orbital radius increases beyond a critical distance of 0.1 kpc, the diffraction minima should increasingly dominate. As a result, the diffraction pattern of a model galaxy of Sun-like stars should produce a constant orbital speed of 3 × 105 m s-1 at a distance of 1 kpc and greater, extending its influence far beyond the galactic disk. This prediction is consistent with data from rotation curves of 62 galaxies. In conclusion, the new approach to the graviton is supported by cosmological evidence and it leads to fresh directions in physics.

  3. A case of phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala oligosperma successfully treated with local hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Fukai, Tatsuo; Hiruma, Masataro; Ogawa, Yumi; Ikeda, Shigaku; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Sano, Ayako; Makimura, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    A 58-year-old Japanese woman who was engaged in dairy farming presented with multiple subcutaneous nodules and abscesses on the dorsum of her left hand from 5 months ago. These had been unsuccessfully treated with oral itraconazole. The patient had a history of Sjögren syndrome and diabetes mellitus, for which she had been taking oral prednisolone for 10 years. Direct microscopy of a pus sample treated with potassium hydroxide (KOH) showed brownish-red branching hyphae. In fungal culture, black colonies covered with gray-white villi were formed. Slide culture showed conidiogenesis from an annellide. The fungal strain was identified as Exophialia oligosperma by molecular biological techniques. Histopathological examination revealed abscesses and surrounding granulomatous infiltration in the dermis and subcutis, and hyphae in the granulomatous infiltration in the outer area. However, no eumycotic granules were observed. The diagnosis was phaeohyphomycosis caused by E. oligosperma. Since the previous treatment with itraconazole had not been effective, we performed daily hyperthermia using a disposable body warmer and drainage of the pus, which ceased after 3 weeks. After approximately 4 months, the skin eruptions became scarred. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second case of phaeohyphomycosis caused by E. oligosperma reported in Japan which was successfully treated with hyperthermia.

  4. Fossil evidence of Archaean life

    PubMed Central

    Schopf, J. William

    2006-01-01

    Evidence for the existence of life during the Archaean segment of Earth history (more than 2500 Myr ago) is summarized. Data are presented for 48 Archaean deposits reported to contain biogenic stromatolites, for 14 such units reported to contain 40 morphotypes of putative microfossils, and for 13 especially ancient, 3200–3500 Myr old geologic units for which available organic geochemical data are also summarized. These compilations support the view that life's existence dates from more than or equal to 3500 Myr ago. PMID:16754604

  5. Making a Difference With Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2010-01-01

    In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education describes how, despite the many challenges confronting childbirth educators today in our complex health-care environment, there is still a ray of hope that committed individuals translating evidence into practice can make a difference. The editor also describes the contents of this special issue, which celebrates the 50th anniversary of Lamaze International and offers a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote natural, safe, and healthy birth. PMID:21170179

  6. Evidence for a nonplanar amplituhedron

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, Zvi; Herrmann, Enrico; Litsey, Sean; Stankowicz, James; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2016-06-17

    The scattering amplitudes of planar N = 4 super-Yang-Mills exhibit a number of remarkable analytic structures, including dual conformal symmetry and logarithmic singularities of integrands. The amplituhedron is a geometric construction of the integrand that incorporates these structures. This geometric construction further implies the amplitude is fully specified by constraining it to vanish on spurious residues. By writing the amplitude in a dlog basis, we provide nontrivial evidence that these analytic properties and “zero conditions” carry over into the nonplanar sector. Finally, this suggests that the concept of the amplituhedron can be extended to the nonplanar sector of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory.

  7. Sequential biases in accumulating evidence

    PubMed Central

    Huggins, Richard; Dogo, Samson Henry

    2015-01-01

    Whilst it is common in clinical trials to use the results of tests at one phase to decide whether to continue to the next phase and to subsequently design the next phase, we show that this can lead to biased results in evidence synthesis. Two new kinds of bias associated with accumulating evidence, termed ‘sequential decision bias’ and ‘sequential design bias’, are identified. Both kinds of bias are the result of making decisions on the usefulness of a new study, or its design, based on the previous studies. Sequential decision bias is determined by the correlation between the value of the current estimated effect and the probability of conducting an additional study. Sequential design bias arises from using the estimated value instead of the clinically relevant value of an effect in sample size calculations. We considered both the fixed‐effect and the random‐effects models of meta‐analysis and demonstrated analytically and by simulations that in both settings the problems due to sequential biases are apparent. According to our simulations, the sequential biases increase with increased heterogeneity. Minimisation of sequential biases arises as a new and important research area necessary for successful evidence‐based approaches to the development of science. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26626562

  8. Science and evidence: separating fact from fiction.

    PubMed

    Hess, Dean R

    2013-10-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is the integration of individual clinical expertise with the best available research evidence from systematic research and the patient's values and expectations. A hierarchy of evidence can be used to assess the strength upon which clinical decisions are made. The efficient approach to finding the best evidence is to identify systematic reviews or evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Respiratory therapies that evidence supports include noninvasive ventilation for appropriately selected patients, lung-protective ventilation, and ventilator discontinuation protocols. Evidence does not support use of weaning parameters, albuterol for ARDS, and high frequency oscillatory ventilation for adults. Therapy with equivocal evidence includes airway clearance, selection of an aerosol delivery device, and PEEP for ARDS. Although all tenets of EBM are not universally accepted, the principles of EBM nonetheless provide a valuable approach to respiratory care practice.

  9. Evidence-based periodontal therapy: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Vijayalakshmi, R.; Anitha, V.; Ramakrishnan, T.; Sudhakar, Uma

    2008-01-01

    Dentists need to make clinical decisions based on limited scientific evidence. In clinical practice, a clinician must weigh a myriad of evidences every day. The goal of evidence-based dentistry is to help practitioners provide their patients with optimal care. This is achieved by integrating sound research evidence with personal clinical expertise and patient values to determine the best course of treatment. Periodontology has a rich background of research and scholarship. Therefore, efficient use of this wealth of research data needs to be a part of periodontal practice. Evidence-based periodontology aims to facilitate such an approach and it offers a bridge from science to clinical practice. The clinician must integrate the evidence with patient preference, scientific knowledge, and personal experience. Most important, it allows us to care for our patients. Therefore, evidence-based periodontology is a tool to support decision-making and integrating the best evidence available with clinical practice. PMID:20142947

  10. The Ethical Use of Evidence in Biomedicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrino, Edmund D.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the ethics of data collection and dissemination, suggesting criteria for the morally responsible treatment of evidence collection, dissemination, and use. Comments on the importance of V. Mike's proposal of an "ethics of evidence." (SLD)

  11. 28 CFR 76.30 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... unfair prejudice, confusion of the issues, or by considerations of undue delay or needless presentation of cumulative evidence. (e) Relevant evidence may be excluded if it is privileged under federal...

  12. 31 CFR 16.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... prejudice, confusion of the issues, or by considerations of undue delay or needless presentation of cumulative evidence. (e) Although relevant, evidence may be excluded if it is privileged under Federal...

  13. 20 CFR 498.217 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... considerations of undue delay or needless presentation of cumulative evidence. (d) Although relevant, evidence... referenced in the IG's notice sent in accordance with § 498.109. (g) The ALJ will permit the parties...

  14. 20 CFR 498.217 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... considerations of undue delay or needless presentation of cumulative evidence. (d) Although relevant, evidence... referenced in the IG's notice sent in accordance with § 498.109. (g) The ALJ will permit the parties...

  15. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy: the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Anagnostopoulos, C.; Cerqueira, M.; Ell, P. J.; Flint, E. J.; Harbinson, M.; Kelion, A. D.; Al-Mohammad, A.; Prvulovich, E. M.; Shaw, L. J.; Tweddel, A. C.

    2003-01-01

    This review summarises the evidence for the role of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. It is the product of a consensus conference organised by the British Cardiac Society, the British Nuclear Cardiology Society and the British Nuclear Medicine Society and is endorsed by the Royal College of Physicians of London and the Royal College of Radiologists. It was used to inform the UK National Institute of Clinical Excellence in their appraisal of MPS in patients with chest pain and myocardial infarction. MPS is a well-established, non-invasive imaging technique with a large body of evidence to support its effectiveness in the diagnosis and management of angina and myocardial infarction. It is more accurate than the exercise ECG in detecting myocardial ischaemia and it is the single most powerful technique for predicting future coronary events. The high diagnostic accuracy of MPS allows reliable risk stratification and guides the selection of patients for further interventions, such as revascularisation. This in turn allows more appropriate utilisation of resources, with the potential for both improved clinical outcomes and greater cost-effectiveness. Evidence from modelling and observational studies supports the enhanced cost-effectiveness associated with MPS use. In patients presenting with stable or acute chest pain, strategies of investigation involving MPS are more cost-effective than those not using the technique. MPS also has particular advantages over alternative techniques in the management of a number of patient subgroups, including women, the elderly and those with diabetes, and its use will have a favourable impact on cost-effectiveness in these groups. MPS is already an integral part of many clinical guidelines for the investigation and management of angina and myocardial infarction. However, the technique is underutilised in the UK, as judged by the inappropriately long waiting times and by

  16. Evidence for Ancient Mesoamerican Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovach, R. L.; Garcia, B.

    2001-12-01

    Evidence for past earthquake damage at Mesoamerican ruins is often overlooked because of the invasive effects of tropical vegetation and is usually not considered as a casual factor when restoration and reconstruction of many archaeological sites are undertaken. Yet the proximity of many ruins to zones of seismic activity would argue otherwise. Clues as to the types of damage which should be soughtwere offered in September 1999 when the M = 7.5 Oaxaca earthquake struck the ruins of Monte Alban, Mexico, where archaeological renovations were underway. More than 20 structures were damaged, 5 of them seriously. Damage features noted were walls out of plumb, fractures in walls, floors, basal platforms and tableros, toppling of columns, and deformation, settling and tumbling of walls. A Modified Mercalli Intensity of VII (ground accelerations 18-34 %b) occurred at the site. Within the diffuse landward extension of the Caribbean plate boundary zone M = 7+ earthquakes occur with repeat times of hundreds of years arguing that many Maya sites were subjected to earthquakes. Damage to re-erected and reinforced stelae, walls, and buildings were witnessed at Quirigua, Guatemala, during an expedition underway when then 1976 M = 7.5 Guatemala earthquake on the Motagua fault struck. Excavations also revealed evidence (domestic pttery vessels and skeleton of a child crushed under fallen walls) of an ancient earthquake occurring about the teim of the demise and abandonment of Quirigua in the late 9th century. Striking evidence for sudden earthquake building collapse at the end of the Mayan Classic Period ~A.D. 889 was found at Benque Viejo (Xunantunich), Belize, located 210 north of Quirigua. It is argued that a M = 7.5 to 7.9 earthquake at the end of the Maya Classic period centered in the vicinity of the Chixoy-Polochic and Motagua fault zones cound have produced the contemporaneous earthquake damage to the above sites. As a consequences this earthquake may have accelerated the

  17. Epilepsy Surgery: An Evidence Summary

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Medical Advisory Secretariat, the predecessor of Health Quality Ontario, published an evidence-based analysis on functional brain imaging. This analysis highlighted the low uptake of epilepsy surgery in Ontario and internationally. Objective The objective of this analysis was to review the effectiveness of epilepsy surgery at reducing seizure frequency, as well as the safety of epilepsy surgery. Data Sources The literature search included studies published between January 1995 and March 2012. Search terms included epilepsy, surgery, resection, safety, and complications. Review Methods Studies were eligible for inclusion if they included at least 20 patients undergoing surgery; had a comparison group of patients with epilepsy who were not undergoing surgery; and reported follow-up periods of at least 1 year. Outcomes of interest included seizure frequency and complications associated with surgery. Results Six systematic reviews reported pooled seizure-free rates that ranged from 43% to 75%. Two randomized controlled trials compared the effectiveness of epilepsy surgery with no surgery in patients with drug-refractory epilepsy. Both trials reported significant improvements in the seizure frequency in the surgery group compared with the nonsurgery group. Eight retrospective cohort studies reported on the safety of epilepsy surgery. Of the 2,725 patients included in these studies, there were 3 deaths reportedly related to surgery. Other complications included hemiparesis, infection, and visual field defects. The studies had long follow-up periods ranging from a mean of 2 to 7 years. Limitations The most recent randomized controlled trial was stopped early due to slow enrolment rates. Thus results need to be interpreted with caution. Conclusions There is high quality evidence that epilepsy surgery is effective at reducing seizure frequency. Two randomized controlled trials compared surgery to no surgery in patients with drug-refractory epilepsy. Both

  18. Evidence-based practice of periodontics.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Charles M; MacNeill, Simon R; Satheesh, Keerthana

    2010-01-01

    Evidence-based practice involves complex and conscientious decision making based not only on the available evidence but also on patient characteristics, situations, and preferences. It recognizes that care is individualized and ever-changing and involves uncertainties and probabilities. The specialty of periodontics has abundant high-level evidence upon which treatment decisions can be determined. This paper offers a brief commentary and overview of the available evidence commonly used in the private practice of periodontics.

  19. Evidence-based Science Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahan, D.

    2012-12-01

    This presentation will describe a concrete strategy for bridging the gap between the *science* of science communication and the practice of it. In recent years, social scientists have made substantial progress in identifying the psychological influences that shape public receptivity to scientific information relating to climate change and other public policy issues. That work, however, has consisted nearly entirely of laboratory experiments and public opinion surveys; these methods identify general mechanisms of information processing but do not yield concrete prescriptions for communication in field settings. In order to integrate the findings of the science of science communication with the practice of it, field communication must now be made into a meaningful site of science communication research. "Evidence-based science communication" will involve collaborative work between social scientists and practitioners aimed at formulating and testing scientifically informed communication strategies in real-world contexts.

  20. Evidence for a nonplanar amplituhedron

    DOE PAGES

    Bern, Zvi; Herrmann, Enrico; Litsey, Sean; ...

    2016-06-17

    The scattering amplitudes of planar N = 4 super-Yang-Mills exhibit a number of remarkable analytic structures, including dual conformal symmetry and logarithmic singularities of integrands. The amplituhedron is a geometric construction of the integrand that incorporates these structures. This geometric construction further implies the amplitude is fully specified by constraining it to vanish on spurious residues. By writing the amplitude in a dlog basis, we provide nontrivial evidence that these analytic properties and “zero conditions” carry over into the nonplanar sector. Finally, this suggests that the concept of the amplituhedron can be extended to the nonplanar sector of N =more » 4 super-Yang-Mills theory.« less

  1. Hard evidence on soft skills✩

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, James J.; Kautz, Tim

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent evidence on what achievement tests measure; how achievement tests relate to other measures of “cognitive ability” like IQ and grades; the important skills that achievement tests miss or mismeasure, and how much these skills matter in life. Achievement tests miss, or perhaps more accurately, do not adequately capture, soft skills—personality traits, goals, motivations, and preferences that are valued in the labor market, in school, and in many other domains. The larger message of this paper is that soft skills predict success in life, that they causally produce that success, and that programs that enhance soft skills have an important place in an effective portfolio of public policies. PMID:23559694

  2. Evidence of the big fix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu

    2014-06-01

    We give an evidence of the Big Fix. The theory of wormholes and multiverse suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model are fixed in such a way that the total entropy at the late stage of the universe is maximized, which we call the maximum entropy principle. In this paper, we discuss how it can be confirmed by the experimental data, and we show that it is indeed true for the Higgs vacuum expectation value vh. We assume that the baryon number is produced by the sphaleron process, and that the current quark masses, the gauge couplings and the Higgs self-coupling are fixed when we vary vh. It turns out that the existence of the atomic nuclei plays a crucial role to maximize the entropy. This is reminiscent of the anthropic principle, however it is required by the fundamental law in our case.

  3. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  4. 10 CFR 710.30 - New evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false New evidence. 710.30 Section 710.30 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Matter or Special Nuclear Material Administrative Review § 710.30 New evidence. (a) In the event of the discovery of new evidence relevant to the allegations contained in the notification letter prior to...

  5. 8 CFR 315.3 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evidence. 315.3 Section 315.3 Aliens and...: EXEMPTION FROM MILITARY SERVICE § 315.3 Evidence. (a) The records of the Selective Service System and the military department under which the alien served shall be conclusive evidence of whether the alien...

  6. 8 CFR 315.3 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence. 315.3 Section 315.3 Aliens and...: EXEMPTION FROM MILITARY SERVICE § 315.3 Evidence. (a) The records of the Selective Service System and the military department under which the alien served shall be conclusive evidence of whether the alien...

  7. Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The evidence-based practice movement has become an important feature of health care systems and health care policy. Within this context, the APA 2005 Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice defines and discusses evidence-based practice in psychology (EBPP). In an integration of science and practice, the Task Force's report describes…

  8. Critical Dispositions: Evidence and Expertise in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitriadis, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Set against the current proliferation of global "difference" and economic realignment, "Critical Dispositions" explores the notions of "evidence" and "expertise" in times of material scarcity. Both have come to the forefront of national and international debate in education as "evidence" and "evidence-based" research and pedagogical practices…

  9. 20 CFR 404.1512 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence. 404.1512 Section 404.1512 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Evidence § 404.1512 Evidence. (a) General. In general, you have to...

  10. Using Science as Evidence in Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Kenneth, Ed.; Schwandt, Thomas A., Ed.; Straf, Miron L., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Using Science as Evidence in Public Policy" encourages scientists to think differently about the use of scientific evidence in policy making. This report investigates why scientific evidence is important to policy making and argues that an extensive body of research on knowledge utilization has not led to any widely accepted explanation…

  11. 49 CFR 821.38 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evidence. 821.38 Section 821.38 Transportation... PRACTICE IN AIR SAFETY PROCEEDINGS Hearing § 821.38 Evidence. In any proceeding under the rules in this part, all evidence which is relevant, material, reliable and probative, and not unduly repetitious...

  12. 13 CFR 134.223 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 134.223 Section 134.223... OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS Rules of Practice for Most Cases § 134.223 Evidence. (a) Federal Rules of Evidence. Unless contrary to a particular rule in this part, or an order of the Judge, the Federal Rules...

  13. 49 CFR 31.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evidence. 31.34 Section 31.34 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 31.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not...

  14. 42 CFR 3.540 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evidence. 3.540 Section 3.540 Public Health PUBLIC... AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Enforcement Program § 3.540 Evidence. (a) The ALJ must determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this subpart, the ALJ is not bound by the Federal Rules...

  15. 20 CFR 404.1926 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence. 404.1926 Section 404.1926 Employees...- ) Totalization Agreements Other Provisions § 404.1926 Evidence. (a) An applicant for benefits under an agreement shall submit the evidence needed to establish entitlement, as provided in subpart H of this...

  16. 43 CFR 4.452-6 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evidence. 4.452-6 Section 4.452-6 Public... Fact § 4.452-6 Evidence. (a) All oral testimony shall be under oath and witnesses shall be subject to cross-examination. The administrative law judge may question any witness. Documentary evidence may...

  17. 42 CFR 93.208 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evidence. 93.208 Section 93.208 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS... MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.208 Evidence. Evidence means any document, tangible item, or testimony offered...

  18. 31 CFR 353.23 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evidence. 353.23 Section 353.23 Money... BONDS, SERIES EE AND HH Judicial Proceedings § 353.23 Evidence. (a) General. To establish the validity... insolvent's estate must be supported by appropriate evidence of appointment and qualification. The...

  19. 49 CFR 211.75 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evidence. 211.75 Section 211.75 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE Interim Procedures for the Review of Emergency Orders § 211.75 Evidence. (a) The Federal Rules of Evidence for United States Courts and Magistrates shall be employed as general...

  20. 15 CFR 904.251 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence. 904.251 Section 904.251... and Appeal Procedures Hearings § 904.251 Evidence. (a) In general. (1) At the hearing, every party has the right to present oral or documentary evidence in support of its case or defense, to...

  1. 42 CFR 1005.17 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evidence. 1005.17 Section 1005.17 Public Health... OF EXCLUSIONS, CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES AND ASSESSMENTS § 1005.17 Evidence. (a) The ALJ will determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ will not be bound by...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1926 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Evidence. 404.1926 Section 404.1926 Employees...- ) Totalization Agreements Other Provisions § 404.1926 Evidence. (a) An applicant for benefits under an agreement shall submit the evidence needed to establish entitlement, as provided in subpart H of this...

  3. 7 CFR 15.117 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence. 15.117 Section 15.117 Agriculture Office of... and Administrative Review Under the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Hearing Procedures § 15.117 Evidence. Irrelevant, immaterial, unreliable, and unduly repetitious evidence will be excluded, and technical rules...

  4. 10 CFR 1013.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evidence. 1013.34 Section 1013.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES AND PROCEDURES § 1013.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not...

  5. 40 CFR 22.22 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evidence. 22.22 Section 22.22... PERMITS Hearing Procedures § 22.22 Evidence. (a) General. (1) The Presiding Officer shall admit all evidence which is not irrelevant, immaterial, unduly repetitious, unreliable, or of little probative...

  6. 39 CFR 965.9 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evidence. 965.9 Section 965.9 Postal Service....9 Evidence. (a) In general, admissibility will hinge on relevancy and materiality. However, relevant evidence may be excluded if its probative value is substantially outweighed by the danger of...

  7. 39 CFR 963.15 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evidence. 963.15 Section 963.15 Postal Service... PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.15 Evidence. (a) In general, admissibility will hinge on relevancy and materiality. However, relevant evidence may be excluded if its probative value...

  8. 5 CFR 831.905 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evidence. 831.905 Section 831.905...) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.905 Evidence. (a) An agency head's determination... determination under § 831.904 must be based on the official position description and any other evidence...

  9. 31 CFR 501.732 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 501.732 Section 501.732... the Enemy Act (TWEA) Penalties § 501.732 Evidence. The applicable evidentiary standard for proceedings under this subpart is proof by a preponderance of reliable, probative, and substantial evidence....

  10. 45 CFR 150.445 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evidence. 150.445 Section 150.445 Public Welfare... AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS Administrative Hearings § 150.445 Evidence. (a) The ALJ will determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ will not be bound...

  11. 13 CFR 134.312 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 134.312 Section 134.312 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF PROCEDURE GOVERNING CASES BEFORE THE... Designations § 134.312 Evidence. To the extent the rules in this subpart permit the submission of evidence,...

  12. 14 CFR 16.223 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evidence. 16.223 Section 16.223 Aeronautics... PRACTICE FOR FEDERALLY-ASSISTED AIRPORT ENFORCEMENT PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 16.223 Evidence. (a) General. A party may submit direct and rebuttal evidence in accordance with this section. (b) Requirement...

  13. 42 CFR 430.88 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evidence. 430.88 Section 430.88 Public Health... Plans and Practice to Federal Requirements § 430.88 Evidence. (a) Evidentiary purpose. The hearing is directed to receiving factual evidence and expert opinion testimony related to the issues involved in...

  14. 12 CFR 509.36 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Evidence. 509.36 Section 509.36 Banks and... ADJUDICATORY PROCEEDINGS Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 509.36 Evidence. (a) Admissibility. (1) Except as is otherwise set forth in this section, relevant, material, and reliable evidence that is...

  15. 5 CFR 842.905 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence. 842.905 Section 842.905... EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Nuclear Materials Couriers § 842.905 Evidence. (a) The Secretary... official position description and any other evidence deemed appropriate by the agency head for making...

  16. 49 CFR 31.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 31.34 Section 31.34 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 31.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not...

  17. 45 CFR 79.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evidence. 79.34 Section 79.34 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part,...

  18. 41 CFR 105-70.034 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evidence. 105-70.034...-IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 105-70.034 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not be bound by...

  19. 31 CFR 16.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evidence. 16.34 Section 16.34 Money... FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 16.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided herein, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal Rules of...

  20. 12 CFR 308.36 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evidence. 308.36 Section 308.36 Banks and... PROCEDURE Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 308.36 Evidence. (a) Admissibility. (1) Except as is otherwise set forth in this section, relevant, material, and reliable evidence that is not unduly...

  1. 40 CFR 22.22 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evidence. 22.22 Section 22.22... PERMITS Hearing Procedures § 22.22 Evidence. (a) General. (1) The Presiding Officer shall admit all evidence which is not irrelevant, immaterial, unduly repetitious, unreliable, or of little probative...

  2. 12 CFR 19.36 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 19.36 Section 19.36 Banks and Banking... Practice and Procedure § 19.36 Evidence. (a) Admissibility. (1) Except as is otherwise set forth in this section, relevant, material, and reliable evidence that is not unduly repetitive is admissible to...

  3. 49 CFR 211.75 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Evidence. 211.75 Section 211.75 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE Interim Procedures for the Review of Emergency Orders § 211.75 Evidence. (a) The Federal Rules of Evidence for United States Courts and Magistrates shall be employed as general...

  4. 31 CFR 10.73 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evidence. 10.73 Section 10.73 Money... SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.73 Evidence. (a) In general. The rules of evidence prevailing in courts of law and equity are not controlling in hearings or proceedings...

  5. 49 CFR 211.75 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 211.75 Section 211.75 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE Interim Procedures for the Review of Emergency Orders § 211.75 Evidence. (a) The Federal Rules of Evidence for United States Courts and Magistrates shall be employed as general...

  6. 12 CFR 509.36 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence. 509.36 Section 509.36 Banks and... ADJUDICATORY PROCEEDINGS Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 509.36 Evidence. (a) Admissibility. (1) Except as is otherwise set forth in this section, relevant, material, and reliable evidence that is...

  7. 42 CFR 1005.17 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Evidence. 1005.17 Section 1005.17 Public Health... OF EXCLUSIONS, CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES AND ASSESSMENTS § 1005.17 Evidence. (a) The ALJ will determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ will not be bound by...

  8. 28 CFR 76.30 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evidence. 76.30 Section 76.30 Judicial... POSSESSION OF CERTAIN CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 76.30 Evidence. (a) The Judge shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the Judge shall not be bound by the Federal...

  9. 42 CFR 3.540 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 3.540 Section 3.540 Public Health PUBLIC... AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Enforcement Program § 3.540 Evidence. (a) The ALJ must determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this subpart, the ALJ is not bound by the Federal Rules...

  10. 43 CFR 4.435 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Evidence. 4.435 Section 4.435 Public Lands... Evidence. (a) All oral testimony shall be under oath and witnesses shall be subject to cross-examination. The administrative law judge may question any witnesses. Documentary evidence may be received...

  11. 49 CFR 845.26 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 845.26 Section 845.26 Transportation... PRACTICE IN TRANSPORTATION; ACCIDENT/INCIDENT HEARINGS AND REPORTS Conduct of Hearing § 845.26 Evidence. The chairman of the board of inquiry shall receive all testimony and evidence which may be of aid...

  12. 8 CFR 315.3 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evidence. 315.3 Section 315.3 Aliens and...: EXEMPTION FROM MILITARY SERVICE § 315.3 Evidence. (a) The records of the Selective Service System and the military department under which the alien served shall be conclusive evidence of whether the alien...

  13. 42 CFR 1005.17 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 1005.17 Section 1005.17 Public Health... OF EXCLUSIONS, CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES AND ASSESSMENTS § 1005.17 Evidence. (a) The ALJ will determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ will not be bound by...

  14. 19 CFR 210.37 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Evidence. 210.37 Section 210.37 Customs Duties... ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Prehearing Conferences and Hearings § 210.37 Evidence. (a) Burden of proof. The.... (b) Admissibility. Relevant, material, and reliable evidence shall be admitted....

  15. 5 CFR 831.103 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evidence. 831.103 Section 831.103...) RETIREMENT Administration and General Provisions § 831.103 Evidence. (a) Standard Form 2806 (Individual..., the department, agency, or OPM should request inferior or secondary evidence which is then admissible....

  16. 24 CFR 26.47 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence. 26.47 Section 26.47... PROCEDURES Hearings Pursuant to the Administrative Procedure Act Hearings § 26.47 Evidence. The ALJ shall admit any relevant oral or documentary evidence that is not privileged. Unless otherwise provided for...

  17. 39 CFR 957.16 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evidence. 957.16 Section 957.16 Postal Service... SUSPENSION FROM CONTRACTING § 957.16 Evidence. (a) Except as otherwise provided in the rules in this part, the rules of evidence governing civil proceedings in matters not involving trial by jury in the...

  18. 45 CFR 79.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Evidence. 79.34 Section 79.34 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part,...

  19. 45 CFR 81.78 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evidence. 81.78 Section 81.78 Public Welfare... 80 OF THIS TITLE Hearing Procedures § 81.78 Evidence. Irrelevant, immaterial, unreliable, and unduly repetitious evidence will be excluded....

  20. 49 CFR 1503.635 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Evidence. 1503.635 Section 1503.635 Transportation... Rules of Practice in TSA Civil Penalty Actions § 1503.635 Evidence. (a) General. A party is entitled to present the party's case or defense by oral, documentary, or demonstrative evidence, to submit...

  1. 5 CFR 831.805 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence. 831.805 Section 831.805...) RETIREMENT Nuclear Materials Couriers § 831.805 Evidence. (a) The Secretary of Energy's determination under... other evidence deemed appropriate by the agency head for making the determination. (c) If an employee...

  2. 12 CFR 308.533 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence. 308.533 Section 308.533 Banks and... PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.533 Evidence. (a) The ALJ will determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this subpart, the ALJ will not be bound by the...

  3. 7 CFR 15.117 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evidence. 15.117 Section 15.117 Agriculture Office of... and Administrative Review Under the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Hearing Procedures § 15.117 Evidence. Irrelevant, immaterial, unreliable, and unduly repetitious evidence will be excluded, and technical rules...

  4. 43 CFR 4.452-6 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Evidence. 4.452-6 Section 4.452-6 Public... Fact § 4.452-6 Evidence. (a) All oral testimony shall be under oath and witnesses shall be subject to cross-examination. The administrative law judge may question any witness. Documentary evidence may...

  5. 49 CFR 211.75 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evidence. 211.75 Section 211.75 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE Interim Procedures for the Review of Emergency Orders § 211.75 Evidence. (a) The Federal Rules of Evidence for United States Courts and Magistrates shall be employed as general...

  6. 42 CFR 430.88 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Evidence. 430.88 Section 430.88 Public Health... Plans and Practice to Federal Requirements § 430.88 Evidence. (a) Evidentiary purpose. The hearing is directed to receiving factual evidence and expert opinion testimony related to the issues involved in...

  7. 45 CFR 79.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evidence. 79.34 Section 79.34 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part,...

  8. 29 CFR 22.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evidence. 22.34 Section 22.34 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 22.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal...

  9. 5 CFR 842.804 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evidence. 842.804 Section 842.804... Controllers § 842.804 Evidence. (a) An agency head's determination under § 842.803(a) (finding that a position...) must be based on the official position description and any other evidence deemed appropriate by...

  10. 31 CFR 10.73 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evidence. 10.73 Section 10.73 Money... SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.73 Evidence. (a) In general. The rules of evidence prevailing in courts of law and equity are not controlling in hearings or proceedings...

  11. 12 CFR 109.36 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evidence. 109.36 Section 109.36 Banks and... ADJUDICATORY PROCEEDINGS Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 109.36 Evidence. (a) Admissibility. (1) Except as is otherwise set forth in this section, relevant, material, and reliable evidence that is...

  12. 5 CFR 831.905 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 831.905 Section 831.905...) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.905 Evidence. (a) An agency head's determination... determination under § 831.904 must be based on the official position description and any other evidence...

  13. 39 CFR 963.15 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evidence. 963.15 Section 963.15 Postal Service... PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.15 Evidence. (a) In general, admissibility will hinge on relevancy and materiality. However, relevant evidence may be excluded if its probative value...

  14. 43 CFR 4.435 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evidence. 4.435 Section 4.435 Public Lands... Evidence. (a) All oral testimony shall be under oath and witnesses shall be subject to cross-examination. The administrative law judge may question any witnesses. Documentary evidence may be received...

  15. 39 CFR 957.16 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evidence. 957.16 Section 957.16 Postal Service... SUSPENSION FROM CONTRACTING § 957.16 Evidence. (a) Except as otherwise provided in the rules in this part, the rules of evidence governing civil proceedings in matters not involving trial by jury in the...

  16. 15 CFR 25.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evidence. 25.34 Section 25.34 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROGRAM Fraud Civil Remedies § 25.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part,...

  17. 39 CFR 964.10 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 964.10 Section 964.10 Postal Service... DELIVERY PURSUANT TO 39 U.S.C. 3003, 3004 § 964.10 Evidence. (a) In general, admissibility will hinge on relevancy and materiality. However, relevant evidence may be excluded if its probative value...

  18. 5 CFR 842.1004 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evidence. 842.1004 Section 842.1004... EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Customs and Border Protection Officers § 842.1004 Evidence. (a... the official position description and any other evidence deemed appropriate by the agency head...

  19. 42 CFR 1005.17 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evidence. 1005.17 Section 1005.17 Public Health... OF EXCLUSIONS, CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES AND ASSESSMENTS § 1005.17 Evidence. (a) The ALJ will determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ will not be bound by...

  20. 49 CFR 1503.635 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 1503.635 Section 1503.635 Transportation... Rules of Practice in TSA Civil Penalty Actions § 1503.635 Evidence. (a) General. A party is entitled to present the party's case or defense by oral, documentary, or demonstrative evidence, to submit...

  1. 7 CFR 15.117 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evidence. 15.117 Section 15.117 Agriculture Office of... and Administrative Review Under the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Hearing Procedures § 15.117 Evidence. Irrelevant, immaterial, unreliable, and unduly repetitious evidence will be excluded, and technical rules...

  2. 22 CFR 35.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence. 35.34 Section 35.34 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 35.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided herein, the ALJ shall not be...

  3. 39 CFR 965.9 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evidence. 965.9 Section 965.9 Postal Service....9 Evidence. (a) In general, admissibility will hinge on relevancy and materiality. However, relevant evidence may be excluded if its probative value is substantially outweighed by the danger of...

  4. 12 CFR 308.36 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence. 308.36 Section 308.36 Banks and... PROCEDURE Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 308.36 Evidence. (a) Admissibility. (1) Except as is otherwise set forth in this section, relevant, material, and reliable evidence that is not unduly...

  5. 6 CFR 13.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evidence. 13.34 Section 13.34 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ will determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the...

  6. 14 CFR 77.57 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence. 77.57 Section 77.57 Aeronautics... Evidence. (a) The presiding officer receives all testimony and exhibits that are relevant to the issues of... alteration requirements. A party to the hearing may object to the admission of evidence only on the...

  7. 5 CFR 842.1004 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence. 842.1004 Section 842.1004... EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Customs and Border Protection Officers § 842.1004 Evidence. (a... the official position description and any other evidence deemed appropriate by the agency head...

  8. 15 CFR 904.251 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evidence. 904.251 Section 904.251... and Appeal Procedures Hearings § 904.251 Evidence. (a) In general. (1) At the hearing, every party has the right to present oral or documentary evidence in support of its case or defense, to...

  9. 12 CFR 509.36 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Evidence. 509.36 Section 509.36 Banks and... ADJUDICATORY PROCEEDINGS Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 509.36 Evidence. (a) Admissibility. (1) Except as is otherwise set forth in this section, relevant, material, and reliable evidence that is...

  10. 42 CFR 93.208 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evidence. 93.208 Section 93.208 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS... MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.208 Evidence. Evidence means any document, tangible item, or testimony offered...

  11. 10 CFR 13.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence. 13.34 Section 13.34 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal Rules of...

  12. 5 CFR 831.805 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 831.805 Section 831.805...) RETIREMENT Nuclear Materials Couriers § 831.805 Evidence. (a) The Secretary of Energy's determination under... other evidence deemed appropriate by the agency head for making the determination. (c) If an employee...

  13. 31 CFR 501.732 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evidence. 501.732 Section 501.732... the Enemy Act (TWEA) Penalties § 501.732 Evidence. The applicable evidentiary standard for proceedings under this subpart is proof by a preponderance of reliable, probative, and substantial evidence....

  14. 10 CFR 1013.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence. 1013.34 Section 1013.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES AND PROCEDURES § 1013.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not...

  15. 12 CFR 1081.303 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evidence. 1081.303 Section 1081.303 Banks and... § 1081.303 Evidence. (a) Burden of proof. Enforcement counsel shall have the burden of proof of the... forth in this section, relevant, material, and reliable evidence that is not unduly repetitive...

  16. 49 CFR 211.75 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Evidence. 211.75 Section 211.75 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE Interim Procedures for the Review of Emergency Orders § 211.75 Evidence. (a) The Federal Rules of Evidence for United States Courts and Magistrates shall be employed as general...

  17. 39 CFR 964.10 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evidence. 964.10 Section 964.10 Postal Service... DELIVERY PURSUANT TO 39 U.S.C. 3003, 3004 § 964.10 Evidence. (a) In general, admissibility will hinge on relevancy and materiality. However, relevant evidence may be excluded if its probative value...

  18. 29 CFR 22.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Evidence. 22.34 Section 22.34 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 22.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal...

  19. 20 CFR 355.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence. 355.34 Section 355.34 Employees... UNDER THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 355.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided herein, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal Rules...

  20. 10 CFR 2.711 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evidence. 2.711 Section 2.711 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Rules for Formal Adjudications § 2.711 Evidence. (a) General. Every party to a proceeding has the right to present oral or documentary evidence and...

  1. 31 CFR 501.732 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evidence. 501.732 Section 501.732... the Enemy Act (TWEA) Penalties § 501.732 Evidence. The applicable evidentiary standard for proceedings under this subpart is proof by a preponderance of reliable, probative, and substantial evidence....

  2. 31 CFR 501.732 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evidence. 501.732 Section 501.732... the Enemy Act (TWEA) Penalties § 501.732 Evidence. The applicable evidentiary standard for proceedings under this subpart is proof by a preponderance of reliable, probative, and substantial evidence....

  3. 22 CFR 35.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Evidence. 35.34 Section 35.34 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 35.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided herein, the ALJ shall not be...

  4. 38 CFR 42.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evidence. 42.34 Section... IMPLEMENTING THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 42.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal...

  5. 45 CFR 81.78 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 81.78 Section 81.78 Public Welfare... 80 OF THIS TITLE Hearing Procedures § 81.78 Evidence. Irrelevant, immaterial, unreliable, and unduly repetitious evidence will be excluded....

  6. 7 CFR 15.117 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence. 15.117 Section 15.117 Agriculture Office of... and Administrative Review Under the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Hearing Procedures § 15.117 Evidence. Irrelevant, immaterial, unreliable, and unduly repetitious evidence will be excluded, and technical rules...

  7. 8 CFR 315.3 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 315.3 Section 315.3 Aliens and...: EXEMPTION FROM MILITARY SERVICE § 315.3 Evidence. (a) The records of the Selective Service System and the military department under which the alien served shall be conclusive evidence of whether the alien...

  8. 12 CFR 308.36 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence. 308.36 Section 308.36 Banks and... PROCEDURE Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 308.36 Evidence. (a) Admissibility. (1) Except as is otherwise set forth in this section, relevant, material, and reliable evidence that is not unduly...

  9. 5 CFR 831.103 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence. 831.103 Section 831.103...) RETIREMENT Administration and General Provisions § 831.103 Evidence. (a) Standard Form 2806 (Individual..., the department, agency, or OPM should request inferior or secondary evidence which is then admissible....

  10. 45 CFR 160.540 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Evidence. 160.540 Section 160.540 Public Welfare... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Hearings § 160.540 Evidence. (a) The ALJ must determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this subpart, the ALJ is not bound by the Federal Rules...

  11. 14 CFR 1264.133 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence. 1264.133 Section 1264.133... PENALTIES ACT OF 1986 § 1264.133 Evidence. (a) The presiding officer shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided herein, the presiding officer shall not be bound by the Federal Rules...

  12. 43 CFR 4.435 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Evidence. 4.435 Section 4.435 Public Lands... Evidence. (a) All oral testimony shall be under oath and witnesses shall be subject to cross-examination. The administrative law judge may question any witnesses. Documentary evidence may be received...

  13. 45 CFR 160.540 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evidence. 160.540 Section 160.540 Public Welfare... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Hearings § 160.540 Evidence. (a) The ALJ must determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this subpart, the ALJ is not bound by the Federal Rules...

  14. 15 CFR 904.251 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence. 904.251 Section 904.251... and Appeal Procedures Hearings § 904.251 Evidence. (a) In general. (1) At the hearing, every party has the right to present oral or documentary evidence in support of its case or defense, to...

  15. 40 CFR 209.26 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evidence. 209.26 Section 209.26... Orders Issued Under Section 11(d) of the Noise Control Act § 209.26 Evidence. (a) The official... record. Evidence may be received at the hearing even though inadmissible under the rules of...

  16. 39 CFR 965.9 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evidence. 965.9 Section 965.9 Postal Service....9 Evidence. (a) In general, admissibility will hinge on relevancy and materiality. However, relevant evidence may be excluded if its probative value is substantially outweighed by the danger of...

  17. 12 CFR 109.36 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence. 109.36 Section 109.36 Banks and... ADJUDICATORY PROCEEDINGS Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 109.36 Evidence. (a) Admissibility. (1) Except as is otherwise set forth in this section, relevant, material, and reliable evidence that is...

  18. 42 CFR 430.88 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evidence. 430.88 Section 430.88 Public Health... Plans and Practice to Federal Requirements § 430.88 Evidence. (a) Evidentiary purpose. The hearing is directed to receiving factual evidence and expert opinion testimony related to the issues involved in...

  19. 39 CFR 963.15 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evidence. 963.15 Section 963.15 Postal Service... PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.15 Evidence. (a) In general, admissibility will hinge on relevancy and materiality. However, relevant evidence may be excluded if its probative value...

  20. 5 CFR 831.805 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence. 831.805 Section 831.805...) RETIREMENT Nuclear Materials Couriers § 831.805 Evidence. (a) The Secretary of Energy's determination under... other evidence deemed appropriate by the agency head for making the determination. (c) If an employee...

  1. 39 CFR 963.15 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evidence. 963.15 Section 963.15 Postal Service... PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.15 Evidence. (a) In general, admissibility will hinge on relevancy and materiality. However, relevant evidence may be excluded if its probative value...

  2. 10 CFR 1013.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence. 1013.34 Section 1013.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES AND PROCEDURES § 1013.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not...

  3. 43 CFR 4.452-6 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Evidence. 4.452-6 Section 4.452-6 Public... Fact § 4.452-6 Evidence. (a) All oral testimony shall be under oath and witnesses shall be subject to cross-examination. The administrative law judge may question any witness. Documentary evidence may...

  4. 45 CFR 79.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 79.34 Section 79.34 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part,...

  5. 14 CFR 16.223 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence. 16.223 Section 16.223 Aeronautics... PRACTICE FOR FEDERALLY-ASSISTED AIRPORT ENFORCEMENT PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 16.223 Evidence. (a) General. A party may submit direct and rebuttal evidence in accordance with this section. (b) Requirement...

  6. 49 CFR 1503.635 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Evidence. 1503.635 Section 1503.635 Transportation... Rules of Practice in TSA Civil Penalty Actions § 1503.635 Evidence. (a) General. A party is entitled to present the party's case or defense by oral, documentary, or demonstrative evidence, to submit...

  7. 14 CFR 1264.133 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 1264.133 Section 1264.133... PENALTIES ACT OF 1986 § 1264.133 Evidence. (a) The presiding officer shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided herein, the presiding officer shall not be bound by the Federal Rules...

  8. 31 CFR 16.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evidence. 16.34 Section 16.34 Money... FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 16.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided herein, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal Rules of...

  9. 10 CFR 13.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evidence. 13.34 Section 13.34 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal Rules of...

  10. 43 CFR 4.835 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evidence. 4.835 Section 4.835 Public Lands... Interior-Effectuation of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Hearing § 4.835 Evidence. Formal rules of evidence will not apply to the proceeding. Irrelevant, immaterial, unreliable, and unduly...

  11. 12 CFR 747.36 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence. 747.36 Section 747.36 Banks and... Procedure § 747.36 Evidence. (a) Admissibility. (1) Except as is otherwise set forth in this section, relevant, material, and reliable evidence that is not unduly repetitive is admissible to the fullest...

  12. 22 CFR 35.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence. 35.34 Section 35.34 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 35.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided herein, the ALJ shall not be...

  13. 31 CFR 10.73 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evidence. 10.73 Section 10.73 Money... SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.73 Evidence. (a) In general. The rules of evidence prevailing in courts of law and equity are not controlling in hearings or proceedings...

  14. 12 CFR 747.36 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evidence. 747.36 Section 747.36 Banks and... Procedure § 747.36 Evidence. (a) Admissibility. (1) Except as is otherwise set forth in this section, relevant, material, and reliable evidence that is not unduly repetitive is admissible to the fullest...

  15. 5 CFR 831.103 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence. 831.103 Section 831.103...) RETIREMENT Administration and General Provisions § 831.103 Evidence. (a) Standard Form 2806 (Individual..., the department, agency, or OPM should request inferior or secondary evidence which is then admissible....

  16. 40 CFR 22.22 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evidence. 22.22 Section 22.22... PERMITS Hearing Procedures § 22.22 Evidence. (a) General. (1) The Presiding Officer shall admit all evidence which is not irrelevant, immaterial, unduly repetitious, unreliable, or of little probative...

  17. 45 CFR 81.78 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Evidence. 81.78 Section 81.78 Public Welfare... 80 OF THIS TITLE Hearing Procedures § 81.78 Evidence. Irrelevant, immaterial, unreliable, and unduly repetitious evidence will be excluded....

  18. 12 CFR 390.65 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence. 390.65 Section 390.65 Banks and... § 390.65 Evidence. (a) Admissibility. (1) Except as is otherwise set forth in this section, relevant, material, and reliable evidence that is not unduly repetitive is admissible to the fullest...

  19. 42 CFR 93.208 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Evidence. 93.208 Section 93.208 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS... MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.208 Evidence. Evidence means any document, tangible item, or testimony offered...

  20. 12 CFR 1780.51 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 1780.51 Section 1780.51 Banks and....51 Evidence. (a) Admissibility. (1) Except as is otherwise set forth in this section, relevant, material and reliable evidence that is not unduly repetitive is admissible to the fullest extent...

  1. 45 CFR 81.78 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Evidence. 81.78 Section 81.78 Public Welfare... 80 OF THIS TITLE Hearing Procedures § 81.78 Evidence. Irrelevant, immaterial, unreliable, and unduly repetitious evidence will be excluded....

  2. 14 CFR 16.223 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence. 16.223 Section 16.223 Aeronautics... PRACTICE FOR FEDERALLY-ASSISTED AIRPORT ENFORCEMENT PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 16.223 Evidence. (a) General. A party may submit direct and rebuttal evidence in accordance with this section. (b) Requirement...

  3. 29 CFR 22.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evidence. 22.34 Section 22.34 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 22.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal...

  4. 12 CFR 263.36 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 263.36 Section 263.36 Banks and... PRACTICE FOR HEARINGS Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 263.36 Evidence. (a) Admissibility. (1) Except as is otherwise set forth in this section, relevant, material, and reliable evidence that is...

  5. 12 CFR 747.36 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evidence. 747.36 Section 747.36 Banks and... Procedure § 747.36 Evidence. (a) Admissibility. (1) Except as is otherwise set forth in this section, relevant, material, and reliable evidence that is not unduly repetitive is admissible to the fullest...

  6. 42 CFR 3.540 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Evidence. 3.540 Section 3.540 Public Health PUBLIC... AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Enforcement Program § 3.540 Evidence. (a) The ALJ must determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this subpart, the ALJ is not bound by the Federal Rules...

  7. 5 CFR 842.905 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 842.905 Section 842.905... EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Nuclear Materials Couriers § 842.905 Evidence. (a) The Secretary... official position description and any other evidence deemed appropriate by the agency head for making...

  8. 12 CFR 308.533 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence. 308.533 Section 308.533 Banks and... PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.533 Evidence. (a) The ALJ will determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this subpart, the ALJ will not be bound by the...

  9. 42 CFR 93.208 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Evidence. 93.208 Section 93.208 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS... MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.208 Evidence. Evidence means any document, tangible item, or testimony offered...

  10. 39 CFR 957.16 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evidence. 957.16 Section 957.16 Postal Service... SUSPENSION FROM CONTRACTING § 957.16 Evidence. (a) Except as otherwise provided in the rules in this part, the rules of evidence governing civil proceedings in matters not involving trial by jury in the...

  11. 8 CFR 315.3 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence. 315.3 Section 315.3 Aliens and...: EXEMPTION FROM MILITARY SERVICE § 315.3 Evidence. (a) The records of the Selective Service System and the military department under which the alien served shall be conclusive evidence of whether the alien...

  12. 5 CFR 831.905 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence. 831.905 Section 831.905...) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.905 Evidence. (a) An agency head's determination... determination under § 831.904 must be based on the official position description and any other evidence...

  13. 12 CFR 19.36 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence. 19.36 Section 19.36 Banks and Banking... Practice and Procedure § 19.36 Evidence. (a) Admissibility. (1) Except as is otherwise set forth in this section, relevant, material, and reliable evidence that is not unduly repetitive is admissible to...

  14. 15 CFR 25.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence. 25.34 Section 25.34 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROGRAM Fraud Civil Remedies § 25.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part,...

  15. 49 CFR 845.26 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evidence. 845.26 Section 845.26 Transportation... PRACTICE IN TRANSPORTATION; ACCIDENT/INCIDENT HEARINGS AND REPORTS Conduct of Hearing § 845.26 Evidence. The chairman of the board of inquiry shall receive all testimony and evidence which may be of aid...

  16. 10 CFR 13.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 13.34 Section 13.34 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal Rules of...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1926 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evidence. 404.1926 Section 404.1926 Employees...- ) Totalization Agreements Other Provisions § 404.1926 Evidence. (a) An applicant for benefits under an agreement shall submit the evidence needed to establish entitlement, as provided in subpart H of this...

  18. 22 CFR 35.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evidence. 35.34 Section 35.34 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 35.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided herein, the ALJ shall not be...

  19. 49 CFR 845.26 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Evidence. 845.26 Section 845.26 Transportation... PRACTICE IN TRANSPORTATION; ACCIDENT/INCIDENT HEARINGS AND REPORTS Conduct of Hearing § 845.26 Evidence. The chairman of the board of inquiry shall receive all testimony and evidence which may be of aid...

  20. 42 CFR 3.540 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evidence. 3.540 Section 3.540 Public Health PUBLIC... AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Enforcement Program § 3.540 Evidence. (a) The ALJ must determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this subpart, the ALJ is not bound by the Federal Rules...

  1. 6 CFR 13.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 13.34 Section 13.34 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ will determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the...

  2. 5 CFR 842.804 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence. 842.804 Section 842.804... Controllers § 842.804 Evidence. (a) An agency head's determination under § 842.803(a) (finding that a position...) must be based on the official position description and any other evidence deemed appropriate by...

  3. 31 CFR 16.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evidence. 16.34 Section 16.34 Money... FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 16.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided herein, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal Rules of...

  4. 5 CFR 831.905 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence. 831.905 Section 831.905...) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.905 Evidence. (a) An agency head's determination... determination under § 831.904 must be based on the official position description and any other evidence...

  5. 34 CFR 101.78 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evidence. 101.78 Section 101.78 Education Regulations... PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR HEARINGS UNDER PART 100 OF THIS TITLE Hearing Procedures § 101.78 Evidence. Irrelevant, immaterial, unreliable, and unduly repetitious evidence will be excluded....

  6. 49 CFR 31.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Evidence. 31.34 Section 31.34 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 31.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not...

  7. 39 CFR 964.10 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evidence. 964.10 Section 964.10 Postal Service... DELIVERY PURSUANT TO 39 U.S.C. 3003, 3004 § 964.10 Evidence. (a) In general, admissibility will hinge on relevancy and materiality. However, relevant evidence may be excluded if its probative value...

  8. 12 CFR 747.36 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence. 747.36 Section 747.36 Banks and... Procedure § 747.36 Evidence. (a) Admissibility. (1) Except as is otherwise set forth in this section, relevant, material, and reliable evidence that is not unduly repetitive is admissible to the fullest...

  9. 49 CFR 1503.635 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evidence. 1503.635 Section 1503.635 Transportation... Rules of Practice in TSA Civil Penalty Actions § 1503.635 Evidence. (a) General. A party is entitled to present the party's case or defense by oral, documentary, or demonstrative evidence, to submit...

  10. 38 CFR 18b.57 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evidence. 18b.57 Section 18b.57 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PRACTICE AND... § 18b.57 Evidence. Irrelevant, immaterial, unreliable, and unduly repetitious evidence will be excluded....

  11. 28 CFR 68.40 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evidence. 68.40 Section 68.40 Judicial... IMMIGRATION-RELATED EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES, AND DOCUMENT FRAUD § 68.40 Evidence. (a) Applicability of Federal rules of evidence. Unless otherwise provided by statute or these rules, the Federal Rules of...

  12. 45 CFR 150.445 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evidence. 150.445 Section 150.445 Public Welfare... AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS Administrative Hearings § 150.445 Evidence. (a) The ALJ will determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ will not be bound...

  13. 24 CFR 26.47 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Evidence. 26.47 Section 26.47... PROCEDURES Hearings Pursuant to the Administrative Procedure Act Hearings § 26.47 Evidence. The ALJ shall admit any relevant oral or documentary evidence that is not privileged. Unless otherwise provided for...

  14. 6 CFR 13.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evidence. 13.34 Section 13.34 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ will determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the...

  15. 5 CFR 831.1605 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evidence. 831.1605 Section 831.1605...) RETIREMENT Customs and Border Protection Officers § 831.1605 Evidence. (a) An agency head's determination... rebutted by a preponderance of the evidence that the employee was unaware of his or her status or...

  16. 12 CFR 1209.51 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evidence. 1209.51 Section 1209.51 Banks and... of Practice and Procedure § 1209.51 Evidence. (a) Admissibility. (1) Except as is otherwise set forth in this section, relevant, material, and reliable evidence that is not unduly repetitive...

  17. 41 CFR 105-70.034 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evidence. 105-70.034...-IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 105-70.034 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not be bound by...

  18. 20 CFR 355.34 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evidence. 355.34 Section 355.34 Employees... UNDER THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 355.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided herein, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal Rules...

  19. 19 CFR 210.37 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence. 210.37 Section 210.37 Customs Duties... ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Prehearing Conferences and Hearings § 210.37 Evidence. (a) Burden of proof. The.... (b) Admissibility. Relevant, material, and reliable evidence shall be admitted....

  20. 31 CFR 10.73 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 10.73 Section 10.73 Money... SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.73 Evidence. (a) In general. The rules of evidence prevailing in courts of law and equity are not controlling in hearings or proceedings...