Science.gov

Sample records for exotic plant surveying

  1. A survey of exotic plants in federal wilderness areas

    Treesearch

    Marilyn Marler

    2000-01-01

    I conducted a survey of wilderness areas to provide an overview of plant invasions in the National Wilderness Preservation System. Fifteen per cent of responding mangers reported that exotic plants were among their top 10 management concerns, either because they are actively dealing with control of exotic pest plants or have prioritized prevention of their...

  2. Assessing an exotic plant surveying program in the Mojave Desert, Clark County, Nevada, USA.

    PubMed

    Abella, Scott R; Spencer, Jessica E; Hoines, Joshua; Nazarchyk, Carrie

    2009-04-01

    Exotic species can threaten native ecosystems and reduce services that ecosystems provide to humans. Early detection of incipient populations of exotic species is a key step in containing exotics before explosive population growth and corresponding impacts occur. We report the results of the first three years of an exotic plant early detection and treatment program conducted along more than 3,000 km of transportation corridors within an area >1.5 million ha in the Mojave Desert, USA. Incipient populations of 43 exotic plant species were mapped using global positioning and geographic information systems. Brassica tournefortii (Sahara mustard) infested the most soil types (47% of 256) surveyed in the study area, while Nicotiana glauca (tree tobacco) and others currently occupy less than 5% of soil types. Malcolmia africana (African mustard) was disproportionately detected on gypsum soils, occurring on 59% of gypsum soil types compared to 27% of all surveyed soils. Gypsum soils constitute unique rare plant habitat in this region, and by conventional wisdom were not previously considered prone to invasion. While this program has provided an initial assessment of the landscape-scale distribution of exotic species along transportation corridors, evaluations of both the survey methods and the effectiveness of treating incipient populations are needed. An exotic plant information system most useful to resource mangers will likely include integrating planning oriented coarse-scale surveys, more detailed monitoring of targeted locations, and research on species life histories, community invasibility, and treatment effectiveness.

  3. Exotic invasive plants

    Treesearch

    Carolyn Hull Sieg; Barbara G. Phillips; Laura P. Moser

    2003-01-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are threatened by nonnative plant invasions that can cause undesirable, irreversible changes. They can displace native plants and animals, out-cross with native flora, alter nutrient cycling and other ecosystem functions, and even change an ecosystem's flammability (Walker and Smith 1997). After habitat loss, the spread of exotic species is...

  4. The Exotic Pest Plant Council

    Treesearch

    Brian. Bowen

    1998-01-01

    The Exotic Pest Plant Council (EPPC) is a proactive organization established to raise awareness about the threat posed by invasive exotic pest plants in natural areas and acts to stop the continued spread of invasive species. EPPC provides fora for sharing information and provides networking opportunities regarding all matters concerning this issue. EPPC was first...

  5. Exotic Plants are Invading Southeastern Forests

    Treesearch

    James H. Miller

    1997-01-01

    Millions of acres of forest land in the Southeast are being occupied increasingly by non-indigenous harmful plants--exotic invasive plants. They are called exotic invasive plants, because these plants from other continents invade areas in the U.S. faster and more completely than most native species. Invasive exotic plants impede forest productivity, hinder forest-use...

  6. Exotic plants as ecosystem dominants

    Treesearch

    Julie S. Denslow; R. Flint Hughes

    2004-01-01

    Dominant species have long been appreciated for their role in determining ecosystem attributes such as vegetation structure, successional patterns, soil characteristics, hydrology, and productivity. Exotic species may reach such high densities that they become community dominants, and it is in this role that exotics pose the greatest threat to native ecosystems. Four...

  7. How exotic plants integrate into pollination networks

    PubMed Central

    Stouffer, Daniel B; Cirtwill, Alyssa R; Bascompte, Jordi; Bartomeus, Ignasi

    2014-01-01

    Summary There is increasing world-wide concern about the impact of the introduction of exotic species on ecological communities. Since many exotic plants depend on native pollinators to successfully establish, it is of paramount importance that we understand precisely how exotic species integrate into existing plant–pollinator communities. In this manuscript, we have studied a global data base of empirical pollination networks to determine whether community, network, species or interaction characteristics can help identify invaded communities. We found that a limited number of community and network properties showed significant differences across the empirical data sets – namely networks with exotic plants present are characterized by greater total, plant and pollinator richness, as well as higher values of relative nestedness. We also observed significant differences in terms of the pollinators that interact with the exotic plants. In particular, we found that specialist pollinators that are also weak contributors to community nestedness are far more likely to interact with exotic plants than would be expected by chance alone. Synthesis. By virtue of their interactions, it appears that exotic plants may provide a key service to a community's specialist pollinators as well as fill otherwise vacant ‘coevolutionary niches’. PMID:25558089

  8. Novel chemistry of invasive exotic plants

    PubMed Central

    Cappuccino, Naomi; Arnason, J.Thor

    2006-01-01

    Of the many exotic plants that have become naturalized in North America, only a small proportion are pests capable of invading and dominating intact natural communities. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the most invasive plants are phytochemically unique in their new habitats. A comparison of exotic plant species that are highly invasive in North America with exotics that are widespread, but non-invasive revealed that the invasive plants were more likely to have potent secondary compounds that have not been reported from North American native plants. On average, the compounds found in the invasive plants were reported from fewer species, fewer genera and fewer families than those from non-invasive plants. Many of the unique phytochemicals from invasive plants have been reported to have multiple activities, including antiherbivore, antifungal, antimicrobial and allelopathic (phytotoxic) effects, which may provide the plants with several advantages in their new environments. PMID:17148359

  9. Controlling exotic plants in your forest

    Treesearch

    James H. Miller

    1999-01-01

    The author discusses the impacts of exotic plants and suggests control and rehabilitation measures. Trees, shrubs, and vines addressed include silk tree or mimosa, Chinese and Japanese privet, kudzu, multiflora rose, Japanese honeysuckle, and Chinese wisteria.

  10. Soil biota and exotic plant invasion.

    PubMed

    Callaway, Ragan M; Thelen, Giles C; Rodriguez, Alex; Holben, William E

    2004-02-19

    Invasive plants are an economic problem and a threat to the conservation of natural systems. Escape from natural enemies might contribute to successful invasion, with most work emphasizing the role of insect herbivores; however, microbial pathogens are attracting increased attention. Soil biota in some invaded ecosystems may promote 'exotic' invasion, and plant-soil feedback processes are also important. Thus, relatively rare species native to North America consistently demonstrate negative feedbacks with soil microbes that promote biological diversity, whereas abundant exotic and native species demonstrate positive feedbacks that reduce biological diversity. Here we report that soil microbes from the home range of the invasive exotic plant Centaurea maculosa L. have stronger inhibitory effects on its growth than soil microbes from where the weed has invaded in North America. Centaurea and soil microbes participate in different plant-soil feedback processes at home compared with outside Centaurea's home range. In native European soils, Centaurea cultivates soil biota with increasingly negative effects on the weed's growth, possibly leading to its control. But in soils from North America, Centaurea cultivates soil biota with increasingly positive effects on itself, which may contribute to the success of this exotic species in North America.

  11. Exotic plant invasions in tropical forests: Patterns and hypotheses

    Treesearch

    J.S. Denslow; S.J. DeWalt

    2008-01-01

    In the tropics, exotic plants have been widely introduced for industrial timber, for land reclamation and forage crops, and as ornamentals. In spite of the apparent opportunity for naturalization and spread, invasive exotic plants are scarce in many continental tropical forests. We examine several conditions under which exotic species do pose substantial threats to...

  12. A malacological survey in the Manso Power Plant, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil: new records of freshwater snails, including transmitters of schistosomiasis and exotic species.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Monica Ammon; Mattos, Aline Carvalho de; Silva, Elizangela Feitosa da; Santos, Sonia Barbosa Dos; Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho

    2014-07-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease of public health concern in Brazil, and the construction of hydroelectric dams, in addition to increasing permanent human settlement and tourism, has created conditions suitable for the establishment of mollusks that can transmit schistosomiasis. Such areas require a number of actions to prevent the establishment of schistosomiasis. This paper reports on a freshwater malacological survey carried out in the geographical area of the Manso Power Plant. Mollusks were collected in 18 municipalities in the State of Mato Grosso between February 2002 and February 2004 (qualitative study) and from April 2009 to February 2011 (quantitative study). Thirty-one species of mollusks were collected, including newly recorded species (Antillorbis nordestensis and Burnupia ingae). In addition, the geographic distributions of known species, including Biomphalaria straminea, a snail vector of Schistosoma mansoni, were expanded. A total of 4,507 specimens were collected in the APM Manso reservoir (Usina Hidrelétrica de Aproveitamento Múltiplo de Manso) during the quantitative study, and Biomphalaria amazonica was found in six of the 10 localities analyzed. The Afroasiatic species Melanoides tuberculata, introduced after February 2009, was the dominant species (relative abundance 94.96%). The study area is epidemiologically important due to the occurrence of B. straminea and B. amazonica, which are vectors of schistosomiasis, and M. tuberculata, a snail host of Centrocestus formosanus, which is responsible for centrocestiasis transmission. Observations of M. tuberculata and the exotic freshwater clams Corbicula fluminea and Corbicula largillierti raise concerns about biodiversity.

  13. Risk maps for targeting exotic plant pest detection programs in the United States

    Treesearch

    R.D. Magarey; D.M. Borchert; J.S. Engle; M Garcia-Colunga; Frank H. Koch; et al

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, pest risk maps are used by the Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey for spatial and temporal targeting of exotic plant pest detection programs. Methods are described to create standardized host distribution, climate and pathway risk maps for the top nationally ranked exotic pest targets. Two examples are provided to illustrate the risk mapping...

  14. Exotic plant species invade hot spots of native plant diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Binkley, Dan; Chong, G.W.; Kalkhan, M.A.; Schell, L.D.; Bull, K.A.; Otsuki, Y.; Newman, G.; Bashkin, M.; Yowhan, S.

    1999-01-01

    ome theories and experimental studies suggest that areas of low plant species richness may be invaded more easily than areas of high plant species richness. We gathered nested-scale vegetation data on plant species richness, foliar cover, and frequency from 200 1-m2 subplots (20 1000-m2 modified-Whittaker plots) in the Colorado Rockies (USA), and 160 1-m2 subplots (16 1000-m2 plots) in the Central Grasslands in Colorado, Wyoming, South Dakota, and Minnesota (USA) to test the generality of this paradigm.At the 1-m2 scale, the paradigm was supported in four prairie types in the Central Grasslands, where exotic species richness declined with increasing plant species richness and cover. At the 1-m2 scale, five forest and meadow vegetation types in the Colorado Rockies contradicted the paradigm; exotic species richness increased with native-plant species richness and foliar cover. At the 1000-m2 plot scale (among vegetation types), 83% of the variance in exotic species richness in the Central Grasslands was explained by the total percentage of nitrogen in the soil and the cover of native plant species. In the Colorado Rockies, 69% of the variance in exotic species richness in 1000-m2 plots was explained by the number of native plant species and the total percentage of soil carbon.At landscape and biome scales, exotic species primarily invaded areas of high species richness in the four Central Grasslands sites and in the five Colorado Rockies vegetation types. For the nine vegetation types in both biomes, exotic species cover was positively correlated with mean foliar cover, mean soil percentage N, and the total number of exotic species. These patterns of invasibility depend on spatial scale, biome and vegetation type, spatial autocorrelation effects, availability of resources, and species-specific responses to grazing and other disturbances. We conclude that: (1) sites high in herbaceous foliar cover and soil fertility, and hot spots of plant diversity (and biodiversity

  15. Native and exotic plants of fragments of sagebrush steppe produced by geomorphic processes versus land use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntly, N.; Bangert, R.; Hanser, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation and invasion by exotic species are regarded as major threats to the biodiversity of many ecosystems. We surveyed the plant communities of two types of remnant sagebrush-steppe fragments from nearby areas on the Snake River Plain of southeastern Idaho, USA. One type resulted from land use (conversion to dryland agriculture; hereafter AG Islands) and the other from geomorphic processes (Holocene volcanism; hereafter kipukas). We assessed two predictions for the variation in native plant species richness of these fragments, using structural equation models (SEM). First, we predicted that the species richness of native plants would follow the MacArthur-Wilson (M-W) hypothesis of island biogeography, as often is expected for the communities of habitat fragments. Second, we predicted a negative relationship between native and exotic plants, as would be expected if exotic plants are decreasing the diversity of native plants. Finally, we assessed whether exotic species were more strongly associated with the fragments embedded in the agricultural landscape, as would be expected if agriculture had facilitated the introduction and naturalization of non-native species, and whether the communities of the two types of fragments were distinct. Species richness of native plants was not strongly correlated with M-W characteristics for either the AG Islands or the **kipukas. The AG Islands had more species and higher cover of exotics than the kipukas, and exotic plants were good predictors of native plant species richness. Our results support the hypothesis that proximity to agriculture can increase the diversity and abundance of exotic plants in native habitat. In combination with other information, the results also suggest that agriculture and exotic species have caused loss of native diversity and reorganization of the sagebrush-steppe plant community. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  16. Linking economic activities to the distribution of exotic plants.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Brad W; Irwin, Rebecca E

    2004-12-21

    The human enterprise is flooding Earth's ecosystems with exotic species. Human population size is often correlated with species introductions, whereas more proximate mechanisms, such as economic activities, are frequently overlooked. Here we present a hypothesis that links ecology and economics to provide a causal framework for the distribution of exotic plants in the United States. We test two competing hypotheses (the population-only and population-economic models) using a national data set of exotic plants, employing a statistical framework to simultaneously model direct and indirect effects of human population and ecological and economic variables. The population-only model included direct effects of human population and ecological factors as predictors of exotics. In contrast, the population-economic model included the direct effects of economic and ecological factors and the indirect effects of human population as predictors of exotics. The explicit addition of economic activity in the population-economic model provided a better explanation for the distribution of exotics than did the population-only model. The population-economic model explained 75% of the variation in the number of exotic plants in the 50 states and provided a good description of the observed number of exotic plants in the Canadian provinces and in other nations in 85% of the cases. A specific economic activity, real estate gross state product, had the strongest positive effect on the number of exotics. The strong influence of economics on exotics demonstrates that economics matter for resolving the exotic-species problem because the underlying causes, and some of the solutions, may lie in human-economic behaviors.

  17. Linking economic activities to the distribution of exotic plants

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Brad W.; Irwin, Rebecca E.

    2004-01-01

    The human enterprise is flooding Earth's ecosystems with exotic species. Human population size is often correlated with species introductions, whereas more proximate mechanisms, such as economic activities, are frequently overlooked. Here we present a hypothesis that links ecology and economics to provide a causal framework for the distribution of exotic plants in the United States. We test two competing hypotheses (the population-only and population-economic models) using a national data set of exotic plants, employing a statistical framework to simultaneously model direct and indirect effects of human population and ecological and economic variables. The population-only model included direct effects of human population and ecological factors as predictors of exotics. In contrast, the population-economic model included the direct effects of economic and ecological factors and the indirect effects of human population as predictors of exotics. The explicit addition of economic activity in the population-economic model provided a better explanation for the distribution of exotics than did the population-only model. The population-economic model explained 75% of the variation in the number of exotic plants in the 50 states and provided a good description of the observed number of exotic plants in the Canadian provinces and in other nations in 85% of the cases. A specific economic activity, real estate gross state product, had the strongest positive effect on the number of exotics. The strong influence of economics on exotics demonstrates that economics matter for resolving the exotic-species problem because the underlying causes, and some of the solutions, may lie in human-economic behaviors. PMID:15591111

  18. Apparent competition with an exotic plant reduces native plant establishment.

    PubMed

    Orrock, John L; Witter, Martha S; Reichman, O J

    2008-04-01

    Biological invasions can change ecosystem function, have tremendous economic costs, and impact human health; understanding the forces that cause and maintain biological invasions is thus of immediate importance. A mechanism by which exotic plants might displace native plants is by increasing the pressure of native consumers on native plants, a form of indirect interaction termed "apparent competition." Using experimental exclosures, seed addition, and monitoring of small mammals in a California grassland, we examined whether exotic Brassica nigra increases the pressure of native consumers on a native bunchgrass, Nassella pulchra. Experimental plots were weeded to focus entirely on indirect effects via consumers. We demonstrate that B. nigra alters the activity of native small-mammal consumers, creating a gradient of consumption that dramatically reduces N. pulchra establishment. Previous work has shown that N. pulchra is a strong competitor, but that it is heavily seed limited. By demonstrating that consumer pressure is sufficient to curtail establishment, our work provides a mechanism for this seed limitation and suggests that, despite being a good competitor, N. pulchra cannot reestablish close to B. nigra within its old habitats because exotic-mediated consumption preempts direct competitive exclusion. Moreover, we find that apparent competition has a spatial extent, suggesting that consumers may dictate the rate of invasion and the area available for restoration, and that nonspatial studies of apparent competition may miss important dynamics.

  19. Using a botanical garden to assess factors influencing the colonization of exotic woody plants by phyllophagous insects.

    PubMed

    Kirichenko, Natalia; Kenis, M

    2016-09-01

    The adoption of exotic plants by indigenous herbivores in the region of introduction can be influenced by numerous factors. A botanical garden in Western Siberia was used to test various hypotheses on the adaptation of indigenous phyllophagous insects to exotic plants invasions, focusing on two feeding guilds, external leaf chewers and leaf miners. A total of 150 indigenous and exotic woody plant species were surveyed for insect damage, abundance and species richness. First, exotic woody plants were much less damaged by chewers and leaf miners than native plants, and the leaf miners' species richness was much lower on exotic than native plants. Second, exotic woody plants having a congeneric species in the region of introduction were more damaged by chewers and hosted a more abundant and species-rich community of leaf miners than plants without native congeneric species. Third, damage by chewers significantly increased with the frequency of planting of exotic host plants outside the botanical garden, and leaf miners' abundance and species richness significantly increased with residence time in the garden. Finally, no significant relationship was found between insect damage or abundance and the origin of the exotic plants. Besides the ecological implications of the results, this study also illustrates the potential of botanical gardens to test ecological hypotheses on biological invasions and insect-plant interactions on a large set of plant species.

  20. Native weeds and exotic plants: Relationships to disturbance in mixed-grass prairie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    Disturbance frequently is implicated in the spread of invasive exotic plants. Disturbances may be broadly categorized as endogenous (e.g., digging by fossorial animals) or exogenous (e.g., construction and maintenance of roads and trails), just as weedy species may be native or exotic in origin. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare exotic and native weedy plant occurrence in and near three classes of disturbance -digging by prairie dogs (an endogenous disturbance to which native plants have had the opportunity to adapt), paved or gravel roads (an exogenous disturbance without natural precedent), and constructed trails (an exogenous disturbance with a natural precedent in trails created by movement of large mammals) - in three geographically separate national park units. I used plant survey data from the North and South Units of Theodore Roosevelt National Park and Wind Cave National Park in the northern mixed-grass prairie of western North and South Dakota, USA, to characterize the distribution of weedy native and exotic plants with respect to the three disturbance classes as well as areas adjacent to them. There were differences both in the susceptibility of the disturbance classes to invasion and in the distributions of native weeds and exotic species among the disturbance classes. Both exotic and native weedy species richness were greatest in prairie dog towns and community composition there differed most from undisturbed areas. Exotic species were more likely to thrive near roadways, where native weedy species were infrequently encountered. Exotic species were more likely to have spread beyond the disturbed areas into native prairie than were weedy native species. The response of individual exotic plant species to the three types of disturbance was less consistent than that of native weedy species across the three park units.

  1. Ecosystem engineers modulate exotic invasions in riparian plant communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corenblit, D.; Tabacchi, E.; Steiger, J.; Gonzales, E.; Planty-Tabacchi, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    The relationship between biodiversity and invasibility of exotic plant species within different environments and at different spatial scales is still being discussed amongst scientists. In this study, patterns of native and exotic plant species richness and cover were examined in relation with ecosystem engineer effects of pioneer vegetation within the active tract of the Mediterranean gravel bed river Tech, South France. The floristic composition was characterized according to two distinct vegetation types corresponding to two habitats with contrasted conditions: (i) open and exposed alluvial bars dominated by herbaceous communities and (ii) islands and river margins partly stabilized by ecosystem engineer plants, disconnected from annual hydrogeomorphic disturbances, and covered by woody vegetation. A significant positive correlation between exotic and native plant species richness and cover was observed for the herbaceous and the woody types, indicating that both native and exotic richness benefit from the prevailing environmental conditions. However, significant differences in native and exotic specific richness and cover were found between these two vegetation types. Higher values of total species richness and Shannon diversity of native and exotic species were attained within the herbaceous vegetation type compared to the woody type. These differences may be related to changes in local exposure to hydrogeomorphic disturbances driven by engineer plant species, and to vegetation succession. A lower exotic cover within the woody vegetation type compared to the herbaceous type suggested an increase of resistance to invasion by exotic species during the biogeomorphic succession. The engineer effects of woody vegetation resulted in a decrease of alpha (α) diversity at patch scale but, in parallel, caused an increase in gamma (γ) diversity at the scale of the studied river segment. Our study corroborates recent investigations that support the theory of biotic

  2. Developing survey grids to substantiate freedom from exotic pests

    Treesearch

    John W. Coulston; Frank H. Koch; William D. Smith; Frank J. Sapio

    2009-01-01

    Systematic, hierarchical intensification of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program hexagon for North America yields a simple procedure for developing national-scale survey grids. In this article, we describe the steps to create a national-scale survey grid using a risk map as the starting point. We illustrate the steps using an exotic pest example in which...

  3. Plant community diversity and native plant abundance decline with increasing abundance of an exotic annual grass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Exotic plants are generally considered a serious problem in wildlands around the globe. However, some argue that the impacts of exotic plants have been exaggerated and that biodiversity and other important plant community characteristics are commonly improved with invasion. Thus, disagreement exis...

  4. Herbivory and dominance shifts among exotic and congeneric native plant species during plant community establishment.

    PubMed

    Engelkes, Tim; Meisner, Annelein; Morriën, Elly; Kostenko, Olga; Van der Putten, Wim H; Macel, Mirka

    2016-02-01

    Invasive exotic plant species often have fewer natural enemies and suffer less damage from herbivores in their new range than genetically or functionally related species that are native to that area. Although we might expect that having fewer enemies would promote the invasiveness of the introduced exotic plant species due to reduced enemy exposure, few studies have actually analyzed the ecological consequences of this situation in the field. Here, we examined how exposure to aboveground herbivores influences shifts in dominance among exotic and phylogenetically related native plant species in a riparian ecosystem during early establishment of invaded communities. We planted ten plant communities each consisting of three individuals of each of six exotic plant species as well as six phylogenetically related natives. Exotic plant species were selected based on a rapid recent increase in regional abundance, the presence of a congeneric native species, and their co-occurrence in the riparian ecosystem. All plant communities were covered by tents with insect mesh. Five tents were open on the leeward side to allow herbivory. The other five tents were completely closed in order to exclude insects and vertebrates. Herbivory reduced aboveground biomass by half and influenced which of the plant species dominated the establishing communities. Exposure to herbivory did not reduce the total biomass of natives more than that of exotics, so aboveground herbivory did not selectively enhance exotics during this early stage of plant community development. Effects of herbivores on plant biomass depended on plant species or genus but not on plant status (i.e., exotic vs native). Thus, aboveground herbivory did not promote the dominance of exotic plant species during early establishment of the phylogenetically balanced plant communities.

  5. Comparative study of the antimicrobial activity of native and exotic plants from the Caatinga and Atlantic Forest selected through an ethnobotanical survey.

    PubMed

    Castelo Branco Rangel de Almeida, Cecília de Fátima; de Vasconcelos Cabral, Daniela Lyra; Rangel de Almeida, Camila Castelo Branco; Cavalcanti de Amorim, Elba Lúcia; de Araújo, Janete Magali; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2012-02-01

    The idea that many commonly used medicinal plants may lead to the discovery of new drugs has encouraged the study of local knowledge of these resources. An ethnobotanical survey of species traditionally used for the treatment of infectious diseases was undertaken in two areas of northeastern Brazil: one in the Caatinga (dry forest) and another in the Atlantic Forest (humid forest). Initially, diffusion tests using paper disks and subsequently, for extracts presenting significant results (inhibition halos above 15 mm), minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined. The activity was evaluated as a percentage for each species, comparing the diameters of the inhibition halos and the number of positive results against the seven microorganisms studied. Extracts were classified into three categories: strong activity-species with halos exceeding 16 mm, moderate activity-species with halos between 13 mm and 15 mm and low activity-species with halos below 12 mm. We selected 34 species, 20 from the Caatinga and 14 from the Atlantic Forest. In the Caatinga, 50% of the 20 plant extracts studied had strong antimicrobial activity, 25% had moderate activity and 15% had low activity. In the Atlantic Forest, 28.5% of the 14 plant extracts studied showed strong activity, with 14.5% having moderate activity and 28.5% having low activity. The microorganism that was most susceptible to the extracts from the Caatinga, was Mycobacterium smegmatis; 85% of the species tested were able to inhibit its growth. The organism that was susceptible to the highest number of plant species (71%) from the Atlantic Forest was Staphylococcus aureus. Extracts from the Caatinga showed a trend of superior antimicrobial activity compared to the species from the Atlantic Forest, in terms of both inhibiting a greater variety of microorganisms and demonstrating higher activity against susceptible strains.

  6. Distributions of exotic plants in eastern Asia and North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guo, Q.; Qian, H.; Ricklefs, R.E.; Xi, W.

    2006-01-01

    Although some plant traits have been linked to invasion success, the possible effects of regional factors, such as diversity, habitat suitability, and human activity are not well understood. Each of these mechanisms predicts a different pattern of distribution at the regional scale. Thus, where climate and soils are similar, predictions based on regional hypotheses for invasion success can be tested by comparisons of distributions in the source and receiving regions. Here, we analyse the native and alien geographic ranges of all 1567 plant species that have been introduced between eastern Asia and North America or have been introduced to both regions from elsewhere. The results reveal correlations between the spread of exotics and both the native species richness and transportation networks of recipient regions. This suggests that both species interactions and human-aided dispersal influence exotic distributions, although further work on the relative importance of these processes is needed. ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  7. Reciprocal Effects of Litter from Exotic and Congeneric Native Plant Species via Soil Nutrients

    PubMed Central

    Meisner, Annelein; de Boer, Wietse; Cornelissen, Johannes H. C.; van der Putten, Wim H.

    2012-01-01

    Invasive exotic plant species are often expected to benefit exclusively from legacy effects of their litter inputs on soil processes and nutrient availability. However, there are relatively few experimental tests determining how litter of exotic plants affects their own growth conditions compared to congeneric native plant species. Here, we test how the legacy of litter from three exotic plant species affects their own performance in comparison to their congeneric natives that co-occur in the invaded habitat. We also analyzed litter effects on soil processes. In all three comparisons, soil with litter from exotic plant species had the highest respiration rates. In two out of the three exotic-native species comparisons, soil with litter from exotic plant species had higher inorganic nitrogen concentrations than their native congener, which was likely due to higher initial litter quality of the exotics. When litter from an exotic plant species had a positive effect on itself, it also had a positive effect on its native congener. We conclude that exotic plant species develop a legacy effect in soil from the invaded range through their litter inputs. This litter legacy effect results in altered soil processes that can promote both the exotic plant species and their native congener. PMID:22359604

  8. Exotic plant species diversity: Influence of roads and prescribed fire in Arizona ponderosa pine forests

    Treesearch

    James F. Fowler; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Brett G. Dickson; Victoria Saab

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the ecological effects of roads and roadsides as both habitat and dispersal corridors for exotic plant species. Several of these compared roadside exotic species richness and abundance with adjacent interior habitats, but we found no studies of individual exotic species' abundance between the two habitats in the context of prescribed...

  9. Novel chemistry of invasive plants: exotic species have more unique metabolomic profiles than native congeners

    PubMed Central

    Macel, Mirka; de Vos, Ric C H; Jansen, Jeroen J; van der Putten, Wim H; van Dam, Nicole M

    2014-01-01

    It is often assumed that exotic plants can become invasive when they possess novel secondary chemistry compared with native plants in the introduced range. Using untargeted metabolomic fingerprinting, we compared a broad range of metabolites of six successful exotic plant species and their native congeners of the family Asteraceae. Our results showed that plant chemistry is highly species-specific and diverse among both exotic and native species. Nonetheless, the exotic species had on average a higher total number of metabolites and more species-unique metabolites compared with their native congeners. Herbivory led to an overall increase in metabolites in all plant species. Generalist herbivore performance was lower on most of the exotic species compared with the native species. We conclude that high chemical diversity and large phytochemical uniqueness of the exotic species could be indicative of biological invasion potential. PMID:25077026

  10. Novel chemistry of invasive plants: exotic species have more unique metabolomic profiles than native congeners.

    PubMed

    Macel, Mirka; de Vos, Ric C H; Jansen, Jeroen J; van der Putten, Wim H; van Dam, Nicole M

    2014-07-01

    It is often assumed that exotic plants can become invasive when they possess novel secondary chemistry compared with native plants in the introduced range. Using untargeted metabolomic fingerprinting, we compared a broad range of metabolites of six successful exotic plant species and their native congeners of the family Asteraceae. Our results showed that plant chemistry is highly species-specific and diverse among both exotic and native species. Nonetheless, the exotic species had on average a higher total number of metabolites and more species-unique metabolites compared with their native congeners. Herbivory led to an overall increase in metabolites in all plant species. Generalist herbivore performance was lower on most of the exotic species compared with the native species. We conclude that high chemical diversity and large phytochemical uniqueness of the exotic species could be indicative of biological invasion potential.

  11. A review of impacts by invasive exotic plants on forest ecosystem services

    Treesearch

    Kevin Devine; Songlin. Fei

    2011-01-01

    Many of our forest ecosystems are at risk due to the invasion of exotic invasive plant species. Invasive plant species pose numerous threats to ecosystems by decreasing biodiversity, deteriorating ecosystem processes, and degrading ecosystem services. Literature on Kentucky's most invasive exotic plant species was examined to understand their potential impacts on...

  12. Soil properties and exotic plant invasions: a two-way street

    Treesearch

    Joan G. Ehrenfeld

    2003-01-01

    Invasions of exotic plant species have become not only widespread but also a major threat to the health of native ecosystems. In order to manage these invasions, it is important to understand the changes that exotic plants may cause in the environment, and the signs that such changes are taking place.

  13. Response of native versus exotic plant guilds to cattle and elk herbivory in forested rangeland

    Treesearch

    Burak K. Pekin; Michael J. Wisdom; Catherine G. Parks; Bryan A. Endress; Bridgett J. Naylor; Ralf Ohlemuller

    2015-01-01

    Questions: Are exotic plant species favoured by non-native ungulate herbivores and disadvantaged by native herbivores in forested rangelands? Do the impacts of ungulates on exotic vs native plants depend on forest management activities such as prescribed fire and stand thinning?Location: Northeastern Oregon, USA....

  14. Are Local Filters Blind to Provenance? Ant Seed Predation Suppresses Exotic Plants More than Natives

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Dean E.; Icasatti, Nadia S.; Hierro, Jose L.; Bird, Benjamin J.

    2014-01-01

    The question of whether species’ origins influence invasion outcomes has been a point of substantial debate in invasion ecology. Theoretically, colonization outcomes can be predicted based on how species’ traits interact with community filters, a process presumably blind to species’ origins. Yet, exotic plant introductions commonly result in monospecific plant densities not commonly seen in native assemblages, suggesting that exotic species may respond to community filters differently than natives. Here, we tested whether exotic and native species differed in their responses to a local community filter by examining how ant seed predation affected recruitment of eighteen native and exotic plant species in central Argentina. Ant seed predation proved to be an important local filter that strongly suppressed plant recruitment, but ants suppressed exotic recruitment far more than natives (89% of exotic species vs. 22% of natives). Seed size predicted ant impacts on recruitment independent of origins, with ant preference for smaller seeds resulting in smaller seeded plant species being heavily suppressed. The disproportionate effects of provenance arose because exotics had generally smaller seeds than natives. Exotics also exhibited greater emergence and earlier peak emergence than natives in the absence of ants. However, when ants had access to seeds, these potential advantages of exotics were negated due to the filtering bias against exotics. The differences in traits we observed between exotics and natives suggest that higher-order introduction filters or regional processes preselected for certain exotic traits that then interacted with the local seed predation filter. Our results suggest that the interactions between local filters and species traits can predict invasion outcomes, but understanding the role of provenance will require quantifying filtering processes at multiple hierarchical scales and evaluating interactions between filters. PMID:25099535

  15. Are local filters blind to provenance? Ant seed predation suppresses exotic plants more than natives.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Dean E; Icasatti, Nadia S; Hierro, Jose L; Bird, Benjamin J

    2014-01-01

    The question of whether species' origins influence invasion outcomes has been a point of substantial debate in invasion ecology. Theoretically, colonization outcomes can be predicted based on how species' traits interact with community filters, a process presumably blind to species' origins. Yet, exotic plant introductions commonly result in monospecific plant densities not commonly seen in native assemblages, suggesting that exotic species may respond to community filters differently than natives. Here, we tested whether exotic and native species differed in their responses to a local community filter by examining how ant seed predation affected recruitment of eighteen native and exotic plant species in central Argentina. Ant seed predation proved to be an important local filter that strongly suppressed plant recruitment, but ants suppressed exotic recruitment far more than natives (89% of exotic species vs. 22% of natives). Seed size predicted ant impacts on recruitment independent of origins, with ant preference for smaller seeds resulting in smaller seeded plant species being heavily suppressed. The disproportionate effects of provenance arose because exotics had generally smaller seeds than natives. Exotics also exhibited greater emergence and earlier peak emergence than natives in the absence of ants. However, when ants had access to seeds, these potential advantages of exotics were negated due to the filtering bias against exotics. The differences in traits we observed between exotics and natives suggest that higher-order introduction filters or regional processes preselected for certain exotic traits that then interacted with the local seed predation filter. Our results suggest that the interactions between local filters and species traits can predict invasion outcomes, but understanding the role of provenance will require quantifying filtering processes at multiple hierarchical scales and evaluating interactions between filters.

  16. Local dominance of exotic plants declines with residence time: a role for plant–soil feedback?

    PubMed Central

    Speek, Tanja A.A.; Schaminée, Joop H.J.; Stam, Jeltje M.; Lotz, Lambertus A.P.; Ozinga, Wim A.; van der Putten, Wim H.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that introduced exotic plant species may be released from their native soil-borne pathogens, but that they become exposed to increased soil pathogen activity in the new range when time since introduction increases. Other studies have shown that introduced exotic plant species become less dominant when time since introduction increases, and that plant abundance may be controlled by soil-borne pathogens; however, no study yet has tested whether these soil effects might explain the decline in dominance of exotic plant species following their initial invasiveness. Here we determine plant–soil feedback of 20 plant species that have been introduced into The Netherlands. We tested the hypotheses that (i) exotic plant species with a longer residence time have a more negative soil feedback and (ii) greater local dominance of the introduced exotic plant species correlates with less negative, or more positive, plant–soil feedback. Although the local dominance of exotic plant species decreased with time since introduction, there was no relationship of local dominance with plant–soil feedback. Plant–soil feedback also did not become more negative with increasing time since introduction. We discuss why our results may deviate from some earlier published studies and why plant–soil feedback may not in all cases, or not in all comparisons, explain patterns of local dominance of introduced exotic plant species. PMID:25770013

  17. Ecological engineering by a native leaf-cutting ant increases the performance of exotic plant species.

    PubMed

    Farji-Brener, Alejandro G; Lescano, Natalia; Ghermandi, Luciana

    2010-05-01

    Numerous mechanisms are proposed to explain why exotic plants successfully invade natural communities. However, the positive effects of native engineers on exotic plant species have received less consideration. We tested whether the nutrient-rich soil patches created by a native ecological engineer (refuse dumps from the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lobicornis) increase the performance of exotic more than native plants. In a greenhouse experiment, individuals from several native and exotic species were planted in pots with refuse dumps (RDs) and non-nest soils (NNSs). Total plant biomass and foliar nutrient content were measured at the end of the experiment. We also estimated the cover of exotic and native plant species in external RDs from 54 field ant nests and adjacent areas. Greenhouse plants showed more biomass and foliar nutrient content in RDs than in NNS pots. Nevertheless, differences in the final mean biomass among RD and NNS plants were especially great in exotics. Accordingly, the cover of exotic plants was higher in field RDs than in adjacent, non-nest soils. Our results demonstrated that plants can benefit from the enhanced nutrient content of ant RDs, and that A. lobicornis acts as an ecosystem engineer, creating a substrate that especially increases the performance of exotics. This supports the fluctuating resource hypothesis as a mechanism to promote biological invasions, and illustrates how this hypothesis may operate in nature. Since ant nests and exotic plants are more common in disturbed than in pristine environments, the role of ant nests in promoting biological invasions might be of particular interest. Proposals including the use of engineer species to restore disturbed habitats should be planned with caution because of their potential role in promoting invasions.

  18. Vulnerability of oak-dominated forests in West Virginia to invasive exotic plants: temporal and spatial patterns of nine exotic species using herbarium records and land classification data

    Treesearch

    Cynthia D. Huebner

    2003-01-01

    Are oak-dominated forests immune to invasive exotic plants? Herbarium and land classification data were used to evaluate the extent of spread of nine invasive exotic plants and to relate their distributions to remotely-sensed land use types in West Virginia. Collector-defined habitats indicated that the most common habitat was roadsides, but seven of the nine species...

  19. Effects of biological control agents and exotic plant invasion on deer mouse populations

    Treesearch

    Yvette K. Ortega; Dean E. Pearson; Kevin S. McKelvey

    2004-01-01

    Exotic insects are commonly introduced as biological control agents to reduce densities of invasive exotic plants. Although current biocontrol programs for weeds take precautions to minimize ecological risks, little attention is paid to the potential nontarget effects of introduced food subsidies on native consumers. Previous research demonstrated that two gall flies (...

  20. Use of exotic plants to control Spartina alterniflora invasion and promote mangrove restoration

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ting; Liu, Shuchao; Feng, Zhili; Liu, Gang; Gan, Qian; Peng, Shaolin

    2015-01-01

    In coastal China, the exotic invasive Spartina alterniflora is preventing the establishment of native mangroves. The use of exotic species, control of exotic plant invasion, and restoration of native plant communities are timely research issues. We used exotic Sonneratia apetala Buch.-Ham and S. caseolaris (L.) Engl. to control invasive Spartina alterniflora Loisel through replacement control for five years, which concurrently promoted the restoration of native mangroves. This process includes three stages. I: In a mangrove area invaded by S. alterniflora, exotic S. apetala and S. caseolaris grew rapidly due to their relatively fast-growing character and an allelopathic effect. II: Fast-growing S. apetala and S. caseolaris eradicate S. alterniflora through shading and allelopathy. III: The growth of native mangrove was promoted because exotic plant seedlings cannot regenerate in the understory shade, whereas native mesophytic mangrove plants seedlings can grow; when the area experiences extreme low temperatures in winter or at other times, S. apetala dies, and native mangrove species grow to restore the communities. This model has important implications for addressing the worldwide problems of “how to implement the ecological control of invasion using exotic species” and “how to concurrently promote native community restoration during the control of exotic invasion”. PMID:26291074

  1. Exotic plant traits lead to functional diversity decline in novel ecosystems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Exotic species have become common and even dominant in some grasslands forming novel ecosystems because the species in them have no common evolutionary history. Recent work on these novel ecosystems suggest that exotic species contribute to diversity declines. In order to identify the plant traits...

  2. Use of exotic plants to control Spartina alterniflora invasion and promote mangrove restoration.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ting; Liu, Shuchao; Feng, Zhili; Liu, Gang; Gan, Qian; Peng, Shaolin

    2015-08-20

    In coastal China, the exotic invasive Spartina alterniflora is preventing the establishment of native mangroves. The use of exotic species, control of exotic plant invasion, and restoration of native plant communities are timely research issues. We used exotic Sonneratia apetala Buch.-Ham and S. caseolaris (L.) Engl. to control invasive Spartina alterniflora Loisel through replacement control for five years, which concurrently promoted the restoration of native mangroves. This process includes three stages. I: In a mangrove area invaded by S. alterniflora, exotic S. apetala and S. caseolaris grew rapidly due to their relatively fast-growing character and an allelopathic effect. II: Fast-growing S. apetala and S. caseolaris eradicate S. alterniflora through shading and allelopathy. III: The growth of native mangrove was promoted because exotic plant seedlings cannot regenerate in the understory shade, whereas native mesophytic mangrove plants seedlings can grow; when the area experiences extreme low temperatures in winter or at other times, S. apetala dies, and native mangrove species grow to restore the communities. This model has important implications for addressing the worldwide problems of "how to implement the ecological control of invasion using exotic species" and "how to concurrently promote native community restoration during the control of exotic invasion".

  3. A new perspective on trait differences between native and invasive exotic plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Functional differences between native and exotic species are often presumed to be one factor responsible for plant invasion. Accordingly, invasion occurs when a niche is vacated and an exotic species enters the community that is able to exploit available resources. Differences in trait values betw...

  4. 75 FR 52967 - Final Environmental Impact Statement and South Florida and Caribbean Parks Exotic Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... National Park Service Final Environmental Impact Statement and South Florida and Caribbean Parks Exotic... environmental impact statement for the South Florida and Caribbean Parks Exotic Plant Management Plan. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, 42 U.S.C. 4332(2)(C), and the Council on...

  5. Plant and root endophyte assembly history: interactive effects on native and exotic plants.

    PubMed

    Sikes, Benjamin A; Hawkes, Christine V; Fukami, Tadashi

    2016-02-01

    Differences in the arrival timing of plants and soil biota may result in different plant communities through priority effects, potentially affecting the success of native vs. exotic plants, but experimental evidence is largely lacking. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to investigate whether the assembly history of plants and fungal root endophytes could interact to influence plant emergence and biomass. We introduced a grass species and eight fungal species from one of three land-use types (undisturbed, disturbed, or pasture sites in a Florida scrubland) in factorial combinations. We then introduced all plants and fungi from the other land-use types 2 weeks later. Plant emergence was monitored for 6 months, and final plant biomass and fungal species composition assessed. The emergence and growth of the exotic Melinis repens and the native Schizacharyium niveum were affected negatively when introduced early with their "home" fungi, but early introduction of a different plant species or fungi from a different site type eliminated these negative effects, providing evidence for interactive priority effects. Interactive effects of plant and fungal arrival history may be an overlooked determinant of plant community structure and may provide an effective management tool to inhibit biological invasion and aid ecosystem restoration.

  6. Housing is positively associated with invasive exotic plant species richness in New England, USA.

    PubMed

    Gavier-Pizarro, Gregorio I; Radeloff, Volker C; Stewart, Susan I; Huebner, Cynthia D; Keuler, Nicholas S

    2010-10-01

    Understanding the factors related to invasive exotic species distributions at broad spatial scales has important theoretical and management implications, because biological invasions are detrimental to many ecosystem functions and processes. Housing development facilitates invasions by disturbing land cover, introducing nonnative landscaping plants, and facilitating dispersal of propagules along roads. To evaluate relationships between housing and the distribution of invasive exotic plants, we asked (1) how strongly is housing associated with the spatial distribution of invasive exotic plants compared to other anthropogenic and environmental factors; (2) what type of housing pattern is related to the richness of invasive exotic plants; and (3) do invasive plants represent ecological traits associated with specific housing patterns? Using two types of regression analysis (best subset analysis and hierarchical partitioning analysis), we found that invasive exotic plant richness was equally or more strongly related to housing variables than to other human (e.g., mean income and roads) and environmental (e.g., topography and forest cover) variables at the county level across New England. Richness of invasive exotic plants was positively related to area of wildland-urban interface (WUI), low-density residential areas, change in number of housing units between 1940 and 2000, mean income, plant productivity (NDVI), and altitudinal range and rainfall; it was negatively related to forest area and connectivity. Plant life history traits were not strongly related to housing patterns. We expect the number of invasive exotic plants to increase as a result of future housing growth and suggest that housing development be considered a primary factor in plans to manage and monitor invasive exotic plant species.

  7. Apparent competition and native consumers exacerbate the strong competitive effect of an exotic plant species.

    PubMed

    Orrock, John L; Dutra, Humberto P; Marquis, Robert J; Barber, Nicholas

    2015-04-01

    Direct and indirect effects can play a key role in invasions, but experiments evaluating both are rare. We examined the roles of direct competition and apparent competition by exotic Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii) by manipulating (1) L. maackii vegetation, (2) presence of L. maackii fruits, and (3) access to plants by small mammals and deer. Direct competition with L. maackii reduced the abundance and richness of native and exotic species, and native consumers significantly reduced the abundance and richness of native species. Although effects of direct competition and consumption were more pervasive, richness of native plants was also reduced through apparent competition, as small-mammal consumers reduced richness only when L. maackii fruits were present. Our experiment reveals the multiple, interactive pathways that affect the success and impact of an invasive exotic plant: exotic plants may directly benefit from reduced attack by native consumers, may directly exert strong competitive effects on native plants, and may also benefit from apparent competition.

  8. Native and exotic plant species exhibit similar population dynamics during succession.

    PubMed

    Meiners, Scott J

    2007-05-01

    A growing body of literature has led to the debate in invasion biology whether exotic species perform within communities differently than native taxa due to inherent advantages. To address this issue, the population dynamics of native and exotic plant species were assessed from a 48-year record of permanent plot data from the Hutcheson Memorial Forest Center (New Jersey, USA) to determine rate of increase, lag time, maximum frequency, and the year of peak frequency. Overall, native and exotic species exhibited very similar population dynamics. Rates of increase and length of lag times were similar between native and exotic taxa but were strongly influenced by plant life form. Short-lived species were characterized by rapid population growth rates and short lag times. Growth rates decreased and lag times increased with species longevity. Overall, correlations between population metrics were the same in native and exotic taxa, suggesting similar trade-offs in life history patterns. The one difference observed was that, in native species, peak frequency was negatively associated with the year of peak frequency (i.e., early-successional species tended to become more abundant), while there was no relationship in exotic species. These analyses show that exotic species behave in essentially the same way as native taxa within dynamic communities. This suggests that abundant native and exotic plant species are exploiting the same range of ecological strategies resulting in similar roles within communities.

  9. Native-exotic richness relationships: a biogeographic approach using turnover in island plant populations.

    PubMed

    Burns, K C

    2016-11-01

    Spatial variation in exotic species richness is often correlated with native species richness, for reasons that are poorly understood. To better understand the mechanisms underpinning native-exotic richness relationships, I quantified the colonization and extinction of 18 exotic and 16 native plant species on 39 small islands located off the coast of New Zealand for 8 consecutive yr. Results revealed a positive native-exotic richness relationship, which could be explained by similar demographic responses of native and exotic species to island area. However, native and exotic species showed subtle differences in their response to other island attributes. Turnover in native species declined with island isolation, whereas turnover in exotic species increased with the exposure of islands to ocean-borne disturbances. Overall results illustrate how long-term observations of species turnover can be used to better understand the mechanisms underpinning native-exotic richness relationships, and demonstrate that large, exposed islands can be especially susceptible to invasions by exotic species. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  10. Exotic birds increase generalization and compensate for native bird decline in plant-frugivore assemblages.

    PubMed

    García, Daniel; Martínez, Daniel; Stouffer, Daniel B; Tylianakis, Jason M

    2014-11-01

    Exotic species are thought to alter the structure of natural communities and disrupt ecosystem functioning through invasion. Nevertheless, exotic species may also provide ecological insurance when they contribute to maintain ecosystem functions after the decline of native species following anthropogenic disturbance. Here, this hypothesis is tested with the assemblage of frugivorous birds and fleshy-fruited plants of New Zealand, which has suffered strong historical declines in native birds while simultaneously gaining new frugivores introduced by European settlers. We studied the plant-frugivore assemblage from measures of fruit and bird abundances and fruit consumption in nine forest patches, and tested how this changed across a gradient of relative abundance of exotic birds. We then examined how each bird species' role in the assemblage (the proportion of fruits and the number of plant species consumed) varied with their relative abundance, body size and native/exotic status. The more abundant and, to a lesser extent, larger birds species consumed a higher proportion of fruits from more plant species. Exotic birds consumed fruits less selectively and more proportionate to the local availability than did native species. Interaction networks in which exotic birds had a stronger role as frugivores had higher generalization, higher nestedness and higher redundancy of plants. Exotic birds maintained frugivory when native birds became rarer, and diversified the local spectrum of frugivores for co-occurring native plants. These effects seemed related to the fact that species abundances, rather than trait-matching constraints, ultimately determined the patterns of interactions between birds and plants. By altering the structure of plant-frugivore assemblages, exotic birds likely enhance the stability of the community-wide seed dispersal in the face of continued anthropogenic impact.

  11. Herbivore Preference for Native vs. Exotic Plants: Generalist Herbivores from Multiple Continents Prefer Exotic Plants That Are Evolutionarily Naïve

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Wendy E.; Hay, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Enemy release and biotic resistance are competing, but not mutually exclusive, hypotheses addressing the success or failure of non-native plants entering a new region. Enemy release predicts that exotic plants become invasive by escaping their co-adapted herbivores and by being unrecognized or unpalatable to native herbivores that have not been selected to consume them. In contrast, biotic resistance predicts that native generalist herbivores will suppress exotic plants that will not have been selected to deter these herbivores. We tested these hypotheses using five generalist herbivores from North or South America and nine confamilial pairs of native and exotic aquatic plants. Four of five herbivores showed 2.4–17.3 fold preferences for exotic over native plants. Three species of South American apple snails (Pomacea sp.) preferred North American over South American macrophytes, while a North American crayfish Procambarus spiculifer preferred South American, Asian, and Australian macrophytes over North American relatives. Apple snails have their center of diversity in South America, but a single species (Pomacea paludosa) occurs in North America. This species, with a South American lineage but a North American distribution, did not differentiate between South American and North American plants. Its preferences correlated with preferences of its South American relatives rather than with preferences of the North American crayfish, consistent with evolutionary inertia due to its South American lineage. Tests of plant traits indicated that the crayfish responded primarily to plant structure, the apple snails primarily to plant chemistry, and that plant protein concentration played no detectable role. Generalist herbivores preferred non-native plants, suggesting that intact guilds of native, generalist herbivores may provide biotic resistance to plant invasions. Past invasions may have been facilitated by removal of native herbivores, introduction of non

  12. Herbivore preference for native vs. exotic plants: generalist herbivores from multiple continents prefer exotic plants that are evolutionarily naïve.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Wendy E; Hay, Mark E

    2011-03-04

    Enemy release and biotic resistance are competing, but not mutually exclusive, hypotheses addressing the success or failure of non-native plants entering a new region. Enemy release predicts that exotic plants become invasive by escaping their co-adapted herbivores and by being unrecognized or unpalatable to native herbivores that have not been selected to consume them. In contrast, biotic resistance predicts that native generalist herbivores will suppress exotic plants that will not have been selected to deter these herbivores. We tested these hypotheses using five generalist herbivores from North or South America and nine confamilial pairs of native and exotic aquatic plants. Four of five herbivores showed 2.4-17.3 fold preferences for exotic over native plants. Three species of South American apple snails (Pomacea sp.) preferred North American over South American macrophytes, while a North American crayfish Procambarus spiculifer preferred South American, Asian, and Australian macrophytes over North American relatives. Apple snails have their center of diversity in South America, but a single species (Pomacea paludosa) occurs in North America. This species, with a South American lineage but a North American distribution, did not differentiate between South American and North American plants. Its preferences correlated with preferences of its South American relatives rather than with preferences of the North American crayfish, consistent with evolutionary inertia due to its South American lineage. Tests of plant traits indicated that the crayfish responded primarily to plant structure, the apple snails primarily to plant chemistry, and that plant protein concentration played no detectable role. Generalist herbivores preferred non-native plants, suggesting that intact guilds of native, generalist herbivores may provide biotic resistance to plant invasions. Past invasions may have been facilitated by removal of native herbivores, introduction of non

  13. Effects of an exotic plant invasion on native understory plants in a tropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Ayesha E

    2010-06-01

    The dry forests of southern India, which are endangered tropical ecosystems and among the world's most important tiger (Panthera tigris) habitats, are extensively invaded by exotic plants. Yet, experimental studies exploring the impacts of these invasions on native plants in these forests are scarce. Consequently, little is known about associated implications for the long-term conservation of tigers and other biodiversity in these habitats. I studied the impacts of the exotic plant Lantana camara on understory vegetation in a dry-forest tiger habitat in southern India. I compared the richness, composition, and abundance of tree seedlings, herbs, and shrubs and the abundance of grass among plots in which Lantana was cleared or left standing. These plots were distributed across two blocks-livestock free and livestock grazed. Removal of Lantana had an immediate positive effect on herb-shrub richness in the livestock-free block, but had no effect on that of tree seedlings in either livestock block. Tree-seedling and herb-shrub composition differed significantly between Lantana treatment and livestock block, and Lantana removal significantly decreased survival of tree seedlings. Nevertheless, the absence of trees, in any stage between seedling and adult, indicates that Lantana may stall tree regeneration. Lantana removal decreased the abundance of all understory strata, probably because forage plants beneath Lantana are less accessible to herbivores, and plants in Lantana-free open plots experienced greater herbivory. Reduced access to forage in invaded habitats could negatively affect ungulate populations and ultimately compromise the ability of these forests to sustain prey-dependent large carnivores. Additional research focused on understanding and mitigating threats posed by exotic plants may be crucial to the long-term protection of these forests as viable tiger habitats.

  14. Fire and invasive exotic plant species in eastern oak communities: an assessment of current knowledge

    Treesearch

    Cynthia D. Huebner

    2006-01-01

    Successful regeneration of oak-dominated communities in the Eastern United States historically requires disturbance such as fire, making them vulnerable to invasion by exotic plants. Little is currently known about the effects of fire on invasive plant species and the effects of invasive plant species on fire regimes of this region. Seventeen common eastern invaders...

  15. Rodent seed predation as a biotic filter influencing exotic plant abundance and distribution

    Treesearch

    D. E. Pearson; J. L. Hierro; M. Chiuffo; D. Villarreal

    2014-01-01

    Biotic resistance is commonly invoked to explain why many exotic plants fail to thrive in introduced ranges, but the role of seed predation as an invasion filter is understudied. Abiotic conditions may also influence plant populations and can interact with consumers to determine plant distributions, but how these factors jointly influence invasions is poorly understood...

  16. A new perspective on trait differences between native and invasive exotic plants.

    PubMed

    Leffler, A Joshua; James, Jeremy J; Monaco, Thomas A; Sheley, Roger L

    2014-02-01

    Functional differences between native and exotic species potentially constitute one factor responsible for plant invasion. Differences in trait values between native and exotic invasive species, however, should not be considered fixed and may depend on the context of the comparison. Furthermore, the magnitude of difference between native and exotic species necessary to trigger invasion is unknown. We propose a criterion that differences in trait values between a native and exotic invasive species must be greater than differences between co-occurring natives for this difference to be ecologically meaningful and a contributing factor to plant invasion. We used a meta-analysis to quantify the difference between native and exotic invasive species for various traits examined in previous studies and compared this value to differences among native species reported in the same studies. The effect size between native and exotic invasive species was similar to the effect size between co-occurring natives except for studies conducted in the field; in most instances, our criterion was not met although overall differences between native and exotic invasive species were slightly larger than differences between natives. Consequently, trait differences may be important in certain contexts, but other mechanisms of invasion are likely more important in most cases. We suggest that using trait values as predictors of invasion will be challenging.

  17. Plant invasions differentially affected by diversity and dominant species in native- and exotic-dominated grasslands.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xia; Polley, H Wayne; Hofmockel, Kirsten; Daneshgar, Pedram P; Wilsey, Brian J

    2015-12-01

    Plant invasions are an increasingly serious global concern, especially as the climate changes. Here, we explored how plant invasions differed between native- and novel exotic-dominated grasslands with experimental addition of summer precipitation in Texas in 2009. Exotic species greened up earlier than natives by an average of 18 days. This was associated with a lower invasion rate early in the growing season compared to native communities. However, invasion rate did not differ significantly between native and exotic communities across all sampling times. The predictors of invasion rate differed between native and exotic communities, with invasion being negatively influenced by species richness in natives and by dominant species in exotics. Interestingly, plant invasions matched the bimodal pattern of precipitation in Temple, Texas, and did not respond to the pulse of precipitation during the summer. Our results suggest that we will need to take different approaches in understanding of invasion between native and exotic grasslands. Moreover, with anticipated increasing variability in precipitation under global climate change, plant invasions may be constrained in their response if the precipitation pulses fall outside the normal growing period of invaders.

  18. The relative importance of disturbance and exotic-plant abundance in California coastal sage scrub.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Genie M; Diffendorfer, James E; Zedler, Paul H

    2009-12-01

    Many ecosystems of conservation concern require some level of disturbance to sustain their species composition and ecological function. However, inappropriate disturbance regimes could favor invasion or expansion of exotic species. In southern California coastal sage scrub (CSS) fire is a natural disturbance, but because of human influence, frequencies may now be unnaturally high. Other anthropogenic disturbances such as grazing also occur in reserve areas. Managers charged with imposing or tolerating fire or other disturbance within their reserves are concerned that habitat quality may be degraded by an increasing abundance of exotic plants. We used vegetation monitoring data from Camp Pendleton, California, USA, to assess the correlation between past disturbances (frequent fire, agriculture, or grazing and mechanical disturbances) and current exotic species abundance in CSS. We found that disturbance history was only modestly related to exotic abundance overall, but fire frequency showed the strongest association. We also examined whether cover and richness of various native plant life forms (woody species, perennial herbs, and annual herbs) were more strongly influenced by disturbance history or by exotic-plant abundance. Native plant responses varied among life forms, but woody species and annual herbs were generally more strongly and negatively associated with exotic abundance than with disturbance. Effective CSS conservation will require developing means to curb the negative impacts of exotic plants, which may abound with or without severe or recent disturbance. Additionally, more focus should be given to understory herbs showing sensitivity to invasion. Though understudied, native herbs comprise the greatest portion of plant diversity in CSS and are critical to preservation of the community as a whole.

  19. The relative importance of disturbance and exotic-plant abundance in California coastal sage scrub

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, G.M.; Diffendorfer, J.E.; Zedler, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    Many ecosystems of conservation concern require some level of disturbance to sustain their species composition and ecological function. However, inappropriate disturbance regimes could favor invasion or expansion of exotic species. In southern California coastal sage scrub (CSS) fire is a natural disturbance, but because of human influence, frequencies may now be unnaturally high. Other anthropogenic disturbances such as grazing also occur in reserve areas. Managers charged with imposing or tolerating fire or other disturbance within their reserves are concerned that habitat quality may be degraded by an increasing abundance of exotic plants. We used vegetation monitoring data from Camp Pendleton, California, USA, to assess the correlation between past disturbances (frequent fire, agriculture, or grazing and mechanical disturbances) and current exotic species abundance in CSS. We found that disturbance history was only modestly related to exotic abundance overall, but fire frequency showed the strongest association. We also examined whether cover and richness of various native plant life forms (woody species, perennial herbs, and annual herbs) were more strongly influenced by disturbance history or by exotic-plant abundance. Native plant responses varied among life forms, but woody species and annual herbs were generally more strongly and negatively associated with exotic abundance than with disturbance. Effective CSS conservation will require developing means to curb the negative impacts of exotic plants, which may abound with or without severe or recent disturbance. Additionally, more focus should be given to understory herbs showing sensitivity to invasion. Though understudied, native herbs comprise the greatest portion of plant diversity in CSS and are critical to preservation of the community as a whole. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  20. Contrasting effects of land use intensity and exotic host plants on the specialization of interactions in plant-herbivore networks.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Walter Santos; Vieira, Marcos Costa; Lewinsohn, Thomas M; Almeida-Neto, Mário

    2015-01-01

    Human land use tends to decrease the diversity of native plant species and facilitate the invasion and establishment of exotic ones. Such changes in land use and plant community composition usually have negative impacts on the assemblages of native herbivorous insects. Highly specialized herbivores are expected to be especially sensitive to land use intensification and the presence of exotic plant species because they are neither capable of consuming alternative plant species of the native flora nor exotic plant species. Therefore, higher levels of land use intensity might reduce the proportion of highly specialized herbivores, which ultimately would lead to changes in the specialization of interactions in plant-herbivore networks. This study investigates the community-wide effects of land use intensity on the degree of specialization of 72 plant-herbivore networks, including effects mediated by the increase in the proportion of exotic plant species. Contrary to our expectation, the net effect of land use intensity on network specialization was positive. However, this positive effect of land use intensity was partially canceled by an opposite effect of the proportion of exotic plant species on network specialization. When we analyzed networks composed exclusively of endophagous herbivores separately from those composed exclusively of exophagous herbivores, we found that only endophages showed a consistent change in network specialization at higher land use levels. Altogether, these results indicate that land use intensity is an important ecological driver of network specialization, by way of reducing the local host range of herbivore guilds with highly specialized feeding habits. However, because the effect of land use intensity is offset by an opposite effect owing to the proportion of exotic host species, the net effect of land use in a given herbivore assemblage will likely depend on the extent of the replacement of native host species with exotic ones.

  1. A parasitic plant increases native and exotic plant species richness in vernal pools

    PubMed Central

    Graffis, Andrea M.; Kneitel, Jamie M.

    2015-01-01

    Species interactions are well known to affect species diversity in communities, but the effects of parasites have been less studied. Previous studies on parasitic plants have found both positive and negative effects on plant community diversity. Cuscuta howelliana is an abundant endemic parasitic plant that inhabits California vernal pools. We tested the hypothesis that C. howelliana acts as a keystone species to increase plant species richness in vernal pools through a C. howelliana removal experiment at Beale Air Force Base in north-central California. Vernal pool endemic plants were parasitized more frequently, and Eryngium castrense and Navarretia leucocephala were the most frequently parasitized host plant species of C. howelliana. Cuscuta howelliana caused higher plant species richness, both natives and exotics, compared with removal plots. However, there was no single plant species that significantly increased with C. howelliana removal. Decreases in Eryngium castrense percent cover plots with C. howelliana is a plausible explanation for differences in species richness. In conclusion, C. howelliana led to changes in species composition and increases in plant species richness, consistent with what is expected from the effects of a keystone species. This research provides support for a shift in management strategies that focus on species-specific targets to strategies that target maintenance of complex species interactions and therefore maximize biodiversity and resilience of ecosystems. PMID:26307042

  2. Phytophagous insect fauna tracks host plant responses to exotic grass invasion.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Neto, Mário; Prado, Paulo I; Lewinsohn, Thomas M

    2011-04-01

    The high dependence of herbivorous insects on their host plants implies that plant invaders can affect these insects directly, by not providing a suitable habitat, or indirectly, by altering host plant availability. In this study, we sampled Asteraceae flower heads in cerrado remnants with varying levels of exotic grass invasion to evaluate whether invasive grasses have a direct effect on herbivore richness independent of the current disturbance level and host plant richness. By classifying herbivores according to the degree of host plant specialization, we also investigated whether invasive grasses reduce the uniqueness of the herbivorous assemblages. Herbivorous insect richness showed a unimodal relationship with invasive grass cover that was significantly explained only by way of the variation in host plant richness. The same result was found for polyphagous and oligophagous insects, but monophages showed a significant negative response to the intensity of the grass invasion that was independent of host plant richness. Our findings lend support to the hypothesis that the aggregate effect of invasive plants on herbivores tends to mirror the effects of invasive plants on host plants. In addition, exotic plants affect specialist insects differently from generalist insects; thus exotic plants affect not only the size but also the structural profile of herbivorous insect assemblages.

  3. Implications of altered rainfall and exotic plants on soil microbial communities and carbon biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, S.; Lipson, D.; Cleland, E. E.

    2016-12-01

    Climate and exotic plant disturbances are among the most significant threats to Mediterranean-type ecosystems, compromising their renowned biodiversity and role in the global carbon cycle. Predicted shifts in rainfall patterns have become a particular concern, especially when interactions with other stressors and effects on biogeochemical processes remain poorly understood. To understand the impacts of altered rainfall on belowground dynamics as well as the role of inter- and intra-annual variation and plant community composition, we monitored soil microbial communities under native and exotic plant dominated plots with rainfall manipulation treatments in a semi-arid Mediterranean-type ecosystem. We measured microbial biomass, respiration rates, and community structure across treatments and vegetation types. Soil moisture and dissolved organic carbon were also measured to characterize abiotic soil properties. The soil moisture gradient established by the rainfall treatments had a positive correlation with microbial biomass carbon under native- and exotic-dominated plots but had no effect on respiration rates. A significant reduction in microbial biomass under exotic plants was found in 2013 but not in 2014 and 2015. Substrate-induced respiration values were higher in the exotic-dominated plots during the spring seasons, resulting in a significant interaction between plant community type and season. Bacterial communities showed little variation except in the Proteobacteria phyla, which was lower in exotic plants-dominated plots. Dissolved organic carbon was significantly reduced in exotic-dominated plots by approximately 26% based on average values of all plots throughout. Our results illustrate that rainfall quantity and exotic plants can cause changes in microbial biomass, community composition and respiration rates jeopardizing soil carbon storage. They also reinforce the importance of temporal variability and the need for repeated sampling to correctly interpret

  4. Avian vacuolar myelinopathy linked to exotic aquatic plants and a novel cyanobacterial species.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Susan B; Murphy, Thomas M; Hope, Charlotte P; Habrun, Sarah K; Kempton, Jason; Birrenkott, Anna; Wiley, Faith; Bowerman, William W; Lewitus, Alan J

    2005-06-01

    Invasions of exotic species have created environmental havoc through competition and displacement of native plants and animals. The introduction of hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) into the United States in the 1960s has been detrimental to navigation, power generation, water intake, and water quality (McCann et al., 1996). Our field surveys and feeding studies have now implicated exotic hydrilla and associated epiphytic cyanobacterial species as a link to avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM), an emerging avian disease affecting herbivorous waterbirds and their avian predators. AVM, first reported in 1994, has caused the death of at least 100 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and thousands of American coots (Fulica americana) at 11 sites from Texas to North Carolina (Thomas et al., 1998; Rocke et al., 2002). Our working hypothesis is that the agent of this disease is an uncharacterized neurotoxin produced by a novel cyanobacterial epiphyte of the order Stigonematales. This undescribed species covers up to 95% of the surface area of leaves in reservoirs where bird deaths have occurred from the disease. In addition, this species is rare or not found on hydrilla collected at sites where AVM disease has not been diagnosed. Laboratory feeding trials and a sentinel bird study using naturally occurring blooms of cyanobacteria on hydrilla leaves and farm-raised mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) induced the disease experimentally. Since 1994 AVM has been diagnosed in additional sites from Texas to North Carolina. Specific site characteristics that produce the disjunct distribution of AVM are unknown, but it is probable that the incidence of this disease will increase with the introduction of hydrilla and associated cyanobacterial species into additional ponds, lakes, and reservoirs.

  5. Are local filters blind to provenance? Ant seed predation suppresses exotic plants more than natives

    Treesearch

    Dean E. Pearson; Nadia S. Icasatti; Jose L. Hierro; Benjamin J. Bird

    2014-01-01

    The question of whether species' origins influence invasion outcomes has been a point of substantial debate in invasion ecology. Theoretically, colonization outcomes can be predicted based on how species' traits interact with community filters, a process presumably blind to species' origins. Yet, exotic plant introductions commonly result in monospecific...

  6. Detection and monitoring of invasive exotic plants: a comparison of four sampling methods

    Treesearch

    Cynthia D. Huebner

    2007-01-01

    The ability to detect and monitor exotic invasive plants is likely to vary depending on the sampling method employed. Methods with strong qualitative thoroughness for species detection often lack the intensity necessary to monitor vegetation change. Four sampling methods (systematic plot, stratified-random plot, modified Whittaker, and timed meander) in hemlock and red...

  7. Are early summer wildfires an opportunity to revegetate exotic annual grass-invaded plant communities?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae (L.) Nevski) is an exotic annual grass reducing biodiversity and altering ecosystem function and processes in rangelands. Revegetation of medusahead-invaded plant communities is needed to improve ecosystem function, increase livestock forage production, and im...

  8. Properties of native plant communities do not determine exotic success during early forest succession

    Treesearch

    Aldo Compagnoni; Charles B. Halpern

    2009-01-01

    Considerable research has been devoted to understanding how plant invasions are influenced by properties of the native community and to the traits of exotic species that contribute to successful invasion. Studies of invasibility are common in successionally stable grasslands, but rare in recently disturbed or seral forests. We used 16 years of species richness and...

  9. The Exotic Plant Problem: Defending Your Lands from an Unfriendly Takeover

    Treesearch

    James H. Miller

    2000-01-01

    Exotic pest plants are marching across the southern landscape and occupying our lands. These foreign invaders-often called non-native, alien, or noxious weeds-occur as trees, shrubs, vines, and grasses. Some have been introduced into this country accidentally, but most were brought here intentionally as omamentals or for livestock forage. They arrived without their...

  10. The Exotic Plant Problem: Defending Your Lands from an Unfriendly Takeover Part II

    Treesearch

    James H. Miller

    2000-01-01

    Exotic pest plants are marching across the southern landscape and occupying our lands. These foreign invaders-often called non-native, alien, or noxious weeds-occur as trees, shrubs, vines, and grasses. Some have been introduced into this country accidentally, but most were brought here intentionally as omamentals or for livestock forage. They arrived without their...

  11. Housing is positively associated with invasive exotic plant species richness in New England, USA

    Treesearch

    Gregorio I. Gavier-Pizarro; Volker C. Radeloff; Susan I. Stewart; Cynthia D. Huebner; Nicholas S. Keuler

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the factors related to invasive exotic species distributions at broad spatial scales has important theoretical and management implications, because biological invasions are detrimental to many ecosystem functions and processes. Housing development facilitates invasions by disturbing land cover, introducing nonnative landscaping plants, and facilitating...

  12. Habitat, dispersal and propagule pressure control exotic plant infilling within an invaded range

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Warren; T. Ursell; A.D. Keiser; M.A. Bradford

    2013-01-01

    Deep in the heart of a longstanding invasion, an exotic grass is still invading. Range infilling potentially has the greatest impact on native communities and ecosystem processes, but receives much less attention than range expansion. ‘Snapshot’ studies of invasive plant dispersal, habitat and propagule limitations cannot determine whether a landscape is saturated or...

  13. Small mammal communities and habitat selection in Northern Rocky Mountain bunchgrass: Implications for exotic plant invasions

    Treesearch

    Dean E. Pearson; Yvette K. Ortega; Kevin S. McKelvey; Leonard F. Ruggiero

    2001-01-01

    Agriculture and development have dramatically reduced the range of native bunchgrass habitats in the Northern Rocky Mountains, and the invasion of exotic plants threatens to greatly alter the remaining pristine prairie. Small mammals play many important roles in ecosystem functions, but little is known about small mammal community composition and structure in native...

  14. Competitive interactions between native and invasive exotic plant species are altered under elevated carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Manea, Anthony; Leishman, Michelle R

    2011-03-01

    We hypothesized that the greater competitive ability of invasive exotic plants relative to native plants would increase under elevated CO(2) because they typically have traits that confer the ability for fast growth when resources are not limiting and thus are likely to be more responsive to elevated CO(2). A series of competition experiments under ambient and elevated CO(2) glasshouse conditions were conducted to determine an index of relative competition intensity for 14 native-invasive exotic species-pairs. Traits including specific leaf area, leaf mass ratio, leaf area ratio, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate and root weight ratio were measured. Competitive rankings within species-pairs were not affected by CO(2) concentration: invasive exotic species were more competitive in 9 of the 14 species-pairs and native species were more competitive in the remaining 5 species-pairs, regardless of CO(2) concentration. However, there was a significant interaction between plant type and CO(2) treatment due to reduced competitive response of native species under elevated compared with ambient CO(2) conditions. Native species had significantly lower specific leaf area and leaf area ratio under elevated compared with ambient CO(2). We also compared traits of more-competitive with less-competitive species, regardless of plant type, under both CO(2) treatments. More-competitive species had smaller leaf weight ratio and leaf area ratio, and larger relative growth rate and net assimilation rate under both ambient and elevated CO(2) conditions. These results suggest that growth and allocation traits can be useful predictors of the outcome of competitive interactions under both ambient and elevated CO(2) conditions. Under predicted future atmospheric CO(2) conditions, competitive rankings among species may not change substantially, but the relative success of invasive exotic species may be increased. Thus, under future atmospheric CO(2) conditions, the ecological and

  15. Novel multitrophic interactions among an exotic, generalist herbivore, its host plants and resident enemies in California.

    PubMed

    Hopper, Julie V; Mills, Nicholas J

    2016-12-01

    What happens when an exotic herbivore invades and encounters novel host plants and enemies? Here, we investigate the impacts of host plant quality and plant architecture on an exotic generalist herbivore, Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and its interactions with resident parasitoids in California. Using artificial diet and five plant species, we found significant effects of diet on the fitness of E. postvittana under laboratory conditions. In the field, based on a common garden experiment with host plants of nine species, we found that larval parasitism varied among plant species by a factor of 2.1 with a higher risk of parasitism on shorter than taller plants. Parasitism of egg masses varied by a factor of 4.7 among plant species with a higher risk of parasitism on taller than shorter plants. In the laboratory, the foraging time of a resident egg parasitoid on excised leaves varied among plant species, but did not correspond to observed egg parasitism rates on these same plants in the field. On leaves of Plantago lanceolata, the probability of egg parasitism decreased with trichome density. Overall, there was a significant effect of host plant on the intrinsic rate of increase of E. postvittana and on the extent of parasitism by resident parasitoids, but no correlation existed between these two effects. The recent decline of E. postvittana in California may be due to the low quality of some host plants and to the many resident enemies that readily attack it, perhaps due to its phylogenetic relatedness to resident tortricids.

  16. Riparian zones as havens for exotic plant species in the central grasslands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Bull, K.A.; Otsuki, Y.; Villa, C.A.; Lee, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the Central Grasslands of the United States, we hypothesized that riparian zones high in soil fertility would contain more exotic plant species than upland areas of low soil fertility. Our alternate hypothesis was that riparian zones high in native plant species richness and cover would monopolize available resources and resist invasion by exotic species. We gathered nested-scale vegetation data from 40 1 m2subplots (nested in four 1000 m2 plots) in both riparian and upland sites at four study areas in Colorado, Wyoming, and South Dakota (a total of 320 1 m2subplots and 32 1000 m2 plots). At the 1 m2 scale, mean foliar cover of native species was significantly greater (P < 0.001) in riparian zones (36.6% ?? 1.7%) compared to upland sites (28.7% ?? 1.5%), but at this small scale there were no consistent patterns of native and exotic species richness among the four management areas. Mean exotic species cover was slightly higher in upland sites compared to riparian sites (9.0% ?? 3.8% versus 8.2% ?? 3.0% cover). However, mean exotic species richness and cover were greater in the riparian zones than upland sites in three of four management areas. At the 1000 m2 scale, mean exotic species richness was also significantly greater (P < 0.05) in riparian zones (7.8 ?? 1.0 species) compared to upland sites (4.8 ?? 1.0 species) despite the heavy invasion of one upland site. For all 32 plots combined, 21% of the variance in exotic species richness was explained by positive relationships with soil % silt (t = 1.7, P = 0.09) and total foliar cover (t = 2.4, P = 0.02). Likewise, 26% of the variance in exotic species cover (log10 cover) was explained by positive relationships with soil % silt (t = 2.3, P = 0.03) and total plant species richness (t = 2.4, P = 0.02). At landscape scales (four 1000 m2 plots per type combined), total foliar cover was significantly and positively correlated with exotic species richness (r = 0.73, P < 0.05) and cover (r = 0.74, P < 0.05). Exotic

  17. Arbuscular mycorrhizal assemblages in native plant roots change in the presence of invasive exotic grasses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hawkes, C.V.; Belnap, J.; D'Antonio, C.; Firestone, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Plant invasions have the potential to significantly alter soil microbial communities, given their often considerable aboveground effects. We examined how plant invasions altered the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of native plant roots in a grassland site in California and one in Utah. In the California site, we used experimentally created plant communities composed of exotic (Avena barbata, Bromus hordeaceus) and native (Nassella pulchra, Lupinus bicolor) monocultures and mixtures. In the Utah semi-arid grassland, we took advantage of invasion by Bromus tectorum into long-term plots dominated by either of two native grasses, Hilaria jamesii or Stipa hymenoides. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonizing roots were characterized with PCR amplification of the ITS region, cloning, and sequencing. We saw a significant effect of the presence of exotic grasses on the diversity of mycorrhizal fungi colonizing native plant roots. In the three native grasses, richness of mycorrhizal fungi decreased; in the native forb at the California site, the number of fungal RFLP patterns increased in the presence of exotics. The exotic grasses also caused the composition of the mycorrhizal community in native roots to shift dramatically both in California, with turnover of Glomus spp., and Utah, with replacement of Glomus spp. by apparently non-mycorrhizal fungi. Invading plants may be able to influence the network of mycorrhizal fungi in soil that is available to natives through either earlier root activity or differential carbon provision compared to natives. Alteration of the soil microbial community by plant invasion can provide a mechanism for both successful invasion and the resulting effects of invaders on the ecosystem. ?? Springer 2006.

  18. Long-term dynamics of biotic and abiotic resistance to exotic species invasion in restored vernal pool plant communities.

    PubMed

    Collinge, Sharon K; Ray, Chris; Gerhardt, Fritz

    2011-09-01

    Invasion of native ecosystems by exotic species can seriously threaten native biodiversity, alter ecosystem function, and inhibit conservation. Moreover, restoration of native plant communities is often impeded by competition from exotic species. Exotic species invasion may be limited by unfavorable abiotic conditions and by competition with native species, but the relative importance of biotic and abiotic factors remains controversial and may vary during the invasion process. We used a long-term experiment involving restored vernal pool plant communities to characterize the temporal dynamics of exotic species invasion, and to evaluate the relative support for biotic and abiotic factors affecting invasion resistance. Experimental pools (n=256) were divided among controls and several seeding treatments. In most treatments, native vernal pool species were initially more abundant than exotic species, and pools that initially received more native seeds exhibited lower frequencies of exotic species over time. However, even densely seeded pools were eventually dominated by exotic species, following extreme climatic events that reduced both native and exotic plant densities across the study site. By the sixth year of the experiment, most pools supported more exotics than native vernal pool species, regardless of seeding treatment or pool depth. Although deeper pools were less invaded by exotic species, two exotics (Hordeum marinum and Lolium multiflorum) were able to colonize deeper pools as soon as the cover of native species was reduced by climatic extremes. Based on an information-theoretic analysis, the best model of invasion resistance included a nonlinear effect of seeding treatment and both linear and nonlinear effects of pool depth. Pool depth received more support as a predictor of invasion resistance, but seeding intensity was also strongly supported in multivariate models of invasion, and was the best predictor of resistance to invasion by H. marinum and L

  19. Invasions and impacts of exotic plants in the Pacific Islands

    Treesearch

    J.S. Denslow

    2008-01-01

    Islands support many more species of invasive plants than comparably sized mainland habitats. Analysis of extensive data on the distribution of invasive plants among Pacific islands suggests that the diversity of these species on islands is a function of both environmental characteristics (island size, habitat heterogeneity) and socioeconomic conditions (country...

  20. Invasive exotic plant species in Sierra Nevada ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Carla M. D' Antonio; Eric L. Berlow; Karen L. Haubensak

    2004-01-01

    The Sierra Nevada is a topographically and floristically diverse region of the western United States. While it comprises only a fifth of the total land area of California, half of the native plant species in the state occur within the range. In addition, more than 400 plant species are endemic to the Sierra Nevada and many of these are listed as threatened or have...

  1. Southwest Exotic Mapping Program 2007: Occurrence Summary and Maps of Select Invasive, Non-native Plants in Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Kathryn A.; Guertin, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Introduction An important aspect of management of invasive, non-native plants (invasive plants) is information on the type, location, and magnitude of infestations. Regional development of this information requires an integrated program of data collection, management, and delivery. The Southwest Exotic Plant Mapping Program (SWEMP), coordinated through the U.S. Geological Survey's Southwest Biological Science Center, annually compiles occurrence records for infestations of invasive plants. Operating since 1998, the SWEMP team has accepted occurrence records contributed voluntarily by federal, tribal, state, and private collaborators and has compiled these contributions accumulatively with previous versions of SWEMP. The SWEMP 2007 regional database update, SWEMP07, contains 62,000 records for 221 plant species with records dating as far back as 1911 and up to December, 2006. Records include invasive plants in Arizona, eastern California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah. SWEMP07 is available through the Southwest Exotic Plant Information Clearinghouse (http://sbsc.wr.usgs.gov/research/projects/swepic/swepic.asp, click SWEMP). Not all invasive plants are non-native and not all invasive plants are even invasive. The Arizona Invasive Species Advisory Council (2006) defined an invasive species as 'a species that is (1) non-native to the ecosystem under consideration and, (2) whose introduction causes or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm, or harm to human health'. SWEMP uses the U.S. Department of Agriculture PLANTS database (http://plants.usda.gov/) to determine if a plant is native or not to Arizona. As SWEMP does not independently assess the current or potential impact of invasive plants, we include most non-native plant records contributed. We have not included agricultural crops that are non-native, for example apples, oranges, etc. In this open-file-report, we use the SWEMP07 update to summarize the occurrence of invasive plants in Arizona and

  2. Exotic plant species associations with horse trails, old roads, and intact native communities in the Missouri Ozarks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stroh, E.D.; Struckhoff, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    We compared the extent to which exotic species are associated with horse trails, old roads, and intact communities within three native vegetation types in Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri. We used a general linear model procedure and a Bonferroni multiple comparison test to compare exotic species richness, exotic to native species ratios, and exotic species percent cover across three usage types (horse trails, old roads, and intact communities) and three community types (river bottoms, upland waterways, and glades). We found that both exotic species richness and the ratio of exotic species to native species were greater in plots located along horse trails than in plots located either in intact native communities or along old roads. Native community types did not differ in the number of exotic species present, but river bottoms had a significantly higher exotic to native species ratio than glades. Continued introduction of exotic plant propagules may explain why horse trails contain more exotic species than other areas in a highly disturbed landscape.

  3. What makes a weed a weed: life history traits of native and exotic plants in the USA.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Steve

    2004-09-01

    I compared ten life history traits (vegetative reproduction, breeding system, compatibility, pollination system, shade tolerance, habitat, life span, life form, morphology, and toxicity) from two existing databases for the 19,960 plant species that occur in the USA. I used two-way tests of independence to determine if there were significant life history traits that distinguish weeds from non-weeds, exotic weeds from native weeds, and invasive exotic weeds from non-invasive exotic weeds. Life span was the most significant life history trait for weeds in general; weeds were more likely to be annuals and biennials and less likely to perennials than non-weeds. In addition, vegetative reproduction, breeding system, compatibility, shade tolerance, and life form were related to life span. Annual and biennial weeds (whether native, exotic, or exotic invasives) were more likely to be wetland adapted, armed, and toxic than annual or biennial non-weeds. Perennial weeds (whether native, exotic, or exotic invasives) were less likely to be forbs or subshrubs, and more likely to be wetland adapted, toxic, shade intolerant, grasses, vines and trees than perennial non-weeds. Exotic annual and perennial weeds were less likely to be wetland species than native weeds, but more likely to be wetland species than non-weeds. Invasive exotic weeds, in contrast, were less likely to be forbs and more likely to be perennial, monoecious, self-incompatible, and trees and than non-invasive exotics.

  4. Responses to invasion and invader removal differ between native and exotic plant groups in a coastal dune.

    PubMed

    Magnoli, Susan M; Kleinhesselink, Andrew R; Cushman, J Hall

    2013-12-01

    The spread of exotic, invasive species is a global phenomenon that is recognized as a major source of environmental change. Although many studies have addressed the effects of exotic plants on the communities they invade, few have quantified the effects of invader removal on plant communities, or considered the degree to which different plant groups vary in response to invasion and invader removal. We evaluated the effects of an exotic succulent, iceplant (Carpobrotus edulis), on a coastal dune plant community in northern California, as well as the community responses to its removal. To assess possible mechanisms by which iceplant affects other plants, we also evaluated its above- and belowground influences on the germination and growth of a dominant exotic annual grass, Bromus diandrus. We found that iceplant invasion was associated with reduced native plant cover as well as increased cover and density of some exotic plants-especially exotic annual grasses. However, iceplant removal did not necessarily lead to a reversal of these effects: removal increased the cover and density of both native and exotic species. We also found that B. diandrus grown in iceplant patches, or in soil where iceplant had been removed, had poorer germination and growth than B. diandrus grown in soil not influenced by iceplant. This suggests that the influence of iceplant on this dune plant community occurs, at least in part, due to belowground effects, and that these effects remain after iceplant has been removed. Our study demonstrates the importance of considering how exotic invasive plants affect not only native species, but also co-occurring exotic taxa. It also shows that combining observational studies with removal experiments can lead to important insights into the influence of invaders and the mechanisms of their effects.

  5. Testing hypotheses for exotic plant success: parallel experiments in the native and introduced ranges.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jennifer L; Auge, Harald; Maron, John L

    2010-05-01

    A central question in ecology concerns how some exotic plants that occur at low densities in their native range are able to attain much higher densities where they are introduced. This question has remained unresolved in part due to a lack of experiments that assess factors that affect the population growth or abundance of plants in both ranges. We tested two hypotheses for exotic plant success: escape from specialist insect herbivores and a greater response to disturbance in the introduced range. Within three introduced populations in Montana, USA, and three native populations in Germany, we experimentally manipulated insect herbivore pressure and created small-scale disturbances to determine how these factors affect the performance of houndstongue (Cynoglossum officinale), a widespread exotic in western North America. Herbivores reduced plant size and fecundity in the native range but had little effect on plant performance in the introduced range. Small-scale experimental disturbances enhanced seedling recruitment in both ranges, but subsequent seedling survival was more positively affected by disturbance in the introduced range. We combined these experimental results with demographic data from each population to parameterize integral projection population models to assess how enemy escape and disturbance might differentially influence C. officinale in each range. Model results suggest that escape from specialist insects would lead to only slight increases in the growth rate (lambda) of introduced populations. In contrast, the larger response to disturbance in the introduced vs. native range had much greater positive effects on lambda. These results together suggest that, at least in the regions where the experiments were performed, the differences in response to small disturbances by C. officinale contribute more to higher abundance in the introduced range compared to at home. Despite the challenges of conducting experiments on a wide biogeographic scale and the

  6. Flood and debris flow interactions with roads promote the invasion of exotic plants along steep mountain streams, western Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watterson, Nicholas A.; Jones, Julia A.

    2006-08-01

    This study examines the interactions among geomorphic and biogeographic processes that govern the invasion by two contrasting exotic plant species—a shrub, scotch broom ( Cytisus scoparius) and an herb, foxglove ( Digitalis purpurea), over several decades of road and stream networks in the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest in western Oregon. Distributions of C. scoparius and D. purpurea were mapped along hillslopes and streams in 1993, 2002, and 2003. The mapped distributions were related to debris flow pathways and changes in stream morphology interpreted from field surveys and air photos over the period 1993 to 2003. Laboratory trials examined the response of seed germination to scarification (to test effects of transport by debris flows), soaking (to test effects of fluvial transport), and substrate texture (to test effects on establishment). C. scoparius and D. purpurea were present along roads and in clearcuts in the Andrews Forest from the 1970s to 2003, but invaded the stream (Lookout Creek) only after debris flows and floods during an extreme storm in 1996. Laboratory trials demonstrated that seeds could germinate on a variety of substrates after scarification and flood transport. Mapping and air photo/GIS analysis indicated that the distributions of exotic plants were located on freshly scoured bars and floodplains adjacent to the active channel, downstream of seed sources along roads that were connected to the main stem of Lookout Creek by road ditch drainage systems, and debris flow paths. This paper outlines a conceptual model for the invasion of exotic plants, highlighting the connectivity between road and stream networks provided by geomorphic processes in steep forested landscapes.

  7. Leaf-cutting ant nests near roads increase fitness of exotic plant species in natural protected areas

    PubMed Central

    Farji-Brener, Alejandro G; Ghermandi, Luciana

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that promote the invasion of natural protected areas by exotic plants is a central concern for ecology. We demonstrated that nests of the leaf-cutting ant, Acromyrmex lobicornis, near roadsides promote the abundance, growth and reproduction of two exotic plant species, Carduus nutans and Onopordum acanthium, in a national park in northern Patagonia, Argentina and determine the mechanisms that produce these effects. Refuse dumps (RDs) from ant nests have a higher nutrient content than nearby non-nest soils (NNSs); foliar nutrient content and their 15N isotopic signature strongly suggest that plants reach and use these nutrients. Both species of exotic plants in RDs were 50–600% more abundant; seedlings had 100–1000% more foliar area and root and leaf biomass; and adult plants produced 100–300% more seeds than nearby NNS plants. Plants can thus gain access to and benefit from the nutrient content of ant RD, supporting the hypotheses that enhanced resource availability promotes exotic plant performance that could increase the likelihood of biological invasions. The two exotics produce an estimated of 8 385 000 more seeds ha−1 in areas with ant nests compared with areas without; this exceptional increase in seed production represents a potential threat to nearby non-invaded communities. We propose several management strategies to mitigate this threat. Removal efforts of exotics should be focused on ant RDs, where plants are denser and represent a higher source of propagules. PMID:18364316

  8. Shrubs as ecosystem engineers across an environmental gradient: effects on species richness and exotic plant invasion.

    PubMed

    Kleinhesselink, Andrew R; Magnoli, Susan M; Cushman, J Hall

    2014-08-01

    Ecosystem-engineering plants modify the physical environment and can increase species diversity and exotic species invasion. At the individual level, the effects of ecosystem engineers on other plants often become more positive in stressful environments. In this study, we investigated whether the community-level effects of ecosystem engineers also become stronger in more stressful environments. Using comparative and experimental approaches, we assessed the ability of a native shrub (Ericameria ericoides) to act as an ecosystem engineer across a stress gradient in a coastal dune in northern California, USA. We found increased coarse organic matter and lower wind speeds within shrub patches. Growth of a dominant invasive grass (Bromus diandrus) was facilitated both by aboveground shrub biomass and by growing in soil taken from shrub patches. Experimental removal of shrubs negatively affected species most associated with shrubs and positively affected species most often found outside of shrubs. Counter to the stress-gradient hypothesis, the effects of shrubs on the physical environment and individual plant growth did not increase across the established stress gradient at this site. At the community level, shrub patches increased beta diversity, and contained greater rarified richness and exotic plant cover than shrub-free patches. Shrub effects on rarified richness increased with environmental stress, but effects on exotic cover and beta diversity did not. Our study provides evidence for the community-level effects of shrubs as ecosystem engineers in this system, but shows that these effects do not necessarily become stronger in more stressful environments.

  9. Predicting spread of invasive exotic plants into de-watered reservoirs following dam removal on the Elwha River, Olympic National Park, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, Andrea; Torgersen, Christian E.; Chenoweth, Joshua; Beirne, Katherine; Acker, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The National Park Service is planning to start the restoration of the Elwha River ecosystem in Olympic National Park by removing two high head dams beginning in 2011. The potential for dispersal of exotic plants into dewatered reservoirs following dam removal, which would inhibit restoration of native vegetation, is of great concern. We focused on predicting long-distance dispersal of invasive exotic plants rather than diffusive spread because local sources of invasive species have been surveyed. We included the long-distance dispersal vectors: wind, water, birds, beavers, ungulates, and users of roads and trails. Using information about the current distribution of invasive species from two surveys, various geographic information system techniques and models, and statistical methods, we identified high-priority areas for Park staff to treat prior to dam removal, and areas of the dewatered reservoirs at risk after dam removal.

  10. Why do people use exotic plants in their local medical systems? A systematic review based on Brazilian local communities.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Patrícia Muniz de; Ferreira Júnior, Washington Soares; Ramos, Marcelo Alves; Silva, Taline Cristina da; Ladio, Ana Haydée; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2017-01-01

    Efforts have been made to understand the processes that lead to the introduction of exotic species into local pharmacopoeias. Among those efforts, the diversification hypothesis predicts that exotic plants are introduced in local medical systems to amplify the repertoire of knowledge related to the treatment of diseases, filling blanks that were not occupied by native species. Based on such hypothesis, this study aimed to contribute to this discussion using the context of local Brazilian populations. We performed a systematic review of Brazilian studies up to 2011 involving medicinal plants, excluding those studies that presented a high risk of bias (because of sampling or plant identification problems). An analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) was conducted in different scales to test for differences in the repertoire of therapeutic indications treated using native and exotic species. We have found that although there is some overlap between native and exotic plants regarding their therapeutic indications and the body systems (BSs) that they treat, there are clear gaps present, that is, there are therapeutic indications and BSs treated that are exclusive to exotic species. This scenario enables the postulation of two alternative unfoldings of the diversification hypothesis, namely, (1) exotic species are initially introduced to fill gaps and undergo subsequent expansion of their use for medical purposes already addressed using native species and (2) exotic species are initially introduced to address problems already addressed using native species to diversify the repertoire of medicinal plants and to increase the resilience of medical systems. The reasons why exotic species may have a competitive advantage over the native ones, the implications of the introduction of exotic species for the resilience of medical systems, and the contexts in which autochthonous plants can gain strength to remain in pharmacopoeias are also discussed.

  11. A predictive framework and review of the ecological impacts of exotic plant invasions on reptiles and amphibians.

    PubMed

    Martin, Leigh J; Murray, Brad R

    2011-05-01

    The invasive spread of exotic plants in native vegetation can pose serious threats to native faunal assemblages. This is of particular concern for reptiles and amphibians because they form a significant component of the world's vertebrate fauna, play a pivotal role in ecosystem functioning and are often neglected in biodiversity research. A framework to predict how exotic plant invasion will affect reptile and amphibian assemblages is imperative for conservation, management and the identification of research priorities. Here, we present a new predictive framework that integrates three mechanistic models. These models are based on exotic plant invasion altering: (1) habitat structure; (2) herbivory and predator-prey interactions; (3) the reproductive success of reptile and amphibian species and assemblages. We present a series of testable predictions from these models that arise from the interplay over time among three exotic plant traits (growth form, area of coverage, taxonomic distinctiveness) and six traits of reptiles and amphibians (body size, lifespan, home range size, habitat specialisation, diet, reproductive strategy). A literature review provided robust empirical evidence of exotic plant impacts on reptiles and amphibians from each of the three model mechanisms. Evidence relating to the role of body size and diet was less clear-cut, indicating the need for further research. The literature provided limited empirical support for many of the other model predictions. This was not, however, because findings contradicted our model predictions but because research in this area is sparse. In particular, the small number of studies specifically examining the effects of exotic plants on amphibians highlights the pressing need for quantitative research in this area. There is enormous scope for detailed empirical investigation of interactions between exotic plants and reptile and amphibian species and assemblages. The framework presented here and further testing of

  12. Exotic plant invasion alters nitrogen dynamics in an arid grassland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, R.D.; Rimer, R.; Sperry, L.; Belnap, J.

    2001-01-01

    The introduction of nonnative plant species may decrease ecosystem stability by altering the availability of nitrogen (N) for plant growth. Invasive species can impact N availability by changing litter quantity and quality, rates of N2-fixation, or rates of N loss. We quantified the effects of invasion by the annual grass Bromus tectorum on N cycling in an arid grassland on the Colorado Plateau (USA). The invasion occurred in 1994 in two community types in an undisturbed grassland. This natural experiment allowed us to measure the immediate responses following invasion without the confounding effects of previous disturbance. Litter biomass and the C:N and lignin:N ratios were measured to determine the effects on litter dynamics. Long-term soil incubations (415 d) were used to measure potential microbial respiration and net N mineralization. Plant-available N was quantified for two years in situ with ion-exchange resin bags, and potential changes in rates of gaseous N loss were estimated by measuring denitrification enzyme activity. Bromus invasion significantly increased litter biomass, and Bromus litter had significantly greater C:N and lignin:N ratios than did native species. The change in litter quantity and chemistry decreased potential rates of net N mineralization in sites with Bromus by decreasing nitrogen available for microbial activity. Inorganic N was 50% lower on Hilaria sites with Bromus during the spring of 1997, but no differences were observed during 1998. The contrasting differences between years are likely due to moisture availability; spring precipitation was 15% greater than average during 1997, but 52% below average during spring of 1998. Bromus may cause a short-term decrease in N loss by decreasing substrate availability and denitrification enzyme activity, but N loss is likely to be greater in invaded sites in the long term because of increased fire frequency and greater N volatilization during fire. We hypothesize that the introduction of

  13. Selective herbicide applications for low impact vegetation management of exotic species and enhancement of native plant communities

    Treesearch

    Max. Williamson

    1998-01-01

    Selective and specific management for the control of exotic (non-native) plants is necessary for preservation of native plant communities. Managers of federal, state, or county land holdings and parks, wildlife areas, recreation areas, and historic sites are frequently charged with selectively managing the enhancement of desirable or native plant communities. In...

  14. Highly Specific Detection of Five Exotic Quarantine Plant Viruses using RT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hoseong; Cho, Won Kyong; Yu, Jisuk; Lee, Jong-Seung; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2013-01-01

    To detect five plant viruses (Beet black scorch virus, Beet necrotic yellow vein virus, Eggplant mottled dwarf virus, Pelargonium zonate spot virus, and Rice yellow mottle virus) for quarantine purposes, we designed 15 RT-PCR primer sets. Primer design was based on the nucleotide sequence of the coat protein gene, which is highly conserved within species. All but one primer set successfully amplified the targets, and gradient PCRs indicated that the optimal temperature for the 14 useful primer sets was 51.9°C. Some primer sets worked well regardless of annealing temperature while others required a very specific annealing temperature. A primer specificity test using plant total RNAs and cDNAs of other plant virus-infected samples demonstrated that the designed primer sets were highly specific and generated reproducible results. The newly developed RT-PCR primer sets would be useful for quarantine inspections aimed at preventing the entry of exotic plant viruses into Korea. PMID:25288934

  15. A spatially explicit multi-isotope approach to map influence regions of plant-plant interactions after exotic plant invasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellmann, Christine; Oldeland, Jens; Werner, Christiane

    2015-04-01

    Exotic plant invasions impose profound alterations to native ecosystems, including changes of water, carbon and nutrient cycles. However, explicitly quantifying these impacts remains a challenge. Stable isotopes, by providing natural tracers of biogeochemical processes, can help to identify and measure such alterations in space and time. Recently, δ15N isoscapes, i.e. spatially continuous representations of isotopic values, derived from native plant foliage, enabled to accurately trace nitrogen introduced by the N2-fixing invasive Acacia longifolia into a native Portuguese dune system. It could be shown that the area of the system which was altered by the invasive species exceeded the area which was covered by the invader by far. But still, definition of clear regions of influence is to some extent ambiguous. Here, we present an approach using multiple isoscapes derived from measured foliar δ13C and δ15N values of a native, non-fixing species, Corema album. By clustering isotopic information, we obtained an objective classification of the study area. Properties and spatial position of clusters could be interpreted to distinguish areas that were or were not influenced by A. longifolia. Spatial clusters at locations where A. longifolia was present had δ15N values that were enriched, i.e. close to the atmospheric signal of 0 o compared to the depleted values of the uninvaded system (ca. -11 o). Furthermore, C. album individuals in these clusters were characterized by higher foliar N content and enriched δ13C. These results indicate that the N2-fixing A. longifolia added nitrogen to the system which originated from the atmosphere and was used by the native C. album, inducing functional changes, i.e. an increase in WUE. Additionally, clusters were identified that were presumably determined by inherent properties of the native system. Thus, combining isotope ecology with geostatistical methods is a promising approach for mapping regions of influence in multi

  16. A Spatially Explicit Dual-Isotope Approach to Map Regions of Plant-Plant Interaction after Exotic Plant Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Hellmann, Christine; Werner, Christiane; Oldeland, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Understanding interactions between native and invasive plant species in field settings and quantifying the impact of invaders in heterogeneous native ecosystems requires resolving the spatial scale on which these processes take place. Therefore, functional tracers are needed that enable resolving the alterations induced by exotic plant invasion in contrast to natural variation in a spatially explicit way. 15N isoscapes, i.e., spatially referenced representations of stable nitrogen isotopic signatures, have recently provided such a tracer. However, different processes, e.g. water, nitrogen or carbon cycles, may be affected at different spatial scales. Thus multi-isotope studies, by using different functional tracers, can potentially return a more integrated picture of invader impact. This is particularly true when isoscapes are submitted to statistical methods suitable to find homogeneous subgroups in multivariate data such as cluster analysis. Here, we used model-based clustering of spatially explicit foliar δ15N and δ13C isoscapes together with N concentration of a native indicator species, Corema album, to map regions of influence in a Portuguese dune ecosystem invaded by the N2-fixing Acacia longifolia. Cluster analysis identified regions with pronounced alterations in N budget and water use efficiency in the native species, with a more than twofold increase in foliar N, and δ13C and δ15N enrichment of up to 2‰ and 8‰ closer to the invader, respectively. Furthermore, clusters of multiple functional tracers indicated a spatial shift from facilitation through N addition in the proximity of the invader to competition for resources other than N in close contact. Finding homogeneous subgroups in multi-isotope data by means of model-based cluster analysis provided an effective tool for detecting spatial structure in processes affecting plant physiology and performance. The proposed method can give an objective measure of the spatial extent of influence of

  17. Competition and soil resource environment alter plant-soil feedbacks for native and exotic grasses.

    PubMed

    Larios, Loralee; Suding, Katharine N

    2014-11-24

    Feedbacks between plants and soil biota are increasingly identified as key determinants of species abundance patterns within plant communities. However, our understanding of how plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) may contribute to invasions is limited by our understanding of how feedbacks may shift in the light of other ecological processes. Here we assess how the strength of PSFs may shift as soil microbial communities change along a gradient of soil nitrogen (N) availability and how these dynamics may be further altered by the presence of a competitor. We conducted a greenhouse experiment where we grew native Stipa pulchra and exotic Avena fatua, alone and in competition, in soils inoculated with conspecific and heterospecific soil microbial communities conditioned in low, ambient and high N environments. Stipa pulchra decreased in heterospecific soil and in the presence of a competitor, while the performance of the exotic A. fatua shifted with soil microbial communities from altered N environments. Moreover, competition and soil microbial communities from the high N environment eliminated the positive PSFs of Stipa. Our results highlight the importance of examining how individual PSFs may interact in a broader community context and contribute to the establishment, spread and dominance of invaders.

  18. Persistence of native and exotic plants 10 years after prairie reconstruction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Diane L.; Bright, J. B.; Drobney, Pauline; Larson, Jennifer L.; Vacek, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Prairie reconstructions are a critical component of preservation of the imperiled tallgrass prairie ecosystem in the Midwestern United States. Sustainability of this endeavor depends on establishment of persistent cover of planted native species and resistance to noxious weeds. The goal of this study was to understand the influence of early reconstruction practices on long-term outcomes. Twelve replicates of three planting methods (dormant-season broadcast, growing-season broadcast, and growing-season drill) and three seed mix richness levels (10, 20, or 34 species), fully crossed in a completely randomized design were planted in 2005 on nine former agricultural fields located in Iowa and Minnesota. Cover by species was estimated in 2005–2007, 2010, and 2015. In 2015, cover of planted species, native nonplanted species, and exotic species were similar to those recorded in 2010. Cover of the noxious weed Cirsium arvense had also declined by an average of 49% without herbicide from a peak in 2007 to low stable levels from 2010 to 2015. Richness of planted forbs, on the other hand, were still increasing in high-richness broadcast treatments (e.g. 17–59% increase 2010–1015 in Minnesota). Two results in 2015 are reasons for concern: cover of planted species is only slightly over 50% in both Minnesota and Iowa, though with forbs still increasing, this may improve; and the cool-season exotic grasses Poa pratensis and Bromus inermis are increasing at both Minnesota and Iowa sites. Control of these invasive grasses will be necessary, but care will be needed to avoid negative impacts of control methods on natives.

  19. Soil-plant hydrology of indigenous and exotic trees in an Ethiopian montane forest.

    PubMed

    Fritzsche, Florian; Abate, Asferachew; Fetene, Masresha; Beck, Erwin; Weise, Stephan; Guggenberger, Georg

    2006-08-01

    Fast-growing exotic trees are widely planted in the tropics to counteract deforestation; however, their patterns of water use could be detrimental to overall ecosystem productivity through their impact on ecosystem water budget. In a comparative field study on seasonal soil-plant water dynamics of two exotic species (Cupressus lusitanica Mill. and Eucalyptus globulus Labill.) and the indigenous Podocarpus falcatus (Thunb.) Mirb. in south Ethiopia, we combined a 2.5-year record for climate and soil water availability, natural-abundance oxygen isotope ratios (delta(18)O) of soil and xylem water, destructive root sampling and transpiration measurements. Soil was generally driest under C. lusitanica with its dense canopy and shallow root system, particularly following a relatively low-rainfall wet season, with the wettest soil under E. globulus. Wet season transpiration of C. lusitanica was twice that of the other species. In the dry season, P. falcatus and C. lusitanica reduced transpiration by a factor of six and two, respectively, whereas E. globulus showed a fivefold increase. In all species, there was a shift in water uptake to deeper soil layers as the dry season progressed, accompanied by relocation of live fine root biomass (LFR) of C. lusitanica and P. falcatus to deeper layers. Under P. falcatus, variability in soil matric potential, narrow delta(18)O depth gradients and high LFR indicated fast water redistribution. Subsoil water uptake was important only for E. globulus, which had low topsoil LFR and tap roots exploiting deep water. Although P. falcatus appeared better adapted to varying soil water availability than the exotic species, both conifers decreased growth substantially during dry weather. Growth of E. globulus was largely independent of topsoil water content, giving it the potential to cause substantial dry-season groundwater depletion.

  20. How grazing and soil quality affect native and exotic plant diversity in Rocky Mountain grasslands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Schell, L.D.; Vanden, Heuvel B.

    1999-01-01

    We used multiscale plots to sample vascular plant diversity and soil characteristics in and adjacent to 26 long-term grazing exclosure sites in Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, and South Dakota, USA. The exclosures were 7-60 yr old (31.2 ?? 2.5 yr, mean ?? 1 SE). Plots were also randomly placed in the broader landscape in open rangeland in the same vegetation type at each site to assess spatial variation in grazed landscapes. Consistent sampling in the nine National Parks, Wildlife Refuges, and other management units yielded data from 78 1000-m2 plots and 780 1-m2 subplots. We hypothesized that native species richness would be lower in the exclosures than in grazed sites, due to competitive exclusion in the absence of grazing. We also hypothesized that grazed sites would have higher native and exotic species richness compared to ungrazed areas, due to disturbance (i.e., the intermediate-disturbance hypothesis) and the conventional wisdom that grazing may accelerate weed invasion. Both hypotheses were soundly rejected. Although native species richness in 1-m2 subplots was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in grazed sites, we found nearly identical native or exotic species richness in 1000-m2 plots in exclosures (31.5 ?? 2.5 native and 3.1 ?? 0.5 exotic species), adjacent grazed plots (32.6 ?? 2.8 native and 3.2 ?? 0.6 exotic species), and randomly selected grazed plots (31.6 ?? 2.9 native and 3.2 ?? 0.6 exotic species). We found no significant differences in species diversity (Hill's diversity indices, N1 and N2), evenness (Hill's ratio of evenness, E5), cover of various life-forms (grasses, forbs, and shrubs), soil texture, or soil percentage of N and C between grazed and ungrazed sites at the 1000-m2 plot scale. The species lists of the long-ungrazed and adjacent grazed plots overlapped just 57.9 ?? 2.8%. This difference in species composition is commonly attributed solely to the difference in grazing regimes. However, the species lists between pairs of grazed plots

  1. Regime Shift by an Exotic Nitrogen-Fixing Shrub Mediates Plant Facilitation in Primary Succession

    PubMed Central

    Stinca, Adriano; Chirico, Giovanni Battista; Incerti, Guido; Bonanomi, Giuliano

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem invasion by non-native, nitrogen-fixing species is a global phenomenon with serious ecological consequences. However, in the Mediterranean basin few studies addressed the impact of invasion by nitrogen-fixing shrubs on soil quality and hydrological properties at local scale, and the possible effects on succession dynamics and ecosystem invasibility by further species. In this multidisciplinary study we investigated the impact of Genista aetnensis (Biv.) DC., an exotic nitrogen-fixing shrub, on the Vesuvius Grand Cone (Southern Italy). Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that the invasion of G. aetnensis has a significant impact on soil quality, soil hydrological regime, local microclimate and plant community structure, and that its impact increases during the plant ontogenetic cycle. We showed that G. aetnensis, in a relatively short time-span (i.e. ~ 40 years), has been able to build-up an island of fertility under its canopy, by accumulating considerable stocks of C, N, and P in the soil, and by also improving the soil hydrological properties. Moreover, G. aetnensis mitigates the daily range of soil temperature, reducing the exposure of coexisting plants to extremely high temperatures and water loss by soil evaporation, particularly during the growing season. Such amelioration of soil quality, coupled with the mitigation of below-canopy microclimatic conditions, has enhanced plant colonization of the barren Grand Cone slopes, by both herbaceous and woody species. These results suggest that the invasion of G. aetnensis could eventually drive to the spread of other, more resource-demanding exotic species, promoting alternative successional trajectories that may dramatically affect the local landscape. Our study is the first record of the invasion of G. aetnensis, an additional example of the regime shifts driven by N-fixing shrubs in Mediterranean region. Further studies are needed to identity specific management practices that can limit the spread and

  2. Regime shift by an exotic nitrogen-fixing shrub mediates plant facilitation in primary succession.

    PubMed

    Stinca, Adriano; Chirico, Giovanni Battista; Incerti, Guido; Bonanomi, Giuliano

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem invasion by non-native, nitrogen-fixing species is a global phenomenon with serious ecological consequences. However, in the Mediterranean basin few studies addressed the impact of invasion by nitrogen-fixing shrubs on soil quality and hydrological properties at local scale, and the possible effects on succession dynamics and ecosystem invasibility by further species. In this multidisciplinary study we investigated the impact of Genista aetnensis (Biv.) DC., an exotic nitrogen-fixing shrub, on the Vesuvius Grand Cone (Southern Italy). Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that the invasion of G. aetnensis has a significant impact on soil quality, soil hydrological regime, local microclimate and plant community structure, and that its impact increases during the plant ontogenetic cycle. We showed that G. aetnensis, in a relatively short time-span (i.e. ~ 40 years), has been able to build-up an island of fertility under its canopy, by accumulating considerable stocks of C, N, and P in the soil, and by also improving the soil hydrological properties. Moreover, G. aetnensis mitigates the daily range of soil temperature, reducing the exposure of coexisting plants to extremely high temperatures and water loss by soil evaporation, particularly during the growing season. Such amelioration of soil quality, coupled with the mitigation of below-canopy microclimatic conditions, has enhanced plant colonization of the barren Grand Cone slopes, by both herbaceous and woody species. These results suggest that the invasion of G. aetnensis could eventually drive to the spread of other, more resource-demanding exotic species, promoting alternative successional trajectories that may dramatically affect the local landscape. Our study is the first record of the invasion of G. aetnensis, an additional example of the regime shifts driven by N-fixing shrubs in Mediterranean region. Further studies are needed to identity specific management practices that can limit the spread and

  3. Exotic weeds and fluctuating microclimate can constrain native plant regeneration in urban forest restoration.

    PubMed

    Wallace, K J; Laughlin, Daniel C; Clarkson, Bruce D

    2017-06-01

    Restoring forest structure and composition is an important component of urban land management, but we lack clear understanding of the mechanisms driving restoration success. Here we studied two indicators of restoration success in temperate rainforests: native tree regeneration and epiphyte colonization. We hypothesized that ecosystem properties such as forest canopy openness, abundance of exotic herbaceous weeds, and the microclimate directly affect the density and diversity of native tree seedlings and epiphytes. Relationships between environmental conditions and the plant community were investigated in 27 restored urban forests spanning 3-70 years in age and in unrestored and remnant urban forests. We used structural equation modelling to determine the direct and indirect drivers of native tree regeneration and epiphyte colonization in the restored forests. Compared to remnant forest, unrestored forest had fewer native canopy tree species, significantly more light reaching the forest floor annually, and higher exotic weed cover. Additionally, epiphyte density was lower and native tree regeneration density was marginally lower in the unrestored forests. In restored forests, light availability was reduced to levels found in remnant forests within 20 years of restoration planting, followed shortly thereafter by declines in herbaceous exotic weeds and reduced fluctuation of relative humidity and soil temperatures. Contrary to expectations, canopy openness was only an indirect driver of tree regeneration and epiphyte colonization, but it directly regulated weed cover and microclimatic fluctuations, both of which directly drove the density and richness of regeneration and epiphyte colonization. Epiphyte density and diversity were also positively related to forest basal area, as large trees provide physical habitat for colonization. These results imply that ecosystem properties change predictably after initial restoration plantings, and that reaching critical

  4. Accounting for sampling patterns reverses the relative importance of trade and climate for the global sharing of exotic plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sofaer, Helen; Jarnevich, Catherine S.

    2017-01-01

    AimThe distributions of exotic species reflect patterns of human-mediated dispersal, species climatic tolerances and a suite of other biotic and abiotic factors. The relative importance of each of these factors will shape how the spread of exotic species is affected by ongoing economic globalization and climate change. However, patterns of trade may be correlated with variation in scientific sampling effort globally, potentially confounding studies that do not account for sampling patterns.LocationGlobal.Time periodMuseum records, generally from the 1800s up to 2015.Major taxa studiedPlant species exotic to the United States.MethodsWe used data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) to summarize the number of plant species with exotic occurrences in the United States that also occur in each other country world-wide. We assessed the relative importance of trade and climatic similarity for explaining variation in the number of shared species while evaluating several methods to account for variation in sampling effort among countries.ResultsAccounting for variation in sampling effort reversed the relative importance of trade and climate for explaining numbers of shared species. Trade was strongly correlated with numbers of shared U.S. exotic plants between the United States and other countries before, but not after, accounting for sampling variation among countries. Conversely, accounting for sampling effort strengthened the relationship between climatic similarity and species sharing. Using the number of records as a measure of sampling effort provided a straightforward approach for the analysis of occurrence data, whereas species richness estimators and rarefaction were less effective at removing sampling bias.Main conclusionsOur work provides support for broad-scale climatic limitation on the distributions of exotic species, illustrates the need to account for variation in sampling effort in large biodiversity databases, and highlights the

  5. Trade-off between early emergence and herbivore susceptibility mediates exotic success in an experimental California plant community.

    PubMed

    Waterton, Joseph; Cleland, Elsa E

    2016-12-01

    Ecological trade-offs are fundamental to theory in community ecology; critical for understanding species coexistence in diverse plant communities, as well as the evolution of diverse life-history strategies. Invasions by exotic species can provide insights into the importance of trade-offs in community assembly, because the ecological strategies of invading species often differ from those present in the native species pool. Exotic annual species have invaded many Mediterranean-climate areas around the globe, and often germinate and emerge earlier in the growing season than native species. Early-season growth can enable exotic annual species to preempt space and resources, competitively suppressing later-emerging native species; however, early-emerging individuals may also be more apparent to herbivores. This suggests a potential trade-off between seasonal phenology and susceptibility to herbivory. To evaluate this hypothesis, we monitored the emergence and growth of 12 focal species (six each native and exotic) in monoculture and polyculture, while experimentally excluding generalist herbivores both early and later in the growing season. Consistent with past studies, the exotic species emerged earlier than native species. Regardless of species origin, earlier-emerging species achieved greater biomass by the end of the experiment, but were more negatively impacted by herbivory, particularly in the early part of the growing season. This greater impact of early-season herbivory on early-active species led to a reduction in the competitive advantage of exotic species growing in polyculture, and improved the performance of later-emerging natives. Such a trade-off between early growth and susceptibility to herbivores could be an important force in community assembly in seasonal herbaceous-dominated ecosystems. These results also show how herbivore exclusion favors early-active exotic species in this system, with important implications for management in many areas invaded

  6. Elevated CO2 does not offset greater water stress predicted under climate change for native and exotic riparian plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Laura G.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Blumenthal, Dana M.; Morgan, Jack A.; LeCain, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    In semiarid western North American riparian ecosystems, increased drought and lower streamflows under climate change may reduce plant growth and recruitment, and favor drought-tolerant exotic species over mesic native species. We tested whether elevated atmospheric CO2 might ameliorate these effects by improving plant water-use efficiency. We examined the effects of CO2 and water availability on seedlings of two native (Populus deltoids spp. monilifera, Salix exigua) and three exotic (Elaeagnus angustifolia, Tamarix spp., Ulmus pumila) western North American riparian species in a CO2-controlled glasshouse, using 1-m-deep pots with different water-table decline rates. Low water availability reduced seedling biomass by 70–97%, and hindered the native species more than the exotics. Elevated CO2 increased biomass by 15%, with similar effects on natives and exotics. Elevated CO2 increased intrinsic water-use efficiency (Δ13Cleaf), but did not increase biomass more in drier treatments than wetter treatments. The moderate positive effects of elevated CO2 on riparian seedlings are unlikely to counteract the large negative effects of increased aridity projected under climate change. Our results suggest that increased aridity will reduce riparian seedling growth despite elevated CO2, and will reduce growth more for native Salix and Populus than for drought-tolerant exotic species.

  7. Elevated CO2 does not offset greater water stress predicted under climate change for native and exotic riparian plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Laura G.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Blumenthal, Dana M.; Morgan, Jack A.; LeCain, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    * In semiarid western North American riparian ecosystems, increased drought and lower streamflows under climate change may reduce plant growth and recruitment, and favor drought-tolerant exotic species over mesic native species. We tested whether elevated atmospheric CO2 might ameliorate these effects by improving plant water-use efficiency. * We examined the effects of CO2 and water availability on seedlings of two native (Populus deltoides spp. monilifera, Salix exigua) and three exotic (Elaeagnus angustifolia, Tamarix spp., Ulmus pumila) western North American riparian species in a CO2-controlled glasshouse, using 1-m-deep pots with different water-table decline rates. * Low water availability reduced seedling biomass by 70–97%, and hindered the native species more than the exotics. Elevated CO2 increased biomass by 15%, with similar effects on natives and exotics. Elevated CO2 increased intrinsic water-use efficiency (Δ13Cleaf), but did not increase biomass more in drier treatments than wetter treatments. * The moderate positive effects of elevated CO2 on riparian seedlings are unlikely to counteract the large negative effects of increased aridity projected under climate change. Our results suggest that increased aridity will reduce riparian seedling growth despite elevated CO2, and will reduce growth more for native Salix and Populus than for drought-tolerant exotic species.

  8. Elevated CO₂ does not offset greater water stress predicted under climate change for native and exotic riparian plants.

    PubMed

    Perry, Laura G; Shafroth, Patrick B; Blumenthal, Dana M; Morgan, Jack A; LeCain, Daniel R

    2013-01-01

    In semiarid western North American riparian ecosystems, increased drought and lower streamflows under climate change may reduce plant growth and recruitment, and favor drought-tolerant exotic species over mesic native species. We tested whether elevated atmospheric CO₂ might ameliorate these effects by improving plant water-use efficiency. We examined the effects of CO₂ and water availability on seedlings of two native (Populus deltoides spp. monilifera, Salix exigua) and three exotic (Elaeagnus angustifolia, Tamarix spp., Ulmus pumila) western North American riparian species in a CO₂-controlled glasshouse, using 1-m-deep pots with different water-table decline rates. Low water availability reduced seedling biomass by 70-97%, and hindered the native species more than the exotics. Elevated CO₂ increased biomass by 15%, with similar effects on natives and exotics. Elevated CO₂ increased intrinsic water-use efficiency (Δ¹³C(leaf) ), but did not increase biomass more in drier treatments than wetter treatments. The moderate positive effects of elevated CO₂ on riparian seedlings are unlikely to counteract the large negative effects of increased aridity projected under climate change. Our results suggest that increased aridity will reduce riparian seedling growth despite elevated CO₂, and will reduce growth more for native Salix and Populus than for drought-tolerant exotic species.

  9. Thermotolerance capacities of native and exotic coastal plants will lead to changes in species composition under increased heat waves

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Sharon A.; Lia, Jodie

    2017-01-01

    Abstract With an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme heat events, plants are likely to reach their thermal limits and show slower growth or increased mortality. We investigated differences amongst coastal native and invasive shrubs and grasses to investigate if particular species might be more at risk in the future. Using an ecologically relevant experimental set of heat waves over a month, we assessed changes in biomass and photosynthetic efficiency in a laboratory setting using 25 coastal Australian species divided into native and exotic shrubs, and native and exotic grasses. We also compared three C3 and three C4 grasses within the native and exotic groups. Overall, native shrubs suffered higher mortality, lower growth and increased photosynthetic stress. There was some evidence that C3 grasses, had lower growth with heat waves, compared to C4 species although, in general, grasses showed evidence of photosynthetic acclimation over the month. Increases in leaf abscission suggest that part of the acclimation process was to develop new, thermally tolerant leaves. Our results indicate that in the future we would expect an increase in exotic shrubs and grasses occupying spaces in coastal plant communities that arise from native mortality following extreme heat events. Management of these coastal communities will need to focus strongly on maintaining a diverse native shrub composition that can resist climate-based disturbances (such as wildfire), as well as controlling the extent and biomass of exotic species, if coastal communities are to remain healthy and diverse in a changing climate. PMID:28491321

  10. Persistence of native and exotic plants ten years after prairie reconstruction data set

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Diane L.; Bright, J. B.; Drobney, Pauline; Larson, Jennifer L.; Vacek, Sara

    2016-01-01

    These data sets consist of data collected during 2005-2007, 2010, and 2015 at Neal Smith NWR (IA) and Fergus Falls, Litchfield, and Morris Wetland Management Districts (MN) that were used in the analysis in support of the article titled "Integrity of tallgrass prairie reconstructions ten years after planting: native plant persistence and exotic weed resistance," which has been submitted to the journal Restoration Ecology. The primary goal of this study was to understand what influence early reconstruction practices have on long-term outcomes. Twelve replicates of three planting methods (dormant-season broadcast, growing-season broadcast, and growing-season drill) and three seed mix richness levels (10, 20 or 34 species), fully crossed in a completely randomized design were planted in 2005 on nine former agricultural fields. Cover by species was estimated in 2005-2007, 2010 and 2015, and richness data for treatment plots was determined in 2007, 2010, and 2015. Data from Minnesota and Iowa sites were analyzed separately, and are housed in separate files.

  11. Trait- and density-mediated indirect interactions initiated by an exotic invasive plant autogenic ecosystem engineer.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Dean E

    2010-10-01

    Indirect interactions are important for structuring ecological systems. However, research on indirect effects has been heavily biased toward top-down trophic interactions, and less is known about other indirect-interaction pathways. As autogenic ecosystem engineers, plants can serve as initiators of nontrophic indirect interactions that, like top-down pathways, can involve both trait-mediated indirect interactions (TMIIs) and density-mediated indirect interactions (DMIIs). Using microcosms, I examined a plant --> predator --> consumer interaction pathway involving the exotic autogenic ecosystem engineer Centaurea maculosa; native Dictyna spiders (which exhibit density and trait [web-building] responses to C. maculosa); Dictyna's insect prey, Urophora affinis; and Urophora's host plant (a secondary receiver species) to quantify DMIIs and TMIIs in an autogenic engineered pathway. Both DMIIs and TMIIs were strong enough to reduce Urophora populations, but only DMIIs, which were 4.3 times stronger than TMIIs, were strong enough to also reduce Urophora's fecundity and increase the fecundity of its host plant. Prior field studies support these results, suggesting that the differences between DMIIs and TMIIs are even stronger in nature. This study illustrates that autogenic ecosystem engineers can initiate powerful indirect interactions that generally parallel predator-initiated interactions but also differ in important functional ways.

  12. Do ungulates facilitate native and exotic plant spread? Seed dispersal by cattle, elk and deer in northeastern Oregon

    Treesearch

    Anne M. Bartuszevige; Bryan A. Endress

    2008-01-01

    Large domestic and native ungulates have the potential to disperse large quantities of seeds throughout the landscape. Many studies have found that ungulates are capable of dispersing seeds but few quantify the relative importance of ungulate dispersal across the landscape. We investigated the potential for cattle, elk, and deer to disperse native and exotic plants in...

  13. Patterns of exotic plant invasions in Pennsylvania's Allegheny National Forest using intensive Forest Inventory and Analysis plots

    Treesearch

    Cynthia D. Huebner; Randall S. Morin; Ann Zurbriggen; Robert L. White

    2009-01-01

    Intensive Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plot data collected in the Allegheny National Forest (ANF), Pennsylvania, between 1999 and 2006 were evaluated for their ability to predict ANF's vulnerability to invasion by exotic plants. A total of 26 variables classified by biotic, abiotic, or disturbance characteristics were examined. Likelihood of colonization by...

  14. Elevated CO2 does not offset greater water stress predicted under climate change for native and exotic riparian plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In semiarid western North American riparian ecosystems, increased drought and lower streamflows under climate change may reduce plant growth and recruitment, and favor drought-tolerant exotic species over mesic native species. We tested whether elevated atmospheric CO2 might ameliorate these effects...

  15. Using long-term datasets to study exotic plant invasions on rangelands in the western United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Invasions by exotic species are generally described with a logistic growth curve divided into three phases: introduction, expansion and saturation. This model is constructed primarily from regional studies of plant invasions based on historical records and herbarium samples. The goal of this study w...

  16. Using long-term datasets to study exotic plant invasions on rangelands in the western United States

    Treesearch

    C. Morris; L. R. Morris; A. J. Leffler; C. D. Holifield Collins; A. D. Forman; M. A. Weltz; S. G. Kitchen

    2013-01-01

    Invasions by exotic species are generally described using a logistic growth curve divided into three phases: introduction, expansion and saturation. This model is constructed primarily from regional studies of plant invasions based on historical records and herbarium samples. The goal of this study is to compare invasion curves at the local scale to the logistic growth...

  17. Should Exotic Eucalyptus be Planted in Subtropical China: Insights from Understory Plant Diversity in Two Contrasting Eucalyptus Chronosequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianping; Fan, Houbao; Liu, Wenfei; Huang, Guomin; Tang, Jianfu; Zeng, Ruijin; Huang, Jing; Liu, Zhanfeng

    2015-11-01

    Although Eucalyptus is widely planted in South China, whose effects on native biodiversity are unclear. The objective of this study was to quantify the richness and composition of understory plants in two contrasting Eucalyptus chronosequences in South China. One was in Zhangzhou City with plantation age of 2, 4, and 6 years after clear-cutting Chinese fir forests, while the other was in Heshan City with plantation age of 2, 3, and 24 years that reforested on barren lands. Results showed that the richness of understory plants and functional groups was not significantly altered in the Zhangzhou chronosequence, while increased in the 24-year-old plantations, with a significantly larger proportion of woody plants than the younger plantations for the Heshan chronosequence. Moreover, a higher richness of woody plants accompanied by a lower richness of herbaceous species was detected in the Zhangzhou chronosequence compared with the Heshan one. To balance the need for pulp production and plant diversity conservation, we suggest that intercropping approaches between exotic Eucalyptus plantations and native forests should be considered in the fast rotation Eucalyptus plantations. However, Eucalyptus plantations may be used as pioneer species to sustain ecosystem functioning for the degraded lands.

  18. Should Exotic Eucalyptus be Planted in Subtropical China: Insights from Understory Plant Diversity in Two Contrasting Eucalyptus Chronosequences.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianping; Fan, Houbao; Liu, Wenfei; Huang, Guomin; Tang, Jianfu; Zeng, Ruijin; Huang, Jing; Liu, Zhanfeng

    2015-11-01

    Although Eucalyptus is widely planted in South China, whose effects on native biodiversity are unclear. The objective of this study was to quantify the richness and composition of understory plants in two contrasting Eucalyptus chronosequences in South China. One was in Zhangzhou City with plantation age of 2, 4, and 6 years after clear-cutting Chinese fir forests, while the other was in Heshan City with plantation age of 2, 3, and 24 years that reforested on barren lands. Results showed that the richness of understory plants and functional groups was not significantly altered in the Zhangzhou chronosequence, while increased in the 24-year-old plantations, with a significantly larger proportion of woody plants than the younger plantations for the Heshan chronosequence. Moreover, a higher richness of woody plants accompanied by a lower richness of herbaceous species was detected in the Zhangzhou chronosequence compared with the Heshan one. To balance the need for pulp production and plant diversity conservation, we suggest that intercropping approaches between exotic Eucalyptus plantations and native forests should be considered in the fast rotation Eucalyptus plantations. However, Eucalyptus plantations may be used as pioneer species to sustain ecosystem functioning for the degraded lands.

  19. The encroachment of exotic herbaceous plants into the Olympic National Forest.

    Treesearch

    Charles W. Heckman

    1999-01-01

    A floral survey in the Olympic National Forest and its surroundings revealed that a considerable number of introduced ruderal plant species have made deep inroads into the stands of native flora. Some of them, which are mainly of European and Asian origin, have been planted deliberately to stabilize the soil along roadsides and after clear cutting and burning. However...

  20. Micropropagation of an exotic ornamental plant, Calathea crotalifera, for production of high quality plantlets.

    PubMed

    Rozali, Shahril Efzueni; Rashid, Kamaludin A; Taha, Rosna Mat

    2014-01-01

    A successful protocol was established for micropropagation in two selected varieties of exotic ornamental plants, Calathea crotalifera. The effects of different sterilization techniques, explant type, and the combination and concentration of plant growth regulators on shoots induction were studied. The axillary shoot buds explants sprouted from rhizomes in soil free conditions showed high induction rate of shoots with lowest contamination percentage when treated with combination of 30% (v/v) NaOCl, 70% (v/v) ethanol, and 0.3% (w/v) HgCl2. In the present study, the highest number of multiple shoots was obtained in MS basal medium supplemented with 3.5 mg/L 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP), 1.0 mg/L 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 3% sucrose, and 6 g/L plant agar for both varieties and was used as multiplication medium. Microshoots were highly induced when the young shoot bud explants were incised longitudinally prior subculture. Chlorophyll analysis was studied to test the effects of activated charcoal and L-glutamine on reduction of necrosis problem. The maximum roots induction was recorded on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) compared to indolebutyric acid (IBA). The complete regenerated plantlets were successfully acclimatized in the soilless medium under greenhouse condition. This is the first report of rapid mass propagation for C. crotalifera.

  1. Micropropagation of an Exotic Ornamental Plant, Calathea crotalifera, for Production of High Quality Plantlets

    PubMed Central

    Efzueni Rozali, Shahril; Rashid, Kamaludin A.; Mat Taha, Rosna

    2014-01-01

    A successful protocol was established for micropropagation in two selected varieties of exotic ornamental plants, Calathea crotalifera. The effects of different sterilization techniques, explant type, and the combination and concentration of plant growth regulators on shoots induction were studied. The axillary shoot buds explants sprouted from rhizomes in soil free conditions showed high induction rate of shoots with lowest contamination percentage when treated with combination of 30% (v/v) NaOCl, 70% (v/v) ethanol, and 0.3% (w/v) HgCl2. In the present study, the highest number of multiple shoots was obtained in MS basal medium supplemented with 3.5 mg/L 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP), 1.0 mg/L 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 3% sucrose, and 6 g/L plant agar for both varieties and was used as multiplication medium. Microshoots were highly induced when the young shoot bud explants were incised longitudinally prior subculture. Chlorophyll analysis was studied to test the effects of activated charcoal and L-glutamine on reduction of necrosis problem. The maximum roots induction was recorded on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) compared to indolebutyric acid (IBA). The complete regenerated plantlets were successfully acclimatized in the soilless medium under greenhouse condition. This is the first report of rapid mass propagation for C. crotalifera. PMID:25136669

  2. Control of one invasive plant species allows exotic grasses to become dominant in northern Great Plains grasslands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, D.L.; Larson, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Decline of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) in the northern Great Plains of the US is generally viewed as a success story for biological control, but quality of the vegetation that survived the infestation is key to recovery of ecosystem function. In addition, effects of other invasive species, notably cool-season exotic grasses, must be taken into account. Objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate direction and significance of changes in biomass of native and exotic grasses, forbs, and leafy spurge and in plant species composition following control of leafy spurge by flea beetles and (2) to evaluate the relative effects of leafy spurge and exotic grasses on biomass of native grasses, biomass of forbs, and richness of native species. We monitored species composition (1998-2003 and 2008) and biomass (2000, 2002, 2003 and 2008) of these groups on spurge-infested and noninfested permanent plots at three sites with unbroken prairie sod in North Dakota, USA. We found little evidence, in terms of species richness or biomass of native grasses or forbs, that leafy spurge was being replaced by desirable native species, although desirable as well as weedy and exotic species were characteristic of 2008 vegetation at all three sites. Structural equation models revealed that leafy spurge had temporally intermittent negative effects on forb biomass and species richness, but no effects on native grasses. In contrast, exotic grass had consistently strong, negative effects on native grass biomass, as well as stronger negative effects than leafy spurge on native species richness. Although substantial native plant diversity remains at these sites, exotic grasses pose an important threat to these crucial building blocks of native prairie ecosystems. ?? 2010.

  3. Native weeds and exotic plants: relationships to disturbance in mixed grass prairie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    The paper compares distributions of native weedy species and exotic species with respect to three kinds of disturbance, roads, trails, and prairie dog towns. Data were collected at the north and south units of Theodore Roosevelt National Park and at Wind Cave National Park. The paper concludes that many exotic species differ substantially from native weeds in their exploitation of disturbance. It is thus not useful to manage exotics as if they were just another weed.

  4. Soil biota can change after exotic plant invasion: Does this affect ecosystem processes?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, J.; Phillips, S.L.; Sherrod, S.K.; Moldenke, A.

    2005-01-01

    Invasion of the exotic annual grass Bromus tectorum into stands of the native perennial grass Hilaria jamesii significantly reduced the abundance of soil biota, especially microarthropods and nematodes. Effects of invasion on active and total bacterial and fungal biomass were variable, although populations generally increased after 50+ years of invasion. The invasion of Bromus also resulted in a decrease in richness and a species shift in plants, microarthropods, fungi, and nematodes. However, despite the depauperate soil fauna at the invaded sites, no effects were seen on cellulose decomposition rates, nitrogen mineralization rates, or vascular plant growth. When Hilaria was planted into soils from not-invaded, recently invaded, and historically invaded sites (all currently or once dominated by Hilaria), germination and survivorship were not affected. In contrast, aboveground Hilaria biomass was significantly greater in recently invaded soils than in the other two soils. We attributed the Hilaria response to differences in soil nutrients present before the invasion, especially soil nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, as these nutrients were elevated in the soils that produced the greatest Hilaria biomass. Our data suggest that it is not soil biotic richness per se that determines soil process rates or plant productivity, but instead that either (1) the presence of a few critical soil food web taxa can keep ecosystem function high, (2) nutrient loss is very slow in this ecosystem, and/or (3) these processes are microbially driven. However, the presence of Bromus may reduce key soil nutrients over time and thus may eventually suppress native plant success. ?? 2005 by the Ecological Society of America.

  5. 7 CFR 52.81 - Plant survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Plant survey. 52.81 Section 52.81 Agriculture... for Plants to Be Approved and for Plants Using Contract In-Plant Inspection Services 1 § 52.81 Plant survey. Prior to a plant being approved, or the inauguration of in-plant inspection services, and at such...

  6. 7 CFR 52.81 - Plant survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plant survey. 52.81 Section 52.81 Agriculture... for Plants to Be Approved and for Plants Using Contract In-Plant Inspection Services 1 § 52.81 Plant survey. Prior to a plant being approved, or the inauguration of in-plant inspection services, and at such...

  7. Plant and bird diversity in natural forests and in native and exotic plantations in NW Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proença, Vânia M.; Pereira, Henrique M.; Guilherme, João; Vicente, Luís

    2010-03-01

    Forest ecosystems have been subjected to continuous dynamics between deforestation and forestation. Assessing the effects of these processes on biodiversity could be essential for conservation planning. We analyzed patterns of species richness, diversity and evenness of plants and birds in patches of natural forest of Quercus spp. and in stands of native Pinus pinaster and exotic Eucalyptus globulus in NW Portugal. We analyzed data of forest and non-forest species separately, at the intra-patch, patch and inter-patch scales. Forest plant richness, diversity and evenness were higher in oak forest than in pine and eucalypt plantations. In total, 52 species of forest plants were observed in oak forest, 33 in pine plantation and 28 in eucalypt plantation. Some forest species, such as Euphorbia dulcis, Omphalodes nitida and Eryngium juresianum, were exclusively or mostly observed in oak forest. Forest bird richness and diversity were higher in both oak and pine forests than in eucalypt forest; evenness did not differ among forests. In total, 16 species of forest birds were observed in oak forest, 18 in pine forest and 11 in eucalypt forest. Species such as Certhia brachydactyla, Sitta europaea and Dendrocopos major were common in oak and/or pine patches but were absent from eucalypt stands. Species-area relationships of forest plants and forest birds in oak patches had consistently a higher slope, at both the intra and inter-patch scales, than species-area relationships of forest species in plantations and non-forest species in oak forest. These findings demonstrate the importance of oak forest for the conservation of forest species diversity, pointing the need to conserve large areas of oak forest due to the apparent vulnerability of forest species to area loss. Additionally, diversity patterns in pine forest were intermediate between oak forest and eucalypt forest, suggesting that forest species patterns may be affected by forest naturalness.

  8. Differences in Leaf Flammability, Leaf Traits and Flammability-Trait Relationships between Native and Exotic Plant Species of Dry Sclerophyll Forest

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Brad R.; Hardstaff, Lyndle K.; Phillips, Megan L.

    2013-01-01

    The flammability of plant leaves influences the spread of fire through vegetation. Exotic plants invading native vegetation may increase the spread of bushfires if their leaves are more flammable than native leaves. We compared fresh-leaf and dry-leaf flammability (time to ignition) between 52 native and 27 exotic plant species inhabiting dry sclerophyll forest. We found that mean time to ignition was significantly faster in dry exotic leaves than in dry native leaves. There was no significant native-exotic difference in mean time to ignition for fresh leaves. The significantly higher fresh-leaf water content that was found in exotics, lost in the conversion from a fresh to dry state, suggests that leaf water provides an important buffering effect that leads to equivalent mean time to ignition in fresh exotic and native leaves. Exotic leaves were also significantly wider, longer and broader in area with significantly higher specific leaf area–but not thicker–than native leaves. We examined scaling relationships between leaf flammability and leaf size (leaf width, length, area, specific leaf area and thickness). While exotics occupied the comparatively larger and more flammable end of the leaf size-flammability spectrum in general, leaf flammability was significantly correlated with all measures of leaf size except leaf thickness in both native and exotic species such that larger leaves were faster to ignite. Our findings for increased flammability linked with larger leaf size in exotics demonstrate that exotic plant species have the potential to increase the spread of bushfires in dry sclerophyll forest. PMID:24260169

  9. Differences in leaf flammability, leaf traits and flammability-trait relationships between native and exotic plant species of dry sclerophyll forest.

    PubMed

    Murray, Brad R; Hardstaff, Lyndle K; Phillips, Megan L

    2013-01-01

    The flammability of plant leaves influences the spread of fire through vegetation. Exotic plants invading native vegetation may increase the spread of bushfires if their leaves are more flammable than native leaves. We compared fresh-leaf and dry-leaf flammability (time to ignition) between 52 native and 27 exotic plant species inhabiting dry sclerophyll forest. We found that mean time to ignition was significantly faster in dry exotic leaves than in dry native leaves. There was no significant native-exotic difference in mean time to ignition for fresh leaves. The significantly higher fresh-leaf water content that was found in exotics, lost in the conversion from a fresh to dry state, suggests that leaf water provides an important buffering effect that leads to equivalent mean time to ignition in fresh exotic and native leaves. Exotic leaves were also significantly wider, longer and broader in area with significantly higher specific leaf area-but not thicker-than native leaves. We examined scaling relationships between leaf flammability and leaf size (leaf width, length, area, specific leaf area and thickness). While exotics occupied the comparatively larger and more flammable end of the leaf size-flammability spectrum in general, leaf flammability was significantly correlated with all measures of leaf size except leaf thickness in both native and exotic species such that larger leaves were faster to ignite. Our findings for increased flammability linked with larger leaf size in exotics demonstrate that exotic plant species have the potential to increase the spread of bushfires in dry sclerophyll forest.

  10. Invasive exotic plants in the tropical Pacific Islands: Patterns of Diversity

    Treesearch

    J.S. Denslow; J.C. Space; P.A. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Oceanic islands are good model systems with which to explore factors affecting exotic species diversity. Islands vary in size, topography, substrate type, degree of isolation, native species diversity, history, human population characteristics, and economic development. Moreover, islands are highly vulnerable to exotic species establishment. We used AICc analyses of...

  11. Loblolly pine seedling response to competition from exotic vs. native plants

    Treesearch

    Pedram Daneshgar; Shibu Jose; Craig Ramsey; Robin Collins

    2006-01-01

    A field study was conducted in Santa Rosa County, FL to test the hypothesis that an exotic understory would exert a higher degree of competition on tree seedling establishment and growth than native vegetation. The study site was a 60 ha cutover area infested with the invasive exotic cogongrass [Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeusch.]. A completely...

  12. 7 CFR 52.81 - Plant survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plant survey. 52.81 Section 52.81 Agriculture... Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification Requirements for Plants to Be Approved and for Plants Using Contract In-Plant Inspection Services 1 § 52.81 Plant survey. Prior to a plant being approved, or the...

  13. 7 CFR 52.81 - Plant survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plant survey. 52.81 Section 52.81 Agriculture... Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification Requirements for Plants to Be Approved and for Plants Using Contract In-Plant Inspection Services 1 § 52.81 Plant survey. Prior to a plant being approved, or the...

  14. 7 CFR 52.81 - Plant survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plant survey. 52.81 Section 52.81 Agriculture... Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification Requirements for Plants to Be Approved and for Plants Using Contract In-Plant Inspection Services 1 § 52.81 Plant survey. Prior to a plant being approved, or the...

  15. Identification of understory invasive exotic plants with remote sensing in urban forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shouse, Michael; Liang, Liang; Fei, Songlin

    2013-04-01

    Invasive exotic plants (IEP) pose a significant threat to many ecosystems. To effectively manage IEP, it is important to efficiently detect their presences and determine their distribution patterns. Remote sensing has been a useful tool to map IEP but its application is limited in urban forests, which are often the sources and sinks for IEP. In this study, we examined the feasibility and tradeoffs of species level IEP mapping using multiple remote sensing techniques in a highly complex urban forest setting. Bush honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii), a pervasive IEP in eastern North America, was used as our modeling species. Both medium spatial resolution (MSR) and high spatial resolution (HSR) imagery were employed in bush honeysuckle mapping. The importance of spatial scale was also examined using an up-scaling simulation from the HSR object based classification. Analysis using both MSR and HSR imagery provided viable results for IEP distribution mapping in urban forests. Overall mapping accuracy ranged from 89.8% to 94.9% for HSR techniques and from 74.6% to 79.7% for MSR techniques. As anticipated, classification accuracy reduces as pixel size increases. HSR based techniques produced the most desirable results, therefore is preferred for precise management of IEP in heterogeneous environment. However, the use of MSR techniques should not be ruled out given their wide availability and moderate accuracy.

  16. EXOTIC AND INVASIVE AQUATIC PLANTS IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS: DISTRIBUTION AND RELATION TO WATERSHED LAND USE AND PLANT RICHNESS AND COVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript provides previously unavailable information to researchers and managers concerning exotic plants in the Great Lakes...This work arises out of our broader efforts to describe biota - habitat relationships in coastal wetlands, and as such falls under Aquatic Stresso...

  17. EXOTIC AND INVASIVE AQUATIC PLANTS IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS: DISTRIBUTION AND RELATION TO WATERSHED LAND USE AND PLANT RICHNESS AND COVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript provides previously unavailable information to researchers and managers concerning exotic plants in the Great Lakes...This work arises out of our broader efforts to describe biota - habitat relationships in coastal wetlands, and as such falls under Aquatic Stresso...

  18. Was the Eocene Arctic a Source Area for Exotic Plants and Mammals? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberle, J. J.; Harrington, G. J.; Fricke, H. C.; Humphrey, J.; Hackett, L.; Newbrey, M.; Hutchison, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    not found in correlative strata of either mid-latitude North America or Europe. Either the Arctic region is a source of some evolutionary novelty, or alternatively it recruited plants directly from Asia. In sum, although the Arctic was undoubtedly en route for terrestrial plants and animals dispersing across Holarctic continents during parts of the Paleogene, evidence from both the Eocene plant and vertebrate communities on Ellesmere Island indicates the Arctic must also be evaluated as a potential source area for exotic taxa.

  19. Native plants and communities and exotic plants within the Hoosier-Shawnee ecological assessment area

    Treesearch

    Steven D. Olson; Michael A. Homoya; Elizabeth L. Shimp

    2004-01-01

    The diverse natural communities in the Hoosier-Shawnee Ecological Assessment Area include forests, barrens, cliffs, wetlands, and streams. Communities are described based on their dominant and characteristic canopy and understory species as well as abiotic factors. An assessment of the global and state status of plant species is presented; the viability of over 360...

  20. Can resource-use traits predict native vs. exotic plant success in carbon amended soils?

    PubMed

    Steers, Robert J; Funk, Jennifer L; Allen, Edith B

    2011-06-01

    Productivity in desert ecosystems is primarily limited by water followed by nitrogen availability. In the deserts of southern California, nitrogen additions have increased invasive annual plant abundance. Similar findings from other ecosystems have led to a general acceptance that invasive plants, especially annual grasses, are nitrophilous. Consequently, reductions of soil nitrogen via carbon amendments have been conducted by many researchers in a variety of ecosystems in order to disproportionately lower invasive species abundance, but with mixed success. Recent studies suggest that resource-use traits may predict the efficacy of such resource manipulations; however, this theory remains largely untested. We report findings from a carbon amendment experiment that utilized two levels of sucrose additions that were aimed at achieving soil carbon to nitrogen ratios of 50:1 and 100:1 in labile sources. Carbon amendments were applied once each year, for three years, corresponding with the first large precipitation event of each wet season. Plant functional traits measured on the three invasive and 11 native herbaceous species that were most common at the study site showed that exotic and native species did not differ in traits associated with nitrogen use. In fact, plant abundance measures such as density, cover, and biomass showed that carbon amendments were capable of decreasing both native and invasive species. We found that early-germinating species were the most impacted by decreased soil nitrogen resulting from amendments. Because invasive annuals typically germinate earlier and exhibit a rapid phenology compared to most natives, these species are expected to be more competitive than native annuals yet more susceptible to early-season carbon amendments. However, desert annual communities can exhibit high interannual variability in species composition and abundance. Therefore, the relative abundance of native and invasive species at the time of application is

  1. Do exotic plants lose resistance to pathogenic soil biota from their native range? A test with Solidago gigantea.

    PubMed

    Maron, John L; Luo, Wenbo; Callaway, Ragan M; Pal, Robert W

    2015-10-01

    Native plants commonly suffer from strong negative plant-soil feedbacks. However, in their non-native ranges species often escape from these negative feedbacks, which indicates that these feedbacks are generated by at least partially specialized soil biota. If so, introduced plants might evolve the loss of resistance to pathogens in their former native range, as has been proposed for the loss of resistance to specialized herbivores. We compared the magnitude of plant-soil feedbacks experienced by native and exotic genotypes of the perennial forb, Solidago gigantea. Feedbacks were assessed in soil collected across 14 sites sampled across the western part of Solidago's native range in the US. Both native and exotic genotypes of Solidago suffered consistently negative and broadly similar plant-soil feedbacks when grown in North American soil. Although there was substantial variation among soils from different sites in the strength of feedbacks generated, the magnitude of feedbacks generated by North American genotypes of S. gigantea were strongly correlated with those produced in the same soil by European genotypes. Our results indicate that Solidago experiences strong negative soil feedbacks in native soil and that introduced genotypes of Solidago have not lost resistance to these negative effects of soil biota. Both genotypic and landscape-level effects can be important sources of variation in the strength of plant-soil feedbacks.

  2. Soil, vegetation, and seed bank of a Sonoran Desert ecosystem along an exotic plant (Pennisetum ciliare) treatment gradient.

    PubMed

    Abella, Scott R; Chiquoine, Lindsay P; Backer, Dana M

    2013-10-01

    Ecological conditions following removal of exotic plants are a key part of comprehensive environmental management strategies to combat exotic plant invasions. We examined ecological conditions following removal of the management-priority buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare) in Saguaro National Park of the North American Sonoran Desert. We assessed soil, vegetation, and soil seed banks on seven buffelgrass site types: five different frequencies of buffelgrass herbicide plus hand removal treatments (ranging from 5 years of annual treatment to a single year of treatment), untreated sites, and non-invaded sites, with three replicates for each of the seven site types. The 22 measured soil properties (e.g., pH) differed little among sites. Regarding vegetation, buffelgrass cover was low (≤1% median cover), or absent, across all treated sites but was high (10-70%) in untreated sites. Native vegetation cover, diversity, and composition were indistinguishable across site types. Species composition was dominated by native species (>93% relative cover) across all sites except untreated buffelgrass sites. Most (38 species, 93%) of the 41 species detected in soil seed banks were native, and native seed density did not differ significantly across sites. Results suggest that: (1) buffelgrass cover was minimal across treated sites; (2) aside from high buffelgrass cover in untreated sites, ecological conditions were largely indistinguishable across sites; (3) soil seed banks harbored ≥12 species that were frequent in the aboveground vegetation; and (4) native species dominated post-treatment vegetation composition, and removing buffelgrass did not result in replacement by other exotic species.

  3. Soil, Vegetation, and Seed Bank of a Sonoran Desert Ecosystem Along an Exotic Plant ( Pennisetum ciliare) Treatment Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abella, Scott R.; Chiquoine, Lindsay P.; Backer, Dana M.

    2013-10-01

    Ecological conditions following removal of exotic plants are a key part of comprehensive environmental management strategies to combat exotic plant invasions. We examined ecological conditions following removal of the management-priority buffelgrass ( Pennisetum ciliare) in Saguaro National Park of the North American Sonoran Desert. We assessed soil, vegetation, and soil seed banks on seven buffelgrass site types: five different frequencies of buffelgrass herbicide plus hand removal treatments (ranging from 5 years of annual treatment to a single year of treatment), untreated sites, and non-invaded sites, with three replicates for each of the seven site types. The 22 measured soil properties (e.g., pH) differed little among sites. Regarding vegetation, buffelgrass cover was low (≤1 % median cover), or absent, across all treated sites but was high (10-70 %) in untreated sites. Native vegetation cover, diversity, and composition were indistinguishable across site types. Species composition was dominated by native species (>93 % relative cover) across all sites except untreated buffelgrass sites. Most (38 species, 93 %) of the 41 species detected in soil seed banks were native, and native seed density did not differ significantly across sites. Results suggest that: (1) buffelgrass cover was minimal across treated sites; (2) aside from high buffelgrass cover in untreated sites, ecological conditions were largely indistinguishable across sites; (3) soil seed banks harbored ≥12 species that were frequent in the aboveground vegetation; and (4) native species dominated post-treatment vegetation composition, and removing buffelgrass did not result in replacement by other exotic species.

  4. Role of Native and Exotic Earthworms in Plant Biopolymer Dynamics in Forest Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filley, Timothy

    2010-05-01

    Many forests within northern North America are experiencing the introduction of earthworms for the first time, presumably since before the last major glaciation. Forest dynamics are undergoing substantial changes because of the activity of the mainly European lumbricid species. Documented losses in litter layers, expansion of A-horizons, loss of the organic horizon, changes in fine root density, and shifts in microbial populations have all been documented in invaded zones. Two free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) forest experiments (aspen FACE at Rhinelander, Wisconsin and sweet gum FACE at Oak Ridge National Lab, Tennessee) lie within the zones of invasion and exhibit differences in amounts of exotic and native species as well as endogeic (predominantly mineral soil dwelling) and epigeic (litter and organic matter horizon dwelling) types. Considerations of carbon accrual dynamics and relative input of above vs. below ground plant input in these young successional systems do not consider the potential impact of these ecosystem engineers. We investigated the impact of earthworm activity by tracking the relative abundance and stable carbon isotope compositions of lignin and substituted fatty acids extracted from isolated earthworms and their fecal pellets and from host soils. Indications of root vs leaf input to earthworm casts and fecal matter were derived from differences in the chemical composition of cutin, suberin, and lignin. The isotopically depleted CO2 used in FACE and the resulting isotopically depleted plant organic matter afford an excellent opportunity to assess biopolymer-specific turnover dynamics. We find that endogeic species are proportionately more responsible for fine root cycling while some epigeic species are responsible for microaggregation of foliar cutin. CSIA of fecal pellet lignin and SFA indicates how these biopolymer pools can be derived from variable sources, roots, background soil, foliar tissue within one earthworm. Additionally, CSIA

  5. Physiological variation among native and exotic winter annual plants associated with microbiotic crusts in the Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeFalco, L.A.; Detling, J.K.; Tracy, C.R.; Warren, S.D.

    2001-01-01

    Microbiotic crusts are important components of many aridland soils. Research on crusts typically focuses on the increase in soil fertility due to N-fixing micro-organisms, the stabilization of soils against water and wind erosion and the impact of disturbance on N-cycling. The effect of microbiotic crusts on the associated plant community has received little attention. We quantified the influence of crusts on the production, species diversity, nutrient content and water relations of winter annual plant species associated with microbiotic soil crusts in the northeast Mojave Desert. Shoot biomass of winter annuals was 37% greater and plant density was 77% greater on crusts than were biomass and density on soils lacking crust cover (=bare soils). This greater production of annuals on crusts was likely due to enhanced soil conditions including an almost two-fold increase in soil organic matter and inorganic N compared to bare soils. Crusted soils also had 53% greater volumetric water content than bare soils during November and December, the time when winter annuals become established. As plant development progressed into spring, however, soil water availability decreased: More negative plant xylem water potentials were associated with greater plant biomass on crusted soils. Plants associated with microbiotic soil crusts had lower concentrations of N in shoots (mg N g-1 dry mass). However, total shoot N (mg N m-2) was the same in plants growing on the different soil types when biomass production peaked in April. Shoots had similar patterns in their concentration and content of P. Species diversity of annuals was not statistically different between the two soil types. Yet, while native annuals comprised the greatest proportion of shoot biomass on bare soils, exotic forbs and grasses produced more biomass on crusts. Total shoot nutrient content (biomass x concentration) of the two exotic annual species examined was dramatically greater on crusts than bare soils; only one

  6. 7 CFR 51.54 - Plant survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plant survey. 51.54 Section 51.54 Agriculture... Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A Contract Basis § 51.54 Plant survey. Prior... performed to determine whether the premises, plant and facilities are suitable and adequate for the...

  7. 7 CFR 51.54 - Plant survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plant survey. 51.54 Section 51.54 Agriculture... Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A Contract Basis § 51.54 Plant survey. Prior... performed to determine whether the premises, plant and facilities are suitable and adequate for the...

  8. 7 CFR 51.54 - Plant survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plant survey. 51.54 Section 51.54 Agriculture... Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A Contract Basis § 51.54 Plant survey. Prior... performed to determine whether the premises, plant and facilities are suitable and adequate for the...

  9. Southwest Exotic Mapping Program 2007: Occurrence summary and maps of select invasive, non-native plants in Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Kathryn A.; Guertin, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    An important aspect of management of invasive, non-native plants (invasive plants) is information on the type, location, and magnitude of infestations. Regional development of this information requires an integrated program of data collection, management, and delivery. The Southwest Exotic Plant Mapping Program (SWEMP), coordinated through the U.S. Geological Survey’s Southwest Biological Science Center, annually compiles occurrence records for infestations of invasive plants. Operating since 1998, the SWEMP team has accepted occurrence records contributed voluntarily by federal, tribal, state, and private collaborators and has compiled these contributions accumulatively with previous versions of SWEMP. The SWEMP 2007 regional database update, SWEMP07, contains 62,000 records for 221 plant species with records dating as far back as 1911 and up to December, 2006. Records include invasive plants in Arizona, eastern California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah. SWEMP07 is available through the Southwest Exotic Plant Information Clearinghouse (http://sbsc.wr.usgs.gov/research/projects/swepic/swepic.asp, click SWEMP).Not all invasive plants are non-native and not all invasive plants are even invasive. The Arizona Invasive Species Advisory Council (2006) defined an invasive species as “a species that is (1) non-native to the ecosystem under consideration and, (2) whose introduction causes or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm, or harm to human health”. SWEMP uses the U.S. Department of Agriculture PLANTS database (http://plants.usda.gov/) to determine if a plant is native or not to Arizona. As SWEMP does not independently assess the current or potential impact of invasive plants, we include most non-native plant records contributed. We have not included agricultural crops that are non-native, for example apples, oranges, etc.In this open-file-report, we use the SWEMP07 update to summarize the occurrence of invasive plants in Arizona and present

  10. Do native parasitic plants cause more damage to exotic invasive hosts than native non-invasive hosts? An implication for biocontrol.

    PubMed

    Li, Junmin; Jin, Zexin; Song, Wenjing

    2012-01-01

    Field studies have shown that native, parasitic plants grow vigorously on invasive plants and can cause more damage to invasive plants than native plants. However, no empirical test has been conducted and the mechanism is still unknown. We conducted a completely randomized greenhouse experiment using 3 congeneric pairs of exotic, invasive and native, non-invasive herbaceous plant species to quantify the damage caused by parasitic plants to hosts and its correlation with the hosts' growth rate and resource use efficiency. The biomass of the parasitic plants on exotic, invasive hosts was significantly higher than on congeneric native, non-invasive hosts. Parasites caused more damage to exotic, invasive hosts than to congeneric, native, non-invasive hosts. The damage caused by parasites to hosts was significantly positively correlated with the biomass of parasitic plants. The damage of parasites to hosts was significantly positively correlated with the relative growth rate and the resource use efficiency of its host plants. It may be the mechanism by which parasitic plants grow more vigorously on invasive hosts and cause more damage to exotic, invasive hosts than to native, non-invasive hosts. These results suggest a potential biological control effect of native, parasitic plants on invasive species by reducing the dominance of invasive species in the invaded community.

  11. Do Native Parasitic Plants Cause More Damage to Exotic Invasive Hosts Than Native Non-Invasive Hosts? An Implication for Biocontrol

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junmin; Jin, Zexin; Song, Wenjing

    2012-01-01

    Field studies have shown that native, parasitic plants grow vigorously on invasive plants and can cause more damage to invasive plants than native plants. However, no empirical test has been conducted and the mechanism is still unknown. We conducted a completely randomized greenhouse experiment using 3 congeneric pairs of exotic, invasive and native, non-invasive herbaceous plant species to quantify the damage caused by parasitic plants to hosts and its correlation with the hosts' growth rate and resource use efficiency. The biomass of the parasitic plants on exotic, invasive hosts was significantly higher than on congeneric native, non-invasive hosts. Parasites caused more damage to exotic, invasive hosts than to congeneric, native, non-invasive hosts. The damage caused by parasites to hosts was significantly positively correlated with the biomass of parasitic plants. The damage of parasites to hosts was significantly positively correlated with the relative growth rate and the resource use efficiency of its host plants. It may be the mechanism by which parasitic plants grow more vigorously on invasive hosts and cause more damage to exotic, invasive hosts than to native, non-invasive hosts. These results suggest a potential biological control effect of native, parasitic plants on invasive species by reducing the dominance of invasive species in the invaded community. PMID:22493703

  12. Life Form and Life History Explain Variation in Population Processes in a Grassland Community Invaded by Exotic Plants and Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Nelis, Lisa Castillo

    2012-01-01

    The existence of general characteristics of plant invasiveness is still debated. One reason we may not have found these characteristics is because we do not yet understand how processes underlying population dynamics contribute to community composition in invaded communities. Here I modify Ricker stock-recruitment models to parameterize processes important to community dynamics in an invaded grassland community: immigration, maximum intrinsic growth rate, self-regulation, and limitation by other species. I then used the parameterized models in a multi-species stochastic simulation to determine how processes affected long-term community dynamics. By parameterizing the models using the frequency of the 18 most common species in the grassland, I determined that life history and life form are stronger predictors of underlying processes than is native status. Immigration maintains exotic annual grasses and the dominant native perennial grass in the community. Growth rate maintains other perennial species. While the model mirrors the frequency of native species well, exotic species have lower observed than parameterized frequencies, suggesting that they are not reaching their potential frequency. These results, combined with results from past research, suggest that disturbance may be key to maintaining exotic species in the community. Here I showed that a continuous modified Ricker model fit discrete grassland frequency data well. This allowed me to model the dominant species in the community simultaneously and gain insight into the processes that determine community composition. PMID:22916178

  13. Limited native plant regeneration in novel, exotic-dominated forests on Hawaii

    Treesearch

    Joseph Mascaro; Kristen K. Becklund; R. Flint Hughes; Stefan A. Schnitzer

    2008-01-01

    Ecological invasions are amajor driver of global environmental change. When invasions are frequent and prolonged, exotic species can become dominant and ultimately create novel ecosystem types. These ecosystems are now widespread globally. Recent evidence from Puerto Rico suggests that exoticdominated forests can provide suitable regeneration sites for native species...

  14. Perennial grass dominance: creating a resilient plant community in an exotic annual grass invaded rangeland

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Millions of hectares of western rangelands have been invaded by the exotic and invasive annual grass, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum). Cheatgrass provides a fine-textured, early maturing fuel that has increased the chance, rate, spread and season of wildfire to public and private lands throughout the ...

  15. Exotic weevil invasion increases floral herbivore community density, function, and impact on a native plant

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Consumer communities are being re-arranged through unprecedented rates of human-mediated invasions and extinctions. Such changes in consumer composition and diversity potentially alter pressure and impact on resource populations. Although insect herbivore invasions are common, and exotic herbivores...

  16. Federal Interagency Coordination for Invasive Plant Issues -- The Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds (FICMNEW)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westbrooks, Randy G.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds (FICMNEW) is a formal partnership between 16 federal agencies that have invasive plant management and regulatory responsibilities for the United States and its territories. Efforts to develop a national level federal interagency committee to coordinate federal activities were initiated by national weed program managers with the USDA Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Management in 1989. FICMNEW was formally established through a Memorandum of Understanding that was signed by agency administrators of member agencies in August, 1994.

  17. 7 CFR 51.54 - Plant survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plant survey. 51.54 Section 51.54 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations 1 Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A Contract Basis § 51.54 Plant survey. Prior to the inauguration of continuous Federal or Federal-State...

  18. 7 CFR 51.54 - Plant survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Plant survey. 51.54 Section 51.54 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations 1 Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A Contract Basis § 51.54 Plant survey. Prior to the inauguration of continuous Federal or Federal-State...

  19. Evaluating plant biodiversity measurements and exotic species detection in National Resources Inventory Sampling protocols using examples from the Northern Great Plains of the USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Native plant biodiversity loss and exotic species invasions are threatening the ability of many ecosystems to maintain key functions and processes. We currently lack detailed plant biodiversity data at a national scale with which to make management decisions and recommendations based on current cons...

  20. The Effect of Host-Plant Phylogenetic Isolation on Species Richness, Composition and Specialization of Insect Herbivores: A Comparison between Native and Exotic Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Grandez-Rios, Julio Miguel; Lima Bergamini, Leonardo; Santos de Araújo, Walter; Villalobos, Fabricio; Almeida-Neto, Mário

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the drivers of plant-insect interactions is still a key issue in terrestrial ecology. Here, we used 30 well-defined plant-herbivore assemblages to assess the effects of host plant phylogenetic isolation and origin (native vs. exotic) on the species richness, composition and specialization of the insect herbivore fauna on co-occurring plant species. We also tested for differences in such effects between assemblages composed exclusively of exophagous and endophagous herbivores. We found a consistent negative effect of the phylogenetic isolation of host plants on the richness, similarity and specialization of their insect herbivore faunas. Notably, except for Jaccard dissimilarity, the effect of phylogenetic isolation on the insect herbivore faunas did not vary between native and exotic plants. Our findings show that the phylogenetic isolation of host plants is a key factor that influences the richness, composition and specialization of their local herbivore faunas, regardless of the host plant origin. PMID:26379159

  1. Exotic plant colonization and occupancy within riparian areas of the Interior Columbia River and Upper Missouri River basins, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Ray, Andrew M.; Roper, Brett B.; Archer, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Exotic plant invasions into riparia often result in shifts in vegetative composition, altered stream function, and cascading effects to biota at multiple scales. Characterizing the distribution patterns of exotic plants is an important step in directing targeted research to identify mechanisms of invasion and potential management strategies. In this study, we employed occupancy models to examine the associations of landscape, climate, and disturbance attributes with the colonization and occupancy patterns for spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe L.), Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense L., Scop.), and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) in the riparia of headwater streams (n = 1,091) in the Interior Columbia River and Upper Missouri River Basins. We found relatively low occupancy rates for cheatgrass (0.06, SE = 0.02) and spotted knapweed (0.04, SE = 0.01), but moderate occupancy of Canada thistle (0.28, SE = 0.05); colonization rates were low across all species (<0.01). We found the distributions of spotted knapweed, Canada thistle, and cheatgrass to exhibit significant associations with both ambient climate conditions and anthropogenic and natural disturbances. We attribute the low to moderate occupancy and colonization rates to the relatively remote locations of our sample sites within headwater streams and urge consideration of means to prevent further invasions.

  2. An exotic invasive plant selects for increased competitive tolerance, but not competitive suppression, in a native grass.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Rebecca A; Callaway, Ragan M; Atwater, Daniel Z

    2016-06-01

    Exotic invasive plants can exert strong selective pressure for increased competitive ability in native plants. There are two fundamental components of competitive ability: suppression and tolerance, and the current paradigm that these components have equal influences on a species' overall competitive ability has been recently questioned. If these components do not have equal influences on overall ability, then selection on competitive tolerance and suppression may be disproportionate. We used naturally invaded communities to study the effects of selection caused by an invasive forb, Centaurea stoebe, on a native grass, Pseudoroegneria spicata. P. spicata plants were harvested from within dense C. stoebe patches and from nearby uninvaded areas, divided clonally into replicates, then transplanted into a common garden where they grew alone or competed with C. stoebe. We found that P. spicata plants collected from within C. stoebe patches were significantly more tolerant of competition with C. stoebe than P. spicata plants collected from uninvaded areas, but plants from inside invaded patches were not superior at suppressing C. stoebe. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that strong competitors may select for tolerance to competition more than for the ability to suppress neighbors. This has important implications for how native plant communities may respond to invasion over time, and how invasive and native species may ultimately coexist.

  3. Complementary roles of home gardens and exotic tree plantations as alternative habitats for plants of the Ethiopian montane rainforest.

    PubMed

    Hylander, Kristoffer; Nemomissa, Sileshi

    2009-04-01

    Many tropical forests have been converted for agri- or silviculture or a combination of both (agroforestry). Conservation at a landscape scale requires an understanding of the distribution and abundance of native biodiversity in these converted natural ecosystems, of which the knowledge is especially poor for African agroecosystems. We compared species density and species composition of four plant groups (trees and shrubs, epiphytic vascular plants, mosses, and liverworts) among three arboreal land-use types in southwestern Ethiopia (montane rainforest fragments, shade-tree coffee home gardens, and exotic tree plantations). Species density was significantly higher in forests than in coffee home gardens for all plant groups and in exotic tree plantations for all groups except mosses. Home gardens had more vascular epiphytic species than plantations, whereas the reverse was true for mosses and liverworts. The species composition of the forest plots was sometimes more similar to home-garden plots than plantation plots and sometimes vice versa. Fifteen forest plots had, however, cumulatively more species than a random selection of 15 nonforest (coffee home garden and plantation) plots, even if the 2 plot types complemented each other in terms of habitats for forest plants. Tree plantations dominated by Eucalyptus had many small trees and shrubs in common with forests, whereas plantations with Cupressus were important substrates for forests mosses and liverworts. Our results illustrate the importance of undisturbed forests habitats for conservation of species at a landscape scale and that different human-made land-use types may complement each other in their capacity as additional habitats for forest species.

  4. What explains variation in the impacts of exotic plant invasions on the nitrogen cycle? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Castro-Díez, P; Godoy, O; Alonso, A; Gallardo, A; Saldaña, A

    2014-01-01

    Exotic plant invasions can notably alter the nitrogen (N) cycle of ecosystems. However, there is large variation in the magnitude and direction of their impact that remains unexplained. We present a structured meta-analysis of 100 papers, covering 113 invasive plant species with 345 cases of invasion across the globe and reporting impacts on N cycle-related metrics. We aim to explain heterogeneity of impacts by considering methodological aspects, properties of the invaded site and phylogenetic and functional characteristics of the invaders and the natives. Overall, plant invasions increased N pools and accelerated fluxes, even when excluding N-fixing invaders. The impact on N pools depended mainly on functional differences and was greater when the invasive plants and the natives differed in N-fixation ability, plant height and plant/leaf habit. Furthermore, the impact on N fluxes was related mainly to climate, being greater under warm and moist conditions. Our findings show that more functionally distant invaders occurring in mild climates are causing the strongest alterations to the N cycle.

  5. Non-random co-occurrence of native and exotic plant species in Mediterranean grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Miguel, José M.; Martín-Forés, Irene; Acosta-Gallo, Belén; del Pozo, Alejandro; Ovalle, Carlos; Sánchez-Jardón, Laura; Castro, Isabel; Casado, Miguel A.

    2016-11-01

    Invasion by exotic species in Mediterranean grasslands has determined assembly patterns of native and introduced species, knowledge of which provides information on the ecological processes underlying these novel communities. We considered grasslands from Spain and Chile. For each country we considered the whole grassland community and we split species into two subsets: in Chile, species were classified as natives or colonizers (i.e. exotics); in Spain, species were classified as exclusives (present in Spain but not in Chile) or colonizers (Spanish natives and exotics into Chile). We used null models and co-occurrence indices calculated in each country for each one of 15 sites distributed along a precipitation gradient and subjected to similar silvopastoral exploitation. We compared values of species co-occurrence between countries and between species subsets (natives/colonizers in Chile; exclusives/colonizers in Spain) within each country and we characterised them according to climatic variables. We hypothesized that: a) the different coexistence time of the species in both regions should give rise to communities presenting a spatial pattern further from random in Spain than in Chile, b) the co-occurrence patterns in the grasslands are affected by mesoclimatic factors in both regions. The patterns of co-occurrence are similar in Spain and Chile, mostly showing a spatial pattern more segregated than expected by random. The colonizer species are more segregated in Spain than in Chile, possibly determined by the longer residence time of the species in the source area than in the invaded one. The segregation of species in Chile is related to water availability, being species less segregated in habitat with greater water deficit; in Spain no relationship with climatic variables was found. After an invasion process, our results suggest that the possible process of alteration of the original Chilean communities has not prevented the assembly between the native and

  6. Plant species richness at different scales in native and exotic grasslands in Southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, S.P.; Bowers, Janice E.

    2006-01-01

    Species richness in Madrean mixed-grass prairies dominated by native or exotic species in southeastern Arizona was characterized at the community and point scales using ten 1-m2 quadrats nested within each of eight 1000-m2 plots. In the 1000-m2 plots average richness was significantly higher in oak savanna (OS, 121.0 species) than in exotic grassland on mesa tops (EMT, 52.0 species), whereas native grassland on mesa slopes (NMS, 92.5 species) and native grassland on mesa tops (NMT, 77.0 species) did not differ significantly in richness from OS or EMT When richness was partitioned by life form, EMT was notably poorer than other community types in species of perennial grasses, perennial herbs, and summer annuals. In the 1-m2 quadrats, OS (21.2 species), NMS (20.9 species), and NMT (20.7 species) were significantly richer than EMT (5.9 species). Cover in 1-m2 plots was significantly higher in EMT than in NMT, NMS, or OS. Species richness at the point scale showed a unimodal relation to canopy cover, with cover accounting for 30% of the variation in number of species in 1-m2 quadrats. Competitive exclusion and allelopathy have perhaps limited species richness at the point scale in exotic grassland. There was no evidence of a species-pool effect between point and community scales, but such an effect between community and landscape scales was supported. Madrean mixed-grass prairies are landscapes with high species richness in comparison to other grassland types in North America, providing a large pool of potential colonizing species at the community scale. Beta-diversity (between communities) within the landscape of the Appleton-Whittell Research Ranch was consequently high despite a relative lack of habitat diversity.

  7. Interactions between exotic invasive plants and soil microbes in the rhizosphere suggest that ‘everything is not everywhere’

    PubMed Central

    Rout, Marnie E.; Callaway, Ragan M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The study of soil biota in the context of exotic plant invasions has led to an explosion in our understanding of the ecological roles of many different groups of microbes that function in roots or at the root–soil interface. Part of this progress has been the emergence of two biogeographic patterns involving invasive plants and soil microbes. First, in their non-native ranges invasive plants commonly interact differently with the same soil microbes than native plants. Second, in their native ranges, plants that are invasive elsewhere commonly interact functionally with soil microbes differently in their home ranges than they do in their non-native ranges. These studies pose a challenge to a long-held paradigm about microbial biogeography – the idea that microbes are not limited by dispersal and are thus free from the basic taxonomic, biogeographical and evolutionary framework that characterizes all other life on Earth. As an analogy, the global distribution of animals that function as carnivores does not negate the fascinating evolutionary biogeographic patterns of carnivores. Other challenges to this notion come from new measurements of genetic differences among microbes across geographic boundaries, which also suggest that meaningful biogeographic patterns exist for microorganisms. Scope and Conclusions We expand this discussion of whether or not ‘everything is everywhere’ by using the inherently biogeographic context of plant invasions by reviewing the literature on interactions among invasive plants and the microorganisms in the rhizosphere. We find that these interactions can be delineated at multiple scales: from individual plants to continents. Thus the microbes that regulate major aspects of plant biology do not appear to be exempt from the fundamental evolutionary processes of geographical isolation and natural selection. At the important scales of taxonomy, ecotype and ecosystem functions, the fundamental ecology of invaders and soil

  8. Interactions between exotic invasive plants and soil microbes in the rhizosphere suggest that 'everything is not everywhere'.

    PubMed

    Rout, Marnie E; Callaway, Ragan M

    2012-07-01

    The study of soil biota in the context of exotic plant invasions has led to an explosion in our understanding of the ecological roles of many different groups of microbes that function in roots or at the root-soil interface. Part of this progress has been the emergence of two biogeographic patterns involving invasive plants and soil microbes. First, in their non-native ranges invasive plants commonly interact differently with the same soil microbes than native plants. Second, in their native ranges, plants that are invasive elsewhere commonly interact functionally with soil microbes differently in their home ranges than they do in their non-native ranges. These studies pose a challenge to a long-held paradigm about microbial biogeography - the idea that microbes are not limited by dispersal and are thus free from the basic taxonomic, biogeographical and evolutionary framework that characterizes all other life on Earth. As an analogy, the global distribution of animals that function as carnivores does not negate the fascinating evolutionary biogeographic patterns of carnivores. Other challenges to this notion come from new measurements of genetic differences among microbes across geographic boundaries, which also suggest that meaningful biogeographic patterns exist for microorganisms. We expand this discussion of whether or not 'everything is everywhere' by using the inherently biogeographic context of plant invasions by reviewing the literature on interactions among invasive plants and the microorganisms in the rhizosphere. We find that these interactions can be delineated at multiple scales: from individual plants to continents. Thus the microbes that regulate major aspects of plant biology do not appear to be exempt from the fundamental evolutionary processes of geographical isolation and natural selection. At the important scales of taxonomy, ecotype and ecosystem functions, the fundamental ecology of invaders and soil microbes indicates that everything might

  9. Species biology and potential for controlling four exotic plants (Ammophila arenaria, Carpobrotus edulis, Cortaderia jubata and Gasoul crystallinum) on Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1987-01-01

    Invasive exotic plants can displace native flora and modify community and ecosystem structure and function. Ammophila arenaria, Corpobrotus edulis, Cortaderia jubata, and Gasoul crystallinum are invasive plants present on Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, designated for study by the Environmental Task Force because of the perceived threat they represent to the native flora. Each plant's native habitat, how they came to be at Vandenberg, their propagation, and how they can be controlled is discussed.

  10. Assessing exotic plant species invasions and associated soil characteristics: A case study in eastern Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA, using the pixel nested plot design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhan, M.A.; Stafford, E.J.; Woodly, P.J.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2007-01-01

    Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP), Colorado, USA, contains a diversity of plant species. However, many exotic plant species have become established, potentially impacting the structure and function of native plant communities. Our goal was to quantify patterns of exotic plant species in relation to native plant species, soil characteristics, and other abiotic factors that may indicate or predict their establishment and success. Our research approach for field data collection was based on a field plot design called the pixel nested plot. The pixel nested plot provides a link to multi-phase and multi-scale spatial modeling-mapping techniques that can be used to estimate total species richness and patterns of plant diversity at finer landscape scales. Within the eastern region of RMNP, in an area of approximately 35,000 ha, we established a total of 60 pixel nested plots in 9 vegetation types. We used canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and multiple linear regressions to quantify relationships between soil characteristics and native and exotic plant species richness and cover. We also used linear correlation, spatial autocorrelation and cross correlation statistics to test for the spatial patterns of variables of interest. CCA showed that exotic species were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with photosynthetically active radiation (r = 0.55), soil nitrogen (r = 0.58) and bare ground (r = -0.66). Pearson's correlation statistic showed significant linear relationships between exotic species, organic carbon, soil nitrogen, and bare ground. While spatial autocorrelations indicated that our 60 pixel nested plots were spatially independent, the cross correlation statistics indicated that exotic plant species were spatially associated with bare ground, in general, exotic plant species were most abundant in areas of high native species richness. This indicates that resource managers should focus on the protection of relatively rare native rich sites with little

  11. Ability of a Generalist Seed Beetle to Colonize an Exotic Host: Effects of Host Plant Origin and Oviposition Host.

    PubMed

    Amarillo-Suárez, A; Repizo, A; Robles, J; Diaz, J; Bustamante, S

    2017-08-01

    The colonization of an exotic species by native herbivores is more likely to occur if that herbivore is a generalist. There is little information on the life-history mechanisms used by native generalist insects to colonize exotic hosts and how these mechanisms are affected by host properties. We examined the ability of the generalist seed beetle Stator limbatus Horn to colonize an exotic species. We compared its host preference, acceptability, performance, and egg size when ovipositing and developing on two native (Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth and Senegalia riparia (Kunth)) and one exotic legume species (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.)). We also analyzed the seed chemistry. We found that females recognize the exotic species as an unfavorable host for larval development and that they delayed oviposition and laid fewer and larger eggs on the exotic species than on the native species. Survivorship on the exotic host was 0%. Additionally, seeds of the native species contain five chemical compounds that are absent in the exotic species, and the exotic species contains three sterols, which are absent in the native legumes. Genetically based differences between beetles adapted to different hosts, plastic responses toward new hosts, and chemical differences among seeds are important in host colonization and recognition of the exotic host. In conclusion, the generalist nature of S. limbatus does not influence its ability to colonize L. leucocephala. Explanations for the colonization of exotic hosts by generalist native species and for the success of invasive species must be complemented with studies measuring local adaptation and plasticity.

  12. Horticulture hybrid cultivars and exotic plant invasion: A case study of Wisteria (Fabaceae)

    Treesearch

    J.L. Trusty; B.G. Lockaby; W.C. Zipperer; L.R. Goertzen

    2008-01-01

    Ornamental plant horticulture has had a long history in the USA, beginning with the first botanical garden started by John Bartram in Philadelphia in 1728 (Hedrick, 1988). From this modest start, the nursery and horticulture business in the USA was flourishing by the early 19th century. The growth and sale of useful and attractive plant species inspired American plant...

  13. Leaf Photosynthesis and Plant Competitive Success in a Mixed-grass Prairie: With Reference to Exotic Grasses Invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Dr. Xuejun; Patton, J.; Gu, Lianhong; Wang, J.; Patton, B.

    2014-11-26

    The widespread invasion of exotic cool-season grasses in mixed-grass rangeland is diminishing the hope of bringing back the natural native plant communities. However, ecophysiological mechanisms explaining the relative competitiveness of these invasive grasses over the native species generally are lacking. In this study, we used experimental data collected in south-central North Dakota, USA to address this issue. Photosynthetic potential was obtained from the net assimilation (A) vs. internal CO2 (Ci) response curves from plants grown in a greenhouse. Plant success was defined as the average frequency measured over 25 years (1988 to 2012) on overflow range sites across five levels of grazing intensity. In addition, estimated leaf area index of individual species under field conditions was used to indicate plant success. The correlation between photosynthetic potential based on A/Ci curves and plant frequency was negative. The correlation between leaf photosynthesis and plant success (defined as leaf area within a unit land area) was also negative, although statistically weak. These results suggest that the two cool-season grasses, Poa pratensis and Bromus inermis, do not rely on superior leaf-level photosynthesis for competitive success. Instead, some other traits, such as early and late-season growth, may be more important for them to gain dominance in the mixed-grass prairie. We propose that the negative photosynthesis-frequency relation as observed in this study results from a strong competition for limited soil nutrients in the mixed-grass prairie. In conclusion, it has implications for the stability and productivity of the grassland under various human disruptions influencing the soil nutrient status.

  14. Leaf Photosynthesis and Plant Competitive Success in a Mixed-grass Prairie: With Reference to Exotic Grasses Invasion

    DOE PAGES

    Dong, Dr. Xuejun; Patton, J.; Gu, Lianhong; ...

    2014-11-26

    The widespread invasion of exotic cool-season grasses in mixed-grass rangeland is diminishing the hope of bringing back the natural native plant communities. However, ecophysiological mechanisms explaining the relative competitiveness of these invasive grasses over the native species generally are lacking. In this study, we used experimental data collected in south-central North Dakota, USA to address this issue. Photosynthetic potential was obtained from the net assimilation (A) vs. internal CO2 (Ci) response curves from plants grown in a greenhouse. Plant success was defined as the average frequency measured over 25 years (1988 to 2012) on overflow range sites across five levelsmore » of grazing intensity. In addition, estimated leaf area index of individual species under field conditions was used to indicate plant success. The correlation between photosynthetic potential based on A/Ci curves and plant frequency was negative. The correlation between leaf photosynthesis and plant success (defined as leaf area within a unit land area) was also negative, although statistically weak. These results suggest that the two cool-season grasses, Poa pratensis and Bromus inermis, do not rely on superior leaf-level photosynthesis for competitive success. Instead, some other traits, such as early and late-season growth, may be more important for them to gain dominance in the mixed-grass prairie. We propose that the negative photosynthesis-frequency relation as observed in this study results from a strong competition for limited soil nutrients in the mixed-grass prairie. In conclusion, it has implications for the stability and productivity of the grassland under various human disruptions influencing the soil nutrient status.« less

  15. Exotic Plant Infestation Is Associated with Decreased Modularity and Increased Numbers of Connectors in Mixed-Grass Prairie Pollination Networks

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Diane L.; Rabie, Paul A.; Droege, Sam; Larson, Jennifer L.; Haar, Milton

    2016-01-01

    The majority of pollinating insects are generalists whose lifetimes overlap flowering periods of many potentially suitable plant species. Such generality is instrumental in allowing exotic plant species to invade pollination networks. The particulars of how existing networks change in response to an invasive plant over the course of its phenology are not well characterized, but may shed light on the probability of long-term effects on plant-pollinator interactions and the stability of network structure. Here we describe changes in network topology and modular structure of infested and non-infested networks during the flowering season of the generalist non-native flowering plant, Cirsium arvense in mixed-grass prairie at Badlands National Park, South Dakota, USA. Objectives were to compare network-level effects of infestation as they propagate over the season in infested and non-infested (with respect to C. arvense) networks. We characterized plant-pollinator networks on 5 non-infested and 7 infested 1-ha plots during 4 sample periods that collectively covered the length of C. arvense flowering period. Two other abundantly-flowering invasive plants were present during this time: Melilotus officinalis had highly variable floral abundance in both C. arvense-infested and non-infested plots and Convolvulus arvensis, which occurred almost exclusively in infested plots and peaked early in the season. Modularity, including roles of individual species, and network topology were assessed for each sample period as well as in pooled infested and non-infested networks. Differences in modularity and network metrics between infested and non-infested networks were limited to the third and fourth sample periods, during flower senescence of C. arvense and the other invasive species; generality of pollinators rose concurrently, suggesting rewiring of the network and a lag effect of earlier floral abundance. Modularity was lower and number of connectors higher in infested networks

  16. Exotic plant infestation is associated with decreased modularity and increased numbers of connectors in mixed-grass prairie pollination networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Diane L.; Rabie, Paul A.; Droege, Sam; Larson, Jennifer L.; Haar, Milton

    2016-01-01

    The majority of pollinating insects are generalists whose lifetimes overlap flowering periods of many potentially suitable plant species. Such generality is instrumental in allowing exotic plant species to invade pollination networks. The particulars of how existing networks change in response to an invasive plant over the course of its phenology are not well characterized, but may shed light on the probability of long-term effects on plant-pollinator interactions and the stability of network structure. Here we describe changes in network topology and modular structure of infested and non-infested networks during the flowering season of the generalist non-native flowering plant, Cirsium arvense in mixed-grass prairie at Badlands National Park, South Dakota, USA. Objectives were to compare network-level effects of infestation as they propagate over the season in infested and non-infested (with respect to C. arvense) networks. We characterized plant-pollinator networks on 5 non-infested and 7 infested 1-ha plots during 4 sample periods that collectively covered the length of C. arvense flowering period. Two other abundantly-flowering invasive plants were present during this time: Melilotus officinalis had highly variable floral abundance in both C. arvense-infested and non-infested plots andConvolvulus arvensis, which occurred almost exclusively in infested plots and peaked early in the season. Modularity, including roles of individual species, and network topology were assessed for each sample period as well as in pooled infested and non-infested networks. Differences in modularity and network metrics between infested and non-infested networks were limited to the third and fourth sample periods, during flower senescence of C. arvenseand the other invasive species; generality of pollinators rose concurrently, suggesting rewiring of the network and a lag effect of earlier floral abundance. Modularity was lower and number of connectors higher in infested

  17. Effects of a native parasitic plant on an exotic invader decrease with increasing host age

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junmin; Yang, Beifen; Yan, Qiaodi; Zhang, Jing; Yan, Min; Li, Maihe

    2015-01-01

    Understanding changes in the interactions between parasitic plants and their hosts in relation to ontogenetic changes in the hosts is crucial for successful use of parasitic plants as biological controls. We investigated growth, photosynthesis and chemical defences in different-aged Bidens pilosa plants in response to infection by Cuscuta australis. We were particularly interested in whether plant responses to parasite infection change with changes in the host plant age. Compared with the non-infected B. pilosa, parasite infection reduced total host biomass and net photosynthetic rates, but these deleterious effects decreased with increasing host age. Parasite infection reduced the concentrations of total phenolics, total flavonoids and saponins in the younger B. pilosa but not in the older B. pilosa. Compared with the relatively older and larger plants, younger and smaller plants suffered from more severe damage and are likely less to recover from the infection, suggesting that C. australis is only a viable biocontrol agent for younger B. pilosa plants. PMID:25838325

  18. Decline in exotic tree density facilitates increased plant diversity: the experience from Melaleuca quinquenervia invaded wetlands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Australian tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (melaleuca) formed dense monocultural forests several decades after invading Florida and the Caribbean islands. These dominant forests have displaced native vegetation in sensitive wetland systems. We hypothesized that native plant diversity would increa...

  19. How Illinois kicked the exotic habit

    Treesearch

    Francis M. Harty

    1998-01-01

    For the purpose of this paper, an exotic species is defined as "a plant or animal not native to North America." The history of folly surrounding the premeditated and accidental introduction of exotic animals has been well-documented. In 1963, Dr. E. Raymond Hall wrote, "Introducing exotic species of vertebrates is unscientific, economically wasteful,...

  20. A multi-scale spatial analysis of native and exotic plant species richness within a mixed-disturbance oak savanna landscape.

    PubMed

    Schetter, Timothy A; Walters, Timothy L; Root, Karen V

    2013-09-01

    Impacts of human land use pose an increasing threat to global biodiversity. Resource managers must respond rapidly to this threat by assessing existing natural areas and prioritizing conservation actions across multiple spatial scales. Plant species richness is a useful measure of biodiversity but typically can only be evaluated on small portions of a given landscape. Modeling relationships between spatial heterogeneity and species richness may allow conservation planners to make predictions of species richness patterns within unsampled areas. We utilized a combination of field data, remotely sensed data, and landscape pattern metrics to develop models of native and exotic plant species richness at two spatial extents (60- and 120-m windows) and at four ecological levels for northwestern Ohio's Oak Openings region. Multiple regression models explained 37-77 % of the variation in plant species richness. These models consistently explained more variation in exotic richness than in native richness. Exotic richness was better explained at the 120-m extent while native richness was better explained at the 60-m extent. Land cover composition of the surrounding landscape was an important component of all models. We found that percentage of human-modified land cover (negatively correlated with native richness and positively correlated with exotic richness) was a particularly useful predictor of plant species richness and that human-caused disturbances exert a strong influence on species richness patterns within a mixed-disturbance oak savanna landscape. Our results emphasize the importance of using a multi-scale approach to examine the complex relationships between spatial heterogeneity and plant species richness.

  1. Trait- and density-mediated indirect interactions initiated by an exotic invasive plant autogenic ecosystem engineer

    Treesearch

    Dean E. Pearson

    2010-01-01

    Indirect interactions are important for structuring ecological systems. However, research on indirect effects has been heavily biased toward top-down trophic interactions, and less is known about other indirect-interaction pathways. As autogenic ecosystem engineers, plants can serve as initiators of nontrophic indirect interactions that, like top-down pathways, can...

  2. Disturbance affects short-term facilitation, but not long-term saturation, of exotic plant invasion in New Zealand forest

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Laura A.; Ross, Joshua V.; Wiser, Susan K.; Allen, Robert B.; Coomes, David A.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the spread of an exotic herb, Hieracium lepidulum, into a New Zealand Nothofagus forest with the aim of understanding how stand-development of tree populations, propagule pressure and invader persistence, affect invasion across the landscape and within communities. Using data repeatedly collected over 35 years, from 250 locations, we parametrize continuous-time Markov chain models and use these models to examine future projections of the invasion under a range of hypothetical scenarios. We found that the probability of invasion into a stand was relatively high following canopy disturbance and that local abundance of Hieracium was promoted by minor disturbances. However, model predictions extrapolated 45 years into the future show that neither the rate of landscape-level invasion, nor local population growth of Hieracium, was affected much by changing the frequency of canopy disturbance events. Instead, invasion levels were strongly affected by the ability of Hieracium to persist in the understorey following forest canopy closure, and by propagule supply from streams, forest edges and plants already established within the stand. Our results show that disturbance frequency has surprisingly little influence on the long-term trajectory of invasion, while invader persistence strongly determines invasion patterns. PMID:20980298

  3. Differential effects of an exotic plant virus on its two closely related vectors

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Huipeng; Chu, Dong; Liu, Baiming; Shi, Xiaobin; Guo, Litao; Xie, Wen; Carrière, Yves; Li, Xianchun; Zhang, Youjun

    2013-01-01

    Concurrent spread of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) with invasion of Bemisia tabaci Q rather than B in China suggests a more mutualistic relationship between TYLCV and Q than B. To assess this hypothesis, we quantified the impacts of TYLCV on the performance and competitiveness of B and Q in the laboratory. The results showed that relative to their non-infected counterparts feeding on cotton (a non-host for TYLCV), infected B exhibited significant reductions in life-history traits, whereas infected Q only showed marginal reductions. While Q performed better on TYLCV-infected tomato plants than on uninfected ones, the reverse was observed in B. Q displacement by B took one more generation on TYLCV-infected tomato plants than on healthy ones. These results demonstrate that TYLCV was indirectly mutualistic to Q but directly and indirectly parasitic to B. PMID:23864010

  4. Long-Term Effects of White-Tailed Deer Exclusion on the Invasion of Exotic Plants: A Case Study in a Mid-Atlantic Temperate Forest.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaoli; Bourg, Norman A; McShea, William J; Turner, Benjamin L

    2016-01-01

    Exotic plant invasions and chronic high levels of herbivory are two of the major biotic stressors impacting temperate forest ecosystems in eastern North America, and the two problems are often linked. We used a 4-ha deer exclosure maintained since 1991 to examine the influence of a generalist herbivore, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), on the abundance of four exotic invasive (Rosa multiflora, Berberis thunbergii, Rubus phoenicolasius and Microstegium vimineum) and one native (Cynoglossum virginianum) plant species, within a 25.6-ha mature temperate forest dynamics plot in Virginia, USA. We identified significant predictors of the abundance of each focal species using generalized linear models incorporating 10 environmental and landscape variables. After controlling for those predictors, we applied our models to a 4-ha deer exclusion site and a 4-ha reference site, both embedded within the larger plot, to test the role of deer on the abundance of the focal species. Slope, edge effects and soil pH were the most frequent predictors of the abundance of the focal species on the larger plot. The abundance of C. virginianum, known to be deer-dispersed, was significantly lower in the exclosure. Similar patterns were detected for B. thunbergii, R. phoenicolasius and M. vimineum, whereas R. multiflora was more abundant within the exclosure. Our results indicate that chronic high deer density facilitates increased abundances of several exotic invasive plant species, with the notable exception of R. multiflora. We infer that the invasion of many exotic plant species that are browse-tolerant to white-tailed deer could be limited by reducing deer populations.

  5. Long-Term Effects of White-Tailed Deer Exclusion on the Invasion of Exotic Plants: A Case Study in a Mid-Atlantic Temperate Forest

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaoli; Bourg, Norman A.; McShea, William J.; Turner, Benjamin L.

    2016-01-01

    Exotic plant invasions and chronic high levels of herbivory are two of the major biotic stressors impacting temperate forest ecosystems in eastern North America, and the two problems are often linked. We used a 4-ha deer exclosure maintained since 1991 to examine the influence of a generalist herbivore, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), on the abundance of four exotic invasive (Rosa multiflora, Berberis thunbergii, Rubus phoenicolasius and Microstegium vimineum) and one native (Cynoglossum virginianum) plant species, within a 25.6-ha mature temperate forest dynamics plot in Virginia, USA. We identified significant predictors of the abundance of each focal species using generalized linear models incorporating 10 environmental and landscape variables. After controlling for those predictors, we applied our models to a 4-ha deer exclusion site and a 4-ha reference site, both embedded within the larger plot, to test the role of deer on the abundance of the focal species. Slope, edge effects and soil pH were the most frequent predictors of the abundance of the focal species on the larger plot. The abundance of C. virginianum, known to be deer-dispersed, was significantly lower in the exclosure. Similar patterns were detected for B. thunbergii, R. phoenicolasius and M. vimineum, whereas R. multiflora was more abundant within the exclosure. Our results indicate that chronic high deer density facilitates increased abundances of several exotic invasive plant species, with the notable exception of R. multiflora. We infer that the invasion of many exotic plant species that are browse-tolerant to white-tailed deer could be limited by reducing deer populations. PMID:27019356

  6. Diazotrophic diversity in the rhizosphere of two exotic weed plants, Prosopis juliflora and Parthenium hysterophorus.

    PubMed

    Cibichakravarthy, B; Preetha, R; Sundaram, S P; Kumar, K; Balachandar, D

    2012-02-01

    This study is aimed at assessing culturable diazotrophic bacterial diversity in the rhizosphere of Prosopis juliflora and Parthenium hysterophorus, which grow profusely in nutritionally-poor soils and environmentally-stress conditions so as to identify some novel strains for bioinoculant technology. Diazotrophic isolates from Prosopis and Parthenium rhizosphere were characterized for nitrogenase activity by Acetylene Reduction Assay (ARA) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Further, the culture-independent quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed to compare the abundance of diazotrophs in rhizosphere with bulk soils. The proportion of diazotrophs in total heterotrophs was higher in rhizosphere than bulk soils and 32 putative diazotrophs from rhizosphere of two plants were identified by nifH gene amplification. The ARA activity of the isolates ranged from 40 to 95 nmol ethylene h(-1) mg protein(-1). The 16S rRNA gene analysis identified the isolates to be members of alpha, beta and gamma Proteobacteria and firmicutes. The qPCR assay also confirmed that abundance of nif gene in rhizosphere of these two plants was 10-fold higher than bulk soil.

  7. Changes in carbon pool and stand structure of a native subtropical mangrove forest after inter-planting with exotic species Sonneratia apetala.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weizhi; Yang, Shengchang; Chen, Luzhen; Wang, Wenqing; Du, Xiaona; Wang, Canmou; Ma, Yan; Lin, Guangxuan; Lin, Guanghui

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we compared stand structure, biomass and soil carbon pools, and litterfall production between a mixed mangrove forest consisting of Aegiceras corniculatum inter-planted with the exotic Sonneratia apetala and a native monospecific forest dominated by A. corniculatum in the intertidal area of Zhanjiang, Guangdong Province, southeast China. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that inter-planting fast growing exotic mangrove S. apetala into subtropical native mangrove forests will significantly increase C sequestration. Although the tree heights and basal diameters of S. apetala were significantly higher than those of A. corniculatum, the density of the 12-year-old S. apetala trees in the mixed forest was much smaller than that of A. corniculatum in the monospecific forest. In contrast to several previous studies on S. apetala forests planted directly on mangrove-free mudflats, the mixed mangrove forest showed no significant difference in either standing biomass or soil carbon pools from the native monospecific mangrove forest (p = 0.294 and 0.073, respectively) twelve years after inter-planting with S. apetala. Moreover, carbon cycling was likely speeded up after inter-planting S. apetala due to higher litterfall input and lower C/N ratio. Thus, inter-planting fast-growing S. apetala into native mangrove forest is not an effective way to increase carbon sequestration in this subtropical mangrove forest. Given that exotic plant species may exert negative impact on native mangrove species and related epifauna, this fast-growing mangrove species is not suitable for mangrove plantation projects aiming mainly at enhancing carbon sequestration.

  8. Changes in Carbon Pool and Stand Structure of a Native Subtropical Mangrove Forest after Inter-Planting with Exotic Species Sonneratia apetala

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Weizhi; Yang, Shengchang; Chen, Luzhen; Wang, Wenqing; Du, Xiaona; Wang, Canmou; Ma, Yan; Lin, Guangxuan; Lin, Guanghui

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we compared stand structure, biomass and soil carbon pools, and litterfall production between a mixed mangrove forest consisting of Aegiceras corniculatum inter-planted with the exotic Sonneratia apetala and a native monospecific forest dominated by A. corniculatum in the intertidal area of Zhanjiang, Guangdong Province, southeast China. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that inter-planting fast growing exotic mangrove S. apetala into subtropical native mangrove forests will significantly increase C sequestration. Although the tree heights and basal diameters of S. apetala were significantly higher than those of A. corniculatum, the density of the 12-year-old S. apetala trees in the mixed forest was much smaller than that of A. corniculatum in the monospecific forest. In contrast to several previous studies on S. apetala forests planted directly on mangrove-free mudflats, the mixed mangrove forest showed no significant difference in either standing biomass or soil carbon pools from the native monospecific mangrove forest (p = 0.294 and 0.073, respectively) twelve years after inter-planting with S. apetala. Moreover, carbon cycling was likely speeded up after inter-planting S. apetala due to higher litterfall input and lower C/N ratio. Thus, inter-planting fast-growing S. apetala into native mangrove forest is not an effective way to increase carbon sequestration in this subtropical mangrove forest. Given that exotic plant species may exert negative impact on native mangrove species and related epifauna, this fast-growing mangrove species is not suitable for mangrove plantation projects aiming mainly at enhancing carbon sequestration. PMID:24618793

  9. Rapid genetic adaptation precedes the spread of an exotic plant species.

    PubMed

    Vandepitte, Katrien; de Meyer, Tim; Helsen, Kenny; van Acker, Kasper; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Mergeay, Joachim; Honnay, Olivier

    2014-05-01

    Human activities have increasingly introduced plant species far outside their native ranges under environmental conditions that can strongly differ from those originally met. Therefore, before spreading, and potentially causing ecological and economical damage, non-native species may rapidly evolve. Evidence of genetically based adaptation during the process of becoming invasive is very scant, however, which is due to the lack of knowledge regarding the historical genetic makeup of the introduced populations and the lack of genomic resources. Capitalizing on the availability of old non-native herbarium specimens, we examined frequency shifts in genic SNPs of the Pyrenean Rocket (Sisymbrium austriacum subsp. chrysanthum), comparing the (i) native, (ii) currently spreading non-native and (iii) historically introduced gene pool. Results show strong divergence in flowering time genes during the establishment phase, indicating that rapid genetic adaptation preceded the spread of this species and possibly assisted in overcoming environmental constraints. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Educational Plant Survey: North Florida Junior College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umholtz, James K.; And Others

    In 1992, a study was conducted at North Florida Junior College (NFJC) to aid in the formulation of plans for housing the educational program, student population, faculty, administrators, staff, and auxiliary and ancillary services of the college for the following 5-year period. Sections 1, 2, and 3 of the plant survey report provide background…

  11. Exotic annual grass alters fuel amounts, continuity and moisture content

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    1. Invasion by exotic plants are one of the most serious threats to native plant communities, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning. Of particular concern are exotic plants that alter disturbance regimes. Exotic annual grasses are believed to increase wildfire frequency to the detriment of nativ...

  12. Native and exotic plant cover vary inversely along a climate gradient 11 years following stand-replacing wildfire in a dry coniferous forest, Oregon, USA.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Erich K; Root, Heather T

    2015-02-01

    Community re-assembly following future disturbances will often occur under warmer and more moisture-limited conditions than when current communities assembled. Because the establishment stage is regularly the most sensitive to climate and competition, the trajectory of recovery from disturbance in a changing environment is uncertain, but has important consequences for future ecosystem functioning. To better understand how ongoing warming and rising moisture limitation may affect recovery, we studied native and exotic plant composition 11 years following complete stand-replacing wildfire in a dry coniferous forest spanning a large gradient in climatic moisture deficit (CMD) from warm and dry low elevation sites to relatively cool and moist higher elevations sites. We then projected future precipitation, temperature and CMD at our study locations for four scenarios selected to encompass a broad range of possible future conditions for the region. Native perennials dominated relatively cool and moist sites 11 years after wildfire, but were very sparse at the warmest and driest (high CMD) sites, particularly when combined with high topographic sun exposure. In contrast, exotic species (primarily annual grasses) were dominant or co-dominant at the warmest and driest sites, especially with high topographic sun exposure. All future scenarios projected increasing temperature and CMD in coming decades (e.g., from 4.5% to 29.5% higher CMD by the 2080's compared to the 1971-2000 average), even in scenarios where growing season (May-September) precipitation increased. These results suggest increasing temperatures and moisture limitation could facilitate longer term (over a decade) transitions toward exotic-dominated communities after severe wildfire when a suitable exotic seed source is present.

  13. Season and severity of prescribed burn in ponderosa pine forests: implications for understory native and exotic plants.

    Treesearch

    Becky K. Kerns; Walter G. Thies; Christine G. Niwa

    2006-01-01

    We investigated herbaceous richness and cover in relation to fire season and severity, and other variables, five growing seasons following prescribed fires. Data were collected from six stands consisting of three randomly applied treatments: no burn, spring burn, and fall burn. Fall burns had significantly more exotic/native annual/biennial (an/bi) species and greater...

  14. Forestry-related pathways for the movement of exotic plant pests into and within the greater Caribbean region

    Treesearch

    Leslie Newton; Heike Meissner; Andrea. Lemay

    2011-01-01

    Forests of the Greater Caribbean Region (GCR) are important ecologically and economically. These unique ecosystems are under increasing pressure from exotic pests, which may cause extensive environmental damage and cost billions of dollars in control programs, lost production, and forest restoration.

  15. Survey of noise in coal preparation plants

    SciTech Connect

    Vipperman, J.S.; Bauer, E.R.; Babich, D.R.

    2007-01-15

    In response to the continuing problem of noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) among mine workers, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has conducted numerous noise surveys in coal preparation plants. The research, consisting of worker dose monitoring, task observations, and equipment noise profiling, was completed in eight separate preparation plants. Worker dose monitoring was conducted for three shifts in most cases. Workers experiencing higher than allowable doses were task-observed for one full shift to correlate dose to noise source(s). Finally, noise levels on all floors, and in lunch rooms and control rooms, were characterized. Results indicate that only workers who routinely spend a significant portion of their shift in the plants (away from the control rooms) are susceptible to overexposure from noise. Certain pieces of equipment (screens, centrifuges, sieve bends) are the loudest primary noise sources responsible for the worker noise exposures.

  16. Exotic Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn}

    2010-01-01

    Current experimental developments on the study of exotic nuclei far from the valley of stability are discussed. I start with general aspects related to the production of radioactive beams followed by the description of some of the experimental tools and specialized techniques for studies in reaction spectroscopy, nuclear structure research and nuclear applications with examples from selected topical areas with which I have been involved. I discuss some of the common challenges faced in Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) science.

  17. Southwest Exotic Mapping Program (SWEMP) Database, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Kathryn A.; Guertin, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    The Southwest Exotic Plant Mapping Program (SWEMP) is a collaborative effort between the United States Geological Survey and federal, tribal, state, county and non-governmental organization (NGO) partners in the southwest. This project is an ongoing effort to compile and distribute regional data on the occurrence of non-native invasive plants in the southwestern United States. The database represents the known sites (represented by a point location, i.e. site) of non-native invasive plant infestations within Arizona and New Mexico, and adjacent portions of California, Colorado, Nevada and Utah. These data, collected from 1911 to 2006, represent the field observations of various state, federal, tribal and county agencies, along with some specimen data from Herbaria. The SWEMP database comprises a compilation of data submitted through 2006.

  18. Survey of US fuel ethanol plants.

    PubMed

    Saunders, J A; Rosentrater, K A

    2009-07-01

    The ethanol industry is growing in response to increased consumer demands for fuel as well as the renewable fuel standard. Corn ethanol processing creates the following products: 1/3 ethanol, 1/3 distillers grains, and 1/3 carbon dioxide. As the production of ethanol increases so does the generation of its coproducts, and viable uses continually need to be developed. A survey was mailed to operational US ethanol plants to determine current practices. It inquired about processes, equipment used, end products, and desired future directions for coproducts. Results indicated that approximately one-third of plant managers surveyed expressed a willingness to alter current drying time and temperature if it could result in a higher quality coproduct. Other managers indicated hesitation, based on lack of economic incentives, potential cost and return, and capital required. Respondents also reported the desire to use their coproducts in some of the following products: fuels, extrusion, pellets, plastics, and human food applications. These results provide a snapshot of the industry, and indicate that operational changes to the current production of DDGS must be based upon the potential for positive economic returns.

  19. Non-additive benefit or cost? Disentangling the indirect effects that occur when plants bearing extrafloral nectaries and honeydew-producing insects share exotic ant mutualists

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Amy M.; Rudgers, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims In complex communities, organisms often form mutualisms with multiple different partners simultaneously. Non-additive effects may emerge among species linked by these positive interactions. Ants commonly participate in mutualisms with both honeydew-producing insects (HPI) and their extrafloral nectary (EFN)-bearing host plants. Consequently, HPI and EFN-bearing plants may experience non-additive benefits or costs when these groups co-occur. The outcomes of these interactions are likely to be influenced by variation in preferences among ants for honeydew vs. nectar. In this study, a test was made for non-additive effects on HPI and EFN-bearing plants resulting from sharing exotic ant guards. Preferences of the dominant exotic ant species for nectar vs. honeydew resources were also examined. Methods Ant access, HPI and nectar availability were manipulated on the EFN-bearing shrub, Morinda citrifolia, and ant and HPI abundances, herbivory and plant growth were assessed. Ant-tending behaviours toward HPI across an experimental gradient of nectar availability were also tracked in order to investigate mechanisms underlying ant responses. Key Results The dominant ant species, Anoplolepis gracilipes, differed from less invasive ants in response to multiple mutualists, with reductions in plot-wide abundances when nectar was reduced, but no response to HPI reduction. Conversely, at sites where A. gracilipes was absent or rare, abundances of less invasive ants increased when nectar was reduced, but declined when HPI were reduced. Non-additive benefits were found at sites dominated by A. gracilipes, but only for M. citrifolia plants. Responses of HPI at these sites supported predictions of the non-additive cost model. Interestingly, the opposite non-additive patterns emerged at sites dominated by other ants. Conclusions It was demonstrated that strong non-additive benefits and costs can both occur when a plant and herbivore share mutualist partners. These

  20. Legacy effects overwhelm the short-term effects of exotic plant invasion and restoration on soil microbial community structure, enzyme activities, and nitrogen cycling.

    PubMed

    Elgersma, Kenneth J; Ehrenfeld, Joan G; Yu, Shen; Vor, Torsten

    2011-11-01

    Plant invasions can have substantial consequences for the soil ecosystem, altering microbial community structure and nutrient cycling. However, relatively little is known about what drives these changes, making it difficult to predict the effects of future invasions. In addition, because most studies compare soils from uninvaded areas to long-established dense invasions, little is known about the temporal dependence of invasion impacts. We experimentally manipulated forest understory vegetation in replicated sites dominated either by exotic Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii), native Viburnums, or native Vacciniums, so that each vegetation type was present in each site-type. We compared the short-term effect of vegetation changes to the lingering legacy effects of the previous vegetation type by measuring soil microbial community structure (phospholipid fatty acids) and function (extracellular enzymes and nitrogen mineralization). We also replaced the aboveground litter in half of each plot with an inert substitute to determine if changes in the soil microbial community were driven by aboveground or belowground plant inputs. We found that after 2 years, the microbial community structure and function was largely determined by the legacy effect of the previous vegetation type, and was not affected by the current vegetation. Aboveground litter removal had only weak effects, suggesting that changes in the soil microbial community and nutrient cycling were driven largely by belowground processes. These results suggest that changes in the soil following either invasion or restoration do not occur quickly, but rather exhibit long-lasting legacy effects from previous belowground plant inputs.

  1. Exotic dancing and health.

    PubMed

    Maticka-Tyndale, E; Lewis, J; Clark, J P; Zubick, J; Young, S

    2000-01-01

    The health and safety of women who work as exotic dancers are firmly embedded within the social organization of the strip club and the broader social, economic and political context of the work of exotic dancing. Exotic dancers in this study expressed health concerns associated with: the effects of costuming and appearance requirements; dirty work environments; problems due to stigmatization, sexual harassment and assault; and police disinterest or victim blaming. The balance between benefits and hazards related to exotic dancing is influenced not only by the personal choices made by dancers, but also by the organization of the strip club and the broader context within which exotic dancing takes place.

  2. Introduction to the Special Issue: The role of soil microbial-driven belowground processes in mediating exotic plant invasions

    PubMed Central

    Inderjit

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbial communities are one of the multiple factors that facilitate or resist plant invasion. Regional and biogeographic studies help to determine how soil communities and the processes mediated by soil microbes are linked to other mechanisms of invasion. Both the success of plant invasions and their impacts are profoundly influenced by a wide range of soil communities and the soil processes mediated by them. With an aim to better understand the mechanisms responsible for the soil community-driven routes, a special issue of AoB PLANTS was conceived. I hope that the range of papers included in the special issue will reveal some of the complexities in soil community-mediated plant invasion. PMID:25979967

  3. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the Department of Energy (DOE), Y-12 Plant, conducted November 10 through 21 and December 9 through 11, 1986. This Survey is being conducted by a multidisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team members are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the Y-12 Plant. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations performed at Y-12, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan is being executed by DOE's Argonne National Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the Y-12 Plant Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the Y-12 Plant Survey. 80 refs., 76 figs., 61 tabs.

  4. I. Plants

    Treesearch

    Dean Pearson; Steve Sutherland; Jack Butler; Jane Smith; Carolyn Sieg

    2011-01-01

    Exotic plants dramatically impact natural communities and disrupt ecosystem services (Mack and others 2000). Although the bulk of current impacts are caused by relatively few exotic species, many additional exotics that are currently established at low levels are increasing in density and distribution and present substantial imminent threats. Additionally, new exotic...

  5. Test of a natural enemy hypothesis on plant provenance: Spider abundance in native and exotic ornamental landscapes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is heightened interest in effects that the provenance of plants in the landscape has on animals inhabiting them. There is an increasing body of research on insect herbivores, but less attention has been paid to arthropod natural enemies. This question is of great interest for designers of urba...

  6. Pre-fire fuel reduction treatments influence plant communities and exotic species 9 years after a large wildfire

    Treesearch

    Kristen L. Shive; Amanda M. Kuenzi; Carolyn H. Sieg; Peter Z. Fule

    2013-01-01

    We used a multi-year data set from the 2002 Rodeo-Chediski Fire to detect post-fire trends in plant community response in burned ponderosa pine forests. Within the burn perimeter, we examined the effects of pre-fire fuels treatments on post-fire vegetation by comparing paired treated and untreated sites on the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest.We sampled these paired...

  7. Environmental survey preliminary report, Mound Plant, Miamisburg, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Mound Plant, conducted August 18 through 29, 1986. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the Mound Plant. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at the Mound Plant, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey found no environmental problems at the Mound Plant that represent an immediate threat to human life. The environmental problems identified at the Mound Plant by the Survey confirm that the site is confronted with a number of environmental problems which are by and large a legacy from past practices at a time when environmental problems were less well understood. Theses problems vary in terms of their magnitude and risk, as described in this report. Although the sampling and analysis performed by the Mound Plant Survey will assist in further identifying environmental problems at the site, a complete understanding of the significance of some of the environmental problems identified requires a level of study and characterization that is beyond the scope of the Survey. Actions currently under way or planned at the site, particularly the Phase II activities of the Comprehensive Environmental Analysis and Response Program (CEARP) as developed and implemented by the Albuquerque Operations Office, will contribute toward meeting this requirement. 85 refs., 24 figs., 20 tabs.

  8. Heavy exotic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yizhuang; Zahed, Ismail

    We briefly review the formation of pion-mediated heavy-light exotic molecules with both charm and bottom, under the general structures of chiral and heavy quark symmetries. The charm isosinglet exotic molecules with JPC = 1++ binds, which we identify as the reported neutral X(3872). The bottom isotriplet exotic with JPC = 1+- binds, and is identified as a mixed state of the reported charged exotics Zb+(10610) and Zb+(10650). The bound bottom isosinglet molecule with JPC = 1++ is a possible neutral Xb(10532) to be observed.

  9. Heavy exotic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yizhuang; Zahed, Ismail

    We briefly review the formation of pion-mediated heavy-light exotic molecules with both charm and bottom, under the general structures of chiral and heavy quark symmetries. The charm isosinglet exotic molecules with JPC = 1++ binds, which we identify as the reported neutral X(3872). The bottom isotriplet exotic with JPC = 1+1 binds, and is identified as a mixed state of the reported charged exotics Zb+(10610) and Zb-(10650). The bound bottom isosinglet molecule with JPC = 1++ is a possible neutral Xb(10532) to be observed.

  10. Ruderal plants in remaining Cerrado areas: floristic survey, origin and mycorrhization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José Neto, Maria; de Cássia Brassaloti Otsubo, Helena; Luciene Maltoni, Kátia; Rodrigues Cassiolato, Ana Maria

    2015-04-01

    The urbanization process creates new ecosystems that harbor flora which has specialized in living in anthropogenically altered environments, since the advent of agriculture and urbanization. Plant specialization in new ecosystems has been due to accelerated population growth and extensive occupied spaces on the planet surface. This study was looking at the floristic survey and origin, as well as arbuscular mycorrhization of ruderal plants, in remaining Cerrado areas in the city of Três Lagoas-MS, Brazil. It was also to expand knowledge about native and introduced vegetation in anthropogenic environments. The survey was conducted for a year. From all species ruderal plants founded, plants from 49 species were collected with the purpose of this study and report the occurrence or not of AM colonization, by classifying root colonization, of the species as: very high; high; medium; low and absent when presented a index of colonization> 80%, 79-50%, 49-20%, 19-1% and 0%, respectively. Two hundred sixty-six species, distributed into 53 botanical families were found. The flora of Três Lagoas-MS is composed of native and exotic plants (82.72% from the Americas and 17.28% from the Old World and Australia). There were 220 species native to the America's, but the largest amount (60.45%) were Brazil native growing plants. Smaller percentage of this (28.63%) was found to come from the cerrado, which indicates that the ruderal vegetation was well represented by native species. Of the 49 species chosen for verification of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization, 27 exhibited very high colonization; two were high; two were medium; eleven were low and seven species showed no mycorrhizal colonization, leading to the conclusion that most ruderal plants showed mycorrhizal colonization. The soil fertility, for both area, were considered higher than the typical cerrado, and by the average number of AMF spores (152 per 100 g of dry soil-1) may not even be considered degraded. This urban

  11. The Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey Program (CAPS): scientific support to optimize a national program

    Treesearch

    Lisa D. Jackson; Daniel A. Fieselmann

    2011-01-01

    The mission of the Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey (CAPS) program is to provide a survey profile of exotic plant pests in the United States deemed to be of regulatory significance to USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ), State Departments of Agriculture, tribal governments, and cooperators by confirming the...

  12. Biological control and hyperspectral remote sensing of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) an exotic plant species in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker Williams, Amy Elizabeth

    Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) is an adventive, invasive, plant species in North America. Aphthona lacertosa and A. nigriscutis are flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) introduced for biological control of leafy spurge in North America. This research directly addresses the need for quantitative assessment of biological control and for regional scale mapping of leafy spurge infestations. This research had three main objectives. The first was to document the establishment and impact on leafy spurge populations of introduced Aphthona flea beetles. In 1998, 3,000 beetles of each species (6,000 total per site) were released on 76 of 101 monitoring sites in Wyoming. Flea beetle abundance, leafy spurge canopy cover, and flea beetle impact area were measured in 1999 and 2000. After two years, Aphthona releases resulted in significant reductions in leafy spurge canopy cover (from 49% to 6%) with suppression of leafy spurge averaging 285 m2. Flea beetles were effective in controlling leafy spurge regardless of the site characteristics (vegetation type, topographical position, soil type, and aspect) and initial leafy spurge canopy cover. The second objective was to develop methods for detecting and estimating leafy spurge abundance from remotely sensed data. Ground spectrometer data demonstrated that leafy spurge was spectrally distinct due to its conspicuous yellow-green bracts. Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering was used to estimate leafy spurge canopy cover and map leafy spurge distribution from Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer imagery acquired in 1999. Overall performance of MTMF for estimating percent cover of leafy spurge for all sites was good (r2 = 0.69) with better performance in prairie areas (r 2 = 0.79) and poorer performance occurring on wooded sites (r 2 = 0.57). The third objective was to assess the accuracy of using remotely sensed data for mapping leafy spurge in various habitat types. Leafy spurge was mapped with an overall accuracy ranging

  13. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Pinellas Plant, Largo, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the preliminary findings made during the Environmental Survey, conducted May 11 through 22, 1987, at the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Pinellas Plant in Largo, Florida. As a Preliminary Report, the contents are subject to revisions, which will be made in a forthcoming Interim Report, based on Albuquerque Operations Office review and comments on technical accuracy, the results of the sampling and analyses, and other information that may come to the Survey team's attention prior to issuance of the Interim Report. The Pinellas Plant is currently operated for DOE by the General Electric Company-Neutron Devices Department (GENDD). The Pinellas Survey is part of the larger DOE-wide Environmental Survey effort announced by Secretary John S. Herrington on September 18, 1985. The purpose of this effort is to identify, via no fault'' baseline Surveys, existing environmental problems are areas of environmental risk at DOE facilities and to rank them on a DOE-wide basis. This ranking will enable DOE to more effectively establish priorities for addressing environmental problems and allocate the resources necessary to correct these problems. Because the Survey is no fault'' and is not an audit,'' it is not designed to identify specific isolated incidents of noncompliance or to analyze environmental management practices. Such incidents and/or management practices will, however, be used in the Survey as a means of identifying existing and potential environmental problems. 55 refs., 37 figs., 37 tabs.

  14. Diseases of Forest Trees: Consequences of Exotic Ecosystems?

    Treesearch

    William J. Otrosina

    1998-01-01

    Much attention is now given to risks and impacts of exotic pest introductions in forest ecosystems. This concern is for good reason because, once introduced, an exotic pathogen or insect encounters little resistance in the native plant population and can produce catastrophic losses in relatively short periods of time. Most native fungal pathogens of forest trees have...

  15. Invasion of exotic earthworms into ecosystems inhabited by native earthworms

    Treesearch

    P.F. Hendrix; G.H. Baker; M.A. Jr. Callaham; G.A. Damoff; C. Fragoso; G. Gonzalez; S.W. James; S.L. Lachnicht; T. Winsome; X. Zou

    2006-01-01

    The most conspicuous biological invasions in terrestrial ecosystems have been by exotic plants, insects and vertebrates. Invasions by exotic earthworms, although not as well studied, may be increasing with global commerce in agriculture, waste management and bioremediation. A number of cases has documented where invasive earthworms have caused significant changes in...

  16. A phylogenetic survey of recombination frequency in plant RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Chare, E R; Holmes, E C

    2006-05-01

    The severe economic consequences of emerging plant viruses highlights the importance of studies of plant virus evolution. One question of particular relevance is the extent to which the genomes of plant viruses are shaped by recombination. To this end we conducted a phylogenetic survey of recombination frequency in a wide range of positive-sense RNA plant viruses, utilizing 975 capsid gene sequences and 157 complete genome sequences. In total, 12 of the 36 RNA virus species analyzed showed evidence for recombination, comprising 17% of the capsid gene sequence alignments and 44% of the genome sequence alignments. Given the conservative nature of our analysis, we propose that recombination is a relatively common process in some plant RNA viruses, most notably the potyviruses.

  17. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Kansas City Plant (KCP), conducted March 23 through April 3, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by a multidisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team members are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the KCP. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulations. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data observations of the operations performed at the KCP, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan is being executed by DOE's Argonne National Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the KCP Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the KCP Survey. 94 refs., 39 figs., 55 tabs.

  18. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), conducted August 11 through 22, 1986. The Survey is being conducted by an multidisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team members are outside experts supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the RFP. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulations. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data observations of the operations carried on at RFP, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activates. The Sampling and Analysis Plan is being executed by DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the RFP Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the RFP Survey. 75 refs., 24 figs., 33 tabs.

  19. Medicinal plants at Rio Jauaperi, Brazilian Amazon: Ethnobotanical survey and environmental conservation.

    PubMed

    Pedrollo, Camilo Tomazini; Kinupp, Valdely Ferreira; Shepard, Glenn; Heinrich, Michael

    2016-06-20

    The Amazon basin is a mosaic of different environments. Flooded riparian and upland forests play a significant role for the establishment of human settlements. Riparian communities in the Amazon have evolved depending on the use of plants applied for therapeutic purposes, thus developing important knowledge about their management and preparation. This paper describes and analyzes the use and management of medicinal plants in order to establish links to environmental conservation. The categorization of habitats of occurrence and categories of diseases were held in five riparian communities at Rio Jauaperi, in the border between Roraima and Amazonas states in Brazil. The study sight is poorly investigated in terms of scientific research. Quantitative and qualitative ethnobotanical field inquiries and analytical methods including observations, individual and focus group discussions, individual interviews, preference ranking by free listing tasks, guided tours and community mapping were applied. Sutrop's cognitive salience index was applied in order to check the most important ethnospecies and diseases. The survey was conducted from February to December 2012. A total of 62 informants were interviewed, resulting in 119 botanical species documented. The most salient medicinal species are usually wide distributed and recognized transculturally. Arboreal habit was the most important corresponding to 47% of total species used. The most frequent accessed environments were terra-firme (upland forest), vargeado (flooded forest), poultry (regenerating forest) and restinga (seasonally flooded forest) which together provides 59% of the total medicinal plant species. Exotic species played a secondary role with only 20% of the total. Thirty seven percent of the species were cultivated. Plants at homegardens are usually associated with children's or women's disease. Xixuaú is the community with improved ability to environmental preservation using more forestry species. The most

  20. Exotic Mammal Laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Sladakovic, Izidora; Divers, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopy is an evolving field in veterinary medicine, and there is an increased interest in using laparoscopic techniques in nondomestic mammals, including zoo animals, wildlife, and exotic pets. The aim of this article is to summarize the approach to laparoscopic procedures, including instrumentation, patient selection and preparation, and surgical approaches, and to review the current literature on laparoscopy in exotic mammals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Exotic pests of eastern forests conference proceedings

    Treesearch

    Kerry O. Britton

    1998-01-01

    Invasive exotic pest plants, diseases, and insects, have had a dramatic impact on the health and composition of the Eastern forests for many decades. Chestnut blight was discovered in the United States in 1904. Since then, it has virtually destroyed the chestnut population, which once occupied 25 percent of the eastern forest. In the 1860's, the gypsy moth was...

  2. Risk of exotic annual grass-fire cycle in Goose Creek milkvetch habitat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is a concern that habitats surrounding Goose Creek milkvetch populations are at risk of exotic annual grass invasion leading to an exotic annual grass-fire cycle. We sampled plant community and site characteristics to evaluate the risk of these habitats developing an exotic annual grass-fire ...

  3. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    This report contains the preliminary findings based on the first phase of an Environmental Survey at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Plant (SRP), located at Aiken, South Carolina. The Survey is being conducted by DOE's Office of Environment, Safety and Health. The following topics are discussed: general site information; air, soil, surface water and ground water; hydrogeology; waste management; toxic and chemical materials; release of tritium oxides; radioactivity in milk; contamination of ground water and wildlife; pesticide use; and release of radionuclides into seepage basins. 149 refs., 44 figs., 53 tabs.

  4. Injuries, envenomations and stings from exotic pets.

    PubMed

    Warwick, Clifford; Steedman, Catrina

    2012-07-01

    A variety of exotic vertebrate and invertebrate species are kept as 'pets' including fishes, amphibians (for example, frogs and toads), reptiles (turtles, crocodiles, lizards and snakes), birds, mammals (for example, primates, civets, and lions), and invertebrates (for example spiders, scorpions, and centipedes), and ownership of some of these animals is rising. Data for 2009-2011 suggest that the number of homes with reptiles rose by approximately 12.5%. Recent surveys, including only some of these animals, indicated that they might be present in around 18.6% of homes (equal to approximately 42 million animals of which around 40 million are indoor or outdoor fish). Many exotic 'pets' are capable of causing injury or poisoning to their keepers and some contacts prove fatal. We examined NHS Health Episode Statistics for England using selected formal categories for hospital admissions and bed days for 2004-2010 using the following categories of injury, envenomation or sting; bitten or struck by crocodile or alligator; bitten or crushed by other reptiles: contact with venomous snakes and lizards; contact with scorpions. Between 2004 and 2010 these data conservatively show a total of 760 full consultation episodes, 709 admissions and 2,121 hospital bed days were associated with injuries probably from exotic pets. Injuries, envenomations and stings from exotic pets constitute a small but important component of emerging medical problems. Greater awareness of relevant injuries and medical sequelae from exotic pet keeping may help medics formulate their clinical assessment and advice to patients.

  5. Injuries, envenomations and stings from exotic pets

    PubMed Central

    Warwick, Clifford; Steedman, Catrina

    2012-01-01

    A variety of exotic vertebrate and invertebrate species are kept as ‘pets’ including fishes, amphibians (for example, frogs and toads), reptiles (turtles, crocodiles, lizards and snakes), birds, mammals (for example, primates, civets, and lions), and invertebrates (for example spiders, scorpions, and centipedes), and ownership of some of these animals is rising. Data for 2009–2011 suggest that the number of homes with reptiles rose by approximately 12.5%. Recent surveys, including only some of these animals, indicated that they might be present in around 18.6% of homes (equal to approximately 42 million animals of which around 40 million are indoor or outdoor fish). Many exotic ‘pets’ are capable of causing injury or poisoning to their keepers and some contacts prove fatal. We examined NHS Health Episode Statistics for England using selected formal categories for hospital admissions and bed days for 2004–2010 using the following categories of injury, envenomation or sting; bitten or struck by crocodile or alligator; bitten or crushed by other reptiles: contact with venomous snakes and lizards; contact with scorpions. Between 2004 and 2010 these data conservatively show a total of 760 full consultation episodes, 709 admissions and 2,121 hospital bed days were associated with injuries probably from exotic pets. Injuries, envenomations and stings from exotic pets constitute a small but important component of emerging medical problems. Greater awareness of relevant injuries and medical sequelae from exotic pet keeping may help medics formulate their clinical assessment and advice to patients. PMID:22843648

  6. A Theory of Island Biogeography for Exotic Species.

    PubMed

    Burns, Kevin C

    2015-10-01

    The theory of island biogeography has played a pivotal role in the way ecologists view communities. However, it does not account for exotic species explicitly, which limits its use as a conservation tool. Here, I present the results of a long-term study of plant communities inhabiting an archipelago of small islands off the coast of New Zealand and derive a modified version of the theory of island biogeography to predict differences in the turnover and diversity of native and exotic species. Empirical results showed that, although species richness of both native and exotic plant species increased with island area, native species consistently outnumbered exotic species. Species turnover increased with species richness in both groups. However, opposite to species-area patterns, turnover increased more rapidly with species richness in exotic species. Empirical results were consistent with the modified version of the theory of island biogeography, which distinguishes exotic species from native species by decoupling extinction rates of exotic species from island area, because they are represented by only small populations at the initial stages of invasion. Overall results illustrate how the theory of island biogeography can be modified to reflect the dynamics of exotic species as they invade archipelagos, expanding its use as a conservation tool.

  7. Supplements for exotic pets.

    PubMed

    Mejia-Fava, Johanna; Colitz, Carmen M H

    2014-09-01

    The use of supplements has become commonplace in an effort to complement traditional therapy and as part of long-term preventive health plans. This article discusses historical and present uses of antioxidants, vitamins, and herbs. By complementing traditional medicine with holistic and alternative nutrition and supplements, the overall health and wellness of exotic pets can be enhanced and balanced. Further research is needed for understanding the strengths and uses of supplements in exotic species. Going back to the animals' origin and roots bring clinicians closer to nature and its healing powers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Invasion of an exotic forb impacts reproductive success and site fidelity of a migratory songbird

    Treesearch

    Yvette Katina Ortega; Kevin Scot McKelvey; Diana Lee Six

    2006-01-01

    Although exotic plant invasions threaten natural systems worldwide, we know little about the specific ecological impacts of invaders, including the magnitude of effects and underlying mechanisms. Exotic plants are likely to impact higher trophic levels when they overrun native plant communities, affecting habitat quality for breeding songbirds by altering food...

  9. Exotic nonrelativistic string

    SciTech Connect

    Casalbuoni, Roberto; Gomis, Joaquim; Longhi, Giorgio

    2007-12-15

    We construct a classical nonrelativistic string model in 3+1 dimensions. The model contains a spurion tensor field that is responsible for the noncommutative structure of the model. Under double-dimensional reduction the model reduces to the exotic nonrelativistic particle in 2+1 dimensions.

  10. Light Exotic Mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugenio, Paul

    2016-03-01

    tudies of meson spectra via strong decays provide insight regarding QCD at the confinement scale. These studies have led to phenomenological models for QCD such as the constituent quark model. However, QCD allows for a much richer spectrum of meson states which include extra states such as hybrids, exotics, multi-quarks, and glueballs. Within the past two decades a number of experiments have put forth tantalizing evidence for the existence of light quark exotic hybrid mesons in the mass range below 2 GeV . Recent Lattice QCD calculations of the light-quark meson spectrum indicate a constituent gluon-like excitation contributing an additional JPC =1+- and mass 1 - 1 . 5 GeV resulting in the lightest hybrid nonets with masses near 2 . 0 GeV . High statistical yields from recent experiments along with new advances in analysis techniques have shed a new light towards the understanding the latest experimental exotic candidates. Recent results from hadro-production and photo-production will be presented followed by an overview of ongoing and future efforts to search for light exotic mesons.

  11. Glueballs, Hybrids and Exotics

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, M. A.; Moreno, G.

    2006-09-25

    We comment on the physics analysis carried out by the Experimental High Energy Physics (EHEP) group of the Instituto de Fisica of the University of Guanajuato (IFUG), Mexico. In particular, this group has been involved in analysis carried out to search for glueball, hybrid and exotic candidates.

  12. Cusps and exotic charmonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, E. S.

    2016-06-01

    A simple, causal and analytic model of final state rescattering is used to describe all available data on the exotic resonances Zc(3900) and Zc(4025). The model provides a compelling and accurate representation of experiment with no need for poles in the scattering matrix.

  13. Exotic Higgs decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kling, Felix

    Many models of physics beyond the Standard Model include an extended Higgs sector, responsible for electroweak symmetry breaking, and predict the existence of additional Higgs bosons. The Type II Two-Higgs-Doublet Model (2HDM) is a particularly well motivated scenario and a suitable framework for phenomenological studies of extended Higgs sectors. Its low energy spectrum includes two CP-even Higgses h and H, one CP-odd Higgs A, and a pair of charged Higgses H +/-. We study the implication of the LHC Higgs search re- sults on the Type II 2HDM and identify regions of parameter space which are consistent with all experimental and theoretical constraints and can accommo- date the observed 125 GeV Higgs signal. This includes parameter space with a distinctive mass hierarchy which permit a sizable mass splitting between the undiscovered non-Standard Model Higgs states. If this mass splitting is large enough, exotic Higgs decay channels into either a Higgs plus a Standard Model gauge boson or two lighter Higgses open up. This can significantly weaken the reach of the conventional Higgs decay channels into Standard Model particles but also provide the additional opportunity to search for exotic Higgs decay channels. We provide benchmark planes to explore exotic Higgs decay scenar- ios and perform detailed collider analyses to study the exotic decay channels H/A → AZ/HZ and H+/- → AW/HW. We find that these exotic decays offer complementary discovery channels to the conventional modes for both neutral and charged Higgs searches and permit exclusion and discovery in large regions of parameter space.

  14. Predicting invasion in grassland ecosystems: is exotic dominance the real embarrassment of richness?

    PubMed

    Seabloom, Eric W; Borer, Elizabeth T; Buckley, Yvonne; Cleland, Elsa E; Davies, Kendi; Firn, Jennifer; Harpole, W Stanley; Hautier, Yann; Lind, Eric; MacDougall, Andrew; Orrock, John L; Prober, Suzanne M; Adler, Peter; Alberti, Juan; Anderson, T Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D; Biederman, Lori A; Blumenthal, Dana; Brown, Cynthia S; Brudvig, Lars A; Caldeira, Maria; Chu, Chengjin; Crawley, Michael J; Daleo, Pedro; Damschen, Ellen I; D'Antonio, Carla M; DeCrappeo, Nicole M; Dickman, Chris R; Du, Guozhen; Fay, Philip A; Frater, Paul; Gruner, Daniel S; Hagenah, Nicole; Hector, Andrew; Helm, Aveliina; Hillebrand, Helmut; Hofmockel, Kirsten S; Humphries, Hope C; Iribarne, Oscar; Jin, Virginia L; Kay, Adam; Kirkman, Kevin P; Klein, Julia A; Knops, Johannes M H; La Pierre, Kimberly J; Ladwig, Laura M; Lambrinos, John G; Leakey, Andrew D B; Li, Qi; Li, Wei; McCulley, Rebecca; Melbourne, Brett; Mitchell, Charles E; Moore, Joslin L; Morgan, John; Mortensen, Brent; O'Halloran, Lydia R; Pärtel, Meelis; Pascual, Jesús; Pyke, David A; Risch, Anita C; Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Sankaran, Mahesh; Schuetz, Martin; Simonsen, Anna; Smith, Melinda; Stevens, Carly; Sullivan, Lauren; Wardle, Glenda M; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M; Wragg, Peter D; Wright, Justin; Yang, Louie

    2013-12-01

    Invasions have increased the size of regional species pools, but are typically assumed to reduce native diversity. However, global-scale tests of this assumption have been elusive because of the focus on exotic species richness, rather than relative abundance. This is problematic because low invader richness can indicate invasion resistance by the native community or, alternatively, dominance by a single exotic species. Here, we used a globally replicated study to quantify relationships between exotic richness and abundance in grass-dominated ecosystems in 13 countries on six continents, ranging from salt marshes to alpine tundra. We tested effects of human land use, native community diversity, herbivore pressure, and nutrient limitation on exotic plant dominance. Despite its widespread use, exotic richness was a poor proxy for exotic dominance at low exotic richness, because sites that contained few exotic species ranged from relatively pristine (low exotic richness and cover) to almost completely exotic-dominated ones (low exotic richness but high exotic cover). Both exotic cover and richness were predicted by native plant diversity (native grass richness) and land use (distance to cultivation). Although climate was important for predicting both exotic cover and richness, climatic factors predicting cover (precipitation variability) differed from those predicting richness (maximum temperature and mean temperature in the wettest quarter). Herbivory and nutrient limitation did not predict exotic richness or cover. Exotic dominance was greatest in areas with low native grass richness at the site- or regional-scale. Although this could reflect native grass displacement, a lack of biotic resistance is a more likely explanation, given that grasses comprise the most aggressive invaders. These findings underscore the need to move beyond richness as a surrogate for the extent of invasion, because this metric confounds monodominance with invasion resistance. Monitoring

  15. Predicting invasion in grassland ecosystems: Is exotic dominance the real embarrassment of richness?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seabloom, Eric; Borer, Elizabeth; Buckley, Yvonne; Cleland, Elsa E.; Davies, Kendi; Firn, Jennifer; Harpole, W. Stanley; Hautier, Yann; Lind, Eric M.; MacDougall, Andrew; Orrock, John L.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Adler, Peter; Alberti, Juan; Anderson, T. Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Biederman, Lori A.; Blumenthal, Dana; Brown, Cynthia S.; Brudvig, Lars A.; Caldeira, Maria; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Crawley, Michael J.; Daleo, Pedro; Damschen, Ellen Ingman; D'Antonio, Carla M.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Dickman, Chris R.; Du, Guozhen; Fay, Philip A.; Frater, Paul; Gruner, Daniel S.; Hagenah, Nicole; Hector, Andrew; Helm, Aveliina; Hillebrand, Helmut; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.; Humphries, Hope C.; Iribarne, Oscar; Jin, Virginia L.; Kay, Adam; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Klein, Julia A.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Ladwig, Laura M.; ,; John, G.; Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Li, Qi; Li, Wei; McCulley, Rebecca; Melbourne, Brett; ,; Charles, E.; Moore, Joslin L.; Morgan, John; Mortensen, Brent; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Pärtel, Meelis; Pascual, Jesús; Pyke, David A.; Risch, Anita C.; Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Sankaran, Mahesh; Schuetz, Martin; Simonsen, Anna; Smith, Melinda; Stevens, Carly; Sullivan, Lauren; Wardle, Glenda M.; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.; Wragg, Peter D.; Wright, Justin; Yang, Louie

    2013-01-01

    Invasions have increased the size of regional species pools, but are typically assumed to reduce native diversity. However, global-scale tests of this assumption have been elusive because of the focus on exotic species richness, rather than relative abundance. This is problematic because low invader richness can indicate invasion resistance by the native community or, alternatively, dominance by a single exotic species. Here, we used a globally replicated study to quantify relationships between exotic richness and abundance in grass-dominated ecosystems in 13 countries on six continents, ranging from salt marshes to alpine tundra. We tested effects of human land use, native community diversity, herbivore pressure, and nutrient limitation on exotic plant dominance. Despite its widespread use, exotic richness was a poor proxy for exotic dominance at low exotic richness, because sites that contained few exotic species ranged from relatively pristine (low exotic richness and cover) to almost completely exotic-dominated ones (low exotic richness but high exotic cover). Both exotic cover and richness were predicted by native plant diversity (native grass richness) and land use (distance to cultivation). Although climate was important for predicting both exotic cover and richness, climatic factors predicting cover (precipitation variability) differed from those predicting richness (maximum temperature and mean temperature in the wettest quarter). Herbivory and nutrient limitation did not predict exotic richness or cover. Exotic dominance was greatest in areas with low native grass richness at the site- or regional-scale. Although this could reflect native grass displacement, a lack of biotic resistance is a more likely explanation, given that grasses comprise the most aggressive invaders. These findings underscore the need to move beyond richness as a surrogate for the extent of invasion, because this metric confounds monodominance with invasion resistance. Monitoring

  16. Predicting invasion in grassland ecosystems: is exotic dominance the real embarrassment of richness?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seabloom, Eric; Borer, Elizabeth; Buckley, Yvonne; Cleland, Elsa E.; Davies, Kendi; Firn, Jennifer; Harpole, W. Stanley; Hautier, Yann; Lind, Eric M.; MacDougall, Andrew; Orrock, John L.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Adler, Peter; Alberti, Juan; Anderson, T. Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Biederman, Lori A.; Blumenthal, Dana; Brown, Cynthia S.; Brudvig, Lars A.; Caldeira, Maria; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Crawley, Michael J.; Daleo, Pedro; Damschen, Ellen Ingman; D'Antonio, Carla M.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Dickman, Chris R.; Du, Guozhen; Fay, Philip A.; Frater, Paul; Gruner, Daniel S.; Hagenah, Nicole; Hector, Andrew; Helm, Aveliina; Hillebrand, Helmut; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.; Humphries, Hope C.; Iribarne, Oscar; Jin, Virginia L.; Kay, Adam; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Klein, Julia A.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Ladwig, Laura M.; ,; John, G.; Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Li, Qi; Li, Wei; McCulley, Rebecca; Melbourne, Brett; ,; Charles, E.; Moore, Joslin L.; Morgan, John; Mortensen, Brent; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Pärtel, Meelis; Pascual, Jesús; Pyke, David A.; Risch, Anita C.; Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Sankaran, Mahesh; Schuetz, Martin; Simonsen, Anna; Smith, Melinda; Stevens, Carly; Sullivan, Lauren; Wardle, Glenda M.; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.; Wragg, Peter D.; Wright, Justin; Yang, Louie

    2013-01-01

    Invasions have increased the size of regional species pools, but are typically assumed to reduce native diversity. However, global-scale tests of this assumption have been elusive because of the focus on exotic species richness, rather than relative abundance. This is problematic because low invader richness can indicate invasion resistance by the native community or, alternatively, dominance by a single exotic species. Here, we used a globally replicated study to quantify relationships between exotic richness and abundance in grass-dominated ecosystems in 13 countries on six continents, ranging from salt marshes to alpine tundra. We tested effects of human land use, native community diversity, herbivore pressure, and nutrient limitation on exotic plant dominance. Despite its widespread use, exotic richness was a poor proxy for exotic dominance at low exotic richness, because sites that contained few exotic species ranged from relatively pristine (low exotic richness and cover) to almost completely exotic-dominated ones (low exotic richness but high exotic cover). Both exotic cover and richness were predicted by native plant diversity (native grass richness) and land use (distance to cultivation). Although climate was important for predicting both exotic cover and richness, climatic factors predicting cover (precipitation variability) differed from those predicting richness (maximum temperature and mean temperature in the wettest quarter). Herbivory and nutrient limitation did not predict exotic richness or cover. Exotic dominance was greatest in areas with low native grass richness at the site- or regional-scale. Although this could reflect native grass displacement, a lack of biotic resistance is a more likely explanation, given that grasses comprise the most aggressive invaders. These findings underscore the need to move beyond richness as a surrogate for the extent of invasion, because this metric confounds monodominance with invasion resistance. Monitoring

  17. Predicting invasion in grassland ecosystems: is exotic dominance the real embarrassment of richness?

    SciTech Connect

    Seabloom, Eric W.

    2013-08-14

    Invasions have increased the size of regional species pools, but are typically assumed to reduce native diversity. However, global-scale tests of this assumption have been elusive because of the focus on exotic species richness, rather than relative abundance. This is problematic because low invader richness can indicate invasion resistance by the native community or, alternatively, dominance by a single exotic species. Here, we used a globally replicated study to quantify relationships between exotic richness and abundance in grass-dominated ecosystems in 13 countries on six continents, ranging from salt marshes to alpine tundra. We tested effects of human land use, native community diversity, herbivore pressure, and nutrient limitation on exotic plant dominance. Despite its widespread use, exotic richness was a poor proxy for exotic dominance at low exotic richness, because sites that contained few exotic species ranged from relatively pristine (low exotic richness and cover) to almost completely exotic-dominated ones (low exotic richness but high exotic cover). Both exotic cover and richness were predicted by native plant diversity (native grass richness) and land use (distance to cultivation). Although climate was important for predicting both exotic cover and richness, climatic factors predicting cover (precipitation variability) differed from those predicting richness (maximum temperature and mean temperature in the wettest quarter). Herbivory and nutrient limitation did not predict exotic richness or cover. Exotic dominance was greatest in areas with low native grass richness at the site- or regional-scale. Although this could reflect native grass displacement, a lack of biotic resistance is a more likely explanation, given that grasses comprise the most aggressive invaders. These findings underscore the need to move beyond richness as a surrogate for the extent of invasion, because this metric confounds monodominance with invasion resistance. Monitoring

  18. Exotic branes and nongeometric backgrounds.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Jan; Shigemori, Masaki

    2010-06-25

    When string or M theory is compactified to lower dimensions, the U-duality symmetry predicts so-called exotic branes whose higher-dimensional origin cannot be explained by the standard string or M-theory branes. We argue that exotic branes can be understood in higher dimensions as nongeometric backgrounds or U folds, and that they are important for the physics of systems which originally contain no exotic charges, since the supertube effect generically produces such exotic charges. We discuss the implications of exotic backgrounds for black hole microstate (non-)geometries.

  19. Composition of fungal soil communities varies with plant abundance and geographic origin

    PubMed Central

    Reininger, Vanessa; Martinez-Garcia, Laura B.; Sanderson, Laura; Antunes, Pedro M.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions of belowground fungal communities with exotic and native plant species may be important drivers of plant community structure in invaded grasslands. However, field surveys linking plant community structure with belowground fungal communities are missing. We investigated whether a selected number of abundant and relatively rare plants, either native or exotic, from an old-field site associate with different fungal communities. We also assessed whether these plants showed different symbiotic relationships with soil biota through their roots. We characterized the plant community and collected roots to investigate fungal communities using 454 pyrosequencing and assessed arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and enemy-induced lesions. Differences in fungal communities were considered based on the assessment of α- and β diversity depending on plant ‘abundance’ and ‘origin’. Plant abundance and origin determined the fungal community. Fungal richness was higher for native abundant as opposed to relatively rare native plant species. However, this was not observed for exotics of contrasting abundance. Regardless of their origin, β diversity was higher for rare than for abundant species. Abundant exotics in the community, which happen to be grasses, were the least mycorrhizal whereas rare natives were most susceptible to enemy attack. Our results suggest that compared with exotics, the relative abundance of remnant native plant species in our old-field site is still linked to the structure of belowground fungal communities. In contrast, exotic species may act as a disturbing agent contributing towards the homogenization of soil fungal communities, potentially changing feedback interactions. PMID:26371291

  20. Widespread infestation of the exotic mealybug species, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on cotton in India.

    PubMed

    Nagrare, V S; Kranthi, S; Biradar, V K; Zade, N N; Sangode, V; Kakde, G; Shukla, R M; Shivare, D; Khadi, B M; Kranthi, K R

    2009-10-01

    A survey was conducted in 47 locations in nine cotton-growing states of India to identify the composition of mealybug species occurring on cotton. Results of the taxonomic study showed that two mealybug species, the solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley), and the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), were found to infest cotton plants from all nine cotton growing states of the country. However, P. solenopsis was found to be the predominant mealybug species, comprising 95% of the samples examined. P. solenopsis, which was hitherto not reported to occur in India, now appears to be widespread on cotton in almost all cotton-growing states of the country. P. solenopsis is an exotic species originated from the USA and was reported to damage cotton and crops of 14 families. This report discusses the implications of the introduction of this exotic polyphagous pest species and the necessary steps to mitigate its potential threat to agriculture in India.

  1. Plant Biology Personnel and Training at Doctorate-Granting Institutions. Higher Education Surveys Report. Survey Number 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaney, Bradford; And Others

    A survey instrument was sent to all doctorate-granting institutions and all institutions identified as offering doctorates in plant biology. Doctorate-granting institutions were identified using the U.S. Department of Education's Higher Education General Information Surveys (HEGIS) listings. Responses were received from plant biology program…

  2. Strange exotic atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, E.

    1998-08-01

    Exotic atoms of K- and Σ- are analyzed using density-dependent optical potentials constrained by a low-density limit. Emphasis is placed on radial sensitivities of the real potential. A potential depth of 180MeV inside nuclei is confirmed for K-. For Σ- a shallow attractive potential outside the nuclear surface becomes repulsive in the interior. The information content of limited data sets is demonstrated.

  3. Searches for Exotic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, David Lee

    This research encompasses two quite distinct searches for exotic matter. The first half concerns exotic matter on the scale of elementary particles. In this chapter, I consider the production of gluinos, the supersymmetric partner of the gluon, in models where the gluino is very light. Cross sections are calculated for electroproduction and hadroproduction of gluinos and the results indicate that existing accelerators are capable of probing the region of gluino masses between 1.0 and 2.0GeV with lifetimes between 10-10 and 10-6 seconds. Such experiments could find a light gluino if it exists, or to close this unexplored mass-lifetime window. The second half concerns the search for exotic forms of matter on the macroscopic scale, namely the search for stable strange quark matter. If stable strange matter exists, then all neutron stars may in fact be strange stars. I examine a recent proposal that strange star oscillations may result in a detectable millimeter-wave radio signal. The effects of rotation on this signal are calculated with the motivation of providing a more distinctive signature for the detection of strange matter stars.

  4. Vegetation survey of Four Mile Creek wetlands. [Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Loehle, C.

    1990-11-01

    A survey of forested wetlands along upper Four Mile Creek was conducted. The region from Road 3 to the creek headwaters was sampled to evaluate the composition of woody and herbaceons plant communities. All sites were found to fall into either the Nyssa sylvatica (Black Gum) -- Persea borbonia (Red Bay) or Nyssa sylvatica -- Acer rubrum (Red Maple) types. These community types are generally species-rich and diverse. Previous studies (Greenwood et al., 1990; Mackey, 1988) demonstrated contaminant stress in areas downslope from the F- and H-Area seepage basins. In the present study there were some indications of contaminant stress. In the wetland near H-Area, shrub basal area, ground cover stratum species richness, and diversity were low. In the area surrounding the F-Area tree kill zone, ground cover stratum cover and shrub basal area were low and ground cover stratum species richness was low. The moderately stressed site at F-Area also showed reduced overstory richness and diversity and reduced ground cover stratum richness. These results could, however, be due to the very high basal area of overstory trees in both stressed F-Area sites that would reduce light availability to understory plants. No threatened or endangered plant species were found in the areas sampled. 40 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Educational Plant Survey: Polk Community College, June 6-10, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Thomas K.; And Others

    Polk Community College's educational plant survey was conducted as a systematic study and evaluation of existing educational facilities and the determination of future educational plant needs. The educational plant survey is intended to assist the District Board of Trustees in the formulation of plans for housing the educational program, student…

  6. 7 CFR 52.83 - Reporting results of the plant survey and inauguration of inspection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reporting results of the plant survey and inauguration of inspection services. 52.83 Section 52.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Contract In-Plant Inspection Services 1 § 52.83 Reporting results of the plant survey and inauguration of...

  7. 7 CFR 52.83 - Reporting results of the plant survey and inauguration of inspection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reporting results of the plant survey and inauguration of inspection services. 52.83 Section 52.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Contract In-Plant Inspection Services 1 § 52.83 Reporting results of the plant survey and inauguration of...

  8. 7 CFR 52.82 - Basis of survey and plant inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification Requirements for Plants to Be... inspection. The plant survey and inspection will be based on the Regulations issued under the Federal Food... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Basis of survey and plant inspection. 52.82 Section 52...

  9. Nest site selection in native and exotic trees by Black-chinned Hummingbirds

    Treesearch

    Deborah M. Finch; Jeffrey Kelly

    2002-01-01

    We studied nest site selection and nesting success in Black-chinned Hummingbirds (Archilochus alexandri) along the middle Rio Grande, New Mexico. The study was conducted in association with an exotic woody plant removal program to determine whether the removal of exotic plants would affect wildlife populations and nesting success, either positively or negatively. Point...

  10. Promoting the exotic pet practice.

    PubMed

    Harris, Don J

    2005-09-01

    The marketing and promotion of an exotic pet veterinary practice allows the use of strategies that are not necessarily available in other veterinary disciplines. The advantage that an exotics practice enjoys is that it is able to capitalize not only on the unique nature of the species being attended but also on the specialized features of the hospital itself that make it specifically appropriate in caring for exotic pets. Before marketing, however, comes the responsibility that the practice live up to the claims made in promotional materials. A practice cannot ethically be presented as an "exotics" practice if it is nothing more than a dog and cat facility that is willing to attend to exotic pets. It is the competence of the veterinary staff and the appropriateness of the facility that determines the suitability of the practice for exotics management.

  11. Exotic Atoms and Muonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, D.

    In exotic atoms, one of the atomic electrons is replaced by a negatively charged particle, whereas muonium consists of a positive muon and an electron. After a general review of the theoretical and experimental aspects, the present knowledge of this field is summarized. These include muonium and the application of the muon spin resonance method in solid-state physics and chemistry, muonic hydrogen atoms, muonic molecules and muon-catalyzed fusion, pionic hydrogen atoms and their use in chemistry, testing quantum electrodynamics on heavy muonic atoms, measuring particle and nuclear properties using hadronic atoms, and testing basic symmetry principles with antiprotonic helium atoms and antihydrogen.

  12. 7 CFR 52.82 - Basis of survey and plant inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Basis of survey and plant inspection. 52.82 Section 52... PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification Requirements for Plants to Be Approved and for Plants Using Contract In-Plant Inspection Services...

  13. 7 CFR 52.82 - Basis of survey and plant inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Basis of survey and plant inspection. 52.82 Section 52... PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification Requirements for Plants to Be Approved and for Plants Using Contract In-Plant Inspection Services...

  14. Exotic atomic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, J. H.; Maruhn, J. A.

    1986-07-01

    From the study of nuclei with abundances of neutrons and protons (N numbers and Z numbers) quite different from those found in nature, it has been possible to gain new views of motions and structures within nuclear matter. Based on the spherical shell model of the nucleus proposed by Mayer and Jensen in 1949 and the collective model of nuclear deformation proposed in 1952 by Bohr and Mottelson, it has come to be possible to decide what shape or shapes a nucleus must have for a given set of N and Z numbers. It turns out that not only spherical nuclei are possible but also prolate and oblate spheroids (football and discus shaped), triaxial (like a partially deflated football), and even pear- or peanut-shaped. A significant experimental tool in such studies is the ISOL or Isotope-Separator, On-Line, which makes possible the construction of energy level diagrams from the study of exotic nuclei created when particles from accelerators strike various kinds of foil. The significance of magic numbers and super-magic numbers (particular combinations of N and Z) for the stability of various exotic nuclei is considered. International facilities engaged in such studies are noted.

  15. Cercarial Dermatitis Transmitted by Exotic Marine Snail

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Andrew N.; James, David; Hui, Lucia; Hom, Albert; Loker, Eric S.

    2010-01-01

    Cercarial dermatitis (swimmer’s itch) is caused by the penetration of human skin by cercariae of schistosome parasites that develop in and are released from snail hosts. Cercarial dermatitis is frequently acquired in freshwater habitats, and less commonly in marine or estuarine waters. To investigate reports of a dermatitis outbreak in San Francisco Bay, California, we surveyed local snails for schistosome infections during 2005–2008. We found schistosomes only in Haminoea japonica, an Asian snail first reported in San Francisco Bay in 1999. Genetic markers place this schistosome within a large clade of avian schistosomes, but do not match any species for which there are genetic data. It is the second known schistosome species to cause dermatitis in western North American coastal waters; these species are transmitted by exotic snails. Introduction of exotic hosts can support unexpected emergence of an unknown parasite with serious medical or veterinary implications. PMID:20735918

  16. Differential effectiveness of novel and old legume-rhizobia mutualisms: implications for invasion by exotic legumes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana; Fajardo, Susana; Ruiz-Díez, Beatriz; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes

    2012-09-01

    The degree of specialization in the legume-rhizobium mutualism and the variation in the response to different potential symbionts are crucial factors for understanding the process of invasion by exotic legumes and the consequences for the native resident plants and bacteria. The enhanced novel mutualism hypothesis predicts that exotic invasive legumes would take advantage of native rhizobia present in the invaded soils. However, recent studies have shown that exotic legumes might become invasive by using exotic introduced microsymbionts, and that they could be a source of exotic bacteria for native legumes. To unravel the role of novel and old symbioses in the progress of invasion, nodulation and symbiotic effectiveness were analyzed for exotic invasive plants and native co-occurring legumes in a Mediterranean coastal dune ecosystem. Although most of the studied species nodulated with bacteria from distant origins these novel mutualisms were less effective in terms of nodulation, nitrogenase activity and plant growth than the interactions of plants and bacteria from the same origin. The relative effect of exotic bradyrhizobia was strongly positive for exotic invasive legumes and detrimental for native shrubs. We conclude that (1) the studied invasive legumes do not rely on novel mutualisms but rather need the co-introduction of compatible symbionts, and (2) since exotic rhizobia colonize native legumes in invaded areas, the lack of effectiveness of these novel symbiosis demonstrated here suggests that invasion can disrupt native belowground mutualisms and reduce native legumes fitness.

  17. Industry-wide studies report of walk-through survey of American Cyanamid Plant, Fortier Plant, Westwego, Louisana

    SciTech Connect

    Hills, B.

    1985-06-12

    A walk-through survey was conducted at American Cyanamid Company, Fortier Plant, Westwego, Louisiana, a manufacturer of acrylamide and polyacrylamide. The purpose of the survey was to obtain information on the facility, workforce, processes, personal records, medical records, and industrial hygiene program for an acrylamide exposure study being conducted by NIOSH researchers. Based on the preliminary survey, approximately 60 employees were identified as being potentially exposed to acrylamide. Since this plant is one out of four acrylamide manufacturing sites in the United States, an in-depth industrial hygiene survey should be conducted to determine exposure levels.

  18. Higher photosynthesis, nutrient- and energy-use efficiencies contribute to invasiveness of exotic plants in a nutrient poor habitat in northeast China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming-Chao; Kong, De-Liang; Lu, Xiu-Rong; Huang, Kai; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Wei-Bin; Qu, Bo; Feng, Yu-Long

    2017-08-01

    The roles of photosynthesis-related traits in invasiveness of introduced plant species are still not well elucidated, especially in nutrient-poor habitats. In addition, little effort has been made to determine the physiological causes and consequences of the difference in these traits between invasive and native plants. To address these problems, we compared the differences in 16 leaf functional traits related to light-saturated photosynthetic rate (Pmax ) between 22 invasive and native plants in a nutrient-poor habitat in northeast China. The invasive plants had significantly higher Pmax , photosynthetic nitrogen- (PNUE), phosphorus- (PPUE), potassium- (PKUE) and energy-use efficiencies (PEUE) than the co-occurring natives, while leaf nutrient concentrations, construction cost (CC) and specific leaf area were not significantly different between the invasive and native plants. The higher PNUE contributed to higher Pmax for the invasive plants, which in turn contributed to higher PPUE, PKUE and PEUE. CC changed independently with other traits such as Pmax , PNUE, PPUE, PKUE and PEUE, showing two trait dimensions, which may facilitate acclimation to multifarious niche dimensions. Our results indicate that the invasive plants have a superior resource-use strategy, i.e. higher photosynthesis under similar resource investments, contributing to invasion success in the barren habitat. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  19. Cheatgrass die-offs as an opportunity for restoration in the Great Basin, USA: Will local or commercial native plants succeed where exotic invaders fail?

    Treesearch

    Owen W. Baughman; Susan E. Meyer; Zachary T. Aanderud; Elizabeth A. Leger

    2016-01-01

    Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) has widely invaded the Great Basin, U.S.A. The sporadic natural phenomenon of complete stand failure ('die-off'') of this invader may present opportunities to restore native plants. A recent die-off in Nevada was precision-planted with seeds of the native grasses Poa secunda (Sandberg bluegrass) and Elymus elymoides (...

  20. Confirmation of independent introductions of an exotic plant pathogen of Cornus species, Discula destructiva, on the east and west coasts of North America.

    PubMed

    Mantooth, Kristie; Hadziabdic, Denita; Boggess, Sarah; Windham, Mark; Miller, Stephen; Cai, Guohong; Spatafora, Joseph; Zhang, Ning; Staton, Meg; Ownley, Bonnie; Trigiano, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Cornus florida (flowering dogwood) and C. nuttallii (Pacific dogwood) are North American native tree species that belong to the big-bracted group of dogwoods. Cornus species are highly valued for their ornamental characteristics, and have fruits that contain high fat content for animals. Also, they are an important understory tree in natural forests. Dogwood anthracnose, caused by Discula destructiva, was observed in the late 1970s on the east and west coasts of the United States and by 1991 had quickly spread throughout most of the native ranges of C. florida and C. nuttalli. We investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of 93 D. destructiva isolates using 47 microsatellite loci developed from the sequenced genome of the type strain of D. destructiva. Clone-corrected data indicated low genetic diversity and the presence of four genetic clusters that corresponded to two major geographic areas, the eastern United States and the Pacific Northwest, and to the two collection time periods when the isolates were collected (pre- and post-1993). Linkage disequilibrium was present in five out of six subpopulations, suggesting that the fungus only reproduced asexually. Evidence of population bottlenecks was indicated across four identified genetic clusters, and was probably the result of the limited number of founding individuals on both coasts. These results support the hypothesis that D. destructiva is an exotic pathogen with independent introductions on the east and west coasts of North America. We also tested the cross-amplification of these microsatellite primers to other Discula species. Genomic DNA from 17 isolates of four other Discula species and two isolates of Juglanconis species (formerly Melanconis species) were amplified by 17 of 47 primer pairs. These primers may be useful for investigating the genetic diversity and population structure of these Discula species.

  1. Confirmation of independent introductions of an exotic plant pathogen of Cornus species, Discula destructiva, on the east and west coasts of North America

    PubMed Central

    Boggess, Sarah; Windham, Mark; Miller, Stephen; Cai, Guohong; Spatafora, Joseph; Zhang, Ning; Staton, Meg; Ownley, Bonnie

    2017-01-01

    Cornus florida (flowering dogwood) and C. nuttallii (Pacific dogwood) are North American native tree species that belong to the big-bracted group of dogwoods. Cornus species are highly valued for their ornamental characteristics, and have fruits that contain high fat content for animals. Also, they are an important understory tree in natural forests. Dogwood anthracnose, caused by Discula destructiva, was observed in the late 1970s on the east and west coasts of the United States and by 1991 had quickly spread throughout most of the native ranges of C. florida and C. nuttalli. We investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of 93 D. destructiva isolates using 47 microsatellite loci developed from the sequenced genome of the type strain of D. destructiva. Clone-corrected data indicated low genetic diversity and the presence of four genetic clusters that corresponded to two major geographic areas, the eastern United States and the Pacific Northwest, and to the two collection time periods when the isolates were collected (pre- and post-1993). Linkage disequilibrium was present in five out of six subpopulations, suggesting that the fungus only reproduced asexually. Evidence of population bottlenecks was indicated across four identified genetic clusters, and was probably the result of the limited number of founding individuals on both coasts. These results support the hypothesis that D. destructiva is an exotic pathogen with independent introductions on the east and west coasts of North America. We also tested the cross-amplification of these microsatellite primers to other Discula species. Genomic DNA from 17 isolates of four other Discula species and two isolates of Juglanconis species (formerly Melanconis species) were amplified by 17 of 47 primer pairs. These primers may be useful for investigating the genetic diversity and population structure of these Discula species. PMID:28746379

  2. Real-time PCR Tests in Dutch Exotic Mosquito Surveys; Implementation of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Identification Tests, and the Development of Tests for the Identification of Aedes atropalpus and Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    van de Vossenberg, B T L H; Ibáñez-Justicia, A; Metz-Verschure, E; van Veen, E J; Bruil-Dieters, M L; Scholte, E J

    2015-05-01

    Since 2009, The Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority carries out surveys focusing on, amongst others, the presence of invasive mosquito species (IMS). Special attention is given to exotic container-breeding Aedes species Aedes aegypti (L.), Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Aedes atropalpus (Coquillett), and Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald). This study describes the implementation of real-time PCR tests described by Hill et al. (2008) for the identification of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, and the development of two novel real-time PCR tests for the identification of Ae. atropalpus and Ae. j. japonicus. Initial test showed that optimization of elements of the Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus tests was needed. Method validation tests were performed to determine if the implemented and newly developed tests are fit for routine diagnostics. Performance criteria of analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity, selectivity, repeatability, and reproducibility were determined. In addition, experiments were performed to determine the influence of environmental conditions on the usability of DNA extracted from mosquito specimens trapped in BG-Sentinel traps. The real-time PCR tests were demonstrated to be sensitive, specific, repeatable, reproducible, and are less prone to false negative results compared to partial cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequencing owing to the DNA fragmentation caused by environmental influences.

  3. 7 CFR 52.83 - Reporting results of the plant survey and inauguration of inspection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reporting results of the plant survey and inauguration of inspection services. 52.83 Section 52.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... 1 § 52.83 Reporting results of the plant survey and inauguration of inspection services. (a) Results...

  4. 7 CFR 52.83 - Reporting results of the plant survey and inauguration of inspection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting results of the plant survey and inauguration of inspection services. 52.83 Section 52.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... 1 § 52.83 Reporting results of the plant survey and inauguration of inspection services. (a) Results...

  5. 7 CFR 52.48 - Charges for plant survey and inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Charges for plant survey and inspection. 52.48 Section..., PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification Fees and Charges § 52.48 Charges for plant survey and inspection. The fees to be charged for a...

  6. Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  7. Survey of thermal-hydraulic models of commercial nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Determan, J.C.; Hendrix, C.E.

    1992-12-01

    A survey of the thermal-hydraulic models of nuclear power plants has been performed to identify the NRC's current analytical capabilities for critical event response. The survey also supports ongoing research for accident management. The results of the survey are presented here. The PC database which records detailed data on each model is described.

  8. Survey of thermal-hydraulic models of commercial nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Determan, J.C.; Hendrix, C.E.

    1992-12-01

    A survey of the thermal-hydraulic models of nuclear power plants has been performed to identify the NRC`s current analytical capabilities for critical event response. The survey also supports ongoing research for accident management. The results of the survey are presented here. The PC database which records detailed data on each model is described.

  9. Can thinning of overstory trees and planting of native tree saplings increase the establishment of native trees in exotic acacia plantations in south china?

    Treesearch

    SF Yuan; H Ren; N Liu; J Wang; QF Guo

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the effect of thinning of overstorey trees and planting of native trees will be helpful to better understand the vegetation restoration. A stand conversion experiment was conducted in a 12-year-old Acacia auriculiformis plantation in 1996. Treatments were thinning and underplanting, underplanting, thinning, and control. Results showed that...

  10. Exotic cheatgrass and loss of soil biota decrease the performance of a native grass

    Treesearch

    Suzanne M. Owen; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Nancy Collins Johnson; Catherine A. Gehring

    2013-01-01

    Soil disturbances can alter microbial communities including arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, which may in turn, affect plant community structure and the abundance of exotic species. We hypothesized that altered soil microbial populations owing to disturbance would contribute to invasion by cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), an exotic annual grass, at the expense of the...

  11. Clinical nutrition of exotic pets.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, S; Langenberg, J

    1994-10-01

    Successful nutritional management requires knowledge of the natural history of exotic pets, nutrient contents of foods, and roles of water, calories, and nutrients in optimal health. Unestablished dietary requirements, lack of balanced commercial diets and mismanagement by owners cause nutritional problems that affect health and recovery from illness and trauma. When presented with a sick exotic pet, veterinarians should check for provision of appropriate wholesome water and food in optimal amounts. Malnutrition and dehydration are common in exotic pets and often result from mismanagement. Starvation is common in carnivores eating whole vertebrate prey, whereas specific nutrient deficiencies are more common in herbivores and insectivores. The more common nutritional deficiencies are calcium and vitamin D3, vitamin A, thiamin, and vitamin E. When treating sick exotic pets, nutrition and fluid support may be critical to recovery.

  12. EXOTIC MAGNETS FOR ACCELERATORS.

    SciTech Connect

    WANDERER, P.

    2005-09-18

    Over the last few years, several novel magnet designs have been introduced to meet the requirements of new, high performance accelerators and beam lines. For example, the FAIR project at GSI requires superconducting magnets ramped at high rates ({approx} 4 T/s) in order to achieve the design intensity. Magnets for the RIA and FAIR projects and for the next generation of LHC interaction regions will need to withstand high doses of radiation. Helical magnets are required to maintain and control the polarization of high energy protons at RHIC. In other cases, novel magnets have been designed in response to limited budgets and space. For example, it is planned to use combined function superconducting magnets for the 50 GeV proton transport line at J-PARC to satisfy both budget and performance requirements. Novel coil winding methods have been developed for short, large aperture magnets such as those used in the insertion region upgrade at BEPC. This paper will highlight the novel features of these exotic magnets.

  13. Surveying the plant's world by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Rolletschek, Hardy; Neuberger, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    Understanding the way in which plants develop, grow and interact with their environment requires tools capable of a high degree of both spatial and temporal resolution. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a technique which is able to visualize internal structures and metabolites, has the great virtue that it is non-invasive and therefore has the potential to monitor physiological processes occurring in vivo. The major aim of this review is to attract plant biologists to MRI by explaining its advantages and wide range of possible applications for solving outstanding issues in plant science. We discuss the challenges and opportunities of MRI in the study of plant physiology and development, plant-environment interactions, biodiversity, gene functions and metabolism. Overall, it is our view that the potential benefit of harnessing MRI for plant research purposes is hard to overrate. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Toward a woody plant list for Antigua and Barbuda: Past and present. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, J.; Rivera, C.; Figureroa, J.

    1994-06-01

    Beginning in the 17th century, the forest lands of Antigua and Barbuda were cleared for agriculture, burned, cut over, and grazed severely. A survey by personnel of the USDA Forest Service, International Institute of Tropical Forestry and previous surveys were used to assemble lists of native and exotic woody plants. A large majority of the original woody flora still grows on both islands.

  15. An aerial radiological survey of the Pilgrim Station Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Plymouth, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, A.E.

    1997-06-01

    Terrestrial radioactivity surrounding the Pilgrim Station Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiolog- ical survey techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates near the plant and to identify unexpected, man-made radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included land areas within a three-mile radius of the plant site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employs sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Exposure rate and photopeak counts were computed from these data and plotted on aerial photographs of the survey area. Several ground-based exposure measurements were made for comparison with the,aerial survey results. Exposure rates in areas surrounding the plant site varied from 6 to 10 microroentgens per hour, with exposure rates below 6 microroentgens per hour occurring over bogs and marshy areas. Man-made radiation was found to be higher than background levels at the plant site. Radation due to nitrogen-1 6, which is produced in the steam cycle of a boiling-water reactor, was the primaty source of activity found at the plant site. Cesium-137 activity at levels slightly above those expected from natural fallout was found at isolated locations inland from the plant site. No other detectable sources of man-made radioactivity were found.

  16. Florida exotic whitefly invaders from the last decade

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The state of Florida hosts a large number of exotic species with many new “invasives” arriving annually. Among invasive insects establishing in Florida over the past decade are three whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) that cause highly visible wax and sooty mold buildup in urban plantings as well a...

  17. Phenology of exotic invasive weeds associated with downy brome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The exotic and highly invasive annual grass downy brome (Bromus tectorum) has invaded millions of hectares of rangelands throughout the Intermountain West. Downy brome increases the chance, rate, season and spread of wildfires, resulting in the destruction of native plant communities and the wildli...

  18. Ecosystem impacts of exotic annual invaders in the genus Bromus

    Treesearch

    Matthew J. Germino; Jayne Belnap; John M. Stark; Edith B Allen; Benjamin Rau

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of the impacts of exotic plant species on ecosystems is necessary to justify and guide efforts to limit their spread, restore natives, and plan for conservation. Invasive annual grasses such as Bromus tectorum, B. rubens, B. hordeaceus, and B. diandrus (hereafter collectively referred to as Bromus) transform the structure and function of ecosystems...

  19. Ethnobotanical survey of plants used in Afyonkarahisar-Turkey.

    PubMed

    Arı, Süleyman; Temel, Mehmet; Kargıoğlu, Mustafa; Konuk, Muhsin

    2015-12-23

    The traditional knowledge about plants and their uses in Turkey is disappearing in recent years because the new generations of villagers migrate to big cities for a better life. Afyonkarahisar located at the intersection of roads and phytogeographical regions (Mediterranean, Iran-Turan, and Euro-Siberian) has more than 2500 plant species. This richness of plant diversity promotes the indigenous commuity for the traditional use of wild plants. The aim of the study is to show wild plants' ethnobotanical usages associated with medicinal, food, fodder, and household goods in 31 settlements within the boundaries of Afyonkarahisar province. The ethnobotanical data were collected from 46 informants by means of semi-structured interviews from 2012 to 2014. Ethnobotanical uses of plants of the study area were conducted in the vicinity of Afyonkarahisar (5 districts, 8 towns, 15 villages, and 3 neighborhood centers). One hundred and thirty plant taxa belonging to 39 families were recorded and collected. Hundred and seventy-eight different uses of these plants were documented and used generally for medicinal (84), food (68), fodder (16), household goods (3), dyes (3), handicrafts (3) and religious (1). This study provides interesting uses of plants in the local community of Afyonkarahisar and its surrounding area, in what purpose they make use of plants, how they make use of them and obtained results will contribute to economy of villagers. Since the local people, especially in villages, are poor and do not have health care, they use the plants to treat illnesses, food, fodder, household goods and other uses (evil eye). Also this study will light the way for posterity for next generations.

  20. A survey of plants in Gujarat, India, for alkaloids, saponins, and tannins

    Treesearch

    Basalingappa L. Hungund; Chandravadan H. Pathak; Chandravadan H. Pathak

    1971-01-01

    A floristic and phytochemical survey of forests in Gujarat State, India, is being undertaken to identify sources of alkaloids, saponins, and tannins. This note is a report on the results of screening 105 plant species collected from that region.

  1. IgE binding to a new cross-reactive structure: a 35 kDa protein in birch pollen, exotic fruit and other plant foods.

    PubMed

    Wellhausen, A; Schöning, B; Petersen, A; Vieths, S

    1996-12-01

    Food allergies in birch pollen allergic patients have been shown to be due to cross-reactivities of specific IgE antibodies which are directed against birch pollen allergens with related proteins in fruit, nuts and vegetables. We identified a new cross-reactive structure of 35 kDa in birch pollen and some plant food extracts by Enzyme Allergosorbent Test (EAST) and immunoblot inhibition studies. The 35 kDa birch pollen protein is a minor allergen to which approximately 10-15% of birch pollen allergic individuals have specific IgE. Our data demonstrate that there is cross-reactivity of this protein with proteins of comparable size from lychee, mango, banana, orange, apple, pear and carrot. While the 35 kDa protein is immunologically independent of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1, we also observed IgE binding to a 34 kDa structure which appears to be a Bet v 1 dimer.

  2. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in Babungo, Northwest Region, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to record information on medicinal plants from traditional medical practitioners in Babungo and to identify the medicinal plants used for treating diseases. Methods Traditional Medical Practitioners (TMP's) who were the main informants were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires and open-ended conversations. Field trips were made to the sites where TMP's harvest plants. Results The survey identified and recorded 107 plants species from 54 plant families, 98 genera used for treating diseases in Babungo. The Asteraceae was the most represented plant family while herbs made up 57% of the total medicinal plants used. The leaf was the most commonly used plant part while concoction and decoction were the most common method of traditional drug preparation. Most medicinal plants (72%) are harvested from the wild and 45% of these have other non medicinal uses. Knowledge of the use of plants as medicines remains mostly with the older generation with few youth showing an interest. Conclusions A divers number of plants species are used for treating different diseases in Babungo. In addition to their use as medicines, a large number of plants have other non medicinal uses. The youth should be encouraged to learn the traditional medicinal knowledge to preserve it from being lost with the older generation. PMID:20156356

  3. Educational Plant Survey, University of North Florida, April 17-19, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Office of Educational Facilities.

    This report presents the findings of an educational plant survey for the University of North Florida (UNF) conducted April 17-19, 1995. It contains recommendations for the educational plants of the university for the period April 17, 1995 to June 30, 2000. Part 1 outlines the statutory foundations, procedural policies, and the cooperative process…

  4. Survey of Microbial Enzymes in Soil, Water, and Plant Microenvironments

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Priscila Divina Diniz; Siqueira, Flávia de Faria; Facchin, Susanne; Horta, Carolina Campolina Rebello; Victória, Júnia Maria Netto; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes

    2014-01-01

    Detection of microbial enzymes in natural environments is important to understand biochemical activities and to verify the biotechnological potential of the microorganisms. In the present report, 346 isolates from soil, water, and plants were screened for enzyme production (caseinase, gelatinase, amylase, carboxymethyl cellulase, and esterase). Our results showed that 89.6% of isolates produced at least one tested enzyme. A predominance of amylase in soil samples, carboxymethyl cellulase in plants, as well as esterase and gelatinase in water was observed. Interesting enzymatic profiles were found in some microenvironments, suggesting specificity of available nutrients and/or natural selection. This study revealed the potential of microorganisms present in water, soil, and plant to produce important enzymes for biotechnological exploration. A predominance of certain enzymes was found, depending on the type of environmental sample. The distribution of microbial enzymes in soil, water and plants has been little exploited in previous reports. PMID:24847390

  5. A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the Lower Rio Grande

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    monocultures in many areas. In 2001 and 2003, surveys were conducted starting below Amistad Reservoir to immediately below Falcon Reservoir to assess...management programs to inhibit further new infestations locally and downstream. In 2001, 20 sites on the Rio Grande River were surveyed from Amistad Reservoir...the 2001 survey, hydrilla was found in Amistad Reservoir and below Falcon Reservoir. In August 2002, hydrilla fragments were observed in plant

  6. Pentaquark implications for exotic mesons

    SciTech Connect

    T. Burns; F.E. Close; J.J. Dudek

    2004-11-01

    If the exotic baryon {Theta}{sup +}(1540) is a correlated udud{bar s} with J{sup P} = 1/2{sup +}, then there should exist an exotic meson, J{sup P} = 1{sup -} {var_theta}{sup +} (S = +2) {yields} K{sup +}K{sup 0} {approx} 1.6 GeV with width {Omicron}(10-100)MeV. The {pi}{sub 1} (1400;1600) may be broad members of 10 {+-} {ovr 10} in such a picture. Vector mesons in the 1.4 - 1.7 GeV mass range are also compared with this picture.

  7. Survey of insulation used in nuclear power plants and the potential for debris generation

    SciTech Connect

    Kolbe, R.; Gahan, E.

    1982-05-01

    In support of Unresolved Safety Issue, USI A-43, Containment emergency Sump Performance, 8 additional nuclear power plants (representative of different US reactor manufacturers and architect-engineers) were surveyed to identify and document the types and amounts of insulation used, location within containment, components insulated, material characteristics, and methods of installation and attachment. These plants were selected to obtain survey information on older plants and supplements information previously reported in NUREG/CR-2403. In addition, a preliminary assessment was made of the potential for migration to the emergency sump of the insulation debris which might be generated as a result of the postulated loss-of-coolant accident (pipe break).

  8. Preliminary survey of radioactivity level in Thai medicinal herb plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kranrod, C.; Chanyotha, S.; Kritsananuwat, R.; Ploykrathok, T.; Pengvanich, P.; Tumnoi, Y.; Thumvijit, T.; Sriburee, S.

    2017-06-01

    In this research, the natural radioactivity concentrations and their respective annual effective dose of the naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K in selected medicinal herb plants were investigated. Seven kinds of popular Thai medicinal herb plants had been studied: turmeric, ginger, safflower, moringa, gotu kola, garlic and alexandria senna. The radiological risk associated with the use of these medicinal plants was assessed. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K were determined using the gamma-ray spectrometry technique. The radioactivity concentrations were found to range from less than 0.20 to 6.67 Bqkg-1 for 226Ra, less than 0.10 to 9.69 Bqkg-1 for 228Ra, and from 159.42 to 1216.25 Bqkg-1 for 40K. Gotu kola showed the highest activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ra, while ginger showed the highest activity concentration of 40K. The total annual effective dose due to ingestion of these herb plants were found to range from 0.0028 to 0.0097 mSvy-1 with an average value of 0.0060±0.0001 mSvy-1. The results conclude that the Thai medicinal herb plants samples from this research are considered safe in terms of the radiological hazard.

  9. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site gravity survey and interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, L.J.; Fett, J.D.

    1983-04-01

    A portion of the WIPP site has been extensively surveyed with high-precision gravity. The main survey (in T22S, R31E) covered a rectangular area 2 by 4-1/3 mi encompassing all of WIPP site Zone II and part of the disturbed zone to the north of the site. Stations were at 293-ft intervals along 13 north-south lines 880 ft apart. The data are considered accurate to within a few hundredths of a milligal. Long-wavelength gravity anomalies correlate well with seismic time structures on horizons below the Castile Formation. Both the gravity anomalies and the seismic time structures are interpreted as resulting from related density and velocity variations within the Ochoan Series. Shorter wavelength negative gravity anomalies are interpreted as resulting from bulk density alteration in the vicinity of karst conduits. The WIPP gravity survey was unable to resolve low-amplitude, long-wavelength anomalies that should result from the geologic structures within the disturbed zone. It did indicate the degree and character of karst development within the surveyed area.

  10. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants in Jeju Island, Korea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aims to analyze and record orally transmitted knowledge of medicinal plants from the indigenous people living in Hallasan National Park of Korea. Methods Data was collected through the participatory rural appraisal method involving interviews, informal meetings, open and group discussions, and overt observations with semi-structured questionnaires. Results In this study, a total of 68 families, 141 genera, and 171 species of plants that showed 777 ways of usage were recorded. Looking into the distribution of the families, 14 species of Asteraceae occupied 11.1% of the total followed by 13 species of Rosaceae, 10 species of Rutaceae, and nine species of Apiaceae which occupied 5.0%, 7.1% and 3.0% of the whole, respectively. 32 kinds of plant-parts were used for 47 various medicinal purposes. Values for the informant consensus factor regarding the ailment categories were for birth related disorders (0.92), followed by respiratory system disorders (0.90), skin disease and disorders (0.89), genitourinary system disorders (0.87), physical pain (0.87), and other conditions. According to fidelity levels, 36 plant species resulted in fidelity levels of 100%. Conclusion Consequently, results of this study will legally utilize to provide preparatory measures against the Nagoya Protocol (2010) about benefit-sharing for traditional knowledge of genetic resources. PMID:23837693

  11. Use of seeded exotic grasslands by wintering birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Andrew D.; O'Connell, Timothy J.; Hickman, Karen R.; Leslie,, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite widespread population declines of North American grassland birds, effects of anthropogenic disturbance of wintering habitat of this guild remain poorly understood. We compared avian abundance and habitat structure in fields planted by the exotic grass Old World bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum; OWB) to that in native mixed-grass prairie. During winters of 2007-2008 and 2008-2009, we conducted bird and vegetation surveys in six native grass and six OWB fields in Garfield, Grant, and Alfalfa counties, Oklahoma. We recorded 24 species of wintering birds in native fields and 14 species in OWB monocultures. While vegetation structure was similar between field types, abundance of short-eared owls (Asio flammeus), northern harriers (Circus cyaneus) and Smith's longspurs (Calcarius pictus) was higher in OWB fields during at least one year. The use of OWB fields by multiple species occupying different trophic positions suggested that vegetation structure of OWB can meet habitat requirements of some wintering birds, but there is insufficient evidence to determine if it provides superior conditions to native grasses.

  12. International Symposium on Exotic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.; Cherepanov, E. A.

    Methods of production of light exotic nuclei and study of their ptoperties -- Superheavy elements. Syhnthesis and properties -- Nuclear fission -- Nuclear reactions -- rare processes, decay and nuclear structure -- Experimental set-ups and future projects -- Radioactive beams. Production and research programmes -- Public relations.

  13. Exotic power and propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forward, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    The status of some exotic physical phenomena and unconventional spacecraft concepts that might produce breakthroughs in power and propulsion in the 21st Century are reviewed. The subjects covered include: electric, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, antimatter, high energy density materials, metallic hydrogen, laser thermal, solar thermal, solar sail, magnetic sail, and tether propulsion.

  14. Electronic pairing in exotic superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, D.L. ); Maple, M.B. )

    1995-02-01

    Superconductivity in heavy-fermion materials and high T[sub c] cuprates may involve electronic pairing with unconventional symmetries and mechanisms. Although there has been no smoking-gun proof, numerous pieces of circumstantial evidence combined with heuristic theoretical arguments make a compelling case that these materials have pairs with exotic symmetry bound by nonphonon glue. 20 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Exotic aphid control with pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Exotic aphids are invading ecosystems worldwide. The principal factors favoring establishment of these pests are their small size, parthenogenetic reproduction, short generation time, ability for long distance dispersal as winged morphs, and explosive population dynamics. In the past, attention to i...

  16. Exotic pests: major threats to forest health

    Treesearch

    J. Robert Bridges

    1995-01-01

    Over 360 exotic forest insects and about 20 exotic diseases have become established in the U.S. Many of these organisms have become serious pests, causing great economic impacts and irreversible ecological harm. Despite efforts to exclude exotic species, forest insects and disease organisms continue to be introduced at a rather rapid rate. In the last few years, one...

  17. Bacterial and parasitic zoonoses of exotic pets.

    PubMed

    Souza, Marcy J

    2009-09-01

    Zoonoses are estimated to make up to 75% of today's emerging infectious diseases. Many of these diseases are carried and transmitted by exotic pets and wildlife. Exotic animal practitioners must be aware of these risks not only to protect their health but also to safeguard the health of staff and clients. This article reviews selected bacterial and parasitic zoonoses associated with exotic animals.

  18. Opportunities for improved risk assessments of exotic species in Canada using bioclimatic modeling.

    PubMed

    McKenney, Daniel W; Hopkin, Anthony A; Campbell, Kathy L; Mackey, Brendan G; Foottit, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the process of exotic pest risk assessments and presents some examples of emerging opportunities for spatial bioclimatic modeling of exotic species in Canada. This type of analysis can support risk assessments but does not replace the need for on-going high quality field-based observations to validate and update models. Bioclimatic analysis of several exotic pests is provided to illustrate both opportunities and limits. A link is demonstrated to the National Forest Inventory to characterize timber volumes at risk for one exotic species. 'Challenges' are both scientific and administrative. More accessible and current field survey data are required to improve models. Our experience is that for many exotic species, historical, and even current, data are not always digital or quality controlled for taxonomic identity and accurate geo-referencing. This inhibits their use for integrated spatial modeling applications.

  19. Cameroonian medicinal plants: a bioactivity versus ethnobotanical survey and chemotaxonomic classification

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Cameroon herbs are traditionally used to meet health care needs and plans are on the way to integrate traditional medicine in the health care system, even though the plans have not been put into action yet. The country however has a rich biodiversity, with ~8,620 plant species, some of which are commonly used in the treatment of several microbial infections and a range of diseases (malaria, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, diabetes and tuberculosis). Methods Our survey consisted in collecting published data from the literature sources, mainly from PhD theses in Cameroonian university libraries and also using the author queries in major natural product and medicinal chemistry journals. The collected data includes plant sources, uses of plant material in traditional medicine, plant families, region of collection of plant material, isolated metabolites and type (e.g. flavonoid, terpenoid, etc.), measured biological activities of isolated compounds, and any comments on significance of isolated metabolites on the chemotaxonomic classification of the plant species. This data was compiled on a excel sheet and analysed. Results In this study, a literature survey led to the collection of data on 2,700 secondary metabolites, which have been previously isolated or derived from Cameroonian medicinal plants. This represents distinct phytochemicals derived from 312 plant species belonging to 67 plant families. The plant species are investigated in terms of chemical composition with respect to the various plant families. A correlation between the known biological activities of isolated compounds and the ethnobotanical uses of the plants is also attempted. Insight into future direction for natural product search within the Cameroonian forest and Savanna is provided. Conclusions It can be verified that a phytochemical search of active secondary metabolites, which is inspired by knowledge from the ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants could be very vital in a drug

  20. Geothermal materials survey: Baca Geothermal Demonstration Power Plant, Baca, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, P.F. II

    1980-10-07

    The results of a materials survey for the Baca 50 MW(e) single flash geothermal plant in the Valles Caldera of New Mexico are presented. From the design documents provided, materials proposed for use in contact with the plant atmosphere, the two-phase geofluid, the separated steam, and the recirculating condensate cooling water were assessed for suitability. Special emphasis was given to records of performance of the materials in other geothermal plants. Based upon these considerations of chemical reactivity and plant operating experience, a number of recommendations were made.

  1. A survey of mortality at two automotive engine manufacturing plants.

    PubMed

    Park, R M; Mirer, F E

    1996-12-01

    Mortality at two engine plants was analyzed using proportional mortality and logistic regression models of mortality odds ratios to expand previous observations of increased cancers of the stomach, pancreas, and bladder, and cirrhosis of the liver among workers exposed to machining fluids. Causes of death and work histories were available for 1,870 decendents. There was a significant excess of deaths coded as diabetes for white men in both plants (PMR = 25/16.7 = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.02, 2.20), and a deficit of respiratory diseases. Black men had fewer than expected diabetes deaths and more emphysema deaths. Elevated PMRs for cancers of the stomach, pancreas, prostate, bladder, and kidney were not statistically significant in plantwide populations. However, stomach cancer mortality increased with duration in camshaft and crankshaft production at Plant 1 (OR = 5.1, 95% CI = 1.6, 17; at mean duration of exposed cases), and among tool room workers (OR = 6.3, 95% CI = 1.3, 31), but these results were based on five cases. Nitrosamines were probably present in camshaft and crankshaft grinding at Plant 1. Pancreas cancer risk increased among workers at both plants ever employed in inspection (OR = 2.5, 16), in machining with straight oil (OR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.04, 12), or in skilled trades (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.1, 7.5). Lung cancer increased in cylinder head machining (OR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.4, 11), millwright work (OR = 3.8, 95% CI = 1.6, 9.0), and in Plant 2 generally (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 0.97, 2.2). Potential lung carcinogens included heat treatment emissions, chlorinated oils, and coal tar fumes (millwrights). Bladder cancer increased with duration among workers grinding in straight oil MF (OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.15, 7.8) and in machining/heat-treat operations (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.14, 7.2).

  2. Ethnopharmacological survey on traditional medicinal plants at Kalaroa Upazila, Satkhira District, Khulna Division, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Dulla, Oby; Jahan, Farhana Israt

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The traditional source of medicinal plants is an important way for daily curative uses in the rural area throughout Bangladesh. An ethnomedicinal survey was conducted in a randomized manner among traditional medicinal practitioners to find out about the medicinal plants of Kalaroa, Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: The information was collected through conducting interviews, discussion, and field observations with herbal healers and knowledgeable elders of the study areas from November 01, 2015, to December 31, 2015, who pointed out various medicinal plants and described their uses, using semi-structured questionnaires. Results: A total of 29 plants distributed into 21 families had found to be used by the 3 Kavirajes interviewed for the treatment of various ailments. 42 different individual sicknesses were claimed to be cured by plants mentioned by the Kavirajes. The Malvaceae family contributed the highest number of plants with four plants, followed by the Amaranthaceae family with three plants, and the Leguminosae and Euphorbiaceae families with two plants each. Leaves were the major plant parts used solely or mixed with other parts forming 33% of total users. This was followed by roots 22%, whole plant 12%, stem and bark, fruit and seeds, and flowers 10% each, and pods, rhizomes, and sap 2% each. Seven plants for skin diseases. Four plants for erectile dysfunction. Cough, diabetes, diarrhea, dysentery, and ulcer were treated by five plants each. Asthma, diuretic, and leukorrhea were treated by three plants each. Hypertension was treated by two plants. Conclusion: It is expected that the other plants observed to be used for the treatment of various diseases by the Kavirajes can be subjected to further bioactivity and phytochemical studies, which can lead to the discovery of newer drugs. PMID:28894631

  3. A survey for rhinitis in an automotive ring manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong-Uk; Jin, Ku-Won; Koh, Dong-Hee; Kim, Byung-Kyu; Kim, Kyu-Sang; Park, Doo-Yong

    2008-08-01

    We report findings regarding otolaryngologist-confirmed rhinitis, current exposure to MWF aerosols, fungi, and endotoxins for workers in a plant manufacturing automobile piston rings. Questionnaire data showed that 61.5% of 187 workers exhibited rhinitis-related symptoms. Rhinitis was confirmed in 99 of 115 workers whom were medically examined. Otolaryngologist-confirmed rhinitis was present in 10 of 19 grinding workers (52.6%), 67 of 142 production workers (47.2%), and 22 of 26 quality control (QC) workers (84.6%). These rates are much higher than the rates of rhinitis-related symptoms in automobile plants and other occupational settings and quite high even allowing for the common occurrence of rhinitis in the general population. We found that rhinitis could develop even in workers exposed to less than 0.5mg/m(3) MWF aerosol. The average exposure to fungi exceeded 10 x 10(3) CFU/m(3), a level higher than that reported for other automobile plants. Although we were unable to identify significant risk factors for rhinitis using only the physician-confirmed rhinitis cases, this study concludes that exposure to MWF aerosol, which would include microbes and metals, could contribute to a high occurrence of rhinitis in grinding and production workers. Forty-nine workers (63.6%) of 77 rhinitis patients in grinding and production operations were determined to handle synthetic MWF directly. For QC workers, for whom the prevalence of physician-confirmed rhinitis was highest, exposure to a low level of MWF aerosol, including specific microbe species we couldn't identify, bright light, dry air, and certain work characteristics during inspection are possible risk factors for development of rhinitis. Further studies including identification of fungi species should be conducted so a firm conclusion can be made regarding the development of rhinitis in QC manufacturing plant workers.

  4. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the eastern highlands of Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Eastern Highlands area of Papua New Guinea (PNG) has a rich tradition of medicinal plant use. However, rapid modernization is resulting in the loss of independent language traditions and consequently a loss of individuals knowledgeable in medicinal plant use. This report represents a program to document and preserve traditional knowledge concerning medicinal plant use in PNG. This report documents and compares traditional plant use in the Eastern Highlands districts of Unggai-Bena, Okapa, and Obura-Wonenara, and puts these new records in context of previously documented PNG medicinal plant use. Methods This manuscript is an annotated combination of Traditional Medicines survey reports generated by UPNG trainees using a survey questionnaire titled “Information sheet on traditional herbal reparations and medicinal plants of PNG”. The Traditional Medicines survey project is supported by WHO, US NIH and PNG governmental health care initiatives and funding. Results Overall, after “poisoning” (synonymous with “magic”) the most commonly recorded ailments addressed by medicinal plant use were pain, gynecological disease, gastrointestinal maladies, anemia or malnutrition and malaria. However, the recorded indications for plant use varied widely amongst the different survey locations. Unlike many areas of PNG, mixing of ingredients was the most common mode of preparation recorded, except for two areas where the consumption of fresh plant material was more common. Throughout the Eastern Highlands oral administration was most common, with topical application second. Overall, leaves were most commonly used in the preparations of the healers interviewed, followed by bark and stems. Several new medicinal uses of plants were also documented. Conclusions Collaboration between the WHO, UPNG and the PNG Department of Health initiated Traditional Medicine survey program in order to preserve traditional knowledge concerning medicinal plant use in PNG. This

  5. Increasing native, but not exotic, biodiversity increases aboveground productivity in ungrazed and intensely grazed grasslands.

    PubMed

    Isbell, Forest I; Wilsey, Brian J

    2011-03-01

    Species-rich native grasslands are frequently converted to species-poor exotic grasslands or pastures; however, the consequences of these changes for ecosystem functioning remain unclear. Cattle grazing (ungrazed or intensely grazed once), plant species origin (native or exotic), and species richness (4-species mixture or monoculture) treatments were fully crossed and randomly assigned to plots of grassland plants. We tested whether (1) native and exotic plots exhibited different responses to grazing for six ecosystem functions (i.e., aboveground productivity, light interception, fine root biomass, tracer nitrogen uptake, biomass consumption, and aboveground biomass recovery), and (2) biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships depended on grazing or species origin. We found that native and exotic species exhibited different responses to grazing for three of the ecosystem functions we considered. Intense grazing decreased fine root biomass by 53% in exotic plots, but had no effect on fine root biomass in native plots. The proportion of standing biomass consumed by cattle was 16% less in exotic than in native grazed plots. Aboveground biomass recovery was 30% less in native than in exotic plots. Intense grazing decreased aboveground productivity by 25%, light interception by 14%, and tracer nitrogen uptake by 54%, and these effects were similar in native and exotic plots. Increasing species richness from one to four species increased aboveground productivity by 42%, and light interception by 44%, in both ungrazed and intensely grazed native plots. In contrast, increasing species richness did not influence biomass production or resource uptake in ungrazed or intensely grazed exotic plots. These results suggest that converting native grasslands to exotic grasslands or pastures changes ecosystem structure and processes, and the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning.

  6. An aerial survey of radioactivity associated with Atomic Energy plants

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, F.J.; Harlan, W.E.; Humphrey, P.A.; Kane, R.L.; Reinhardt, P.W.

    1992-09-02

    The project covered was an endeavor to (1) compare a group of laboratory instruments as airborne detectors of radioactivity and (2) simultaneously obtain data relative to the diffusion rate of radioactive contamination emitted into the atmosphere from off-gas stacks of production runs. Research was conducted in the Oak Ridge, Tennessee and Hanford, Washington areas. Detection was accomplished at a maximum distance of seventeen miles from the plant. Very little information of a conclusive nature was gained concerning the diffusion. Further research with the nuclear instruments, using a stronger source, is recommended. To obtain conclusive information concerning the meteorological aspects of the project, a larger observational program will be needed.

  7. Medicinal plants used as home remedies: a family survey by first year medical students.

    PubMed

    Sewani-Rusike, Constance R; Mammen, Marykutty

    2014-01-01

    There is a hierarchical organisation of knowledge in the use of medicinal plants in communities. Medicinal use knowledge starts in the home and is passed on to family members. Next in the hierarchy are neighbours, village elders and finally, traditional healers being the most knowledgeable. For primary health care this hierarchy is actively followed in seeking remedies for ailments. This study was a survey of medicinal plant knowledge from family members of 1(st) year medical students registered at Walter Sisulu University. A total of 206 first year medical students participated in this study in 2010 and 2011. Results revealed 47 species used as home remedies, 32% of which are food plants. Leaves and roots were reported as most commonly used. The top five ailments managed at home were gastrointestinal problems (25 plants), wounds (19 plants), respiratory tract problems (19 plants), infections, including sexually transmitted diseases (19 plants) and pain including headaches (19 plants). Chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, cancer and reproductive ailments also formed a large group of diseases self-managed at home (29 plants). Family members hold knowledge of medicinal plant use. From this study, first year medical students were made aware of the relationship between common ailments and associated home remedies. This study forms a basis for further study of medicinal plants to validate their use as medicinal remedies.

  8. Survey of strong motion earthquake effects on thermal power plants in California with emphasis on piping systems. Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1995-11-01

    Volume 2 of the ``Survey of Strong Motion Earthquake Effects on Thermal Power Plants in California with Emphasis on Piping Systems`` contains Appendices which detail the detail design and seismic response of several power plants subjected to strong motion earthquakes. The particular plants considered include the Ormond Beach, Long Beach and Seal Beach, Burbank, El Centro, Glendale, Humboldt Bay, Kem Valley, Pasadena and Valley power plants. Included is a typical power plant piping specification and photographs of typical power plant piping specification and photographs of typical piping and support installations for the plants surveyed. Detailed piping support spacing data are also included.

  9. Results of the Radiological Survey of the Iowa Army Ammunition Plant, Middletown, Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, M.E.

    2001-07-17

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted an indoor radiological survey of property at the Iowa Army Ammunition Plant (IAAAP), Middletown, Iowa in June 2000. The purpose of the survey was to determine if radioactive residuals resulting from previous Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) activities were present inside selected Line 1 buildings at the IAAAP and conduct sampling in those areas of previous AEC operations that utilized radioactive components at some point during the manufacturing process, in order to evaluate any possible immediate health hazards and to collect sufficient information to determine the next type of survey. The AEC occupied portions of IAAAP from 1947 to 1975 to assemble nuclear weapons. The surveyed areas were identified through interviews with current and former IAAAP employees who had worked at the plant during AEC's tenure, and from AEC records.

  10. Ethnomedical survey of plants used by the Orang Asli in Kampung Bawong, Perak, West Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A qualitative ethnomedical survey was carried out among a local Orang Asli tribe to gather information on the use of medicinal plants in the region of Kampung Bawong, Perak of West Malaysia in order to evaluate the potential medicinal uses of local plants used in curing different diseases and illnesses. Methods Sixteen informants ranging in age from 35 to 65 years were interviewed. A total of 62 species of plants used by Orang Asli are described in this study based on field surveys and direct face to face communication. These plants belonged to 36 families and are used to treat a wide range of discomforts and diseases. Results The results of this study showed that majority of the Orang Asli, of Kampung Bawong are still dependent on local plants as their primary source of medication. As the first ethnomedical study in this area, publishing this work is expected to open up more studies to identify and assess the pharmacological and toxicological action of the plants from this region. Conclusions Preservation and recording of ethnobotanical and ethnomedical uses of traditional medicinal plants is an indispensable obligation for sustaining the medicinal and cultural resource of mankind. Extensive research on such traditional plants is of prime importance to scientifically validate their ethnomedical claims. PMID:20137098

  11. Ethnomedical survey of plants used by the Orang Asli in Kampung Bawong, Perak, West Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Anbu Jeba Sunilson John; Kalusalingam, Anandarajagopal; Chellappan, Dinesh Kumar; Gopinath, Rejitha; Radhamani, Suraj; Husain, Hj Azman; Muruganandham, Vignesh; Promwichit, Proom

    2010-02-07

    A qualitative ethnomedical survey was carried out among a local Orang Asli tribe to gather information on the use of medicinal plants in the region of Kampung Bawong, Perak of West Malaysia in order to evaluate the potential medicinal uses of local plants used in curing different diseases and illnesses. Sixteen informants ranging in age from 35 to 65 years were interviewed. A total of 62 species of plants used by Orang Asli are described in this study based on field surveys and direct face to face communication. These plants belonged to 36 families and are used to treat a wide range of discomforts and diseases. The results of this study showed that majority of the Orang Asli, of Kampung Bawong are still dependent on local plants as their primary source of medication. As the first ethnomedical study in this area, publishing this work is expected to open up more studies to identify and assess the pharmacological and toxicological action of the plants from this region. Preservation and recording of ethnobotanical and ethnomedical uses of traditional medicinal plants is an indispensable obligation for sustaining the medicinal and cultural resource of mankind. Extensive research on such traditional plants is of prime importance to scientifically validate their ethnomedical claims.

  12. A benchmark survey of the common plants of South Northumberland and Durham, United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Durkin, John Liam; O'Reilly, John; Mclay, Andy; Richards, A John; Angel, Janet; Horsley, Angela; Rogers, Megs; Young, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background It is obvious to anyone studying plants in the landscape that man-made environmental change is having profound effects on the abundance, distribution and composition of plant communities. Nevertheless, quantifying these changes and estimating the impact of the different drivers of change is extremely difficult. Botanical surveying can potentially provide insights to the changes that are occurring and inform decisions related to conservation, agriculture and forestry policy. However, much of botanical surveying is conducted in such a way that it is not comparable between dates and places. Any comparison of historical and modern data has to account for biases in the recording of different taxonomic groups, geographic biases and varying surveying effort in time. In 2010 botanical recorders in the Vice Counties of Durham and South Northumberland in the United Kingdom decided to conduct a four year survey specifically to benchmark the abundance and distribution of common plants in their counties. It is intended that this survey will provide a relatively unbiased assessment with which to compare future and past surveys of the area and a means to study the drivers of biodiversity change in the North-east of England. New information This survey of Durham and South Northumberland has been designed with two goals, firstly to provide information on common vascular plant species and secondly to provide a dataset that will be versatile with respect to the sorts of questions that can be answered with the data. The survey is primarily an occupancy study of 1km2 grid squares, however, observers were also asked to provide a relative abundance estimate of the species in each grid square. The collection of relative abundance estimate data was an experiment to assess the repeatablity and useablity of such estimates. PMID:26752970

  13. Weak conspecific feedbacks and exotic dominance in a species-rich savannah.

    PubMed

    MacDougall, Andrew S; Rillig, Matthias C; Klironomos, John N

    2011-10-07

    Whether dominance drives species loss can depend on the power of conspecific self-limitation as dominant populations expand; these limitations can stabilize competitive imbalances that might otherwise cause displacement. We quantify the relative strength of conspecific and heterospecific soil feedbacks in an exotic-dominated savannah, using greenhouse trials and field surveys to test whether dominants are less self-suppressed, highly suppressive of others or both. Soil feedbacks can impact plant abundance, including invasion, but their implications for coexistence in invader-dominated systems are unclear. We found that conspecific feedbacks were significantly more negative than heterospecific ones for all species including the dominant invaders; even the rarest natives performed significantly better in the soils of other species. The strength of these negative feedbacks, however, was approximately 50 per cent stronger for natives and matched their field abundance--the most self-limited natives were rare and narrowly distributed. These results suggest that exotics dominate by interacting with natives carrying heavier conspecific feedback burdens, without cultivating either negative heterospecific effects that suppress natives or positive ones that accelerate their own expansion. These feedbacks, however, could contribute to coexistence because all species were self-limited in their own soils. Although the net impact of this feedback stabilization will probably interact with other factors (e.g. herbivory), soil feedbacks may thus contribute to invader dominance without necessarily being detrimental to species richness.

  14. Characterising exotic matter driving wormholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chianese, Marco; Di Grezia, Elisabetta; Manfredonia, Mattia; Miele, Gennaro

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we develop an iterative approach to span the whole set of exotic matter models able to drive a traversable wormhole. The method, based on a Taylor expansion of metric and stress-energy tensor components in a neighbourhood of the wormhole throat, reduces the Einstein equation to an infinite set of algebraic conditions, which can be satisfied order by order. The approach easily allows the implementation of further conditions linking the stress-energy tensor components among each other, like symmetry conditions or equations of state. The method is then applied to some relevant examples of exotic matter characterised by a constant energy density and that also show an isotropic behaviour in the stress-energy tensor or obeying to a quintessence-like equation of state.

  15. Why own an exotic pet?

    PubMed

    Moutou, F; Pastoret, P P

    2010-08-01

    Even though people have owned a wide variety of companion animals since times of old, the modern craze for increasingly exotic and little-known species raises a number of questions, including some of an ethical nature. While trade in exotic animals is certainly profitable for these who practise it, it poses great risks of varying types: ecological risks, threats to biodiversity conservation and health risks. Several introduced animal populations have gone on to establish a line in their new host country. We are just starting to measure the adverse impact this has had, in some cases on a very large scale. The veterinary profession doubtless has a major role to play in endeavouring to reform this trade in living creatures that unfortunately results in many losses.

  16. The role of exotic species in homogenizing the North American flora.

    PubMed

    Qian, Hong; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2006-12-01

    Exotic species have begun to homogenize the global biota, yet few data are available to assess the extent of this process or factors that constrain its advance at global or continental scales. We evaluate homogenization of vascular plants across America north of Mexico by comparing similarity in the complete native and exotic floras between states and provinces of the USA and Canada. Compared with native species, exotic plants are distributed haphazardly among areas but spread more widely, producing differentiation of floras among neighbouring areas but homogenization at greater distance. The number of exotic species is more closely associated with the size of the human population than with ecological conditions, as in the case of native species, and their distributions are less influenced by climate than those of native species.

  17. [Survey and analysis of circulation and cultivation of medicinal plants in Tangchang county].

    PubMed

    Wang, Si-cheng

    2014-12-01

    The article sort out the main planting information of Chinese medicinal materials in Tanchang county from 2012 to 2014, through doing a questionnaire survey, setting technical training and communicating with people who plant, process, and sell the Chinese medicinal materials in the main producing area in 25 villages and towns of Tanchang county. By analyzing the results, the author pointed out the current situation of Chinese medicinal material planting, processing, trading and also the existing problems, and gave a proposal and strategy to the industrial development of Chinese medicinal materials, therefore, set an example to the development of the county territory.

  18. Ethnobotanical survey of cosmetic plants used in Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia).

    PubMed

    Jost, Xénia; Ansel, Jean-Luc; Lecellier, Gaël; Raharivelomanana, Phila; Butaud, Jean-François

    2016-11-29

    Cosmetic plants and their uses have often been neglected in ethnobotanical surveys which focus mainly on plants with medicinal or food uses. Thus, this survey was carried out to specifically investigate cosmetics in a small community and to establish a cosmetopoeia, based on the model of pharmacopoeia for medicinal plants. The geographic spread of the survey covered the Marquesas Islands, one of the five archipelagos of French Polynesia (Pacific Ocean). This archipelago was also recently investigated for its pharmacopoeia. This survey is based on individual interviews of Marquesan informants on the islands of Tahiti (Society archipelago) and Nuku Hiva (Marquesas archipelago). The methodological approach was semi-directive with open-ended questions based on cosmetic criteria (application area, cosmetic use, plant). Before each interview, researchers and the informant signed a Prior Informed Consent (PIC). Quantitative analyses were performed using basic statistics and the indice of Fidelity Level (FL). Twenty-eight informants from five of the six inhabited Marquesan islands were interviewed and yielded more than 500 cosmetic recipes. Marquesan cosmetopoeia included 79 plant taxa, of which 5% are Marquesan endemics, 23% are indigenous, 28% are Polynesian introductions and 44% are modern introductions. Among the introduced species, half were cultivated whereas the other half were weedy species. Most of the plants were abundant and only eight species were considered rare, of which four were Marquesan endemics. Main cosmetic plants were identified through informant citations and fidelity levels, and included Calophyllum inophyllum, Cananga odorata, Citrus aurantiifolia, Cocos nucifera, Curcuma longa, Gardenia taitensis, Mentha spp., Ocimum basilicum, Rauvolfia nukuhivensis and Santalum insulare var. marchionense. The most referred application areas were skin, hair and private parts whereas the main cosmetic uses were perfume, hydration, medicinal care and healing

  19. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) conducted March 14 through 25, 1988. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental risk associated with ORGDP. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at ORGDP, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during is on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). When completed, the results will be incorporated into the ORGDP Survey findings for in inclusion into the Environmental Survey Summary Report. 120 refs., 41 figs., 74 tabs.

  20. A Survey Report of School Plant Management for Escambia County, Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    This report analyzes data collected by survey teams concerned with maintenance and operation of school plants in relation to organization, administration, budgeting, expenditures, purchasing, staffing, warehousing and distribution, maintenance shops, administrative practices, performance standards, and efficiency. The basic purposes of a…

  1. Educational Plant Survey: Hillsborough Community College, May 2-5, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Office of Educational Facilities.

    Pursuant to Florida educational legislation, this report presents findings of an educational plant survey conducted in May 1995 at Hillsborough Community College (HCC). The report is designed to aid the formulation of plans for housing the educational program, student population, faculty, administrators, staff, and ancillary services of the…

  2. Educational Plant Survey, Florida Community College at Jacksonville, April 20-24, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Office of Educational Facilities.

    Pursuant to Florida educational legislation, this report presents findings of an educational plant survey conducted in April 1992 at Florida Community College at Jacksonville (FCCJ). The report is designed to aid the formulation of plans for housing the educational program, student population, faculty, administrators, staff, and ancillary services…

  3. Educational Plant Survey: Lake City Community College, March 1-5, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Office of Educational Facilities.

    Pursuant to Florida educational legislation, this report presents findings of an educational plant survey conducted in March 1993 at Lake City Community College (LCCC). The report is designed to aid the formulation of plans for housing the educational program, student population, faculty, administrators, staff, and ancillary services of the…

  4. Educational Plant Survey, South Florida Community College, January 5-8, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Office of Educational Facilities.

    Pursuant to Florida educational legislation, this report presents findings of an educational plant survey conducted in January 1993 at South Florida Community College (SFCC). The report is designed to aid the formulation of plans for housing the educational program, student population, faculty, administrators, staff, and ancillary services of the…

  5. Educational Plant Survey: Valencia Community College, February 22-24, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Office of Educational Facilities.

    Pursuant to Florida educational legislation, this report presents findings of an educational plant survey conducted in February 1993 at Valencia Community College (VCC). The report is designed to aid the formulation of plans for housing the educational program, student population, faculty, administrators, staff, and ancillary services of the…

  6. Educational Plant Survey: Miami-Dade Community College, May 22-26, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Office of Educational Facilities.

    Pursuant to Florida educational legislation, this report presents findings of an educational plant survey conducted in May 1995 at Miami-Dade Community College (MDCC). The report is designed to aid the formulation of plans for housing the educational program, student population, faculty, administrators, staff, and auxiliary and ancillary services…

  7. Educational Plant Survey. Florida Keys Community College. November 18-20, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Office of Educational Facilities.

    Pursuant to Florida educational legislation, this report presents findings of an educational plant survey conducted in 1992 at Florida Keys Community College (FKCC). The report is designed to aid the formulation of plans for housing the educational program, student population, faculty, administrators, staff, and auxiliary and ancillary services of…

  8. Educational Plant Survey: Gulf Coast Community College, May 16-18, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Ruth S.; Farr, Loyce K.

    Pursuant to Florida educational legislation, this report presents findings of an educational plant survey conducted in May 1995 at Gulf Coast Community College (GCCC). The report is designed to aid the formulation of plans for housing the educational program, student population, faculty, administrators, staff, and auxiliary and ancillary services…

  9. Educational Plant Survey: Pensacola Junior College, May 17-19, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Office of Educational Facilities.

    Pursuant to Florida educational legislation, this report presents findings of an educational plant survey conducted in May 1993 at Pensacola Junior College (PJC). The report is designed to aid the formulation of plans for housing the educational program, student population, faculty, administrators, staff, and ancillary services of the college for…

  10. Educational Plant Survey: Central Florida Community College, December 16-19, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Office of Educational Facilities.

    In 1991, a study was conducted at Central Florida Community College (CFCC) to aid the formulation of plans for housing the educational program, student population, faculty, administrators, staff, and auxiliary and ancillary services of the college for the following 5-year period. Section 1, 2, and 3 of the plant survey report provide background…

  11. Educational Plant Survey: Chipola Junior College, May 19-22, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jack A.; And Others

    In 1992, a study was conducted at Chipola Junior College (CJC) in Marianna, Florida, to aid in the formulation of plans for housing the educational programs, student population, faculty, administrators, staff, and auxiliary and ancillary services of the college for the following 5-year period. Sections 1, 2, and 3 of the plant survey report…

  12. Educational Plant Survey: Seminole Community College, May 23-27, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Ruth S.; And Others

    Pursuant to Florida educational legislation, this report presents findings of an educational plant survey conducted in May 1994 at Seminole Community College (SCC). The report is designed to aid the formulation of plans for housing the educational program, student population, faculty, administrators, staff, and ancillary services of the college…

  13. Educational Plant Survey: Tallahassee Community College, February 1-5, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Baxter B.; Anderson, Jack

    Pursuant to Florida educational legislation, this report presents findings of an educational plant survey conducted in February 1993 at Tallahassee Community College (TCC). The report is designed to aid the formulation of plans for housing the educational program, student population, faculty, administrators, staff, and ancillary services of the…

  14. Educational Plant Survey: Okaloosa-Walton Community College, April 19-20, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Thomas K.; And Others

    Pursuant to Florida educational legislation, this report presents findings of an educational plant survey conducted in April 1994 at Okaloosa-Walton Community College (OWCC). The report is designed to aid the formulation of plans for housing the educational program, student population, faculty, administrators, staff, and auxiliary and ancillary…

  15. Special-Status Plant Species Surveys and Vegetation Mapping at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R E

    2006-10-03

    This report presents the results of Jones & Stokes special-status plant surveys and vegetation mapping for the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Special-status plant surveys were conducted at Site 300 in April to May 1997 and in March to April 2002. Eight special-status plants were identified at Site 300: large-flowered fiddleneck, big tarplant, diamond-petaled poppy, round-leaved filaree, gypsum-loving larkspur, California androsace, stinkbells, and hogwallow starfish. Maps identifying the locations of these species, a discussion of the occurrence of these species at Site 300, and a checklist of the flora of Site 300 are presented. A reconnaissance survey of the LLNL Livermore Site was conducted in June 2002. This survey concluded that no special-status plants occur at the Livermore Site. Vegetation mapping was conducted in 2001 at Site 300 to update a previous vegetation study done in 1986. The purpose of the vegetation mapping was to update and to delineate more precisely the boundaries between vegetation types and to map vegetation types that previously were not mapped. The vegetation map is presented with a discussion of the vegetation classification used.

  16. Petrified Forest National Park Invasive Plant Species Survey and Mapping; 2002-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Kathryn A.; Hunt, Randall; Arundel, Terry R.; Guertin, P.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a survey for invasive nonnative plant species at Petrified Forest National Park from 2002 through 2005. The survey employed a unique sampling design consisting of a grid of consecutive one-hectare cells as the sampling units. Our use of predetermined sampling units allowed all observations to be referenced to a fixed area with geographic coordinates that easily transferred to a geographic information system. Our field team surveyed 2,730 sampling units in three select areas for at least 1 year and 879 sampling units for 4 years. During this period we identified 40 different invasive plant species; more than half the invasive plants (22 species) were annual forbs and grasses. Four invasive plant species occurred in 25 percent or more of all sampling units observed in one or more years: Bromus tectorum, Erodium cicutarium, Salsola tragus, and Sisymbrium altissimum. Salsola tragus was the most abundant species in all years and occurred in more than 55 percent of all sampling units surveyed each year.

  17. Educational Plant Survey: Manatee Community College, March 20-24, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Ruth S.; Bullock, Thomas K.

    Pursuant to Florida educational legislation, this report presents findings of an educational plant survey conducted in March 1995 at Manatee Community College (MCC). The report is designed to aid the formulation of plans for housing the educational program, student population, faculty, administrators, staff, and auxiliary and ancillary services of…

  18. Alaskan Ribes L. and Rubus L. Plant Species Surveyed for Viruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alaska’s domesticated and native Ribes and Rubus genera have virtually gone unchecked for pathogen detections. Cultivated Ribes species are predominantly found in home gardens and landscape areas along highways and in cities. In 2008, while surveying native plants for diseases in North Central Alask...

  19. A survey of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with forage crops in Bingol, Turkey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During June 2011, a survey was conducted in four districts of Bingol Province, Turkey, to investigate the occurrence, population abundance and spatial distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with pastures. A total of 24 soil samples were collected. Nematodes were extracted from soil by ...

  20. 78 FR 2421 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Indiana Bat Summer Survey Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Indiana Bat Summer Survey Guidelines Correction In notice document 2013-00213, appearing on pages 1879-1880 in...

  1. Medicinal plants and the treatment of diabetes in Senegal: survey with patients.

    PubMed

    Dièye, Amadou Moctar; Sarr, Anna; Diop, Saïd Norou; Ndiaye, Mamadou; Sy, Guata Yoro; Diarra, Mounibé; Rajraji Gaffary, Ilham; Ndiaye Sy, Awa; Faye, Babacar

    2008-04-01

    Diabetes is the most common metabolic disorder worldwide and is a major public health problem. Its frequency increases every day in all countries. However, in developing African countries, few people have access to drugs. In addition, in Africa, traditional beliefs induce people to use medicinal plants whenever they have health problems. Thus, many people in these developing countries use plants for the treatment of diabetes. Yet, few studies are focused on the knowledge and attitudes of the users on medicinal plants in Africa in general and in Senegal in particular. Hence we undertook this survey on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of diabetes in Senegal in order to make recommendations which could contribute to the increase of the value of herbal medicines in developing countries. We did a cross-sectional survey by direct interview at a university teaching hospital, in Dakar with a representative sample of 220 patients. Forty-one plants were used by the patients and the two most frequently cited were Moringa oleifera Lam (65.90%) and Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich) Hochst (43.20%). Patients gave several reasons for using medicinal plants (traditional treatment: 40%, efficacy: 32%, low cost: 20%). The principal suppliers of plants were tradesmen in the market (66.8%) and traditional therapists (5%). Sixty-five per cent of patients think that medicinal plants are efficient for the treatment of diabetes and 20% have reported adverse effects which could be caused by medicinal plants. In conclusion, many people in our study think that medicinal plants are efficient for the treatment of diabetes, which requires research work by scientists in developing countries in this field in order to prove their efficacy and innocuousness.

  2. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and Surrounding Area, Portsmouth, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Namdoo Moon

    2007-12-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the 16 square-mile (~41 square-kilometer) area surrounding the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The survey was performed in August 2007 utilizing a large array of helicopter mounted sodium iodide detectors. The purpose of the survey was to update the previous radiological survey levels of the environment and surrounding areas of the plant. A search for a missing radium-226 source was also performed. Implied exposure rates, man-made activity, and excess bismuth-214 activity, as calculated from the aerial data are presented in the form of isopleth maps superimposed on imagery of the surveyed area. Ground level and implied aerial exposure rates for nine specific locations are compared. Detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with those expected from normal background emitters. At specific plant locations described in the report, man-made activity was consistent with the operational histories of the location. There was no spectral activity that would indicate the presence of the lost source.

  3. Ethnobotanical literature survey of medicinal plants in the Dominican Republic used for women's health conditions.

    PubMed

    Ososki, Andreana L; Lohr, Patricia; Reiff, Marian; Balick, Michael J; Kronenberg, Fredi; Fugh-Berman, Adriane; O'Connor, Bonnie

    2002-03-01

    This ethnobotanical literature survey is part of an on-going study in New York City investigating Dominican and Chinese healing systems and the herbal treatments used for the following women's conditions: uterine fibroids (benign tumors of uterine smooth muscle); menorrhagia (excessive uterine bleeding); endometriosis (growth of endometrial tissue outside of the uterus); and hot flashes (sudden brief sensations of heat commonly experienced during menopause). The objectives of this survey were: (1) to search literature on medicinal plants used in the Dominican Republic and identify those used for the above listed conditions and their symptoms; (2) to compare the use between herbal treatments reported in the literature with those prescribed by Dominican healers in New York City; and (3) to evaluate the extent to which healers may have changed their use of plants in order to adapt to availability in the New York City environment. A total of 87 plant species were reported in the Dominican literature for these conditions and symptoms. Nineteen species overlapped from the literature survey and the fieldwork with Dominican healers in New York City, representing 29% (n=65) of the plants prescribed by healers in New York City. This study offers a model to investigate changes in plant use as people migrate to urban centers where they are surrounded by diverse cultures, healing systems, and new environments.

  4. Using habitat suitability models to target invasive plant species surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crall, Alycia W.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Panke, Brendon; Young, Nick; Renz, Mark; Morisette, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Managers need new tools for detecting the movement and spread of nonnative, invasive species. Habitat suitability models are a popular tool for mapping the potential distribution of current invaders, but the ability of these models to prioritize monitoring efforts has not been tested in the field. We tested the utility of an iterative sampling design (i.e., models based on field observations used to guide subsequent field data collection to improve the model), hypothesizing that model performance would increase when new data were gathered from targeted sampling using criteria based on the initial model results. We also tested the ability of habitat suitability models to predict the spread of invasive species, hypothesizing that models would accurately predict occurrences in the field, and that the use of targeted sampling would detect more species with less sampling effort than a nontargeted approach. We tested these hypotheses on two species at the state scale (Centaurea stoebe and Pastinaca sativa) in Wisconsin (USA), and one genus at the regional scale (Tamarix) in the western United States. These initial data were merged with environmental data at 30-m2 resolution for Wisconsin and 1-km2 resolution for the western United States to produce our first iteration models. We stratified these initial models to target field sampling and compared our models and success at detecting our species of interest to other surveys being conducted during the same field season (i.e., nontargeted sampling). Although more data did not always improve our models based on correct classification rate (CCR), sensitivity, specificity, kappa, or area under the curve (AUC), our models generated from targeted sampling data always performed better than models generated from nontargeted data. For Wisconsin species, the model described actual locations in the field fairly well (kappa = 0.51, 0.19, P 2) = 47.42, P < 0.01). From these findings, we conclude that habitat suitability models can be

  5. Using habitat suitability models to target invasive plant species surveys.

    PubMed

    Crall, Alycia W; Jarnevich, Catherine S; Panke, Brendon; Young, Nick; Renz, Mark; Morisette, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Managers need new tools for detecting the movement and spread of nonnative, invasive species. Habitat suitability models are a popular tool for mapping the potential distribution of current invaders, but the ability of these models to prioritize monitoring efforts has not been tested in the field. We tested the utility of an iterative sampling design (i.e., models based on field observations used to guide subsequent field data collection to improve the model), hypothesizing that model performance would increase when new data were gathered from targeted sampling using criteria based on the initial model results. We also tested the ability of habitat suitability models to predict the spread of invasive species, hypothesizing that models would accurately predict occurrences in the field, and that the use of targeted sampling would detect more species with less sampling effort than a nontargeted approach. We tested these hypotheses on two species at the state scale (Centaurea stoebe and Pastinaca sativa) in Wisconsin (USA), and one genus at the regional scale (Tamarix) in the western United States. These initial data were merged with environmental data at 30-m2 resolution for Wisconsin and 1-km2 resolution for the western United States to produce our first iteration models. We stratified these initial models to target field sampling and compared our models and success at detecting our species of interest to other surveys being conducted during the same field season (i.e., nontargeted sampling). Although more data did not always improve our models based on correct classification rate (CCR), sensitivity, specificity, kappa, or area under the curve (AUC), our models generated from targeted sampling data always performed better than models generated from nontargeted data. For Wisconsin species, the model described actual locations in the field fairly well (kappa = 0.51, 0.19, P < 0.01), and targeted sampling did detect more species than nontargeted sampling with less

  6. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and edible plants of Yalo Woreda in Afar regional state, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Teklehaymanot, Tilahun

    2017-07-05

    The Afar people inhabit the sub-arid and arid part of Ethiopia. Recurrent drought and invasive encroaching plants are taking out plants that have cultural importance, and threaten the biodiversity and the associated traditional knowledge. Thus, the aim of the current study is to conduct an ethnobotanical survey and document medicinal and edible plants in Yalo Woreda in Afar regional state. A cross-sectional ethnobotanical study was carried out in eight kebeles of Yalo Woreda from October 2015 to December 2016. One hundred sixty informants were selected using purposive sampling. The data on diseases, medicinal and edible plants were collected using semi-structure interview and group discussion. The statistical methods, informant consensus factor, fidelity level, and preference ranking were conducted to analyze the data. One hundred and six plants were reported; gender and age differences had implication on the number of plants reported by informants. The knowledge of medicinal plants among informants of each kebele was not different (p < 0.5) and was not associated in particular with the religious establishment in the kebeles (informant*kebeles, Eta square = 0.19). Family Fabaceae was the major plant species, and shrubs (44%) were dominant plants reported. Leaf (52.94%) and oral (68%) were primary plant part used for remedy preparation and route of application, respectively. The plants with low fidelity values Indigofera articulata (0.25), Cadaba farinosa (0.22), Cadaba rotundifolia (0.19), and Acalypha fruticosa (0.15) were used to treat the category of diseases with high informant consensus value (0.69). Sixteen edible plants were identified that were consumed during wet and dry seasons. Balanites aegyptiaca, Balanites rotundifolia, and Dobera glabra were 'famine food' that were collected and stored for years. People in Yalo Woreda are more dependent on natural resources of the area for their livelihood. The threat of climatic change and encroaching invasive

  7. Usage of Plant Food Supplements across Six European Countries: Findings from the PlantLIBRA Consumer Survey

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Egan, Bernadette; de Klein, Simone; Dima, Lorena; Maggi, Franco M.; Isoniemi, Merja; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Raats, Monique M.; Meissner, Eva Melanie; Badea, Mihaela; Bruno, Flavia; Salmenhaara, Maija; Milà-Villarroel, Raimon; Knaze, Viktoria; Hodgkins, Charo; Marculescu, Angela; Uusitalo, Liisa; Restani, Patrizia; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    Background The popularity of botanical products is on the rise in Europe, with consumers using them to complement their diets or to maintain health, and products are taken in many different forms (e.g. teas, juices, herbal medicinal products, plant food supplements (PFS)). However there is a scarcity of data on the usage of such products at European level. Objective To provide an overview of the characteristics and usage patterns of PFS consumers in six European countries. Design Data on PFS usage were collected in a cross-sectional, retrospective survey of PFS consumers using a bespoke frequency of PFS usage questionnaire. Subjects/setting A total sample of 2359 adult PFS consumers from Finland, Germany, Italy, Romania, Spain and the United Kingdom. Data analyses Descriptive analyses were conducted, with all data stratified by gender, age, and country. Absolute frequencies, percentages and 95% confidence intervals are reported. Results Overall, an estimated 18.8% of screened survey respondents used at least one PFS. Characteristics of PFS consumers included being older, well-educated, never having smoked and self-reporting health status as “good or very good”. Across countries, 491 different botanicals were identified in the PFS products used, with Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo), Oenothera biennis (Evening primrose) and Cynara scolymus (Artichoke) being most frequently reported; the most popular dose forms were capsules and pills/tablets. Most consumers used one product and half of all users took single-botanical products. Some results varied across countries. Conclusions The PlantLIBRA consumer survey is unique in reporting on usage patterns of PFS consumers in six European countries. The survey highlights the complexity of measuring the intake of such products, particularly at pan-European level. Incorporating measures of the intake of botanicals in national dietary surveys would provide much-needed data for comprehensive risk and benefit assessments at the European

  8. Anatomizing Exotic Production of the Higgs Boson

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Felix

    2014-07-10

    We discuss exotic production modes of the Higgs boson and how their phenomenology can be probed in current Higgs analyses. We highlight the importance of differential distributions in disentangling standard production mechanisms from exotic modes. We present two model benchmarks for exotic Higgs production arising from chargino-neutralino production and study their impact on the current Higgs dataset. As a corollary, we emphasize that current Higgs coupling fits do not fully explore the space of new physics deviations possible in Higgs data.

  9. Geothermal energy as a source of electricity. A worldwide survey of the design and operation of geothermal power plants

    SciTech Connect

    DiPippo, R.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of geothermal power generation is presented. A survey of geothermal power plants is given for the following countries: China, El Salvador, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Turkey, USSR, and USA. A survey of countries planning geothermal power plants is included. (MHR)

  10. Confirmatory Survey of the Fuel Oil Tank Area - Humboldt Bay Power Plant, Eureka, California

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS, WADE C

    2012-04-09

    During the period of February 14 to 15, 2012, ORISE performed radiological confirmatory survey activities for the former Fuel Oil Tank Area (FOTA) and additional radiological surveys of portions of the Humboldt Bay Power Plant site in Eureka, California. The radiological survey results demonstrate that residual surface soil contamination was not present significantly above background levels within the FOTA. Therefore, it is ORISE’s opinion that the radiological conditions for the FOTA surveyed by ORISE are commensurate with the site release criteria for final status surveys as specified in PG&E’s Characterization Survey Planning Worksheet. In addition, the confirmatory results indicated that the ORISE FOTA survey unit Cs-137 mean concentrations results compared favorably with the PG&E FOTA Cs-137 mean concentration results, as determined by ORISE from the PG&E characterization data. The interlaboratory comparison analyses of the three soil samples analyzed by PG&E’s onsite laboratory and the ORISE laboratory indicated good agreement for the sample results and provided confidence in the PG&E analytical procedures and final status survey soil sample data reporting.

  11. Zoonotic parasites from exotic meat in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Fazly, Z A; Nurulaini, R; Shafarin, M S; Fariza, N J; Zawida, Z; Muhamad, H Y; Adnan, M; Premaalatha, B; Erwanas, A I; Zaini, C M; Ong, C C; Chandrawathani, P

    2013-09-01

    Four zoonotic parasites, Sarcocystis spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Trichinella spp. and Taenia spp were screened in exotic meats. A total of forty-six (n=46) meat samples from various species of exotic animals were received from all the 14 states in Malaysia from January 2012 to April 2012. All exotic meat samples were examined macroscopically and histologically for the four zoonotic parasites. Results by histological examination of exotic meats showed the presence of Sarcocystis and Toxoplasma cysts at 8.7% (n=4) and 4.3% (n=2) respectively. No Trichinella spp. and Taenia spp. were found.

  12. Ethnopharmacological survey of six medicinal plants from Mali, West-Africa

    PubMed Central

    Grønhaug, Tom Erik; Glæserud, Silje; Skogsrud, Mona; Ballo, Ngolo; Bah, Sekou; Diallo, Drissa; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2008-01-01

    An ethnopharmacological survey was carried out to collect information about the use of six medicinal plants in the regions around Siby and Dioila, Mali. The plants investigated were Biopyhtum petersianum, Cola cordifolia, Combretum molle, Opilia celtidifolia, Parkia biglobosa and Ximenia americana. More than 60 medical indications were reported for the use of these plants in traditional medicine. The most frequently reported ailments were malaria (25.6%), different types of pain (14.0%) and dermatitis (7.4%). The main forms for preparation were decoction (58.1%) and powdered plant material (28.4%). The most frequent used plant parts were leaves (37.7%) and stem bark (18.6%). The healers' consensus for the main indications is fairly high for the four plants B. petersianum, C. cordifolia, C. molle and O. celtidifolia, and this supports the traditional use of these plants. However for P. biglobosa and X. americana the healers' consensus is less consistent and it is more difficult to draw conclusions about the most important traditional use of these two plants. PMID:19111068

  13. An ethnobotanical survey of galactogenic plants of the Berhoum District (M’sila, Algeria)

    PubMed Central

    Madani, Sarri; Amel, Boudjelal; Noui, Hendel; Djamel, Sarri; Hadjer, Hamdaoui

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aim: This work aimed an ethnobatanical study on the galactogenic plants used in the Berhoum region (East of M’sila, Algeria) as a part of different studies on the medicinal plants related to M’sila region. Methods: The fieldwork was undertaken as an ethnobotanical survey involving 76 informants (mean age: 50; 64% women, 36% men). Used the medicinal plants were identified, and the results were analyzed according to literature investigation dealing with ethnobotany. Use value (UV), fidelity level, and informant consensus factor (ICF) were used to analyze the obtained data. Results: A total of 29 plant species belonging to 29 genera and 12 families (mainly, Apiaceae and Fabaceae) have been registered. Fruits and seeds were the most commonly used plant parts (80%). The used plants are mainly prepared as an infusion and decoction (69%). Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (UV = 0.58) were the species most commonly used by local healers. The FIC factors ranging from 0.45 to 0.89 for the six uses categories retained for this study. The ICF (0.65) was registered for the use galactogenic category with 29 species. Conclusion: This work showed that the population of the Berhoum District uses various medicinal plants for galactogenic purposes. Furthermore, ethnobotanical analysis will provide data on sustainable use and valorization of this plant heritage for ethnopharmacological and phytochemical studies. PMID:28894630

  14. Mechanisms driving diversity-productivity relationships differ between exotic and native communities and are affected by gastropod herbivory.

    PubMed

    Korell, Lotte; Schmidt, Robin; Bruelheide, Helge; Hensen, Isabell; Auge, Harald

    2016-04-01

    Biodiversity experiments have shown that productivity usually increases with plant species richness. However, most of those studies disregarded the importance of trophic interactions to the diversity-productivity relationship, and focused on the loss of native species while ignoring invasions by exotic species. Yet, as functional complementarity and the impact of plant antagonists are likely to differ between native and exotic communities, the diversity-productivity relationship may change when native communities are invaded by exotic species. We conducted a mesocosm experiment to test how diversity effects, evenness, and productivity differed between exotic and native assemblages of grassland plants, and how these communities were influenced by slug herbivory. In line with other experiments, we found higher productivity in exotic than in native communities. However, different mechanisms (complementarity vs. selection effect) contributed to the positive diversity-productivity relationships in exotic vs. native communities. Against expectations, native communities showed much lower evenness and a greater selection effect, suggesting that competitive dominance among native species may be even stronger than among exotic species. Slug herbivory decreased productivity independently of species origin and species diversity. However, exotic communities showed a threefold higher complementarity effect than native communities in the absence of slugs, which was mainly driven by differences in the responses of native and exotic legumes and nonleguminous herbs. Our results imply that underlying mechanisms for the positive diversity-productivity relationship differ between native and exotic communities in the early stages of community development, and that differential responses of plant functional groups to generalist herbivory can contribute to this pattern.

  15. Pentaquark spectroscopy: exotic {theta} baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Bijker, R.; Giannini, M.M.; Santopinto, E.

    2004-09-13

    We propose a collective stringlike model of q4q-bar pentaquarks with the geometry of an equilateral tetrahedron in which the four quarks are located at the four corners and the antiquark in its center. The nonplanar equilibrium configuration is a consequence of the permutation symmetry of the four quarks. In an application to the spectrum of exotic {theta} baryons, we find that the ground state pentaquark has angular momentum and parity Jp 1/2- and a small magnetic moment of 0.382 {mu}N. The decay width is suppressed by the spatial overlap with the decay products.

  16. Ectoparasites in small exotic mammals.

    PubMed

    Fehr, Michael; Koestlinger, Saskia

    2013-09-01

    Ectoparasites inhabiting the skin are responsible for significant problems in small mammals, owing to ingestion of blood, lymph, sebaceous secretions, and scavenging skin debris, as well as a hypersensitivity reaction to parasite antigen resulting in severe pruritus and subsequent self-trauma-induced lesions. In general practice, the most common diagnosis in exotic pets is an unspecified mite infestation, but other ectoparasites such as lice, fleas, insects, or even helminths may cause dermatologic diseases. If treatment with topical insecticides is planned, the small mammal should be isolated for a few hours to enable drying and spreading of the product.

  17. Ecogenomic survey of plant viruses infecting Tobacco by Next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Akinyemi, Ibukun A; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Benguo; Qi, Shuishui; Wu, Qingfa

    2016-11-04

    The invasion of plant by viruses cause major damage to plants and reduces crop yield and integrity. Devastating plant virus infection has been experienced at different times all over the world, which are attributed to different events of mutation, re-assortment and recombination occurring in the viruses. Strategies for proper virus management has been mostly limited to eradicating the vectors that spreads the plant viruses. However, development of prompt and effective diagnostic methods are required to monitor emerging and re-emerging diseases that may be symptomatic or asymptomatic in the plant as well as the genetic variation and evolution in the plant viruses. A survey of plant viruses infecting field-grown Tobacco crop was conducted in Anhui Province of China by the deep sequencing of sRNAs. Survey of plant viruses infecting Tobacco was carried based on 104 samples collected across the province. Nine different sRNA libraries was prepared and custom-made bioinformatics pipeline coupled with molecular techniques was developed to sequence, assemble and analyze the siRNAs for plant virus discovery. We also carried out phylogenetic and recombination analysis of the identified viruses. Twenty two isolates from eight different virus species including Cucumber mosaic virus, Potato virus Y, Tobacco mosaic virus, Tobacco vein banding Mosaic virus, Pepper mottle virus, Brassica yellow virus, Chilli venial mottle virus, Broad bean wilt virus 2 were identified in tobacco across the survey area. The near-complete genome sequence of the 22 new isolates were determined and analyzed. The isolates were grouped together with known strains in the phylogenetic tree. Molecular variation in the isolates indicated the conserved coding regions have majorly a nucleotide sequence identity of 80-94 % with previously identified isolates. Various events of recombination were discovered among some of the isolates indicating that two or more viruses or different isolates of one virus infect

  18. Mitigating exotic impacts: restoring native deer mouse populations elevated by an exotic food subsidy

    Treesearch

    Dean E. Pearson; Robert J. Fletcher

    2008-01-01

    The threat posed by exotic organisms to native systems has led to extensive research on exotic invaders, yet management of invasives has progressed relatively slowly. This is partly due to poor understanding of how exotic species management influences native organisms. To address this shortfall, we experimentally evaluated the efficacy of an invasives management tool...

  19. Anaerobic digestion foaming in full-scale biogas plants: a survey on causes and solutions.

    PubMed

    Kougias, P G; Boe, K; O-Thong, S; Kristensen, L A; Angelidaki, I

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming is a common operation problem in biogas plants with negative impacts on the biogas plants economy and environment. A survey of 16 Danish full-scale biogas plants on foaming problems revealed that most of them had experienced foaming in their processes up to three times per year. Foaming incidents often lasted from one day to three weeks, causing 20-50% biogas production loss. One foaming case at Lemvig biogas plant has been investigated and the results indicated that the combination of feedstock composition and mixing pattern of the reactor was the main cause of foaming in this case. Moreover, no difference in bacterial communities between the foaming and non-foaming reactors was observed, showing that filamentous bacteria were not the main reason for foaming in this case.

  20. A survey of research projects in maintenance optimization for Electricite de France power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jacquot, J.P.

    1996-12-31

    Six years ago, Electricite de France launched a Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) pilot project to optimize preventive maintenance for its nuclear power plants. After a feasibility study, a Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) method was standardized. It is now applied on a large scale to the 50 EDF nuclear units. A RCM workstation based on this standardized method has been developed and is now used in each plant. In the next step, the author will consider whether a risk based approach can be included in this RCM process in order to analyze critical passive components such as pipes and supports. Considering the potential advantages of these optimization techniques, a dedicated process has been also developed for maintenance of future plants, gas turbines, or nuclear units. For these future plants, a Logistic Support Analysis (LSA) will be added to the RCM process to globally evaluate availability, safety and maintenance costs. This paper will present a survey of these different developments of methods and tools.

  1. Ethnobotanical study on some Malaysian anti-malarial plants: a community based survey.

    PubMed

    Al-Adhroey, Abdulelah H; Nor, Zurainee M; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Mahmud, Rohela

    2010-10-28

    Various plants species are used in the traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria. This is the first community based ethnobotanical study in Peninsular Malaysia. To investigate the plants traditionally used in the treatment of malaria in Malaysia. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out among 233 Aboriginal and rural households, and traditional healers in malaria endemic areas in Peninsular Malaysia. Data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Nineteen species belonging to 17 families were identified. Twelve plant species have not previously been documented for the treatment of malaria in Malaysia. Findings of this study can be used as an ethnopharmacological basis for selecting plants for further anti-malarial phytochemical and pharmaceutical studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection and Plant Monitoring Programs: Lessons from an Intensive Survey of Asclepias meadii with Five Observers

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Helen M.; Reed, Aaron W.; Kettle, W. Dean; Slade, Norman A.; Bodbyl Roels, Sarah A.; Collins, Cathy D.; Salisbury, Vaughn

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring programs, where numbers of individuals are followed through time, are central to conservation. Although incomplete detection is expected with wildlife surveys, this topic is rarely considered with plants. However, if plants are missed in surveys, raw count data can lead to biased estimates of population abundance and vital rates. To illustrate, we had five independent observers survey patches of the rare plant Asclepias meadii at two prairie sites. We analyzed data with two mark-recapture approaches. Using the program CAPTURE, the estimated number of patches equaled the detected number for a burned site, but exceeded detected numbers by 28% for an unburned site. Analyses of detected patches using Huggins models revealed important effects of observer, patch state (flowering/nonflowering), and patch size (number of stems) on probabilities of detection. Although some results were expected (i.e. greater detection of flowering than nonflowering patches), the importance of our approach is the ability to quantify the magnitude of detection problems. We also evaluated the degree to which increased observer numbers improved detection: smaller groups (3–4 observers) generally found 90 – 99% of the patches found by all five people, but pairs of observers or single observers had high error and detection depended on which individuals were involved. We conclude that an intensive study at the start of a long-term monitoring study provides essential information about probabilities of detection and what factors cause plants to be missed. This information can guide development of monitoring programs. PMID:23285179

  3. Risk and pathway assessment for the introduction of exotic insects and pathogens that could affect Hawai'i's native forests

    Treesearch

    Gregg A. DeNitto; Philip Cannon; Andris Eglitis; Jessie A. Glaeser; Helen Maffei; Sheri. Smith

    2015-01-01

    The unmitigated risk potential of the introduction of exotic insects and pathogens to Hawai'i was evaluated for its impact on native plants, specifically Acacia koa, Cibotium spp., Dicranopteris linearis, Diospyros sandwicensis, Dodonaea viscosa, ...

  4. Exotic negative molecules in AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golser, Robin; Gnaser, Hubert; Kutschera, Walter; Priller, Alfred; Steier, Peter; Wallner, Anton

    2007-06-01

    "The techniques and equipment developed for AMS studies are well suited for identifying exotic negative ions". With this sentence begins a pioneering paper by Roy Middleton and Jeff Klein (M&K) on small doubly-charged negative carbon clusters [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 123 (1997) 532]. M&K were the first to utilize Accelerator Mass Spectrometry to prove the existence of these clusters and a number of other exotic molecules. We review M&K's efforts and show how their work is being continued at other laboratories. The latest developments are: (1) the discovery of long-lived molecular hydrogen anions H2-,D2-and (2) the unambiguous identification of the smallest doubly-charged negative molecule (LiF3)2-. In particular we show new experimental data for D3-, and for (LiF3)2-, and we try to answer the question why M&K's search for this di-anion was unsuccessful.

  5. Eradication of an exotic ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky), in Oregon

    Treesearch

    James R. LaBonte

    2011-01-01

    The Oregon Department of Agriculture (ODA) has been monitoring an industrial plant in The Dalles, OR, for exotic wood boring insects since 1998. This plant receives raw railroad ties from British Columbia and several localities in the United States, including Arkansas, Missouri, and Texas.

  6. An aerial radiological survey of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) and surrounding area in Paducah, Kentucky, was conducted during May 15--25, 1990. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial radiological environment at the PGDP and surrounding area for use in effective environmental management and emergency response planning. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) along a series of parallel lines 107 meters (350 feet) apart. The survey encompassed an area of 62 square kilometers (24 square miles), bordered on the north by the Ohio River. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a gamma radiation contour map. Typical background exposure rates were found to vary from 5 to 12 microroentgens per hour ([mu]R/h). Protactinium-234m, a radioisotope indicative of uranium-238, was detected at several facilities at the PGDR. In support of the aerial survey, ground-based exposure rate and soil sample measurements were obtained at several sites within the survey perimeter. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to agree within [plus minus]15%.

  7. Survey of ambient electromagnetic and radio-frequency interference levels in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kercel, S.W.; Moore, M.R.; Blakeman, E.D.; Ewing, P.D.; Wood, R.T.

    1996-11-01

    This document reports the results of a survey of ambient electromagnetic conditions in representative nuclear power plants. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research engaged the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to perform these measurements to characterize the electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio-frequency interference (RFI) levels that can be expected in nuclear power plant environments. This survey is the first of its kind, being based on long-term unattended observations. The data presented in this report were measured at eight different nuclear units and required 14 months to collect. A representative sampling of power plant conditions (reactor type, operating mode, site location) monitored over extended observation periods (up to 5 weeks) were selected to more completely determine the characteristic electromagnetic environment for nuclear power plants. Radiated electric fields were measured over the frequency range of 5 MHz to 8 GHz. Radiated magnetic fields and conducted EMI events were measured over the frequency range of 305 Hz to 5 MHz. Highest strength observations of the electromagnetic ambient environment across all measurement conditions at each site provide frequency-dependent profiles for EMI/RFI levels in nuclear power plants.

  8. Ethnobotanical survey in Canhane village, district of Massingir, Mozambique: medicinal plants and traditional knowledge

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    surveyed plants being a contribution to the documentation of PGR at the national and regional level. PMID:21129187

  9. Losses to Workers Displaced by Plant Closure or Layoff: A Survey of the Literature,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    AO-AU 137 PULIC RESEARCH INST ALEXANDRIA VA F/6 5/9 LOSSES 0 WOKERS DISPL CED BY PLANT CLOSURE OR LAYOFF : A SURVE_-ETC CU) NCOV 76 A NOLEN DL-75-8...NCLASSIFIED CRC-313 NL C RC 313LE E LOSSES TO WORKERS DISPLACED BY PLANT CLOSURE OR LAYOFF : A SURVEY OF THE LITERATURE La 1401 Wilson Boulevard <C...effects of job loss, in which control groups are ti.-;Ck to estimate losses in earnings over a number of years after layoff . Methods of analysis range

  10. The risk analysis of dust electrostatic based on on-site survey of polypropylene plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiumin; He, Mingjun; Yu, Haibo

    2013-03-01

    The dust electrostatic explosion accidents in polypropylene plant are mainly caused by the interaction of combustible gas, dust and static electricity. This paper analyses the key parts easy to produce dust and the risks of dust electrostatic by on-site survey of polypropylene plant, and proposes corresponding safety protection measures. The analysis results indicate that any careless mistakes and deviation in every step of process control may lead to electrostatic explosion in the silo. And if the equipment has some inherent defects and there are some careless mistakes in the process control, it will be easier to cause dust electrostatic explosion accidents.

  11. Ethnoveterinary uses of medicinal plants: a survey of plants used in the ethnoveterinary control of gastro-intestinal parasites of goats in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Maphosa, Viola; Masika, Patrick Julius

    2010-06-01

    Conventional drugs have become expensive and therefore unaffordable to resource-limited farmers, causing farmers to seek low cost alternatives, such as use of medicinal plants. In this study, a survey was conducted in order to document information on medicinal plants used by farmers in the control of internal parasites in goats in the Eastern Cape Province. Structured questionnaires and general conversation were used to collect the information from farmers and herbalists. The survey revealed 28 plant species from 20 families that are commonly used in the treatment of gastro-intestinal parasites in goats. The plant family Asphodelaceae was frequent in usage, comprising 21.4% of the plants, and the Aloe was the most utilized species (50%). Leaves were the most frequently used plant parts (45.9%), and decoctions constituted the majority of medicinal preparations (70%). Medicinal plants are generally used in combination with other plants, and/or non-plant substances, but a few plants are used on their own. These medicinal plant remedies are administered orally, mainly by use of bottles and this is done twice in summer at intervals of one month, only once in winter and when need arises thereafter. Some of the mentioned plants have been reported in literature to possess anthelmintic properties, while others possess activities ranging from anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, purgative, anti-edema to immuno-regulation. If their safety and efficacy could be confirmed, these plants could form an alternative cost effective strategy in managing helminthiasis in the province.

  12. Plant photosensitizers: A survey of their occurrence in arid and semiarid plants from North America.

    PubMed

    Downum, K R; Villegas, S; Rodriguez, E; Keil, D J

    1989-01-01

    Various plants native to arid and semiarid habitats throughout the southwestern United States, Baja California, and northern Mexico were bioassayed for phototoxic natural products. Approximately 115 species representing 57 genera and eight plant families were assayed for phototoxic activity by standard antimicrobial techniques usingEscherichia coli andSaccharomyces cerevisiae. Phototoxic constituents were extracted from numerous members in the Asteraceae (Compositae) and occurred with highest frequency among species of the subtribe Pectidinae (tribe Heliantheae). Extracts ofPectis, the largest genus in the Pectidinae, had substantial light-activated biocidal action despite the paucity of acetylenic thiophenes, the phototoxins characteristic of most other genera in the subtribe. Leaf resin from the creosote bush [Larrea tridentata (Sesse & Mol. ex DC.) Coville; Zygophyllaceae], a dominant desert shrub, possessed potent antimicrobial activity in the absence of light; however, the toxicity of this extract was slightly enhanced in the presence of UVA irradiation. Phototoxic antimicrobials were not detected in extracts of selected species from the Asclepiadaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Hydrophyllaceae, Lamiaceae, Polygonaceae, or Solanaceae.

  13. Conversion of sagebrush shrublands to exotic annual grasslands negatively impacts small mammal communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostoja, S.M.; Schupp, E.W.

    2009-01-01

    Aim The exotic annual cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) is fast replacing sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) communities throughout the Great Basin Desert and nearby regions in the Western United States, impacting native plant communities and altering fire regimes, which contributes to the long-term persistence of this weedy species. The effect of this conversion on native faunal communities remains largely unexamined. We assess the impact of conversion from native perennial to exotic annual plant communities on desert rodent communities. Location Wyoming big sagebrush shrublands and nearby sites previously converted to cheatgrass-dominated annual grasslands in the Great Basin Desert, Utah, USA. Methods At two sites in Tooele County, Utah, USA, we investigated with Sherman live trapping whether intact sagebrush vegetation and nearby converted Bromus tectorum-dominated vegetation differed in rodent abundance, diversity and community composition. Results Rodent abundance and species richness were considerably greater in sagebrush plots than in cheatgrass-dominated plots. Nine species were captured in sagebrush plots; five of these were also trapped in cheatgrass plots, all at lower abundances than in the sagebrush. In contrast, cheatgrass-dominated plots had no species that were not found in sagebrush. In addition, the site that had been converted to cheatgrass longer had lower abundances of rodents than the site more recently converted to cheatgrass-dominated plots. Despite large differences in abundances and species richness, Simpson's D diversity and Shannon-Wiener diversity and Brillouin evenness indices did not differ between sagebrush and cheatgrass-dominated plots. Main conclusions This survey of rodent communities in native sagebrush and in converted cheatgrass-dominated vegetation suggests that the abundances and community composition of rodents may be shifting, potentially at the larger spatial scale of the entire Great Basin, where cheatgrass continues to invade

  14. Heavy exotic molecules with charm and bottom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yizhuang; Zahed, Ismail

    2016-11-01

    We revisit the formation of pion-mediated heavy-light exotic molecules with both charm and bottom and their chiral partners under the general strictures of both heavy-quark and chiral symmetry. The chiral exotic partners with good parity formed using the (0+ ,1+) multiplet are about twice more bound than their primary exotic partners formed using the (0- ,1-) multiplet. The chiral couplings across the multiplets (0± ,1±) cause the chiral exotic partners to unbind, and the primary exotic molecules to be about twice more bound, for J ≤ 1. Our multi-channel coupling results show that only the charm isosinglet exotic molecules with JPC =1++ bind, which we identify as the reported neutral X (3872). Also, the bottom isotriplet exotic with JPC =1+- binds, which we identify as a mixture of the reported charged exotics Zb+ (10610) and Zb+ (10650). The bound isosinglet with JPC =1++ is suggested as a possible neutral Xb (10532) not yet reported.

  15. Naturalized Exotic Tree Species in Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    John K. Francis; Henri A. Liogier

    1991-01-01

    Many exotic tree species have been imported into Puerto Rico for their wood, fruit, and use as coffee shade and ornamentals. Some of these trees have naturalized (reproduced without human intervention) and some have escaped into natural forests. At least 118 exotic species are reproducing in Puerto Rico. Estimates are given for the general rate of spread and future...

  16. Domestic exotics and the perception of invasibility

    Treesearch

    Qinfeng Guo; Robert Ricklefs

    2010-01-01

    Susceptibility of an area to invasion by exotic species is often judged by the fraction of introduced species in the local biota. However, the degree of invasion, particularly in mainland areas, has often been underestimated because of the exclusion of ‘domestic exotics’ (those introduced to internal units from within the national border) in calculations. Because all...

  17. Field Survey of Heavy Metal Uptake by Naturally Occurring Saltwater and Freshwater Marsh Plants.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    addressing the 67 bioconcentration of heavy metal contaminants via marsh plants. In a previous greenhouse hydroponic s-tudy, Lee, Sturgis, and Landin...1976) found that Cyperus esculentus, Spirtina patens, S. alterniflora, and Distichlis spicata accumulated heavy metals from the hydroponic solu...referenced as the hydroponic study, the disposal site study, and the greenhouse study, respectively. Ac- cordingly, a field survey and sampling study

  18. An aerial radiological survey of the Robert Emmett Ginna Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Ontario, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, A.E.

    1997-06-01

    Terrestrial radioactivity surrounding the Robert Emmett Ginna Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiological surveying techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates near the plant and to identify unexpected, man-made radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included land areas within a three-mile radius of the plant site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employed sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Exposure-rate and photopeak counts were computed from these data and plotted on aerial photographs of the survey area. Several ground-based exposure measurements were made for comparison with the aerial survey results. Exposure rates in the area surrounding the plant site varied from 6 to 10 microroentgens per hour. Man-made radiation (cobalt-60 within the plant site and cesium-1 37 directly over the reactor) was found at the plant site. In addition, small areas of suspected cesium-137 activity were found within the survey areas. Other than these small sites, the survey area was free of man-made radioac- tivity.

  19. Survey and characterization of feedwater venture fouling at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Allmon, W.E.; Sarver, L.W.; Boyce, S.L. . Contract Research Div.); Lamanna, L.S.; Lucero, V.A.; Koch, D.W. )

    1992-05-01

    Fouling of feedwater venturis in nuclear power generating plants was investigated by a survey of seven plants and by venturi inspections and deposit analyses at three plants. The information in this report will be useful to plant operators and chemists and to those involved in venturi manufacturing and calibration. Video inspection and SEM/EDS analyses show that deposits follow machining and polishing marks and that deposits accumulate on areas of abrupt flow transition. Also, corrosion of copper alloys downstream of the condensate polishers results in venturi fouling. The results indicate that feedwater venturi fouling can be minimized by (a) minimizing sharp flow transitions and turbulence within the venturis, (b) enhancing the surface smoothness, for example, by electropolishing, (c) minimizing copper-bearing alloys in the balance-of-plant, especially downstream of the condensate polishers, (d) minimizing exposure of the venturis to high concentrations of corrosion products during preoperational cleanup, and (e) minimizing the design velocity and/or pressure drop through the venturis. Alternate water chemistry, such as morpholine or other amines, for reducing venturi fouling was not investigated since most PWR plants had only recently converted to an alternate chemistry.

  20. Ethnobotanical survey of food and medicinal plants of the Ilkisonko Maasai community in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kimondo, Julia; Miaron, Jacob; Mutai, Peggoty; Njogu, Peter

    2015-12-04

    Pastoralist communities such as the Maasai are heavily reliant on traditional foods and medicines. This survey sought to identify traditional foods and/or medicinal plants of the Ilkisonko Maasai community living in Kenya. Ethnobotanical knowledge of traditional plants used as food and human/veterinary medicine was obtained using structured and semi-structured questionnaires administered through face to face interviews of key informants. A total of 30 species from 21 families and 25 genera were reportedly used as food and/or medicine by 48 respondents. The most commonly encountered genus was the Fabaceae. The growth forms encountered were tree (47%), shrub (33%) and herb (20%). Plants that were commonly mentioned by respondents were Salvadora persica (85%), Grewia villosa (52%), Ximenia americana (52%), Albizia anthelmintica (50%), Acacia robusta (46%) and Acacia nilotica (42%). The root/root bark was the most commonly used plant part (35%), followed by the stem/stem bark (30%), fruit (15%), leaves (11%) and whole plant (9%). Common ailments treated were stomach aches, constipation, back aches, joint aches, body pains and sexually transmitted infections. The plants were also used as tonics, digestives, and restoratives. It was evident that traditional medicine was the preferred health care system for the Ilkisonko Maasai community. It is important to document and use this knowledge in producing novel products that could improve nutrition and healthcare in rural communities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ethnomedicinal survey of plants used in the treatment of malaria in Southern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iyamah, P C; Idu, M

    2015-09-15

    Malaria is one of the most severe public health problems worldwide. It is a leading cause of death and disease in many developing countries, where young children and pregnant women are the groups most affected. Spread of multidrug-resistant strains of Plasmodium and the adverse side effects of the existing anti-malarial drugs have necessitated the search for novel, well tolerated and more efficient antimalarial drugs. This ethnomedicinal study surveyed the different types of medicinal plants used for the treatment of malaria in Southern Nigeria with the intent of identifying plants that are traditionally employed in the treatment of malaria across geopolitical boundaries. Data were collected from 79 respondents composed of 50 traditional herbsellers and 29 herbal practitioners using a semi-structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed using frequency and percentages. Of the 79 respondents interviewed, 24% were males while 76% were females. A total of 156 species belonging to 60 families were reported being used to treat malaria in the study area. Fabaceae was the most represented family having fourteen (14) plant species. Of the plants identified during the survey, Azadirachta indica was the species of highest relative frequency of citation (RFC - 1.0). The dominant plant parts used in the preparation of remedies were leaves (50.50%) and Decoction was the main method of preparation. Analysis of regional plant occurrence revealed that South-Western Nigeria represented the region with the highest plant occurrence (60.7%) followed by South-South (24%) and South-East (15.3%). Regional occurrence of plants used in the treatment of malaria in Southern Nigeria is reported here for the first time. This study has documented a great diversity of plants used in the treatment of malaria in Southern Nigeria. Extracts prepared strictly according to the practitioners' recipes should therefore be screened for antiplasmodial activity and toxicity by in vitro and in vivo standard

  2. Ethnobotanical survey of folk plants for the treatment of snakebites in Southern part of Tamilnadu, India.

    PubMed

    Samy, Ramar Perumal; Thwin, Maung Maung; Gopalakrishnakone, Ponnampalam; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2008-01-17

    Ethnobotanical surveys were conducted in four different indigenous groups in Southern parts of Tamilnadu, India, using a questionnaire. The herbal practitioners in the study area were interviewed, and information on medicinal plants was collected from the traditional healers called "Vaidyars". This survey covers 72 medicinal plants belonging to 53 families that are used for the treatment of snakebite in a traditional way. Traditional approach was evaluated scientifically with some selected plant extracts (7.2 mg/kg bw) and partially purified fractions (2.4 mg/kg bw) were orally administered to mice experimentally envenomed with rattlesnake venom s.c. injection (2.5-15 microg/kg bw). Tested fractions (Aristolochia indica, Hemidesmus indicus, Gloriosa superba, Strychnos nux-vomica, Eclipta prostrata, and Andrographis paniculata) showed potent neutralizing effect against the venom. Compared to the extracts, administration of purified fractions was more effective in increasing the body weight. Control mice injected with the venom alone showed weight loss and severe toxicity at 15 microg/kg bw. The purified fractions (2.4 mg/kg bw) produced significant protection against venom induced changes in serum SOD and LPx levels. The isolated fractions effectively inhibited the toxic effect of snake venoms in vitro than in vivo. The above observations confirmed the protective activity of plants-Aristolochia indica, Hemidesmus indicus, Gloriosa superba, Strychnos nux-vomica, Eclipta prostrata, and Andrographis paniculata against the lethal action of snake venom and need further investigation.

  3. Occupational health services in South Carolina manufacturing plants: results of a survey.

    PubMed Central

    Chovil, A C; Alexander, G R; Gibson, J J; Altekruse, J M

    1983-01-01

    A mailed survey of occupational health and safety practices in industrial manufacturing plants with more than 50 employees was carried out in South Carolina, with a response rate of 60 percent. The responding plants represented 73 percent of the total workforce in the industries. Data were analyzed in relation to the types of industry as delineated by the Standard Industrial Code. Eighty-three percent of the responding plants (a percentage that represented more than 92 percent of the total workforce in the industries) had some arrangements for the medical or nursing care of employees. For the study, occupational health services were defined at three levels: basic (mandatory), secondary (beneficial to management), and tertiary (health promotion-preventive medicine). The basic services provided by most of the industries surveyed appeared to be adequate. Secondary services were well developed except in the apparel and lumber industries. Tertiary services, in terms of five selected preventive programs, were moderately developed only in the paper, petroleum, and chemical industries. Only alcohol abuse control programs were commonly offered in the other types of industry. The size of the workforce in a plant partly dictated the level of occupational health services it offered but did not always account for all inter-industry variation. PMID:6419275

  4. Location of plant species in Norway gathered as a part of a survey vegetation mapping programme.

    PubMed

    Bryn, Anders; Kristoffersen, Hans-Petter; Angeloff, Michael; Nystuen, Ingvild; Aune-Lundberg, Linda; Endresen, Dag; Svindseth, Christian; Rekdal, Yngve

    2015-12-01

    Georeferenced species data have a wide range of applications and are increasingly used for e.g. distribution modelling and climate change studies. As an integrated part of an on-going survey programme for vegetation mapping, plant species have been recorded. The data described in this paper contains 18.521 registrations of plants from 1190 different circular plots throughout Norway. All species localities are georeferenced, the spatial uncertainty is provided, and additional ecological information is reported. The published data has been gathered from 1991 until 2015. The entries contain all higher vascular plants and pteridophytes, and some cryptogams. Other ecological information is also provided for the species locations, such as the vegetation type, the cover of the species and slope. The entire material is stored and available for download through the GBIF server.

  5. Location of plant species in Norway gathered as a part of a survey vegetation mapping programme

    PubMed Central

    Bryn, Anders; Kristoffersen, Hans-Petter; Angeloff, Michael; Nystuen, Ingvild; Aune-Lundberg, Linda; Endresen, Dag; Svindseth, Christian; Rekdal, Yngve

    2015-01-01

    Georeferenced species data have a wide range of applications and are increasingly used for e.g. distribution modelling and climate change studies. As an integrated part of an on-going survey programme for vegetation mapping, plant species have been recorded. The data described in this paper contains 18.521 registrations of plants from 1190 different circular plots throughout Norway. All species localities are georeferenced, the spatial uncertainty is provided, and additional ecological information is reported. The published data has been gathered from 1991 until 2015. The entries contain all higher vascular plants and pteridophytes, and some cryptogams. Other ecological information is also provided for the species locations, such as the vegetation type, the cover of the species and slope. The entire material is stored and available for download through the GBIF server. PMID:26958614

  6. Exotic tracers for atmospheric studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovelock, James E.; Ferber, Gilbert J.

    Tracer materials can be injected into the atmosphere to study transport and dispersion processes and to validate air pollution model calculations. Tracers should be inert, non-toxic and harmless to the environment. Tracers for long-range experiments, where dilution is very great, must be measurable at extremely low concentrations, well below the parts per trillion level. Compounds suitable for long-range tracer work are rare and efforts should be made to reserve them for meteorological studies, barring them from commercial uses which would increase atmospheric background concentrations. The use of these exotic tracers, including certain perfluorocarbons and isotopically labelled methanes, should be coordinated within the meteorological community to minimize interferences and maximize research benefits.

  7. Photoproduction of exotic baryon resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karliner, Marek; Rosner, Jonathan L.

    2016-01-01

    We point out that the new exotic resonances recently reported by LHCb in the J / ψ p channel are excellent candidates for photoproduction off a proton target. This test is crucial to confirming the resonant nature of such states, as opposed to their being kinematical effects. We specialize to an interpretation of the heavier narrow state as a molecule composed of Σc and Dbar*, and estimate its production cross section using vector dominance. The relevant photon energies and fluxes are well within the capabilities of the GlueX and CLAS12 detectors at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLAB). A corresponding calculation is also performed for photoproduction of an analogous resonance which is predicted to exist in the ϒp channel.

  8. Exotic Hadrons from B Factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulsom, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    The first generation of B-Factories, BaBar and Belle, operated over the previous decade and produced many world-leading measurements related to flavor physics. One of the most important discoveries was that of an apparent four-quark particle, named X(3872). It was the first of a growing X, Y, Z alphabet of exotic hadrons, now numbering more than a dozen, found by the e + e - collider experiments. These multi-quark states represent an unusual departure from the standard description that hadronic matter consists of only two or three quarks. These discoveries have led to the emergence of a new category of physics within heavy meson spectroscopy. This talk will review some of these key experimental results, and highlight the potential of the next generation B-Factory, Belle II, as it begins operation in the coming year.

  9. Solar Neutrinos with Exotic Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido, João

    The possibility of unconventional neutrino scattering in the Sun via flavor changing neutral currents as a possible source of the solar neutrino deficit is investigated. If the effect is really significant, a resonant process will occur. Taking into account the neutrino deficit reported by the solar neutrino experiments (Kamiokande II, SAGE Gallex), one finds Δ2m21 = (0.6-1.4) × 10-5 eV2 with no vacuum mixing and 0.16 ≤ fex ≤ 0.34 where fex is the lepton violating coupling. Our understanding of the neutrino phenomenon in the Sun may be improved through accuracy improvements in experiments measuring νee- elastic scattering or others searching for exotic lepton decays.

  10. Reaction theory for exotic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Bonaccorso, Angela

    2014-05-09

    Exotic nuclei are usually defined as those with unusual N/Z ratios. They can be found in the crust of neutron stars enbedded in a sea of electrons or created in laboratory by fragmentation of a primary beam (in-flight method) or of the target (ISOL method). They are extremely important for nuclear astrophysics, see for example Ref.[1]. Furthermore by studying them we can check the limits of validity of nuclear reaction and structure models. This contribution will be devoted to the understanding of how by using reaction theory and comparing to the data we can extract structure information. We shall discuss the differences between the mechanisms of transfer and breakup reactions, an we will try to explain how nowadays it is possible to do accurate spectroscopy in extreme conditions.

  11. Disentangling the role of seed bank and dispersal in plant metapopulation dynamics using patch occupancy surveys.

    PubMed

    Manna, F; Pradel, R; Choquet, R; Fréville, H; Cheptou, P-O

    2017-07-22

    In plants, the presence of a seed bank challenges the application of classical metapopulation models to aboveground presence surveys; ignoring seed bank leads to overestimated extinction and colonization rates. In this article, we explore the possibility to detect seed bank using hidden Markov models in the analysis of aboveground patch occupancy surveys of an annual plant with limited dispersal. Patch occupancy data were generated by simulation under two metapopulation sizes (N = 200 and N = 1,000 patches) and different metapopulation scenarios, each scenario being a combination of the presence/absence of a 1-yr seed bank and the presence/absence of limited dispersal in a circular 1-dimension configuration of patches. In addition, because local conditions often vary among patches in natural metapopulations, we simulated patch occupancy data with heterogeneous germination rate and patch disturbance. Seed bank is not observable from aboveground patch occupancy surveys, hence hidden Markov models were designed to account for uncertainty in patch occupancy. We explored their ability to retrieve the correct scenario. For 10 yr surveys and metapopulation sizes of N = 200 or 1,000 patches, the correct metapopulation scenario was detected at a rate close to 100%, whatever the underlying scenario considered. For smaller, more realistic, survey duration, the length for a reliable detection of the correct scenario depends on the metapopulation size: 3 yr for N = 1,000 and 6 yr for N = 200 are enough. Our method remained powerful to disentangle seed bank from dispersal in the presence of patch heterogeneity affecting either seed germination or patch extinction. Our work shows that seed bank and limited dispersal generate different signatures on aboveground patch occupancy surveys. Therefore, our method provides a powerful tool to infer metapopulation dynamics in a wide range of species with an undetectable life form. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  12. Survey of protected vascular plants on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Awl, D.J.; Pounds, L.R.; Rosensteel, B.A.; King, A.L.; Hamlett, P.A.

    1996-06-01

    Vascular plant surveys were initiated during fiscal year 1992 by the environmentally sensitive areas program to determine the baseline condition of threatened and endangered (T&E) vascular plant species on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). T&E species receive protection under federal and state regulations. In addition, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires that federally-funded projects avoid or mitigate impacts to listed species. T&E plant species found on or near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) are identified. Twenty-eight species identified on the ORR are listed by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation as either endangered, threatened, or of special concern. Four of these have been under review by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for possible listing (listed in the formerly-used C2 candidate category). Additional species listed by the state occur near and may be present on the ORR. A range of habitats support the rare taxa on the ORR: river bluffs, sinkholes, calcareous barrens, wetlands, utility corridors, and forests. The list of T&E plant species and their locations on the ORR should be considered provisional because the entire ORR has not been surveyed, and state and federal status of all species continues to be updated. The purpose of this document is to present information on the listed T&E plant species currently known to occur on the ORR as well as listed species potentially occurring on the ORR based on geographic range and habitat availability. For the purpose of this report, {open_quotes}T&E species{close_quotes} include all federal- and state-listed species, including candidates for listing, and species of special concern. Consideration of T&E plant habitats is an important component of resource management and land-use planning; protection of rare species in their natural habitat is the best method of ensuring their long-term survival.

  13. An aerial radiological survey of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Forked River, New Jersey. Date of survey: September 18--25, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, H.A.; McCall, K.A.

    1994-05-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant in Forked River, New Jersey, during the period September 18 through September 24, 1992. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) over a 26-square-mile (67-square-kilometer) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma radiation environment of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power plant and surrounding area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 4 and 10 microroentgens per hour and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and radioactive potassium gamma emitters. The aerial data were compared to ground-based benchmark exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assays of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system. A previous survey of the power plant was conducted in August 1969 during its initial startup phase. Exposure rates and radioactive isotopes revealed in both surveys were consistent and within normal terrestrial background levels.

  14. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in Plateau State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has generated renewed interest in recent times, as herbal preparations are increasingly being used in both human and animal healthcare systems. Diarrhoea is one of the common clinical signs of gastrointestinal disorders caused by both infectious and non-infectious agents and an important livestock debilitating condition. Plateau State is rich in savannah and forest vegetations and home to a vast collection of plants upheld in folklore as having useful medicinal applications. There is however scarcity of documented information on the medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in the state, thus the need for this survey. Ten (10) out of 17 Local Government Areas (LGAs), spread across the three senatorial zones were selected. Farmers were interviewed using well structured, open-ended questionnaire and guided dialogue techniques between October and December 2010. Medicinal plants reported to be effective in diarrhoea management were collected using the guided field-walk method for identification and authentication. Results A total of 248 questionnaires were completed, out of which 207 respondents (83.47%) acknowledged the use of herbs in diarrhoea management, while 41 (16.53%) do not use herbs or apply other traditional methods in the treatment of diarrhoea in their animals. Medicinal plants cited as beneficial in the treatment of animal diarrhoea numbered 132, from which 57(43.18%) were scientifically identified and classified into 25 plant families with the families Fabaceae (21%) and Combretaceae (14.04%) having the highest occurrence. The plant parts mostly used in antidiarrhoeal herbal preparations are the leaves (43.86%) followed by the stem bark (29.82%). The herbal preparations are usually administered orally. Conclusion Rural communities in Plateau State are a rich source of information on medicinal plants as revealed in this survey. There is need to scientifically ascertain

  15. Ethnic differences in medicinal plant use among University students: a cross-sectional survey of self-reported medicinal plant use at two Midwest Universities.

    PubMed

    Craft, Rachel; McClure, Katrina C; Corbett, Steven; Ferreira, Maria Pontes; Stiffarm, Ashley M; Kindscher, Kelly

    2015-06-23

    Numerous surveys of medicinal plant use among college students abound, but none compare use between students enrolled in two different Universities with significantly different ethnic compositions. The objective of this study is to compare medicinal plant use between two different ethnic college populations and explore differences between student medicinal plant users and non-users for comparison with previous research. Students (n = 721) at a large research university (n = 498) and a Pan-Tribal University for Native Americans (n = 233) completed surveys in October 2011 to assess past year medicinal plant use. The Mann-Whitney U test, Chi Square test, and General Linear Model were used to compare demographics and self-reported use of medicinal plants among students at both Universities and between past year users and non-users. Over 23% of university students surveyed reported past year medicinal plant use. Users were more likely to use commercial tobacco products and to report poorer health than non-users. While Native American student medicinal plant users reported significantly higher rates of commercial tobacco use, lower self-assessment of health, and less use of prescription medicine than non-Native users, no significant differences in prevalence of medicinal plant use were found between University student populations. Results are consistent with preexisting data showing higher rates of medicinal plant use among college students compared to the larger US population of adults and demonstrate previously documented health disparities in Native American populations compared to non-Native Americans.

  16. Envenomation: a real risk of keeping exotic house pets.

    PubMed

    de Haro, Luc; Pommier, Philip

    2003-08-01

    The fashion of exotic animals maintained as pets is increasing in France. Cases of envenomation after exotic animals bites or stings were studied. All 54 non-native animal envenomations reported by hospitals at the Poison Centre of Marseilles (3 south-eastern regions of France) between 1997 and 2002 were surveyed. They involved 22 snakes, 18 fishes, 11 spiders, 1 scorpion and 2 marine invertebrates. The snakes belonged to crotalids (genus Crotalus, Sistrurus, Agkistrodon and Trimeresurus), viperids (genus Bitis, Echis and Macrovipera, responsible for extensive swelling and coagulation disturbances), elapids (Naja and Dendroaspis which induce severe neurological signs), and colubrids (Lampropeltis with pain, edema and lymphangitis). Nine of the 22 patients bitten by snakes needed Intensive Care Unit management, and 5 of them received antivenom. Fish stings produced severe pain and local swelling. An Amazonian Stingray Potamotrygon histrix case had extensive swelling and malaise, headache and tremor. Pain and lymphangitis developed from tarantulas bites, and a black widow bite produced a severe diffuse muscle pain and contractions, and blood pressure disturbances. Exotic pets can be dangerous for their owners and family. Since antivenom from foreign countries is not often available in France, these cases raise the question of society's responsibility for treatment costs.

  17. A Qualitative Survey of Five Antibiotics in a Water Treatment Plant in Central Plateau of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Mohsen; Kazemipour, Maryam; Bina, Bijan; Ansari, Mehdi; Ghasemian, Mohammad; Amin, Mohammad Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. This study aimed to survey a total of five common human and veterinary antibiotics based on SPE-LC-MS-MS technology in a water treatment plant at central plateau of Iran. Also two sampling techniques, passive and grab samplings, were compared in the detection of selected antibiotics. Materials and Methods. In January to March 2012, grab and passive samples were taken from the influent and effluent of a water treatment plant. The samples were prepared using solid-phase extraction (SPE), and extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Results. The results showed that enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline, and tylosin were not detected in none of the samples. However, ampicillin was detected in the grab and passive samples taken from the influent (source water) of the plant, and ciprofloxacin was detected in passive samples taken from the influent and effluent (finished water) of the plant. Conclusion. The results imply that passive sampling is a better approach than grab sampling for the investigation of antibiotics in aquatic environments. The presence of ampicillin and ciprofloxacin in source water and finished water of the water treatment plant may lead to potential emergence of resistant bacteria that should be considered in future studies. PMID:23690801

  18. A qualitative survey of five antibiotics in a water treatment plant in central plateau of Iran.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Mohsen; Kazemipour, Maryam; Bina, Bijan; Ebrahimi, Afshin; Ansari, Mehdi; Ghasemian, Mohammad; Amin, Mohammad Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to survey a total of five common human and veterinary antibiotics based on SPE-LC-MS-MS technology in a water treatment plant at central plateau of Iran. Also two sampling techniques, passive and grab samplings, were compared in the detection of selected antibiotics. In January to March 2012, grab and passive samples were taken from the influent and effluent of a water treatment plant. The samples were prepared using solid-phase extraction (SPE), and extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The results showed that enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline, and tylosin were not detected in none of the samples. However, ampicillin was detected in the grab and passive samples taken from the influent (source water) of the plant, and ciprofloxacin was detected in passive samples taken from the influent and effluent (finished water) of the plant. The results imply that passive sampling is a better approach than grab sampling for the investigation of antibiotics in aquatic environments. The presence of ampicillin and ciprofloxacin in source water and finished water of the water treatment plant may lead to potential emergence of resistant bacteria that should be considered in future studies.

  19. Exotic Mammals Disperse Exotic Fungi That Promote Invasion by Exotic Trees

    PubMed Central

    Nuñez, Martin A.; Hayward, Jeremy; Horton, Thomas R.; Amico, Guillermo C.; Dimarco, Romina D.; Barrios-Garcia, M. Noelia; Simberloff, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Biological invasions are often complex phenomena because many factors influence their outcome. One key aspect is how non-natives interact with the local biota. Interaction with local species may be especially important for exotic species that require an obligatory mutualist, such as Pinaceae species that need ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi. EM fungi and seeds of Pinaceae disperse independently, so they may use different vectors. We studied the role of exotic mammals as dispersal agents of EM fungi on Isla Victoria, Argentina, where many Pinaceae species have been introduced. Only a few of these tree species have become invasive, and they are found in high densities only near plantations, partly because these Pinaceae trees lack proper EM fungi when their seeds land far from plantations. Native mammals (a dwarf deer and rodents) are rare around plantations and do not appear to play a role in these invasions. With greenhouse experiments using animal feces as inoculum, plus observational and molecular studies, we found that wild boar and deer, both non-native, are dispersing EM fungi. Approximately 30% of the Pinaceae seedlings growing with feces of wild boar and 15% of the seedlings growing with deer feces were colonized by non-native EM fungi. Seedlings growing in control pots were not colonized by EM fungi. We found a low diversity of fungi colonizing the seedlings, with the hypogeous Rhizopogon as the most abundant genus. Wild boar, a recent introduction to the island, appear to be the main animal dispersing the fungi and may be playing a key role in facilitating the invasion of pine trees and even triggering their spread. These results show that interactions among non-natives help explain pine invasions in our study area. PMID:23826154

  20. Exotic mammals disperse exotic fungi that promote invasion by exotic trees.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, Martin A; Hayward, Jeremy; Horton, Thomas R; Amico, Guillermo C; Dimarco, Romina D; Barrios-Garcia, M Noelia; Simberloff, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Biological invasions are often complex phenomena because many factors influence their outcome. One key aspect is how non-natives interact with the local biota. Interaction with local species may be especially important for exotic species that require an obligatory mutualist, such as Pinaceae species that need ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi. EM fungi and seeds of Pinaceae disperse independently, so they may use different vectors. We studied the role of exotic mammals as dispersal agents of EM fungi on Isla Victoria, Argentina, where many Pinaceae species have been introduced. Only a few of these tree species have become invasive, and they are found in high densities only near plantations, partly because these Pinaceae trees lack proper EM fungi when their seeds land far from plantations. Native mammals (a dwarf deer and rodents) are rare around plantations and do not appear to play a role in these invasions. With greenhouse experiments using animal feces as inoculum, plus observational and molecular studies, we found that wild boar and deer, both non-native, are dispersing EM fungi. Approximately 30% of the Pinaceae seedlings growing with feces of wild boar and 15% of the seedlings growing with deer feces were colonized by non-native EM fungi. Seedlings growing in control pots were not colonized by EM fungi. We found a low diversity of fungi colonizing the seedlings, with the hypogeous Rhizopogon as the most abundant genus. Wild boar, a recent introduction to the island, appear to be the main animal dispersing the fungi and may be playing a key role in facilitating the invasion of pine trees and even triggering their spread. These results show that interactions among non-natives help explain pine invasions in our study area.

  1. Confirmatory Survey Results for the Emergency Operations Facility (EOF) at the Connecticut Yankee Haddam Neck Plant, Haddam, Connecticut

    SciTech Connect

    W. C. Adams

    2007-07-03

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requested that the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) perform a confirmatory survey on the Emergency Operations Facility (EOF) at the Connecticut Yankee Haddam Neck Plant (HNP) in Haddam, Connecticut

  2. Issues and opportunities in exotic hadrons

    SciTech Connect

    Briceno, Raul A.; Cohen, Thomas D.; Coito, S.; Dudek, Jozef J.; Eichten, E.; Fischer, C. S.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Jackura, A.; Kornicer, M.; Krein, G.; Lebed, Richard F.; Machado, F. A.; Mitchell, R. E.; Morningstar, C. J.; Peardon, M.; R. Pennington, M.; Peters, K.; M. Richard, J.; P. Shen, C.; Shepherd, M. R.; Skwarnicki, T.; S. Swanson, E.; Szczepaniak, A. P.; Yuan, C. Z.

    2016-04-01

    The last few years have been witness to a proliferation of new results concerning heavy exotic hadrons. Experimentally, many new signals have been discovered that could be pointing towards the existence of tetraquarks, pentaquarks, and other exotic configurations of quarks and gluons. Theoretically, advances in lattice field theory techniques place us at the cusp of understanding complex coupled-channel phenomena, modelling grows more sophisticated, and effective field theories are being applied to an ever greater range of situations. Consequently, it is thus an opportune time to evaluate the status of the field. In the following, a series of high priority experimental and theoretical issues concerning heavy exotic hadrons is presented.

  3. Quasi-exotic open-flavor mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilger, T.; Krassnigg, A.

    2017-06-01

    Meson states with exotic quantum numbers arise naturally in a covariant bound-state framework in QCD. We investigate the consequences of shifting quark masses such that the states are no longer restricted to certain C-parities, but only by JP. Then, a priori, one can no longer distinguish exotic or conventional states. In order to identify signatures of the different states to look for experimentally, we provide the behavior of masses, leptonic decay constants, and orbital-angular-momentum decomposition of such mesons, as well as the constellations in which they could be found. Most prominently, we consider the case of charged quasi-exotic excitations of the pion.

  4. Can exotic phytoseiids be considered 'benevolent invaders' in perennial cropping systems?

    PubMed

    Palevsky, Eric; Gerson, Uri; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang

    2013-02-01

    Numerous natural enemies were adopted worldwide for the control of major pests, including exotic phytoseiid species (Acari: Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae) that had been moved from continent to continent in protected and perennial agricultural systems. However, relatively fewer successes were recorded in perennial agricultural systems. In this manuscript we focus on the question: Can and will exotic phytoseiids provide better pest control than indigenous species in perennial agricultural systems? To answer this question, we review the efficacy of biological control efforts with phytoseiids in several case studies, where exotic and indigenous species were used against pests on indigenous host plants and some crops that were historically or recently introduced. Related factors affecting predator establishment, such as intraguild predation and pesticide effects are discussed, as well as the potential negative effects of exotic species releases on biological control and their impact on the indigenous natural fauna. On citrus, apple, grape and cassava exotic phytoseiids have enhanced biological control without negatively affecting indigenous species of natural enemies, except for the case of Euseius stipulatus (Athias-Henriot) on citrus that displaced Euseius hibisci (Chant) in a limited region of coastal California, USA, the latter considered to be an inferior biocontrol agent of Panonychus citri Koch. Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot on gorse, an invasive weed, is perhaps the only recorded case of a negative effect of an established exotic phytoseiid on biological control.

  5. Testing the abundant center model using range-wide demographic surveys of two coastal dune plants.

    PubMed

    Samis, Karen E; Eckert, Christopher G

    2007-07-01

    It is widely accepted that species are most abundant at the center of their geographic ranges and become progressively rarer toward range limits. Although the abundant center model (ACM) has rarely been tested with range-wide surveys, it influences much thinking about the ecology and evolution of species' distributions. We tested ACM predictions using two unrelated but ecologically similar plants, Camissonia cheiranthifolia and Abronia umbellata. We intensively sampled both throughout their one-dimensional distributions within the Pacific coastal dunes of North America, from northern Baja California, Mexico, to southern Oregon, USA. Data from > 1100 herbarium specimens indicated that these limits have been stable for at least the last 100 years. Range-wide field surveys detected C. cheiranthifolia at 87% of 124 sites and A. umbellata at 54% of 113 sites, but site occupancy did not decline significantly toward range limits for either species. Permutation analysis did not detect a significant fit of geographical variation in local density to the ACM. Mean density did not correlate negatively with mean individual performance (plant size or number of seeds/plant), probably because both species occur at low densities. Although size and seeds per plant varied widely, central populations tended to have the highest values for size only. For C. cheiranthifolia, we observed asymmetry in the pattern of variation between the northern and southern halves of the range consistent with the long-standing prediction that range limits are imposed by different ecological factors in different parts of the geographical distribution. However, these asymmetries were difficult to interpret and likely reflect evolutionary differentiation as well as plastic responses to ecological variation. Both density and seeds per plant contributed to variation in seed production per unit area. In C. cheiranthifolia only, sites with highest seed production tended to occur at the range center, as

  6. TRAMIL Ethnopharmacological Survey: Knowledge Distribution of Medicinal Plant Use in the Southeast Region of Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    ALVARADO-GUZMÁN, JOSÉ A.; GAVILLÁN-SUÁREZ, JANNETTE; GERMOSÉN-ROBINEAU, LIONEL

    2014-01-01

    Background TRAMIL network aims to understand, validate and expand health practices based on the use of medicinal plants in the Caribbean, a “biodiversity hotspot” due to high species endemism, intense development pressure and habitat loss. Objectives The purpose of this study was to document both the medicinal plants that are frequently used to treat health conditions prevalent in the southeastern region of the archipelago of Puerto Rico and the trends in their use among the study population. Methods An ethnopharmacological survey was conducted in the study region. The results were analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Results Overall, 118 medicinal plants were recorded as being used to treat depression, nervousness, chronic sinusitis, gastritis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, allergic rhinitis, rhinofaryngitis, asthma, arthritis and migraine. The plant species with significant use were Citrus aurantium L., Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle, Pluchea carolinensis (Jacq.) G. Don in Sweet, and Mentha piperita L. The use of medicinal plants is more frequent among single women with a high educational level, a trend similar to the use of CAM in the US. Conclusion Ethnopharmacological knowledge and the use of medicinal plants is decreasing in the study region due to an increase in the use of conventional medical care and to self-medication with over-the-counter pharmaceutical products. Four botanical species with significant uses that were not previously recorded in the Caribbean Herbal Pharmacopoeia have been identified. This report will be followed by the scientific validation and toxicity studies of these plant species and the TRADIF activities in the study region. PMID:19999241

  7. Ethnobotanical survey of biopesticides and other medicinal plants traditionally used in Meru central district of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Gakuya, D W; Itonga, S M; Mbaria, J M; Muthee, J K; Musau, J K

    2013-01-30

    The purpose of this study was to carry out a survey and document plants used in Meru-central district by traditional healers with emphasis on those used as biopesticides. The study was carried out at Igane and Gatuune sub-locations, Abothuguchi East division of Meru-Central district, Kenya. The data collection involving 23 traditional healers was done using semi-structured questionnaire, focused group discussion and transect walks. Plants samples were collected and botanically identified at the herbarium of the Department of Land Resource Management and Agriculture Technology in the University of Nairobi. The results of the ethnobotanical survey revealed that herbalists belonged to both gender with the majority being male (82.6%) and female (17.4%). Their ages ranged from 28 to 82 years. Seventy (70) plant species, belonging to 35 families, were identified as being used as biopesticides and also as medicinal. The families encountered were Asteraceae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (8.6%), Lamiaceae (8.6%), Fabaceae(8.6%), Caesalpiniaceae (5.7%), Rubiaceae (5.7%), Liliaceae (4.3%), Apocynaceae (2.9%), Flacourtiaceae (2.9%), Verbenaceae (2.9%) and the rest of the 24 families had 1.4% each. These medicinal plants were used to treat and manage a wide range of diseases and conditions including parasitic, microbial, helminthosis, protozoa, cuts and wounds, fractures, dental, arthritis, allergic, snake bites, reproductive as well as metabolic. Among the plants used, shrubs were the commonest at 42.8%; trees were 32.9%, while herbs and liana were at 22.9% and 1.4%, respectively. Majority of the respondents used leaves, roots and bark to make their herbal preparations with only a few using seeds, flowers, whole plant, flower sap and pods. The plants that were cited by the respondents to be used as biopesticides were Prectranthus barbatus Andr. (47.8%), Tephrosia vogelii Hookf. (39.1%), Ocimum gratissimum L (34.7%), Vernonia lasiopus O.Hoffm. (8.7%), Cascabella thevetia(L.)Lippold (4

  8. Hunting, Exotic Carnivores, and Habitat Loss: Anthropogenic Effects on a Native Carnivore Community, Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Farris, Zach J; Golden, Christopher D; Karpanty, Sarah; Murphy, Asia; Stauffer, Dean; Ratelolahy, Felix; Andrianjakarivelo, Vonjy; Holmes, Christopher M; Kelly, Marcella J

    2015-01-01

    The wide-ranging, cumulative, negative effects of anthropogenic disturbance, including habitat degradation, exotic species, and hunting, on native wildlife has been well documented across a range of habitats worldwide with carnivores potentially being the most vulnerable due to their more extinction prone characteristics. Investigating the effects of anthropogenic pressures on sympatric carnivores is needed to improve our ability to develop targeted, effective management plans for carnivore conservation worldwide. Utilizing photographic, line-transect, and habitat sampling, as well as landscape analyses and village-based bushmeat hunting surveys, we provide the first investigation of how multiple forms of habitat degradation (fragmentation, exotic carnivores, human encroachment, and hunting) affect carnivore occupancy across Madagascar's largest protected area: the Masoala-Makira landscape. We found that as degradation increased, native carnivore occupancy and encounter rates decreased while exotic carnivore occupancy and encounter rates increased. Feral cats (Felis species) and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) had higher occupancy than half of the native carnivore species across Madagascar's largest protected landscape. Bird and small mammal encounter rates were negatively associated with exotic carnivore occupancy, but positively associated with the occupancy of four native carnivore species. Spotted fanaloka (Fossa fossana) occupancy was constrained by the presence of exotic feral cats and exotic small Indian civet (Viverricula indica). Hunting was intense across the four study sites where hunting was studied, with the highest rates for the small Indian civet (mean=90 individuals consumed/year), the ring-tailed vontsira (Galidia elegans) (mean=58 consumed/year), and the fosa (Cryptoprocta ferox) (mean=31 consumed/year). Our modeling results suggest hunters target intact forest where carnivore occupancy, abundance, and species richness, are highest. These various

  9. Pre-fire grazing by cattle increases postfire resistance to exotic annual grass (Bromus tectorum) invasion and dominance for decades

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    1. Fire, herbivory and their interaction influence plant community dynamics. However, little is known about the influence of pre-fire herbivory on post-fire plant community response, particularly long-term resilience to post-fire exotic plant invasion in areas that historically experienced limited ...

  10. Invasive stink bug favors naïve plants: Testing the role of plant geographic origin in diverse, managed environments

    PubMed Central

    Martinson, Holly M.; Bergmann, Erik J.; Venugopal, P. Dilip; Riley, Christopher B.; Shrewsbury, Paula M.; Raupp, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    With the introduction and establishment of exotic species, most ecosystems now contain both native and exotic plants and herbivores. Recent research identifies several factors that govern how specialist herbivores switch host plants upon introduction. Predicting the feeding ecology and impacts of introduced generalist species, however, remains difficult. Here, we examine how plant geographic origin, an indicator of shared co-evolutionary history, influences patterns of host use by a generalist, invasive herbivore, while accounting for variation in plant availability. The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, is a highly polyphagous Asian herbivore and an economically important invasive pest in North America and Europe. In visual surveys of 220 plant taxa in commercial nurseries in Maryland, USA, H. halys was more abundant on non-Asian plants and selected these over Asian plants. The relationship between the relative use of plants and their availability was strongly positive but depended also on plant origin at two of our three sites, where the higher relative use of non-Asian plants was greatest for highly abundant taxa. These results highlight the importance of considering both plant origin and relative abundance in understanding the selection of host plants by invasive generalist herbivores in diverse, natural and urban forests. PMID:27581756

  11. Invasive stink bug favors naïve plants: Testing the role of plant geographic origin in diverse, managed environments.

    PubMed

    Martinson, Holly M; Bergmann, Erik J; Venugopal, P Dilip; Riley, Christopher B; Shrewsbury, Paula M; Raupp, Michael J

    2016-09-01

    With the introduction and establishment of exotic species, most ecosystems now contain both native and exotic plants and herbivores. Recent research identifies several factors that govern how specialist herbivores switch host plants upon introduction. Predicting the feeding ecology and impacts of introduced generalist species, however, remains difficult. Here, we examine how plant geographic origin, an indicator of shared co-evolutionary history, influences patterns of host use by a generalist, invasive herbivore, while accounting for variation in plant availability. The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, is a highly polyphagous Asian herbivore and an economically important invasive pest in North America and Europe. In visual surveys of 220 plant taxa in commercial nurseries in Maryland, USA, H. halys was more abundant on non-Asian plants and selected these over Asian plants. The relationship between the relative use of plants and their availability was strongly positive but depended also on plant origin at two of our three sites, where the higher relative use of non-Asian plants was greatest for highly abundant taxa. These results highlight the importance of considering both plant origin and relative abundance in understanding the selection of host plants by invasive generalist herbivores in diverse, natural and urban forests.

  12. Exotic hadrons in the constituent quark model.

    SciTech Connect

    Lipkin, H. J.; High Energy Physics; Weizmann Institute of Science; Tel Aviv Univ.

    2007-01-01

    Exotic hadrons are important because their existence or absence can provide important clues to understanding how QCD makes hadrons from quarks and gluons. The first experimentally confirmed exotic will be the first hadron containing both qq and {bar q}q pairs and the first hadron containing color sextet and color octet pairs. Theoretical models are not very useful because there is no accepted model for multiquark systems with color-space correlations. The constituent quark model is the only phenomenological model with predictive power that has given experimentally tested universal predictions for both mesons and baryons. This paper reviews its explanation for why there are no bound exotics and its guidance to the search for heavy-flavored exotic tetraquarks and pentaquarks. A possible supersymmetry between mesons and baryons leading to meson-baryon mass relations not easily obtained otherwise is discussed.

  13. A survey of low-level radioactive waste treatment methods and problem areas associated with commercial nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley, R.L.; Rodgers, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    A survey was made (June 1985) of technologies that were currently being used, those that had been discontinued, and those that were under consideration for treatment of low-level radioactive waste from the commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. The survey results included information concerning problems areas, areas needing research and development, and the use of mobile treatment facilities.

  14. Exotic terranes of western California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McWilliams, M.O.; Howell, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    Numerous distinct geological terranes compose the North American Cordillera1; there may be as many as 50 terranes in California alone2. Critical to deciphering the history of Cordilleran tectonic assembly is an understanding of the displacement history of individual terranes. It is therefore important to know: (1) whether a terrane has undergone significant motion with respect to the stable craton (that is, whether it is allochthonous or exotic); (2) if so, when relative motion started and stopped; (3) from where an individual terrane originated; and (4) the nature of interterrane movements. We consider here the problem of determining whether the now-juxtaposed Salinian and Stanley Mountain terranes of California became amalgamated at or near their present position with respect to cratonic North America, or if they collided at a considerable distance from their present positions and were later accreted to North America as a composite package. The palaeomagnetic data that we present indicate that the latter was the case. ?? 1982 Nature Publishing Group.

  15. Pentaquarks and doubly heavy exotic mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karliner, Marek

    2016-11-01

    I discuss the experimental evidence for and theoretical interpretation of the new mesons and baryons with two heavy quarks. These include doubly-heavy baryons, exotic hadronic quarkonia and most recently a manifestly exotic pentaquark-like doubly heavy baryon with a minimal quark content uudc¯ discovered by LHCb, whose mass, decay mode and width are in agreement with a prediction based on a physical picture of a deuteron-like Σc D¯* "hadronic molecule".

  16. Volume integral theorem for exotic matter

    SciTech Connect

    Nandi, Kamal Kanti; Zhang Yuanzhong; Kumar, K.B. Vijaya

    2004-12-15

    We answer an important question in general relativity about the volume integral theorem for exotic matter by suggesting an exact integral quantifier for matter violating Averaged Null Energy Condition (ANEC). It is checked against some well-known static, spherically symmetric traversable wormhole solutions of general relativity with a sign reversed kinetic term minimally coupled scalar field. The improved quantifier is consistent with the principle that traversable wormholes can be supported by arbitrarily small quantities of exotic matter.

  17. Advances in exotic mammal clinical therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Michelle G

    2015-05-01

    It is important that veterinarians treating exotic companion mammals stay abreast of the latest developments relating to medications and drug delivery approaches for safety, efficacy and welfare issues. Sustained release formulations of commonly used drugs as well as newer routes for administration of therapeutic agents allow the veterinarian treating exotic companion mammals to reduce the stress associated with drug administration. Interactions can occur between vehicle and drugs when formulations are compounded, therefore research studies are warranted regarding potential problems associated with these formulations.

  18. Meteors, space aliens, and other exotic encounters

    Treesearch

    Tom. Hofacker

    1998-01-01

    Exotics have had a big impact on our environment. If you do not think so, just look at how many people believe that humans would not exist on this planet were it not for exotics. This belief centers on two main theories: (1) that humans could not have evolved were it not for a huge meteor from outer space striking the earth resulting in extinction of the dinasours, the...

  19. Search for exotic particles at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, M.S.

    1992-10-01

    We have searched for exotic particles in p[bar p] collisions at 1.8 TeV in data taken with the Collider Detector at Fermilab. We review our published limits on W[prime] and Z[prime] masses, and on the scale of lepton-quark compositeness. We also report preliminary mass limits based on searches for leptoquarks, supersymmetric quarks and gluons, and exotic, stable colored fermions.

  20. Energy Engineering Analysis Program, energy survey of boiler and chiller plants, Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    This report summarizes all work for the Energy Survey of Boiler and Chiller Plants, Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP) at U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, authorized under Contract DACA05-92-C-0155 with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Sacramento District, California. The purpose of this study is to develop projects and actions that will reduce facilities energy consumption and operating costs at Yuma Proving Ground. Implementation of these projects will contribute to achieving the goal of the Army Facilities Energy Plan of a reduction in energy consumption per square foot of building floor area of 20 percent by FY2000 from FY1983 baseline levels. The survey and evaluation effort was limited to chillers and direct expansion cooling units in Buildings 451, 506, 2105, 3482, 3490, and 3510 boilers in Building 506.

  1. A Survey of Chemical Compositions and Biological Activities of Yemeni Aromatic Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Chhetri, Bhuwan K.; Awadh Ali, Nasser A.; Setzer, William N.

    2015-01-01

    Yemen is a small country located in the southwestern part of the Arabian Peninsula. Yemen’s coastal lowlands, eastern plateau, and deserts give it a diverse topography, which along with climatic factors make it opulent in flora. Despite the introduction of Western medicinal system during the middle of the twentieth century, herbal medicine still plays an important role in Yemen. In this review, we present a survey of several aromatic plants used in traditional medicine in Yemen, their traditional uses, their volatile chemical compositions, and their biological activities. PMID:28930202

  2. Biochemical survey of the polar head of plant glycosylinositolphosphoceramides unravels broad diversity.

    PubMed

    Cacas, Jean-Luc; Buré, Corinne; Furt, Fabienne; Maalouf, Jean-Paul; Badoc, Alain; Cluzet, Stéphanie; Schmitter, Jean-Marie; Antajan, Elvire; Mongrand, Sébastien

    2013-12-01

    Although Glycosyl-Inositol-Phospho-Ceramides (GIPCs) are the main sphingolipids of plant tissues, they remain poorly characterized in term of structures. This lack of information, notably with regard to polar heads, currently hampers the understanding of GIPC functions in biological systems. This situation prompted us to undertake a large scale-analysis of plant GIPCs: 23 plant species chosen in various phylogenetic groups were surveyed for their total GIPC content. GIPCs were extracted and their polar heads were characterized by negative ion MALDI and ESI mass spectrometry. Our data shed light on an unexpected broad diversity of GIPC distributions within Plantae, and the occurrence of yet-unreported GIPC structures in green and red algae. In monocots, GIPCs with three saccharides were apparently found to be major, whereas a series with two saccharides was dominant in Eudicots within a few notable exceptions. In plant cell cultures, GIPC polar heads appeared to bear a higher number of glycan units than in the tissue from which they originate. Perspectives are discussed in term of GIPC metabolism diversity and function of these lipids.

  3. Description of Survey Data Regarding the Chemical Repackaging Plant Accident West Helena, Arkansas

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, J.H.; Vogt, B.M.

    1999-03-01

    Shortly after 1:00 p.m. on Thursday, May 8, 1997, clouds of foul-smelling smoke began pouring from an herbicide and pesticide packaging plant in West Helena, Arkansas. An alert was sounded, employees evacuated, and the West Helena fire department was called. As three firefighters prepared to enter the plant, the chemical compounds exploded, collapsing a solid concrete block wall, and killing all three firefighters. As the odorous smoky cloud drifted away from the plant, authorities ordered residents in a 2-mile area downwind of the plant to evacuate and those in the 2- to 3-mile zone to shelter in place. This study examines and compares the responses to a mail survey of those ordered to evacuate and those told to shelter in place. Among the variables examined are compliance with official orders and perceived warnings, threat perception, time and source of first warning, response times, and behavior characteristics for both populations. The findings indicate that 90% of those that were told to evacuate did so but only 27% of those told to shelter-in-place did so, with 68% opting to evacuate instead. The implications of these findings for emergency managers is that people will likely choose to evacuate when both warnings to evacuate and warnings to shelter are issued to residents in close proximity to each other. The findings on warning times closely resemble other findings from evacuations when chemical accidents occur and route notification is used for warning residents.

  4. An ethnobotanical survey of wild edible plants of Paphos and Larnaca countryside of Cyprus

    PubMed Central

    Della, Athena; Paraskeva-Hadjichambi, Demetra; Hadjichambis, Andreas Ch

    2006-01-01

    An ethnobotanical survey of wild edible plants of Cyprus was carried out in two sites. Paphos vine zone and Larnaca mixed farming zone. These are among the areas in Cyprus whose inhabitants subsisted primarily on pastoralism and agriculture and therefore still preserve the traditional knowledge on wild edible plants. The information was collected for three-year period, in the framework of the EU-funded RUBIA Project. Four hundred and thirteen interviews have been administered to 89 informants of various ages and background categories in 29 villages of Paphos site, and 8 in Larnaca site. A total of 78 species were recorded. Ethnographic data related to vernacular names, traditional tools and recipes have also been recorded. A comparison of the data collected from the two sites is undertaken. During this ethnobotanical research it was verified that wild edibles play an important role in Cyprus in rural people, however, it was realized that the transmission of folk uses of plants decreased in the last generations. The research of ethnobotany should be extended to other areas of Cyprus in order not only to preserve the traditional knowledge related to plants but to make it available to future generations as well. PMID:16995927

  5. Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants among Dozo hunters: an ethnobotanical survey in Niamberla village, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Tibiri, André; Sawadogo, Wamtinga Richard; Dao, Abou; Elkington, Bethany G; Ouedraogo, Noufou; Guissou, Innocent Pierre

    2015-05-01

    This investigation aims to provide a database of Dozo traditional knowledge of medicinal plants used for the treatment of common diseases. The study was conducted through individual interviews using a survey form. Data were recorded in a database allowing statistical analysis. Each plant was recorded and documented with a herbarium specimen. Settings/Location & Subjects: The term Dozo refers to great hunters from Burkina Faso, highly renowned for their knowledge of medicinal plants. Niamberla village was founded by Dozo hunters and is currently the residence of many traditional healers. Unfortunately, their indigenous knowledge is not well recorded and may be lost between two generations. A total of 16 traditional healers were interviewed, giving 89 recipes for the treatment of 37 diseases. The most common diseases are malaria (13%), psychological/spiritual issues (12%), gastric disorders (11%), sexually transmitted diseases (10%), and wounds (8%). A total of 56 medicinal plants have been identified, consisting mostly of trees (44%), shrubs (34%), and herbs (16%). The results of this research provide a basis for pharmacological and toxicological investigations and are necessary to preserve the indigenous knowledge of traditional medicine among Dozo hunters.

  6. Exergy analysis of an industrial-scale ultrafiltrated (UF) cheese production plant: a detailed survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasiri, Farshid; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Rafiee, Shahin

    2017-02-01

    In this study, a detailed exergy analysis of an industrial-scale ultrafiltrated (UF) cheese production plant was conducted based on actual operational data in order to provide more comprehensive insights into the performance of the whole plant and its main subcomponents. The plant included four main subsystems, i.e., steam generator (I), above-zero refrigeration system (II), Bactocatch-assisted pasteurization line (III), and UF cheese production line (IV). In addition, this analysis was aimed at quantifying the exergy destroyed in processing a known quantity of the UF cheese using the mass allocation method. The specific exergy destruction of the UF cheese production was determined at 2330.42 kJ/kg. The contributions of the subsystems I, II, III, and IV to the specific exergy destruction of the UF cheese production were computed as 1337.67, 386.18, 283.05, and 323.51 kJ/kg, respectively. Additionally, it was observed through the analysis that the steam generation system had the largest contribution to the thermodynamic inefficiency of the UF cheese production, accounting for 57.40 % of the specific exergy destruction. Generally, the outcomes of this survey further manifested the benefits of applying exergy analysis for design, analysis, and optimization of industrial-scale dairy processing plants to achieve the most cost-effective and environmentally-benign production strategies.

  7. Illinois State Geological Survey Evaluation of CO2 Capture Options from Ethanol Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Finley

    2006-09-30

    The Illinois State Geological Survey and the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium are conducting CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced oil recovery testing at six different sites in the Illinois Basin. The capital and operating costs for equipment to capture and liquefy CO{sub 2} from ethanol plants in the Illinois area were evaluated so that ethanol plants could be considered as an alternate source for CO{sub 2} in the event that successful enhanced oil recovery tests create the need for additional sources of CO{sub 2} in the area. Estimated equipment and operating costs needed to capture and liquefy 68 metric tonnes/day (75 tons/day) and 272 tonnes/day (300 tons/day) of CO{sub 2} for truck delivery from an ethanol plant are provided. Estimated costs are provided for food/beverage grade CO{sub 2} and also for less purified CO{sub 2} suitable for enhanced oil recovery or sequestration. The report includes preliminary plant and equipment designs and estimates major capital and operating costs for each of the recovery options. Availability of used equipment was assessed.

  8. Pathways to exotic metastable silicon allotropes

    DOE PAGES

    Haberl, Bianca; Strobel, Timothy A.; Bradby, Jodie E.

    2016-09-27

    The Group 14 element silicon possesses a complex free-energy landscape with many (local) minima, allowing for the formation of a variety of unusual structures, some of which may be stabilized at ambient conditions. Such exotic silicon allotropes represent a significant opportunity to address the ever-increasing demand for novel materials with tailored functionality since these exotic forms are expected to exhibit superlative properties including optimized band gaps for solar power conversion. The application of pressure is a well-recognized and uniquely powerful method to access exotic states of silicon since it promotes large changes to atomic bonding. Conventional high-pressure syntheses, however, lackmore » the capability to access many of these local minima and only four forms of exotic silicon allotropes have been recovered over the last 50 years. However, more recently, signifi- cant advances in high pressure methodologies and the use of novel precursor materials have yielded at least three more recoverable exotic Si structures. This review aims to give an overview of these innovative methods of high-pressure application and precursor selection and the recent discoveries of new Si allotropes. The background context of the conventional pressure methods and multitude of predicted new phases are also provided. Furthermore, this review also offers a perspective for possible access to many further exotic functional allotropes not only of silicon but also of other materials, in a technologically feasible manner« less

  9. Pathways to exotic metastable silicon allotropes

    SciTech Connect

    Haberl, Bianca; Strobel, Timothy A.; Bradby, Jodie E.

    2016-09-27

    The Group 14 element silicon possesses a complex free-energy landscape with many (local) minima, allowing for the formation of a variety of unusual structures, some of which may be stabilized at ambient conditions. Such exotic silicon allotropes represent a significant opportunity to address the ever-increasing demand for novel materials with tailored functionality since these exotic forms are expected to exhibit superlative properties including optimized band gaps for solar power conversion. The application of pressure is a well-recognized and uniquely powerful method to access exotic states of silicon since it promotes large changes to atomic bonding. Conventional high-pressure syntheses, however, lack the capability to access many of these local minima and only four forms of exotic silicon allotropes have been recovered over the last 50 years. However, more recently, signifi- cant advances in high pressure methodologies and the use of novel precursor materials have yielded at least three more recoverable exotic Si structures. This review aims to give an overview of these innovative methods of high-pressure application and precursor selection and the recent discoveries of new Si allotropes. The background context of the conventional pressure methods and multitude of predicted new phases are also provided. Furthermore, this review also offers a perspective for possible access to many further exotic functional allotropes not only of silicon but also of other materials, in a technologically feasible manner

  10. Exotic Meson Results from BNL E852

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manak, Joseph J.

    1998-10-01

    Results from BNL experiment 852 on exotic (non-q\\overlineq) meson production are presented. Production of final states with J^PC = 1^-+ is observed in π^-p interactions at 18 GeV/c in the ηπ^-, ρπ^- and η^'π^- channels. Since such states are manifestly exotic if they are resonant, we describe amplitude analyses which use the interference between these states and other well known states to measure the phase behavior of the J^PC = 1^-+ amplitudes. The analyses show that, in addition to the previously reported(D.R. Thompson et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1630 (1997) evidence for an exotic meson in the ηπ^- channel, there is strong evidence for a second exotic meson decaying to ρπ^- with a mass of M=1593 ±8^+29_-47 MeV/c^2 and a width of Γ=168 ±20^+150_-12 MeV/c^2. We also show that the η^'π^- system is dominated by J^PC = 1^-+ production and we use those data to determine decay branching ratios for the exotic mesons. Such measurements are expected to be crucial in determining the constituent nature of the exotic mesons - that is, whether they are consistent with being hybrid mesons or four-quark states.

  11. Pathways to exotic metastable silicon allotropes

    SciTech Connect

    Haberl, Bianca; Strobel, Timothy A.; Bradby, Jodie E.

    2016-09-27

    The Group 14 element silicon possesses a complex free-energy landscape with many (local) minima, allowing for the formation of a variety of unusual structures, some of which may be stabilized at ambient conditions. Such exotic silicon allotropes represent a significant opportunity to address the ever-increasing demand for novel materials with tailored functionality since these exotic forms are expected to exhibit superlative properties including optimized band gaps for solar power conversion. The application of pressure is a well-recognized and uniquely powerful method to access exotic states of silicon since it promotes large changes to atomic bonding. Conventional high-pressure syntheses, however, lack the capability to access many of these local minima and only four forms of exotic silicon allotropes have been recovered over the last 50 years. However, more recently, signifi- cant advances in high pressure methodologies and the use of novel precursor materials have yielded at least three more recoverable exotic Si structures. This review aims to give an overview of these innovative methods of high-pressure application and precursor selection and the recent discoveries of new Si allotropes. The background context of the conventional pressure methods and multitude of predicted new phases are also provided. Furthermore, this review also offers a perspective for possible access to many further exotic functional allotropes not only of silicon but also of other materials, in a technologically feasible manner

  12. Pathways to exotic metastable silicon allotropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberl, Bianca; Strobel, Timothy A.; Bradby, Jodie E.

    2016-12-01

    The Group 14 element silicon possesses a complex free-energy landscape with many (local) minima, allowing for the formation of a variety of unusual structures, some of which may be stabilized at ambient conditions. Such exotic silicon allotropes represent a significant opportunity to address the ever-increasing demand for novel materials with tailored functionality since these exotic forms are expected to exhibit superlative properties including optimized band gaps for solar power conversion. The application of pressure is a well-recognized and uniquely powerful method to access exotic states of silicon since it promotes large changes to atomic bonding. Conventional high-pressure syntheses, however, lack the capability to access many of these local minima and only four forms of exotic silicon allotropes have been recovered over the last 50 years. However, more recently, significant advances in high pressure methodologies and the use of novel precursor materials have yielded at least three more recoverable exotic Si structures. This review aims to give an overview of these innovative methods of high-pressure application and precursor selection and the recent discoveries of new Si allotropes. The background context of the conventional pressure methods and multitude of predicted new phases are also provided. This review also offers a perspective for possible access to many further exotic functional allotropes not only of silicon but also of other materials, in a technologically feasible manner.

  13. Relative competence of native and exotic fish hosts for two generalist native trematodes

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Rachel A.; Lal, Aparna; Dale, Marcia; Townsend, Colin R.; Poulin, Robert; Tompkins, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    Exotic fish species frequently acquire native parasites despite the absence of closely related native hosts. They thus have the potential to affect native counterparts by altering native host–parasite dynamics. In New Zealand, exotic brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss have acquired two native trematodes (Telogaster opisthorchis and Stegodexamene anguillae) from their native definitive host (the longfin eel Anguilla dieffenbachii). We used a combination of field surveys and experimental infections to determine the relative competence of native and exotic fish hosts for these native parasites. Field observations indicated that the longfin eel was the superior host for both parasites, although differences between native and exotic hosts were less apparent for S. anguillae. Experimental infections indicated that both parasites had poorer establishment and survival in salmonids, although some worms matured and attained similar sizes to those in eels before dying. Overall, the field surveys and experimental infections indicate that these exotic salmonids are poor hosts of both native trematodes and their presence may decrease native parasite flow to native hosts. PMID:24533327

  14. Capacitively coupled resistivity survey of the levee surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City Power Plant, June 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Bethany L.; Cannia, James C.

    2011-01-01

    This report is a release of digital data from a capacitively coupled resistivity survey conducted on June 13, 2011, on the flood-protection levees surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City power plant. The U.S. Geological Survey Crustal Geophysics and Geochemistry Science Center and the Nebraska Water Science Center performed the survey in response to a flood on the Missouri River. A single line of resistivity profiling was completed along the center line of the section of levee 573 that surrounds the power plant.

  15. Barriers to exotic weed management

    Treesearch

    Faith T. Campbell

    1998-01-01

    In order to increase effective efforts to reduce the impacts of invasive alien plant species· on our natural areas, we must overcome numerous barriers. Some of these are technical in nature, e.g., determining the most appropriate control method for a specific species in a particular ecosystem, or devising a better program to exclude new invasive plant species from our...

  16. APHIS (PPQ) exotic pest detection

    Treesearch

    David R. Lance

    2003-01-01

    The legally mandated responsibilities of APHIS Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) include: (1) Protect American agriculture from foreign plant pest introduction and establishment, (2) facilitate export of American agricultural products, and (3) control or eradicate pests as authorized by legislation and regulation.

  17. Native fauna on exotic trees: phylogenetic conservatism and geographic contingency in two lineages of phytophages on two lineages of trees.

    PubMed

    Gossner, Martin M; Chao, Anne; Bailey, Richard I; Prinzing, Andreas

    2009-05-01

    The relative roles of evolutionary history and geographical and ecological contingency for community assembly remain unknown. Plant species, for instance, share more phytophages with closer relatives (phylogenetic conservatism), but for exotic plants introduced to another continent, this may be overlaid by geographically contingent evolution or immigration from locally abundant plant species (mass effects). We assessed within local forests to what extent exotic trees (Douglas-fir, red oak) recruit phytophages (Coleoptera, Heteroptera) from more closely or more distantly related native plants. We found that exotics shared more phytophages with natives from the same major plant lineage (angiosperms vs. gymnosperms) than with natives from the other lineage. This was particularly true for Heteroptera, and it emphasizes the role of host specialization in phylogenetic conservatism of host use. However, for Coleoptera on Douglas-fir, mass effects were important: immigration from beech increased with increasing beech abundance. Within a plant phylum, phylogenetic proximity of exotics and natives increased phytophage similarity, primarily in younger Coleoptera clades on angiosperms, emphasizing a role of past codiversification of hosts and phytophages. Overall, phylogenetic conservatism can shape the assembly of local phytophage communities on exotic trees. Whether it outweighs geographic contingency and mass effects depends on the interplay of phylogenetic scale, local abundance of native tree species, and the biology and evolutionary history of the phytophage taxon.

  18. A functional trait perspective on plant invasion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Global environmental change affects exotic plant invasions, which profoundly impact native plant populations, communities and ecosystems. In this context, we review plant functional traits, including those that drive invader abundance (invasiveness), and impacts, as well as the integration of these...

  19. [A questionnaire survey about public's image of radiation after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident].

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Ryuji; Ootsuyama, Akira; Abe, Toshiaki; Kuto, Tatsuhiko

    2012-03-01

    A questionnaire survey about the public's image of radiation was performed after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. The survey was taken by general citizens (200 and 1640 in Fukushima and 52 outside of Fukushima) and doctors (63 in Fukushima and 1942 outside of Fukushima (53 in Oita, 44 in Sagamihara and 1,845 in Kitakyushu)) in and outside of Fukushima and second year medical students in the University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan. The questionnaire surveys were performed during lectures about radiation. The response rates were 86% for the general citizens in Fukushima, 91% for the general citizens outside of Fukushima, 86% for doctors in Fukushima, and 85% and 86% for doctors in Sagamihara and Oita, respectively. The questionnaire surveys were sent to clinics and hospitals in Fukushima where the general citizens answered with a response rate of 50%. When the questionnaire surveys were sent to clinics and hospitals in Kitakyushu, doctors answered, with a response rate of 17%. The percentages of anxiety about future radiation effects after the FDNPP accident were the highest among the general citizens (71.6% in Fukushima and 40.4% outside of Fukushima), in the middle among the doctors (30.2% in Fukushima and 26.2% outside of Fukushima) and the lowest among the medical students (12.2%). The doctors in Fukushima and the medical students were anxious about food and soil pollution. The general citizens and the doctors outside of Fukushima were anxious about health problems and food and soil pollution. We concluded that a high level of education about radiation decreased the anxiety about the radiation effects. It is important to spread knowledge about radiation.

  20. Composition of soil seed banks in southern California coastal sage scrub and adjacent exotic grassland

    Treesearch

    Robert D. Cox; Edith B. Allen

    2008-01-01

    Soil seed banks are important to many plant communities and are recognized as an important component of management plans. Understanding seed bank composition and density is especially important when communities have been invaded by exotic species and must be managed to promote desirable species. We examined germinable soil seed banks in southern California coastal sage...

  1. Estimating exotic gene flow into native pine stands: zygotic vs. gametic components.

    PubMed

    Unger, G M; Vendramin, G G; Robledo-Arnuncio, J J

    2014-11-01

    Monitoring contemporary gene flow from widespread exotic plantations is becoming an important problem in forest conservation genetics. In plants, where both seed and pollen disperse, three components of exotic gene flow with potentially unequal consequences should be, but have not been, explicitly distinguished: zygotic, male gametic and female gametic. Building on a previous model for estimating contemporary rates of zygotic and male gametic gene flow among plant populations, we present here an approach that additionally estimates the third (female gametic) gene flow component, based on a combination of uni- and biparentally inherited markers. Using this method and a combined set of chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites, we estimate gene flow rates from exotic plantations into two Iberian relict stands of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). Results show neither zygotic nor female gametic gene flow but moderate (6-8%) male gametic introgression for both species, implying significant dispersal of pollen, but not of seeds, from exotic plantations into native stands shortly after introduced trees reached reproductive maturity. Numerical simulation results suggest that the model yields reasonably accurate estimates for our empirical data sets, especially for larger samples. We discuss conservation management implications of observed levels of exposure to nonlocal genes and identify research needs to determine potentially associated hazards. Our approach should be useful for plant ecologists and ecosystem managers interested in the vectors of contemporary genetic connectivity among discrete plant populations.

  2. Initial experiences utilizing exotic landrace germplasm in an upland cotton breeding program

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A critical objective of plant breeding programs is accessing new sources of genetic variation. In upland cotton, one of the relatively untapped sources of genetic variation is maintained in the USDA-ARS cotton germplasm collection and is the exotic landrace collection. Photoperiod sensitivity is a m...

  3. Identity of naturalised exotic Wisteria (fabaceae) in the south-eastern United States

    Treesearch

    J.L. Trusty; B.G. Lockaby; W.C. Zipperer; L.R. Goertzen

    2007-01-01

    Exotic Wisteria are increasingly serious invasive plants of watersheds and managed forests throughout the south-eastern United States. Naturalised individuals are frequently identified as either Wisteria floribunda or W. sinensis. but may differ significantly from the original descriptions of either of those species. Here, we use...

  4. Evolution and population genetics of exotic and reemerging pathogens: traditional and novel tools and approaches

    Treesearch

    N.J. Grünwald; E.M. Goss

    2011-01-01

    Given human population growth and accelerated global trade, the rate of emergence of exotic plant pathogens is bound to increase. Understanding the processes that lead to the emergence of new pathogens can help manage emerging epidemics. Novel tools for analyzing population genetic variation can be used to infer the evolutionary history of populations or species,...

  5. Status of exotic woody species in big cypress national preserve. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Gunderson, L.H.

    1983-12-01

    The current status of exotic woody plants in Big Cypress National Preserve is documented. A map of the distribution of principal pest species, Melaleuca quinquenervia, Schinus terebinthifolius, and Casuarina sp., is presented. Prognoses of population increases of these problem species are determined utilizing the current distributions and assessing environmental conditions. Some potential problem species are also identified.

  6. Evolution and population genetics of exotic and re-emerging pathogens: Novel tools and approaches

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Given human population growth and accelerated global trade, the rate of emergence of exotic plant pathogens is bound to increase. Understanding the processes that lead to the emergence of new pathogens can help manage emerging epidemics. Novel tools to analyze population genetic variation can be use...

  7. Land uses, fire, and invasion: Exotic annual Bromus and human dimensions [Chapter 11

    Treesearch

    David A. Pyke; Jeanne C. Chambers; Jeffrey L. Beck; Matthew L. Brooks; Brian A. Mealor

    2016-01-01

    Human land uses are the primary cause of the introduction and spread of exotic annual Bromus species. Initial introductions were likely linked to contaminated seeds used by homesteading farmers in the late 1880s and early 1900s. Transportation routes aided their spread. Unrestricted livestock grazing from the 1800s through the mid-1900s reduced native plant competitors...

  8. Southwestern Avian Community Organization in Exotic Tamarix: Current Patterns and Future Needs

    Treesearch

    H. A. Walker

    2006-01-01

    Tamarisk (saltcedar: Tamarix), an invasive exotic tree native to the Eastern Hemisphere, is currently the dominant plant species in most southwestern riparian ecosystems at elevations below 1500 m. Tamarisk alters abiotic conditions and the floral composition of native southwestern riparian ecosystems and, in turn, affects native southwestern animal communities....

  9. A multispectral scanner survey of the United States Department of Energy's Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    Airborne multispectral scanner data of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) and surrounding area were acquired during late spring 1990. This survey was conducted by the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) which is operated by EG G Energy Measurements (EG G/EM) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Nevada Operations Office. It was requested by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Audit Team which was reviewing environmental conditions at the facility. The objectives of this survey were to: (1) Acquire 12-channel, multispectral scanner data of the PGDP from an altitude of 3000 feet above ground level (AGL); (2) Acquire predawn, digital thermal infrared (TIR) data of the site from the same altitude; (3) Collect color and color-infrared (CIR) aerial photographs over the facilities; and (4) Illustrate how the analyses of these data could benefit environmental monitoring at the PGDP. This report summarizes the two multispectral scanner and aerial photographic missions at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Selected examples of the multispectral data are presented to illustrate its potential for aiding environmental management at the site. 4 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  10. A generic risk-based surveying method for invading plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Parnell, S; Gottwald, T R; Riley, T; van den Bosch, F

    2014-06-01

    Invasive plant pathogens are increasing with international trade and travel, with damaging environmental and economic consequences. Recent examples include tree diseases such as sudden oak death in the Western United States and ash dieback in Europe. To control an invading pathogen it is crucial that newly infected sites are quickly detected so that measures can be implemented to control the epidemic. However, since sampling resources are often limited, not all locations can be inspected and locations must be prioritized for surveying. Existing approaches to achieve this are often species specific and rely on detailed data collection and parameterization, which is difficult, especially when new arrivals are unanticipated. Consequently regulatory sampling responses are often ad hoc and developed without due consideration of epidemiology, leading to the suboptimal deployment of expensive sampling resources. We introduce a flexible risk-based sampling method that is pathogen generic and enables available information to be utilized to develop epidemiologically informed sampling programs for virtually any biologically relevant plant pathogen. By targeting risk we aim to inform sampling schemes that identify high-impact locations that can be subsequently treated in order to reduce inoculum in the landscape. This "damage limitation" is often the initial management objective following the first discovery of a new invader. Risk at each location is determined by the product of the basic reproductive number (R0), as a measure of local epidemic size, and the probability of infection. We illustrate how the risk estimates can be used to prioritize a survey by weighting a random sample so that the highest-risk locations have the highest probability of selection. We demonstrate and test the method using a high-quality spatially and temporally resolved data set on Huanglongbing disease (HLB) in Florida, USA. We show that even when available epidemiological information is relatively

  11. Plant oils as feedstock alternatives to petroleum - A short survey of potential oil crop platforms.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Anders S

    2009-06-01

    Our society is highly depending on petroleum for its activities. About 90% is used as an energy source for transportation and for generation of heat and electricity and the remaining as feedstocks in the chemical industry. However, petroleum is a finite source as well as causing several environmental problems such as rising carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Petroleum therefore needs to be replaced by alternative and sustainable sources. Plant oils and oleochemicals derived from them represent such alternative sources, which can deliver a substantial part of what is needed to replace the petroleum used as feedstocks. Plant derived feedstock oils can be provided by two types of oil qualities, multi-purpose and technical oils. Multi-purpose oils represent oil qualities that contain common fatty acids and that can be used for both food and feedstock applications. Technical oil qualities contain unusual fatty acids with special properties gained from their unique molecular structure and these types of oils should only be used for feedstock applications. As a risk mitigation strategy in the selection of crops, technical oil qualities should therefore preferably be produced by oil crop platforms dedicated for industrial usage. This review presents a short survey of oil crop platforms to be considered for either multi-purpose or technical oils production. Included among the former platforms are some of the major oil crops in cultivation such as oil palm, soybean and rapeseed. Among the later are those that could be developed into dedicated industrial platforms such as crambe, flax, cotton and Brassica carinata. The survey finishes off by highlighting the potential of substantial increase in plant oil production by developing metabolic flux platforms, which are starch crops converted into oil crops.

  12. Distinctive exotic flavor and aroma compounds of some exotic tropical fruits and berries: a review.

    PubMed

    Lasekan, Ola; Abbas, Kassim A

    2012-01-01

    The characteristic flavor of exotic tropical fruits is one of their most attractive attributes to consumers. In this article, the enormous diversity of exotic fruit flavors is reviewed. Classifying some of the exotic fruits into two classes on the basis of whether esters or terpenes predominate in the aroma was also attempted. Indeed, as far as exotic tropical fruits are concerned, the majority of fruits have terpenes predominating in their aroma profile. Some of the fruits in this group are the Amazonian fruits such as pitanga, umbu-caja, camu-camu, garcinia, and bacuri. The ester group is made up of rambutan, durians, star fruit, snake fruit, acerola, tamarind, sapodilla, genipap, soursop, cashew, melon, jackfruit, and cupuacu respectively. Also, the role of sulphur-volatiles in some of the exotic fruits is detailed.

  13. Brazilian plants as possible adaptogens: an ethnopharmacological survey of books edited in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Fúlvio Rieli; Carlini, Elisaldo A

    2007-02-12

    In a survey, from Brazilian books, we searched plants that are in popular use for purposes resembling those of an adaptogen. This study focused on 24 books by authors from diverse regions in the country, resulting in a total of 1317 citations of uses related to a possible adaptogen effect from approximately 766 plants. Only species native to Brazil, cited in at least four books, were selected, resulting a total of 33 species, belonging to 24 families. Of these, four species have been studied previously in relation to effects that are considered as part of an adaptogen effect (anti-stress, memory enhancement, increased physical and/or sexual performance): Heteropterys aphrodisiaca (Malpighiaceae), Paullinia cupana (Sapindaceae), Ptychopetalum olacoides (Olacaceae), and Turnera diffusa (Turneraceae). Three others--Pfaffia glomerata, Pfaffia paniculata (Amaranthaceae), and Trichilia catigua (Meliaceae)--have also been the object of pharmacological studies that support their use as a possible adaptogen, but they are listed in less than four books. The overall results obtained in the present review of Brazilian folk literature reveals that Brazil is rich in plants with potential adaptogen-like effect, but lacks pharmacological studies (mostly clinical ones) to confirm these therapeutic properties.

  14. Exotic-Dominated Grasslands Show Signs of Recovery with Cattle Grazing and Fire

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In grasslands, overgrazing by domestic livestock, fertilization, and introduction of exotic forage species leads to plant communities consisting of a mixture of native and exotic species. These degraded grasslands present a problem for land managers, farmers, and restoration ecologists concerned with improving biodiversity while continuing to use the land for livestock production. Here we assessed the response of butterfly and plant community composition to the use of fire and moderate grazing by domestic cattle on degraded grasslands dominated by exotic plants. We evaluated change by comparing experimental pastures to two reference sites that were grasslands dominated by native plants. We used two burning and grazing treatments: 1) patch-burn graze, a heterogeneously managed treatment, where one third of the pasture is burned each year and cattle have free access to the entire pasture, and 2) graze-and-burn, a homogenously managed treatment, where the entire pasture is grazed each year and burned in its entirety every three years. We tested for change in the butterfly and plant community composition over seven years using Bray-Curtis dissimilarity measures. Over the course of seven years, degraded pastures in both treatments became more similar to reference sites with respect to the butterfly and plant communities. Only two butterfly species and two plant functional guilds exhibited significant linear trends over time, with varying responses. Compositional changes in both the butterfly and plant communities indicate that the use of moderate grazing and fire may shift butterfly and plant communities of exotic-dominated grasslands to be more similar to reference tallgrass prairies over time. PMID:27820838

  15. Exotic-Dominated Grasslands Show Signs of Recovery with Cattle Grazing and Fire.

    PubMed

    Delaney, John T; Moranz, Raymond A; Debinski, Diane M; Engle, David M; Miller, James R

    2016-01-01

    In grasslands, overgrazing by domestic livestock, fertilization, and introduction of exotic forage species leads to plant communities consisting of a mixture of native and exotic species. These degraded grasslands present a problem for land managers, farmers, and restoration ecologists concerned with improving biodiversity while continuing to use the land for livestock production. Here we assessed the response of butterfly and plant community composition to the use of fire and moderate grazing by domestic cattle on degraded grasslands dominated by exotic plants. We evaluated change by comparing experimental pastures to two reference sites that were grasslands dominated by native plants. We used two burning and grazing treatments: 1) patch-burn graze, a heterogeneously managed treatment, where one third of the pasture is burned each year and cattle have free access to the entire pasture, and 2) graze-and-burn, a homogenously managed treatment, where the entire pasture is grazed each year and burned in its entirety every three years. We tested for change in the butterfly and plant community composition over seven years using Bray-Curtis dissimilarity measures. Over the course of seven years, degraded pastures in both treatments became more similar to reference sites with respect to the butterfly and plant communities. Only two butterfly species and two plant functional guilds exhibited significant linear trends over time, with varying responses. Compositional changes in both the butterfly and plant communities indicate that the use of moderate grazing and fire may shift butterfly and plant communities of exotic-dominated grasslands to be more similar to reference tallgrass prairies over time.

  16. Temperature-dependent shifts in phenology contribute to the success of exotic species with climate change.

    PubMed

    Wolkovich, Elizabeth M; Davies, T Jonathan; Schaefer, Hanno; Cleland, Elsa E; Cook, Benjamin I; Travers, Steven E; Willis, Charles G; Davis, Charles C

    2013-07-01

    The study of how phenology may contribute to the assembly of plant communities has a long history in ecology. Climate change has brought renewed interest in this area, with many studies examining how phenology may contribute to the success of exotic species. In particular, there is increasing evidence that exotic species occupy unique phenological niches and track climate change more closely than native species. Here, we use long-term records of species’ first flowering dates from fi ve northern hemisphere temperate sites (Chinnor, UK and in the United States, Concord, Massachusetts; Fargo, North Dakota; Konza Prairie, Kansas; and Washington,D.C.) to examine whether invaders have distinct phenologies. Using a broad phylogenetic framework, we tested for differences between exotic and native species in mean annual flowering time, phenological changes in response to temperature and precipitation,and longer-term shifts in first flowering dates during recent pronounced climate change (“flowering time shifts”). Across North American sites, exotic species have shifted flowering with climate change while native species, on average, have not. In the three mesic systems, exotic species exhibited higher tracking of interannual variation in temperature,such that flowering advances more with warming, than native species. Across the two grassland systems, however, exotic species differed from native species primarily in responses to precipitation and soil moisture, not temperature. Our findings provide cross-site support for the role of phenology and climate change in explaining species’ invasions.Further, they support recent evidence that exotic species may be important drivers of extended growing seasons observed with climate change in North America.

  17. Ethnopharmacological survey of plants used in the traditional treatment of hypertension and diabetes in south-eastern Morocco (Errachidia province).

    PubMed

    Tahraoui, A; El-Hilaly, J; Israili, Z H; Lyoussi, B

    2007-03-01

    This survey was undertaken in the Errachidia province in south-eastern Morocco in order to inventory the main medicinal plants used in folk medicine to treat arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Four hundred individuals who knew about and/or had used the medicinal plants for the indicated diseases, including some herbal healers, were interviewed throughout different regions of the province. The inventory of medicinal plants is summarized in a synoptic table, which contains the scientific, vernacular and common name of the plant, its ecological distribution, the part of the plant and the preparation used and the therapeutic indication. Extensive investigations have brought to light 64 medicinal plants belonging to 33 families; of these, 45 are used for diabetes, 36 for hypertension, and 18 for both diseases. Of these plants, 34% grow in the wild, 44% are cultivated, and 22% are not indigenous to the area and are brought from other parts of Morocco or from outside the country. The survey shows that 78% of the patients regularly use these medicinal plants. In this region, the most frequently used plants to treat diabetes include Ajuga iva, Allium cepa, Artemisia herba-alba, Carum carvi, Lepidium sativum, Nigella sativa, Olea europaea, Peganum harmala, Phoenix dactylifera, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Zygophyllum gaetulum, and those to treat hypertension include Ajuga iva, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Carum carvi, Nigella sativa, Olea europea, Rosmarinus officinalis, Origanum majorana, Peganum harmala, and Phoenix dactylifera. The local people recognize the toxic plants and are very careful in using such plants, which are Citrullus colocynthis, Datura stramonium, Nerium oleander, Nigella sativa, Peganum harmala and Zygophyllum gaetulum. Our survey shows that traditional medicine in the south-eastern Moroccan population has not only survived but has thrived in the transcultural environment and intermixture of many ethnic traditions and

  18. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used in Daraa-Tafilalet region (Province of Errachidia), Morocco.

    PubMed

    Eddouks, Mohamed; Ajebli, Mohammed; Hebi, Morad

    2017-02-23

    We carried out an ethnobotanical survey in Tafilalet region. This region is classified by the UNESCO as a reserve of biosphere and represents an important area with important knowledge of traditional medicine, especially the use of medicinal plants for human healthcare. Furthermore, the geographic location of this region makes this site a diverse and interesting resource of herbal biodiversity. The study aimed to collect information about medicinal plants used in Tafilalet region as well as the indigenous knowledge related to the use of this natural resource in healthcare by the local population in order to preserve and protect this invaluable inheritance from loss and overlook. We aimed also to compare taxa used by the indigenous people of Tafilalet for health-care purposes in comparison with other regions of Morocco as well as neighboring countries. The total of informants interviewed in this study was 1616 (1500 were local inhabitants and 116 were herbalists). This enquiry was carried out through semi-structured and unstructured interviews and the sampling technique used was the stratified sample (9 stratums). Data obtained were analyzed calculating 6 indices: Use Value (UV), Family Use Value (FUV), Fidelity Level (FL), Rank Order Priority (ROP), Informant Consensus Factor (Fic) and Jaccard similarity Index (JI). 194 species belonging to 69 families were inventoried in this survey and 17 species were cited for the first time in an ethnobotanical survey in Morocco. The highest value of UV was obtained for Rosmarinus officinalis L. (UV=0.24) and Liliaceae was the family frequently used by inhabitants of Tafilalet (FUV=0.106). In addition, the highest value of FL was recorded for Cistus salviifolius L. and Daphne gnidium L. with FL value of 100% for both species and Origanium vulgare L. had the highest ROP with a value of 53% while the highest value of FIC was mentioned for digestive system disorders (FIC=0.29). Concerning the level of similarity between our study

  19. Ethnobotanical survey and toxicity evaluation of medicinal plants used for fungal remedy in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mbunde, Mourice Victor Nyangabo; Innocent, Ester; Mabiki, Faith; Andersson, Pher G.

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aim: Some of the antifungal drugs used in the current treatments regime are responding to antimicrobial resistance. In rural areas of Southern Tanzania, indigenous people use antifungal drugs alone or together with medicinal plants to curb the effects of antibiotic resistance. This study documented ethnobotanical information of medicinal plants used for managing fungal infections in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania and further assess their safety. Materials and Methods: Ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Makete and Mufindi districts between July 2014 and December 2015 using semi-structured questionnaires followed by two focus group discussions to verify respondents’ information. Cytotoxicity study was conducted on extracts of collected plants using brine shrimp lethality test and analyzed by MS Excel 2013 program. Results: During this survey about 46 plant species belonging to 28 families of angiosperms were reported to be traditionally useful in managing fungal and other health conditions. Among these, Terminalia sericea, Aloe nutii, Aloe lateritia, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, Zanthoxylum deremense, and Kigelia africana were frequently mentioned to be used for managing fungal infections. The preparation of these herbals was mostly by boiling plant parts especially the leaves and roots. Cytotoxicity study revealed that most of the plants tested were nontoxic with LC50 > 100 which implies that most compounds from these plants are safe for therapeutic use. The dichloromethane extract of Croton macrostachyus recorded the highest with LC50 value 12.94 µg/ml. The ethnobotanical survey correlated well with documented literature from elsewhere about the bioactivity of most plants. Conclusions: The ethnobotanical survey has revealed that traditional healers are rich of knowledge to build on for therapeutic studies. Most of the plants are safe for use; and thus can be considered for further studies on drug discovery. PMID:28163965

  20. Botanical studies in the vicinity of Cumberland Steam Plant: results of surveys conducted in 1978 and a review of surveys conducted in previous years. [Trees, shrubs, weeds, grasses

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.R.; Cunningham, J.R.

    1980-04-01

    No foliar effects attributable to SO/sub 2/ emissions from Cumberland Steam Plant were observed in 1978. Foliar injury was observed on vegetation during only one of the five growing seasons that surveys have been conducted in the Cumberland area. In 1974, effects were observed on one weed species, giant ragweed, in one 50-acre area. During the 1978 growing season, the sulfur content of coal fired was the lowest since the plant became operational (3.5 vs 3.7 to 3.8 percent); however, average daily SO/sub 2/ emissions were the highest since the plant became operational (due to the steam plant's operational level). After the steam plant is in compliance, December 1982, the SO/sub 2/ emission rate will be almost one-third less than during the 1978 growing season. The level of the National Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standard (3-h avg of 0.50 ppM) has never been exceeded at any SO/sub 2/ monitor in the Cumberland area during daylight hours of a growing season (time period when most vegetation is sensitive to SO/sub 2/ exposure). Previous operational and SO/sub 2/ monitoring data, botanical survey results, and projected SO/sub 2/ emission rates indicate that it is unlikely that emissions from the steam plant will injure vegetation as long as the emission rate does not exceed the interim or final compliance level.

  1. Medicinal wild plant knowledge and gathering patterns in a Mapuche community from North-western Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Estomba, Diego; Ladio, Ana; Lozada, Mariana

    2006-01-03

    Medicinal plant use has persisted as a long standing tradition in the Mapuche communities of Southern Argentina and Chile. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in the rural Curruhuinca community located near the mountain city of San Martin de los Andes, Argentina. Semi-structured interviews were carried out on 22 families in order to examine the present use of medicinal plants and their reputed therapeutic effects. Ecological variables, such as distance to the gathering site and biogeographical origin were also analyzed. Our results showed that the Curruhuinca dwellers cited 89 plant species for medicinal purposes, both of native and exotic origin. They know about 47 native plants, of which they use 40, and they know of 42 exotic medicinal plants of which they use 34. A differential pattern was observed given that only native species, relevant for the traditional Mapuche medicine, were collected at more distant gathering sites. The interviewees mentioned 268 plant usages. Those most frequently reported had therapeutic value for treating digestive ailments (33%), as analgesic/anti-inflammatory (25%) and antitusive (13%). Native species were mainly cited as analgesics, and for gynecological, urinary and "cultural syndrome" effects, whereas exotic species were mainly cited for digestive ailments. The total number of medicinal plants known and used by the interviewees was positively correlated with people's age, indicating that this ancient knowledge tends to disappear in the younger generations.

  2. Issues and opportunities in exotic hadrons

    DOE PAGES

    Briceno, Raul A.; Cohen, Thomas D.; Coito, S.; ...

    2016-04-01

    The last few years have been witness to a proliferation of new results concerning heavy exotic hadrons. Experimentally, many new signals have been discovered that could be pointing towards the existence of tetraquarks, pentaquarks, and other exotic configurations of quarks and gluons. Theoretically, advances in lattice field theory techniques place us at the cusp of understanding complex coupled-channel phenomena, modelling grows more sophisticated, and effective field theories are being applied to an ever greater range of situations. Consequently, it is thus an opportune time to evaluate the status of the field. In the following, a series of high priority experimentalmore » and theoretical issues concerning heavy exotic hadrons is presented.« less

  3. Wildlife, Exotic Pets, and Emerging Zoonoses1

    PubMed Central

    Belotto, Albino; Meslin, François-Xavier

    2007-01-01

    Most emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic; wildlife constitutes a large and often unknown reservoir. Wildlife can also be a source for reemergence of previously controlled zoonoses. Although the discovery of such zoonoses is often related to better diagnostic tools, the leading causes of their emergence are human behavior and modifications to natural habitats (expansion of human populations and their encroachment on wildlife habitat), changes in agricultural practices, and globalization of trade. However, other factors include wildlife trade and translocation, live animal and bushmeat markets, consumption of exotic foods, development of ecotourism, access to petting zoos, and ownership of exotic pets. To reduce risk for emerging zoonoses, the public should be educated about the risks associated with wildlife, bushmeat, and exotic pet trades; and proper surveillance systems should be implemented. PMID:17370509

  4. Exotic Baryon Resonances in the Skyrme Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diakonov, Dmitri; Petrov, Victor

    We outline how one can understand the Skyrme model from the modern perspective. We review the quantization of the SU(3) rotations of the Skyrmion, leading to the exotic baryons that cannot be made of three quarks. It is shown that in the limit of large number of colors the lowest-mass exotic baryons can be studied from the kaon-Skyrmion scattering amplitudes, an approach known after Callan and Klebanov. We follow this approach and find, both analytically and numerically, a strong Θ+ resonance in the scattering amplitude that is traced to the rotational mode. The Skyrme model does predict an exotic resonance Θ+ but grossly overestimates the width. To understand better the factors affecting the width, it is computed by several methods giving, however, identical results. In particular, we show that insofar as the width is small, it can be found from the transition axial constant. The physics leading to a narrow Θ+ resonance is briefly reviewed and affirmed.

  5. Exotic Superconductivity in Correlated Electron Systems

    DOE PAGES

    Mu, Gang; Sandu, Viorel; Li, Wei; ...

    2015-05-25

    Over the past decades, the search for high-Tc superconductivity (SC) and its novel superconducting mechanisms is one of the most challenging tasks of condensed matter physicists and material scientists, wherein the most striking achievement is the discovery of high-c and unconventional superconductivity in strongly correlated 3d-electron systems, such as cuprates and iron pnictides/chalcogenides. Those exotic superconductors display the behaviors beyond the scope of the BCS theory (in the SC states) and the Landau-Fermi liquid theory (in the normal states). In general, such exotic superconductivity can be seen as correlated electron systems, where there are strong interplays among charge, spin, orbital,more » and lattice degrees of freedom. Thus, we focus on the exotic superconductivity in materials with correlated electrons in the present special issue.« less

  6. Exotic Superconductivity in Correlated Electron Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mu, Gang; Sandu, Viorel; Li, Wei; Shen, Bing

    2015-05-25

    Over the past decades, the search for high-Tc superconductivity (SC) and its novel superconducting mechanisms is one of the most challenging tasks of condensed matter physicists and material scientists, wherein the most striking achievement is the discovery of high-c and unconventional superconductivity in strongly correlated 3d-electron systems, such as cuprates and iron pnictides/chalcogenides. Those exotic superconductors display the behaviors beyond the scope of the BCS theory (in the SC states) and the Landau-Fermi liquid theory (in the normal states). In general, such exotic superconductivity can be seen as correlated electron systems, where there are strong interplays among charge, spin, orbital, and lattice degrees of freedom. Thus, we focus on the exotic superconductivity in materials with correlated electrons in the present special issue.

  7. Ancient isolation and independent evolution of the three clonal lineages of the exotic sudden oak death pathogen Phytophthora ramorum

    Treesearch

    E.M. Goss; I. Carbone; N.J. Grünwald

    2009-01-01

    The genus Phytophthora includes some of the most destructive plant pathogens affecting agricultural and native ecosystems and is responsible for a number of recent emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases of plants. Sudden oak death, caused by the exotic pathogen P. ramorum, has caused extensive mortality of oaks...

  8. Dynamical effects in fusion with exotic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo-Phuoc, K.; Simenel, C.; Simpson, E. C.

    2016-08-01

    Background: Reactions with stable beams have demonstrated strong interplay between nuclear structure and fusion. Exotic beam facilities open new perspectives to understand the impact of neutron skin, large isospin, and weak binding energies on fusion. Microscopic theories of fusion are required to guide future experiments. Purpose: To investigate new effects of exotic structures and dynamics in near-barrier fusion with exotic nuclei. Method: Microscopic approaches based on the Hartree-Fock (HF) mean-field theory are used for studying fusion barriers in -54Ca40+116Sn reactions for even isotopes. Bare potential barriers are obtained assuming frozen HF ground-state densities. Dynamical effects on the barrier are accounted for in time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) calculations of the collisions. Vibrational couplings are studied in the coupled-channel framework and near-barrier nucleon transfer is investigated with TDHF calculations. Results: The development of a neutron skin in exotic calcium isotopes strongly lowers the bare potential barrier. However, this static effect is not apparent when dynamical effects are included. On the contrary, a fusion hindrance is observed in TDHF calculations with the most neutron-rich calcium isotopes which cannot be explained by vibrational couplings. Transfer reactions are also important in these systems due to charge equilibration processes. Conclusions: Despite its impact on the bare potential, the neutron skin is not seen as playing an important role in the fusion dynamics. However, the charge transfer with exotic projectiles could lead to an increase of the Coulomb repulsion between the fragments, suppressing fusion. The effects of transfer and dissipative mechanisms on fusion with exotic nuclei deserve further studies.

  9. Database survey of anti-inflammatory plants in South America: a review.

    PubMed

    de Morais Lima, Gedson Rodrigues; de Albuquerque Montenegro, Camila; de Almeida, Cynthia Layse Ferreira; de Athayde-Filho, Petrônio Filgueiras; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Batista, Leônia Maria

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation is a complex event linked to tissue damage whether by bacteria, physical trauma, chemical, heat or any other phenomenon. This physiological response is coordinated largely by a variety of chemical mediators that are released from the epithelium, the immunocytes and nerves of the lamina propria. However, if the factor that triggers the inflammation persists, the inflammation can become relentless, leading to an intensification of the lesion. The present work is a literature survey of plant extracts from the South American continent that have been reported to show anti-inflammatory activity. This review refers to 63 bacterial families of which the following stood out: Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Apocynaceae and Celastraceae, with their countries, parts used, types of extract used, model bioassays, organisms tested and their activity.

  10. Database Survey of Anti-Inflammatory Plants in South America: A Review

    PubMed Central

    de Morais Lima, Gedson Rodrigues; de Albuquerque Montenegro, Camila; de Almeida, Cynthia Layse Ferreira; de Athayde-Filho, Petrônio Filgueiras; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Batista, Leônia Maria

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation is a complex event linked to tissue damage whether by bacteria, physical trauma, chemical, heat or any other phenomenon. This physiological response is coordinated largely by a variety of chemical mediators that are released from the epithelium, the immunocytes and nerves of the lamina propria. However, if the factor that triggers the inflammation persists, the inflammation can become relentless, leading to an intensification of the lesion. The present work is a literature survey of plant extracts from the South American continent that have been reported to show anti-inflammatory activity. This review refers to 63 bacterial families of which the following stood out: Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Apocynaceae and Celastraceae, with their countries, parts used, types of extract used, model bioassays, organisms tested and their activity. PMID:21731467

  11. Cooling of Magnetars with Exotic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasutake, Nobutoshi; Noda, Tsuneo; Fujisawa, Kotaro; Kotake, Kei; Shigeyama, Toshikazu

    Thermal evolutions of magnetars are studied concerned with effects of exotic matter. All results are shown in two spatial dimensions for comparison with observational results by NuSTAR, NICER etc. in near future. Thermal conduction of envelope/crust in magnetars is affected by the strong magnetic field, and it could be an origin of hot/cold spots, which are expressed well with the two black body fitting. This study also stresses effects of the equation of state, on which the cooling processes, the thermal conductivity, and the heat capacity strongly depend. Exotic matter changes thermal evolutions of magnetars drastically, hence the effects could be detected in observations.

  12. Exotic statistics of leapfrogging vortex rings.

    PubMed

    Niemi, Antti J

    2005-04-01

    The leapfrogging motion of vortex rings is a three-dimensional version of the motion that in two dimensions leads to exotic exchange statistics. The statistical phase factor can be computed using the hydrodynamical Euler equation, which suggests that three-dimensional exotic exchange statistics is a common property of vortex rings in a variety of quantum liquids and gases. Potential applications range from helium superfluids to Bose-Einstein condensed alkali gases, metallic hydrogen in its liquid phases, and maybe even nuclear matter in extreme conditions.

  13. Survey of roadside alien plants in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park and adjacent residential areas 2001-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bio, Keali'i F.; Pratt, Linda W.; Jacobi, James D.

    2012-01-01

    The sides of all paved roads of Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO) were surveyed on foot in 2001 to 2005, and the roadside presence of 240 target invasive and potentially invasive alien plant species was recorded in mile-long increments. Buffer zones 5–10 miles (8–16 km) long along Highway 11 on either side of the Kīlauea and Kahuku Units of the park, as well as Wright Road that passed by the disjunct `Ōla`a Tract Unit, were included in the survey. Highway 11 is the primary road through the park and a major island thoroughfare. Three residential subdivisions adjacent to the park were similarly surveyed in 0.5–1 mile (0.8–1.6 km) intervals in 2003, and data were analyzed separately. Two roads to the east and northeast were also surveyed, but data from these disjunct areas were analyzed separately from park roads. In total, 174 of the target alien species were observed along HAVO roads and buffers, exclusive of residential areas, and the mean number of target aliens per mile surveyed was 20.6. Highway 11 and its buffer zones had the highest mean number of target alien plants per mile (26.7) of all park roads, and the Mauna Loa Strip Road had the lowest mean (11.7). Segments of Highway 11 adjacent to HAVO and Wright Road next to `Ōla`a Tract had mean numbers of target alien per mile (24–47) higher than those of any internal road. Alien plant frequencies were summarized for each road in HAVO. Fifteen new records of vascular plants for HAVO were observed and collected along park roads. An additional 28 alien plant species not known from HAVO were observed along the buffer segments of Highway 11 adjacent to the park. Within the adjacent residential subdivisions, 65 target alien plant species were sighted along roadsides. At least 15 potentially invasive species not currently found within HAVO were observed along residential roads, and several other species found there have been previously eliminated from the park or controlled to remnant populations

  14. The invertebrate fauna on broom, Cytisus scoparius,in two native and two exotic habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memmott, Jane; Fowler, Simon V.; Paynter, Quentin; Sheppard, Andrew W.; Syrett, Pauline

    2000-05-01

    This study quantifies the invertebrate fauna found on broom, Cytisus scoparius, L. (Link), in two countries where it grows as a native plant (France and England) and two countries where it grows as an alien plant (New Zealand and Australia). The data are used to test three hypotheses concerning the predicted differences in invertebrate community structure in native versus exotic habitats: (1) Are generalist phytophages dominant in exotic habitats and specialist phytophages dominant in native habitats? (2) Are there empty phytophage niches in exotic habitats? (3) As a plant species accumulates phytophages, do these in turn accumulate natural enemies? The broom fauna was sampled at five sites in each country by beating five broom bushes per site. The sampling efficiency of beating was quantified at one field site and it was shown to collect 87 % of invertebrate abundance, 95 % of invertebrate biomass and 100 % of phytophagous species found on the branches. Generalist phytophages were dominant on broom in exotic habitats and specialists dominant on broom in the native habitats. Thus, the two countries where broom grows as a native plant had higher numbers of total phytophage species and a higher abundance of specialist phytophages per bush. There was no significant difference in the average abundance of generalist phytophage species found per bush in native and alien habitats. Phytophages were assigned to seven feeding niches: suckers, root feeders, external chewers, flower feeders, seed feeders, miners and pollen feeders. Empty niches were found in the exotic habitats; species exploiting structurally specific parts of the host plant, such as flowers and seeds, were absent in the countries where broom grows as an alien plant. The pattern of niche occupancy was similar between native and exotic habitats when just the generalist phytophages were considered. As phytophage abundance and biomass increased, there were concomitant increases in natural enemy abundance and

  15. Exotic States of Nuclear Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Umberto; Baldo, Marcello; Burgio, Fiorella; Schulze, Hans-Josef

    2008-02-01

    pt. A. Theory of nuclear matter EOS and symmetry energy. Constraining the nuclear equation of state from astrophysics and heavy ion reactions / C. Fuchs. In-medium hadronic interactions and the nuclear equation of state / F. Sammarruca. EOS and single-particle properties of isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter within the Brueckner theory / W. Zuo, U. Lombardo & H.-J. Schulze. Thermodynamics of correlated nuclear matter / A. Polls ... [et al.]. The validity of the LOCV formalism and neutron star properties / H. R. Moshfegh ... [et al.]. Ferromagnetic instabilities of neutron matter: microscopic versus phenomenological approaches / I. Vidaã. Sigma meson and nuclear matter saturation / A. B. Santra & U. Lombardo. Ramifications of the nuclear symmetry energy for neutron stars, nuclei and heavy-ion collisions / A. W. Steiner, B.-A. Li & M. Prakash. The symmetry energy in nuclei and nuclear matter / A. E. L. Dieperink. Probing the symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities / M. Di Toro et al. Investigation of low-density symmetry energy via nucleon and fragment observables / H. H. Wolter et al. Instability against cluster formation in nuclear and compact-star matter / C. Ducoin ... [et al.]. Microscopic optical potentials of nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus scattering / Z.-Y. Ma, J. Rong & Y.-Q. Ma -- pt. B. The neutron star crust: structure, formation and dynamics. Neutron star crust beyond the Wigner-Seitz approximation / N. Chamel. The inner crust of a neutron star within the Wigner-Seitz method with pairing: from drip point to the bottom / E. E. Saperstein, M. Baldo & S. V. Tolokonnikov. Nuclear superfluidity and thermal properties of neutron stars / N. Sandulescu. Collective excitations: from exotic nuclei to the crust of neutron stars / E. Khan, M. Grasso & J. Margueron. Monte Carlo simulation of the nuclear medium: fermi gases, nuclei and the role of Pauli potentials / M. A. Pérez-García. Low-density instabilities in relativistic hadronic models / C. Provid

  16. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in Bozyazı district of Mersin, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ahmet Sargin, Seyid

    2015-09-15

    This research contributes momentous ethnopharmaceutical information on medicinal plants used by local people who live in the Bozyazı district of Mersin in Turkey. To arrange a list of herbal treatments from the Bozyazı region with their habitual use, plant parts and application methods besides computing some statistical indices. Plant specimens that have been collected by herbalists or local people from Bozyazı for therapeutic purposes were investigated by visiting the villages during the study period, and then conveyed to the laboratory to diagnose the species. In addition, the relative frequency citation (RFC), use values (UV), informant consensus factor (ICF) and fidelity level (FL) were calculated. In this survey conducted between 2013 and 2015, 159 taxa associated with 55 families, excluding 9 edible mushrooms, were detected as they have been utilized for centuries in terms of the healing by visiting 14 villages and 4 herbalist shops in Bozyazı. Lamiaceae, Asteraceae Orchidaceae, Rosaceae, Fabaceae and Geraniaceae have been determined as the most used families for therapeutic purposes. The study revealed that most of the residents concurred on the use of Sideritis erythrantha herba to cure respiratory diseases that demonstrated the highest fidelity level (89). 63 taxa have not matched with any studies conducted in and around the region. Throughout the research carried out Bozyazı district, it has been observed that people living in rural areas have more knowledge and experience about the use and benefits of plants, compared to the people living in the district center. It was detected that the medicinal plants have been used mostly in the therapy of Hemorrhoids. The most information is obtained from the mountain villagers and Yuruk nomads, having average ages of 46.3, during the whole study. In terms of ethnobotanical perspective, the district has stayed valuable due to the winding roads over the mountains and along the coast is very difficult to drive

  17. Application of a passive soil vapor survey at a former manufactured gas plant

    SciTech Connect

    Wrigley, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    Manufactured gas plants (MGPs) operated from the mid-nineteenth century to the 1950`s, producing wastes characterized by tars and oils comprised of compounds including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Active soil gas methods have been used at MGP sites to help locate these wastes in soil and ground water as part of initial site investigations. However, active methodology is generally limited to detection of only the volatiles present, while passive methods have shown limited success at MGP sites. A new passive soil vapor survey has been developed and validated over the past two years which helps to address these limitations. By using a time-integrated approach and a unique soil vapor collector the GORE-SORBER{reg_sign} Screening Survey has proven to successfully detect PAH compounds as well as volatiles. This technology features a patented, passive sorbent collector constructed from GORE-TEX{reg_sign} expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE), which allows for efficient vapor transfer from the subsurface to the adsorbent, but prevents liquid water and particulate from impacting sample integrity and sensitivity. This discussion describes the unique qualities of this passive soil gas technology and presents the results of a recent application at a former MGP site in the eastern United States with comparison to the results from previous soil and ground water investigations conducted at the site.

  18. Molecular and morphological characterisation of Pseudococcidae surveyed on crops and ornamental plants in Spain.

    PubMed

    Beltrà, A; Soto, A; Malausa, T

    2012-04-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are common invasive pests in Europe, causing major problems on crops and ornamental plants. However, very few data are available concerning the mealybug fauna of southern Europe. This lack of data and the difficulty of identifying mealybugs morphologically by traditional techniques currently limit the perspectives for efficient specific pest management. The aim of this study was to provide multi-criterion characterization of mealybugs surveyed in eastern Spain in order to facilitate their routine identification through DNA sequencing or the use of derived species-specific molecular tools. We characterised 33 mealybug populations infesting crops and ornamental plants in eastern Spain, using a combination of molecular and morphological techniques, including the sequencing of the universal barcode DNA region cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI). This characterisation has led to the identification of ten species and provides sequence data for three previously unsequenced species, contributing to the phylogenetic knowledge of the family Pseudococcidae. In addition, the intraspecific variations found in the populations of five mealybug species provide insight into their invasion history.

  19. Survey of scale insects of ornamental plants in Alexandria Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mourad, A K; Mesbah, H A; Fata, A A; Moursi, K S; Abdel-Razak, S I

    2001-01-01

    This investigation covers a survey of the scale insects associating with some ornamental plants at three chosen public gardens as well as at the experimental farm of the Agricultural Research Station in Alexandria Governorate, Egypt. A total of nineteen scale insect species belonging to sixteen genera related to four families of the super-family Coccoidea were found infesting eighteen ornamental plants during the period from April, 1998 up to March, 1999. These species are: Family: Asterolecaniidae--Represented by one species only The fig scale Russelaspis pustulans; (Cockerell) = (Asterolecanium pustulans Cock). Family: Coccidae--Represented by the seven species Florida wax scale. Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock, Green shield scale. Chloropulvinaria psidii (Maskell), Long brown scale. Caccus elongatus (Douglas), Brown soft scale Coccus hesperidum (Linn.), Tessellated scale. Eucalymnatus tessellatus (Signoret), Hemispherical scale. Saissetia coffeae (Walker), and Olive soft scale. Saissetia oleae (Olivier) Family: Diaspididae--Represented by the ten species: Oleander scale. Aspidiotus hederae (Vallot), Minute cypress scale. Carulaspis minima (Targioni-Tozzetti), Dictyosprmum scale Chrysomphalus dictyospermi (Morgan), Palm fiorinia scale. Fiorinia fioriniae (Targioni), Latania scale Hemiberlisia lataniae (Signoret), Fig scale. Lepidosaphes ficus (Signoret), Snow scale. Lineaspis striata (Newstead), Masked scale. Mycetaspis personata (Comstock), Olive scale. Parlatoria oleae (Colvee), and White peach scale Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni-Tozzetti), Family: Eriococcidae--Represented by one species only Eriococcus araucariae (Maskell). During the same study, many species of natural enemies (nine parasitoids and eight predators), were also noticed to be associated with the aforementioned scale insects.

  20. Epidemiologic survey on lung cancer with respect to cigarette smoking and plant diet.

    PubMed

    Sakai, R

    1989-06-01

    This case-control study of lung cancer was based on a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of inpatients at 5 general hospitals in Okinawa, Japan, from 1982 to 1987. The purpose of the study was to clarify the relations of lung cancer to cigarette smoking and plant diet. Ingestion frequencies of 17 major dietary plants and/or herbs were obtained by means of a questionnaire interview. As eligible subjects for a case-control analysis, there were 673 respondents aged over 30 years with clear smoking history, age, sex and diagnosis. Psychiatric patients were excluded. Odds ratios of newly diagnosed lung cancer were calculated by the Mantel-Haenszel procedure. A pair consisted of a case and two controls which were selected randomly by using multivariate caliper matching. Sixty-four pairs matched for age (+/- 5) and sex showed a significantly high odds ratio of 2.9 (P less than 0.0005). However, three male groups who were categorized by the number of cigarettes smoked did not exhibit dose-dependency of lung cancer on smoking. Lung cancer was more prevalent in ex-smokers than in current smokers. Case-control analyses by male generations revealed that lung cancer incidence was age-dependent, and there was a clear dose-response relationship between smoking and lung cancer in males in their sixties. A case-control analysis of each of 17 edible plants based on 44 pairs who were matched for age (+/- 5), sex and smoking history demonstrated that the odds ratio of aloe (Aloe arborescens Mill var. natalensis Berger) was 0.5 (P less than 0.1), suggesting that the aloe may prevent human carcinogenesis at various sites.

  1. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the Siwai and Buin districts of the Autonomous Region of Bougainville

    PubMed Central

    Waruruai, Julie; Sipana, Beuluah; Koch, Michael; Barrows, Louis R.; Matainaho, Teatulohi K.; Rai, Prem P

    2011-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Traditional knowledge of medicinal plant use in many regions of Papua New Guinea and the Autonomous Region of Bougainville is poorly described and rapidly disappearing. A program initiated by the University of Papua New Guinea to systematically document and preserve traditional knowledge of medicinal plant use was initiated with WHO help in 2001. Aim of the study To document and compare medicinal plant use in the Siwai and Buin Districts of the Island of Bougainville. Siwai and Buin districts represent two adjacent geographic regions of differing language traditions. Materials and methods This report is a combination of two University of Papua New Guinea reports generated using a University of Papua New Guinea and Papua New Guinea Department of Health approved survey questionnaire “Information sheet on traditional herbal reparations and medicinal plants of Papua New Guinea”. Results Although Siwai and Buin Districts are adjacent in Southern Bougainville, there is considerable variation in the specific plants used medicinally and the specific uses of those plants that are used commonly in the two regions. In addition, many of the plants used in the region are widely distributed species that are used medicinally in other settings. Nevertheless, the high endemicity of plants and the extraordinary cultural diversity in the Autonomous Region of Bougainville has yielded description of the medicinal use of many plants that have not previously been reported in the wider scientific literature. Conclusions Efforts to document and preserve traditional knowledge of plant use in Papua New Guinea have yielded important new records of plants with potential application in the provision of health care for a developing nation with an under developed Western style rural health care system. This report documents substantial commonality in the general modes of medicinal plant preparation and in the health care applications of plant use in the Siwai

  2. Native grass seeding and forb planting establishment

    Treesearch

    I Nan Vance; Andrew Neill; Frank Morton

    2006-01-01

    After a dense stand of conifers encroaching on an oak savanna/meadow was removed, exotic forbs and grasses quickly populated the newly disturbed area. Establishing desirable native grasses and forbs that contribute to native plant diversity and compete with exotic species could aid in restoring this oak savanna plant community. Two experiments were conducted over time...

  3. Young and Exotic Stellar Zoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    constellation Ara (the Altar). It was discovered in 1961 from Australia by Swedish astronomer Bengt Westerlund, who later moved from there to become ESO Director in Chile (1970 - 74). This cluster is behind a huge interstellar cloud of gas and dust, which blocks most of its visible light. The dimming factor is more than 100,000 - and this is why it has taken so long to uncover the true nature of this particular cluster. In 2001, the team of astronomers identified more than a dozen extremely hot and peculiar massive stars in the cluster, so-called "Wolf-Rayet" stars. They have since studied Westerlund 1 extensively with various ESO telescopes. They used images from the Wide Field Imager (WFI) attached to the 2.2-m ESO/MPG as well as from the SUperb Seeing Imager 2 (SuSI2) camera on the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT). From these observations, they were able to identify about 200 cluster member stars. To establish the true nature of these stars, the astronomers then performed spectroscopic observations of about one quarter of them. For this, they used the Boller & Chivens spectrograph on the ESO 1.52-m telescope and the ESO Multi-Mode Instrument (EMMI) on the NTT. An Exotic Zoo These observations have revealed a large population of very bright and massive, quite extreme stars. Some would fill the solar system space within the orbit of Saturn (about 2,000 times larger than the Sun!), others are as bright as a million Suns. Westerlund 1 is obviously a fantastic stellar zoo, with a most exotic population and a true astronomical bonanza. All stars identified are evolved and very massive, spanning the full range of stellar oddities from Wolf-Rayet stars, OB supergiants, Yellow Hypergiants (nearly as bright as a million Suns) and Luminous Blue Variables (similar to the exceptional Eta Carinae object - see ESO PR 31/03). All stars so far analysed in Westerlund 1 weigh at least 30-40 times more than the Sun. Because such stars have a rather short life - astronomically speaking

  4. Introduction: Exotic Annual Bromus in the Western USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Germino, Matthew; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Brown, Cynthia S.

    2016-01-01

    The spread and impacts of exotic species are unambiguous, global threats to many ecosystems. A prominent example is the suite of annual grasses in the Bromus genus (Bromus hereafter) that originate from Europe and Eurasia but have invaded or are invading large areas of the Western USA. This book brings a diverse, multidisciplinary group of authors together to synthesize current knowledge, research needs, and management implications for Bromus. Exotic plant invasions are multifaceted problems, and understanding and managing them requires the biological, ecological, sociological, and economic perspectives that are integrated in this book. Knowing how well information from one geographic or environmental setting can transfer to another is a key need for broadly distributed Bromus species especially given ongoing climate change. Thus, the chapters in the book compare and contrast invasibility of different ecoregions and invasiveness of different Bromus species. A universal theme is managing for ecosystems that are resilient to disturbance and resistant to invasion which will be essential for adaptation to the human-caused problem of Bromus in the Western USA.

  5. Exotic Gauge Bosons in the 331 Model

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, D.; Ravinez, O.; Diaz, H.; Reyes, J.

    2009-04-30

    We analize the bosonic sector of the 331 model which contains exotic leptons, quarks and bosons (E,J,U,V) in order to satisfy the weak gauge SU(3){sub L} invariance. We develop the Feynman rules of the entire kinetic bosonic sector which will let us to compute some of the Z(0)' decays modes.

  6. Exotic scolytids of the Great Lakes region

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Haack

    2001-01-01

    There are at least 44 exotic species of Scolytidae established in North America north of Mexico, of which 16 species can be found in the Great Lakes region (see Table). Scolytids occupy many niches, but the two most common groups are the true bark beetles and the ambrosia beetles (Poland and Haack 1998). Adult bark beetles, as their name implies, construct galleries...

  7. Exotic forest insects and residential property values

    Treesearch

    Thomas P. Holmes; Elizabeth A. Murphy; Kathleen P. Bell

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the economic damages to homeowners in a northern New Jersey community due to an exotic forest insect-the hemlock woolly adelgid. Hedonic property value methods are used to estimate the effect of hemlock health on property values. A statistically significant relationship between hemlock health and residential property values is...

  8. Eye Removal Surgeries in Exotic Pets.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Kathryn A; McKinnon, Jo-Ann

    2016-01-01

    This article covers considerations and techniques of eye removal surgeries in exotic pets. After issues including surgical indications, anesthesia, patient preparation, and instrumentation are explored, surgical techniques are described. Enucleation/exenteration and modified evisceration are discussed, with species-specific nuances of small mammals, birds, reptiles, snakes, amphibians, and fish highlighted.

  9. Phenology of cheatgrass and associated exotic weeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), is an exotic, highly invasive annual grass that has dramatically changed the aspect and ecological functions of vast areas of formerly big sagebrush/bunchgrass and salt desert rangelands in the Intermountain west. Cheatgrass increases the chance of ignition, rate of spr...

  10. Biodiversity and the exotic species threat

    Treesearch

    Peter S. White

    1998-01-01

    Exotic species invasions, called by one conservation biologist the "least reversible" of all human impacts, cause harm to economies (e.g., fisheries, wildlife populations, tourism), the environment (e.g., in the form of broadcast of pesticides and herbicides), human health and wellbeing (e.g., allergic responses and the increase in fire severity in some...

  11. Exotic Grass Yields Under Southern Pines

    Treesearch

    H.A. Pearson

    1975-01-01

    Kentucky 31 and Kenwell tall fescue, Pensacola bahia, and Brunswick grasses yielded nea,rly three times more forage under an established pine stand than native grasses 7 years after seeding. Introducing exotic grasses did not significantly increase total grass production but did enhance range quality since the cool-season grasses are green during winter and are higher...

  12. Emerging avenues for utilization of exotic germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Breeders have been successful in increasing crop performance by exploiting genetic diversity over time. However, the reported annual yield increases are not sufficient in view of rapid human population growth and global environmental changes. Exotic germplasm such as landraces and wild relatives pos...

  13. Exotic Forest Insect Pests and Their Impact on Forest Management

    Treesearch

    Therese M. Poland; Robert A. Haack

    2003-01-01

    More than 4500 exotic organisms are now established in the United States, of which over 400 are insects that feed on trees and shrubs. While most exotic insects cause little or no damage, a few have become serious pests and have greatly altered native forest ecosystems. Three of the most recently introduced exotic forest pests are the pine shoot beetle, the Asian...

  14. Exotic hadrons from heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sungtae; Hyodo, Tetsuo; Jido, Daisuke; Ko, Che Ming; Lee, Su Houng; Maeda, Saori; Miyahara, Kenta; Morita, Kenji; Nielsen, Marina; Ohnishi, Akira; Sekihara, Takayasu; Song, Taesoo; Yasui, Shigehiro; Yazaki, Koichi

    2017-07-01

    High energy heavy ion collisions are excellent ways for producing heavy hadrons and composite particles, including the light (anti)nuclei. With upgraded detectors at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), it has become possible to measure hadrons beyond their ground states. Therefore, heavy ion collisions provide a new method for studying exotic hadrons that are either molecular states made of various hadrons or compact system consisting of multiquarks. Because their structures are related to the fundamental properties of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), studying exotic hadrons is currently one of the most active areas of research in hadron physics. Experiments carried out at various accelerator facilities have indicated that some exotic hadrons may have already been produced. The present review is a summary of the current understanding of a selected set of exotic particle candidates that can be potentially measured in heavy ion collisions. It also includes discussions on the production of resonances, exotics and hadronic molecular states in these collisions based on the coalescence model and the statistical model. A more detailed discussion is given on the results from these models, leading to the conclusion that the yield of a hadron that is a compact multiquark state is typically an order of magnitude smaller than if it is an excited hadronic state with normal quark numbers or a loosely bound hadronic molecule. Attention is also given to some of the proposed heavy exotic hadrons that could be produced with sufficient abundance in heavy ion collisions because of the significant numbers of charm and bottom quarks that are produced at RHIC and even larger numbers at LHC, making it possible to study them in these experiments. Further included in the discussion are the general formalism for the coalescence model that involves resonance particles and its implication on the present estimated yield for resonance production. Finally

  15. Survey of Nitrate Ion Concentrations in Vegetables Cultivated in Plant Factories: Comparison with Open-Culture Vegetables.

    PubMed

    Oka, Yuka; Hirayama, Izumi; Yoshikawa, Mitsuhide; Yokoyama, Tomoko; Iida, Kenji; Iwakoshi, Katsushi; Suzuki, Ayana; Yanagihara, Midori; Segawa, Yukino; Kukimoto, Sonomi; Hamada, Humika; Matsuzawa, Satomi; Tabata, Setsuko; Sasamoto, Takeo

    2017-01-01

    A survey of nitrate-ion concentrations in plant-factory-cultured leafy vegetables was conducted. 344 samples of twenty-one varieties of raw leafy vegetables were examined using HPLC. The nitrate-ion concentrations in plant-factory-cultured leafy vegetables were found to be LOD-6,800 mg/kg. Furthermore, the average concentration values varied among different leafy vegetables. The average values for plant-factory-cultured leafy vegetables were higher than those of open-cultured leafy vegetables reported in previous studies, such as the values listed in the Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan- 2015 - (Seventh revised edition). For some plant-factory-cultured leafy vegetables, such as salad spinach, the average values were above the maximum permissible levels of nitrate concentration in EC No 1258/2011; however, even when these plant-factory-cultured vegetables were routinely eaten, the intake of nitrate ions in humans did not exceed the ADI.

  16. A century of ecosystem change: human and seabird impacts on plant species extirpation and invasion on islands

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Joseph R.; Blight, Louise K.; Giesen, Marissa; Janssen, Michael H.; Schaminée, Joop J.H.J.; Arcese, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We used 116 years of floral and faunal records from Mandarte Island, British Columbia, Canada, to estimate the indirect effects of humans on plant communities via their effects on the population size of a surface-nesting, colonial seabird, the Glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens). Comparing current to historical records revealed 18 extirpations of native plant species (32% of species historically present), 31 exotic species introductions, and one case of exotic introduction followed by extirpation. Contemporary surveys indicated that native species cover declined dramatically from 1986 to 2006, coincident with the extirpation of ‘old-growth’ conifers. Because vegetation change co-occurred with an increasing gull population locally and regionally, we tested several predictions from the hypothesis that the presence and activities of seabirds help to explain those changes. Specifically, we predicted that on Mandarte and nearby islands with gull colonies, we should observe higher nutrient loading and exotic plant species richness and cover than on nearby islands without gull colonies, as a consequence of competitive dominance in species adapted to high soil nitrogen and trampling. As predicted, we found that native plant species cover and richness were lower, and exotic species cover and richness higher, on islands with versus without gull colonies. In addition, we found that soil carbon and nitrogen on islands with nesting gulls were positively related to soil depth and exotic species richness and cover across plots and islands. Our results support earlier suggestions that nesting seabirds can drive rapid change in insular plant communities by increasing nutrients and disturbing vegetation, and that human activities that affect seabird abundance may therefore indirectly affect plant community composition on islands with seabird colonies. PMID:27547531

  17. A survey of insect populations in Capsicum chinense L. plantings in Georgetown, St. Vincent, using modified CC traps.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The insect populations in hot pepper, Capsicum chinense L., were surveyed in Georgetown, St. Vincent, during the 2004 wet and 2005 dry seasons. Modified white, blue, and yellow CC traps were used to capture insects in the plantings. Overall, 69 insect families were captured, 41 of which were capture...

  18. Population survey of phytoseiid mites and spider mites on peach leaves and wild plants in Japanese peach orchard.

    PubMed

    Wari, David; Yamashita, Jun; Kataoka, Yoko; Kohara, Yoko; Hinomoto, Norihide; Kishimoto, Hidenari; Toyoshima, Shingo; Sonoda, Shoji

    2014-07-01

    A population survey of phytoseiid mites and spider mites was conducted on peach leaves and wild plants in Japanese peach orchards having different pesticide practices. The phytoseiid mite species composition on peach leaves and wild plants, as estimated using quantitative sequencing, changed during the survey period. Moreover, it varied among study sites. The phytoseiid mite species compositions were similar between peach leaves and some wild plants, such as Veronica persica, Paederia foetida, Persicaria longiseta, and Oxalis corniculata with larger quantities of phytoseiid mites, especially after mid-summer. A PCR-based method to detect the ribosomal ITS sequences of Tetranychus kanzawai and Panonychus mori from phytoseiid mites was developed. Results showed that Euseius sojaensis (specialized pollen feeder/generalist predator) uses both spider mites as prey in the field.

  19. Defining a regional approach for invasive plant research and management.

    Treesearch

    Steven R. Radosevich; Bryan A. Endress; Catherine G. Parks

    2005-01-01

    Invasive plants are now recognized as a serious threat to most extensive management systems, such as forests, meadows, deserts, and riparian areas [1-3]. Vitousek et al. [3] described exotic plant invasion as a significant element of global environmental change because exotic plants can alter primary productivity, decomposition, hydrology, nutrient cycling, and natural...

  20. Ethnobotanical survey of wild food plants traditionally collected and consumed in the Middle Agri Valley (Basilicata region, southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Sansanelli, Sabrina; Ferri, Maura; Salinitro, Mirko; Tassoni, Annalisa

    2017-09-06

    This research was carried out in a scarcely populated area of the Middle Agri Valley (Basilicata region, southern Italy). The aim of the study was to record local knowledge on the traditional uses of wild food plants, as well as to collect information regarding the practices (gathering, processing and cooking) and the medicinal uses related to these plants. Fifty-eight people still possessing traditional local knowledge (TLK), 74% women and 26% men, were interviewed between May-August 2012 and January 2013, using open and semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews. For each described plant species, the botanical family, the Italian common and folk names, the plant parts used, the culinary preparation and, when present, the medicinal use, were recorded and the relative frequency of citation index (RFC) was determined. The 52 plant species mentioned by the respondents belong to 23 botanical families, with Asteraceae (12 plants) and Rosaceae (7 plants) being most frequently cited. The species with the highest RFC index is Cichorium intybus L. (0.95), followed by Sonchus spp. (S. oleraceus L., S. asper L. and S. arvensis L.) (0.76). The plant parts preferably used are leaves (22 plants), fruits (12) and stems (7). Only six wild plants were indicated as having both food use and therapeutic effect. The survey conducted on the traditional use of wild food plants in the Middle Agri Valley revealed that this cultural heritage is only partially retained by the population. Over the last few decades, this knowledge has been in fact quickly disappearing along with the people and, even in the rural context of the study area, is less and less handed down to younger generations. Nevertheless, data also revealed that the use of wild plants is recently being revaluated in a way closely related to local habits and traditions.