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Sample records for exotic plant surveying

  1. How exotic plants integrate into pollination networks

    PubMed Central

    Stouffer, Daniel B; Cirtwill, Alyssa R; Bascompte, Jordi; Bartomeus, Ignasi

    2014-01-01

    Summary There is increasing world-wide concern about the impact of the introduction of exotic species on ecological communities. Since many exotic plants depend on native pollinators to successfully establish, it is of paramount importance that we understand precisely how exotic species integrate into existing plant–pollinator communities. In this manuscript, we have studied a global data base of empirical pollination networks to determine whether community, network, species or interaction characteristics can help identify invaded communities. We found that a limited number of community and network properties showed significant differences across the empirical data sets – namely networks with exotic plants present are characterized by greater total, plant and pollinator richness, as well as higher values of relative nestedness. We also observed significant differences in terms of the pollinators that interact with the exotic plants. In particular, we found that specialist pollinators that are also weak contributors to community nestedness are far more likely to interact with exotic plants than would be expected by chance alone. Synthesis. By virtue of their interactions, it appears that exotic plants may provide a key service to a community's specialist pollinators as well as fill otherwise vacant ‘coevolutionary niches’. PMID:25558089

  2. Exotic plant species invade hot spots of native plant diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Binkley, D.; Chong, G.W.; Kalkhan, M.A.; Schell, L.D.; Bull, K.A.; Otsuki, Y.; Newman, G.; Bashkin, M.; Yowhan, S.

    1999-01-01

    Some theories and experimental studies suggest that areas of low plant species richness may be invaded more easily than areas of high plant species richness. We gathered nested-scale vegetation data on plant species richness, foliar cover, and frequency from 200 1-m2 subplots (20 1000-m2 modified-Whittaker plots) in the Colorado Rockies (USA), and 160 1-m2 subplots (16 1000-m2 plots) in the Central Grasslands in Colorado, Wyoming, South Dakota, and Minnesota (USA) to test the generality of this paradigm. At the 1-m2 scale, the paradigm was supported in four prairie types in the Central Grasslands, where exotic species richness declined with increasing plant species richness and cover. At the 1-m2 scale, five forest and meadow vegetation types in the Colorado Rockies contradicted the paradigm; exotic species richness increased with native-plant species richness and foliar cover. At the 1000-m2 plot scale (among vegetation types), 83% of the variance in exotic species richness in the Central Grasslands was explained by the total percentage of nitrogen in the soil and the cover of native plant species. In the Colorado Rockies, 69% of the variance in exotic species richness in 1000-m2 plots was explained by the number of native plant species and the total percentage of soil carbon. At landscape and biome scales, exotic species primarily invaded areas of high species richness in the four Central Grasslands sites and in the five Colorado Rockies vegetation types. For the nine vegetation types in both biomes, exotic species cover was positively correlated with mean foliar cover, mean soil percentage N, and the total number of exotic species. These patterns of invasibility depend on spatial scale, biome and vegetation type, spatial autocorrelation effects, availability of resources, and species-specific responses to grazing and other disturbances. We conclude that: (1) sites high in herbaceous foliar cover and soil fertility, and hot spots of plant diversity (and

  3. Native and exotic plants of fragments of sagebrush steppe produced by geomorphic processes versus land use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntly, N.; Bangert, R.; Hanser, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation and invasion by exotic species are regarded as major threats to the biodiversity of many ecosystems. We surveyed the plant communities of two types of remnant sagebrush-steppe fragments from nearby areas on the Snake River Plain of southeastern Idaho, USA. One type resulted from land use (conversion to dryland agriculture; hereafter AG Islands) and the other from geomorphic processes (Holocene volcanism; hereafter kipukas). We assessed two predictions for the variation in native plant species richness of these fragments, using structural equation models (SEM). First, we predicted that the species richness of native plants would follow the MacArthur-Wilson (M-W) hypothesis of island biogeography, as often is expected for the communities of habitat fragments. Second, we predicted a negative relationship between native and exotic plants, as would be expected if exotic plants are decreasing the diversity of native plants. Finally, we assessed whether exotic species were more strongly associated with the fragments embedded in the agricultural landscape, as would be expected if agriculture had facilitated the introduction and naturalization of non-native species, and whether the communities of the two types of fragments were distinct. Species richness of native plants was not strongly correlated with M-W characteristics for either the AG Islands or the **kipukas. The AG Islands had more species and higher cover of exotics than the kipukas, and exotic plants were good predictors of native plant species richness. Our results support the hypothesis that proximity to agriculture can increase the diversity and abundance of exotic plants in native habitat. In combination with other information, the results also suggest that agriculture and exotic species have caused loss of native diversity and reorganization of the sagebrush-steppe plant community. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  4. Using a botanical garden to assess factors influencing the colonization of exotic woody plants by phyllophagous insects.

    PubMed

    Kirichenko, Natalia; Kenis, M

    2016-09-01

    The adoption of exotic plants by indigenous herbivores in the region of introduction can be influenced by numerous factors. A botanical garden in Western Siberia was used to test various hypotheses on the adaptation of indigenous phyllophagous insects to exotic plants invasions, focusing on two feeding guilds, external leaf chewers and leaf miners. A total of 150 indigenous and exotic woody plant species were surveyed for insect damage, abundance and species richness. First, exotic woody plants were much less damaged by chewers and leaf miners than native plants, and the leaf miners' species richness was much lower on exotic than native plants. Second, exotic woody plants having a congeneric species in the region of introduction were more damaged by chewers and hosted a more abundant and species-rich community of leaf miners than plants without native congeneric species. Third, damage by chewers significantly increased with the frequency of planting of exotic host plants outside the botanical garden, and leaf miners' abundance and species richness significantly increased with residence time in the garden. Finally, no significant relationship was found between insect damage or abundance and the origin of the exotic plants. Besides the ecological implications of the results, this study also illustrates the potential of botanical gardens to test ecological hypotheses on biological invasions and insect-plant interactions on a large set of plant species. PMID:27167225

  5. Native weeds and exotic plants: Relationships to disturbance in mixed-grass prairie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    Disturbance frequently is implicated in the spread of invasive exotic plants. Disturbances may be broadly categorized as endogenous (e.g., digging by fossorial animals) or exogenous (e.g., construction and maintenance of roads and trails), just as weedy species may be native or exotic in origin. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare exotic and native weedy plant occurrence in and near three classes of disturbance -digging by prairie dogs (an endogenous disturbance to which native plants have had the opportunity to adapt), paved or gravel roads (an exogenous disturbance without natural precedent), and constructed trails (an exogenous disturbance with a natural precedent in trails created by movement of large mammals) - in three geographically separate national park units. I used plant survey data from the North and South Units of Theodore Roosevelt National Park and Wind Cave National Park in the northern mixed-grass prairie of western North and South Dakota, USA, to characterize the distribution of weedy native and exotic plants with respect to the three disturbance classes as well as areas adjacent to them. There were differences both in the susceptibility of the disturbance classes to invasion and in the distributions of native weeds and exotic species among the disturbance classes. Both exotic and native weedy species richness were greatest in prairie dog towns and community composition there differed most from undisturbed areas. Exotic species were more likely to thrive near roadways, where native weedy species were infrequently encountered. Exotic species were more likely to have spread beyond the disturbed areas into native prairie than were weedy native species. The response of individual exotic plant species to the three types of disturbance was less consistent than that of native weedy species across the three park units.

  6. Ecosystem engineers modulate exotic invasions in riparian plant communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corenblit, D.; Tabacchi, E.; Steiger, J.; Gonzales, E.; Planty-Tabacchi, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    The relationship between biodiversity and invasibility of exotic plant species within different environments and at different spatial scales is still being discussed amongst scientists. In this study, patterns of native and exotic plant species richness and cover were examined in relation with ecosystem engineer effects of pioneer vegetation within the active tract of the Mediterranean gravel bed river Tech, South France. The floristic composition was characterized according to two distinct vegetation types corresponding to two habitats with contrasted conditions: (i) open and exposed alluvial bars dominated by herbaceous communities and (ii) islands and river margins partly stabilized by ecosystem engineer plants, disconnected from annual hydrogeomorphic disturbances, and covered by woody vegetation. A significant positive correlation between exotic and native plant species richness and cover was observed for the herbaceous and the woody types, indicating that both native and exotic richness benefit from the prevailing environmental conditions. However, significant differences in native and exotic specific richness and cover were found between these two vegetation types. Higher values of total species richness and Shannon diversity of native and exotic species were attained within the herbaceous vegetation type compared to the woody type. These differences may be related to changes in local exposure to hydrogeomorphic disturbances driven by engineer plant species, and to vegetation succession. A lower exotic cover within the woody vegetation type compared to the herbaceous type suggested an increase of resistance to invasion by exotic species during the biogeomorphic succession. The engineer effects of woody vegetation resulted in a decrease of alpha (α) diversity at patch scale but, in parallel, caused an increase in gamma (γ) diversity at the scale of the studied river segment. Our study corroborates recent investigations that support the theory of biotic

  7. Exotic plants contribute positively to biodiversity functions but reduce native seed production and arthropod richness.

    PubMed

    Cook-Patton, Susan C; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2014-06-01

    Although exotic plants comprise a substantial portion of floristic biodiversity, their contributions to community and ecosystem processes are not well understood. We manipulated plant species richness in old-field communities to compare the impacts of native vs. exotic species on plant biomass, seed production, and arthropod community structure. Plants within diverse communities, regardless of whether they were native or exotic, had higher biomass and seed production than in monocultures and displayed positive complementarity. Increasing native or exotic plant richness also enhanced the richness of arthropods on plants, but exotics attracted fewer arthropod species for a given arthropod abundance than did natives. Additionally, when exotic and native plants grew together, exotics suppressed seed production of native species. Thus, exotic plants appear to contribute positively to some biodiversity functions, but may impact native communities over longer time frames by reducing native seed production and recruiting fewer arthropod species.

  8. Herbivory and dominance shifts among exotic and congeneric native plant species during plant community establishment.

    PubMed

    Engelkes, Tim; Meisner, Annelein; Morriën, Elly; Kostenko, Olga; Van der Putten, Wim H; Macel, Mirka

    2016-02-01

    Invasive exotic plant species often have fewer natural enemies and suffer less damage from herbivores in their new range than genetically or functionally related species that are native to that area. Although we might expect that having fewer enemies would promote the invasiveness of the introduced exotic plant species due to reduced enemy exposure, few studies have actually analyzed the ecological consequences of this situation in the field. Here, we examined how exposure to aboveground herbivores influences shifts in dominance among exotic and phylogenetically related native plant species in a riparian ecosystem during early establishment of invaded communities. We planted ten plant communities each consisting of three individuals of each of six exotic plant species as well as six phylogenetically related natives. Exotic plant species were selected based on a rapid recent increase in regional abundance, the presence of a congeneric native species, and their co-occurrence in the riparian ecosystem. All plant communities were covered by tents with insect mesh. Five tents were open on the leeward side to allow herbivory. The other five tents were completely closed in order to exclude insects and vertebrates. Herbivory reduced aboveground biomass by half and influenced which of the plant species dominated the establishing communities. Exposure to herbivory did not reduce the total biomass of natives more than that of exotics, so aboveground herbivory did not selectively enhance exotics during this early stage of plant community development. Effects of herbivores on plant biomass depended on plant species or genus but not on plant status (i.e., exotic vs native). Thus, aboveground herbivory did not promote the dominance of exotic plant species during early establishment of the phylogenetically balanced plant communities. PMID:26481795

  9. Herbivory and dominance shifts among exotic and congeneric native plant species during plant community establishment.

    PubMed

    Engelkes, Tim; Meisner, Annelein; Morriën, Elly; Kostenko, Olga; Van der Putten, Wim H; Macel, Mirka

    2016-02-01

    Invasive exotic plant species often have fewer natural enemies and suffer less damage from herbivores in their new range than genetically or functionally related species that are native to that area. Although we might expect that having fewer enemies would promote the invasiveness of the introduced exotic plant species due to reduced enemy exposure, few studies have actually analyzed the ecological consequences of this situation in the field. Here, we examined how exposure to aboveground herbivores influences shifts in dominance among exotic and phylogenetically related native plant species in a riparian ecosystem during early establishment of invaded communities. We planted ten plant communities each consisting of three individuals of each of six exotic plant species as well as six phylogenetically related natives. Exotic plant species were selected based on a rapid recent increase in regional abundance, the presence of a congeneric native species, and their co-occurrence in the riparian ecosystem. All plant communities were covered by tents with insect mesh. Five tents were open on the leeward side to allow herbivory. The other five tents were completely closed in order to exclude insects and vertebrates. Herbivory reduced aboveground biomass by half and influenced which of the plant species dominated the establishing communities. Exposure to herbivory did not reduce the total biomass of natives more than that of exotics, so aboveground herbivory did not selectively enhance exotics during this early stage of plant community development. Effects of herbivores on plant biomass depended on plant species or genus but not on plant status (i.e., exotic vs native). Thus, aboveground herbivory did not promote the dominance of exotic plant species during early establishment of the phylogenetically balanced plant communities.

  10. Distributions of exotic plants in eastern Asia and North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guo, Q.; Qian, H.; Ricklefs, R.E.; Xi, W.

    2006-01-01

    Although some plant traits have been linked to invasion success, the possible effects of regional factors, such as diversity, habitat suitability, and human activity are not well understood. Each of these mechanisms predicts a different pattern of distribution at the regional scale. Thus, where climate and soils are similar, predictions based on regional hypotheses for invasion success can be tested by comparisons of distributions in the source and receiving regions. Here, we analyse the native and alien geographic ranges of all 1567 plant species that have been introduced between eastern Asia and North America or have been introduced to both regions from elsewhere. The results reveal correlations between the spread of exotics and both the native species richness and transportation networks of recipient regions. This suggests that both species interactions and human-aided dispersal influence exotic distributions, although further work on the relative importance of these processes is needed. ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  11. Novel chemistry of invasive plants: exotic species have more unique metabolomic profiles than native congeners.

    PubMed

    Macel, Mirka; de Vos, Ric C H; Jansen, Jeroen J; van der Putten, Wim H; van Dam, Nicole M

    2014-07-01

    It is often assumed that exotic plants can become invasive when they possess novel secondary chemistry compared with native plants in the introduced range. Using untargeted metabolomic fingerprinting, we compared a broad range of metabolites of six successful exotic plant species and their native congeners of the family Asteraceae. Our results showed that plant chemistry is highly species-specific and diverse among both exotic and native species. Nonetheless, the exotic species had on average a higher total number of metabolites and more species-unique metabolites compared with their native congeners. Herbivory led to an overall increase in metabolites in all plant species. Generalist herbivore performance was lower on most of the exotic species compared with the native species. We conclude that high chemical diversity and large phytochemical uniqueness of the exotic species could be indicative of biological invasion potential. PMID:25077026

  12. Novel chemistry of invasive plants: exotic species have more unique metabolomic profiles than native congeners

    PubMed Central

    Macel, Mirka; de Vos, Ric C H; Jansen, Jeroen J; van der Putten, Wim H; van Dam, Nicole M

    2014-01-01

    It is often assumed that exotic plants can become invasive when they possess novel secondary chemistry compared with native plants in the introduced range. Using untargeted metabolomic fingerprinting, we compared a broad range of metabolites of six successful exotic plant species and their native congeners of the family Asteraceae. Our results showed that plant chemistry is highly species-specific and diverse among both exotic and native species. Nonetheless, the exotic species had on average a higher total number of metabolites and more species-unique metabolites compared with their native congeners. Herbivory led to an overall increase in metabolites in all plant species. Generalist herbivore performance was lower on most of the exotic species compared with the native species. We conclude that high chemical diversity and large phytochemical uniqueness of the exotic species could be indicative of biological invasion potential. PMID:25077026

  13. A rule-based model for mapping potential exotic plant distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Despain, D.G.; Weaver, T.; Aspinall, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Wildland managers need a method to predict which portions of the lands under their stewardship are susceptible to invasion by exotic plants. We combined a database listing exotic plant species known to occur in major environmental types (habitat types) throughout the northern Rocky Mountains with a digital vegetation map of environmental types for a major national park in the region (Yellowstone National Park) to produce maps of areas potentially threatened by major exotic species. Such maps should be helpful to managers concerned with monitoring and controlling exotic plants.

  14. Grasshopper host-plant selection influences seedling recruitment of native plants in an exotic dominated grassland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) is the most common exotic grass in western North America. Areas planted to crested wheatgrass are resistant to colonization by native plant species and often remain relatively stable for decades, imposing problems for the restoration of native grasslands. Gra...

  15. Soil ecosystem function under native and exotic plant assemblages as alternative states of successional grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirito, Florencia; Yahdjian, Laura; Tognetti, Pedro M.; Chaneton, Enrique J.

    2014-01-01

    Old fields often become dominated by exotic plants establishing persistent community states. Ecosystem functioning may differ widely between such novel communities and the native-dominated counterparts. We evaluated soil ecosystem attributes in native and exotic (synthetic) grass assemblages established on a newly abandoned field, and in remnants of native grassland in the Inland Pampa, Argentina. We asked whether exotic species alter soil functioning through the quality of the litter they shed or by changing the decomposition environment. Litter decomposition of the exotic dominant Festuca arundinacea in exotic assemblages was faster than that of the native dominant Paspalum quadrifarium in native assemblages and remnant grasslands. Decomposition of a standard litter (Triticum aestivum) was also faster in exotic assemblages than in native assemblages and remnant grasslands. In a common garden, F. arundinacea showed higher decay rates than P. quadrifarium, which reflected the higher N content and lower C:N of the exotic grass litter. Soil respiration rates were higher in the exotic than in the native assemblages and remnant grasslands. Yet there were no significant differences in soil N availability or net N mineralization between exotic and native assemblages. Our results suggest that exotic grass dominance affected ecosystem function by producing a more decomposable leaf litter and by increasing soil decomposer activity. These changes might contribute to the extended dominance of fast-growing exotic grasses during old-field succession. Further, increased organic matter turnover under novel, exotic communities could reduce the carbon storage capacity of the system in the long term.

  16. Are Local Filters Blind to Provenance? Ant Seed Predation Suppresses Exotic Plants More than Natives

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Dean E.; Icasatti, Nadia S.; Hierro, Jose L.; Bird, Benjamin J.

    2014-01-01

    The question of whether species’ origins influence invasion outcomes has been a point of substantial debate in invasion ecology. Theoretically, colonization outcomes can be predicted based on how species’ traits interact with community filters, a process presumably blind to species’ origins. Yet, exotic plant introductions commonly result in monospecific plant densities not commonly seen in native assemblages, suggesting that exotic species may respond to community filters differently than natives. Here, we tested whether exotic and native species differed in their responses to a local community filter by examining how ant seed predation affected recruitment of eighteen native and exotic plant species in central Argentina. Ant seed predation proved to be an important local filter that strongly suppressed plant recruitment, but ants suppressed exotic recruitment far more than natives (89% of exotic species vs. 22% of natives). Seed size predicted ant impacts on recruitment independent of origins, with ant preference for smaller seeds resulting in smaller seeded plant species being heavily suppressed. The disproportionate effects of provenance arose because exotics had generally smaller seeds than natives. Exotics also exhibited greater emergence and earlier peak emergence than natives in the absence of ants. However, when ants had access to seeds, these potential advantages of exotics were negated due to the filtering bias against exotics. The differences in traits we observed between exotics and natives suggest that higher-order introduction filters or regional processes preselected for certain exotic traits that then interacted with the local seed predation filter. Our results suggest that the interactions between local filters and species traits can predict invasion outcomes, but understanding the role of provenance will require quantifying filtering processes at multiple hierarchical scales and evaluating interactions between filters. PMID:25099535

  17. Local dominance of exotic plants declines with residence time: a role for plant–soil feedback?

    PubMed Central

    Speek, Tanja A.A.; Schaminée, Joop H.J.; Stam, Jeltje M.; Lotz, Lambertus A.P.; Ozinga, Wim A.; van der Putten, Wim H.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that introduced exotic plant species may be released from their native soil-borne pathogens, but that they become exposed to increased soil pathogen activity in the new range when time since introduction increases. Other studies have shown that introduced exotic plant species become less dominant when time since introduction increases, and that plant abundance may be controlled by soil-borne pathogens; however, no study yet has tested whether these soil effects might explain the decline in dominance of exotic plant species following their initial invasiveness. Here we determine plant–soil feedback of 20 plant species that have been introduced into The Netherlands. We tested the hypotheses that (i) exotic plant species with a longer residence time have a more negative soil feedback and (ii) greater local dominance of the introduced exotic plant species correlates with less negative, or more positive, plant–soil feedback. Although the local dominance of exotic plant species decreased with time since introduction, there was no relationship of local dominance with plant–soil feedback. Plant–soil feedback also did not become more negative with increasing time since introduction. We discuss why our results may deviate from some earlier published studies and why plant–soil feedback may not in all cases, or not in all comparisons, explain patterns of local dominance of introduced exotic plant species. PMID:25770013

  18. Use of exotic plants to control Spartina alterniflora invasion and promote mangrove restoration.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ting; Liu, Shuchao; Feng, Zhili; Liu, Gang; Gan, Qian; Peng, Shaolin

    2015-08-20

    In coastal China, the exotic invasive Spartina alterniflora is preventing the establishment of native mangroves. The use of exotic species, control of exotic plant invasion, and restoration of native plant communities are timely research issues. We used exotic Sonneratia apetala Buch.-Ham and S. caseolaris (L.) Engl. to control invasive Spartina alterniflora Loisel through replacement control for five years, which concurrently promoted the restoration of native mangroves. This process includes three stages. I: In a mangrove area invaded by S. alterniflora, exotic S. apetala and S. caseolaris grew rapidly due to their relatively fast-growing character and an allelopathic effect. II: Fast-growing S. apetala and S. caseolaris eradicate S. alterniflora through shading and allelopathy. III: The growth of native mangrove was promoted because exotic plant seedlings cannot regenerate in the understory shade, whereas native mesophytic mangrove plants seedlings can grow; when the area experiences extreme low temperatures in winter or at other times, S. apetala dies, and native mangrove species grow to restore the communities. This model has important implications for addressing the worldwide problems of "how to implement the ecological control of invasion using exotic species" and "how to concurrently promote native community restoration during the control of exotic invasion".

  19. Use of exotic plants to control Spartina alterniflora invasion and promote mangrove restoration.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ting; Liu, Shuchao; Feng, Zhili; Liu, Gang; Gan, Qian; Peng, Shaolin

    2015-01-01

    In coastal China, the exotic invasive Spartina alterniflora is preventing the establishment of native mangroves. The use of exotic species, control of exotic plant invasion, and restoration of native plant communities are timely research issues. We used exotic Sonneratia apetala Buch.-Ham and S. caseolaris (L.) Engl. to control invasive Spartina alterniflora Loisel through replacement control for five years, which concurrently promoted the restoration of native mangroves. This process includes three stages. I: In a mangrove area invaded by S. alterniflora, exotic S. apetala and S. caseolaris grew rapidly due to their relatively fast-growing character and an allelopathic effect. II: Fast-growing S. apetala and S. caseolaris eradicate S. alterniflora through shading and allelopathy. III: The growth of native mangrove was promoted because exotic plant seedlings cannot regenerate in the understory shade, whereas native mesophytic mangrove plants seedlings can grow; when the area experiences extreme low temperatures in winter or at other times, S. apetala dies, and native mangrove species grow to restore the communities. This model has important implications for addressing the worldwide problems of "how to implement the ecological control of invasion using exotic species" and "how to concurrently promote native community restoration during the control of exotic invasion". PMID:26291074

  20. Use of exotic plants to control Spartina alterniflora invasion and promote mangrove restoration

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ting; Liu, Shuchao; Feng, Zhili; Liu, Gang; Gan, Qian; Peng, Shaolin

    2015-01-01

    In coastal China, the exotic invasive Spartina alterniflora is preventing the establishment of native mangroves. The use of exotic species, control of exotic plant invasion, and restoration of native plant communities are timely research issues. We used exotic Sonneratia apetala Buch.-Ham and S. caseolaris (L.) Engl. to control invasive Spartina alterniflora Loisel through replacement control for five years, which concurrently promoted the restoration of native mangroves. This process includes three stages. I: In a mangrove area invaded by S. alterniflora, exotic S. apetala and S. caseolaris grew rapidly due to their relatively fast-growing character and an allelopathic effect. II: Fast-growing S. apetala and S. caseolaris eradicate S. alterniflora through shading and allelopathy. III: The growth of native mangrove was promoted because exotic plant seedlings cannot regenerate in the understory shade, whereas native mesophytic mangrove plants seedlings can grow; when the area experiences extreme low temperatures in winter or at other times, S. apetala dies, and native mangrove species grow to restore the communities. This model has important implications for addressing the worldwide problems of “how to implement the ecological control of invasion using exotic species” and “how to concurrently promote native community restoration during the control of exotic invasion”. PMID:26291074

  1. A new perspective on trait differences between native and invasive exotic plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Functional differences between native and exotic species are often presumed to be one factor responsible for plant invasion. Accordingly, invasion occurs when a niche is vacated and an exotic species enters the community that is able to exploit available resources. Differences in trait values betw...

  2. Apparent competition and native consumers exacerbate the strong competitive effect of an exotic plant species.

    PubMed

    Orrock, John L; Dutra, Humberto P; Marquis, Robert J; Barber, Nicholas

    2015-04-01

    Direct and indirect effects can play a key role in invasions, but experiments evaluating both are rare. We examined the roles of direct competition and apparent competition by exotic Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii) by manipulating (1) L. maackii vegetation, (2) presence of L. maackii fruits, and (3) access to plants by small mammals and deer. Direct competition with L. maackii reduced the abundance and richness of native and exotic species, and native consumers significantly reduced the abundance and richness of native species. Although effects of direct competition and consumption were more pervasive, richness of native plants was also reduced through apparent competition, as small-mammal consumers reduced richness only when L. maackii fruits were present. Our experiment reveals the multiple, interactive pathways that affect the success and impact of an invasive exotic plant: exotic plants may directly benefit from reduced attack by native consumers, may directly exert strong competitive effects on native plants, and may also benefit from apparent competition. PMID:26230025

  3. Native and exotic plant species exhibit similar population dynamics during succession.

    PubMed

    Meiners, Scott J

    2007-05-01

    A growing body of literature has led to the debate in invasion biology whether exotic species perform within communities differently than native taxa due to inherent advantages. To address this issue, the population dynamics of native and exotic plant species were assessed from a 48-year record of permanent plot data from the Hutcheson Memorial Forest Center (New Jersey, USA) to determine rate of increase, lag time, maximum frequency, and the year of peak frequency. Overall, native and exotic species exhibited very similar population dynamics. Rates of increase and length of lag times were similar between native and exotic taxa but were strongly influenced by plant life form. Short-lived species were characterized by rapid population growth rates and short lag times. Growth rates decreased and lag times increased with species longevity. Overall, correlations between population metrics were the same in native and exotic taxa, suggesting similar trade-offs in life history patterns. The one difference observed was that, in native species, peak frequency was negatively associated with the year of peak frequency (i.e., early-successional species tended to become more abundant), while there was no relationship in exotic species. These analyses show that exotic species behave in essentially the same way as native taxa within dynamic communities. This suggests that abundant native and exotic plant species are exploiting the same range of ecological strategies resulting in similar roles within communities.

  4. Plant and root endophyte assembly history: interactive effects on native and exotic plants.

    PubMed

    Sikes, Benjamin A; Hawkes, Christine V; Fukami, Tadashi

    2016-02-01

    Differences in the arrival timing of plants and soil biota may result in different plant communities through priority effects, potentially affecting the success of native vs. exotic plants, but experimental evidence is largely lacking. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to investigate whether the assembly history of plants and fungal root endophytes could interact to influence plant emergence and biomass. We introduced a grass species and eight fungal species from one of three land-use types (undisturbed, disturbed, or pasture sites in a Florida scrubland) in factorial combinations. We then introduced all plants and fungi from the other land-use types 2 weeks later. Plant emergence was monitored for 6 months, and final plant biomass and fungal species composition assessed. The emergence and growth of the exotic Melinis repens and the native Schizacharyium niveum were affected negatively when introduced early with their "home" fungi, but early introduction of a different plant species or fungi from a different site type eliminated these negative effects, providing evidence for interactive priority effects. Interactive effects of plant and fungal arrival history may be an overlooked determinant of plant community structure and may provide an effective management tool to inhibit biological invasion and aid ecosystem restoration. PMID:27145622

  5. Plant and root endophyte assembly history: interactive effects on native and exotic plants.

    PubMed

    Sikes, Benjamin A; Hawkes, Christine V; Fukami, Tadashi

    2016-02-01

    Differences in the arrival timing of plants and soil biota may result in different plant communities through priority effects, potentially affecting the success of native vs. exotic plants, but experimental evidence is largely lacking. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to investigate whether the assembly history of plants and fungal root endophytes could interact to influence plant emergence and biomass. We introduced a grass species and eight fungal species from one of three land-use types (undisturbed, disturbed, or pasture sites in a Florida scrubland) in factorial combinations. We then introduced all plants and fungi from the other land-use types 2 weeks later. Plant emergence was monitored for 6 months, and final plant biomass and fungal species composition assessed. The emergence and growth of the exotic Melinis repens and the native Schizacharyium niveum were affected negatively when introduced early with their "home" fungi, but early introduction of a different plant species or fungi from a different site type eliminated these negative effects, providing evidence for interactive priority effects. Interactive effects of plant and fungal arrival history may be an overlooked determinant of plant community structure and may provide an effective management tool to inhibit biological invasion and aid ecosystem restoration.

  6. Exotic birds increase generalization and compensate for native bird decline in plant-frugivore assemblages.

    PubMed

    García, Daniel; Martínez, Daniel; Stouffer, Daniel B; Tylianakis, Jason M

    2014-11-01

    Exotic species are thought to alter the structure of natural communities and disrupt ecosystem functioning through invasion. Nevertheless, exotic species may also provide ecological insurance when they contribute to maintain ecosystem functions after the decline of native species following anthropogenic disturbance. Here, this hypothesis is tested with the assemblage of frugivorous birds and fleshy-fruited plants of New Zealand, which has suffered strong historical declines in native birds while simultaneously gaining new frugivores introduced by European settlers. We studied the plant-frugivore assemblage from measures of fruit and bird abundances and fruit consumption in nine forest patches, and tested how this changed across a gradient of relative abundance of exotic birds. We then examined how each bird species' role in the assemblage (the proportion of fruits and the number of plant species consumed) varied with their relative abundance, body size and native/exotic status. The more abundant and, to a lesser extent, larger birds species consumed a higher proportion of fruits from more plant species. Exotic birds consumed fruits less selectively and more proportionate to the local availability than did native species. Interaction networks in which exotic birds had a stronger role as frugivores had higher generalization, higher nestedness and higher redundancy of plants. Exotic birds maintained frugivory when native birds became rarer, and diversified the local spectrum of frugivores for co-occurring native plants. These effects seemed related to the fact that species abundances, rather than trait-matching constraints, ultimately determined the patterns of interactions between birds and plants. By altering the structure of plant-frugivore assemblages, exotic birds likely enhance the stability of the community-wide seed dispersal in the face of continued anthropogenic impact.

  7. Herbivore preference for native vs. exotic plants: generalist herbivores from multiple continents prefer exotic plants that are evolutionarily naïve.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Wendy E; Hay, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    Enemy release and biotic resistance are competing, but not mutually exclusive, hypotheses addressing the success or failure of non-native plants entering a new region. Enemy release predicts that exotic plants become invasive by escaping their co-adapted herbivores and by being unrecognized or unpalatable to native herbivores that have not been selected to consume them. In contrast, biotic resistance predicts that native generalist herbivores will suppress exotic plants that will not have been selected to deter these herbivores. We tested these hypotheses using five generalist herbivores from North or South America and nine confamilial pairs of native and exotic aquatic plants. Four of five herbivores showed 2.4-17.3 fold preferences for exotic over native plants. Three species of South American apple snails (Pomacea sp.) preferred North American over South American macrophytes, while a North American crayfish Procambarus spiculifer preferred South American, Asian, and Australian macrophytes over North American relatives. Apple snails have their center of diversity in South America, but a single species (Pomacea paludosa) occurs in North America. This species, with a South American lineage but a North American distribution, did not differentiate between South American and North American plants. Its preferences correlated with preferences of its South American relatives rather than with preferences of the North American crayfish, consistent with evolutionary inertia due to its South American lineage. Tests of plant traits indicated that the crayfish responded primarily to plant structure, the apple snails primarily to plant chemistry, and that plant protein concentration played no detectable role. Generalist herbivores preferred non-native plants, suggesting that intact guilds of native, generalist herbivores may provide biotic resistance to plant invasions. Past invasions may have been facilitated by removal of native herbivores, introduction of non

  8. Effects of an exotic plant invasion on native understory plants in a tropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Ayesha E

    2010-06-01

    The dry forests of southern India, which are endangered tropical ecosystems and among the world's most important tiger (Panthera tigris) habitats, are extensively invaded by exotic plants. Yet, experimental studies exploring the impacts of these invasions on native plants in these forests are scarce. Consequently, little is known about associated implications for the long-term conservation of tigers and other biodiversity in these habitats. I studied the impacts of the exotic plant Lantana camara on understory vegetation in a dry-forest tiger habitat in southern India. I compared the richness, composition, and abundance of tree seedlings, herbs, and shrubs and the abundance of grass among plots in which Lantana was cleared or left standing. These plots were distributed across two blocks-livestock free and livestock grazed. Removal of Lantana had an immediate positive effect on herb-shrub richness in the livestock-free block, but had no effect on that of tree seedlings in either livestock block. Tree-seedling and herb-shrub composition differed significantly between Lantana treatment and livestock block, and Lantana removal significantly decreased survival of tree seedlings. Nevertheless, the absence of trees, in any stage between seedling and adult, indicates that Lantana may stall tree regeneration. Lantana removal decreased the abundance of all understory strata, probably because forage plants beneath Lantana are less accessible to herbivores, and plants in Lantana-free open plots experienced greater herbivory. Reduced access to forage in invaded habitats could negatively affect ungulate populations and ultimately compromise the ability of these forests to sustain prey-dependent large carnivores. Additional research focused on understanding and mitigating threats posed by exotic plants may be crucial to the long-term protection of these forests as viable tiger habitats.

  9. Effects of an exotic plant invasion on native understory plants in a tropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Ayesha E

    2010-06-01

    The dry forests of southern India, which are endangered tropical ecosystems and among the world's most important tiger (Panthera tigris) habitats, are extensively invaded by exotic plants. Yet, experimental studies exploring the impacts of these invasions on native plants in these forests are scarce. Consequently, little is known about associated implications for the long-term conservation of tigers and other biodiversity in these habitats. I studied the impacts of the exotic plant Lantana camara on understory vegetation in a dry-forest tiger habitat in southern India. I compared the richness, composition, and abundance of tree seedlings, herbs, and shrubs and the abundance of grass among plots in which Lantana was cleared or left standing. These plots were distributed across two blocks-livestock free and livestock grazed. Removal of Lantana had an immediate positive effect on herb-shrub richness in the livestock-free block, but had no effect on that of tree seedlings in either livestock block. Tree-seedling and herb-shrub composition differed significantly between Lantana treatment and livestock block, and Lantana removal significantly decreased survival of tree seedlings. Nevertheless, the absence of trees, in any stage between seedling and adult, indicates that Lantana may stall tree regeneration. Lantana removal decreased the abundance of all understory strata, probably because forage plants beneath Lantana are less accessible to herbivores, and plants in Lantana-free open plots experienced greater herbivory. Reduced access to forage in invaded habitats could negatively affect ungulate populations and ultimately compromise the ability of these forests to sustain prey-dependent large carnivores. Additional research focused on understanding and mitigating threats posed by exotic plants may be crucial to the long-term protection of these forests as viable tiger habitats. PMID:20067493

  10. A new perspective on trait differences between native and invasive exotic plants.

    PubMed

    Leffler, A Joshua; James, Jeremy J; Monaco, Thomas A; Sheley, Roger L

    2014-02-01

    Functional differences between native and exotic species potentially constitute one factor responsible for plant invasion. Differences in trait values between native and exotic invasive species, however, should not be considered fixed and may depend on the context of the comparison. Furthermore, the magnitude of difference between native and exotic species necessary to trigger invasion is unknown. We propose a criterion that differences in trait values between a native and exotic invasive species must be greater than differences between co-occurring natives for this difference to be ecologically meaningful and a contributing factor to plant invasion. We used a meta-analysis to quantify the difference between native and exotic invasive species for various traits examined in previous studies and compared this value to differences among native species reported in the same studies. The effect size between native and exotic invasive species was similar to the effect size between co-occurring natives except for studies conducted in the field; in most instances, our criterion was not met although overall differences between native and exotic invasive species were slightly larger than differences between natives. Consequently, trait differences may be important in certain contexts, but other mechanisms of invasion are likely more important in most cases. We suggest that using trait values as predictors of invasion will be challenging.

  11. Plant invasions differentially affected by diversity and dominant species in native- and exotic-dominated grasslands.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xia; Polley, H Wayne; Hofmockel, Kirsten; Daneshgar, Pedram P; Wilsey, Brian J

    2015-12-01

    Plant invasions are an increasingly serious global concern, especially as the climate changes. Here, we explored how plant invasions differed between native- and novel exotic-dominated grasslands with experimental addition of summer precipitation in Texas in 2009. Exotic species greened up earlier than natives by an average of 18 days. This was associated with a lower invasion rate early in the growing season compared to native communities. However, invasion rate did not differ significantly between native and exotic communities across all sampling times. The predictors of invasion rate differed between native and exotic communities, with invasion being negatively influenced by species richness in natives and by dominant species in exotics. Interestingly, plant invasions matched the bimodal pattern of precipitation in Temple, Texas, and did not respond to the pulse of precipitation during the summer. Our results suggest that we will need to take different approaches in understanding of invasion between native and exotic grasslands. Moreover, with anticipated increasing variability in precipitation under global climate change, plant invasions may be constrained in their response if the precipitation pulses fall outside the normal growing period of invaders.

  12. Plant invasions differentially affected by diversity and dominant species in native- and exotic-dominated grasslands.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xia; Polley, H Wayne; Hofmockel, Kirsten; Daneshgar, Pedram P; Wilsey, Brian J

    2015-12-01

    Plant invasions are an increasingly serious global concern, especially as the climate changes. Here, we explored how plant invasions differed between native- and novel exotic-dominated grasslands with experimental addition of summer precipitation in Texas in 2009. Exotic species greened up earlier than natives by an average of 18 days. This was associated with a lower invasion rate early in the growing season compared to native communities. However, invasion rate did not differ significantly between native and exotic communities across all sampling times. The predictors of invasion rate differed between native and exotic communities, with invasion being negatively influenced by species richness in natives and by dominant species in exotics. Interestingly, plant invasions matched the bimodal pattern of precipitation in Temple, Texas, and did not respond to the pulse of precipitation during the summer. Our results suggest that we will need to take different approaches in understanding of invasion between native and exotic grasslands. Moreover, with anticipated increasing variability in precipitation under global climate change, plant invasions may be constrained in their response if the precipitation pulses fall outside the normal growing period of invaders. PMID:27069615

  13. Roads as conduits for exotic plant invasions in a semiarid landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gelbard, J.L.; Belnap, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roads are believed to be a major contributing factor to the ongoing spread of exotic plants. We examined the effect of road improvement and environmental variables on exotic and native plant diversity in roadside verges and adjacent semiarid grassland, shrubland, and woodland communities of southern Utah (U.S.A.). We measured the cover of exotic and native species in roadside verges and both the richness and cover of exotic and native species in adjacent interior communities (50 m beyond the edge of the road cut) along 42 roads stratified by level of road improvement (paved, improved surface, graded, and four-wheel-drive track). In roadside verges along paved roads, the cover of Bromus tectorum was three times as great (27%) as in verges along four-wheel-drive tracks (9%). The cover of five common exotic forb species tended to be lower in verges along four-wheel-drive tracks than in verges along more improved roads. The richness and cover of exotic species were both more than 50% greater, and the richness of native species was 30% lower, at interior sites adjacent to paved roads than at those adjacent to four-wheel-drive tracks. In addition, environmental variables relating to dominant vegetation, disturbance, and topography were significantly correlated with exotic and native species richness and cover. Improved roads can act as conduits for the invasion of adjacent ecosystems by converting natural habitats to those highly vulnerable to invasion. However, variation in dominant vegetation, soil moisture, nutrient levels, soil depth, disturbance, and topography may render interior communities differentially susceptible to invasions originating from roadside verges. Plant communities that are both physically invasible (e.g., characterized by deep or fertile soils) and disturbed appear most vulnerable. Decision-makers considering whether to build, improve, and maintain roads should take into account the potential spread of exotic plants.

  14. The relative importance of disturbance and exotic-plant abundance in California coastal sage scrub

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, G.M.; Diffendorfer, J.E.; Zedler, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    Many ecosystems of conservation concern require some level of disturbance to sustain their species composition and ecological function. However, inappropriate disturbance regimes could favor invasion or expansion of exotic species. In southern California coastal sage scrub (CSS) fire is a natural disturbance, but because of human influence, frequencies may now be unnaturally high. Other anthropogenic disturbances such as grazing also occur in reserve areas. Managers charged with imposing or tolerating fire or other disturbance within their reserves are concerned that habitat quality may be degraded by an increasing abundance of exotic plants. We used vegetation monitoring data from Camp Pendleton, California, USA, to assess the correlation between past disturbances (frequent fire, agriculture, or grazing and mechanical disturbances) and current exotic species abundance in CSS. We found that disturbance history was only modestly related to exotic abundance overall, but fire frequency showed the strongest association. We also examined whether cover and richness of various native plant life forms (woody species, perennial herbs, and annual herbs) were more strongly influenced by disturbance history or by exotic-plant abundance. Native plant responses varied among life forms, but woody species and annual herbs were generally more strongly and negatively associated with exotic abundance than with disturbance. Effective CSS conservation will require developing means to curb the negative impacts of exotic plants, which may abound with or without severe or recent disturbance. Additionally, more focus should be given to understory herbs showing sensitivity to invasion. Though understudied, native herbs comprise the greatest portion of plant diversity in CSS and are critical to preservation of the community as a whole. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  15. Contrasting effects of land use intensity and exotic host plants on the specialization of interactions in plant-herbivore networks.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Walter Santos; Vieira, Marcos Costa; Lewinsohn, Thomas M; Almeida-Neto, Mário

    2015-01-01

    Human land use tends to decrease the diversity of native plant species and facilitate the invasion and establishment of exotic ones. Such changes in land use and plant community composition usually have negative impacts on the assemblages of native herbivorous insects. Highly specialized herbivores are expected to be especially sensitive to land use intensification and the presence of exotic plant species because they are neither capable of consuming alternative plant species of the native flora nor exotic plant species. Therefore, higher levels of land use intensity might reduce the proportion of highly specialized herbivores, which ultimately would lead to changes in the specialization of interactions in plant-herbivore networks. This study investigates the community-wide effects of land use intensity on the degree of specialization of 72 plant-herbivore networks, including effects mediated by the increase in the proportion of exotic plant species. Contrary to our expectation, the net effect of land use intensity on network specialization was positive. However, this positive effect of land use intensity was partially canceled by an opposite effect of the proportion of exotic plant species on network specialization. When we analyzed networks composed exclusively of endophagous herbivores separately from those composed exclusively of exophagous herbivores, we found that only endophages showed a consistent change in network specialization at higher land use levels. Altogether, these results indicate that land use intensity is an important ecological driver of network specialization, by way of reducing the local host range of herbivore guilds with highly specialized feeding habits. However, because the effect of land use intensity is offset by an opposite effect owing to the proportion of exotic host species, the net effect of land use in a given herbivore assemblage will likely depend on the extent of the replacement of native host species with exotic ones.

  16. A parasitic plant increases native and exotic plant species richness in vernal pools.

    PubMed

    Graffis, Andrea M; Kneitel, Jamie M

    2015-08-24

    Species interactions are well known to affect species diversity in communities, but the effects of parasites have been less studied. Previous studies on parasitic plants have found both positive and negative effects on plant community diversity. Cuscuta howelliana is an abundant endemic parasitic plant that inhabits California vernal pools. We tested the hypothesis that C. howelliana acts as a keystone species to increase plant species richness in vernal pools through a C. howelliana removal experiment at Beale Air Force Base in north-central California. Vernal pool endemic plants were parasitized more frequently, and Eryngium castrense and Navarretia leucocephala were the most frequently parasitized host plant species of C. howelliana. Cuscuta howelliana caused higher plant species richness, both natives and exotics, compared with removal plots. However, there was no single plant species that significantly increased with C. howelliana removal. Decreases in Eryngium castrense percent cover plots with C. howelliana is a plausible explanation for differences in species richness. In conclusion, C. howelliana led to changes in species composition and increases in plant species richness, consistent with what is expected from the effects of a keystone species. This research provides support for a shift in management strategies that focus on species-specific targets to strategies that target maintenance of complex species interactions and therefore maximize biodiversity and resilience of ecosystems.

  17. A parasitic plant increases native and exotic plant species richness in vernal pools

    PubMed Central

    Graffis, Andrea M.; Kneitel, Jamie M.

    2015-01-01

    Species interactions are well known to affect species diversity in communities, but the effects of parasites have been less studied. Previous studies on parasitic plants have found both positive and negative effects on plant community diversity. Cuscuta howelliana is an abundant endemic parasitic plant that inhabits California vernal pools. We tested the hypothesis that C. howelliana acts as a keystone species to increase plant species richness in vernal pools through a C. howelliana removal experiment at Beale Air Force Base in north-central California. Vernal pool endemic plants were parasitized more frequently, and Eryngium castrense and Navarretia leucocephala were the most frequently parasitized host plant species of C. howelliana. Cuscuta howelliana caused higher plant species richness, both natives and exotics, compared with removal plots. However, there was no single plant species that significantly increased with C. howelliana removal. Decreases in Eryngium castrense percent cover plots with C. howelliana is a plausible explanation for differences in species richness. In conclusion, C. howelliana led to changes in species composition and increases in plant species richness, consistent with what is expected from the effects of a keystone species. This research provides support for a shift in management strategies that focus on species-specific targets to strategies that target maintenance of complex species interactions and therefore maximize biodiversity and resilience of ecosystems. PMID:26307042

  18. Survey of zoonotic dermatoses in client-owned exotic pet mammals in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    d'Ovidio, D; Santoro, D

    2015-03-01

    Several 'exotic' mammalian species (e.g. rabbits, rodents, ferrets and hedgehogs) live in close proximity to humans as companion pets. Skin diseases (SD) are frequent causes of morbidity in exotic pet mammals, and most of those SDs have a zoonotic potential. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequencies and types of zoonotic dermatosis (ZD) in client-owned, exotic pet mammals in Southern Italy. Six-hundred and fifty-five medical records of exotic pet mammals examined between 2011 and 2012, across twenty private practice veterinary clinics around the Naples area (Italy), were retrospectively evaluated and screened for animals diagnosed with SDs (rabbits n = 455, guinea pigs n = 93, ferrets n = 64, hedgehogs n = 19, chinchillas n = 13 and rats n = 11). The records of animals diagnosed with SD, whose causative agents had a zoonotic potential, were selected for analysis. The Mann-Whitney independent test was used for statistical analysis. A P value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Eighty-two records (12.5%) of animals with ZD were identified. Of those, 56.1% (46/82) were affected by fungal infections and 42.7% (35/82) by parasitic infections. No zoonotic bacterial or viral infections were diagnosed. Dermatophytosis was significantly diagnosed more frequently in younger animals. The results of this survey indicate that exotic pet mammals may serve as active carriers for many highly contagious pathogens with zoonotic potential. Awareness and vigilance by the veterinary practitioner is crucial in the prevention of occurrences of ZDs. Children frequently come in close contact with exotic pets. To prevent the unplanned transmission of pathogen from pet to human, an active routine screening examination and preventative treatments are strongly recommended for every newly purchased pet mammal.

  19. Avian vacuolar myelinopathy linked to exotic aquatic plants and a novel cyanobacterial species.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Susan B; Murphy, Thomas M; Hope, Charlotte P; Habrun, Sarah K; Kempton, Jason; Birrenkott, Anna; Wiley, Faith; Bowerman, William W; Lewitus, Alan J

    2005-06-01

    Invasions of exotic species have created environmental havoc through competition and displacement of native plants and animals. The introduction of hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) into the United States in the 1960s has been detrimental to navigation, power generation, water intake, and water quality (McCann et al., 1996). Our field surveys and feeding studies have now implicated exotic hydrilla and associated epiphytic cyanobacterial species as a link to avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM), an emerging avian disease affecting herbivorous waterbirds and their avian predators. AVM, first reported in 1994, has caused the death of at least 100 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and thousands of American coots (Fulica americana) at 11 sites from Texas to North Carolina (Thomas et al., 1998; Rocke et al., 2002). Our working hypothesis is that the agent of this disease is an uncharacterized neurotoxin produced by a novel cyanobacterial epiphyte of the order Stigonematales. This undescribed species covers up to 95% of the surface area of leaves in reservoirs where bird deaths have occurred from the disease. In addition, this species is rare or not found on hydrilla collected at sites where AVM disease has not been diagnosed. Laboratory feeding trials and a sentinel bird study using naturally occurring blooms of cyanobacteria on hydrilla leaves and farm-raised mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) induced the disease experimentally. Since 1994 AVM has been diagnosed in additional sites from Texas to North Carolina. Specific site characteristics that produce the disjunct distribution of AVM are unknown, but it is probable that the incidence of this disease will increase with the introduction of hydrilla and associated cyanobacterial species into additional ponds, lakes, and reservoirs. PMID:15892059

  20. Riparian zones as havens for exotic plant species in the central grasslands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Bull, K.A.; Otsuki, Y.; Villa, C.A.; Lee, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the Central Grasslands of the United States, we hypothesized that riparian zones high in soil fertility would contain more exotic plant species than upland areas of low soil fertility. Our alternate hypothesis was that riparian zones high in native plant species richness and cover would monopolize available resources and resist invasion by exotic species. We gathered nested-scale vegetation data from 40 1 m2subplots (nested in four 1000 m2 plots) in both riparian and upland sites at four study areas in Colorado, Wyoming, and South Dakota (a total of 320 1 m2subplots and 32 1000 m2 plots). At the 1 m2 scale, mean foliar cover of native species was significantly greater (P < 0.001) in riparian zones (36.6% ?? 1.7%) compared to upland sites (28.7% ?? 1.5%), but at this small scale there were no consistent patterns of native and exotic species richness among the four management areas. Mean exotic species cover was slightly higher in upland sites compared to riparian sites (9.0% ?? 3.8% versus 8.2% ?? 3.0% cover). However, mean exotic species richness and cover were greater in the riparian zones than upland sites in three of four management areas. At the 1000 m2 scale, mean exotic species richness was also significantly greater (P < 0.05) in riparian zones (7.8 ?? 1.0 species) compared to upland sites (4.8 ?? 1.0 species) despite the heavy invasion of one upland site. For all 32 plots combined, 21% of the variance in exotic species richness was explained by positive relationships with soil % silt (t = 1.7, P = 0.09) and total foliar cover (t = 2.4, P = 0.02). Likewise, 26% of the variance in exotic species cover (log10 cover) was explained by positive relationships with soil % silt (t = 2.3, P = 0.03) and total plant species richness (t = 2.4, P = 0.02). At landscape scales (four 1000 m2 plots per type combined), total foliar cover was significantly and positively correlated with exotic species richness (r = 0.73, P < 0.05) and cover (r = 0.74, P < 0.05). Exotic

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhizal assemblages in native plant roots change in the presence of invasive exotic grasses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hawkes, C.V.; Belnap, J.; D'Antonio, C.; Firestone, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Plant invasions have the potential to significantly alter soil microbial communities, given their often considerable aboveground effects. We examined how plant invasions altered the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of native plant roots in a grassland site in California and one in Utah. In the California site, we used experimentally created plant communities composed of exotic (Avena barbata, Bromus hordeaceus) and native (Nassella pulchra, Lupinus bicolor) monocultures and mixtures. In the Utah semi-arid grassland, we took advantage of invasion by Bromus tectorum into long-term plots dominated by either of two native grasses, Hilaria jamesii or Stipa hymenoides. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonizing roots were characterized with PCR amplification of the ITS region, cloning, and sequencing. We saw a significant effect of the presence of exotic grasses on the diversity of mycorrhizal fungi colonizing native plant roots. In the three native grasses, richness of mycorrhizal fungi decreased; in the native forb at the California site, the number of fungal RFLP patterns increased in the presence of exotics. The exotic grasses also caused the composition of the mycorrhizal community in native roots to shift dramatically both in California, with turnover of Glomus spp., and Utah, with replacement of Glomus spp. by apparently non-mycorrhizal fungi. Invading plants may be able to influence the network of mycorrhizal fungi in soil that is available to natives through either earlier root activity or differential carbon provision compared to natives. Alteration of the soil microbial community by plant invasion can provide a mechanism for both successful invasion and the resulting effects of invaders on the ecosystem. ?? Springer 2006.

  2. Exotic plant species associations with horse trails, old roads, and intact native communities in the Missouri Ozarks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stroh, E.D.; Struckhoff, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    We compared the extent to which exotic species are associated with horse trails, old roads, and intact communities within three native vegetation types in Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri. We used a general linear model procedure and a Bonferroni multiple comparison test to compare exotic species richness, exotic to native species ratios, and exotic species percent cover across three usage types (horse trails, old roads, and intact communities) and three community types (river bottoms, upland waterways, and glades). We found that both exotic species richness and the ratio of exotic species to native species were greater in plots located along horse trails than in plots located either in intact native communities or along old roads. Native community types did not differ in the number of exotic species present, but river bottoms had a significantly higher exotic to native species ratio than glades. Continued introduction of exotic plant propagules may explain why horse trails contain more exotic species than other areas in a highly disturbed landscape.

  3. Southwest Exotic Mapping Program 2007: Occurrence Summary and Maps of Select Invasive, Non-native Plants in Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Kathryn A.; Guertin, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Introduction An important aspect of management of invasive, non-native plants (invasive plants) is information on the type, location, and magnitude of infestations. Regional development of this information requires an integrated program of data collection, management, and delivery. The Southwest Exotic Plant Mapping Program (SWEMP), coordinated through the U.S. Geological Survey's Southwest Biological Science Center, annually compiles occurrence records for infestations of invasive plants. Operating since 1998, the SWEMP team has accepted occurrence records contributed voluntarily by federal, tribal, state, and private collaborators and has compiled these contributions accumulatively with previous versions of SWEMP. The SWEMP 2007 regional database update, SWEMP07, contains 62,000 records for 221 plant species with records dating as far back as 1911 and up to December, 2006. Records include invasive plants in Arizona, eastern California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah. SWEMP07 is available through the Southwest Exotic Plant Information Clearinghouse (http://sbsc.wr.usgs.gov/research/projects/swepic/swepic.asp, click SWEMP). Not all invasive plants are non-native and not all invasive plants are even invasive. The Arizona Invasive Species Advisory Council (2006) defined an invasive species as 'a species that is (1) non-native to the ecosystem under consideration and, (2) whose introduction causes or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm, or harm to human health'. SWEMP uses the U.S. Department of Agriculture PLANTS database (http://plants.usda.gov/) to determine if a plant is native or not to Arizona. As SWEMP does not independently assess the current or potential impact of invasive plants, we include most non-native plant records contributed. We have not included agricultural crops that are non-native, for example apples, oranges, etc. In this open-file-report, we use the SWEMP07 update to summarize the occurrence of invasive plants in Arizona and

  4. Flood and debris flow interactions with roads promote the invasion of exotic plants along steep mountain streams, western Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watterson, Nicholas A.; Jones, Julia A.

    2006-08-01

    This study examines the interactions among geomorphic and biogeographic processes that govern the invasion by two contrasting exotic plant species—a shrub, scotch broom ( Cytisus scoparius) and an herb, foxglove ( Digitalis purpurea), over several decades of road and stream networks in the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest in western Oregon. Distributions of C. scoparius and D. purpurea were mapped along hillslopes and streams in 1993, 2002, and 2003. The mapped distributions were related to debris flow pathways and changes in stream morphology interpreted from field surveys and air photos over the period 1993 to 2003. Laboratory trials examined the response of seed germination to scarification (to test effects of transport by debris flows), soaking (to test effects of fluvial transport), and substrate texture (to test effects on establishment). C. scoparius and D. purpurea were present along roads and in clearcuts in the Andrews Forest from the 1970s to 2003, but invaded the stream (Lookout Creek) only after debris flows and floods during an extreme storm in 1996. Laboratory trials demonstrated that seeds could germinate on a variety of substrates after scarification and flood transport. Mapping and air photo/GIS analysis indicated that the distributions of exotic plants were located on freshly scoured bars and floodplains adjacent to the active channel, downstream of seed sources along roads that were connected to the main stem of Lookout Creek by road ditch drainage systems, and debris flow paths. This paper outlines a conceptual model for the invasion of exotic plants, highlighting the connectivity between road and stream networks provided by geomorphic processes in steep forested landscapes.

  5. Predicting spread of invasive exotic plants into de-watered reservoirs following dam removal on the Elwha River, Olympic National Park, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, Andrea; Torgersen, Christian E.; Chenoweth, Joshua; Beirne, Katherine; Acker, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The National Park Service is planning to start the restoration of the Elwha River ecosystem in Olympic National Park by removing two high head dams beginning in 2011. The potential for dispersal of exotic plants into dewatered reservoirs following dam removal, which would inhibit restoration of native vegetation, is of great concern. We focused on predicting long-distance dispersal of invasive exotic plants rather than diffusive spread because local sources of invasive species have been surveyed. We included the long-distance dispersal vectors: wind, water, birds, beavers, ungulates, and users of roads and trails. Using information about the current distribution of invasive species from two surveys, various geographic information system techniques and models, and statistical methods, we identified high-priority areas for Park staff to treat prior to dam removal, and areas of the dewatered reservoirs at risk after dam removal.

  6. Exotic plant invasion alters nitrogen dynamics in an arid grassland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, R.D.; Rimer, R.; Sperry, L.; Belnap, J.

    2001-01-01

    The introduction of nonnative plant species may decrease ecosystem stability by altering the availability of nitrogen (N) for plant growth. Invasive species can impact N availability by changing litter quantity and quality, rates of N2-fixation, or rates of N loss. We quantified the effects of invasion by the annual grass Bromus tectorum on N cycling in an arid grassland on the Colorado Plateau (USA). The invasion occurred in 1994 in two community types in an undisturbed grassland. This natural experiment allowed us to measure the immediate responses following invasion without the confounding effects of previous disturbance. Litter biomass and the C:N and lignin:N ratios were measured to determine the effects on litter dynamics. Long-term soil incubations (415 d) were used to measure potential microbial respiration and net N mineralization. Plant-available N was quantified for two years in situ with ion-exchange resin bags, and potential changes in rates of gaseous N loss were estimated by measuring denitrification enzyme activity. Bromus invasion significantly increased litter biomass, and Bromus litter had significantly greater C:N and lignin:N ratios than did native species. The change in litter quantity and chemistry decreased potential rates of net N mineralization in sites with Bromus by decreasing nitrogen available for microbial activity. Inorganic N was 50% lower on Hilaria sites with Bromus during the spring of 1997, but no differences were observed during 1998. The contrasting differences between years are likely due to moisture availability; spring precipitation was 15% greater than average during 1997, but 52% below average during spring of 1998. Bromus may cause a short-term decrease in N loss by decreasing substrate availability and denitrification enzyme activity, but N loss is likely to be greater in invaded sites in the long term because of increased fire frequency and greater N volatilization during fire. We hypothesize that the introduction of

  7. A predictive framework and review of the ecological impacts of exotic plant invasions on reptiles and amphibians.

    PubMed

    Martin, Leigh J; Murray, Brad R

    2011-05-01

    The invasive spread of exotic plants in native vegetation can pose serious threats to native faunal assemblages. This is of particular concern for reptiles and amphibians because they form a significant component of the world's vertebrate fauna, play a pivotal role in ecosystem functioning and are often neglected in biodiversity research. A framework to predict how exotic plant invasion will affect reptile and amphibian assemblages is imperative for conservation, management and the identification of research priorities. Here, we present a new predictive framework that integrates three mechanistic models. These models are based on exotic plant invasion altering: (1) habitat structure; (2) herbivory and predator-prey interactions; (3) the reproductive success of reptile and amphibian species and assemblages. We present a series of testable predictions from these models that arise from the interplay over time among three exotic plant traits (growth form, area of coverage, taxonomic distinctiveness) and six traits of reptiles and amphibians (body size, lifespan, home range size, habitat specialisation, diet, reproductive strategy). A literature review provided robust empirical evidence of exotic plant impacts on reptiles and amphibians from each of the three model mechanisms. Evidence relating to the role of body size and diet was less clear-cut, indicating the need for further research. The literature provided limited empirical support for many of the other model predictions. This was not, however, because findings contradicted our model predictions but because research in this area is sparse. In particular, the small number of studies specifically examining the effects of exotic plants on amphibians highlights the pressing need for quantitative research in this area. There is enormous scope for detailed empirical investigation of interactions between exotic plants and reptile and amphibian species and assemblages. The framework presented here and further testing of

  8. A spatially explicit multi-isotope approach to map influence regions of plant-plant interactions after exotic plant invasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellmann, Christine; Oldeland, Jens; Werner, Christiane

    2015-04-01

    Exotic plant invasions impose profound alterations to native ecosystems, including changes of water, carbon and nutrient cycles. However, explicitly quantifying these impacts remains a challenge. Stable isotopes, by providing natural tracers of biogeochemical processes, can help to identify and measure such alterations in space and time. Recently, δ15N isoscapes, i.e. spatially continuous representations of isotopic values, derived from native plant foliage, enabled to accurately trace nitrogen introduced by the N2-fixing invasive Acacia longifolia into a native Portuguese dune system. It could be shown that the area of the system which was altered by the invasive species exceeded the area which was covered by the invader by far. But still, definition of clear regions of influence is to some extent ambiguous. Here, we present an approach using multiple isoscapes derived from measured foliar δ13C and δ15N values of a native, non-fixing species, Corema album. By clustering isotopic information, we obtained an objective classification of the study area. Properties and spatial position of clusters could be interpreted to distinguish areas that were or were not influenced by A. longifolia. Spatial clusters at locations where A. longifolia was present had δ15N values that were enriched, i.e. close to the atmospheric signal of 0 o compared to the depleted values of the uninvaded system (ca. -11 o). Furthermore, C. album individuals in these clusters were characterized by higher foliar N content and enriched δ13C. These results indicate that the N2-fixing A. longifolia added nitrogen to the system which originated from the atmosphere and was used by the native C. album, inducing functional changes, i.e. an increase in WUE. Additionally, clusters were identified that were presumably determined by inherent properties of the native system. Thus, combining isotope ecology with geostatistical methods is a promising approach for mapping regions of influence in multi

  9. A Spatially Explicit Dual-Isotope Approach to Map Regions of Plant-Plant Interaction after Exotic Plant Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Hellmann, Christine; Werner, Christiane; Oldeland, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Understanding interactions between native and invasive plant species in field settings and quantifying the impact of invaders in heterogeneous native ecosystems requires resolving the spatial scale on which these processes take place. Therefore, functional tracers are needed that enable resolving the alterations induced by exotic plant invasion in contrast to natural variation in a spatially explicit way. 15N isoscapes, i.e., spatially referenced representations of stable nitrogen isotopic signatures, have recently provided such a tracer. However, different processes, e.g. water, nitrogen or carbon cycles, may be affected at different spatial scales. Thus multi-isotope studies, by using different functional tracers, can potentially return a more integrated picture of invader impact. This is particularly true when isoscapes are submitted to statistical methods suitable to find homogeneous subgroups in multivariate data such as cluster analysis. Here, we used model-based clustering of spatially explicit foliar δ15N and δ13C isoscapes together with N concentration of a native indicator species, Corema album, to map regions of influence in a Portuguese dune ecosystem invaded by the N2-fixing Acacia longifolia. Cluster analysis identified regions with pronounced alterations in N budget and water use efficiency in the native species, with a more than twofold increase in foliar N, and δ13C and δ15N enrichment of up to 2‰ and 8‰ closer to the invader, respectively. Furthermore, clusters of multiple functional tracers indicated a spatial shift from facilitation through N addition in the proximity of the invader to competition for resources other than N in close contact. Finding homogeneous subgroups in multi-isotope data by means of model-based cluster analysis provided an effective tool for detecting spatial structure in processes affecting plant physiology and performance. The proposed method can give an objective measure of the spatial extent of influence of

  10. A Spatially Explicit Dual-Isotope Approach to Map Regions of Plant-Plant Interaction after Exotic Plant Invasion.

    PubMed

    Hellmann, Christine; Werner, Christiane; Oldeland, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Understanding interactions between native and invasive plant species in field settings and quantifying the impact of invaders in heterogeneous native ecosystems requires resolving the spatial scale on which these processes take place. Therefore, functional tracers are needed that enable resolving the alterations induced by exotic plant invasion in contrast to natural variation in a spatially explicit way. 15N isoscapes, i.e., spatially referenced representations of stable nitrogen isotopic signatures, have recently provided such a tracer. However, different processes, e.g. water, nitrogen or carbon cycles, may be affected at different spatial scales. Thus multi-isotope studies, by using different functional tracers, can potentially return a more integrated picture of invader impact. This is particularly true when isoscapes are submitted to statistical methods suitable to find homogeneous subgroups in multivariate data such as cluster analysis. Here, we used model-based clustering of spatially explicit foliar δ15N and δ13C isoscapes together with N concentration of a native indicator species, Corema album, to map regions of influence in a Portuguese dune ecosystem invaded by the N2-fixing Acacia longifolia. Cluster analysis identified regions with pronounced alterations in N budget and water use efficiency in the native species, with a more than twofold increase in foliar N, and δ13C and δ15N enrichment of up to 2‰ and 8‰ closer to the invader, respectively. Furthermore, clusters of multiple functional tracers indicated a spatial shift from facilitation through N addition in the proximity of the invader to competition for resources other than N in close contact. Finding homogeneous subgroups in multi-isotope data by means of model-based cluster analysis provided an effective tool for detecting spatial structure in processes affecting plant physiology and performance. The proposed method can give an objective measure of the spatial extent of influence of

  11. Soil-plant hydrology of indigenous and exotic trees in an Ethiopian montane forest.

    PubMed

    Fritzsche, Florian; Abate, Asferachew; Fetene, Masresha; Beck, Erwin; Weise, Stephan; Guggenberger, Georg

    2006-08-01

    Fast-growing exotic trees are widely planted in the tropics to counteract deforestation; however, their patterns of water use could be detrimental to overall ecosystem productivity through their impact on ecosystem water budget. In a comparative field study on seasonal soil-plant water dynamics of two exotic species (Cupressus lusitanica Mill. and Eucalyptus globulus Labill.) and the indigenous Podocarpus falcatus (Thunb.) Mirb. in south Ethiopia, we combined a 2.5-year record for climate and soil water availability, natural-abundance oxygen isotope ratios (delta(18)O) of soil and xylem water, destructive root sampling and transpiration measurements. Soil was generally driest under C. lusitanica with its dense canopy and shallow root system, particularly following a relatively low-rainfall wet season, with the wettest soil under E. globulus. Wet season transpiration of C. lusitanica was twice that of the other species. In the dry season, P. falcatus and C. lusitanica reduced transpiration by a factor of six and two, respectively, whereas E. globulus showed a fivefold increase. In all species, there was a shift in water uptake to deeper soil layers as the dry season progressed, accompanied by relocation of live fine root biomass (LFR) of C. lusitanica and P. falcatus to deeper layers. Under P. falcatus, variability in soil matric potential, narrow delta(18)O depth gradients and high LFR indicated fast water redistribution. Subsoil water uptake was important only for E. globulus, which had low topsoil LFR and tap roots exploiting deep water. Although P. falcatus appeared better adapted to varying soil water availability than the exotic species, both conifers decreased growth substantially during dry weather. Growth of E. globulus was largely independent of topsoil water content, giving it the potential to cause substantial dry-season groundwater depletion.

  12. How grazing and soil quality affect native and exotic plant diversity in Rocky Mountain grasslands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Schell, L.D.; Vanden, Heuvel B.

    1999-01-01

    We used multiscale plots to sample vascular plant diversity and soil characteristics in and adjacent to 26 long-term grazing exclosure sites in Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, and South Dakota, USA. The exclosures were 7-60 yr old (31.2 ?? 2.5 yr, mean ?? 1 SE). Plots were also randomly placed in the broader landscape in open rangeland in the same vegetation type at each site to assess spatial variation in grazed landscapes. Consistent sampling in the nine National Parks, Wildlife Refuges, and other management units yielded data from 78 1000-m2 plots and 780 1-m2 subplots. We hypothesized that native species richness would be lower in the exclosures than in grazed sites, due to competitive exclusion in the absence of grazing. We also hypothesized that grazed sites would have higher native and exotic species richness compared to ungrazed areas, due to disturbance (i.e., the intermediate-disturbance hypothesis) and the conventional wisdom that grazing may accelerate weed invasion. Both hypotheses were soundly rejected. Although native species richness in 1-m2 subplots was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in grazed sites, we found nearly identical native or exotic species richness in 1000-m2 plots in exclosures (31.5 ?? 2.5 native and 3.1 ?? 0.5 exotic species), adjacent grazed plots (32.6 ?? 2.8 native and 3.2 ?? 0.6 exotic species), and randomly selected grazed plots (31.6 ?? 2.9 native and 3.2 ?? 0.6 exotic species). We found no significant differences in species diversity (Hill's diversity indices, N1 and N2), evenness (Hill's ratio of evenness, E5), cover of various life-forms (grasses, forbs, and shrubs), soil texture, or soil percentage of N and C between grazed and ungrazed sites at the 1000-m2 plot scale. The species lists of the long-ungrazed and adjacent grazed plots overlapped just 57.9 ?? 2.8%. This difference in species composition is commonly attributed solely to the difference in grazing regimes. However, the species lists between pairs of grazed plots

  13. Regime shift by an exotic nitrogen-fixing shrub mediates plant facilitation in primary succession.

    PubMed

    Stinca, Adriano; Chirico, Giovanni Battista; Incerti, Guido; Bonanomi, Giuliano

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem invasion by non-native, nitrogen-fixing species is a global phenomenon with serious ecological consequences. However, in the Mediterranean basin few studies addressed the impact of invasion by nitrogen-fixing shrubs on soil quality and hydrological properties at local scale, and the possible effects on succession dynamics and ecosystem invasibility by further species. In this multidisciplinary study we investigated the impact of Genista aetnensis (Biv.) DC., an exotic nitrogen-fixing shrub, on the Vesuvius Grand Cone (Southern Italy). Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that the invasion of G. aetnensis has a significant impact on soil quality, soil hydrological regime, local microclimate and plant community structure, and that its impact increases during the plant ontogenetic cycle. We showed that G. aetnensis, in a relatively short time-span (i.e. ~ 40 years), has been able to build-up an island of fertility under its canopy, by accumulating considerable stocks of C, N, and P in the soil, and by also improving the soil hydrological properties. Moreover, G. aetnensis mitigates the daily range of soil temperature, reducing the exposure of coexisting plants to extremely high temperatures and water loss by soil evaporation, particularly during the growing season. Such amelioration of soil quality, coupled with the mitigation of below-canopy microclimatic conditions, has enhanced plant colonization of the barren Grand Cone slopes, by both herbaceous and woody species. These results suggest that the invasion of G. aetnensis could eventually drive to the spread of other, more resource-demanding exotic species, promoting alternative successional trajectories that may dramatically affect the local landscape. Our study is the first record of the invasion of G. aetnensis, an additional example of the regime shifts driven by N-fixing shrubs in Mediterranean region. Further studies are needed to identity specific management practices that can limit the spread and

  14. Regime shift by an exotic nitrogen-fixing shrub mediates plant facilitation in primary succession.

    PubMed

    Stinca, Adriano; Chirico, Giovanni Battista; Incerti, Guido; Bonanomi, Giuliano

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem invasion by non-native, nitrogen-fixing species is a global phenomenon with serious ecological consequences. However, in the Mediterranean basin few studies addressed the impact of invasion by nitrogen-fixing shrubs on soil quality and hydrological properties at local scale, and the possible effects on succession dynamics and ecosystem invasibility by further species. In this multidisciplinary study we investigated the impact of Genista aetnensis (Biv.) DC., an exotic nitrogen-fixing shrub, on the Vesuvius Grand Cone (Southern Italy). Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that the invasion of G. aetnensis has a significant impact on soil quality, soil hydrological regime, local microclimate and plant community structure, and that its impact increases during the plant ontogenetic cycle. We showed that G. aetnensis, in a relatively short time-span (i.e. ~ 40 years), has been able to build-up an island of fertility under its canopy, by accumulating considerable stocks of C, N, and P in the soil, and by also improving the soil hydrological properties. Moreover, G. aetnensis mitigates the daily range of soil temperature, reducing the exposure of coexisting plants to extremely high temperatures and water loss by soil evaporation, particularly during the growing season. Such amelioration of soil quality, coupled with the mitigation of below-canopy microclimatic conditions, has enhanced plant colonization of the barren Grand Cone slopes, by both herbaceous and woody species. These results suggest that the invasion of G. aetnensis could eventually drive to the spread of other, more resource-demanding exotic species, promoting alternative successional trajectories that may dramatically affect the local landscape. Our study is the first record of the invasion of G. aetnensis, an additional example of the regime shifts driven by N-fixing shrubs in Mediterranean region. Further studies are needed to identity specific management practices that can limit the spread and

  15. Regime Shift by an Exotic Nitrogen-Fixing Shrub Mediates Plant Facilitation in Primary Succession

    PubMed Central

    Stinca, Adriano; Chirico, Giovanni Battista; Incerti, Guido; Bonanomi, Giuliano

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem invasion by non-native, nitrogen-fixing species is a global phenomenon with serious ecological consequences. However, in the Mediterranean basin few studies addressed the impact of invasion by nitrogen-fixing shrubs on soil quality and hydrological properties at local scale, and the possible effects on succession dynamics and ecosystem invasibility by further species. In this multidisciplinary study we investigated the impact of Genista aetnensis (Biv.) DC., an exotic nitrogen-fixing shrub, on the Vesuvius Grand Cone (Southern Italy). Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that the invasion of G. aetnensis has a significant impact on soil quality, soil hydrological regime, local microclimate and plant community structure, and that its impact increases during the plant ontogenetic cycle. We showed that G. aetnensis, in a relatively short time-span (i.e. ~ 40 years), has been able to build-up an island of fertility under its canopy, by accumulating considerable stocks of C, N, and P in the soil, and by also improving the soil hydrological properties. Moreover, G. aetnensis mitigates the daily range of soil temperature, reducing the exposure of coexisting plants to extremely high temperatures and water loss by soil evaporation, particularly during the growing season. Such amelioration of soil quality, coupled with the mitigation of below-canopy microclimatic conditions, has enhanced plant colonization of the barren Grand Cone slopes, by both herbaceous and woody species. These results suggest that the invasion of G. aetnensis could eventually drive to the spread of other, more resource-demanding exotic species, promoting alternative successional trajectories that may dramatically affect the local landscape. Our study is the first record of the invasion of G. aetnensis, an additional example of the regime shifts driven by N-fixing shrubs in Mediterranean region. Further studies are needed to identity specific management practices that can limit the spread and

  16. Landscape connectivity and seed dispersal characteristics inform the best management strategy for exotic plants.

    PubMed

    Minor, Emily S; Gardner, Robert H

    2011-04-01

    Exotic plant invasions have triggered environmental and economic problems throughout the world. Our ability to manage these invasions is hindered by the difficulty of predicting spread in fragmented landscapes. Because the spatial pattern of invasions depends on the dispersal characteristics of the invasive species and the configuration of suitable habitat within the landscape, a universal management strategy is unlikely to succeed for any particular species. We suggest that the most effective management strategy may be an adaptive one that shifts from local control to landscape management depending on the specific invader and landscape. In particular, we addressed the question of where management activities should be focused to minimize spread of the invading species. By simulating an invasion across a real landscape (Antietam National Battlefield in Maryland, USA), we examined the importance of patch size and connectivity to management success. We found that the best management strategy depended on the dispersal characteristics of the exotic species. Species with a high probability of random long-distance dispersal were best managed by focusing on the largest patches, while species with a lower probability of random long-distance dispersal were best managed by considering landscape configuration and connectivity of the patches. Connectivity metrics from network analysis were useful for identifying the most effective places to focus management efforts. These results provide insight into invasion patterns of various species and suggest a general rule for managers in National Parks and other places where invasive species are a concern.

  17. Landscape connectivity and seed dispersal characteristics inform the best management strategy for exotic plants.

    PubMed

    Minor, Emily S; Gardner, Robert H

    2011-04-01

    Exotic plant invasions have triggered environmental and economic problems throughout the world. Our ability to manage these invasions is hindered by the difficulty of predicting spread in fragmented landscapes. Because the spatial pattern of invasions depends on the dispersal characteristics of the invasive species and the configuration of suitable habitat within the landscape, a universal management strategy is unlikely to succeed for any particular species. We suggest that the most effective management strategy may be an adaptive one that shifts from local control to landscape management depending on the specific invader and landscape. In particular, we addressed the question of where management activities should be focused to minimize spread of the invading species. By simulating an invasion across a real landscape (Antietam National Battlefield in Maryland, USA), we examined the importance of patch size and connectivity to management success. We found that the best management strategy depended on the dispersal characteristics of the exotic species. Species with a high probability of random long-distance dispersal were best managed by focusing on the largest patches, while species with a lower probability of random long-distance dispersal were best managed by considering landscape configuration and connectivity of the patches. Connectivity metrics from network analysis were useful for identifying the most effective places to focus management efforts. These results provide insight into invasion patterns of various species and suggest a general rule for managers in National Parks and other places where invasive species are a concern. PMID:21639041

  18. Elevated CO2 does not offset greater water stress predicted under climate change for native and exotic riparian plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Laura G.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Blumenthal, Dana M.; Morgan, Jack A.; LeCain, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    In semiarid western North American riparian ecosystems, increased drought and lower streamflows under climate change may reduce plant growth and recruitment, and favor drought-tolerant exotic species over mesic native species. We tested whether elevated atmospheric CO2 might ameliorate these effects by improving plant water-use efficiency. We examined the effects of CO2 and water availability on seedlings of two native (Populus deltoids spp. monilifera, Salix exigua) and three exotic (Elaeagnus angustifolia, Tamarix spp., Ulmus pumila) western North American riparian species in a CO2-controlled glasshouse, using 1-m-deep pots with different water-table decline rates. Low water availability reduced seedling biomass by 70–97%, and hindered the native species more than the exotics. Elevated CO2 increased biomass by 15%, with similar effects on natives and exotics. Elevated CO2 increased intrinsic water-use efficiency (Δ13Cleaf), but did not increase biomass more in drier treatments than wetter treatments. The moderate positive effects of elevated CO2 on riparian seedlings are unlikely to counteract the large negative effects of increased aridity projected under climate change. Our results suggest that increased aridity will reduce riparian seedling growth despite elevated CO2, and will reduce growth more for native Salix and Populus than for drought-tolerant exotic species.

  19. Elevated CO2 does not offset greater water stress predicted under climate change for native and exotic riparian plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Laura G.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Blumenthal, Dana M.; Morgan, Jack A.; LeCain, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    * In semiarid western North American riparian ecosystems, increased drought and lower streamflows under climate change may reduce plant growth and recruitment, and favor drought-tolerant exotic species over mesic native species. We tested whether elevated atmospheric CO2 might ameliorate these effects by improving plant water-use efficiency. * We examined the effects of CO2 and water availability on seedlings of two native (Populus deltoides spp. monilifera, Salix exigua) and three exotic (Elaeagnus angustifolia, Tamarix spp., Ulmus pumila) western North American riparian species in a CO2-controlled glasshouse, using 1-m-deep pots with different water-table decline rates. * Low water availability reduced seedling biomass by 70–97%, and hindered the native species more than the exotics. Elevated CO2 increased biomass by 15%, with similar effects on natives and exotics. Elevated CO2 increased intrinsic water-use efficiency (Δ13Cleaf), but did not increase biomass more in drier treatments than wetter treatments. * The moderate positive effects of elevated CO2 on riparian seedlings are unlikely to counteract the large negative effects of increased aridity projected under climate change. Our results suggest that increased aridity will reduce riparian seedling growth despite elevated CO2, and will reduce growth more for native Salix and Populus than for drought-tolerant exotic species.

  20. Using long-term datasets to study exotic plant invasions on rangelands in the western United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasions by exotic species are generally described with a logistic growth curve divided into three phases: introduction, expansion and saturation. This model is constructed primarily from regional studies of plant invasions based on historical records and herbarium samples. The goal of this study w...

  1. 7 CFR 52.81 - Plant survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plant survey. 52.81 Section 52.81 Agriculture... for Plants to Be Approved and for Plants Using Contract In-Plant Inspection Services 1 § 52.81 Plant survey. Prior to a plant being approved, or the inauguration of in-plant inspection services, and at...

  2. 7 CFR 52.81 - Plant survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Plant survey. 52.81 Section 52.81 Agriculture... for Plants to Be Approved and for Plants Using Contract In-Plant Inspection Services 1 § 52.81 Plant survey. Prior to a plant being approved, or the inauguration of in-plant inspection services, and at...

  3. Micropropagation of an exotic ornamental plant, Calathea crotalifera, for production of high quality plantlets.

    PubMed

    Rozali, Shahril Efzueni; Rashid, Kamaludin A; Taha, Rosna Mat

    2014-01-01

    A successful protocol was established for micropropagation in two selected varieties of exotic ornamental plants, Calathea crotalifera. The effects of different sterilization techniques, explant type, and the combination and concentration of plant growth regulators on shoots induction were studied. The axillary shoot buds explants sprouted from rhizomes in soil free conditions showed high induction rate of shoots with lowest contamination percentage when treated with combination of 30% (v/v) NaOCl, 70% (v/v) ethanol, and 0.3% (w/v) HgCl2. In the present study, the highest number of multiple shoots was obtained in MS basal medium supplemented with 3.5 mg/L 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP), 1.0 mg/L 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 3% sucrose, and 6 g/L plant agar for both varieties and was used as multiplication medium. Microshoots were highly induced when the young shoot bud explants were incised longitudinally prior subculture. Chlorophyll analysis was studied to test the effects of activated charcoal and L-glutamine on reduction of necrosis problem. The maximum roots induction was recorded on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) compared to indolebutyric acid (IBA). The complete regenerated plantlets were successfully acclimatized in the soilless medium under greenhouse condition. This is the first report of rapid mass propagation for C. crotalifera.

  4. Micropropagation of an exotic ornamental plant, Calathea crotalifera, for production of high quality plantlets.

    PubMed

    Rozali, Shahril Efzueni; Rashid, Kamaludin A; Taha, Rosna Mat

    2014-01-01

    A successful protocol was established for micropropagation in two selected varieties of exotic ornamental plants, Calathea crotalifera. The effects of different sterilization techniques, explant type, and the combination and concentration of plant growth regulators on shoots induction were studied. The axillary shoot buds explants sprouted from rhizomes in soil free conditions showed high induction rate of shoots with lowest contamination percentage when treated with combination of 30% (v/v) NaOCl, 70% (v/v) ethanol, and 0.3% (w/v) HgCl2. In the present study, the highest number of multiple shoots was obtained in MS basal medium supplemented with 3.5 mg/L 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP), 1.0 mg/L 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 3% sucrose, and 6 g/L plant agar for both varieties and was used as multiplication medium. Microshoots were highly induced when the young shoot bud explants were incised longitudinally prior subculture. Chlorophyll analysis was studied to test the effects of activated charcoal and L-glutamine on reduction of necrosis problem. The maximum roots induction was recorded on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) compared to indolebutyric acid (IBA). The complete regenerated plantlets were successfully acclimatized in the soilless medium under greenhouse condition. This is the first report of rapid mass propagation for C. crotalifera. PMID:25136669

  5. Micropropagation of an Exotic Ornamental Plant, Calathea crotalifera, for Production of High Quality Plantlets

    PubMed Central

    Efzueni Rozali, Shahril; Rashid, Kamaludin A.; Mat Taha, Rosna

    2014-01-01

    A successful protocol was established for micropropagation in two selected varieties of exotic ornamental plants, Calathea crotalifera. The effects of different sterilization techniques, explant type, and the combination and concentration of plant growth regulators on shoots induction were studied. The axillary shoot buds explants sprouted from rhizomes in soil free conditions showed high induction rate of shoots with lowest contamination percentage when treated with combination of 30% (v/v) NaOCl, 70% (v/v) ethanol, and 0.3% (w/v) HgCl2. In the present study, the highest number of multiple shoots was obtained in MS basal medium supplemented with 3.5 mg/L 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP), 1.0 mg/L 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 3% sucrose, and 6 g/L plant agar for both varieties and was used as multiplication medium. Microshoots were highly induced when the young shoot bud explants were incised longitudinally prior subculture. Chlorophyll analysis was studied to test the effects of activated charcoal and L-glutamine on reduction of necrosis problem. The maximum roots induction was recorded on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) compared to indolebutyric acid (IBA). The complete regenerated plantlets were successfully acclimatized in the soilless medium under greenhouse condition. This is the first report of rapid mass propagation for C. crotalifera. PMID:25136669

  6. Should Exotic Eucalyptus be Planted in Subtropical China: Insights from Understory Plant Diversity in Two Contrasting Eucalyptus Chronosequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianping; Fan, Houbao; Liu, Wenfei; Huang, Guomin; Tang, Jianfu; Zeng, Ruijin; Huang, Jing; Liu, Zhanfeng

    2015-11-01

    Although Eucalyptus is widely planted in South China, whose effects on native biodiversity are unclear. The objective of this study was to quantify the richness and composition of understory plants in two contrasting Eucalyptus chronosequences in South China. One was in Zhangzhou City with plantation age of 2, 4, and 6 years after clear-cutting Chinese fir forests, while the other was in Heshan City with plantation age of 2, 3, and 24 years that reforested on barren lands. Results showed that the richness of understory plants and functional groups was not significantly altered in the Zhangzhou chronosequence, while increased in the 24-year-old plantations, with a significantly larger proportion of woody plants than the younger plantations for the Heshan chronosequence. Moreover, a higher richness of woody plants accompanied by a lower richness of herbaceous species was detected in the Zhangzhou chronosequence compared with the Heshan one. To balance the need for pulp production and plant diversity conservation, we suggest that intercropping approaches between exotic Eucalyptus plantations and native forests should be considered in the fast rotation Eucalyptus plantations. However, Eucalyptus plantations may be used as pioneer species to sustain ecosystem functioning for the degraded lands.

  7. Native weeds and exotic plants: relationships to disturbance in mixed grass prairie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    The paper compares distributions of native weedy species and exotic species with respect to three kinds of disturbance, roads, trails, and prairie dog towns. Data were collected at the north and south units of Theodore Roosevelt National Park and at Wind Cave National Park. The paper concludes that many exotic species differ substantially from native weeds in their exploitation of disturbance. It is thus not useful to manage exotics as if they were just another weed.

  8. Control of one invasive plant species allows exotic grasses to become dominant in northern Great Plains grasslands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, D.L.; Larson, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Decline of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) in the northern Great Plains of the US is generally viewed as a success story for biological control, but quality of the vegetation that survived the infestation is key to recovery of ecosystem function. In addition, effects of other invasive species, notably cool-season exotic grasses, must be taken into account. Objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate direction and significance of changes in biomass of native and exotic grasses, forbs, and leafy spurge and in plant species composition following control of leafy spurge by flea beetles and (2) to evaluate the relative effects of leafy spurge and exotic grasses on biomass of native grasses, biomass of forbs, and richness of native species. We monitored species composition (1998-2003 and 2008) and biomass (2000, 2002, 2003 and 2008) of these groups on spurge-infested and noninfested permanent plots at three sites with unbroken prairie sod in North Dakota, USA. We found little evidence, in terms of species richness or biomass of native grasses or forbs, that leafy spurge was being replaced by desirable native species, although desirable as well as weedy and exotic species were characteristic of 2008 vegetation at all three sites. Structural equation models revealed that leafy spurge had temporally intermittent negative effects on forb biomass and species richness, but no effects on native grasses. In contrast, exotic grass had consistently strong, negative effects on native grass biomass, as well as stronger negative effects than leafy spurge on native species richness. Although substantial native plant diversity remains at these sites, exotic grasses pose an important threat to these crucial building blocks of native prairie ecosystems. ?? 2010.

  9. Survey of MHD plant applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, J. J.; Seikel, G. R.; Cutting, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Open-cycle MHD is one of the major R&D efforts in the Department of Energy's program to meet the national goal of reducing U.S. dependence on oil through increased utilization of coal. MHD offers an effective way to use coal to produce electric power at low cost in a highly efficient and environmentally acceptable manner. Open-cycle MHD plants are categorized by the MHD combustor oxidizer, its temperature and the method of preheat. The paper discusses MHD baseline plant design, open-cycle MHD plant in the Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), early commercial MHD plants, conceptual studies of the engineering test facility, retrofit (addition of an MHD topping cycle to an existing steam plant), and other potential applications and concepts. Emphasis is placed on a survey of both completed and ongoing studies to define both commercial and pilot plant design, cost, and performance.

  10. Soil biota can change after exotic plant invasion: Does this affect ecosystem processes?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, J.; Phillips, S.L.; Sherrod, S.K.; Moldenke, A.

    2005-01-01

    Invasion of the exotic annual grass Bromus tectorum into stands of the native perennial grass Hilaria jamesii significantly reduced the abundance of soil biota, especially microarthropods and nematodes. Effects of invasion on active and total bacterial and fungal biomass were variable, although populations generally increased after 50+ years of invasion. The invasion of Bromus also resulted in a decrease in richness and a species shift in plants, microarthropods, fungi, and nematodes. However, despite the depauperate soil fauna at the invaded sites, no effects were seen on cellulose decomposition rates, nitrogen mineralization rates, or vascular plant growth. When Hilaria was planted into soils from not-invaded, recently invaded, and historically invaded sites (all currently or once dominated by Hilaria), germination and survivorship were not affected. In contrast, aboveground Hilaria biomass was significantly greater in recently invaded soils than in the other two soils. We attributed the Hilaria response to differences in soil nutrients present before the invasion, especially soil nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, as these nutrients were elevated in the soils that produced the greatest Hilaria biomass. Our data suggest that it is not soil biotic richness per se that determines soil process rates or plant productivity, but instead that either (1) the presence of a few critical soil food web taxa can keep ecosystem function high, (2) nutrient loss is very slow in this ecosystem, and/or (3) these processes are microbially driven. However, the presence of Bromus may reduce key soil nutrients over time and thus may eventually suppress native plant success. ?? 2005 by the Ecological Society of America.

  11. 7 CFR 52.81 - Plant survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plant survey. 52.81 Section 52.81 Agriculture... Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification Requirements for Plants to Be Approved and for Plants Using Contract In-Plant Inspection Services 1 § 52.81 Plant survey. Prior to a plant being approved, or...

  12. 7 CFR 52.81 - Plant survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plant survey. 52.81 Section 52.81 Agriculture... Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification Requirements for Plants to Be Approved and for Plants Using Contract In-Plant Inspection Services 1 § 52.81 Plant survey. Prior to a plant being approved, or...

  13. 7 CFR 52.81 - Plant survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plant survey. 52.81 Section 52.81 Agriculture... Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification Requirements for Plants to Be Approved and for Plants Using Contract In-Plant Inspection Services 1 § 52.81 Plant survey. Prior to a plant being approved, or...

  14. Plant and bird diversity in natural forests and in native and exotic plantations in NW Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proença, Vânia M.; Pereira, Henrique M.; Guilherme, João; Vicente, Luís

    2010-03-01

    Forest ecosystems have been subjected to continuous dynamics between deforestation and forestation. Assessing the effects of these processes on biodiversity could be essential for conservation planning. We analyzed patterns of species richness, diversity and evenness of plants and birds in patches of natural forest of Quercus spp. and in stands of native Pinus pinaster and exotic Eucalyptus globulus in NW Portugal. We analyzed data of forest and non-forest species separately, at the intra-patch, patch and inter-patch scales. Forest plant richness, diversity and evenness were higher in oak forest than in pine and eucalypt plantations. In total, 52 species of forest plants were observed in oak forest, 33 in pine plantation and 28 in eucalypt plantation. Some forest species, such as Euphorbia dulcis, Omphalodes nitida and Eryngium juresianum, were exclusively or mostly observed in oak forest. Forest bird richness and diversity were higher in both oak and pine forests than in eucalypt forest; evenness did not differ among forests. In total, 16 species of forest birds were observed in oak forest, 18 in pine forest and 11 in eucalypt forest. Species such as Certhia brachydactyla, Sitta europaea and Dendrocopos major were common in oak and/or pine patches but were absent from eucalypt stands. Species-area relationships of forest plants and forest birds in oak patches had consistently a higher slope, at both the intra and inter-patch scales, than species-area relationships of forest species in plantations and non-forest species in oak forest. These findings demonstrate the importance of oak forest for the conservation of forest species diversity, pointing the need to conserve large areas of oak forest due to the apparent vulnerability of forest species to area loss. Additionally, diversity patterns in pine forest were intermediate between oak forest and eucalypt forest, suggesting that forest species patterns may be affected by forest naturalness.

  15. Differences in Leaf Flammability, Leaf Traits and Flammability-Trait Relationships between Native and Exotic Plant Species of Dry Sclerophyll Forest

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Brad R.; Hardstaff, Lyndle K.; Phillips, Megan L.

    2013-01-01

    The flammability of plant leaves influences the spread of fire through vegetation. Exotic plants invading native vegetation may increase the spread of bushfires if their leaves are more flammable than native leaves. We compared fresh-leaf and dry-leaf flammability (time to ignition) between 52 native and 27 exotic plant species inhabiting dry sclerophyll forest. We found that mean time to ignition was significantly faster in dry exotic leaves than in dry native leaves. There was no significant native-exotic difference in mean time to ignition for fresh leaves. The significantly higher fresh-leaf water content that was found in exotics, lost in the conversion from a fresh to dry state, suggests that leaf water provides an important buffering effect that leads to equivalent mean time to ignition in fresh exotic and native leaves. Exotic leaves were also significantly wider, longer and broader in area with significantly higher specific leaf area–but not thicker–than native leaves. We examined scaling relationships between leaf flammability and leaf size (leaf width, length, area, specific leaf area and thickness). While exotics occupied the comparatively larger and more flammable end of the leaf size-flammability spectrum in general, leaf flammability was significantly correlated with all measures of leaf size except leaf thickness in both native and exotic species such that larger leaves were faster to ignite. Our findings for increased flammability linked with larger leaf size in exotics demonstrate that exotic plant species have the potential to increase the spread of bushfires in dry sclerophyll forest. PMID:24260169

  16. Identification of understory invasive exotic plants with remote sensing in urban forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shouse, Michael; Liang, Liang; Fei, Songlin

    2013-04-01

    Invasive exotic plants (IEP) pose a significant threat to many ecosystems. To effectively manage IEP, it is important to efficiently detect their presences and determine their distribution patterns. Remote sensing has been a useful tool to map IEP but its application is limited in urban forests, which are often the sources and sinks for IEP. In this study, we examined the feasibility and tradeoffs of species level IEP mapping using multiple remote sensing techniques in a highly complex urban forest setting. Bush honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii), a pervasive IEP in eastern North America, was used as our modeling species. Both medium spatial resolution (MSR) and high spatial resolution (HSR) imagery were employed in bush honeysuckle mapping. The importance of spatial scale was also examined using an up-scaling simulation from the HSR object based classification. Analysis using both MSR and HSR imagery provided viable results for IEP distribution mapping in urban forests. Overall mapping accuracy ranged from 89.8% to 94.9% for HSR techniques and from 74.6% to 79.7% for MSR techniques. As anticipated, classification accuracy reduces as pixel size increases. HSR based techniques produced the most desirable results, therefore is preferred for precise management of IEP in heterogeneous environment. However, the use of MSR techniques should not be ruled out given their wide availability and moderate accuracy.

  17. Was the Eocene Arctic a Source Area for Exotic Plants and Mammals? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberle, J. J.; Harrington, G. J.; Fricke, H. C.; Humphrey, J.; Hackett, L.; Newbrey, M.; Hutchison, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    not found in correlative strata of either mid-latitude North America or Europe. Either the Arctic region is a source of some evolutionary novelty, or alternatively it recruited plants directly from Asia. In sum, although the Arctic was undoubtedly en route for terrestrial plants and animals dispersing across Holarctic continents during parts of the Paleogene, evidence from both the Eocene plant and vertebrate communities on Ellesmere Island indicates the Arctic must also be evaluated as a potential source area for exotic taxa.

  18. EXOTIC AND INVASIVE AQUATIC PLANTS IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS: DISTRIBUTION AND RELATION TO WATERSHED LAND USE AND PLANT RICHNESS AND COVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript provides previously unavailable information to researchers and managers concerning exotic plants in the Great Lakes...This work arises out of our broader efforts to describe biota - habitat relationships in coastal wetlands, and as such falls under Aquatic Stresso...

  19. Can resource-use traits predict native vs. exotic plant success in carbon amended soils?

    PubMed

    Steers, Robert J; Funk, Jennifer L; Allen, Edith B

    2011-06-01

    Productivity in desert ecosystems is primarily limited by water followed by nitrogen availability. In the deserts of southern California, nitrogen additions have increased invasive annual plant abundance. Similar findings from other ecosystems have led to a general acceptance that invasive plants, especially annual grasses, are nitrophilous. Consequently, reductions of soil nitrogen via carbon amendments have been conducted by many researchers in a variety of ecosystems in order to disproportionately lower invasive species abundance, but with mixed success. Recent studies suggest that resource-use traits may predict the efficacy of such resource manipulations; however, this theory remains largely untested. We report findings from a carbon amendment experiment that utilized two levels of sucrose additions that were aimed at achieving soil carbon to nitrogen ratios of 50:1 and 100:1 in labile sources. Carbon amendments were applied once each year, for three years, corresponding with the first large precipitation event of each wet season. Plant functional traits measured on the three invasive and 11 native herbaceous species that were most common at the study site showed that exotic and native species did not differ in traits associated with nitrogen use. In fact, plant abundance measures such as density, cover, and biomass showed that carbon amendments were capable of decreasing both native and invasive species. We found that early-germinating species were the most impacted by decreased soil nitrogen resulting from amendments. Because invasive annuals typically germinate earlier and exhibit a rapid phenology compared to most natives, these species are expected to be more competitive than native annuals yet more susceptible to early-season carbon amendments. However, desert annual communities can exhibit high interannual variability in species composition and abundance. Therefore, the relative abundance of native and invasive species at the time of application is

  20. Do exotic plants lose resistance to pathogenic soil biota from their native range? A test with Solidago gigantea.

    PubMed

    Maron, John L; Luo, Wenbo; Callaway, Ragan M; Pal, Robert W

    2015-10-01

    Native plants commonly suffer from strong negative plant-soil feedbacks. However, in their non-native ranges species often escape from these negative feedbacks, which indicates that these feedbacks are generated by at least partially specialized soil biota. If so, introduced plants might evolve the loss of resistance to pathogens in their former native range, as has been proposed for the loss of resistance to specialized herbivores. We compared the magnitude of plant-soil feedbacks experienced by native and exotic genotypes of the perennial forb, Solidago gigantea. Feedbacks were assessed in soil collected across 14 sites sampled across the western part of Solidago's native range in the US. Both native and exotic genotypes of Solidago suffered consistently negative and broadly similar plant-soil feedbacks when grown in North American soil. Although there was substantial variation among soils from different sites in the strength of feedbacks generated, the magnitude of feedbacks generated by North American genotypes of S. gigantea were strongly correlated with those produced in the same soil by European genotypes. Our results indicate that Solidago experiences strong negative soil feedbacks in native soil and that introduced genotypes of Solidago have not lost resistance to these negative effects of soil biota. Both genotypic and landscape-level effects can be important sources of variation in the strength of plant-soil feedbacks. PMID:26003309

  1. 7 CFR 51.54 - Plant survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plant survey. 51.54 Section 51.54 Agriculture... Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A Contract Basis § 51.54 Plant survey. Prior... performed to determine whether the premises, plant and facilities are suitable and adequate for...

  2. 7 CFR 51.54 - Plant survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plant survey. 51.54 Section 51.54 Agriculture... Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A Contract Basis § 51.54 Plant survey. Prior... performed to determine whether the premises, plant and facilities are suitable and adequate for...

  3. 7 CFR 51.54 - Plant survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plant survey. 51.54 Section 51.54 Agriculture... Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A Contract Basis § 51.54 Plant survey. Prior... performed to determine whether the premises, plant and facilities are suitable and adequate for...

  4. Soil, Vegetation, and Seed Bank of a Sonoran Desert Ecosystem Along an Exotic Plant ( Pennisetum ciliare) Treatment Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abella, Scott R.; Chiquoine, Lindsay P.; Backer, Dana M.

    2013-10-01

    Ecological conditions following removal of exotic plants are a key part of comprehensive environmental management strategies to combat exotic plant invasions. We examined ecological conditions following removal of the management-priority buffelgrass ( Pennisetum ciliare) in Saguaro National Park of the North American Sonoran Desert. We assessed soil, vegetation, and soil seed banks on seven buffelgrass site types: five different frequencies of buffelgrass herbicide plus hand removal treatments (ranging from 5 years of annual treatment to a single year of treatment), untreated sites, and non-invaded sites, with three replicates for each of the seven site types. The 22 measured soil properties (e.g., pH) differed little among sites. Regarding vegetation, buffelgrass cover was low (≤1 % median cover), or absent, across all treated sites but was high (10-70 %) in untreated sites. Native vegetation cover, diversity, and composition were indistinguishable across site types. Species composition was dominated by native species (>93 % relative cover) across all sites except untreated buffelgrass sites. Most (38 species, 93 %) of the 41 species detected in soil seed banks were native, and native seed density did not differ significantly across sites. Results suggest that: (1) buffelgrass cover was minimal across treated sites; (2) aside from high buffelgrass cover in untreated sites, ecological conditions were largely indistinguishable across sites; (3) soil seed banks harbored ≥12 species that were frequent in the aboveground vegetation; and (4) native species dominated post-treatment vegetation composition, and removing buffelgrass did not result in replacement by other exotic species.

  5. Do heat and smoke increase emergence of exotic and native plants in the matorral of central Chile?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, Javier A.; Cavieres, Lohengrin A.; Gómez-González, Susana; Montenegro, Marco Molina; Jaksic, Fabian M.

    2009-03-01

    We studied the effect of heat shock and wood-fueled smoke on the emergence of native and exotic plant species in soil samples obtained in an evergreen shrubland of central Chile, located on the eastern foothills of the Coastal Range of Lampa. Immediately after collection samples were dried and stored under laboratory condition. For each two transect, 10 samples were randomly chosen, and one of the following treatments was applied: 1) Heat-shock treatment. 2) Plant-produced smoke treatment. 3) Combined heat-and-smoke treatment. 4) Control, corresponding to samples not subjected to treatment. Twenty-three species, representing 12 families, emerged from the soil samples. The best-represented families were Poaceae and Asteraceae. All of the emerged species were herbs, 21 were annuals, and 14 were exotic to Chile. Fire-related triggers used in this study did not increase the emergence and/or abundance of exotic species with respect to natives in soil samples. Interestingly, this study provides evidence that heat-shock can increase the emergence of native herbs.

  6. Soil, vegetation, and seed bank of a Sonoran Desert ecosystem along an exotic plant (Pennisetum ciliare) treatment gradient.

    PubMed

    Abella, Scott R; Chiquoine, Lindsay P; Backer, Dana M

    2013-10-01

    Ecological conditions following removal of exotic plants are a key part of comprehensive environmental management strategies to combat exotic plant invasions. We examined ecological conditions following removal of the management-priority buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare) in Saguaro National Park of the North American Sonoran Desert. We assessed soil, vegetation, and soil seed banks on seven buffelgrass site types: five different frequencies of buffelgrass herbicide plus hand removal treatments (ranging from 5 years of annual treatment to a single year of treatment), untreated sites, and non-invaded sites, with three replicates for each of the seven site types. The 22 measured soil properties (e.g., pH) differed little among sites. Regarding vegetation, buffelgrass cover was low (≤1% median cover), or absent, across all treated sites but was high (10-70%) in untreated sites. Native vegetation cover, diversity, and composition were indistinguishable across site types. Species composition was dominated by native species (>93% relative cover) across all sites except untreated buffelgrass sites. Most (38 species, 93%) of the 41 species detected in soil seed banks were native, and native seed density did not differ significantly across sites. Results suggest that: (1) buffelgrass cover was minimal across treated sites; (2) aside from high buffelgrass cover in untreated sites, ecological conditions were largely indistinguishable across sites; (3) soil seed banks harbored ≥12 species that were frequent in the aboveground vegetation; and (4) native species dominated post-treatment vegetation composition, and removing buffelgrass did not result in replacement by other exotic species.

  7. Role of Native and Exotic Earthworms in Plant Biopolymer Dynamics in Forest Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filley, Timothy

    2010-05-01

    Many forests within northern North America are experiencing the introduction of earthworms for the first time, presumably since before the last major glaciation. Forest dynamics are undergoing substantial changes because of the activity of the mainly European lumbricid species. Documented losses in litter layers, expansion of A-horizons, loss of the organic horizon, changes in fine root density, and shifts in microbial populations have all been documented in invaded zones. Two free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) forest experiments (aspen FACE at Rhinelander, Wisconsin and sweet gum FACE at Oak Ridge National Lab, Tennessee) lie within the zones of invasion and exhibit differences in amounts of exotic and native species as well as endogeic (predominantly mineral soil dwelling) and epigeic (litter and organic matter horizon dwelling) types. Considerations of carbon accrual dynamics and relative input of above vs. below ground plant input in these young successional systems do not consider the potential impact of these ecosystem engineers. We investigated the impact of earthworm activity by tracking the relative abundance and stable carbon isotope compositions of lignin and substituted fatty acids extracted from isolated earthworms and their fecal pellets and from host soils. Indications of root vs leaf input to earthworm casts and fecal matter were derived from differences in the chemical composition of cutin, suberin, and lignin. The isotopically depleted CO2 used in FACE and the resulting isotopically depleted plant organic matter afford an excellent opportunity to assess biopolymer-specific turnover dynamics. We find that endogeic species are proportionately more responsible for fine root cycling while some epigeic species are responsible for microaggregation of foliar cutin. CSIA of fecal pellet lignin and SFA indicates how these biopolymer pools can be derived from variable sources, roots, background soil, foliar tissue within one earthworm. Additionally, CSIA

  8. Physiological variation among native and exotic winter annual plants associated with microbiotic crusts in the Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeFalco, L.A.; Detling, J.K.; Tracy, C.R.; Warren, S.D.

    2001-01-01

    Microbiotic crusts are important components of many aridland soils. Research on crusts typically focuses on the increase in soil fertility due to N-fixing micro-organisms, the stabilization of soils against water and wind erosion and the impact of disturbance on N-cycling. The effect of microbiotic crusts on the associated plant community has received little attention. We quantified the influence of crusts on the production, species diversity, nutrient content and water relations of winter annual plant species associated with microbiotic soil crusts in the northeast Mojave Desert. Shoot biomass of winter annuals was 37% greater and plant density was 77% greater on crusts than were biomass and density on soils lacking crust cover (=bare soils). This greater production of annuals on crusts was likely due to enhanced soil conditions including an almost two-fold increase in soil organic matter and inorganic N compared to bare soils. Crusted soils also had 53% greater volumetric water content than bare soils during November and December, the time when winter annuals become established. As plant development progressed into spring, however, soil water availability decreased: More negative plant xylem water potentials were associated with greater plant biomass on crusted soils. Plants associated with microbiotic soil crusts had lower concentrations of N in shoots (mg N g-1 dry mass). However, total shoot N (mg N m-2) was the same in plants growing on the different soil types when biomass production peaked in April. Shoots had similar patterns in their concentration and content of P. Species diversity of annuals was not statistically different between the two soil types. Yet, while native annuals comprised the greatest proportion of shoot biomass on bare soils, exotic forbs and grasses produced more biomass on crusts. Total shoot nutrient content (biomass x concentration) of the two exotic annual species examined was dramatically greater on crusts than bare soils; only one

  9. Life Form and Life History Explain Variation in Population Processes in a Grassland Community Invaded by Exotic Plants and Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Nelis, Lisa Castillo

    2012-01-01

    The existence of general characteristics of plant invasiveness is still debated. One reason we may not have found these characteristics is because we do not yet understand how processes underlying population dynamics contribute to community composition in invaded communities. Here I modify Ricker stock-recruitment models to parameterize processes important to community dynamics in an invaded grassland community: immigration, maximum intrinsic growth rate, self-regulation, and limitation by other species. I then used the parameterized models in a multi-species stochastic simulation to determine how processes affected long-term community dynamics. By parameterizing the models using the frequency of the 18 most common species in the grassland, I determined that life history and life form are stronger predictors of underlying processes than is native status. Immigration maintains exotic annual grasses and the dominant native perennial grass in the community. Growth rate maintains other perennial species. While the model mirrors the frequency of native species well, exotic species have lower observed than parameterized frequencies, suggesting that they are not reaching their potential frequency. These results, combined with results from past research, suggest that disturbance may be key to maintaining exotic species in the community. Here I showed that a continuous modified Ricker model fit discrete grassland frequency data well. This allowed me to model the dominant species in the community simultaneously and gain insight into the processes that determine community composition. PMID:22916178

  10. Exotic weevil invasion increases floral herbivore community density, function, and impact on a native plant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumer communities are being re-arranged through unprecedented rates of human-mediated invasions and extinctions. Such changes in consumer composition and diversity potentially alter pressure and impact on resource populations. Although insect herbivore invasions are common, and exotic herbivores...

  11. Multiquark exotics

    SciTech Connect

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    The question Are Anomalons Multiquark Exotics is discussed. It is concluded that so far there is no convincing experimental evidence for any multiquark exotic bound state nor for any exotic resonance. Except for the delta and S* there are no candidates for bound states and no firm theoretical predictions waiting to be tested. Exotic resonances may exist in the 1.5 to 2.0 GeV region and in the charmed sector, e.g., the charmed-strange exotics. The experimental search for multiquark resonances is still open and active. (WHK)

  12. 7 CFR 51.54 - Plant survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Plant survey. 51.54 Section 51.54 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations 1 Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A Contract Basis § 51.54 Plant survey. Prior to the inauguration of continuous Federal or...

  13. 7 CFR 51.54 - Plant survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plant survey. 51.54 Section 51.54 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations 1 Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A Contract Basis § 51.54 Plant survey. Prior to the inauguration of continuous Federal or...

  14. Federal Interagency Coordination for Invasive Plant Issues -- The Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds (FICMNEW)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westbrooks, Randy G.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds (FICMNEW) is a formal partnership between 16 federal agencies that have invasive plant management and regulatory responsibilities for the United States and its territories. Efforts to develop a national level federal interagency committee to coordinate federal activities were initiated by national weed program managers with the USDA Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Management in 1989. FICMNEW was formally established through a Memorandum of Understanding that was signed by agency administrators of member agencies in August, 1994.

  15. Soil, vegetation, and seed bank of a Sonoran Desert ecosystem along an exotic plant (Pennisetum ciliare) treatment gradient.

    PubMed

    Abella, Scott R; Chiquoine, Lindsay P; Backer, Dana M

    2013-10-01

    Ecological conditions following removal of exotic plants are a key part of comprehensive environmental management strategies to combat exotic plant invasions. We examined ecological conditions following removal of the management-priority buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare) in Saguaro National Park of the North American Sonoran Desert. We assessed soil, vegetation, and soil seed banks on seven buffelgrass site types: five different frequencies of buffelgrass herbicide plus hand removal treatments (ranging from 5 years of annual treatment to a single year of treatment), untreated sites, and non-invaded sites, with three replicates for each of the seven site types. The 22 measured soil properties (e.g., pH) differed little among sites. Regarding vegetation, buffelgrass cover was low (≤1% median cover), or absent, across all treated sites but was high (10-70%) in untreated sites. Native vegetation cover, diversity, and composition were indistinguishable across site types. Species composition was dominated by native species (>93% relative cover) across all sites except untreated buffelgrass sites. Most (38 species, 93%) of the 41 species detected in soil seed banks were native, and native seed density did not differ significantly across sites. Results suggest that: (1) buffelgrass cover was minimal across treated sites; (2) aside from high buffelgrass cover in untreated sites, ecological conditions were largely indistinguishable across sites; (3) soil seed banks harbored ≥12 species that were frequent in the aboveground vegetation; and (4) native species dominated post-treatment vegetation composition, and removing buffelgrass did not result in replacement by other exotic species. PMID:23771285

  16. Evaluating plant biodiversity measurements and exotic species detection in National Resources Inventory Sampling protocols using examples from the Northern Great Plains of the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Native plant biodiversity loss and exotic species invasions are threatening the ability of many ecosystems to maintain key functions and processes. We currently lack detailed plant biodiversity data at a national scale with which to make management decisions and recommendations based on current cons...

  17. Exotic plant colonization and occupancy within riparian areas of the Interior Columbia River and Upper Missouri River basins, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Ray, Andrew M.; Roper, Brett B.; Archer, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Exotic plant invasions into riparia often result in shifts in vegetative composition, altered stream function, and cascading effects to biota at multiple scales. Characterizing the distribution patterns of exotic plants is an important step in directing targeted research to identify mechanisms of invasion and potential management strategies. In this study, we employed occupancy models to examine the associations of landscape, climate, and disturbance attributes with the colonization and occupancy patterns for spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe L.), Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense L., Scop.), and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) in the riparia of headwater streams (n = 1,091) in the Interior Columbia River and Upper Missouri River Basins. We found relatively low occupancy rates for cheatgrass (0.06, SE = 0.02) and spotted knapweed (0.04, SE = 0.01), but moderate occupancy of Canada thistle (0.28, SE = 0.05); colonization rates were low across all species (<0.01). We found the distributions of spotted knapweed, Canada thistle, and cheatgrass to exhibit significant associations with both ambient climate conditions and anthropogenic and natural disturbances. We attribute the low to moderate occupancy and colonization rates to the relatively remote locations of our sample sites within headwater streams and urge consideration of means to prevent further invasions.

  18. The Effect of Host-Plant Phylogenetic Isolation on Species Richness, Composition and Specialization of Insect Herbivores: A Comparison between Native and Exotic Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Grandez-Rios, Julio Miguel; Lima Bergamini, Leonardo; Santos de Araújo, Walter; Villalobos, Fabricio; Almeida-Neto, Mário

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the drivers of plant-insect interactions is still a key issue in terrestrial ecology. Here, we used 30 well-defined plant-herbivore assemblages to assess the effects of host plant phylogenetic isolation and origin (native vs. exotic) on the species richness, composition and specialization of the insect herbivore fauna on co-occurring plant species. We also tested for differences in such effects between assemblages composed exclusively of exophagous and endophagous herbivores. We found a consistent negative effect of the phylogenetic isolation of host plants on the richness, similarity and specialization of their insect herbivore faunas. Notably, except for Jaccard dissimilarity, the effect of phylogenetic isolation on the insect herbivore faunas did not vary between native and exotic plants. Our findings show that the phylogenetic isolation of host plants is a key factor that influences the richness, composition and specialization of their local herbivore faunas, regardless of the host plant origin. PMID:26379159

  19. An exotic invasive plant selects for increased competitive tolerance, but not competitive suppression, in a native grass.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Rebecca A; Callaway, Ragan M; Atwater, Daniel Z

    2016-06-01

    Exotic invasive plants can exert strong selective pressure for increased competitive ability in native plants. There are two fundamental components of competitive ability: suppression and tolerance, and the current paradigm that these components have equal influences on a species' overall competitive ability has been recently questioned. If these components do not have equal influences on overall ability, then selection on competitive tolerance and suppression may be disproportionate. We used naturally invaded communities to study the effects of selection caused by an invasive forb, Centaurea stoebe, on a native grass, Pseudoroegneria spicata. P. spicata plants were harvested from within dense C. stoebe patches and from nearby uninvaded areas, divided clonally into replicates, then transplanted into a common garden where they grew alone or competed with C. stoebe. We found that P. spicata plants collected from within C. stoebe patches were significantly more tolerant of competition with C. stoebe than P. spicata plants collected from uninvaded areas, but plants from inside invaded patches were not superior at suppressing C. stoebe. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that strong competitors may select for tolerance to competition more than for the ability to suppress neighbors. This has important implications for how native plant communities may respond to invasion over time, and how invasive and native species may ultimately coexist. PMID:26897605

  20. Complementary roles of home gardens and exotic tree plantations as alternative habitats for plants of the Ethiopian montane rainforest.

    PubMed

    Hylander, Kristoffer; Nemomissa, Sileshi

    2009-04-01

    Many tropical forests have been converted for agri- or silviculture or a combination of both (agroforestry). Conservation at a landscape scale requires an understanding of the distribution and abundance of native biodiversity in these converted natural ecosystems, of which the knowledge is especially poor for African agroecosystems. We compared species density and species composition of four plant groups (trees and shrubs, epiphytic vascular plants, mosses, and liverworts) among three arboreal land-use types in southwestern Ethiopia (montane rainforest fragments, shade-tree coffee home gardens, and exotic tree plantations). Species density was significantly higher in forests than in coffee home gardens for all plant groups and in exotic tree plantations for all groups except mosses. Home gardens had more vascular epiphytic species than plantations, whereas the reverse was true for mosses and liverworts. The species composition of the forest plots was sometimes more similar to home-garden plots than plantation plots and sometimes vice versa. Fifteen forest plots had, however, cumulatively more species than a random selection of 15 nonforest (coffee home garden and plantation) plots, even if the 2 plot types complemented each other in terms of habitats for forest plants. Tree plantations dominated by Eucalyptus had many small trees and shrubs in common with forests, whereas plantations with Cupressus were important substrates for forests mosses and liverworts. Our results illustrate the importance of undisturbed forests habitats for conservation of species at a landscape scale and that different human-made land-use types may complement each other in their capacity as additional habitats for forest species. PMID:19040649

  1. Non-random co-occurrence of native and exotic plant species in Mediterranean grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Miguel, José M.; Martín-Forés, Irene; Acosta-Gallo, Belén; del Pozo, Alejandro; Ovalle, Carlos; Sánchez-Jardón, Laura; Castro, Isabel; Casado, Miguel A.

    2016-11-01

    Invasion by exotic species in Mediterranean grasslands has determined assembly patterns of native and introduced species, knowledge of which provides information on the ecological processes underlying these novel communities. We considered grasslands from Spain and Chile. For each country we considered the whole grassland community and we split species into two subsets: in Chile, species were classified as natives or colonizers (i.e. exotics); in Spain, species were classified as exclusives (present in Spain but not in Chile) or colonizers (Spanish natives and exotics into Chile). We used null models and co-occurrence indices calculated in each country for each one of 15 sites distributed along a precipitation gradient and subjected to similar silvopastoral exploitation. We compared values of species co-occurrence between countries and between species subsets (natives/colonizers in Chile; exclusives/colonizers in Spain) within each country and we characterised them according to climatic variables. We hypothesized that: a) the different coexistence time of the species in both regions should give rise to communities presenting a spatial pattern further from random in Spain than in Chile, b) the co-occurrence patterns in the grasslands are affected by mesoclimatic factors in both regions. The patterns of co-occurrence are similar in Spain and Chile, mostly showing a spatial pattern more segregated than expected by random. The colonizer species are more segregated in Spain than in Chile, possibly determined by the longer residence time of the species in the source area than in the invaded one. The segregation of species in Chile is related to water availability, being species less segregated in habitat with greater water deficit; in Spain no relationship with climatic variables was found. After an invasion process, our results suggest that the possible process of alteration of the original Chilean communities has not prevented the assembly between the native and

  2. Plant species richness at different scales in native and exotic grasslands in Southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, S.P.; Bowers, Janice E.

    2006-01-01

    Species richness in Madrean mixed-grass prairies dominated by native or exotic species in southeastern Arizona was characterized at the community and point scales using ten 1-m2 quadrats nested within each of eight 1000-m2 plots. In the 1000-m2 plots average richness was significantly higher in oak savanna (OS, 121.0 species) than in exotic grassland on mesa tops (EMT, 52.0 species), whereas native grassland on mesa slopes (NMS, 92.5 species) and native grassland on mesa tops (NMT, 77.0 species) did not differ significantly in richness from OS or EMT When richness was partitioned by life form, EMT was notably poorer than other community types in species of perennial grasses, perennial herbs, and summer annuals. In the 1-m2 quadrats, OS (21.2 species), NMS (20.9 species), and NMT (20.7 species) were significantly richer than EMT (5.9 species). Cover in 1-m2 plots was significantly higher in EMT than in NMT, NMS, or OS. Species richness at the point scale showed a unimodal relation to canopy cover, with cover accounting for 30% of the variation in number of species in 1-m2 quadrats. Competitive exclusion and allelopathy have perhaps limited species richness at the point scale in exotic grassland. There was no evidence of a species-pool effect between point and community scales, but such an effect between community and landscape scales was supported. Madrean mixed-grass prairies are landscapes with high species richness in comparison to other grassland types in North America, providing a large pool of potential colonizing species at the community scale. Beta-diversity (between communities) within the landscape of the Appleton-Whittell Research Ranch was consequently high despite a relative lack of habitat diversity.

  3. What explains variation in the impacts of exotic plant invasions on the nitrogen cycle? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Castro-Díez, P; Godoy, O; Alonso, A; Gallardo, A; Saldaña, A

    2014-01-01

    Exotic plant invasions can notably alter the nitrogen (N) cycle of ecosystems. However, there is large variation in the magnitude and direction of their impact that remains unexplained. We present a structured meta-analysis of 100 papers, covering 113 invasive plant species with 345 cases of invasion across the globe and reporting impacts on N cycle-related metrics. We aim to explain heterogeneity of impacts by considering methodological aspects, properties of the invaded site and phylogenetic and functional characteristics of the invaders and the natives. Overall, plant invasions increased N pools and accelerated fluxes, even when excluding N-fixing invaders. The impact on N pools depended mainly on functional differences and was greater when the invasive plants and the natives differed in N-fixation ability, plant height and plant/leaf habit. Furthermore, the impact on N fluxes was related mainly to climate, being greater under warm and moist conditions. Our findings show that more functionally distant invaders occurring in mild climates are causing the strongest alterations to the N cycle.

  4. Species biology and potential for controlling four exotic plants (Ammophila arenaria, Carpobrotus edulis, Cortaderia jubata and Gasoul crystallinum) on Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1987-01-01

    Invasive exotic plants can displace native flora and modify community and ecosystem structure and function. Ammophila arenaria, Corpobrotus edulis, Cortaderia jubata, and Gasoul crystallinum are invasive plants present on Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, designated for study by the Environmental Task Force because of the perceived threat they represent to the native flora. Each plant's native habitat, how they came to be at Vandenberg, their propagation, and how they can be controlled is discussed.

  5. Assessing exotic plant species invasions and associated soil characteristics: A case study in eastern Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA, using the pixel nested plot design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhan, M.A.; Stafford, E.J.; Woodly, P.J.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2007-01-01

    Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP), Colorado, USA, contains a diversity of plant species. However, many exotic plant species have become established, potentially impacting the structure and function of native plant communities. Our goal was to quantify patterns of exotic plant species in relation to native plant species, soil characteristics, and other abiotic factors that may indicate or predict their establishment and success. Our research approach for field data collection was based on a field plot design called the pixel nested plot. The pixel nested plot provides a link to multi-phase and multi-scale spatial modeling-mapping techniques that can be used to estimate total species richness and patterns of plant diversity at finer landscape scales. Within the eastern region of RMNP, in an area of approximately 35,000 ha, we established a total of 60 pixel nested plots in 9 vegetation types. We used canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and multiple linear regressions to quantify relationships between soil characteristics and native and exotic plant species richness and cover. We also used linear correlation, spatial autocorrelation and cross correlation statistics to test for the spatial patterns of variables of interest. CCA showed that exotic species were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with photosynthetically active radiation (r = 0.55), soil nitrogen (r = 0.58) and bare ground (r = -0.66). Pearson's correlation statistic showed significant linear relationships between exotic species, organic carbon, soil nitrogen, and bare ground. While spatial autocorrelations indicated that our 60 pixel nested plots were spatially independent, the cross correlation statistics indicated that exotic plant species were spatially associated with bare ground, in general, exotic plant species were most abundant in areas of high native species richness. This indicates that resource managers should focus on the protection of relatively rare native rich sites with little

  6. Leaf Photosynthesis and Plant Competitive Success in a Mixed-grass Prairie: With Reference to Exotic Grasses Invasion

    DOE PAGES

    Dong, Dr. Xuejun; Patton, J.; Gu, Lianhong; Wang, J.; Patton, B.

    2014-11-26

    The widespread invasion of exotic cool-season grasses in mixed-grass rangeland is diminishing the hope of bringing back the natural native plant communities. However, ecophysiological mechanisms explaining the relative competitiveness of these invasive grasses over the native species generally are lacking. In this study, we used experimental data collected in south-central North Dakota, USA to address this issue. Photosynthetic potential was obtained from the net assimilation (A) vs. internal CO2 (Ci) response curves from plants grown in a greenhouse. Plant success was defined as the average frequency measured over 25 years (1988 to 2012) on overflow range sites across five levelsmore » of grazing intensity. In addition, estimated leaf area index of individual species under field conditions was used to indicate plant success. The correlation between photosynthetic potential based on A/Ci curves and plant frequency was negative. The correlation between leaf photosynthesis and plant success (defined as leaf area within a unit land area) was also negative, although statistically weak. These results suggest that the two cool-season grasses, Poa pratensis and Bromus inermis, do not rely on superior leaf-level photosynthesis for competitive success. Instead, some other traits, such as early and late-season growth, may be more important for them to gain dominance in the mixed-grass prairie. We propose that the negative photosynthesis-frequency relation as observed in this study results from a strong competition for limited soil nutrients in the mixed-grass prairie. In conclusion, it has implications for the stability and productivity of the grassland under various human disruptions influencing the soil nutrient status.« less

  7. Leaf Photosynthesis and Plant Competitive Success in a Mixed-grass Prairie: With Reference to Exotic Grasses Invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Dr. Xuejun; Patton, J.; Gu, Lianhong; Wang, J.; Patton, B.

    2014-11-26

    The widespread invasion of exotic cool-season grasses in mixed-grass rangeland is diminishing the hope of bringing back the natural native plant communities. However, ecophysiological mechanisms explaining the relative competitiveness of these invasive grasses over the native species generally are lacking. In this study, we used experimental data collected in south-central North Dakota, USA to address this issue. Photosynthetic potential was obtained from the net assimilation (A) vs. internal CO2 (Ci) response curves from plants grown in a greenhouse. Plant success was defined as the average frequency measured over 25 years (1988 to 2012) on overflow range sites across five levels of grazing intensity. In addition, estimated leaf area index of individual species under field conditions was used to indicate plant success. The correlation between photosynthetic potential based on A/Ci curves and plant frequency was negative. The correlation between leaf photosynthesis and plant success (defined as leaf area within a unit land area) was also negative, although statistically weak. These results suggest that the two cool-season grasses, Poa pratensis and Bromus inermis, do not rely on superior leaf-level photosynthesis for competitive success. Instead, some other traits, such as early and late-season growth, may be more important for them to gain dominance in the mixed-grass prairie. We propose that the negative photosynthesis-frequency relation as observed in this study results from a strong competition for limited soil nutrients in the mixed-grass prairie. In conclusion, it has implications for the stability and productivity of the grassland under various human disruptions influencing the soil nutrient status.

  8. Exotic Plant Infestation Is Associated with Decreased Modularity and Increased Numbers of Connectors in Mixed-Grass Prairie Pollination Networks.

    PubMed

    Larson, Diane L; Rabie, Paul A; Droege, Sam; Larson, Jennifer L; Haar, Milton

    2016-01-01

    The majority of pollinating insects are generalists whose lifetimes overlap flowering periods of many potentially suitable plant species. Such generality is instrumental in allowing exotic plant species to invade pollination networks. The particulars of how existing networks change in response to an invasive plant over the course of its phenology are not well characterized, but may shed light on the probability of long-term effects on plant-pollinator interactions and the stability of network structure. Here we describe changes in network topology and modular structure of infested and non-infested networks during the flowering season of the generalist non-native flowering plant, Cirsium arvense in mixed-grass prairie at Badlands National Park, South Dakota, USA. Objectives were to compare network-level effects of infestation as they propagate over the season in infested and non-infested (with respect to C. arvense) networks. We characterized plant-pollinator networks on 5 non-infested and 7 infested 1-ha plots during 4 sample periods that collectively covered the length of C. arvense flowering period. Two other abundantly-flowering invasive plants were present during this time: Melilotus officinalis had highly variable floral abundance in both C. arvense-infested and non-infested plots and Convolvulus arvensis, which occurred almost exclusively in infested plots and peaked early in the season. Modularity, including roles of individual species, and network topology were assessed for each sample period as well as in pooled infested and non-infested networks. Differences in modularity and network metrics between infested and non-infested networks were limited to the third and fourth sample periods, during flower senescence of C. arvense and the other invasive species; generality of pollinators rose concurrently, suggesting rewiring of the network and a lag effect of earlier floral abundance. Modularity was lower and number of connectors higher in infested networks

  9. Exotic Plant Infestation Is Associated with Decreased Modularity and Increased Numbers of Connectors in Mixed-Grass Prairie Pollination Networks.

    PubMed

    Larson, Diane L; Rabie, Paul A; Droege, Sam; Larson, Jennifer L; Haar, Milton

    2016-01-01

    The majority of pollinating insects are generalists whose lifetimes overlap flowering periods of many potentially suitable plant species. Such generality is instrumental in allowing exotic plant species to invade pollination networks. The particulars of how existing networks change in response to an invasive plant over the course of its phenology are not well characterized, but may shed light on the probability of long-term effects on plant-pollinator interactions and the stability of network structure. Here we describe changes in network topology and modular structure of infested and non-infested networks during the flowering season of the generalist non-native flowering plant, Cirsium arvense in mixed-grass prairie at Badlands National Park, South Dakota, USA. Objectives were to compare network-level effects of infestation as they propagate over the season in infested and non-infested (with respect to C. arvense) networks. We characterized plant-pollinator networks on 5 non-infested and 7 infested 1-ha plots during 4 sample periods that collectively covered the length of C. arvense flowering period. Two other abundantly-flowering invasive plants were present during this time: Melilotus officinalis had highly variable floral abundance in both C. arvense-infested and non-infested plots and Convolvulus arvensis, which occurred almost exclusively in infested plots and peaked early in the season. Modularity, including roles of individual species, and network topology were assessed for each sample period as well as in pooled infested and non-infested networks. Differences in modularity and network metrics between infested and non-infested networks were limited to the third and fourth sample periods, during flower senescence of C. arvense and the other invasive species; generality of pollinators rose concurrently, suggesting rewiring of the network and a lag effect of earlier floral abundance. Modularity was lower and number of connectors higher in infested networks

  10. Exotic Plant Infestation Is Associated with Decreased Modularity and Increased Numbers of Connectors in Mixed-Grass Prairie Pollination Networks

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Diane L.; Rabie, Paul A.; Droege, Sam; Larson, Jennifer L.; Haar, Milton

    2016-01-01

    The majority of pollinating insects are generalists whose lifetimes overlap flowering periods of many potentially suitable plant species. Such generality is instrumental in allowing exotic plant species to invade pollination networks. The particulars of how existing networks change in response to an invasive plant over the course of its phenology are not well characterized, but may shed light on the probability of long-term effects on plant-pollinator interactions and the stability of network structure. Here we describe changes in network topology and modular structure of infested and non-infested networks during the flowering season of the generalist non-native flowering plant, Cirsium arvense in mixed-grass prairie at Badlands National Park, South Dakota, USA. Objectives were to compare network-level effects of infestation as they propagate over the season in infested and non-infested (with respect to C. arvense) networks. We characterized plant-pollinator networks on 5 non-infested and 7 infested 1-ha plots during 4 sample periods that collectively covered the length of C. arvense flowering period. Two other abundantly-flowering invasive plants were present during this time: Melilotus officinalis had highly variable floral abundance in both C. arvense-infested and non-infested plots and Convolvulus arvensis, which occurred almost exclusively in infested plots and peaked early in the season. Modularity, including roles of individual species, and network topology were assessed for each sample period as well as in pooled infested and non-infested networks. Differences in modularity and network metrics between infested and non-infested networks were limited to the third and fourth sample periods, during flower senescence of C. arvense and the other invasive species; generality of pollinators rose concurrently, suggesting rewiring of the network and a lag effect of earlier floral abundance. Modularity was lower and number of connectors higher in infested networks

  11. Exotic plant infestation is associated with decreased modularity and increased numbers of connectors in mixed-grass prairie pollination networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Diane L.; Rabie, Paul A.; Droege, Sam; Larson, Jennifer L.; Haar, Milton

    2016-01-01

    The majority of pollinating insects are generalists whose lifetimes overlap flowering periods of many potentially suitable plant species. Such generality is instrumental in allowing exotic plant species to invade pollination networks. The particulars of how existing networks change in response to an invasive plant over the course of its phenology are not well characterized, but may shed light on the probability of long-term effects on plant-pollinator interactions and the stability of network structure. Here we describe changes in network topology and modular structure of infested and non-infested networks during the flowering season of the generalist non-native flowering plant, Cirsium arvense in mixed-grass prairie at Badlands National Park, South Dakota, USA. Objectives were to compare network-level effects of infestation as they propagate over the season in infested and non-infested (with respect to C. arvense) networks. We characterized plant-pollinator networks on 5 non-infested and 7 infested 1-ha plots during 4 sample periods that collectively covered the length of C. arvense flowering period. Two other abundantly-flowering invasive plants were present during this time: Melilotus officinalis had highly variable floral abundance in both C. arvense-infested and non-infested plots andConvolvulus arvensis, which occurred almost exclusively in infested plots and peaked early in the season. Modularity, including roles of individual species, and network topology were assessed for each sample period as well as in pooled infested and non-infested networks. Differences in modularity and network metrics between infested and non-infested networks were limited to the third and fourth sample periods, during flower senescence of C. arvenseand the other invasive species; generality of pollinators rose concurrently, suggesting rewiring of the network and a lag effect of earlier floral abundance. Modularity was lower and number of connectors higher in infested

  12. Host settling behavior, reproductive performance, and effects on plant growth of an exotic cereal aphid, Metopolophium festucae subsp. cerealium (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Davis, T S; Wu, Y; Eigenbrode, S D

    2014-06-01

    The cereal aphid Metopolophium festucae subsp. cerealium (Stroyan) is a recent addition to North America, but little is known about this species in its exotic habitat. We surveyed aphid populations for 3 years (2011-2013) to investigate changes in aphid density in the Pacific Northwest United States. We tested aphid host settling preference and fecundity on eight grass species, four native grasses (bluebunch wheatgrass, blue wild rye, Idaho fescue, and rough fescue) and four cereal crops (corn, wheat, barley, and oat), and evaluated the effects of aphid feeding on plant biomass. Four important findings emerged: 1) aphid prevalence in sweep net samples increased from 2011 to 2012, but remained stable from 2012 to 2013; 2) aphids preferentially settled on wheat and avoided corn, but aphids did not discriminate between barley, oat, and native grasses; 3) aphid fecundity was high on wheat and barley, intermediate on oat and blue wild rye, low on Idaho fescue, rough fescue, and bluebunch wheatgrass, and aphids did not reproduce at all on corn; and 4) barley, corn, oats, Idaho fescue, and blue wild rye were not susceptible to aphid feeding damage, but wheat, rough fescue, and bluebunch wheatgrass were susceptible to aphid feeding damage. Our results suggest that wheat and barley are preferred by M. festucae cerealium, and that aphids reproduce most rapidly on these hosts and cause significant reductions in wheat but not barley growth. Also, M. festucae cerealium appears capable of surviving on native grasses, although only bluebunch wheatgrass and rough fescue were susceptible to aphid feeding damage.

  13. Effects of a native parasitic plant on an exotic invader decrease with increasing host age

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junmin; Yang, Beifen; Yan, Qiaodi; Zhang, Jing; Yan, Min; Li, Maihe

    2015-01-01

    Understanding changes in the interactions between parasitic plants and their hosts in relation to ontogenetic changes in the hosts is crucial for successful use of parasitic plants as biological controls. We investigated growth, photosynthesis and chemical defences in different-aged Bidens pilosa plants in response to infection by Cuscuta australis. We were particularly interested in whether plant responses to parasite infection change with changes in the host plant age. Compared with the non-infected B. pilosa, parasite infection reduced total host biomass and net photosynthetic rates, but these deleterious effects decreased with increasing host age. Parasite infection reduced the concentrations of total phenolics, total flavonoids and saponins in the younger B. pilosa but not in the older B. pilosa. Compared with the relatively older and larger plants, younger and smaller plants suffered from more severe damage and are likely less to recover from the infection, suggesting that C. australis is only a viable biocontrol agent for younger B. pilosa plants. PMID:25838325

  14. The importance of native and exotic plant identity and dominance on decomposition patterns in mountain woodlands of central Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furey, Carolina; Tecco, Paula A.; Perez-Harguindeguy, Natalia; Giorgis, Melisa A.; Grossi, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Exotic species can have a strong influence on ecosystem processes, especially when exotic invaders differ from natives in key morpho-functional features. We explored whether exotic species, especially those forming monospecific patches in Chaco montane woodlands, differ from natives in leaf attributes and decomposability. We then evaluated how exotic monospecific patches in that region alter litter decomposability, by weighting leaf trait values and decomposability by species abundance in the communities. In general, native and exotic species from Córdoba Chaco montane woodlands did not differ in leaf attributes (specific leaf area, leaf toughness, and leaf water content), or decomposability. Because of similar trait values and decomposability, we expected to find no differences in litter decomposability between plots dominated by exotic species and those of Native woodland. However, individual species decomposability weighted by species abundance in the communities showed that litter from exotic monospecific plots had slower decomposition than native ones. This pattern was confirmed by the higher decomposability and higher quality of the naturally mixed litter collected from native plots, compared to those collected from exotic plots. Despite the general similarities between most native and exotic species inhabiting Chaco montane woodlands, the overwhelming dominance of some exotic invaders in monospecific stands (and the consequent weight of their attributes on the litter each woodland produces) might be driving differences in decomposition patterns between woodland types. Our results indicate that when estimating the impact of exotic species on ecosystem processes, we should include their relative abundance in the community, as well as the relevance of the traits influencing those processes. Otherwise, we may draw erroneous conclusions.

  15. Cryptic seedling herbivory by nocturnal introduced generalists impacts survival, performance of native and exotic plants.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Sharon Y; Stanton, Maureen L; Emery, Nancy C; Bradley, Carrie A; Carleton, Alexandra; Dittrich-Reed, Dylan R; Ervin, Olivia A; Gray, Levi N; Hamilton, Andrew M; Rogge, Jennifer Harrington; Harper, Skye D; Law, Kimberley Cook; Pham, Vinh Q; Putnam, Matthew E; Roth, Tara M; Theil, Jacob H; Wells, Lara M; Yoshizuka, Eric M

    2009-02-01

    Although much of the theory on the success of invasive species has been geared at escape from specialist enemies, the impact of introduced generalist invertebrate herbivores on both native and introduced plant species has been underappreciated. The role of nocturnal invertebrate herbivores in structuring plant communities has been examined extensively in Europe, but less so in North America. Many nocturnal generalists (slugs, snails, and earwigs) have been introduced to North America, and 96% of herbivores found during a night census at our California Central Valley site were introduced generalists. We explored the role of these herbivores in the distribution, survivorship, and growth of 12 native and introduced plant species from six families. We predicted that introduced species sharing an evolutionary history with these generalists might be less vulnerable than native plant species. We quantified plant and herbivore abundances within our heterogeneous site and also established herbivore removal experiments in 160 plots spanning the gamut of microhabitats. As 18 collaborators, we checked 2000 seedling sites every day for three weeks to assess nocturnal seedling predation. Laboratory feeding trials allowed us to quantify the palatability of plant species to the two dominant nocturnal herbivores at the site (slugs and earwigs) and allowed us to account for herbivore microhabitat preferences when analyzing attack rates on seedlings. The relationship between local slug abundance and percent cover of five common plant taxa at the field site was significantly negatively associated with the mean palatability of these taxa to slugs in laboratory trials. Moreover, seedling mortality of 12 species in open-field plots was positively correlated with mean palatability of these taxa to both slugs and earwigs in laboratory trials. Counter to expectations, seedlings of native species were neither more vulnerable nor more palatable to nocturnal generalists than those of

  16. A Multi-scale Spatial Analysis of Native and Exotic Plant Species Richness Within a Mixed-Disturbance Oak Savanna Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schetter, Timothy A.; Walters, Timothy L.; Root, Karen V.

    2013-09-01

    Impacts of human land use pose an increasing threat to global biodiversity. Resource managers must respond rapidly to this threat by assessing existing natural areas and prioritizing conservation actions across multiple spatial scales. Plant species richness is a useful measure of biodiversity but typically can only be evaluated on small portions of a given landscape. Modeling relationships between spatial heterogeneity and species richness may allow conservation planners to make predictions of species richness patterns within unsampled areas. We utilized a combination of field data, remotely sensed data, and landscape pattern metrics to develop models of native and exotic plant species richness at two spatial extents (60- and 120-m windows) and at four ecological levels for northwestern Ohio's Oak Openings region. Multiple regression models explained 37-77 % of the variation in plant species richness. These models consistently explained more variation in exotic richness than in native richness. Exotic richness was better explained at the 120-m extent while native richness was better explained at the 60-m extent. Land cover composition of the surrounding landscape was an important component of all models. We found that percentage of human-modified land cover (negatively correlated with native richness and positively correlated with exotic richness) was a particularly useful predictor of plant species richness and that human-caused disturbances exert a strong influence on species richness patterns within a mixed-disturbance oak savanna landscape. Our results emphasize the importance of using a multi-scale approach to examine the complex relationships between spatial heterogeneity and plant species richness.

  17. Exotic earthworm effects on hardwood forest floor, nutrient availability and native plants: a mesocosm study.

    PubMed

    Hale, Cindy M; Frelich, Lee E; Reich, Peter B; Pastor, John

    2008-03-01

    A greenhouse mesocosm experiment, representing earthworm-free North American Acer-dominated forest floor and soil conditions, was used to examine the individual and combined effects of initial invasion by three European earthworm species (Dendrobaena octaedra, Lumbricus rubellus and Lumbricus terrestris) on the forest floor and upper soil horizons, N and P availability, and the mortality and biomass of four native understory plant species (Acer saccharum, Aquilegia canadensis, Aralia racemosa, and Carex pensylvanica). All the three earthworm species combined caused larger impacts on most variables measured than any single earthworm species. These included loss of O horizon mass, decreased thickness of the O horizon and increased thickness of the A horizon, and higher availability of N and P. The latter finding differs from field reports where nutrients were less available after invasion, and probably represents an initial transient increase in nutrient supply as earthworms consume and incorporate the O horizon into the A horizon. Earthworms also increased mortality of plants and decreased total mesocosm plant biomass, but here the impact of all the three earthworm species was no greater than that of L. terrestris and/or L. rubellus alone. This study corroborates field studies that European earthworm invasions alter North American forest ecosystem processes by initiating a cascade of impacts on plant community composition and soil properties. PMID:18066602

  18. Differential effects of an exotic plant virus on its two closely related vectors.

    PubMed

    Pan, Huipeng; Chu, Dong; Liu, Baiming; Shi, Xiaobin; Guo, Litao; Xie, Wen; Carrière, Yves; Li, Xianchun; Zhang, Youjun

    2013-01-01

    Concurrent spread of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) with invasion of Bemisia tabaci Q rather than B in China suggests a more mutualistic relationship between TYLCV and Q than B. To assess this hypothesis, we quantified the impacts of TYLCV on the performance and competitiveness of B and Q in the laboratory. The results showed that relative to their non-infected counterparts feeding on cotton (a non-host for TYLCV), infected B exhibited significant reductions in life-history traits, whereas infected Q only showed marginal reductions. While Q performed better on TYLCV-infected tomato plants than on uninfected ones, the reverse was observed in B. Q displacement by B took one more generation on TYLCV-infected tomato plants than on healthy ones. These results demonstrate that TYLCV was indirectly mutualistic to Q but directly and indirectly parasitic to B. PMID:23864010

  19. Long-Term Effects of White-Tailed Deer Exclusion on the Invasion of Exotic Plants: A Case Study in a Mid-Atlantic Temperate Forest.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaoli; Bourg, Norman A; McShea, William J; Turner, Benjamin L

    2016-01-01

    Exotic plant invasions and chronic high levels of herbivory are two of the major biotic stressors impacting temperate forest ecosystems in eastern North America, and the two problems are often linked. We used a 4-ha deer exclosure maintained since 1991 to examine the influence of a generalist herbivore, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), on the abundance of four exotic invasive (Rosa multiflora, Berberis thunbergii, Rubus phoenicolasius and Microstegium vimineum) and one native (Cynoglossum virginianum) plant species, within a 25.6-ha mature temperate forest dynamics plot in Virginia, USA. We identified significant predictors of the abundance of each focal species using generalized linear models incorporating 10 environmental and landscape variables. After controlling for those predictors, we applied our models to a 4-ha deer exclusion site and a 4-ha reference site, both embedded within the larger plot, to test the role of deer on the abundance of the focal species. Slope, edge effects and soil pH were the most frequent predictors of the abundance of the focal species on the larger plot. The abundance of C. virginianum, known to be deer-dispersed, was significantly lower in the exclosure. Similar patterns were detected for B. thunbergii, R. phoenicolasius and M. vimineum, whereas R. multiflora was more abundant within the exclosure. Our results indicate that chronic high deer density facilitates increased abundances of several exotic invasive plant species, with the notable exception of R. multiflora. We infer that the invasion of many exotic plant species that are browse-tolerant to white-tailed deer could be limited by reducing deer populations.

  20. Long-Term Effects of White-Tailed Deer Exclusion on the Invasion of Exotic Plants: A Case Study in a Mid-Atlantic Temperate Forest

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaoli; Bourg, Norman A.; McShea, William J.; Turner, Benjamin L.

    2016-01-01

    Exotic plant invasions and chronic high levels of herbivory are two of the major biotic stressors impacting temperate forest ecosystems in eastern North America, and the two problems are often linked. We used a 4-ha deer exclosure maintained since 1991 to examine the influence of a generalist herbivore, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), on the abundance of four exotic invasive (Rosa multiflora, Berberis thunbergii, Rubus phoenicolasius and Microstegium vimineum) and one native (Cynoglossum virginianum) plant species, within a 25.6-ha mature temperate forest dynamics plot in Virginia, USA. We identified significant predictors of the abundance of each focal species using generalized linear models incorporating 10 environmental and landscape variables. After controlling for those predictors, we applied our models to a 4-ha deer exclusion site and a 4-ha reference site, both embedded within the larger plot, to test the role of deer on the abundance of the focal species. Slope, edge effects and soil pH were the most frequent predictors of the abundance of the focal species on the larger plot. The abundance of C. virginianum, known to be deer-dispersed, was significantly lower in the exclosure. Similar patterns were detected for B. thunbergii, R. phoenicolasius and M. vimineum, whereas R. multiflora was more abundant within the exclosure. Our results indicate that chronic high deer density facilitates increased abundances of several exotic invasive plant species, with the notable exception of R. multiflora. We infer that the invasion of many exotic plant species that are browse-tolerant to white-tailed deer could be limited by reducing deer populations. PMID:27019356

  1. Long-Term Effects of White-Tailed Deer Exclusion on the Invasion of Exotic Plants: A Case Study in a Mid-Atlantic Temperate Forest.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaoli; Bourg, Norman A; McShea, William J; Turner, Benjamin L

    2016-01-01

    Exotic plant invasions and chronic high levels of herbivory are two of the major biotic stressors impacting temperate forest ecosystems in eastern North America, and the two problems are often linked. We used a 4-ha deer exclosure maintained since 1991 to examine the influence of a generalist herbivore, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), on the abundance of four exotic invasive (Rosa multiflora, Berberis thunbergii, Rubus phoenicolasius and Microstegium vimineum) and one native (Cynoglossum virginianum) plant species, within a 25.6-ha mature temperate forest dynamics plot in Virginia, USA. We identified significant predictors of the abundance of each focal species using generalized linear models incorporating 10 environmental and landscape variables. After controlling for those predictors, we applied our models to a 4-ha deer exclusion site and a 4-ha reference site, both embedded within the larger plot, to test the role of deer on the abundance of the focal species. Slope, edge effects and soil pH were the most frequent predictors of the abundance of the focal species on the larger plot. The abundance of C. virginianum, known to be deer-dispersed, was significantly lower in the exclosure. Similar patterns were detected for B. thunbergii, R. phoenicolasius and M. vimineum, whereas R. multiflora was more abundant within the exclosure. Our results indicate that chronic high deer density facilitates increased abundances of several exotic invasive plant species, with the notable exception of R. multiflora. We infer that the invasion of many exotic plant species that are browse-tolerant to white-tailed deer could be limited by reducing deer populations. PMID:27019356

  2. Diazotrophic diversity in the rhizosphere of two exotic weed plants, Prosopis juliflora and Parthenium hysterophorus.

    PubMed

    Cibichakravarthy, B; Preetha, R; Sundaram, S P; Kumar, K; Balachandar, D

    2012-02-01

    This study is aimed at assessing culturable diazotrophic bacterial diversity in the rhizosphere of Prosopis juliflora and Parthenium hysterophorus, which grow profusely in nutritionally-poor soils and environmentally-stress conditions so as to identify some novel strains for bioinoculant technology. Diazotrophic isolates from Prosopis and Parthenium rhizosphere were characterized for nitrogenase activity by Acetylene Reduction Assay (ARA) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Further, the culture-independent quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed to compare the abundance of diazotrophs in rhizosphere with bulk soils. The proportion of diazotrophs in total heterotrophs was higher in rhizosphere than bulk soils and 32 putative diazotrophs from rhizosphere of two plants were identified by nifH gene amplification. The ARA activity of the isolates ranged from 40 to 95 nmol ethylene h(-1) mg protein(-1). The 16S rRNA gene analysis identified the isolates to be members of alpha, beta and gamma Proteobacteria and firmicutes. The qPCR assay also confirmed that abundance of nif gene in rhizosphere of these two plants was 10-fold higher than bulk soil.

  3. Changes in carbon pool and stand structure of a native subtropical mangrove forest after inter-planting with exotic species Sonneratia apetala.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weizhi; Yang, Shengchang; Chen, Luzhen; Wang, Wenqing; Du, Xiaona; Wang, Canmou; Ma, Yan; Lin, Guangxuan; Lin, Guanghui

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we compared stand structure, biomass and soil carbon pools, and litterfall production between a mixed mangrove forest consisting of Aegiceras corniculatum inter-planted with the exotic Sonneratia apetala and a native monospecific forest dominated by A. corniculatum in the intertidal area of Zhanjiang, Guangdong Province, southeast China. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that inter-planting fast growing exotic mangrove S. apetala into subtropical native mangrove forests will significantly increase C sequestration. Although the tree heights and basal diameters of S. apetala were significantly higher than those of A. corniculatum, the density of the 12-year-old S. apetala trees in the mixed forest was much smaller than that of A. corniculatum in the monospecific forest. In contrast to several previous studies on S. apetala forests planted directly on mangrove-free mudflats, the mixed mangrove forest showed no significant difference in either standing biomass or soil carbon pools from the native monospecific mangrove forest (p = 0.294 and 0.073, respectively) twelve years after inter-planting with S. apetala. Moreover, carbon cycling was likely speeded up after inter-planting S. apetala due to higher litterfall input and lower C/N ratio. Thus, inter-planting fast-growing S. apetala into native mangrove forest is not an effective way to increase carbon sequestration in this subtropical mangrove forest. Given that exotic plant species may exert negative impact on native mangrove species and related epifauna, this fast-growing mangrove species is not suitable for mangrove plantation projects aiming mainly at enhancing carbon sequestration.

  4. Changes in Carbon Pool and Stand Structure of a Native Subtropical Mangrove Forest after Inter-Planting with Exotic Species Sonneratia apetala

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Weizhi; Yang, Shengchang; Chen, Luzhen; Wang, Wenqing; Du, Xiaona; Wang, Canmou; Ma, Yan; Lin, Guangxuan; Lin, Guanghui

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we compared stand structure, biomass and soil carbon pools, and litterfall production between a mixed mangrove forest consisting of Aegiceras corniculatum inter-planted with the exotic Sonneratia apetala and a native monospecific forest dominated by A. corniculatum in the intertidal area of Zhanjiang, Guangdong Province, southeast China. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that inter-planting fast growing exotic mangrove S. apetala into subtropical native mangrove forests will significantly increase C sequestration. Although the tree heights and basal diameters of S. apetala were significantly higher than those of A. corniculatum, the density of the 12-year-old S. apetala trees in the mixed forest was much smaller than that of A. corniculatum in the monospecific forest. In contrast to several previous studies on S. apetala forests planted directly on mangrove-free mudflats, the mixed mangrove forest showed no significant difference in either standing biomass or soil carbon pools from the native monospecific mangrove forest (p = 0.294 and 0.073, respectively) twelve years after inter-planting with S. apetala. Moreover, carbon cycling was likely speeded up after inter-planting S. apetala due to higher litterfall input and lower C/N ratio. Thus, inter-planting fast-growing S. apetala into native mangrove forest is not an effective way to increase carbon sequestration in this subtropical mangrove forest. Given that exotic plant species may exert negative impact on native mangrove species and related epifauna, this fast-growing mangrove species is not suitable for mangrove plantation projects aiming mainly at enhancing carbon sequestration. PMID:24618793

  5. Host settling behavior, reproductive performance, and effects on plant growth of an exotic cereal aphid, Metopolophium festucae subsp. cerealium (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Davis, T S; Wu, Y; Eigenbrode, S D

    2014-06-01

    The cereal aphid Metopolophium festucae subsp. cerealium (Stroyan) is a recent addition to North America, but little is known about this species in its exotic habitat. We surveyed aphid populations for 3 years (2011-2013) to investigate changes in aphid density in the Pacific Northwest United States. We tested aphid host settling preference and fecundity on eight grass species, four native grasses (bluebunch wheatgrass, blue wild rye, Idaho fescue, and rough fescue) and four cereal crops (corn, wheat, barley, and oat), and evaluated the effects of aphid feeding on plant biomass. Four important findings emerged: 1) aphid prevalence in sweep net samples increased from 2011 to 2012, but remained stable from 2012 to 2013; 2) aphids preferentially settled on wheat and avoided corn, but aphids did not discriminate between barley, oat, and native grasses; 3) aphid fecundity was high on wheat and barley, intermediate on oat and blue wild rye, low on Idaho fescue, rough fescue, and bluebunch wheatgrass, and aphids did not reproduce at all on corn; and 4) barley, corn, oats, Idaho fescue, and blue wild rye were not susceptible to aphid feeding damage, but wheat, rough fescue, and bluebunch wheatgrass were susceptible to aphid feeding damage. Our results suggest that wheat and barley are preferred by M. festucae cerealium, and that aphids reproduce most rapidly on these hosts and cause significant reductions in wheat but not barley growth. Also, M. festucae cerealium appears capable of surviving on native grasses, although only bluebunch wheatgrass and rough fescue were susceptible to aphid feeding damage. PMID:24874155

  6. [The design and development of a quality system for the diagnosis of exotic animal diseases at the National Centre for Animal and Plant Health in Cuba].

    PubMed

    de Oca, N Montes; Villoch, A; Pérez Ruano, M

    2004-12-01

    A quality system for the diagnosis of exotic animal diseases was developed at the national centre for animal and plant health (CENSA), responsible for coordinating the clinical, epizootiological and laboratory diagnosis of causal agents of exotic animal diseases in Cuba. A model was designed on the basis of standard ISO 9001:2000 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), standard ISO/IEC 17025:1999 of ISO and the International Electrotechnical Commission, recommendations of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and other regulatory documents from international and national organisations that deal specifically with the treatment of emerging diseases. Twenty-nine standardised operating procedures were developed, plus 13 registers and a checklist to facilitate the evaluation of the system. The effectiveness of the quality system was confirmed in the differential diagnosis of classical swine fever at an animal virology laboratory in Cuba.

  7. [The design and development of a quality system for the diagnosis of exotic animal diseases at the National Centre for Animal and Plant Health in Cuba].

    PubMed

    de Oca, N Montes; Villoch, A; Pérez Ruano, M

    2004-12-01

    A quality system for the diagnosis of exotic animal diseases was developed at the national centre for animal and plant health (CENSA), responsible for coordinating the clinical, epizootiological and laboratory diagnosis of causal agents of exotic animal diseases in Cuba. A model was designed on the basis of standard ISO 9001:2000 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), standard ISO/IEC 17025:1999 of ISO and the International Electrotechnical Commission, recommendations of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and other regulatory documents from international and national organisations that deal specifically with the treatment of emerging diseases. Twenty-nine standardised operating procedures were developed, plus 13 registers and a checklist to facilitate the evaluation of the system. The effectiveness of the quality system was confirmed in the differential diagnosis of classical swine fever at an animal virology laboratory in Cuba. PMID:15861883

  8. Survey of noise in coal preparation plants

    SciTech Connect

    Vipperman, J.S.; Bauer, E.R.; Babich, D.R.

    2007-01-15

    In response to the continuing problem of noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) among mine workers, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has conducted numerous noise surveys in coal preparation plants. The research, consisting of worker dose monitoring, task observations, and equipment noise profiling, was completed in eight separate preparation plants. Worker dose monitoring was conducted for three shifts in most cases. Workers experiencing higher than allowable doses were task-observed for one full shift to correlate dose to noise source(s). Finally, noise levels on all floors, and in lunch rooms and control rooms, were characterized. Results indicate that only workers who routinely spend a significant portion of their shift in the plants (away from the control rooms) are susceptible to overexposure from noise. Certain pieces of equipment (screens, centrifuges, sieve bends) are the loudest primary noise sources responsible for the worker noise exposures.

  9. Native and exotic plant cover vary inversely along a climate gradient 11 years following stand-replacing wildfire in a dry coniferous forest, Oregon, USA.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Erich K; Root, Heather T

    2015-02-01

    Community re-assembly following future disturbances will often occur under warmer and more moisture-limited conditions than when current communities assembled. Because the establishment stage is regularly the most sensitive to climate and competition, the trajectory of recovery from disturbance in a changing environment is uncertain, but has important consequences for future ecosystem functioning. To better understand how ongoing warming and rising moisture limitation may affect recovery, we studied native and exotic plant composition 11 years following complete stand-replacing wildfire in a dry coniferous forest spanning a large gradient in climatic moisture deficit (CMD) from warm and dry low elevation sites to relatively cool and moist higher elevations sites. We then projected future precipitation, temperature and CMD at our study locations for four scenarios selected to encompass a broad range of possible future conditions for the region. Native perennials dominated relatively cool and moist sites 11 years after wildfire, but were very sparse at the warmest and driest (high CMD) sites, particularly when combined with high topographic sun exposure. In contrast, exotic species (primarily annual grasses) were dominant or co-dominant at the warmest and driest sites, especially with high topographic sun exposure. All future scenarios projected increasing temperature and CMD in coming decades (e.g., from 4.5% to 29.5% higher CMD by the 2080's compared to the 1971-2000 average), even in scenarios where growing season (May-September) precipitation increased. These results suggest increasing temperatures and moisture limitation could facilitate longer term (over a decade) transitions toward exotic-dominated communities after severe wildfire when a suitable exotic seed source is present.

  10. Survey of US fuel ethanol plants.

    PubMed

    Saunders, J A; Rosentrater, K A

    2009-07-01

    The ethanol industry is growing in response to increased consumer demands for fuel as well as the renewable fuel standard. Corn ethanol processing creates the following products: 1/3 ethanol, 1/3 distillers grains, and 1/3 carbon dioxide. As the production of ethanol increases so does the generation of its coproducts, and viable uses continually need to be developed. A survey was mailed to operational US ethanol plants to determine current practices. It inquired about processes, equipment used, end products, and desired future directions for coproducts. Results indicated that approximately one-third of plant managers surveyed expressed a willingness to alter current drying time and temperature if it could result in a higher quality coproduct. Other managers indicated hesitation, based on lack of economic incentives, potential cost and return, and capital required. Respondents also reported the desire to use their coproducts in some of the following products: fuels, extrusion, pellets, plastics, and human food applications. These results provide a snapshot of the industry, and indicate that operational changes to the current production of DDGS must be based upon the potential for positive economic returns.

  11. Non-additive benefit or cost? Disentangling the indirect effects that occur when plants bearing extrafloral nectaries and honeydew-producing insects share exotic ant mutualists

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Amy M.; Rudgers, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims In complex communities, organisms often form mutualisms with multiple different partners simultaneously. Non-additive effects may emerge among species linked by these positive interactions. Ants commonly participate in mutualisms with both honeydew-producing insects (HPI) and their extrafloral nectary (EFN)-bearing host plants. Consequently, HPI and EFN-bearing plants may experience non-additive benefits or costs when these groups co-occur. The outcomes of these interactions are likely to be influenced by variation in preferences among ants for honeydew vs. nectar. In this study, a test was made for non-additive effects on HPI and EFN-bearing plants resulting from sharing exotic ant guards. Preferences of the dominant exotic ant species for nectar vs. honeydew resources were also examined. Methods Ant access, HPI and nectar availability were manipulated on the EFN-bearing shrub, Morinda citrifolia, and ant and HPI abundances, herbivory and plant growth were assessed. Ant-tending behaviours toward HPI across an experimental gradient of nectar availability were also tracked in order to investigate mechanisms underlying ant responses. Key Results The dominant ant species, Anoplolepis gracilipes, differed from less invasive ants in response to multiple mutualists, with reductions in plot-wide abundances when nectar was reduced, but no response to HPI reduction. Conversely, at sites where A. gracilipes was absent or rare, abundances of less invasive ants increased when nectar was reduced, but declined when HPI were reduced. Non-additive benefits were found at sites dominated by A. gracilipes, but only for M. citrifolia plants. Responses of HPI at these sites supported predictions of the non-additive cost model. Interestingly, the opposite non-additive patterns emerged at sites dominated by other ants. Conclusions It was demonstrated that strong non-additive benefits and costs can both occur when a plant and herbivore share mutualist partners. These

  12. Legacy effects overwhelm the short-term effects of exotic plant invasion and restoration on soil microbial community structure, enzyme activities, and nitrogen cycling.

    PubMed

    Elgersma, Kenneth J; Ehrenfeld, Joan G; Yu, Shen; Vor, Torsten

    2011-11-01

    Plant invasions can have substantial consequences for the soil ecosystem, altering microbial community structure and nutrient cycling. However, relatively little is known about what drives these changes, making it difficult to predict the effects of future invasions. In addition, because most studies compare soils from uninvaded areas to long-established dense invasions, little is known about the temporal dependence of invasion impacts. We experimentally manipulated forest understory vegetation in replicated sites dominated either by exotic Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii), native Viburnums, or native Vacciniums, so that each vegetation type was present in each site-type. We compared the short-term effect of vegetation changes to the lingering legacy effects of the previous vegetation type by measuring soil microbial community structure (phospholipid fatty acids) and function (extracellular enzymes and nitrogen mineralization). We also replaced the aboveground litter in half of each plot with an inert substitute to determine if changes in the soil microbial community were driven by aboveground or belowground plant inputs. We found that after 2 years, the microbial community structure and function was largely determined by the legacy effect of the previous vegetation type, and was not affected by the current vegetation. Aboveground litter removal had only weak effects, suggesting that changes in the soil microbial community and nutrient cycling were driven largely by belowground processes. These results suggest that changes in the soil following either invasion or restoration do not occur quickly, but rather exhibit long-lasting legacy effects from previous belowground plant inputs. PMID:21618010

  13. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the Department of Energy (DOE), Y-12 Plant, conducted November 10 through 21 and December 9 through 11, 1986. This Survey is being conducted by a multidisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team members are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the Y-12 Plant. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations performed at Y-12, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan is being executed by DOE's Argonne National Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the Y-12 Plant Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the Y-12 Plant Survey. 80 refs., 76 figs., 61 tabs.

  14. Introduction to the Special Issue: The role of soil microbial-driven belowground processes in mediating exotic plant invasions

    PubMed Central

    Inderjit

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbial communities are one of the multiple factors that facilitate or resist plant invasion. Regional and biogeographic studies help to determine how soil communities and the processes mediated by soil microbes are linked to other mechanisms of invasion. Both the success of plant invasions and their impacts are profoundly influenced by a wide range of soil communities and the soil processes mediated by them. With an aim to better understand the mechanisms responsible for the soil community-driven routes, a special issue of AoB PLANTS was conceived. I hope that the range of papers included in the special issue will reveal some of the complexities in soil community-mediated plant invasion. PMID:25979967

  15. Environmental survey preliminary report, Mound Plant, Miamisburg, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Mound Plant, conducted August 18 through 29, 1986. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the Mound Plant. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at the Mound Plant, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey found no environmental problems at the Mound Plant that represent an immediate threat to human life. The environmental problems identified at the Mound Plant by the Survey confirm that the site is confronted with a number of environmental problems which are by and large a legacy from past practices at a time when environmental problems were less well understood. Theses problems vary in terms of their magnitude and risk, as described in this report. Although the sampling and analysis performed by the Mound Plant Survey will assist in further identifying environmental problems at the site, a complete understanding of the significance of some of the environmental problems identified requires a level of study and characterization that is beyond the scope of the Survey. Actions currently under way or planned at the site, particularly the Phase II activities of the Comprehensive Environmental Analysis and Response Program (CEARP) as developed and implemented by the Albuquerque Operations Office, will contribute toward meeting this requirement. 85 refs., 24 figs., 20 tabs.

  16. Experience survey of chloride resistant alloys in process plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, J.; Matsumoto, Keiichi

    1999-11-01

    The Society of Chemical Engineers, Japan (SCEJ), and The Japan Petroleum Institute (JPI) have jointly surveyed the experience of so called Chloride-SCC resistant stainless steels in petrochemical plants and refinery plants. The survey covered more than one hundred cases of applications of duplex stainless steels, 400 series stainless steels, high nickel alloys and austenitic stainless steels. The survey included the following: (1) countermeasures taken in advance of or after the occurrence of the damage; (2) environmental conditions of the equipment considered; and (3) performance of the adopted countermeasure materials. As a conclusion, detailed analysis has clarified safe limits of SCC resistant alloys, some unexpected weak points, and remarkable performances.

  17. Native fungal endophytes suppress an exotic dominant and increase plant diversity over small and large spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Afkhami, Michelle E; Strauss, Sharon Y

    2016-05-01

    Understanding community dynamics and processes, such as the factors that generate and maintain biodiversity, drive succession, and affect invasion susceptibility, is a central goal in ecology and evolution. While most studies of how species interactions affect communities have focused on highly visible macroorganisms, we show that mutualistic microfungal endophytes have community-level effects across their host plant's range and provide the first example of fungal endophytes enhancing plant diversity. A three-year field study in which we experimentally manipulated endophyte abundance in a native Californian grass showed that despite their minute biomass, endophytes dramatically increased plant community diversity (~110% greater increase with endophytes) by suppressing a dominant invasive grass, Bromus diandrus. This effect was also detectable, but smaller, across five additional common gardens spanning ecologically diverse habitats, different climates, and > 400 km of the host grass' range as well as at microspatial scales within gardens. Our study illustrates that mutualistic microbes, while often hidden players, can have unexpectedly large ecological impacts across a wide range of habitats and scales and may be important for promoting diverse communities and ecosystems. PMID:27349093

  18. Exotic Mammal Laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Sladakovic, Izidora; Divers, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopy is an evolving field in veterinary medicine, and there is an increased interest in using laparoscopic techniques in nondomestic mammals, including zoo animals, wildlife, and exotic pets. The aim of this article is to summarize the approach to laparoscopic procedures, including instrumentation, patient selection and preparation, and surgical approaches, and to review the current literature on laparoscopy in exotic mammals.

  19. Ruderal plants in remaining Cerrado areas: floristic survey, origin and mycorrhization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José Neto, Maria; de Cássia Brassaloti Otsubo, Helena; Luciene Maltoni, Kátia; Rodrigues Cassiolato, Ana Maria

    2015-04-01

    The urbanization process creates new ecosystems that harbor flora which has specialized in living in anthropogenically altered environments, since the advent of agriculture and urbanization. Plant specialization in new ecosystems has been due to accelerated population growth and extensive occupied spaces on the planet surface. This study was looking at the floristic survey and origin, as well as arbuscular mycorrhization of ruderal plants, in remaining Cerrado areas in the city of Três Lagoas-MS, Brazil. It was also to expand knowledge about native and introduced vegetation in anthropogenic environments. The survey was conducted for a year. From all species ruderal plants founded, plants from 49 species were collected with the purpose of this study and report the occurrence or not of AM colonization, by classifying root colonization, of the species as: very high; high; medium; low and absent when presented a index of colonization> 80%, 79-50%, 49-20%, 19-1% and 0%, respectively. Two hundred sixty-six species, distributed into 53 botanical families were found. The flora of Três Lagoas-MS is composed of native and exotic plants (82.72% from the Americas and 17.28% from the Old World and Australia). There were 220 species native to the America's, but the largest amount (60.45%) were Brazil native growing plants. Smaller percentage of this (28.63%) was found to come from the cerrado, which indicates that the ruderal vegetation was well represented by native species. Of the 49 species chosen for verification of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization, 27 exhibited very high colonization; two were high; two were medium; eleven were low and seven species showed no mycorrhizal colonization, leading to the conclusion that most ruderal plants showed mycorrhizal colonization. The soil fertility, for both area, were considered higher than the typical cerrado, and by the average number of AMF spores (152 per 100 g of dry soil-1) may not even be considered degraded. This urban

  20. Nonindigenous Plant Advantage in Native and Exotic Australian Grasses under Experimental Drought, Warming, and Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Godfree, Robert C.; Robertson, Bruce C.; Gapare, Washington J.; Ivković, Miloš; Marshall, David J.; Lepschi, Brendan J.; Zwart, Alexander B.

    2013-01-01

    A general prediction of ecological theory is that climate change will favor invasive nonindigenous plant species (NIPS) over native species. However, the relative fitness advantage enjoyed by NIPS is often affected by resource limitation and potentially by extreme climatic events such as drought. Genetic constraints may also limit the ability of NIPS to adapt to changing climatic conditions. In this study, we investigated evidence for potential NIPS advantage under climate change in two sympatric perennial stipoid grasses from southeast Australia, the NIPS Nassella neesiana and the native Austrostipa bigeniculata. We compared the growth and reproduction of both species under current and year 2050 drought, temperature and CO2 regimes in a multifactor outdoor climate simulation experiment, hypothesizing that NIPS advantage would be higher under more favorable growing conditions. We also compared the quantitative variation and heritability of growth traits in populations of both species collected along a 200 km climatic transect. In contrast to our hypothesis we found that the NIPS N. neesiana was less responsive than A. bigeniculata to winter warming but maintained higher reproductive output during spring drought. However, overall tussock expansion was far more rapid in N. neesiana, and so it maintained an overall fitness advantage over A. bigeniculata in all climate regimes. N. neesiana also exhibited similar or lower quantitative variation and growth trait heritability than A. bigeniculata within populations but greater variability among populations, probably reflecting a complex past introduction history. We found some evidence that additional spring warmth increases the impact of drought on reproduction but not that elevated atmospheric CO2 ameliorates drought severity. Overall, we conclude that NIPS advantage under climate change may be limited by a lack of responsiveness to key climatic drivers, reduced genetic variability in range-edge populations, and complex

  1. Nonindigenous Plant Advantage in Native and Exotic Australian Grasses under Experimental Drought, Warming, and Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment.

    PubMed

    Godfree, Robert C; Robertson, Bruce C; Gapare, Washington J; Ivković, Miloš; Marshall, David J; Lepschi, Brendan J; Zwart, Alexander B

    2013-03-27

    A general prediction of ecological theory is that climate change will favor invasive nonindigenous plant species (NIPS) over native species. However, the relative fitness advantage enjoyed by NIPS is often affected by resource limitation and potentially by extreme climatic events such as drought. Genetic constraints may also limit the ability of NIPS to adapt to changing climatic conditions. In this study, we investigated evidence for potential NIPS advantage under climate change in two sympatric perennial stipoid grasses from southeast Australia, the NIPS Nassella neesiana and the native Austrostipa bigeniculata. We compared the growth and reproduction of both species under current and year 2050 drought, temperature and CO2 regimes in a multifactor outdoor climate simulation experiment, hypothesizing that NIPS advantage would be higher under more favorable growing conditions. We also compared the quantitative variation and heritability of growth traits in populations of both species collected along a 200 km climatic transect. In contrast to our hypothesis we found that the NIPS N. neesiana was less responsive than A. bigeniculata to winter warming but maintained higher reproductive output during spring drought. However, overall tussock expansion was far more rapid in N. neesiana, and so it maintained an overall fitness advantage over A. bigeniculata in all climate regimes. N. neesiana also exhibited similar or lower quantitative variation and growth trait heritability than A. bigeniculata within populations but greater variability among populations, probably reflecting a complex past introduction history. We found some evidence that additional spring warmth increases the impact of drought on reproduction but not that elevated atmospheric CO2 ameliorates drought severity. Overall, we conclude that NIPS advantage under climate change may be limited by a lack of responsiveness to key climatic drivers, reduced genetic variability in range-edge populations, and complex

  2. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Pinellas Plant, Largo, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the preliminary findings made during the Environmental Survey, conducted May 11 through 22, 1987, at the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Pinellas Plant in Largo, Florida. As a Preliminary Report, the contents are subject to revisions, which will be made in a forthcoming Interim Report, based on Albuquerque Operations Office review and comments on technical accuracy, the results of the sampling and analyses, and other information that may come to the Survey team's attention prior to issuance of the Interim Report. The Pinellas Plant is currently operated for DOE by the General Electric Company-Neutron Devices Department (GENDD). The Pinellas Survey is part of the larger DOE-wide Environmental Survey effort announced by Secretary John S. Herrington on September 18, 1985. The purpose of this effort is to identify, via no fault'' baseline Surveys, existing environmental problems are areas of environmental risk at DOE facilities and to rank them on a DOE-wide basis. This ranking will enable DOE to more effectively establish priorities for addressing environmental problems and allocate the resources necessary to correct these problems. Because the Survey is no fault'' and is not an audit,'' it is not designed to identify specific isolated incidents of noncompliance or to analyze environmental management practices. Such incidents and/or management practices will, however, be used in the Survey as a means of identifying existing and potential environmental problems. 55 refs., 37 figs., 37 tabs.

  3. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Kansas City Plant (KCP), conducted March 23 through April 3, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by a multidisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team members are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the KCP. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulations. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data observations of the operations performed at the KCP, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan is being executed by DOE's Argonne National Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the KCP Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the KCP Survey. 94 refs., 39 figs., 55 tabs.

  4. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), conducted August 11 through 22, 1986. The Survey is being conducted by an multidisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team members are outside experts supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the RFP. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulations. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data observations of the operations carried on at RFP, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activates. The Sampling and Analysis Plan is being executed by DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the RFP Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the RFP Survey. 75 refs., 24 figs., 33 tabs.

  5. Biological control and hyperspectral remote sensing of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) an exotic plant species in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker Williams, Amy Elizabeth

    Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) is an adventive, invasive, plant species in North America. Aphthona lacertosa and A. nigriscutis are flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) introduced for biological control of leafy spurge in North America. This research directly addresses the need for quantitative assessment of biological control and for regional scale mapping of leafy spurge infestations. This research had three main objectives. The first was to document the establishment and impact on leafy spurge populations of introduced Aphthona flea beetles. In 1998, 3,000 beetles of each species (6,000 total per site) were released on 76 of 101 monitoring sites in Wyoming. Flea beetle abundance, leafy spurge canopy cover, and flea beetle impact area were measured in 1999 and 2000. After two years, Aphthona releases resulted in significant reductions in leafy spurge canopy cover (from 49% to 6%) with suppression of leafy spurge averaging 285 m2. Flea beetles were effective in controlling leafy spurge regardless of the site characteristics (vegetation type, topographical position, soil type, and aspect) and initial leafy spurge canopy cover. The second objective was to develop methods for detecting and estimating leafy spurge abundance from remotely sensed data. Ground spectrometer data demonstrated that leafy spurge was spectrally distinct due to its conspicuous yellow-green bracts. Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering was used to estimate leafy spurge canopy cover and map leafy spurge distribution from Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer imagery acquired in 1999. Overall performance of MTMF for estimating percent cover of leafy spurge for all sites was good (r2 = 0.69) with better performance in prairie areas (r 2 = 0.79) and poorer performance occurring on wooded sites (r 2 = 0.57). The third objective was to assess the accuracy of using remotely sensed data for mapping leafy spurge in various habitat types. Leafy spurge was mapped with an overall accuracy ranging

  6. Capillary surfaces in exotic containers

    SciTech Connect

    Concus, P. ); Finn, R. . Dept. of Mathematics)

    1991-07-01

    A survey is presented of results to date for capillary surfaces in exotic'' containers. These containers have the property that each one admits a continuum of distinct equilibrium free surfaces, all bounding with the container walls the same volume of fluid, making the same contact angle at the trip interface curve, and having identical mechanical energies. The containers can be so designed that they are themselves axially symmetric but that the fluid configurations of minimizing energy cannot be axially symmetric. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  7. 9 CFR 351.8 - Charges for surveys of plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Charges for surveys of plants. 351.8 Section 351.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND...

  8. 9 CFR 351.8 - Charges for surveys of plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Charges for surveys of plants. 351.8 Section 351.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL ANIMAL FATS FOR EXPORT Fees § 351.8 Charges...

  9. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    This report contains the preliminary findings based on the first phase of an Environmental Survey at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Plant (SRP), located at Aiken, South Carolina. The Survey is being conducted by DOE's Office of Environment, Safety and Health. The following topics are discussed: general site information; air, soil, surface water and ground water; hydrogeology; waste management; toxic and chemical materials; release of tritium oxides; radioactivity in milk; contamination of ground water and wildlife; pesticide use; and release of radionuclides into seepage basins. 149 refs., 44 figs., 53 tabs.

  10. Risk of exotic annual grass-fire cycle in Goose Creek milkvetch habitat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a concern that habitats surrounding Goose Creek milkvetch populations are at risk of exotic annual grass invasion leading to an exotic annual grass-fire cycle. We sampled plant community and site characteristics to evaluate the risk of these habitats developing an exotic annual grass-fire ...

  11. Injuries, envenomations and stings from exotic pets.

    PubMed

    Warwick, Clifford; Steedman, Catrina

    2012-07-01

    A variety of exotic vertebrate and invertebrate species are kept as 'pets' including fishes, amphibians (for example, frogs and toads), reptiles (turtles, crocodiles, lizards and snakes), birds, mammals (for example, primates, civets, and lions), and invertebrates (for example spiders, scorpions, and centipedes), and ownership of some of these animals is rising. Data for 2009-2011 suggest that the number of homes with reptiles rose by approximately 12.5%. Recent surveys, including only some of these animals, indicated that they might be present in around 18.6% of homes (equal to approximately 42 million animals of which around 40 million are indoor or outdoor fish). Many exotic 'pets' are capable of causing injury or poisoning to their keepers and some contacts prove fatal. We examined NHS Health Episode Statistics for England using selected formal categories for hospital admissions and bed days for 2004-2010 using the following categories of injury, envenomation or sting; bitten or struck by crocodile or alligator; bitten or crushed by other reptiles: contact with venomous snakes and lizards; contact with scorpions. Between 2004 and 2010 these data conservatively show a total of 760 full consultation episodes, 709 admissions and 2,121 hospital bed days were associated with injuries probably from exotic pets. Injuries, envenomations and stings from exotic pets constitute a small but important component of emerging medical problems. Greater awareness of relevant injuries and medical sequelae from exotic pet keeping may help medics formulate their clinical assessment and advice to patients.

  12. Injuries, envenomations and stings from exotic pets.

    PubMed

    Warwick, Clifford; Steedman, Catrina

    2012-07-01

    A variety of exotic vertebrate and invertebrate species are kept as 'pets' including fishes, amphibians (for example, frogs and toads), reptiles (turtles, crocodiles, lizards and snakes), birds, mammals (for example, primates, civets, and lions), and invertebrates (for example spiders, scorpions, and centipedes), and ownership of some of these animals is rising. Data for 2009-2011 suggest that the number of homes with reptiles rose by approximately 12.5%. Recent surveys, including only some of these animals, indicated that they might be present in around 18.6% of homes (equal to approximately 42 million animals of which around 40 million are indoor or outdoor fish). Many exotic 'pets' are capable of causing injury or poisoning to their keepers and some contacts prove fatal. We examined NHS Health Episode Statistics for England using selected formal categories for hospital admissions and bed days for 2004-2010 using the following categories of injury, envenomation or sting; bitten or struck by crocodile or alligator; bitten or crushed by other reptiles: contact with venomous snakes and lizards; contact with scorpions. Between 2004 and 2010 these data conservatively show a total of 760 full consultation episodes, 709 admissions and 2,121 hospital bed days were associated with injuries probably from exotic pets. Injuries, envenomations and stings from exotic pets constitute a small but important component of emerging medical problems. Greater awareness of relevant injuries and medical sequelae from exotic pet keeping may help medics formulate their clinical assessment and advice to patients. PMID:22843648

  13. Are exotic herbivores better competitors? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Radville, Laura; Gonda-King, Liahna; Gómez, Sara; Kaplan, Ian; Preisser, Evan L

    2014-01-01

    Competition plays an important role in structuring the community dynamics of phytophagous insects. As the number and impact of biological invasions increase, it has become increasingly important to determine whether competitive differences exist between native and exotic insects. We conducted a meta-analysis to test the hypothesis that native/ exotic status affects the outcome of herbivore competition. Specifically, we used data from 160 published studies to assess plant-mediated competition in phytophagous insects. For each pair of competing herbivores, we determined the native range and coevolutionary history of each herbivore and host plant. Plant-mediated competition occurred frequently, but neither native nor exotic insects were consistently better competitors. Spatial separation reduced competition in native insects but showed little effect on exotics. Temporal separation negatively impacted native insects but did not affect competition in exotics. Insects that coevolved with their host plant were more affected by interspecific competition than herbivores that lacked a coevolutionary history. Insects that have not coevolved with their host plant may be at a competitive advantage if they overcome plant defenses. As native/exotic status does not consistently predict outcomes of competitive interactions, plant-insect coevolutionary history should be considered in studies of competition.

  14. A Theory of Island Biogeography for Exotic Species.

    PubMed

    Burns, Kevin C

    2015-10-01

    The theory of island biogeography has played a pivotal role in the way ecologists view communities. However, it does not account for exotic species explicitly, which limits its use as a conservation tool. Here, I present the results of a long-term study of plant communities inhabiting an archipelago of small islands off the coast of New Zealand and derive a modified version of the theory of island biogeography to predict differences in the turnover and diversity of native and exotic species. Empirical results showed that, although species richness of both native and exotic plant species increased with island area, native species consistently outnumbered exotic species. Species turnover increased with species richness in both groups. However, opposite to species-area patterns, turnover increased more rapidly with species richness in exotic species. Empirical results were consistent with the modified version of the theory of island biogeography, which distinguishes exotic species from native species by decoupling extinction rates of exotic species from island area, because they are represented by only small populations at the initial stages of invasion. Overall results illustrate how the theory of island biogeography can be modified to reflect the dynamics of exotic species as they invade archipelagos, expanding its use as a conservation tool.

  15. Exotic nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenske, H.; Dhar, M.; Tsoneva, N.; Wilhelm, J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments of nuclear structure theory for exotic nuclei are addressed. The inclusion of hyperons and nucleon resonances is discussed. Nuclear multipole response functions, hyperon interactions in infinite matter and in neutron stars and theoretical aspects of excitations of nucleon resonances in nuclei are discussed.

  16. Exotic nonrelativistic string

    SciTech Connect

    Casalbuoni, Roberto; Gomis, Joaquim; Longhi, Giorgio

    2007-12-15

    We construct a classical nonrelativistic string model in 3+1 dimensions. The model contains a spurion tensor field that is responsible for the noncommutative structure of the model. Under double-dimensional reduction the model reduces to the exotic nonrelativistic particle in 2+1 dimensions.

  17. Exotic branes and nongeometric backgrounds.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Jan; Shigemori, Masaki

    2010-06-25

    When string or M theory is compactified to lower dimensions, the U-duality symmetry predicts so-called exotic branes whose higher-dimensional origin cannot be explained by the standard string or M-theory branes. We argue that exotic branes can be understood in higher dimensions as nongeometric backgrounds or U folds, and that they are important for the physics of systems which originally contain no exotic charges, since the supertube effect generically produces such exotic charges. We discuss the implications of exotic backgrounds for black hole microstate (non-)geometries. PMID:20867363

  18. Predicting invasion in grassland ecosystems: is exotic dominance the real embarrassment of richness?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seabloom, Eric; Borer, Elizabeth; Buckley, Yvonne; Cleland, Elsa E.; Davies, Kendi; Firn, Jennifer; Harpole, W. Stanley; Hautier, Yann; Lind, Eric M.; MacDougall, Andrew; Orrock, John L.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Adler, Peter; Alberti, Juan; Anderson, T. Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Biederman, Lori A.; Blumenthal, Dana; Brown, Cynthia S.; Brudvig, Lars A.; Caldeira, Maria; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Crawley, Michael J.; Daleo, Pedro; Damschen, Ellen Ingman; D'Antonio, Carla M.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Dickman, Chris R.; Du, Guozhen; Fay, Philip A.; Frater, Paul; Gruner, Daniel S.; Hagenah, Nicole; Hector, Andrew; Helm, Aveliina; Hillebrand, Helmut; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.; Humphries, Hope C.; Iribarne, Oscar; Jin, Virginia L.; Kay, Adam; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Klein, Julia A.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Ladwig, Laura M.; ,; John, G.; Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Li, Qi; Li, Wei; McCulley, Rebecca; Melbourne, Brett; ,; Charles, E.; Moore, Joslin L.; Morgan, John; Mortensen, Brent; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Pärtel, Meelis; Pascual, Jesús; Pyke, David A.; Risch, Anita C.; Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Sankaran, Mahesh; Schuetz, Martin; Simonsen, Anna; Smith, Melinda; Stevens, Carly; Sullivan, Lauren; Wardle, Glenda M.; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.; Wragg, Peter D.; Wright, Justin; Yang, Louie

    2013-01-01

    Invasions have increased the size of regional species pools, but are typically assumed to reduce native diversity. However, global-scale tests of this assumption have been elusive because of the focus on exotic species richness, rather than relative abundance. This is problematic because low invader richness can indicate invasion resistance by the native community or, alternatively, dominance by a single exotic species. Here, we used a globally replicated study to quantify relationships between exotic richness and abundance in grass-dominated ecosystems in 13 countries on six continents, ranging from salt marshes to alpine tundra. We tested effects of human land use, native community diversity, herbivore pressure, and nutrient limitation on exotic plant dominance. Despite its widespread use, exotic richness was a poor proxy for exotic dominance at low exotic richness, because sites that contained few exotic species ranged from relatively pristine (low exotic richness and cover) to almost completely exotic-dominated ones (low exotic richness but high exotic cover). Both exotic cover and richness were predicted by native plant diversity (native grass richness) and land use (distance to cultivation). Although climate was important for predicting both exotic cover and richness, climatic factors predicting cover (precipitation variability) differed from those predicting richness (maximum temperature and mean temperature in the wettest quarter). Herbivory and nutrient limitation did not predict exotic richness or cover. Exotic dominance was greatest in areas with low native grass richness at the site- or regional-scale. Although this could reflect native grass displacement, a lack of biotic resistance is a more likely explanation, given that grasses comprise the most aggressive invaders. These findings underscore the need to move beyond richness as a surrogate for the extent of invasion, because this metric confounds monodominance with invasion resistance. Monitoring

  19. Predicting invasion in grassland ecosystems: is exotic dominance the real embarrassment of richness?

    SciTech Connect

    Seabloom, Eric W.

    2013-08-14

    Invasions have increased the size of regional species pools, but are typically assumed to reduce native diversity. However, global-scale tests of this assumption have been elusive because of the focus on exotic species richness, rather than relative abundance. This is problematic because low invader richness can indicate invasion resistance by the native community or, alternatively, dominance by a single exotic species. Here, we used a globally replicated study to quantify relationships between exotic richness and abundance in grass-dominated ecosystems in 13 countries on six continents, ranging from salt marshes to alpine tundra. We tested effects of human land use, native community diversity, herbivore pressure, and nutrient limitation on exotic plant dominance. Despite its widespread use, exotic richness was a poor proxy for exotic dominance at low exotic richness, because sites that contained few exotic species ranged from relatively pristine (low exotic richness and cover) to almost completely exotic-dominated ones (low exotic richness but high exotic cover). Both exotic cover and richness were predicted by native plant diversity (native grass richness) and land use (distance to cultivation). Although climate was important for predicting both exotic cover and richness, climatic factors predicting cover (precipitation variability) differed from those predicting richness (maximum temperature and mean temperature in the wettest quarter). Herbivory and nutrient limitation did not predict exotic richness or cover. Exotic dominance was greatest in areas with low native grass richness at the site- or regional-scale. Although this could reflect native grass displacement, a lack of biotic resistance is a more likely explanation, given that grasses comprise the most aggressive invaders. These findings underscore the need to move beyond richness as a surrogate for the extent of invasion, because this metric confounds monodominance with invasion resistance. Monitoring

  20. Survey of Plant-parasitic Nematodes in Missouri Cotton Fields

    PubMed Central

    Wrather, J. A.; Niblack, T. L.; Milam, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    During September 1990, 30 cotton fields in each of three Missouri counties were surveyed for plant-parasitic nematodes. Soil samples for nematode analysis consisted of a composite of 20 cores collected in a zig-zag pattern within a 1-ha block in each field. Cores were taken from within weed-free cotton rows. Nine genera of plant-parasitic nematodes were found (Rotylenchulus, Helicotylenchus, Hoplolaimus, Meloidogyne, Paratylenchus, Pratylenchus, Tylenchorhynchus, Heterodera, and Trichodorus), and five species were identified: Meloidogyne incognita, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Hoplolaimus galeatus, Pratylenchus vulnus, and P. scribneri. This is the first report of R. reniformis, H. galeatus, P. vulnus, and P. scribneri in Missouri cotton fields and the first report of R. reniformis and P. vulnus in Missouri. The known cotton pathogens M. incognita, R. reniformis, and H. galeatus were found in 30%, 3%, and 2% of the fields sampled, respectively. The correlation between sand content of the soil sample and the number of vermiform M. incognita in the sample was not significant, with r² = 0.13. Select fields where H. galeatus and R. reniformis were found in 1990 were sampled more intensely in 1991. The 1-ha block sampled in 1990 was sampled in 1991, along with three other 1-ha blocks uniformly distributed within the field. In addition, a 1-ha block was sampled in each of eight nearby fields, within 2 km of the first field. The nine plant-parasitic nematode genera identified in the 1990 survey were observed again in 1991. Within-field distribution of M. incognita, R. reniformis, and H. galeatus was not uniform. When M. incognita, R. reniformis, or H. galeatus were present in a field, the same species was found in 38%, 25%, or 50% of nearby fields, respectively. PMID:19283062

  1. Vegetation survey of Four Mile Creek wetlands. [Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Loehle, C.

    1990-11-01

    A survey of forested wetlands along upper Four Mile Creek was conducted. The region from Road 3 to the creek headwaters was sampled to evaluate the composition of woody and herbaceons plant communities. All sites were found to fall into either the Nyssa sylvatica (Black Gum) -- Persea borbonia (Red Bay) or Nyssa sylvatica -- Acer rubrum (Red Maple) types. These community types are generally species-rich and diverse. Previous studies (Greenwood et al., 1990; Mackey, 1988) demonstrated contaminant stress in areas downslope from the F- and H-Area seepage basins. In the present study there were some indications of contaminant stress. In the wetland near H-Area, shrub basal area, ground cover stratum species richness, and diversity were low. In the area surrounding the F-Area tree kill zone, ground cover stratum cover and shrub basal area were low and ground cover stratum species richness was low. The moderately stressed site at F-Area also showed reduced overstory richness and diversity and reduced ground cover stratum richness. These results could, however, be due to the very high basal area of overstory trees in both stressed F-Area sites that would reduce light availability to understory plants. No threatened or endangered plant species were found in the areas sampled. 40 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Composition of fungal soil communities varies with plant abundance and geographic origin.

    PubMed

    Reininger, Vanessa; Martinez-Garcia, Laura B; Sanderson, Laura; Antunes, Pedro M

    2015-01-01

    Interactions of belowground fungal communities with exotic and native plant species may be important drivers of plant community structure in invaded grasslands. However, field surveys linking plant community structure with belowground fungal communities are missing. We investigated whether a selected number of abundant and relatively rare plants, either native or exotic, from an old-field site associate with different fungal communities. We also assessed whether these plants showed different symbiotic relationships with soil biota through their roots. We characterized the plant community and collected roots to investigate fungal communities using 454 pyrosequencing and assessed arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and enemy-induced lesions. Differences in fungal communities were considered based on the assessment of α- and β diversity depending on plant 'abundance' and 'origin'. Plant abundance and origin determined the fungal community. Fungal richness was higher for native abundant as opposed to relatively rare native plant species. However, this was not observed for exotics of contrasting abundance. Regardless of their origin, β diversity was higher for rare than for abundant species. Abundant exotics in the community, which happen to be grasses, were the least mycorrhizal whereas rare natives were most susceptible to enemy attack. Our results suggest that compared with exotics, the relative abundance of remnant native plant species in our old-field site is still linked to the structure of belowground fungal communities. In contrast, exotic species may act as a disturbing agent contributing towards the homogenization of soil fungal communities, potentially changing feedback interactions. PMID:26371291

  3. Composition of fungal soil communities varies with plant abundance and geographic origin

    PubMed Central

    Reininger, Vanessa; Martinez-Garcia, Laura B.; Sanderson, Laura; Antunes, Pedro M.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions of belowground fungal communities with exotic and native plant species may be important drivers of plant community structure in invaded grasslands. However, field surveys linking plant community structure with belowground fungal communities are missing. We investigated whether a selected number of abundant and relatively rare plants, either native or exotic, from an old-field site associate with different fungal communities. We also assessed whether these plants showed different symbiotic relationships with soil biota through their roots. We characterized the plant community and collected roots to investigate fungal communities using 454 pyrosequencing and assessed arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and enemy-induced lesions. Differences in fungal communities were considered based on the assessment of α- and β diversity depending on plant ‘abundance’ and ‘origin’. Plant abundance and origin determined the fungal community. Fungal richness was higher for native abundant as opposed to relatively rare native plant species. However, this was not observed for exotics of contrasting abundance. Regardless of their origin, β diversity was higher for rare than for abundant species. Abundant exotics in the community, which happen to be grasses, were the least mycorrhizal whereas rare natives were most susceptible to enemy attack. Our results suggest that compared with exotics, the relative abundance of remnant native plant species in our old-field site is still linked to the structure of belowground fungal communities. In contrast, exotic species may act as a disturbing agent contributing towards the homogenization of soil fungal communities, potentially changing feedback interactions. PMID:26371291

  4. Real-time PCR Tests in Dutch Exotic Mosquito Surveys; Implementation of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Identification Tests, and the Development of Tests for the Identification of Aedes atropalpus and Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    van de Vossenberg, B T L H; Ibáñez-Justicia, A; Metz-Verschure, E; van Veen, E J; Bruil-Dieters, M L; Scholte, E J

    2015-05-01

    Since 2009, The Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority carries out surveys focusing on, amongst others, the presence of invasive mosquito species (IMS). Special attention is given to exotic container-breeding Aedes species Aedes aegypti (L.), Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Aedes atropalpus (Coquillett), and Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald). This study describes the implementation of real-time PCR tests described by Hill et al. (2008) for the identification of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, and the development of two novel real-time PCR tests for the identification of Ae. atropalpus and Ae. j. japonicus. Initial test showed that optimization of elements of the Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus tests was needed. Method validation tests were performed to determine if the implemented and newly developed tests are fit for routine diagnostics. Performance criteria of analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity, selectivity, repeatability, and reproducibility were determined. In addition, experiments were performed to determine the influence of environmental conditions on the usability of DNA extracted from mosquito specimens trapped in BG-Sentinel traps. The real-time PCR tests were demonstrated to be sensitive, specific, repeatable, reproducible, and are less prone to false negative results compared to partial cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequencing owing to the DNA fragmentation caused by environmental influences. PMID:26334807

  5. Real-time PCR Tests in Dutch Exotic Mosquito Surveys; Implementation of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Identification Tests, and the Development of Tests for the Identification of Aedes atropalpus and Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    van de Vossenberg, B T L H; Ibáñez-Justicia, A; Metz-Verschure, E; van Veen, E J; Bruil-Dieters, M L; Scholte, E J

    2015-05-01

    Since 2009, The Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority carries out surveys focusing on, amongst others, the presence of invasive mosquito species (IMS). Special attention is given to exotic container-breeding Aedes species Aedes aegypti (L.), Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Aedes atropalpus (Coquillett), and Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald). This study describes the implementation of real-time PCR tests described by Hill et al. (2008) for the identification of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, and the development of two novel real-time PCR tests for the identification of Ae. atropalpus and Ae. j. japonicus. Initial test showed that optimization of elements of the Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus tests was needed. Method validation tests were performed to determine if the implemented and newly developed tests are fit for routine diagnostics. Performance criteria of analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity, selectivity, repeatability, and reproducibility were determined. In addition, experiments were performed to determine the influence of environmental conditions on the usability of DNA extracted from mosquito specimens trapped in BG-Sentinel traps. The real-time PCR tests were demonstrated to be sensitive, specific, repeatable, reproducible, and are less prone to false negative results compared to partial cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequencing owing to the DNA fragmentation caused by environmental influences.

  6. Mitigating exotic impacts: restoring deer mouse populations elevated by an exotic food subsidy.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Dean E; Fletcher, Robert J

    2008-03-01

    The threat posed by exotic organisms to native systems has led to extensive research on exotic invaders, yet management of invasives has progressed relatively slowly. This is partly due to poor understanding of how exotic species management influences native organisms. To address this shortfall, we experimentally evaluated the efficacy of an invasives management tool for restoring native deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) populations elevated by exotic species. The exotic insects, Urophora spp., were introduced in North America for biological control of the Eurasian invader, spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa), but instead of controlling C. maculosa, Urophora have become an important food resource that doubles P. maniculatus populations, with substantial indirect effects on other organisms. We hypothesized that herbicide suppression of Urophora's host plant would reduce the Urophora food resource and restore P. maniculatus populations to natural levels. Prior to treatment, mouse populations did not differ between controls and treatments, but following treatment, P. maniculatus were half as abundant where treatment reduced Urophora. Peromyscus maniculatus is insensitive to direct herbicide effects, and herbicide-induced habitat changes could not explain the P. maniculatus response. Treatment-induced reductions of the Urophora food resource offered the most parsimonious explanation for the mouse response: Multistate mark-recapture models indicated that P. maniculatus survival declined where Urophora were removed, and survival rates were more correlated with variation in population size than movement rates. Other demographic and reproductive parameters (sex ratios, reproductive status, pregnancy rates, and juvenile recruitment) were unaffected by treatment. These results suggest the Urophora biocontrol elevated P. maniculatus survival, and the herbicide treatment restored mouse populations by removing the exotic food and reducing survival. This work illustrates the

  7. Exotic rotaviruses in animals and rotaviruses in exotic animals.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Souvik; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2014-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are a major cause of viral diarrhea in the young of mammals and birds. RVA strains with certain genotype constellations or VP7-VP4 (G-P) genotype combinations are commonly found in a particular host species, whilst unusual or exotic RVAs have also been reported. In most cases, these exotic rotaviruses are derived from RVA strains common to other host species, possibly through interspecies transmission coupled with reassortment events, whilst a few other strains exhibit novel genotypes/genetic constellations rarely found in other RVAs. The epidemiology and evolutionary patterns of exotic rotaviruses in humans have been thoroughly reviewed previously. On the other hand, there is no comprehensive review article devoted to exotic rotaviruses in domestic animals and birds so far. The present review focuses on the exotic/unusual rotaviruses detected in livestock (cattle and pigs), horses and companion animals (cats and dogs). Avian rotaviruses (group D, group F and group G strains), including RVAs, which are genetically divergent from mammalian RVAs, are also discussed. Although scattered and limited studies have reported rotaviruses in several exotic animals and birds, including wildlife, these data remain to be reviewed. Therefore, a section entitled "rotaviruses in exotic animals" was included in the present review. PMID:25674582

  8. Educational Plant Survey: Seminole Community College, June 20-23, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Office of Educational Facilities.

    At least every five years, each Florida community college district conducts an educational plant survey to aid the formulation of plans for housing the educational program, student population, faculty, administrators, staff, and auxiliary and ancillary services for the college for the forthcoming five-year period. This plant survey report for…

  9. Survey of thermal-hydraulic models of commercial nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Determan, J.C.; Hendrix, C.E.

    1992-12-01

    A survey of the thermal-hydraulic models of nuclear power plants has been performed to identify the NRC's current analytical capabilities for critical event response. The survey also supports ongoing research for accident management. The results of the survey are presented here. The PC database which records detailed data on each model is described.

  10. Survey of thermal-hydraulic models of commercial nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Determan, J.C.; Hendrix, C.E.

    1992-12-01

    A survey of the thermal-hydraulic models of nuclear power plants has been performed to identify the NRC`s current analytical capabilities for critical event response. The survey also supports ongoing research for accident management. The results of the survey are presented here. The PC database which records detailed data on each model is described.

  11. Displacement of an herbaceous plant species community by mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Gmelina arborea, an exotic tree, grown in a microcosm experiment.

    PubMed

    Sanon, Arsene; Martin, Pascal; Thioulouse, Jean; Plenchette, Christian; Spichiger, Rodolphe; Lepage, Michel; Duponnois, Robin

    2006-03-01

    Gmelina arborea Roxb. (Gmelina, Yemane) is a fast growing tree, native from India and considered as a potentially invasive woody plant in West Africa. Mycorrhizal inoculation of seedlings with Glomus intraradices was performed to study (1) the effect on the growth of G. arborea, (2) the impact on the catabolic diversity of soil microbial communities and (3) the influence on the structure of herbaceous plant species communities in microcosms. Treatments consisted of control plants, pre-planting fertilizer application and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) inoculation. After 4 months' culture in autoclaved soil, G. arborea seedlings were either harvested for growth measurement or transferred into containers filled with the same soil but not sterilized. Other containers were kept without G. arborea seedlings. After 12 months' further culture, effects of fertilizer amendment and AM inoculation on the growth of G. arborea seedlings were recorded. AM colonization was significantly and positively correlated with plant diversity. The substrate-induced respiration response to carboxylic acids was significantly higher in the absence of G. arborea and in the presence of G. intraradices as compared to the other treatments. The influence of AM symbiosis on plant coexistence and on allelopathic processes of invasive plants are discussed. PMID:16328438

  12. Changes in soil diversity and global activities following invasions of the exotic invasive plant, Amaranthus viridis L., decrease the growth of native sahelian Acacia species.

    PubMed

    Sanon, Arsene; Béguiristain, Thierry; Cébron, Aurelie; Berthelin, Jacques; Ndoye, Ibrahima; Leyval, Corinne; Sylla, Samba; Duponnois, Robin

    2009-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether the invasive plant Amaranthus viridis influenced soil microbial and chemical properties and to assess the consequences of these modifications on native plant growth. The experiment was conducted in Senegal at two sites: one invaded by A. viridis and the other covered by other plant species. Soil nutrient contents as well as microbial community density, diversity and functions were measured. Additionally, five sahelian Acacia species were grown in (1) soil disinfected or not collected from both sites, (2) uninvaded soil exposed to an A. viridis plant aqueous extract and (3) soil collected from invaded and uninvaded sites and inoculated or not with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus intraradices. The results showed that the invasion of A. viridis increased soil nutrient availability, bacterial abundance and microbial activities. In contrast, AM fungi and rhizobial development and the growth of Acacia species were severely reduced in A. viridis-invaded soil. Amaranthus viridis aqueous extract also exhibited an inhibitory effect on rhizobial growth, indicating an antibacterial activity of this plant extract. However, the inoculation of G. intraradices was highly beneficial to the growth and nodulation of Acacia species. These results highlight the role of AM symbiosis in the processes involved in plant coexistence and in ecosystem management programs that target preservation of native plant diversity.

  13. Exotics from Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnishi, Akira; Jido, Daisuke; Cho, Sungtae; Furumoto, Takenori; Yazaki, Koichi; Hyodo, Tetsuo; Ko, Che Ming; Lee, Su Houng; Nielsen, Marina; Sekihara, Takayasu; Yasui, Shigehiro

    2011-10-21

    Discriminating hadronic molecular and multi-quark states is a long standing problem in hadronic physics. We propose here to utilize relativistic heavy ion collisions to resolve this problem, as exotic hadron yields are expected to be strongly affected by their structures. Using the coalescence model, we find that the exotic hadron yield relative to the statistical model result is typically an order of magnitude smaller for a compact multi-quark state, and larger by a factor of two or more for a loosely bound hadronic molecule. We further find that some of the newly proposed heavy exotic states could be produced and realistically measured at RHIC and LHC.

  14. Exotic diarrhoeal problems and poliomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Cobden, I

    1989-06-22

    Exotic gastrointestinal infections continue to increase as world travel expands. Many are debilitating and some are life-threatening. A heightened awareness of their significance and symptomatology could help to prevent unnecessary suffering or death. PMID:2594659

  15. EXOTIC MAGNETS FOR ACCELERATORS.

    SciTech Connect

    WANDERER, P.

    2005-09-18

    Over the last few years, several novel magnet designs have been introduced to meet the requirements of new, high performance accelerators and beam lines. For example, the FAIR project at GSI requires superconducting magnets ramped at high rates ({approx} 4 T/s) in order to achieve the design intensity. Magnets for the RIA and FAIR projects and for the next generation of LHC interaction regions will need to withstand high doses of radiation. Helical magnets are required to maintain and control the polarization of high energy protons at RHIC. In other cases, novel magnets have been designed in response to limited budgets and space. For example, it is planned to use combined function superconducting magnets for the 50 GeV proton transport line at J-PARC to satisfy both budget and performance requirements. Novel coil winding methods have been developed for short, large aperture magnets such as those used in the insertion region upgrade at BEPC. This paper will highlight the novel features of these exotic magnets.

  16. Assessing the influence of environmental and human factors on native and exotic species richness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Albuquerque, Fábio Suzart; Castro-Díez, Pilar; Rodríguez, Miguel Á.; Cayuela, Luis

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the ecological determinants of biological invasions is a key issue for predicting the spread of exotic species over broad geographical extents. The goal of this study was to investigate independent and combined effects of climatic and human-related factors on native and exotic plant species richness in Great Britain. We used multiple and partial regression techniques and spatial methods to investigate the effect of these variables on species richness. The highest plant richness was found in southeastern Great Britain and the lowest in the North for both native and exotic species. We found that energy input was the best predictor of either native or exotic plant richness, followed by water availability. Richness increased linearly with energy input for native plants, but exponentially for exotics. This is probably due to the lower chances of exotic species to succeed in low-energy sites, and/or to the lower species saturation of more productive ecosystems. The low portion of richness variance explained by human footprint was probably due to the study scale and to the overlapping between climatic and human factors. We conclude that the environment-human models are robust to enhance our understanding of the factors controlling the distribution of exotic species. Models containing water-energy measures can be a key component for explaining the broad-scale patterns of exotic species.

  17. An aerial radiological survey of the Pilgrim Station Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Plymouth, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, A.E.

    1997-06-01

    Terrestrial radioactivity surrounding the Pilgrim Station Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiolog- ical survey techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates near the plant and to identify unexpected, man-made radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included land areas within a three-mile radius of the plant site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employs sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Exposure rate and photopeak counts were computed from these data and plotted on aerial photographs of the survey area. Several ground-based exposure measurements were made for comparison with the,aerial survey results. Exposure rates in areas surrounding the plant site varied from 6 to 10 microroentgens per hour, with exposure rates below 6 microroentgens per hour occurring over bogs and marshy areas. Man-made radiation was found to be higher than background levels at the plant site. Radation due to nitrogen-1 6, which is produced in the steam cycle of a boiling-water reactor, was the primaty source of activity found at the plant site. Cesium-137 activity at levels slightly above those expected from natural fallout was found at isolated locations inland from the plant site. No other detectable sources of man-made radioactivity were found.

  18. Phenology of exotic invasive weeds associated with downy brome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The exotic and highly invasive annual grass downy brome (Bromus tectorum) has invaded millions of hectares of rangelands throughout the Intermountain West. Downy brome increases the chance, rate, season and spread of wildfires, resulting in the destruction of native plant communities and the wildli...

  19. A survey of medicinal plants used by Kavirajes of Chalna area, Khulna district, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Ferdausi, Dilara; Mollik, Ariful Haque; Jahan, Rownak; Chowdhury, Majeedul H; Haque, Wahid Mozammel

    2009-12-30

    Kavirajes or traditional medicinal practitioners form the primary healthcare providers of the predominantly rural population of Bangladesh. Kavirajes use a variety of medicinal plants for treatment of different ailments. The formulations prepared from medicinal plants vary considerably between Kavirajes of different regions of the country. The objective of this study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey amongst the Kavirajes of Chalna area, Khulna district, Bangladesh. That area is known to contain a diversity of medicinal plants. Information on 50 plant species was obtained. These medicinal plants belonged to 49 genera and 33 families. Twenty five plants were used to treat skin diseases and twenty three plants for treatment of intestinal tract disorders, which included constipation, indigestion, stomachache, diarrhea, and dysentery. Fourteen plants were also used by the Kavirajes to treat cancer or tumor. Nine plants were used as insecticide, eight for rheumatoid arthritis, and seven for wounds. Five plants were used to treat jaundice. Five plants were also utilized to treat animal and snake bites, which included tiger bites. Six plants were used to treat diabetes, and two each for the treatment of leprosy, and sexually transmitted diseases like gonorrhea. Five plants were used to treat impotency, while one plant was used as an abortifacient. Three plants were used to treat helminthiasis, which we found to be quite common amongst the population, while four plants were used to treat heart disorders. Taken together, these plant species offer considerable potential for discovery of novel compounds of pharmacological interest.

  20. A survey of medicinal plants used by Kavirajes of Chalna area, Khulna district, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Ferdausi, Dilara; Mollik, Ariful Haque; Jahan, Rownak; Chowdhury, Majeedul H; Haque, Wahid Mozammel

    2010-01-01

    Kavirajes or traditional medicinal practitioners form the primary healthcare providers of the predominantly rural population of Bangladesh. Kavirajes use a variety of medicinal plants for treatment of different ailments. The formulations prepared from medicinal plants vary considerably between Kavirajes of different regions of the country. The objective of this study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey amongst the Kavirajes of Chalna area, Khulna district, Bangladesh. That area is known to contain a diversity of medicinal plants. Information on 50 plant species was obtained. These medicinal plants belonged to 49 genera and 33 families. Twenty five plants were used to treat skin diseases and twenty three plants for treatment of intestinal tract disorders, which included constipation, indigestion, stomachache, diarrhea, and dysentery. Fourteen plants were also used by the Kavirajes to treat cancer or tumor. Nine plants were used as insecticide, eight for rheumatoid arthritis, and seven for wounds. Five plants were used to treat jaundice. Five plants were also utilized to treat animal and snake bites, which included tiger bites. Six plants were used to treat diabetes, and two each for the treatment of leprosy, and sexually transmitted diseases like gonorrhea. Five plants were used to treat impotency, while one plant was used as an abortifacient. Three plants were used to treat helminthiasis, which we found to be quite common amongst the population, while four plants were used to treat heart disorders. Taken together, these plant species offer considerable potential for discovery of novel compounds of pharmacological interest. PMID:21304618

  1. Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  2. Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Qura'n, S

    2009-05-01

    Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use

  3. Survey of Microbial Enzymes in Soil, Water, and Plant Microenvironments

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Priscila Divina Diniz; Siqueira, Flávia de Faria; Facchin, Susanne; Horta, Carolina Campolina Rebello; Victória, Júnia Maria Netto; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes

    2014-01-01

    Detection of microbial enzymes in natural environments is important to understand biochemical activities and to verify the biotechnological potential of the microorganisms. In the present report, 346 isolates from soil, water, and plants were screened for enzyme production (caseinase, gelatinase, amylase, carboxymethyl cellulase, and esterase). Our results showed that 89.6% of isolates produced at least one tested enzyme. A predominance of amylase in soil samples, carboxymethyl cellulase in plants, as well as esterase and gelatinase in water was observed. Interesting enzymatic profiles were found in some microenvironments, suggesting specificity of available nutrients and/or natural selection. This study revealed the potential of microorganisms present in water, soil, and plant to produce important enzymes for biotechnological exploration. A predominance of certain enzymes was found, depending on the type of environmental sample. The distribution of microbial enzymes in soil, water and plants has been little exploited in previous reports. PMID:24847390

  4. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in Babungo, Northwest Region, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to record information on medicinal plants from traditional medical practitioners in Babungo and to identify the medicinal plants used for treating diseases. Methods Traditional Medical Practitioners (TMP's) who were the main informants were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires and open-ended conversations. Field trips were made to the sites where TMP's harvest plants. Results The survey identified and recorded 107 plants species from 54 plant families, 98 genera used for treating diseases in Babungo. The Asteraceae was the most represented plant family while herbs made up 57% of the total medicinal plants used. The leaf was the most commonly used plant part while concoction and decoction were the most common method of traditional drug preparation. Most medicinal plants (72%) are harvested from the wild and 45% of these have other non medicinal uses. Knowledge of the use of plants as medicines remains mostly with the older generation with few youth showing an interest. Conclusions A divers number of plants species are used for treating different diseases in Babungo. In addition to their use as medicines, a large number of plants have other non medicinal uses. The youth should be encouraged to learn the traditional medicinal knowledge to preserve it from being lost with the older generation. PMID:20156356

  5. Differences in beta diversity between exotic and native grasslands vary with scale along a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Martin, Leanne M; Wilsey, Brian J

    2015-04-01

    Biodiversity can be partitioned into alpha, beta, and gamma components, and beta diversity is not as clearly understood. Biotic homogenization predicts that exotic species should lower beta diversity at global and continental scales, but it is still unclear how exotic species impact beta diversity at smaller scales. Exotic species could theoretically increase or decrease beta diversity relative to natives depending on many factors, including abiotic conditions, community assembly history, management, dispersal rates of species, and connectivity among patches. We sampled plant species abundances in 42 novel, exotic- and native-dominated (remnant) grasslands across a latitudinal gradient in the tallgrass prairie region, and tested whether exotic and native grasslands differed in beta diversity at three scales: across sites within the entire biome, across sites within regions, and across locations within sites. Exotic-dominated grasslands differed from native-dominated grasslands in beta diversity at all scales, but the direction of the difference changed from positive to negative as scales went from large to small. Contrary to expectations, exotic-dominated grasslands had higher beta diversity than native-dominated grasslands at the largest scale considered. This occurred because the identity of dominant exotic species varied across the latitudinal gradient, with many exotic grassland pairs exhibiting zero similarity, whereas native-dominated grasslands differed more gradually with distance. Beta diversity among sites within a region was variable, with exotic-dominated grasslands having 29% higher beta diversity than native grasslands in the south and 33% lower beta diversity in the north. Within sites, beta diversity was 26% lower in exotic-dominated than native grasslands. Our results provide evidence that different regional identities and abundances of exotics, and lack of connectivity in fragmented landscapes can alter beta diversity in unexpected ways across

  6. Differences in beta diversity between exotic and native grasslands vary with scale along a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Martin, Leanne M; Wilsey, Brian J

    2015-04-01

    Biodiversity can be partitioned into alpha, beta, and gamma components, and beta diversity is not as clearly understood. Biotic homogenization predicts that exotic species should lower beta diversity at global and continental scales, but it is still unclear how exotic species impact beta diversity at smaller scales. Exotic species could theoretically increase or decrease beta diversity relative to natives depending on many factors, including abiotic conditions, community assembly history, management, dispersal rates of species, and connectivity among patches. We sampled plant species abundances in 42 novel, exotic- and native-dominated (remnant) grasslands across a latitudinal gradient in the tallgrass prairie region, and tested whether exotic and native grasslands differed in beta diversity at three scales: across sites within the entire biome, across sites within regions, and across locations within sites. Exotic-dominated grasslands differed from native-dominated grasslands in beta diversity at all scales, but the direction of the difference changed from positive to negative as scales went from large to small. Contrary to expectations, exotic-dominated grasslands had higher beta diversity than native-dominated grasslands at the largest scale considered. This occurred because the identity of dominant exotic species varied across the latitudinal gradient, with many exotic grassland pairs exhibiting zero similarity, whereas native-dominated grasslands differed more gradually with distance. Beta diversity among sites within a region was variable, with exotic-dominated grasslands having 29% higher beta diversity than native grasslands in the south and 33% lower beta diversity in the north. Within sites, beta diversity was 26% lower in exotic-dominated than native grasslands. Our results provide evidence that different regional identities and abundances of exotics, and lack of connectivity in fragmented landscapes can alter beta diversity in unexpected ways across

  7. [Cynocephali and Blemmyae. Congenital anomalies and medieval exotic races].

    PubMed

    Bos, C A; Baljet, B

    1999-12-18

    In the mediaeval Dutch manuscript Der naturen bloeme ('On the flowers of nature') by Jacob van Maerlant (circa 1230-circa 1296), an encyclopaedia of descriptions of people, animals, plants and minerals dating from about 1270, many illustrations refer to the text. An intriguing part of the book is called 'Vreemde volkeren' ('Exotic people'). In another manuscript of Van Maerlant, Dit is die istory van Troyen ('The history of Troyes') in the chapter 'De wonderen van het Verre Oosten' ('The miracles of the Far East') the exotic people are also described. These exotic people have many features similar to congenital malformations. 'Hippopodes' are probably based on the lobster claw syndrome, 'Cynocephali' on anencephaly, 'Arimaspi' on cyclopia, 'Blemmyae' on acardiacus, the double-faced on diprosopus, 'Sciopods' on polydactyly and 'Antipodes' on the sirenomelia sequence.

  8. Survey of insulation used in nuclear power plants and the potential for debris generation

    SciTech Connect

    Kolbe, R.; Gahan, E.

    1982-05-01

    In support of Unresolved Safety Issue, USI A-43, Containment emergency Sump Performance, 8 additional nuclear power plants (representative of different US reactor manufacturers and architect-engineers) were surveyed to identify and document the types and amounts of insulation used, location within containment, components insulated, material characteristics, and methods of installation and attachment. These plants were selected to obtain survey information on older plants and supplements information previously reported in NUREG/CR-2403. In addition, a preliminary assessment was made of the potential for migration to the emergency sump of the insulation debris which might be generated as a result of the postulated loss-of-coolant accident (pipe break).

  9. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site gravity survey and interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, L.J.; Fett, J.D.

    1983-04-01

    A portion of the WIPP site has been extensively surveyed with high-precision gravity. The main survey (in T22S, R31E) covered a rectangular area 2 by 4-1/3 mi encompassing all of WIPP site Zone II and part of the disturbed zone to the north of the site. Stations were at 293-ft intervals along 13 north-south lines 880 ft apart. The data are considered accurate to within a few hundredths of a milligal. Long-wavelength gravity anomalies correlate well with seismic time structures on horizons below the Castile Formation. Both the gravity anomalies and the seismic time structures are interpreted as resulting from related density and velocity variations within the Ochoan Series. Shorter wavelength negative gravity anomalies are interpreted as resulting from bulk density alteration in the vicinity of karst conduits. The WIPP gravity survey was unable to resolve low-amplitude, long-wavelength anomalies that should result from the geologic structures within the disturbed zone. It did indicate the degree and character of karst development within the surveyed area.

  10. Fitness dynamics within a poplar hybrid zone: II. Impact of exotic sex on native poplars in an urban jungle.

    PubMed

    Roe, Amanda D; MacQuarrie, Chris Jk; Gros-Louis, Marie-Claude; Simpson, J Dale; Lamarche, Josyanne; Beardmore, Tannis; Thompson, Stacey L; Tanguay, Philippe; Isabel, Nathalie

    2014-05-01

    Trees bearing novel or exotic gene components are poised to contribute to the bioeconomy for a variety of purposes such as bioenergy production, phytoremediation, and carbon sequestration within the forestry sector, but sustainable release of trees with novel traits in large-scale plantations requires the quantification of risks posed to native tree populations. Over the last century, exotic hybrid poplars produced through artificial crosses were planted throughout eastern Canada as ornamentals or windbreaks and these exotics provide a proxy by which to examine the fitness of exotic poplar traits within the natural environment to assess risk of exotic gene escape, establishment, and spread into native gene pools. We assessed postzygotic fitness traits of native and exotic poplars within a naturally regenerated stand in eastern Canada (Quebec City, QC). Pure natives (P. balsamifera and P. deltoides spp. deltoides), native hybrids (P. deltoides × P. balsamifera), and exotic hybrids (trees bearing Populus nigra and P. maximowiczii genetic components) were screened for reproductive biomass, yield, seed germination, and fungal disease susceptibility. Exotic hybrids expressed fitness traits intermediate to pure species and were not significantly different from native hybrids. They formed fully viable seed and backcrossed predominantly with P. balsamifera. These data show that exotic hybrids were not unfit and were capable of establishing and competing within the native stand. Future research will seek to examine the impact of exotic gene regions on associated biotic communities to fully quantify the risk exotic poplars pose to native poplar forests.

  11. Fitness dynamics within a poplar hybrid zone: II. Impact of exotic sex on native poplars in an urban jungle

    PubMed Central

    Roe, Amanda D; MacQuarrie, Chris JK; Gros-Louis, Marie-Claude; Simpson, J Dale; Lamarche, Josyanne; Beardmore, Tannis; Thompson, Stacey L; Tanguay, Philippe; Isabel, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Trees bearing novel or exotic gene components are poised to contribute to the bioeconomy for a variety of purposes such as bioenergy production, phytoremediation, and carbon sequestration within the forestry sector, but sustainable release of trees with novel traits in large-scale plantations requires the quantification of risks posed to native tree populations. Over the last century, exotic hybrid poplars produced through artificial crosses were planted throughout eastern Canada as ornamentals or windbreaks and these exotics provide a proxy by which to examine the fitness of exotic poplar traits within the natural environment to assess risk of exotic gene escape, establishment, and spread into native gene pools. We assessed postzygotic fitness traits of native and exotic poplars within a naturally regenerated stand in eastern Canada (Quebec City, QC). Pure natives (P. balsamifera and P. deltoides spp. deltoides), native hybrids (P. deltoides × P. balsamifera), and exotic hybrids (trees bearing Populus nigra and P. maximowiczii genetic components) were screened for reproductive biomass, yield, seed germination, and fungal disease susceptibility. Exotic hybrids expressed fitness traits intermediate to pure species and were not significantly different from native hybrids. They formed fully viable seed and backcrossed predominantly with P. balsamifera. These data show that exotic hybrids were not unfit and were capable of establishing and competing within the native stand. Future research will seek to examine the impact of exotic gene regions on associated biotic communities to fully quantify the risk exotic poplars pose to native poplar forests. PMID:24963382

  12. Exotic aphid control with pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exotic aphids are invading ecosystems worldwide. The principal factors favoring establishment of these pests are their small size, parthenogenetic reproduction, short generation time, ability for long distance dispersal as winged morphs, and explosive population dynamics. In the past, attention to i...

  13. Exotic power and propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forward, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    The status of some exotic physical phenomena and unconventional spacecraft concepts that might produce breakthroughs in power and propulsion in the 21st Century are reviewed. The subjects covered include: electric, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, antimatter, high energy density materials, metallic hydrogen, laser thermal, solar thermal, solar sail, magnetic sail, and tether propulsion.

  14. Exotic smoothness and quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asselmeyer-Maluga, T.

    2010-08-01

    Since the first work on exotic smoothness in physics, it was folklore to assume a direct influence of exotic smoothness to quantum gravity. Thus, the negative result of Duston (2009 arXiv:0911.4068) was a surprise. A closer look into the semi-classical approach uncovered the implicit assumption of a close connection between geometry and smoothness structure. But both structures, geometry and smoothness, are independent of each other. In this paper we calculate the 'smoothness structure' part of the path integral in quantum gravity assuming that the 'sum over geometries' is already given. For that purpose we use the knot surgery of Fintushel and Stern applied to the class E(n) of elliptic surfaces. We mainly focus our attention to the K3 surfaces E(2). Then we assume that every exotic smoothness structure of the K3 surface can be generated by knot or link surgery in the manner of Fintushel and Stern. The results are applied to the calculation of expectation values. Here we discuss the two observables, volume and Wilson loop, for the construction of an exotic 4-manifold using the knot 52 and the Whitehead link Wh. By using Mostow rigidity, we obtain a topological contribution to the expectation value of the volume. Furthermore, we obtain a justification of area quantization.

  15. International Symposium on Exotic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.; Cherepanov, E. A.

    Methods of production of light exotic nuclei and study of their ptoperties -- Superheavy elements. Syhnthesis and properties -- Nuclear fission -- Nuclear reactions -- rare processes, decay and nuclear structure -- Experimental set-ups and future projects -- Radioactive beams. Production and research programmes -- Public relations.

  16. Use of seeded exotic grasslands by wintering birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Andrew D.; O'Connell, Timothy J.; Hickman, Karen R.; Leslie,, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite widespread population declines of North American grassland birds, effects of anthropogenic disturbance of wintering habitat of this guild remain poorly understood. We compared avian abundance and habitat structure in fields planted by the exotic grass Old World bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum; OWB) to that in native mixed-grass prairie. During winters of 2007-2008 and 2008-2009, we conducted bird and vegetation surveys in six native grass and six OWB fields in Garfield, Grant, and Alfalfa counties, Oklahoma. We recorded 24 species of wintering birds in native fields and 14 species in OWB monocultures. While vegetation structure was similar between field types, abundance of short-eared owls (Asio flammeus), northern harriers (Circus cyaneus) and Smith's longspurs (Calcarius pictus) was higher in OWB fields during at least one year. The use of OWB fields by multiple species occupying different trophic positions suggested that vegetation structure of OWB can meet habitat requirements of some wintering birds, but there is insufficient evidence to determine if it provides superior conditions to native grasses.

  17. Opportunities for improved risk assessments of exotic species in Canada using bioclimatic modeling.

    PubMed

    McKenney, Daniel W; Hopkin, Anthony A; Campbell, Kathy L; Mackey, Brendan G; Foottit, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the process of exotic pest risk assessments and presents some examples of emerging opportunities for spatial bioclimatic modeling of exotic species in Canada. This type of analysis can support risk assessments but does not replace the need for on-going high quality field-based observations to validate and update models. Bioclimatic analysis of several exotic pests is provided to illustrate both opportunities and limits. A link is demonstrated to the National Forest Inventory to characterize timber volumes at risk for one exotic species. 'Challenges' are both scientific and administrative. More accessible and current field survey data are required to improve models. Our experience is that for many exotic species, historical, and even current, data are not always digital or quality controlled for taxonomic identity and accurate geo-referencing. This inhibits their use for integrated spatial modeling applications.

  18. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants in Jeju Island, Korea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aims to analyze and record orally transmitted knowledge of medicinal plants from the indigenous people living in Hallasan National Park of Korea. Methods Data was collected through the participatory rural appraisal method involving interviews, informal meetings, open and group discussions, and overt observations with semi-structured questionnaires. Results In this study, a total of 68 families, 141 genera, and 171 species of plants that showed 777 ways of usage were recorded. Looking into the distribution of the families, 14 species of Asteraceae occupied 11.1% of the total followed by 13 species of Rosaceae, 10 species of Rutaceae, and nine species of Apiaceae which occupied 5.0%, 7.1% and 3.0% of the whole, respectively. 32 kinds of plant-parts were used for 47 various medicinal purposes. Values for the informant consensus factor regarding the ailment categories were for birth related disorders (0.92), followed by respiratory system disorders (0.90), skin disease and disorders (0.89), genitourinary system disorders (0.87), physical pain (0.87), and other conditions. According to fidelity levels, 36 plant species resulted in fidelity levels of 100%. Conclusion Consequently, results of this study will legally utilize to provide preparatory measures against the Nagoya Protocol (2010) about benefit-sharing for traditional knowledge of genetic resources. PMID:23837693

  19. A survey of mortality at two automotive engine manufacturing plants.

    PubMed

    Park, R M; Mirer, F E

    1996-12-01

    Mortality at two engine plants was analyzed using proportional mortality and logistic regression models of mortality odds ratios to expand previous observations of increased cancers of the stomach, pancreas, and bladder, and cirrhosis of the liver among workers exposed to machining fluids. Causes of death and work histories were available for 1,870 decendents. There was a significant excess of deaths coded as diabetes for white men in both plants (PMR = 25/16.7 = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.02, 2.20), and a deficit of respiratory diseases. Black men had fewer than expected diabetes deaths and more emphysema deaths. Elevated PMRs for cancers of the stomach, pancreas, prostate, bladder, and kidney were not statistically significant in plantwide populations. However, stomach cancer mortality increased with duration in camshaft and crankshaft production at Plant 1 (OR = 5.1, 95% CI = 1.6, 17; at mean duration of exposed cases), and among tool room workers (OR = 6.3, 95% CI = 1.3, 31), but these results were based on five cases. Nitrosamines were probably present in camshaft and crankshaft grinding at Plant 1. Pancreas cancer risk increased among workers at both plants ever employed in inspection (OR = 2.5, 16), in machining with straight oil (OR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.04, 12), or in skilled trades (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.1, 7.5). Lung cancer increased in cylinder head machining (OR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.4, 11), millwright work (OR = 3.8, 95% CI = 1.6, 9.0), and in Plant 2 generally (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 0.97, 2.2). Potential lung carcinogens included heat treatment emissions, chlorinated oils, and coal tar fumes (millwrights). Bladder cancer increased with duration among workers grinding in straight oil MF (OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.15, 7.8) and in machining/heat-treat operations (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.14, 7.2).

  20. A survey for rhinitis in an automotive ring manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong-Uk; Jin, Ku-Won; Koh, Dong-Hee; Kim, Byung-Kyu; Kim, Kyu-Sang; Park, Doo-Yong

    2008-08-01

    We report findings regarding otolaryngologist-confirmed rhinitis, current exposure to MWF aerosols, fungi, and endotoxins for workers in a plant manufacturing automobile piston rings. Questionnaire data showed that 61.5% of 187 workers exhibited rhinitis-related symptoms. Rhinitis was confirmed in 99 of 115 workers whom were medically examined. Otolaryngologist-confirmed rhinitis was present in 10 of 19 grinding workers (52.6%), 67 of 142 production workers (47.2%), and 22 of 26 quality control (QC) workers (84.6%). These rates are much higher than the rates of rhinitis-related symptoms in automobile plants and other occupational settings and quite high even allowing for the common occurrence of rhinitis in the general population. We found that rhinitis could develop even in workers exposed to less than 0.5mg/m(3) MWF aerosol. The average exposure to fungi exceeded 10 x 10(3) CFU/m(3), a level higher than that reported for other automobile plants. Although we were unable to identify significant risk factors for rhinitis using only the physician-confirmed rhinitis cases, this study concludes that exposure to MWF aerosol, which would include microbes and metals, could contribute to a high occurrence of rhinitis in grinding and production workers. Forty-nine workers (63.6%) of 77 rhinitis patients in grinding and production operations were determined to handle synthetic MWF directly. For QC workers, for whom the prevalence of physician-confirmed rhinitis was highest, exposure to a low level of MWF aerosol, including specific microbe species we couldn't identify, bright light, dry air, and certain work characteristics during inspection are possible risk factors for development of rhinitis. Further studies including identification of fungi species should be conducted so a firm conclusion can be made regarding the development of rhinitis in QC manufacturing plant workers. PMID:18716389

  1. Geothermal materials survey: Baca Geothermal Demonstration Power Plant, Baca, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, P.F. II

    1980-10-07

    The results of a materials survey for the Baca 50 MW(e) single flash geothermal plant in the Valles Caldera of New Mexico are presented. From the design documents provided, materials proposed for use in contact with the plant atmosphere, the two-phase geofluid, the separated steam, and the recirculating condensate cooling water were assessed for suitability. Special emphasis was given to records of performance of the materials in other geothermal plants. Based upon these considerations of chemical reactivity and plant operating experience, a number of recommendations were made.

  2. Cameroonian medicinal plants: a bioactivity versus ethnobotanical survey and chemotaxonomic classification

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Cameroon herbs are traditionally used to meet health care needs and plans are on the way to integrate traditional medicine in the health care system, even though the plans have not been put into action yet. The country however has a rich biodiversity, with ~8,620 plant species, some of which are commonly used in the treatment of several microbial infections and a range of diseases (malaria, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, diabetes and tuberculosis). Methods Our survey consisted in collecting published data from the literature sources, mainly from PhD theses in Cameroonian university libraries and also using the author queries in major natural product and medicinal chemistry journals. The collected data includes plant sources, uses of plant material in traditional medicine, plant families, region of collection of plant material, isolated metabolites and type (e.g. flavonoid, terpenoid, etc.), measured biological activities of isolated compounds, and any comments on significance of isolated metabolites on the chemotaxonomic classification of the plant species. This data was compiled on a excel sheet and analysed. Results In this study, a literature survey led to the collection of data on 2,700 secondary metabolites, which have been previously isolated or derived from Cameroonian medicinal plants. This represents distinct phytochemicals derived from 312 plant species belonging to 67 plant families. The plant species are investigated in terms of chemical composition with respect to the various plant families. A correlation between the known biological activities of isolated compounds and the ethnobotanical uses of the plants is also attempted. Insight into future direction for natural product search within the Cameroonian forest and Savanna is provided. Conclusions It can be verified that a phytochemical search of active secondary metabolites, which is inspired by knowledge from the ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants could be very vital in a drug

  3. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the eastern highlands of Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Eastern Highlands area of Papua New Guinea (PNG) has a rich tradition of medicinal plant use. However, rapid modernization is resulting in the loss of independent language traditions and consequently a loss of individuals knowledgeable in medicinal plant use. This report represents a program to document and preserve traditional knowledge concerning medicinal plant use in PNG. This report documents and compares traditional plant use in the Eastern Highlands districts of Unggai-Bena, Okapa, and Obura-Wonenara, and puts these new records in context of previously documented PNG medicinal plant use. Methods This manuscript is an annotated combination of Traditional Medicines survey reports generated by UPNG trainees using a survey questionnaire titled “Information sheet on traditional herbal reparations and medicinal plants of PNG”. The Traditional Medicines survey project is supported by WHO, US NIH and PNG governmental health care initiatives and funding. Results Overall, after “poisoning” (synonymous with “magic”) the most commonly recorded ailments addressed by medicinal plant use were pain, gynecological disease, gastrointestinal maladies, anemia or malnutrition and malaria. However, the recorded indications for plant use varied widely amongst the different survey locations. Unlike many areas of PNG, mixing of ingredients was the most common mode of preparation recorded, except for two areas where the consumption of fresh plant material was more common. Throughout the Eastern Highlands oral administration was most common, with topical application second. Overall, leaves were most commonly used in the preparations of the healers interviewed, followed by bark and stems. Several new medicinal uses of plants were also documented. Conclusions Collaboration between the WHO, UPNG and the PNG Department of Health initiated Traditional Medicine survey program in order to preserve traditional knowledge concerning medicinal plant use in PNG. This

  4. Design of a citizen survey of forest plant injury caused by exposure to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, B.J.

    1994-12-31

    The North Carolina Environmental Defense Fund has designed a citizen-based survey of forest plant injury caused by exposure to ozone. The first, pilot survey will run for ten weeks in July, August, and September 1994. The surveyors will be trained laypersons who are donating their tie and effort. The scientific objective of the survey is to look for and collect evidence on the incidence and severity of ozone-injury to the leaves of plants and trees (seedling- and sapling-sized plants) in the forests of western North Carolina. The educational objective is to discuss the facts and meaning of air pollution problems in the southern Appalachian Mountains. The third and equally important objective involves policy dialogue: specifically, the objective is to motivate the surveyors to participate in local and regional forums at which mountain air pollution is on the agenda.

  5. 9 CFR 352.13 - Handling and disposal of condemned or other inedible exotic animal products at official exotic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION EXOTIC ANIMALS AND HORSES; VOLUNTARY INSPECTION Exotic Animals § 352.13 Handling and disposal of condemned or other inedible exotic animal products at official exotic animal establishments. This shall be... other inedible exotic animal products at official exotic animal establishments. 352.13......

  6. Results of the Radiological Survey of the Iowa Army Ammunition Plant, Middletown, Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, M.E.

    2001-07-17

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted an indoor radiological survey of property at the Iowa Army Ammunition Plant (IAAAP), Middletown, Iowa in June 2000. The purpose of the survey was to determine if radioactive residuals resulting from previous Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) activities were present inside selected Line 1 buildings at the IAAAP and conduct sampling in those areas of previous AEC operations that utilized radioactive components at some point during the manufacturing process, in order to evaluate any possible immediate health hazards and to collect sufficient information to determine the next type of survey. The AEC occupied portions of IAAAP from 1947 to 1975 to assemble nuclear weapons. The surveyed areas were identified through interviews with current and former IAAAP employees who had worked at the plant during AEC's tenure, and from AEC records.

  7. An aerial survey of radioactivity associated with Atomic Energy plants

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, F.J.; Harlan, W.E.; Humphrey, P.A.; Kane, R.L.; Reinhardt, P.W.

    1992-09-02

    The project covered was an endeavor to (1) compare a group of laboratory instruments as airborne detectors of radioactivity and (2) simultaneously obtain data relative to the diffusion rate of radioactive contamination emitted into the atmosphere from off-gas stacks of production runs. Research was conducted in the Oak Ridge, Tennessee and Hanford, Washington areas. Detection was accomplished at a maximum distance of seventeen miles from the plant. Very little information of a conclusive nature was gained concerning the diffusion. Further research with the nuclear instruments, using a stronger source, is recommended. To obtain conclusive information concerning the meteorological aspects of the project, a larger observational program will be needed.

  8. A benchmark survey of the common plants of South Northumberland and Durham, United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Durkin, John Liam; O'Reilly, John; Mclay, Andy; Richards, A John; Angel, Janet; Horsley, Angela; Rogers, Megs; Young, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background It is obvious to anyone studying plants in the landscape that man-made environmental change is having profound effects on the abundance, distribution and composition of plant communities. Nevertheless, quantifying these changes and estimating the impact of the different drivers of change is extremely difficult. Botanical surveying can potentially provide insights to the changes that are occurring and inform decisions related to conservation, agriculture and forestry policy. However, much of botanical surveying is conducted in such a way that it is not comparable between dates and places. Any comparison of historical and modern data has to account for biases in the recording of different taxonomic groups, geographic biases and varying surveying effort in time. In 2010 botanical recorders in the Vice Counties of Durham and South Northumberland in the United Kingdom decided to conduct a four year survey specifically to benchmark the abundance and distribution of common plants in their counties. It is intended that this survey will provide a relatively unbiased assessment with which to compare future and past surveys of the area and a means to study the drivers of biodiversity change in the North-east of England. New information This survey of Durham and South Northumberland has been designed with two goals, firstly to provide information on common vascular plant species and secondly to provide a dataset that will be versatile with respect to the sorts of questions that can be answered with the data. The survey is primarily an occupancy study of 1km2 grid squares, however, observers were also asked to provide a relative abundance estimate of the species in each grid square. The collection of relative abundance estimate data was an experiment to assess the repeatablity and useablity of such estimates. PMID:26752970

  9. Exotic Plants Grow in Academic Groves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiske, Edward

    1980-01-01

    Many American institutions have turned their backs on millions of dollars from Middle East oil-producing countries for fear of strings attached that might limit faculty hirings or what would be taught or might discriminate against Jewish or other scholars. (MLW)

  10. Exotic charmonium hybrids at PANDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundborg, Agnes

    2004-08-01

    Recent lattice-QCD calculations of the charmonium hybrid spectrum predict the ground state hybrid to be a spin-exotic with quantum number JPC = 1 -+ at a mass of about 4.3 GeV/c2. Such a low mass hybrid could be as narrow as O(20MeV/c2) due to dynamical suppression of decay into open charm. The exotic quantum numbers prevent the state from mixing with conventional mesons and simplifies the identification of the state as a non-meson state. Lattice calculations name the most obvious hybrid charmonium decay channel to be a conventional charmonium and light hadrons. The detection of such a final state with seven photons and a lepton pair within the future PANDA detector at GSI is investigated with Monte Carlo methods at Uppsala University.

  11. An aerial radiological survey of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area, Portsmouth, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted from July 11--20, 1990, over an 83-square-kilometer (32-square-mile) area surrounding the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant located near Portsmouth, Ohio. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 91 meters (300 feet) with line spacings of 122 meters (400 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a set of United States Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps of the area. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from about 7 to 14 microroentgens per hour ([mu]R/h) at 1 meter above the ground. Analysis of the data for man-made sources and for the uranium decay product, protactinium-234m ([sup 234m]Pa), showed five sites within the boundaries of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant with elevated readings. Spectra obtained in the vicinity of the buildings at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant showed the presence of [sup 234m]Pa, a uranium-238 ([sup 238]U) decay product. In addition, spectral analysis of the data obtained over the processing plant facility showed gamma activity indicative of uranium-235 ([sup 234]U). No other man-made gamma ray emitting radioactive material was detected, either on or off the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant property. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at five different locations within the survey boundlaries to support the aerial data.

  12. Exotic Ions in Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wanchun; Xie, Zhuolin; Cooper, Leon N.; Maris, Humphrey J.

    2016-11-01

    Exotic ions are negatively charged objects which have been detected in superfluid helium-4 at temperatures in the vicinity of 1 K. Mobility experiments in several different labs have revealed the existence of at least 18 such objects. These ions have a higher mobility than the normal negative ion and appear to be singly charged and smaller. We summarize the experimental situation, the possible structure of these objects, and how these objects might be formed.

  13. Survey of strong motion earthquake effects on thermal power plants in California with emphasis on piping systems. Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1995-11-01

    Volume 2 of the ``Survey of Strong Motion Earthquake Effects on Thermal Power Plants in California with Emphasis on Piping Systems`` contains Appendices which detail the detail design and seismic response of several power plants subjected to strong motion earthquakes. The particular plants considered include the Ormond Beach, Long Beach and Seal Beach, Burbank, El Centro, Glendale, Humboldt Bay, Kem Valley, Pasadena and Valley power plants. Included is a typical power plant piping specification and photographs of typical power plant piping specification and photographs of typical piping and support installations for the plants surveyed. Detailed piping support spacing data are also included.

  14. Ethnomedical survey of plants used by the Orang Asli in Kampung Bawong, Perak, West Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A qualitative ethnomedical survey was carried out among a local Orang Asli tribe to gather information on the use of medicinal plants in the region of Kampung Bawong, Perak of West Malaysia in order to evaluate the potential medicinal uses of local plants used in curing different diseases and illnesses. Methods Sixteen informants ranging in age from 35 to 65 years were interviewed. A total of 62 species of plants used by Orang Asli are described in this study based on field surveys and direct face to face communication. These plants belonged to 36 families and are used to treat a wide range of discomforts and diseases. Results The results of this study showed that majority of the Orang Asli, of Kampung Bawong are still dependent on local plants as their primary source of medication. As the first ethnomedical study in this area, publishing this work is expected to open up more studies to identify and assess the pharmacological and toxicological action of the plants from this region. Conclusions Preservation and recording of ethnobotanical and ethnomedical uses of traditional medicinal plants is an indispensable obligation for sustaining the medicinal and cultural resource of mankind. Extensive research on such traditional plants is of prime importance to scientifically validate their ethnomedical claims. PMID:20137098

  15. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) conducted March 14 through 25, 1988. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental risk associated with ORGDP. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at ORGDP, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during is on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). When completed, the results will be incorporated into the ORGDP Survey findings for in inclusion into the Environmental Survey Summary Report. 120 refs., 41 figs., 74 tabs.

  16. Petrified Forest National Park Invasive Plant Species Survey and Mapping; 2002-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Kathryn A.; Hunt, Randall; Arundel, Terry R.; Guertin, P.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a survey for invasive nonnative plant species at Petrified Forest National Park from 2002 through 2005. The survey employed a unique sampling design consisting of a grid of consecutive one-hectare cells as the sampling units. Our use of predetermined sampling units allowed all observations to be referenced to a fixed area with geographic coordinates that easily transferred to a geographic information system. Our field team surveyed 2,730 sampling units in three select areas for at least 1 year and 879 sampling units for 4 years. During this period we identified 40 different invasive plant species; more than half the invasive plants (22 species) were annual forbs and grasses. Four invasive plant species occurred in 25 percent or more of all sampling units observed in one or more years: Bromus tectorum, Erodium cicutarium, Salsola tragus, and Sisymbrium altissimum. Salsola tragus was the most abundant species in all years and occurred in more than 55 percent of all sampling units surveyed each year.

  17. Educational Plant Survey: Manatee Community College, March 20-24, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Ruth S.; Bullock, Thomas K.

    Pursuant to Florida educational legislation, this report presents findings of an educational plant survey conducted in March 1995 at Manatee Community College (MCC). The report is designed to aid the formulation of plans for housing the educational program, student population, faculty, administrators, staff, and auxiliary and ancillary services of…

  18. 78 FR 2421 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Indiana Bat Summer Survey Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Indiana Bat Summer Survey Guidelines Correction In notice document 2013-00213, appearing on pages 1879-1880 in...

  19. Special-Status Plant Species Surveys and Vegetation Mapping at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R E

    2006-10-03

    This report presents the results of Jones & Stokes special-status plant surveys and vegetation mapping for the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Special-status plant surveys were conducted at Site 300 in April to May 1997 and in March to April 2002. Eight special-status plants were identified at Site 300: large-flowered fiddleneck, big tarplant, diamond-petaled poppy, round-leaved filaree, gypsum-loving larkspur, California androsace, stinkbells, and hogwallow starfish. Maps identifying the locations of these species, a discussion of the occurrence of these species at Site 300, and a checklist of the flora of Site 300 are presented. A reconnaissance survey of the LLNL Livermore Site was conducted in June 2002. This survey concluded that no special-status plants occur at the Livermore Site. Vegetation mapping was conducted in 2001 at Site 300 to update a previous vegetation study done in 1986. The purpose of the vegetation mapping was to update and to delineate more precisely the boundaries between vegetation types and to map vegetation types that previously were not mapped. The vegetation map is presented with a discussion of the vegetation classification used.

  20. Educational Plant Survey: Tallahassee Community College, February 1-5, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Baxter B.; Anderson, Jack

    Pursuant to Florida educational legislation, this report presents findings of an educational plant survey conducted in February 1993 at Tallahassee Community College (TCC). The report is designed to aid the formulation of plans for housing the educational program, student population, faculty, administrators, staff, and ancillary services of the…

  1. A Survey Report of School Plant Management for Escambia County, Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    This report analyzes data collected by survey teams concerned with maintenance and operation of school plants in relation to organization, administration, budgeting, expenditures, purchasing, staffing, warehousing and distribution, maintenance shops, administrative practices, performance standards, and efficiency. The basic purposes of a…

  2. Alaskan Ribes L. and Rubus L. Plant Species Surveyed for Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alaska’s domesticated and native Ribes and Rubus genera have virtually gone unchecked for pathogen detections. Cultivated Ribes species are predominantly found in home gardens and landscape areas along highways and in cities. In 2008, while surveying native plants for diseases in North Central Alask...

  3. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and Surrounding Area, Portsmouth, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Namdoo Moon

    2007-12-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the 16 square-mile (~41 square-kilometer) area surrounding the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The survey was performed in August 2007 utilizing a large array of helicopter mounted sodium iodide detectors. The purpose of the survey was to update the previous radiological survey levels of the environment and surrounding areas of the plant. A search for a missing radium-226 source was also performed. Implied exposure rates, man-made activity, and excess bismuth-214 activity, as calculated from the aerial data are presented in the form of isopleth maps superimposed on imagery of the surveyed area. Ground level and implied aerial exposure rates for nine specific locations are compared. Detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with those expected from normal background emitters. At specific plant locations described in the report, man-made activity was consistent with the operational histories of the location. There was no spectral activity that would indicate the presence of the lost source.

  4. Using habitat suitability models to target invasive plant species surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crall, Alycia W.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Panke, Brendon; Young, Nick; Renz, Mark; Morisette, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Managers need new tools for detecting the movement and spread of nonnative, invasive species. Habitat suitability models are a popular tool for mapping the potential distribution of current invaders, but the ability of these models to prioritize monitoring efforts has not been tested in the field. We tested the utility of an iterative sampling design (i.e., models based on field observations used to guide subsequent field data collection to improve the model), hypothesizing that model performance would increase when new data were gathered from targeted sampling using criteria based on the initial model results. We also tested the ability of habitat suitability models to predict the spread of invasive species, hypothesizing that models would accurately predict occurrences in the field, and that the use of targeted sampling would detect more species with less sampling effort than a nontargeted approach. We tested these hypotheses on two species at the state scale (Centaurea stoebe and Pastinaca sativa) in Wisconsin (USA), and one genus at the regional scale (Tamarix) in the western United States. These initial data were merged with environmental data at 30-m2 resolution for Wisconsin and 1-km2 resolution for the western United States to produce our first iteration models. We stratified these initial models to target field sampling and compared our models and success at detecting our species of interest to other surveys being conducted during the same field season (i.e., nontargeted sampling). Although more data did not always improve our models based on correct classification rate (CCR), sensitivity, specificity, kappa, or area under the curve (AUC), our models generated from targeted sampling data always performed better than models generated from nontargeted data. For Wisconsin species, the model described actual locations in the field fairly well (kappa = 0.51, 0.19, P 2) = 47.42, P < 0.01). From these findings, we conclude that habitat suitability models can be

  5. Confirmatory Survey of the Fuel Oil Tank Area - Humboldt Bay Power Plant, Eureka, California

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS, WADE C

    2012-04-09

    During the period of February 14 to 15, 2012, ORISE performed radiological confirmatory survey activities for the former Fuel Oil Tank Area (FOTA) and additional radiological surveys of portions of the Humboldt Bay Power Plant site in Eureka, California. The radiological survey results demonstrate that residual surface soil contamination was not present significantly above background levels within the FOTA. Therefore, it is ORISE’s opinion that the radiological conditions for the FOTA surveyed by ORISE are commensurate with the site release criteria for final status surveys as specified in PG&E’s Characterization Survey Planning Worksheet. In addition, the confirmatory results indicated that the ORISE FOTA survey unit Cs-137 mean concentrations results compared favorably with the PG&E FOTA Cs-137 mean concentration results, as determined by ORISE from the PG&E characterization data. The interlaboratory comparison analyses of the three soil samples analyzed by PG&E’s onsite laboratory and the ORISE laboratory indicated good agreement for the sample results and provided confidence in the PG&E analytical procedures and final status survey soil sample data reporting.

  6. Geothermal energy as a source of electricity. A worldwide survey of the design and operation of geothermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dipippo, R.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of geothermal power generation is presented. A survey of geothermal power plants is given for the following countries: China, El Salvado, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Turkey, USSR, and USA. A survey of countries planning geothermal power plants is included.

  7. Geothermal energy as a source of electricity. A worldwide survey of the design and operation of geothermal power plants

    SciTech Connect

    DiPippo, R.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of geothermal power generation is presented. A survey of geothermal power plants is given for the following countries: China, El Salvador, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Turkey, USSR, and USA. A survey of countries planning geothermal power plants is included. (MHR)

  8. Usage of Plant Food Supplements across Six European Countries: Findings from the PlantLIBRA Consumer Survey

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Egan, Bernadette; de Klein, Simone; Dima, Lorena; Maggi, Franco M.; Isoniemi, Merja; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Raats, Monique M.; Meissner, Eva Melanie; Badea, Mihaela; Bruno, Flavia; Salmenhaara, Maija; Milà-Villarroel, Raimon; Knaze, Viktoria; Hodgkins, Charo; Marculescu, Angela; Uusitalo, Liisa; Restani, Patrizia; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    Background The popularity of botanical products is on the rise in Europe, with consumers using them to complement their diets or to maintain health, and products are taken in many different forms (e.g. teas, juices, herbal medicinal products, plant food supplements (PFS)). However there is a scarcity of data on the usage of such products at European level. Objective To provide an overview of the characteristics and usage patterns of PFS consumers in six European countries. Design Data on PFS usage were collected in a cross-sectional, retrospective survey of PFS consumers using a bespoke frequency of PFS usage questionnaire. Subjects/setting A total sample of 2359 adult PFS consumers from Finland, Germany, Italy, Romania, Spain and the United Kingdom. Data analyses Descriptive analyses were conducted, with all data stratified by gender, age, and country. Absolute frequencies, percentages and 95% confidence intervals are reported. Results Overall, an estimated 18.8% of screened survey respondents used at least one PFS. Characteristics of PFS consumers included being older, well-educated, never having smoked and self-reporting health status as “good or very good”. Across countries, 491 different botanicals were identified in the PFS products used, with Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo), Oenothera biennis (Evening primrose) and Cynara scolymus (Artichoke) being most frequently reported; the most popular dose forms were capsules and pills/tablets. Most consumers used one product and half of all users took single-botanical products. Some results varied across countries. Conclusions The PlantLIBRA consumer survey is unique in reporting on usage patterns of PFS consumers in six European countries. The survey highlights the complexity of measuring the intake of such products, particularly at pan-European level. Incorporating measures of the intake of botanicals in national dietary surveys would provide much-needed data for comprehensive risk and benefit assessments at the European

  9. An aerial radiological survey of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) and surrounding area in Paducah, Kentucky, was conducted during May 15--25, 1990. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial radiological environment at the PGDP and surrounding area for use in effective environmental management and emergency response planning. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) along a series of parallel lines 107 meters (350 feet) apart. The survey encompassed an area of 62 square kilometers (24 square miles), bordered on the north by the Ohio River. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a gamma radiation contour map. Typical background exposure rates were found to vary from 5 to 12 microroentgens per hour ([mu]R/h). Protactinium-234m, a radioisotope indicative of uranium-238, was detected at several facilities at the PGDR. In support of the aerial survey, ground-based exposure rate and soil sample measurements were obtained at several sites within the survey perimeter. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to agree within [plus minus]15%.

  10. Coexistence between native and exotic species is facilitated by asymmetries in competitive ability and susceptibility to herbivores.

    PubMed

    Heard, Matthew J; Sax, Dov F

    2013-02-01

    Differences between native and exotic species in competitive ability and susceptibility to herbivores are hypothesized to facilitate coexistence. However, little fieldwork has been conducted to determine whether these differences are present in invaded communities. Here, we experimentally examined whether asymmetries exist between native and exotic plants in a community invaded for over 200 years and whether removing competitors or herbivores influences coexistence. We found that natives and exotics exhibit pronounced asymmetries, as exotics are competitively superior to natives, but are more significantly impacted by herbivores. We also found that herbivore removal mediated the outcome of competitive interactions and altered patterns of dominance across our field sites. Collectively, these findings suggest that asymmetric biotic interactions between native and exotic plants can help to facilitate coexistence in invaded communities.

  11. Ethnopharmacological survey of six medicinal plants from Mali, West-Africa.

    PubMed

    Grønhaug, Tom Erik; Glaeserud, Silje; Skogsrud, Mona; Ballo, Ngolo; Bah, Sekou; Diallo, Drissa; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2008-12-27

    An ethnopharmacological survey was carried out to collect information about the use of six medicinal plants in the regions around Siby and Dioila, Mali. The plants investigated were Biopyhtum petersianum, Cola cordifolia, Combretum molle, Opilia celtidifolia, Parkia biglobosa and Ximenia americana. More than 60 medical indications were reported for the use of these plants in traditional medicine. The most frequently reported ailments were malaria (25.6%), different types of pain (14.0%) and dermatitis (7.4%). The main forms for preparation were decoction (58.1%) and powdered plant material (28.4%). The most frequent used plant parts were leaves (37.7%) and stem bark (18.6%). The healers' consensus for the main indications is fairly high for the four plants B. petersianum, C. cordifolia, C. molle and O. celtidifolia, and this supports the traditional use of these plants. However for P. biglobosa and X. americana the healers' consensus is less consistent and it is more difficult to draw conclusions about the most important traditional use of these two plants.

  12. Ethnopharmacological survey of six medicinal plants from Mali, West-Africa

    PubMed Central

    Grønhaug, Tom Erik; Glæserud, Silje; Skogsrud, Mona; Ballo, Ngolo; Bah, Sekou; Diallo, Drissa; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2008-01-01

    An ethnopharmacological survey was carried out to collect information about the use of six medicinal plants in the regions around Siby and Dioila, Mali. The plants investigated were Biopyhtum petersianum, Cola cordifolia, Combretum molle, Opilia celtidifolia, Parkia biglobosa and Ximenia americana. More than 60 medical indications were reported for the use of these plants in traditional medicine. The most frequently reported ailments were malaria (25.6%), different types of pain (14.0%) and dermatitis (7.4%). The main forms for preparation were decoction (58.1%) and powdered plant material (28.4%). The most frequent used plant parts were leaves (37.7%) and stem bark (18.6%). The healers' consensus for the main indications is fairly high for the four plants B. petersianum, C. cordifolia, C. molle and O. celtidifolia, and this supports the traditional use of these plants. However for P. biglobosa and X. americana the healers' consensus is less consistent and it is more difficult to draw conclusions about the most important traditional use of these two plants. PMID:19111068

  13. Anaerobic digestion foaming in full-scale biogas plants: a survey on causes and solutions.

    PubMed

    Kougias, P G; Boe, K; O-Thong, S; Kristensen, L A; Angelidaki, I

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming is a common operation problem in biogas plants with negative impacts on the biogas plants economy and environment. A survey of 16 Danish full-scale biogas plants on foaming problems revealed that most of them had experienced foaming in their processes up to three times per year. Foaming incidents often lasted from one day to three weeks, causing 20-50% biogas production loss. One foaming case at Lemvig biogas plant has been investigated and the results indicated that the combination of feedstock composition and mixing pattern of the reactor was the main cause of foaming in this case. Moreover, no difference in bacterial communities between the foaming and non-foaming reactors was observed, showing that filamentous bacteria were not the main reason for foaming in this case.

  14. Ethnobotanical survey in Canhane village, district of Massingir, Mozambique: medicinal plants and traditional knowledge

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    surveyed plants being a contribution to the documentation of PGR at the national and regional level. PMID:21129187

  15. An aerial radiological survey of the Robert Emmett Ginna Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Ontario, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, A.E.

    1997-06-01

    Terrestrial radioactivity surrounding the Robert Emmett Ginna Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiological surveying techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates near the plant and to identify unexpected, man-made radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included land areas within a three-mile radius of the plant site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employed sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Exposure-rate and photopeak counts were computed from these data and plotted on aerial photographs of the survey area. Several ground-based exposure measurements were made for comparison with the aerial survey results. Exposure rates in the area surrounding the plant site varied from 6 to 10 microroentgens per hour. Man-made radiation (cobalt-60 within the plant site and cesium-1 37 directly over the reactor) was found at the plant site. In addition, small areas of suspected cesium-137 activity were found within the survey areas. Other than these small sites, the survey area was free of man-made radioac- tivity.

  16. Borehole Gravity Meter Surveys at the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington.

    SciTech Connect

    MacQueen, Jeffrey D.; Mann, Ethan

    2007-04-06

    Microg-LaCoste (MGL) was contracted by Pacfic Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to record borehole gravity density data in 3 wells at the HanfordWaste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The survey was designed to provide highly accurate density information for use in seismic modeling. The borehole gravity meter (BHGM) tool has a very large depth of investigation (hundreds of feet) compared to other density tools so it is not influenced by casing or near welbore effects, such as washouts.

  17. Conversion of sagebrush shrublands to exotic annual grasslands negatively impacts small mammal communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostoja, S.M.; Schupp, E.W.

    2009-01-01

    Aim The exotic annual cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) is fast replacing sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) communities throughout the Great Basin Desert and nearby regions in the Western United States, impacting native plant communities and altering fire regimes, which contributes to the long-term persistence of this weedy species. The effect of this conversion on native faunal communities remains largely unexamined. We assess the impact of conversion from native perennial to exotic annual plant communities on desert rodent communities. Location Wyoming big sagebrush shrublands and nearby sites previously converted to cheatgrass-dominated annual grasslands in the Great Basin Desert, Utah, USA. Methods At two sites in Tooele County, Utah, USA, we investigated with Sherman live trapping whether intact sagebrush vegetation and nearby converted Bromus tectorum-dominated vegetation differed in rodent abundance, diversity and community composition. Results Rodent abundance and species richness were considerably greater in sagebrush plots than in cheatgrass-dominated plots. Nine species were captured in sagebrush plots; five of these were also trapped in cheatgrass plots, all at lower abundances than in the sagebrush. In contrast, cheatgrass-dominated plots had no species that were not found in sagebrush. In addition, the site that had been converted to cheatgrass longer had lower abundances of rodents than the site more recently converted to cheatgrass-dominated plots. Despite large differences in abundances and species richness, Simpson's D diversity and Shannon-Wiener diversity and Brillouin evenness indices did not differ between sagebrush and cheatgrass-dominated plots. Main conclusions This survey of rodent communities in native sagebrush and in converted cheatgrass-dominated vegetation suggests that the abundances and community composition of rodents may be shifting, potentially at the larger spatial scale of the entire Great Basin, where cheatgrass continues to invade

  18. An aerial radiological survey of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Forked River, New Jersey. Date of survey: September 18--25, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, H.A.; McCall, K.A.

    1994-05-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant in Forked River, New Jersey, during the period September 18 through September 24, 1992. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) over a 26-square-mile (67-square-kilometer) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma radiation environment of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power plant and surrounding area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 4 and 10 microroentgens per hour and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and radioactive potassium gamma emitters. The aerial data were compared to ground-based benchmark exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assays of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system. A previous survey of the power plant was conducted in August 1969 during its initial startup phase. Exposure rates and radioactive isotopes revealed in both surveys were consistent and within normal terrestrial background levels.

  19. Reaction theory for exotic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Bonaccorso, Angela

    2014-05-09

    Exotic nuclei are usually defined as those with unusual N/Z ratios. They can be found in the crust of neutron stars enbedded in a sea of electrons or created in laboratory by fragmentation of a primary beam (in-flight method) or of the target (ISOL method). They are extremely important for nuclear astrophysics, see for example Ref.[1]. Furthermore by studying them we can check the limits of validity of nuclear reaction and structure models. This contribution will be devoted to the understanding of how by using reaction theory and comparing to the data we can extract structure information. We shall discuss the differences between the mechanisms of transfer and breakup reactions, an we will try to explain how nowadays it is possible to do accurate spectroscopy in extreme conditions.

  20. Photoproduction of exotic baryon resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karliner, Marek; Rosner, Jonathan L.

    2016-01-01

    We point out that the new exotic resonances recently reported by LHCb in the J / ψ p channel are excellent candidates for photoproduction off a proton target. This test is crucial to confirming the resonant nature of such states, as opposed to their being kinematical effects. We specialize to an interpretation of the heavier narrow state as a molecule composed of Σc and Dbar*, and estimate its production cross section using vector dominance. The relevant photon energies and fluxes are well within the capabilities of the GlueX and CLAS12 detectors at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLAB). A corresponding calculation is also performed for photoproduction of an analogous resonance which is predicted to exist in the ϒp channel.

  1. Exotic structures of light hypernuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Nemura, H.

    2005-05-06

    We describe ab initio calculations of doubly strange s-shell hypernuclei ({sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}{sup 4}H, {sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}{sup 5}H and {sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}{sup 6}He) by using a set of fully coupled channel potentials. The wave function includes {lambda}{lambda}, {lambda}{sigma}, N{xi} and {sigma}{sigma} channels. Minnesota NN, D2' YN, and simulated YY potentials based on the Nijmegen hard-core model, are used. Bound-state solutions of these systems are obtained. We calculate the probabilities of the exotic components such as N{xi}, {lambda}{sigma} and {sigma}{sigma}. This is a first attempt to explore the few-body problem of the full-coupled channel scheme for these systems.

  2. Exotic nuclei and nuclear forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Takaharu

    2013-01-01

    I overview new aspects of the structure of exotic nuclei as compared to stable nuclei, focusing on several characteristic effects of nuclear forces. The shell structure of nuclei has been proposed by Mayer and Jensen, and has been considered to be kept valid basically for all nuclei, with well-known magic numbers, 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, …. Nuclear forces were shown, very recently, to change this paradigm. It will be presented that the evolution of shell structure occurs in various ways as more neutrons and/or protons are added, and I will present basic points of this shell evolution in terms of the monopole interaction of nuclear forces. I will discuss three types of nuclear forces. The first one is the tensor force. The tensor force is one of the most fundamental nuclear forces, but its first-order effect on the shell structure has been clarified only recently in studies on exotic nuclei. The tensor force can change the spin-orbit splitting depending on the occupation of specific orbits. This results in changes of the shell structure in many nuclei, and consequently some of Mayer-Jensen's magic numbers are lost and new ones emerge, in certain nuclei. This mechanism can be understood in an intuitive way, meaning that the effect is general and robust. The second type of nuclear forces is central force. I will show a general but unknown property of the central force in the shell-model Hamiltonian that can describe nuclear properties in a good agreement with experiment. I will then demonstrate how it can be incorporated into a simple model of the central force, and will discuss how this force works in the shell evolution. Actually, by combining this central force with the tensor force, one can understand and foresee how the same proton-neutron interaction drives the shell evolution, for examples such as Sn/Sb isotopes, N = 20 nuclei and Ni/Cu isotopes. The distribution of single-particle strength is discussed also in comparison to (e,e‧p) experiment on 48Ca. The shell

  3. Survey of protected vascular plants on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Awl, D.J.; Pounds, L.R.; Rosensteel, B.A.; King, A.L.; Hamlett, P.A.

    1996-06-01

    Vascular plant surveys were initiated during fiscal year 1992 by the environmentally sensitive areas program to determine the baseline condition of threatened and endangered (T&E) vascular plant species on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). T&E species receive protection under federal and state regulations. In addition, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires that federally-funded projects avoid or mitigate impacts to listed species. T&E plant species found on or near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) are identified. Twenty-eight species identified on the ORR are listed by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation as either endangered, threatened, or of special concern. Four of these have been under review by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for possible listing (listed in the formerly-used C2 candidate category). Additional species listed by the state occur near and may be present on the ORR. A range of habitats support the rare taxa on the ORR: river bluffs, sinkholes, calcareous barrens, wetlands, utility corridors, and forests. The list of T&E plant species and their locations on the ORR should be considered provisional because the entire ORR has not been surveyed, and state and federal status of all species continues to be updated. The purpose of this document is to present information on the listed T&E plant species currently known to occur on the ORR as well as listed species potentially occurring on the ORR based on geographic range and habitat availability. For the purpose of this report, {open_quotes}T&E species{close_quotes} include all federal- and state-listed species, including candidates for listing, and species of special concern. Consideration of T&E plant habitats is an important component of resource management and land-use planning; protection of rare species in their natural habitat is the best method of ensuring their long-term survival.

  4. Exotic mammals disperse exotic fungi that promote invasion by exotic trees.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, Martin A; Hayward, Jeremy; Horton, Thomas R; Amico, Guillermo C; Dimarco, Romina D; Barrios-Garcia, M Noelia; Simberloff, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Biological invasions are often complex phenomena because many factors influence their outcome. One key aspect is how non-natives interact with the local biota. Interaction with local species may be especially important for exotic species that require an obligatory mutualist, such as Pinaceae species that need ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi. EM fungi and seeds of Pinaceae disperse independently, so they may use different vectors. We studied the role of exotic mammals as dispersal agents of EM fungi on Isla Victoria, Argentina, where many Pinaceae species have been introduced. Only a few of these tree species have become invasive, and they are found in high densities only near plantations, partly because these Pinaceae trees lack proper EM fungi when their seeds land far from plantations. Native mammals (a dwarf deer and rodents) are rare around plantations and do not appear to play a role in these invasions. With greenhouse experiments using animal feces as inoculum, plus observational and molecular studies, we found that wild boar and deer, both non-native, are dispersing EM fungi. Approximately 30% of the Pinaceae seedlings growing with feces of wild boar and 15% of the seedlings growing with deer feces were colonized by non-native EM fungi. Seedlings growing in control pots were not colonized by EM fungi. We found a low diversity of fungi colonizing the seedlings, with the hypogeous Rhizopogon as the most abundant genus. Wild boar, a recent introduction to the island, appear to be the main animal dispersing the fungi and may be playing a key role in facilitating the invasion of pine trees and even triggering their spread. These results show that interactions among non-natives help explain pine invasions in our study area. PMID:23826154

  5. Exotic Mammals Disperse Exotic Fungi That Promote Invasion by Exotic Trees

    PubMed Central

    Nuñez, Martin A.; Hayward, Jeremy; Horton, Thomas R.; Amico, Guillermo C.; Dimarco, Romina D.; Barrios-Garcia, M. Noelia; Simberloff, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Biological invasions are often complex phenomena because many factors influence their outcome. One key aspect is how non-natives interact with the local biota. Interaction with local species may be especially important for exotic species that require an obligatory mutualist, such as Pinaceae species that need ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi. EM fungi and seeds of Pinaceae disperse independently, so they may use different vectors. We studied the role of exotic mammals as dispersal agents of EM fungi on Isla Victoria, Argentina, where many Pinaceae species have been introduced. Only a few of these tree species have become invasive, and they are found in high densities only near plantations, partly because these Pinaceae trees lack proper EM fungi when their seeds land far from plantations. Native mammals (a dwarf deer and rodents) are rare around plantations and do not appear to play a role in these invasions. With greenhouse experiments using animal feces as inoculum, plus observational and molecular studies, we found that wild boar and deer, both non-native, are dispersing EM fungi. Approximately 30% of the Pinaceae seedlings growing with feces of wild boar and 15% of the seedlings growing with deer feces were colonized by non-native EM fungi. Seedlings growing in control pots were not colonized by EM fungi. We found a low diversity of fungi colonizing the seedlings, with the hypogeous Rhizopogon as the most abundant genus. Wild boar, a recent introduction to the island, appear to be the main animal dispersing the fungi and may be playing a key role in facilitating the invasion of pine trees and even triggering their spread. These results show that interactions among non-natives help explain pine invasions in our study area. PMID:23826154

  6. Exotic mammals disperse exotic fungi that promote invasion by exotic trees.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, Martin A; Hayward, Jeremy; Horton, Thomas R; Amico, Guillermo C; Dimarco, Romina D; Barrios-Garcia, M Noelia; Simberloff, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Biological invasions are often complex phenomena because many factors influence their outcome. One key aspect is how non-natives interact with the local biota. Interaction with local species may be especially important for exotic species that require an obligatory mutualist, such as Pinaceae species that need ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi. EM fungi and seeds of Pinaceae disperse independently, so they may use different vectors. We studied the role of exotic mammals as dispersal agents of EM fungi on Isla Victoria, Argentina, where many Pinaceae species have been introduced. Only a few of these tree species have become invasive, and they are found in high densities only near plantations, partly because these Pinaceae trees lack proper EM fungi when their seeds land far from plantations. Native mammals (a dwarf deer and rodents) are rare around plantations and do not appear to play a role in these invasions. With greenhouse experiments using animal feces as inoculum, plus observational and molecular studies, we found that wild boar and deer, both non-native, are dispersing EM fungi. Approximately 30% of the Pinaceae seedlings growing with feces of wild boar and 15% of the seedlings growing with deer feces were colonized by non-native EM fungi. Seedlings growing in control pots were not colonized by EM fungi. We found a low diversity of fungi colonizing the seedlings, with the hypogeous Rhizopogon as the most abundant genus. Wild boar, a recent introduction to the island, appear to be the main animal dispersing the fungi and may be playing a key role in facilitating the invasion of pine trees and even triggering their spread. These results show that interactions among non-natives help explain pine invasions in our study area.

  7. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in Plateau State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has generated renewed interest in recent times, as herbal preparations are increasingly being used in both human and animal healthcare systems. Diarrhoea is one of the common clinical signs of gastrointestinal disorders caused by both infectious and non-infectious agents and an important livestock debilitating condition. Plateau State is rich in savannah and forest vegetations and home to a vast collection of plants upheld in folklore as having useful medicinal applications. There is however scarcity of documented information on the medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in the state, thus the need for this survey. Ten (10) out of 17 Local Government Areas (LGAs), spread across the three senatorial zones were selected. Farmers were interviewed using well structured, open-ended questionnaire and guided dialogue techniques between October and December 2010. Medicinal plants reported to be effective in diarrhoea management were collected using the guided field-walk method for identification and authentication. Results A total of 248 questionnaires were completed, out of which 207 respondents (83.47%) acknowledged the use of herbs in diarrhoea management, while 41 (16.53%) do not use herbs or apply other traditional methods in the treatment of diarrhoea in their animals. Medicinal plants cited as beneficial in the treatment of animal diarrhoea numbered 132, from which 57(43.18%) were scientifically identified and classified into 25 plant families with the families Fabaceae (21%) and Combretaceae (14.04%) having the highest occurrence. The plant parts mostly used in antidiarrhoeal herbal preparations are the leaves (43.86%) followed by the stem bark (29.82%). The herbal preparations are usually administered orally. Conclusion Rural communities in Plateau State are a rich source of information on medicinal plants as revealed in this survey. There is need to scientifically ascertain

  8. Exotic atoms and their electron shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, L. M.; Abbot, D.; Bach, B.; Bacher, R.; Badertscher, A.; Blüm, P.; DeCecco, P.; Eades, J.; Egger, J.; Elsener, K.; Gotta, D.; Hauser, P.; Heitlinger, K.; Horváth, D.; Kottmann, F.; Morenzoni, E.; Missimer, J.; Reidy, J. J.; Siegel, R.; Taqqu, D.; Viel, D.

    1994-04-01

    Progress in the field of exotic atoms seems to increase proportionally with the number of exotic atoms produced and the increase in energy resolution with which the transition energies are determined. Modern experiments use high resolution crystal spectrometers or even aim at laser spectroscopy. The accuracy of these methods is limited by the interaction of the exotic atoms with their surroundings. The most important source of errors is the energy shift caused by the not well known status of the atomic electron shell. A novel method to eliminate these sources of error is presented and the possibilities for further high precision experiments is outlined.

  9. Hunting, Exotic Carnivores, and Habitat Loss: Anthropogenic Effects on a Native Carnivore Community, Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Farris, Zach J; Golden, Christopher D; Karpanty, Sarah; Murphy, Asia; Stauffer, Dean; Ratelolahy, Felix; Andrianjakarivelo, Vonjy; Holmes, Christopher M; Kelly, Marcella J

    2015-01-01

    The wide-ranging, cumulative, negative effects of anthropogenic disturbance, including habitat degradation, exotic species, and hunting, on native wildlife has been well documented across a range of habitats worldwide with carnivores potentially being the most vulnerable due to their more extinction prone characteristics. Investigating the effects of anthropogenic pressures on sympatric carnivores is needed to improve our ability to develop targeted, effective management plans for carnivore conservation worldwide. Utilizing photographic, line-transect, and habitat sampling, as well as landscape analyses and village-based bushmeat hunting surveys, we provide the first investigation of how multiple forms of habitat degradation (fragmentation, exotic carnivores, human encroachment, and hunting) affect carnivore occupancy across Madagascar's largest protected area: the Masoala-Makira landscape. We found that as degradation increased, native carnivore occupancy and encounter rates decreased while exotic carnivore occupancy and encounter rates increased. Feral cats (Felis species) and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) had higher occupancy than half of the native carnivore species across Madagascar's largest protected landscape. Bird and small mammal encounter rates were negatively associated with exotic carnivore occupancy, but positively associated with the occupancy of four native carnivore species. Spotted fanaloka (Fossa fossana) occupancy was constrained by the presence of exotic feral cats and exotic small Indian civet (Viverricula indica). Hunting was intense across the four study sites where hunting was studied, with the highest rates for the small Indian civet (mean=90 individuals consumed/year), the ring-tailed vontsira (Galidia elegans) (mean=58 consumed/year), and the fosa (Cryptoprocta ferox) (mean=31 consumed/year). Our modeling results suggest hunters target intact forest where carnivore occupancy, abundance, and species richness, are highest. These various

  10. Hunting, Exotic Carnivores, and Habitat Loss: Anthropogenic Effects on a Native Carnivore Community, Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Farris, Zach J; Golden, Christopher D; Karpanty, Sarah; Murphy, Asia; Stauffer, Dean; Ratelolahy, Felix; Andrianjakarivelo, Vonjy; Holmes, Christopher M; Kelly, Marcella J

    2015-01-01

    The wide-ranging, cumulative, negative effects of anthropogenic disturbance, including habitat degradation, exotic species, and hunting, on native wildlife has been well documented across a range of habitats worldwide with carnivores potentially being the most vulnerable due to their more extinction prone characteristics. Investigating the effects of anthropogenic pressures on sympatric carnivores is needed to improve our ability to develop targeted, effective management plans for carnivore conservation worldwide. Utilizing photographic, line-transect, and habitat sampling, as well as landscape analyses and village-based bushmeat hunting surveys, we provide the first investigation of how multiple forms of habitat degradation (fragmentation, exotic carnivores, human encroachment, and hunting) affect carnivore occupancy across Madagascar's largest protected area: the Masoala-Makira landscape. We found that as degradation increased, native carnivore occupancy and encounter rates decreased while exotic carnivore occupancy and encounter rates increased. Feral cats (Felis species) and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) had higher occupancy than half of the native carnivore species across Madagascar's largest protected landscape. Bird and small mammal encounter rates were negatively associated with exotic carnivore occupancy, but positively associated with the occupancy of four native carnivore species. Spotted fanaloka (Fossa fossana) occupancy was constrained by the presence of exotic feral cats and exotic small Indian civet (Viverricula indica). Hunting was intense across the four study sites where hunting was studied, with the highest rates for the small Indian civet (mean=90 individuals consumed/year), the ring-tailed vontsira (Galidia elegans) (mean=58 consumed/year), and the fosa (Cryptoprocta ferox) (mean=31 consumed/year). Our modeling results suggest hunters target intact forest where carnivore occupancy, abundance, and species richness, are highest. These various

  11. H-Coal Pilot Plant: noise survey at the H-Coal Pilot Plant, E and H-14

    SciTech Connect

    Tussey, L.B.; Hill, R.H.; Hollis, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    A hearing conservation program was established by Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. at the H-Coal Pilot Plant. This program included noise surveys, audiometric testing, posting of high-noise areas, noise controls, personal hearing protectors, and hearing-conservation training for workers. High area noise levels were measured for certain activities including unloading of coal rail cars, wastewater aeration compressors, steam and pressure relief releases and metal working. Personnel dosimetry monitoring typically showed exposures less than the 90 decibel A scale (dBA) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit, with only two of 15 measurements exceeding this level. However, eight of 15 measurements exceeded the 85 dBA OSHA Action Level, indicating the regulatory necessity of a hearing conservation program. Hearing protectors were made available to the workers with noise exposures exceeding the Action Level.

  12. TRAMIL Ethnopharmacological Survey: Knowledge Distribution of Medicinal Plant Use in the Southeast Region of Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    ALVARADO-GUZMÁN, JOSÉ A.; GAVILLÁN-SUÁREZ, JANNETTE; GERMOSÉN-ROBINEAU, LIONEL

    2014-01-01

    Background TRAMIL network aims to understand, validate and expand health practices based on the use of medicinal plants in the Caribbean, a “biodiversity hotspot” due to high species endemism, intense development pressure and habitat loss. Objectives The purpose of this study was to document both the medicinal plants that are frequently used to treat health conditions prevalent in the southeastern region of the archipelago of Puerto Rico and the trends in their use among the study population. Methods An ethnopharmacological survey was conducted in the study region. The results were analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Results Overall, 118 medicinal plants were recorded as being used to treat depression, nervousness, chronic sinusitis, gastritis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, allergic rhinitis, rhinofaryngitis, asthma, arthritis and migraine. The plant species with significant use were Citrus aurantium L., Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle, Pluchea carolinensis (Jacq.) G. Don in Sweet, and Mentha piperita L. The use of medicinal plants is more frequent among single women with a high educational level, a trend similar to the use of CAM in the US. Conclusion Ethnopharmacological knowledge and the use of medicinal plants is decreasing in the study region due to an increase in the use of conventional medical care and to self-medication with over-the-counter pharmaceutical products. Four botanical species with significant uses that were not previously recorded in the Caribbean Herbal Pharmacopoeia have been identified. This report will be followed by the scientific validation and toxicity studies of these plant species and the TRADIF activities in the study region. PMID:19999241

  13. Can exotic phytoseiids be considered 'benevolent invaders' in perennial cropping systems?

    PubMed

    Palevsky, Eric; Gerson, Uri; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang

    2013-02-01

    Numerous natural enemies were adopted worldwide for the control of major pests, including exotic phytoseiid species (Acari: Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae) that had been moved from continent to continent in protected and perennial agricultural systems. However, relatively fewer successes were recorded in perennial agricultural systems. In this manuscript we focus on the question: Can and will exotic phytoseiids provide better pest control than indigenous species in perennial agricultural systems? To answer this question, we review the efficacy of biological control efforts with phytoseiids in several case studies, where exotic and indigenous species were used against pests on indigenous host plants and some crops that were historically or recently introduced. Related factors affecting predator establishment, such as intraguild predation and pesticide effects are discussed, as well as the potential negative effects of exotic species releases on biological control and their impact on the indigenous natural fauna. On citrus, apple, grape and cassava exotic phytoseiids have enhanced biological control without negatively affecting indigenous species of natural enemies, except for the case of Euseius stipulatus (Athias-Henriot) on citrus that displaced Euseius hibisci (Chant) in a limited region of coastal California, USA, the latter considered to be an inferior biocontrol agent of Panonychus citri Koch. Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot on gorse, an invasive weed, is perhaps the only recorded case of a negative effect of an established exotic phytoseiid on biological control.

  14. Educational Plant Survey. The University of Florida (Excluding IFAS and Health Center) March 21-24, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    This report presents the findings of an educational plant survey conducted for the University of Florida during March 1994. The survey is designed to assist the university in developing a plan for housing the programs and services that it provides. The report includes an overview of the university's history and purpose, enrollment trends, academic…

  15. Mathematical models for exotic wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Saikat; Stremler, Mark

    2014-11-01

    Vortex wakes are a common occurrence in the environment around us; the most famous example being the von Kármán vortex street with two vortices being shed by the bluff body in each cycle. However, frequently there can be many other more exotic wake configurations with different vortex arrangements, based on the flow parameters and the bluff body dimensions and/or its oscillation characteristics. Some examples include wakes with periodic shedding of three vortices (`P+S' mode) and four vortices (symmetric `2P' mode, staggered `2P' mode, `2C' mode). We present mathematical models for such wakes assuming two-dimensional potential flows with embedded point vortices. The spatial alignment of the vortices is inspired by the experimentally observed wakes. The idealized system follows a Hamiltonian formalism. Model-based analysis reveals a rich dynamics pertaining to the relative vortex motion in the mid-wake region. Downstream evolution of the vortices, as predicted from the model results, also show good correspondence with wake-shedding experiments performed on flowing soap films.

  16. Energy Engineering Analysis Program, energy survey of boiler and chiller plants, Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    This report summarizes all work for the Energy Survey of Boiler and Chiller Plants, Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP) at U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, authorized under Contract DACA05-92-C-0155 with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Sacramento District, California. The purpose of this study is to develop projects and actions that will reduce facilities energy consumption and operating costs at Yuma Proving Ground. Implementation of these projects will contribute to achieving the goal of the Army Facilities Energy Plan of a reduction in energy consumption per square foot of building floor area of 20 percent by FY2000 from FY1983 baseline levels. The survey and evaluation effort was limited to chillers and direct expansion cooling units in Buildings 451, 506, 2105, 3482, 3490, and 3510 boilers in Building 506.

  17. Advances in exotic mammal clinical therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Michelle G

    2015-05-01

    It is important that veterinarians treating exotic companion mammals stay abreast of the latest developments relating to medications and drug delivery approaches for safety, efficacy and welfare issues. Sustained release formulations of commonly used drugs as well as newer routes for administration of therapeutic agents allow the veterinarian treating exotic companion mammals to reduce the stress associated with drug administration. Interactions can occur between vehicle and drugs when formulations are compounded, therefore research studies are warranted regarding potential problems associated with these formulations.

  18. Volume integral theorem for exotic matter

    SciTech Connect

    Nandi, Kamal Kanti; Zhang Yuanzhong; Kumar, K.B. Vijaya

    2004-12-15

    We answer an important question in general relativity about the volume integral theorem for exotic matter by suggesting an exact integral quantifier for matter violating Averaged Null Energy Condition (ANEC). It is checked against some well-known static, spherically symmetric traversable wormhole solutions of general relativity with a sign reversed kinetic term minimally coupled scalar field. The improved quantifier is consistent with the principle that traversable wormholes can be supported by arbitrarily small quantities of exotic matter.

  19. Video Otoscopy in Exotic Companion Mammals.

    PubMed

    Jekl, Vladimir; Hauptman, Karel; Knotek, Zdenek

    2015-09-01

    Ear disease is a common disorder seen in exotic companion mammals, especially in ferrets, rabbits, and rats. This article describes patient preparation, equipment, and video otoscopy technique in exotic companion mammals. This noninvasive technique facilitates accurate diagnosis of diseases affecting the external ear canal or middle ear. Moreover, therapeutic otoscopic evaluation of the external ear facilitates foreign body removal, external ear canal flushing, intralesional drug administration, myringotomy, and middle ear cavity flushing.

  20. Relativistic mean field description of exotic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Jie; Ring, Peter; Zhao, Pengwei; Zhou, Shan-Gui

    In this chapter, we will present relativistic mean field (RMF) models with pairing treated by the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) and the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov (RHB) approaches and applications for exotic nuclear phenomena including nuclear halos, the position of the proton drip line and proton radioactivity, the surface diffuseness and its relation to nuclear exotic phenomena, and the effects of pairing correlations on the nuclear size.

  1. Survey of artificial intelligence methods for detection and identification of component faults in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Reifman, J.

    1997-07-01

    A comprehensive survey of computer-based systems that apply artificial intelligence methods to detect and identify component faults in nuclear power plants is presented. Classification criteria are established that categorize artificial intelligence diagnostic systems according to the types of computing approaches used (e.g., computing tools, computer languages, and shell and simulation programs), the types of methodologies employed (e.g., types of knowledge, reasoning and inference mechanisms, and diagnostic approach), and the scope of the system. The major issues of process diagnostics and computer-based diagnostic systems are identified and cross-correlated with the various categories used for classification. Ninety-five publications are reviewed.

  2. Capacitively coupled resistivity survey of the levee surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City Power Plant, June 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Bethany L.; Cannia, James C.

    2011-01-01

    This report is a release of digital data from a capacitively coupled resistivity survey conducted on June 13, 2011, on the flood-protection levees surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City power plant. The U.S. Geological Survey Crustal Geophysics and Geochemistry Science Center and the Nebraska Water Science Center performed the survey in response to a flood on the Missouri River. A single line of resistivity profiling was completed along the center line of the section of levee 573 that surrounds the power plant.

  3. Description of Survey Data Regarding the Chemical Repackaging Plant Accident West Helena, Arkansas

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, J.H.; Vogt, B.M.

    1999-03-01

    Shortly after 1:00 p.m. on Thursday, May 8, 1997, clouds of foul-smelling smoke began pouring from an herbicide and pesticide packaging plant in West Helena, Arkansas. An alert was sounded, employees evacuated, and the West Helena fire department was called. As three firefighters prepared to enter the plant, the chemical compounds exploded, collapsing a solid concrete block wall, and killing all three firefighters. As the odorous smoky cloud drifted away from the plant, authorities ordered residents in a 2-mile area downwind of the plant to evacuate and those in the 2- to 3-mile zone to shelter in place. This study examines and compares the responses to a mail survey of those ordered to evacuate and those told to shelter in place. Among the variables examined are compliance with official orders and perceived warnings, threat perception, time and source of first warning, response times, and behavior characteristics for both populations. The findings indicate that 90% of those that were told to evacuate did so but only 27% of those told to shelter-in-place did so, with 68% opting to evacuate instead. The implications of these findings for emergency managers is that people will likely choose to evacuate when both warnings to evacuate and warnings to shelter are issued to residents in close proximity to each other. The findings on warning times closely resemble other findings from evacuations when chemical accidents occur and route notification is used for warning residents.

  4. An ethnobotanical survey of wild edible plants of Paphos and Larnaca countryside of Cyprus

    PubMed Central

    Della, Athena; Paraskeva-Hadjichambi, Demetra; Hadjichambis, Andreas Ch

    2006-01-01

    An ethnobotanical survey of wild edible plants of Cyprus was carried out in two sites. Paphos vine zone and Larnaca mixed farming zone. These are among the areas in Cyprus whose inhabitants subsisted primarily on pastoralism and agriculture and therefore still preserve the traditional knowledge on wild edible plants. The information was collected for three-year period, in the framework of the EU-funded RUBIA Project. Four hundred and thirteen interviews have been administered to 89 informants of various ages and background categories in 29 villages of Paphos site, and 8 in Larnaca site. A total of 78 species were recorded. Ethnographic data related to vernacular names, traditional tools and recipes have also been recorded. A comparison of the data collected from the two sites is undertaken. During this ethnobotanical research it was verified that wild edibles play an important role in Cyprus in rural people, however, it was realized that the transmission of folk uses of plants decreased in the last generations. The research of ethnobotany should be extended to other areas of Cyprus in order not only to preserve the traditional knowledge related to plants but to make it available to future generations as well. PMID:16995927

  5. Exergy analysis of an industrial-scale ultrafiltrated (UF) cheese production plant: a detailed survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasiri, Farshid; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Rafiee, Shahin

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a detailed exergy analysis of an industrial-scale ultrafiltrated (UF) cheese production plant was conducted based on actual operational data in order to provide more comprehensive insights into the performance of the whole plant and its main subcomponents. The plant included four main subsystems, i.e., steam generator (I), above-zero refrigeration system (II), Bactocatch-assisted pasteurization line (III), and UF cheese production line (IV). In addition, this analysis was aimed at quantifying the exergy destroyed in processing a known quantity of the UF cheese using the mass allocation method. The specific exergy destruction of the UF cheese production was determined at 2330.42 kJ/kg. The contributions of the subsystems I, II, III, and IV to the specific exergy destruction of the UF cheese production were computed as 1337.67, 386.18, 283.05, and 323.51 kJ/kg, respectively. Additionally, it was observed through the analysis that the steam generation system had the largest contribution to the thermodynamic inefficiency of the UF cheese production, accounting for 57.40 % of the specific exergy destruction. Generally, the outcomes of this survey further manifested the benefits of applying exergy analysis for design, analysis, and optimization of industrial-scale dairy processing plants to achieve the most cost-effective and environmentally-benign production strategies.

  6. Illinois State Geological Survey Evaluation of CO2 Capture Options from Ethanol Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Finley

    2006-09-30

    The Illinois State Geological Survey and the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium are conducting CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced oil recovery testing at six different sites in the Illinois Basin. The capital and operating costs for equipment to capture and liquefy CO{sub 2} from ethanol plants in the Illinois area were evaluated so that ethanol plants could be considered as an alternate source for CO{sub 2} in the event that successful enhanced oil recovery tests create the need for additional sources of CO{sub 2} in the area. Estimated equipment and operating costs needed to capture and liquefy 68 metric tonnes/day (75 tons/day) and 272 tonnes/day (300 tons/day) of CO{sub 2} for truck delivery from an ethanol plant are provided. Estimated costs are provided for food/beverage grade CO{sub 2} and also for less purified CO{sub 2} suitable for enhanced oil recovery or sequestration. The report includes preliminary plant and equipment designs and estimates major capital and operating costs for each of the recovery options. Availability of used equipment was assessed.

  7. Pre-fire grazing by cattle increases postfire resistance to exotic annual grass (Bromus tectorum) invasion and dominance for decades

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Fire, herbivory and their interaction influence plant community dynamics. However, little is known about the influence of pre-fire herbivory on post-fire plant community response, particularly long-term resilience to post-fire exotic plant invasion in areas that historically experienced limited ...

  8. [A questionnaire survey about public's image of radiation after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident].

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Ryuji; Ootsuyama, Akira; Abe, Toshiaki; Kuto, Tatsuhiko

    2012-03-01

    A questionnaire survey about the public's image of radiation was performed after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. The survey was taken by general citizens (200 and 1640 in Fukushima and 52 outside of Fukushima) and doctors (63 in Fukushima and 1942 outside of Fukushima (53 in Oita, 44 in Sagamihara and 1,845 in Kitakyushu)) in and outside of Fukushima and second year medical students in the University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan. The questionnaire surveys were performed during lectures about radiation. The response rates were 86% for the general citizens in Fukushima, 91% for the general citizens outside of Fukushima, 86% for doctors in Fukushima, and 85% and 86% for doctors in Sagamihara and Oita, respectively. The questionnaire surveys were sent to clinics and hospitals in Fukushima where the general citizens answered with a response rate of 50%. When the questionnaire surveys were sent to clinics and hospitals in Kitakyushu, doctors answered, with a response rate of 17%. The percentages of anxiety about future radiation effects after the FDNPP accident were the highest among the general citizens (71.6% in Fukushima and 40.4% outside of Fukushima), in the middle among the doctors (30.2% in Fukushima and 26.2% outside of Fukushima) and the lowest among the medical students (12.2%). The doctors in Fukushima and the medical students were anxious about food and soil pollution. The general citizens and the doctors outside of Fukushima were anxious about health problems and food and soil pollution. We concluded that a high level of education about radiation decreased the anxiety about the radiation effects. It is important to spread knowledge about radiation.

  9. A generic risk-based surveying method for invading plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Parnell, S; Gottwald, T R; Riley, T; van den Bosch, F

    2014-06-01

    Invasive plant pathogens are increasing with international trade and travel, with damaging environmental and economic consequences. Recent examples include tree diseases such as sudden oak death in the Western United States and ash dieback in Europe. To control an invading pathogen it is crucial that newly infected sites are quickly detected so that measures can be implemented to control the epidemic. However, since sampling resources are often limited, not all locations can be inspected and locations must be prioritized for surveying. Existing approaches to achieve this are often species specific and rely on detailed data collection and parameterization, which is difficult, especially when new arrivals are unanticipated. Consequently regulatory sampling responses are often ad hoc and developed without due consideration of epidemiology, leading to the suboptimal deployment of expensive sampling resources. We introduce a flexible risk-based sampling method that is pathogen generic and enables available information to be utilized to develop epidemiologically informed sampling programs for virtually any biologically relevant plant pathogen. By targeting risk we aim to inform sampling schemes that identify high-impact locations that can be subsequently treated in order to reduce inoculum in the landscape. This "damage limitation" is often the initial management objective following the first discovery of a new invader. Risk at each location is determined by the product of the basic reproductive number (R0), as a measure of local epidemic size, and the probability of infection. We illustrate how the risk estimates can be used to prioritize a survey by weighting a random sample so that the highest-risk locations have the highest probability of selection. We demonstrate and test the method using a high-quality spatially and temporally resolved data set on Huanglongbing disease (HLB) in Florida, USA. We show that even when available epidemiological information is relatively

  10. Plant oils as feedstock alternatives to petroleum - A short survey of potential oil crop platforms.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Anders S

    2009-06-01

    Our society is highly depending on petroleum for its activities. About 90% is used as an energy source for transportation and for generation of heat and electricity and the remaining as feedstocks in the chemical industry. However, petroleum is a finite source as well as causing several environmental problems such as rising carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Petroleum therefore needs to be replaced by alternative and sustainable sources. Plant oils and oleochemicals derived from them represent such alternative sources, which can deliver a substantial part of what is needed to replace the petroleum used as feedstocks. Plant derived feedstock oils can be provided by two types of oil qualities, multi-purpose and technical oils. Multi-purpose oils represent oil qualities that contain common fatty acids and that can be used for both food and feedstock applications. Technical oil qualities contain unusual fatty acids with special properties gained from their unique molecular structure and these types of oils should only be used for feedstock applications. As a risk mitigation strategy in the selection of crops, technical oil qualities should therefore preferably be produced by oil crop platforms dedicated for industrial usage. This review presents a short survey of oil crop platforms to be considered for either multi-purpose or technical oils production. Included among the former platforms are some of the major oil crops in cultivation such as oil palm, soybean and rapeseed. Among the later are those that could be developed into dedicated industrial platforms such as crambe, flax, cotton and Brassica carinata. The survey finishes off by highlighting the potential of substantial increase in plant oil production by developing metabolic flux platforms, which are starch crops converted into oil crops.

  11. Survey of operation and maintenance-related materials needs in geothermal power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, M.L.

    1998-06-01

    A survey was conducted to determine operation and maintenance (O and M)-related materials needs in geothermal power plants and to identify future research and development to address these needs. A total of 44 questionnaires was mailed to geothermal plant operators and industry consultants. The response rate was 54%. The participants were asked to describe type and frequency of materials problems, strategies currently used to mitigate such problems, barriers to using new or alternative materials and technologies, sources of information and give their views on research and development priorities. A wide range of opinions was obtained, reflecting each individual respondent`s perspective and the site-specific nature of some problems. However, the consensus is that corrosion and scaling remain major issues and that components requiring performance improvements include pipelines, well casing, turbines, heat exchangers, condensers, valves and cooling towers. It is recommended that appropriate research and development continue to be directed at reducing O and M costs associated with materials failure or inadequate service. There should be a balance between optimizing existing materials through better design and understanding of behavior in geothermal environments and development of new materials. Life extension of existing equipment, service life prediction, education of plant personnel in materials and methods for mitigating corrosion, and improvements in inhibitors and biocides would also be beneficial.

  12. SURVEY OF OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE-RELATED MATERIALS NEEDS IN GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    ALLAN,M.L.

    1998-06-01

    A survey was conducted to determine operation and maintenance (O and M)-related materials needs in geothermal power plants and to identify future research and development to address these needs. A total of 44 questionnaires was mailed to geothermal plant operators and industry consultants. The response rate was 54%. The participants were asked to describe type and frequency of materials problems, strategies currently used to mitigate such problems, barriers to using new or alternative materials and technologies, sources of information and give their views research and development priorities. A. wide range of opinions was obtained, reflecting each individual respondent's perspective and the site-specific nature of some problems. However, the consensus is that corrosion and scaling remain major issues and that components requiring performance improvements include pipelines, well casing, turbines, heat exchangers, condensers, valves and cooling towers. It is recommended that appropriate research and development continue to be directed at reducing O and M costs associated with materials failure or inadequate service. There should be a balance between optimizing existing materials through better design and understanding of behavior in geothermal environments and development of new materials. Life extension of existing equipment, service life prediction, education of plant personnel in materials and methods for mitigating corrosion, and improvements in inhibitors and biocides would also be beneficial.

  13. Brazilian plants as possible adaptogens: an ethnopharmacological survey of books edited in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Fúlvio Rieli; Carlini, Elisaldo A

    2007-02-12

    In a survey, from Brazilian books, we searched plants that are in popular use for purposes resembling those of an adaptogen. This study focused on 24 books by authors from diverse regions in the country, resulting in a total of 1317 citations of uses related to a possible adaptogen effect from approximately 766 plants. Only species native to Brazil, cited in at least four books, were selected, resulting a total of 33 species, belonging to 24 families. Of these, four species have been studied previously in relation to effects that are considered as part of an adaptogen effect (anti-stress, memory enhancement, increased physical and/or sexual performance): Heteropterys aphrodisiaca (Malpighiaceae), Paullinia cupana (Sapindaceae), Ptychopetalum olacoides (Olacaceae), and Turnera diffusa (Turneraceae). Three others--Pfaffia glomerata, Pfaffia paniculata (Amaranthaceae), and Trichilia catigua (Meliaceae)--have also been the object of pharmacological studies that support their use as a possible adaptogen, but they are listed in less than four books. The overall results obtained in the present review of Brazilian folk literature reveals that Brazil is rich in plants with potential adaptogen-like effect, but lacks pharmacological studies (mostly clinical ones) to confirm these therapeutic properties. PMID:17030478

  14. Ethnobotanical survey and in vitro antiplasmodial activity of plants used in traditional medicine in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Sanon, S; Ollivier, E; Azas, N; Mahiou, V; Gasquet, M; Ouattara, C T; Nebie, I; Traore, A S; Esposito, F; Balansard, G; Timon-David, P; Fumoux, F

    2003-06-01

    In Burkina Faso, most people in particular, in rural areas, use traditional medicine and medicinal plants to treat usual diseases. In the course of new antimalarial compounds, an ethnobotanical survey has been conducted in different regions. Seven plants, often cited by traditional practitioners and not chemically investigated, have been selected for an antiplasmodial screening: Pavetta crassipes (K. Schum), Acanthospermum hispidum (DC), Terminalia macroptera (Guill. et Perr), Cassia siamea (Lam), Ficus sycomorus (L), Fadogia agrestis (Schweinf. Ex Hiern) and Crossopteryx febrifuga (AFZ. Ex G. Don) Benth. Basic, chloroform, methanol, water-methanol and aqueous crude extracts have been prepared and tested on Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistant W2 strain. A significant activity has been observed with alkaloid extract of P. crassipes (IC(50)<4 microg/ml), of A. hispidum, C. febrifuga, and F. agrestis (4plants. PMID:12738078

  15. Evolution and population genetics of exotic and re-emerging pathogens: Novel tools and approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Given human population growth and accelerated global trade, the rate of emergence of exotic plant pathogens is bound to increase. Understanding the processes that lead to the emergence of new pathogens can help manage emerging epidemics. Novel tools to analyze population genetic variation can be use...

  16. Estimating exotic gene flow into native pine stands: zygotic vs. gametic components.

    PubMed

    Unger, G M; Vendramin, G G; Robledo-Arnuncio, J J

    2014-11-01

    Monitoring contemporary gene flow from widespread exotic plantations is becoming an important problem in forest conservation genetics. In plants, where both seed and pollen disperse, three components of exotic gene flow with potentially unequal consequences should be, but have not been, explicitly distinguished: zygotic, male gametic and female gametic. Building on a previous model for estimating contemporary rates of zygotic and male gametic gene flow among plant populations, we present here an approach that additionally estimates the third (female gametic) gene flow component, based on a combination of uni- and biparentally inherited markers. Using this method and a combined set of chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites, we estimate gene flow rates from exotic plantations into two Iberian relict stands of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). Results show neither zygotic nor female gametic gene flow but moderate (6-8%) male gametic introgression for both species, implying significant dispersal of pollen, but not of seeds, from exotic plantations into native stands shortly after introduced trees reached reproductive maturity. Numerical simulation results suggest that the model yields reasonably accurate estimates for our empirical data sets, especially for larger samples. We discuss conservation management implications of observed levels of exposure to nonlocal genes and identify research needs to determine potentially associated hazards. Our approach should be useful for plant ecologists and ecosystem managers interested in the vectors of contemporary genetic connectivity among discrete plant populations.

  17. Invasive stink bug favors naïve plants: Testing the role of plant geographic origin in diverse, managed environments.

    PubMed

    Martinson, Holly M; Bergmann, Erik J; Venugopal, P Dilip; Riley, Christopher B; Shrewsbury, Paula M; Raupp, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    With the introduction and establishment of exotic species, most ecosystems now contain both native and exotic plants and herbivores. Recent research identifies several factors that govern how specialist herbivores switch host plants upon introduction. Predicting the feeding ecology and impacts of introduced generalist species, however, remains difficult. Here, we examine how plant geographic origin, an indicator of shared co-evolutionary history, influences patterns of host use by a generalist, invasive herbivore, while accounting for variation in plant availability. The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, is a highly polyphagous Asian herbivore and an economically important invasive pest in North America and Europe. In visual surveys of 220 plant taxa in commercial nurseries in Maryland, USA, H. halys was more abundant on non-Asian plants and selected these over Asian plants. The relationship between the relative use of plants and their availability was strongly positive but depended also on plant origin at two of our three sites, where the higher relative use of non-Asian plants was greatest for highly abundant taxa. These results highlight the importance of considering both plant origin and relative abundance in understanding the selection of host plants by invasive generalist herbivores in diverse, natural and urban forests. PMID:27581756

  18. Invasive stink bug favors naïve plants: Testing the role of plant geographic origin in diverse, managed environments

    PubMed Central

    Martinson, Holly M.; Bergmann, Erik J.; Venugopal, P. Dilip; Riley, Christopher B.; Shrewsbury, Paula M.; Raupp, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    With the introduction and establishment of exotic species, most ecosystems now contain both native and exotic plants and herbivores. Recent research identifies several factors that govern how specialist herbivores switch host plants upon introduction. Predicting the feeding ecology and impacts of introduced generalist species, however, remains difficult. Here, we examine how plant geographic origin, an indicator of shared co-evolutionary history, influences patterns of host use by a generalist, invasive herbivore, while accounting for variation in plant availability. The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, is a highly polyphagous Asian herbivore and an economically important invasive pest in North America and Europe. In visual surveys of 220 plant taxa in commercial nurseries in Maryland, USA, H. halys was more abundant on non-Asian plants and selected these over Asian plants. The relationship between the relative use of plants and their availability was strongly positive but depended also on plant origin at two of our three sites, where the higher relative use of non-Asian plants was greatest for highly abundant taxa. These results highlight the importance of considering both plant origin and relative abundance in understanding the selection of host plants by invasive generalist herbivores in diverse, natural and urban forests. PMID:27581756

  19. Invasive stink bug favors naïve plants: Testing the role of plant geographic origin in diverse, managed environments.

    PubMed

    Martinson, Holly M; Bergmann, Erik J; Venugopal, P Dilip; Riley, Christopher B; Shrewsbury, Paula M; Raupp, Michael J

    2016-09-01

    With the introduction and establishment of exotic species, most ecosystems now contain both native and exotic plants and herbivores. Recent research identifies several factors that govern how specialist herbivores switch host plants upon introduction. Predicting the feeding ecology and impacts of introduced generalist species, however, remains difficult. Here, we examine how plant geographic origin, an indicator of shared co-evolutionary history, influences patterns of host use by a generalist, invasive herbivore, while accounting for variation in plant availability. The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, is a highly polyphagous Asian herbivore and an economically important invasive pest in North America and Europe. In visual surveys of 220 plant taxa in commercial nurseries in Maryland, USA, H. halys was more abundant on non-Asian plants and selected these over Asian plants. The relationship between the relative use of plants and their availability was strongly positive but depended also on plant origin at two of our three sites, where the higher relative use of non-Asian plants was greatest for highly abundant taxa. These results highlight the importance of considering both plant origin and relative abundance in understanding the selection of host plants by invasive generalist herbivores in diverse, natural and urban forests.

  20. Botanical studies in the vicinity of Cumberland Steam Plant: results of surveys conducted in 1978 and a review of surveys conducted in previous years. [Trees, shrubs, weeds, grasses

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.R.; Cunningham, J.R.

    1980-04-01

    No foliar effects attributable to SO/sub 2/ emissions from Cumberland Steam Plant were observed in 1978. Foliar injury was observed on vegetation during only one of the five growing seasons that surveys have been conducted in the Cumberland area. In 1974, effects were observed on one weed species, giant ragweed, in one 50-acre area. During the 1978 growing season, the sulfur content of coal fired was the lowest since the plant became operational (3.5 vs 3.7 to 3.8 percent); however, average daily SO/sub 2/ emissions were the highest since the plant became operational (due to the steam plant's operational level). After the steam plant is in compliance, December 1982, the SO/sub 2/ emission rate will be almost one-third less than during the 1978 growing season. The level of the National Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standard (3-h avg of 0.50 ppM) has never been exceeded at any SO/sub 2/ monitor in the Cumberland area during daylight hours of a growing season (time period when most vegetation is sensitive to SO/sub 2/ exposure). Previous operational and SO/sub 2/ monitoring data, botanical survey results, and projected SO/sub 2/ emission rates indicate that it is unlikely that emissions from the steam plant will injure vegetation as long as the emission rate does not exceed the interim or final compliance level.

  1. Exotic Superconductivity in Correlated Electron Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mu, Gang; Sandu, Viorel; Li, Wei; Shen, Bing

    2015-05-25

    Over the past decades, the search for high-Tc superconductivity (SC) and its novel superconducting mechanisms is one of the most challenging tasks of condensed matter physicists and material scientists, wherein the most striking achievement is the discovery of high-c and unconventional superconductivity in strongly correlated 3d-electron systems, such as cuprates and iron pnictides/chalcogenides. Those exotic superconductors display the behaviors beyond the scope of the BCS theory (in the SC states) and the Landau-Fermi liquid theory (in the normal states). In general, such exotic superconductivity can be seen as correlated electron systems, where there are strong interplays among charge, spin, orbital, and lattice degrees of freedom. Thus, we focus on the exotic superconductivity in materials with correlated electrons in the present special issue.

  2. Wildlife, Exotic Pets, and Emerging Zoonoses1

    PubMed Central

    Belotto, Albino; Meslin, François-Xavier

    2007-01-01

    Most emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic; wildlife constitutes a large and often unknown reservoir. Wildlife can also be a source for reemergence of previously controlled zoonoses. Although the discovery of such zoonoses is often related to better diagnostic tools, the leading causes of their emergence are human behavior and modifications to natural habitats (expansion of human populations and their encroachment on wildlife habitat), changes in agricultural practices, and globalization of trade. However, other factors include wildlife trade and translocation, live animal and bushmeat markets, consumption of exotic foods, development of ecotourism, access to petting zoos, and ownership of exotic pets. To reduce risk for emerging zoonoses, the public should be educated about the risks associated with wildlife, bushmeat, and exotic pet trades; and proper surveillance systems should be implemented. PMID:17370509

  3. Exotic Superconductivity in Correlated Electron Systems

    DOE PAGES

    Mu, Gang; Sandu, Viorel; Li, Wei; Shen, Bing

    2015-05-25

    Over the past decades, the search for high-Tc superconductivity (SC) and its novel superconducting mechanisms is one of the most challenging tasks of condensed matter physicists and material scientists, wherein the most striking achievement is the discovery of high-c and unconventional superconductivity in strongly correlated 3d-electron systems, such as cuprates and iron pnictides/chalcogenides. Those exotic superconductors display the behaviors beyond the scope of the BCS theory (in the SC states) and the Landau-Fermi liquid theory (in the normal states). In general, such exotic superconductivity can be seen as correlated electron systems, where there are strong interplays among charge, spin, orbital,more » and lattice degrees of freedom. Thus, we focus on the exotic superconductivity in materials with correlated electrons in the present special issue.« less

  4. Issues and opportunities in exotic hadrons

    DOE PAGES

    Briceno, Raul A.; Cohen, Thomas D.; Coito, S.; Dudek, Jozef J.; Eichten, E.; Fischer, C. S.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Jackura, A.; Kornicer, M.; et al

    2016-04-01

    The last few years have been witness to a proliferation of new results concerning heavy exotic hadrons. Experimentally, many new signals have been discovered that could be pointing towards the existence of tetraquarks, pentaquarks, and other exotic configurations of quarks and gluons. Theoretically, advances in lattice field theory techniques place us at the cusp of understanding complex coupled-channel phenomena, modelling grows more sophisticated, and effective field theories are being applied to an ever greater range of situations. Consequently, it is thus an opportune time to evaluate the status of the field. In the following, a series of high priority experimentalmore » and theoretical issues concerning heavy exotic hadrons is presented.« less

  5. Dynamical effects in fusion with exotic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo-Phuoc, K.; Simenel, C.; Simpson, E. C.

    2016-08-01

    Background: Reactions with stable beams have demonstrated strong interplay between nuclear structure and fusion. Exotic beam facilities open new perspectives to understand the impact of neutron skin, large isospin, and weak binding energies on fusion. Microscopic theories of fusion are required to guide future experiments. Purpose: To investigate new effects of exotic structures and dynamics in near-barrier fusion with exotic nuclei. Method: Microscopic approaches based on the Hartree-Fock (HF) mean-field theory are used for studying fusion barriers in -54Ca40+116Sn reactions for even isotopes. Bare potential barriers are obtained assuming frozen HF ground-state densities. Dynamical effects on the barrier are accounted for in time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) calculations of the collisions. Vibrational couplings are studied in the coupled-channel framework and near-barrier nucleon transfer is investigated with TDHF calculations. Results: The development of a neutron skin in exotic calcium isotopes strongly lowers the bare potential barrier. However, this static effect is not apparent when dynamical effects are included. On the contrary, a fusion hindrance is observed in TDHF calculations with the most neutron-rich calcium isotopes which cannot be explained by vibrational couplings. Transfer reactions are also important in these systems due to charge equilibration processes. Conclusions: Despite its impact on the bare potential, the neutron skin is not seen as playing an important role in the fusion dynamics. However, the charge transfer with exotic projectiles could lead to an increase of the Coulomb repulsion between the fragments, suppressing fusion. The effects of transfer and dissipative mechanisms on fusion with exotic nuclei deserve further studies.

  6. Database Survey of Anti-Inflammatory Plants in South America: A Review

    PubMed Central

    de Morais Lima, Gedson Rodrigues; de Albuquerque Montenegro, Camila; de Almeida, Cynthia Layse Ferreira; de Athayde-Filho, Petrônio Filgueiras; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Batista, Leônia Maria

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation is a complex event linked to tissue damage whether by bacteria, physical trauma, chemical, heat or any other phenomenon. This physiological response is coordinated largely by a variety of chemical mediators that are released from the epithelium, the immunocytes and nerves of the lamina propria. However, if the factor that triggers the inflammation persists, the inflammation can become relentless, leading to an intensification of the lesion. The present work is a literature survey of plant extracts from the South American continent that have been reported to show anti-inflammatory activity. This review refers to 63 bacterial families of which the following stood out: Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Apocynaceae and Celastraceae, with their countries, parts used, types of extract used, model bioassays, organisms tested and their activity. PMID:21731467

  7. Exotic nuclei with open heavy flavor mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Yasui, Shigehiro; Sudoh, Kazutaka

    2009-08-01

    We propose stable exotic nuclei bound with D and B mesons with respect to heavy quark symmetry. We indicate that an approximate degeneracy of D(B) and D*(B*) mesons plays an important role, and discuss the stability of DN and BN bound states. We find the binding energies 1.4 MeV and 9.4 MeV for each state in the J{sup P}=1/2{sup -} with the I=0 channel. We discuss also possible existence of exotic nuclei DNN and BNN.

  8. Advances in exotic mammal clinical therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Michelle G

    2015-05-01

    It is important that veterinarians treating exotic companion mammals stay abreast of the latest developments relating to medications and drug delivery approaches for safety, efficacy and welfare issues. Sustained release formulations of commonly used drugs as well as newer routes for administration of therapeutic agents allow the veterinarian treating exotic companion mammals to reduce the stress associated with drug administration. Interactions can occur between vehicle and drugs when formulations are compounded, therefore research studies are warranted regarding potential problems associated with these formulations. PMID:25902274

  9. Exotic States of Nuclear Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Umberto; Baldo, Marcello; Burgio, Fiorella; Schulze, Hans-Josef

    2008-02-01

    pt. A. Theory of nuclear matter EOS and symmetry energy. Constraining the nuclear equation of state from astrophysics and heavy ion reactions / C. Fuchs. In-medium hadronic interactions and the nuclear equation of state / F. Sammarruca. EOS and single-particle properties of isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter within the Brueckner theory / W. Zuo, U. Lombardo & H.-J. Schulze. Thermodynamics of correlated nuclear matter / A. Polls ... [et al.]. The validity of the LOCV formalism and neutron star properties / H. R. Moshfegh ... [et al.]. Ferromagnetic instabilities of neutron matter: microscopic versus phenomenological approaches / I. Vidaã. Sigma meson and nuclear matter saturation / A. B. Santra & U. Lombardo. Ramifications of the nuclear symmetry energy for neutron stars, nuclei and heavy-ion collisions / A. W. Steiner, B.-A. Li & M. Prakash. The symmetry energy in nuclei and nuclear matter / A. E. L. Dieperink. Probing the symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities / M. Di Toro et al. Investigation of low-density symmetry energy via nucleon and fragment observables / H. H. Wolter et al. Instability against cluster formation in nuclear and compact-star matter / C. Ducoin ... [et al.]. Microscopic optical potentials of nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus scattering / Z.-Y. Ma, J. Rong & Y.-Q. Ma -- pt. B. The neutron star crust: structure, formation and dynamics. Neutron star crust beyond the Wigner-Seitz approximation / N. Chamel. The inner crust of a neutron star within the Wigner-Seitz method with pairing: from drip point to the bottom / E. E. Saperstein, M. Baldo & S. V. Tolokonnikov. Nuclear superfluidity and thermal properties of neutron stars / N. Sandulescu. Collective excitations: from exotic nuclei to the crust of neutron stars / E. Khan, M. Grasso & J. Margueron. Monte Carlo simulation of the nuclear medium: fermi gases, nuclei and the role of Pauli potentials / M. A. Pérez-García. Low-density instabilities in relativistic hadronic models / C. Provid

  10. Survey of roadside alien plants in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park and adjacent residential areas 2001-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bio, Keali'i F.; Pratt, Linda W.; Jacobi, James D.

    2012-01-01

    The sides of all paved roads of Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO) were surveyed on foot in 2001 to 2005, and the roadside presence of 240 target invasive and potentially invasive alien plant species was recorded in mile-long increments. Buffer zones 5–10 miles (8–16 km) long along Highway 11 on either side of the Kīlauea and Kahuku Units of the park, as well as Wright Road that passed by the disjunct `Ōla`a Tract Unit, were included in the survey. Highway 11 is the primary road through the park and a major island thoroughfare. Three residential subdivisions adjacent to the park were similarly surveyed in 0.5–1 mile (0.8–1.6 km) intervals in 2003, and data were analyzed separately. Two roads to the east and northeast were also surveyed, but data from these disjunct areas were analyzed separately from park roads. In total, 174 of the target alien species were observed along HAVO roads and buffers, exclusive of residential areas, and the mean number of target aliens per mile surveyed was 20.6. Highway 11 and its buffer zones had the highest mean number of target alien plants per mile (26.7) of all park roads, and the Mauna Loa Strip Road had the lowest mean (11.7). Segments of Highway 11 adjacent to HAVO and Wright Road next to `Ōla`a Tract had mean numbers of target alien per mile (24–47) higher than those of any internal road. Alien plant frequencies were summarized for each road in HAVO. Fifteen new records of vascular plants for HAVO were observed and collected along park roads. An additional 28 alien plant species not known from HAVO were observed along the buffer segments of Highway 11 adjacent to the park. Within the adjacent residential subdivisions, 65 target alien plant species were sighted along roadsides. At least 15 potentially invasive species not currently found within HAVO were observed along residential roads, and several other species found there have been previously eliminated from the park or controlled to remnant populations

  11. A Survey of Phytoparasitic Nematodes on Cultivated and Non-Cultivated Plants in Northwestern Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, I. K. A.; Handoo, Z. A.; El-Sherbiny, A. A.

    2000-01-01

    Surveys were conducted in Alexandria, El-Behera, and Matrouh Governorates in northwestern Egypt during the 1994-1998 cropping seasons to study the occurrence, population density, host associations, and distribution of phytoparasitic nematodes associated with 35 major crops, grasses, and weeds. A total of 220 soil and root samples containing mixed populations of 26 genera and 38 species of phytoparasitic nematodes was analyzed; three known genera and 13 known species are reported for the first time in northwestern Egypt. Root-knot nematodes with 34 occurrences were the most frequently encountered group of nematodes, followed by spiral, stunt, ring, lesion, lance, and dagger nematodes with 19, 18, 15, 9, 8, and 7 occurrences, respectively. New species records are Boleodorus pakistanensis, Criconemella sphaerocephala, Discocriconemella sphaerocephaloides, Hemicriconemoides cocophilus, Hemicycliophora thienmanni, Hoplolaimus clarissimus, Irantylenchus clavidorus, Merlinius nanus, Paratylenchus projectus, Tylenchorhynchus ebriensis, Tylenchus afghanicus, T. exiguus, Xiphinema basilgoodeyi, and X. ensiculiferum. Survey results showed new host plant records for most of the identified nematode species in Egypt. PMID:19270998

  12. Exotic snakes are not always found in exotic places: how poison centres can assist emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Lubich, Carol; Krenzelok, Edward P

    2007-11-01

    Emergency departments throughout the USA may have some familiarity with the management of envenomation from indigenous snake species such as Crotalinae (rattlesnakes) and Micrurus (coral snakes). However, venomous species may include exotic reptiles whose bites pose substantial treatment challenges due to both a lack of experience and the difficulty in obtaining antivenoms. Two pet cobra envenomation incidents illustrate the challenges that face emergency departments, especially in urban settings, that are confronted with these exposures. It is important for emergency departments to be aware of the large underground presence of exotic venomous reptile pets and to utilise the expertise of regional poison centres that will also assist in the procurement of exotic antivenoms.

  13. Molecular and morphological characterisation of Pseudococcidae surveyed on crops and ornamental plants in Spain.

    PubMed

    Beltrà, A; Soto, A; Malausa, T

    2012-04-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are common invasive pests in Europe, causing major problems on crops and ornamental plants. However, very few data are available concerning the mealybug fauna of southern Europe. This lack of data and the difficulty of identifying mealybugs morphologically by traditional techniques currently limit the perspectives for efficient specific pest management. The aim of this study was to provide multi-criterion characterization of mealybugs surveyed in eastern Spain in order to facilitate their routine identification through DNA sequencing or the use of derived species-specific molecular tools. We characterised 33 mealybug populations infesting crops and ornamental plants in eastern Spain, using a combination of molecular and morphological techniques, including the sequencing of the universal barcode DNA region cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI). This characterisation has led to the identification of ten species and provides sequence data for three previously unsequenced species, contributing to the phylogenetic knowledge of the family Pseudococcidae. In addition, the intraspecific variations found in the populations of five mealybug species provide insight into their invasion history.

  14. Young and Exotic Stellar Zoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    constellation Ara (the Altar). It was discovered in 1961 from Australia by Swedish astronomer Bengt Westerlund, who later moved from there to become ESO Director in Chile (1970 - 74). This cluster is behind a huge interstellar cloud of gas and dust, which blocks most of its visible light. The dimming factor is more than 100,000 - and this is why it has taken so long to uncover the true nature of this particular cluster. In 2001, the team of astronomers identified more than a dozen extremely hot and peculiar massive stars in the cluster, so-called "Wolf-Rayet" stars. They have since studied Westerlund 1 extensively with various ESO telescopes. They used images from the Wide Field Imager (WFI) attached to the 2.2-m ESO/MPG as well as from the SUperb Seeing Imager 2 (SuSI2) camera on the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT). From these observations, they were able to identify about 200 cluster member stars. To establish the true nature of these stars, the astronomers then performed spectroscopic observations of about one quarter of them. For this, they used the Boller & Chivens spectrograph on the ESO 1.52-m telescope and the ESO Multi-Mode Instrument (EMMI) on the NTT. An Exotic Zoo These observations have revealed a large population of very bright and massive, quite extreme stars. Some would fill the solar system space within the orbit of Saturn (about 2,000 times larger than the Sun!), others are as bright as a million Suns. Westerlund 1 is obviously a fantastic stellar zoo, with a most exotic population and a true astronomical bonanza. All stars identified are evolved and very massive, spanning the full range of stellar oddities from Wolf-Rayet stars, OB supergiants, Yellow Hypergiants (nearly as bright as a million Suns) and Luminous Blue Variables (similar to the exceptional Eta Carinae object - see ESO PR 31/03). All stars so far analysed in Westerlund 1 weigh at least 30-40 times more than the Sun. Because such stars have a rather short life - astronomically speaking

  15. Exotic Gauge Bosons in the 331 Model

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, D.; Ravinez, O.; Diaz, H.; Reyes, J.

    2009-04-30

    We analize the bosonic sector of the 331 model which contains exotic leptons, quarks and bosons (E,J,U,V) in order to satisfy the weak gauge SU(3){sub L} invariance. We develop the Feynman rules of the entire kinetic bosonic sector which will let us to compute some of the Z(0)' decays modes.

  16. CMS supersymmetry and exotic Higgs results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yohay, R.; CMS Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    A selection of results covering searches for supersymmetric particles and exotic decays of the Higgs boson are presented. These results are based on 8 TeV proton-proton collision data collected by the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at the Large Hadron Collider.

  17. Phenology of cheatgrass and associated exotic weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), is an exotic, highly invasive annual grass that has dramatically changed the aspect and ecological functions of vast areas of formerly big sagebrush/bunchgrass and salt desert rangelands in the Intermountain west. Cheatgrass increases the chance of ignition, rate of spr...

  18. [Microbiological conservation medicine and exotic pets].

    PubMed

    Hassl, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    The keeping and the breeding of exotic pets in privacy is a hobby with increasing popularity in industrialised countries. The growing demand for animals usually imported from the tropics, the growing demand for unprofessionally bred feeder organisms, and the increasing number of cases of faulty caring behaviour lead to the creation of new infectiological niches in the interface between exotic pet--nurse--feed--vivarium. These niches are filled preferably by ubiquitous, facultative pathogenic, stress- and age-deduced opportunists with a broad host spectrum. On the one hand these extraordinary germ faunas, relating to their compositions, may generate broad relevance in human medicine, lead to bizarre clinical pictures in specific cases, and may contribute to a reduction of the mean span of life of exotic pets kept in human care. On the other hand the quantitative composition of the fauna may also be a direct measure of the degree of stress the pets are suffering in captivity. Thus, a professional designation of the germ fauna of an exotic pet may contribute to an optimisation of the captivity conditions. PMID:15683044

  19. A functional trait perspective on plant invasion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global environmental change affects exotic plant invasions, which profoundly impact native plant populations, communities and ecosystems. In this context, we review plant functional traits, including those that drive invader abundance (invasiveness), and impacts, as well as the integration of these...

  20. An Aerial Radiological survey of the Alvin W. Vogtle Nuclear Plant and surrounding area, Waynesboro, Georgia: Date of survey: August--September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    An Aerial Radiological Survey was conducted during the period of August 24 to September 14, 1988 over an area of approximately 310 square kilometers (120 square miles) surrounding the Alvin W. Vogtle Nuclear Plant. The Vogtle Nuclear Plant is located near Augusta, Georgia, along the Savannah River and adjacent to the Savannah River Site (SRS). Several anomalous areas were identified in the portion of the survey extending into the SRS perimeter. The dominant isotopes found in these areas were cesium-137 and cobalt-60. All of these man-made anomalies identified by the aerial measurements were attributed to SRS processing. For the remainder of the survey area, the inferred radiation exposure rates generally varied from 6 to 10 microroentgens per hour ({mu}R/h), which was found to be due to naturally occurring uranium, thorium, and radioactive potassium gamma emitters. The reported exposure rate values included an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.6 {mu}R/h. Soils samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at three locations within the survey boundaries to support the aerial data. The exposure rate values obtained from these groundbased measurements were in agreement with the corresponding inferred aerial values. 6 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the Siwai and Buin districts of the Autonomous Region of Bougainville

    PubMed Central

    Waruruai, Julie; Sipana, Beuluah; Koch, Michael; Barrows, Louis R.; Matainaho, Teatulohi K.; Rai, Prem P

    2011-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Traditional knowledge of medicinal plant use in many regions of Papua New Guinea and the Autonomous Region of Bougainville is poorly described and rapidly disappearing. A program initiated by the University of Papua New Guinea to systematically document and preserve traditional knowledge of medicinal plant use was initiated with WHO help in 2001. Aim of the study To document and compare medicinal plant use in the Siwai and Buin Districts of the Island of Bougainville. Siwai and Buin districts represent two adjacent geographic regions of differing language traditions. Materials and methods This report is a combination of two University of Papua New Guinea reports generated using a University of Papua New Guinea and Papua New Guinea Department of Health approved survey questionnaire “Information sheet on traditional herbal reparations and medicinal plants of Papua New Guinea”. Results Although Siwai and Buin Districts are adjacent in Southern Bougainville, there is considerable variation in the specific plants used medicinally and the specific uses of those plants that are used commonly in the two regions. In addition, many of the plants used in the region are widely distributed species that are used medicinally in other settings. Nevertheless, the high endemicity of plants and the extraordinary cultural diversity in the Autonomous Region of Bougainville has yielded description of the medicinal use of many plants that have not previously been reported in the wider scientific literature. Conclusions Efforts to document and preserve traditional knowledge of plant use in Papua New Guinea have yielded important new records of plants with potential application in the provision of health care for a developing nation with an under developed Western style rural health care system. This report documents substantial commonality in the general modes of medicinal plant preparation and in the health care applications of plant use in the Siwai

  2. Population survey of phytoseiid mites and spider mites on peach leaves and wild plants in Japanese peach orchard.

    PubMed

    Wari, David; Yamashita, Jun; Kataoka, Yoko; Kohara, Yoko; Hinomoto, Norihide; Kishimoto, Hidenari; Toyoshima, Shingo; Sonoda, Shoji

    2014-07-01

    A population survey of phytoseiid mites and spider mites was conducted on peach leaves and wild plants in Japanese peach orchards having different pesticide practices. The phytoseiid mite species composition on peach leaves and wild plants, as estimated using quantitative sequencing, changed during the survey period. Moreover, it varied among study sites. The phytoseiid mite species compositions were similar between peach leaves and some wild plants, such as Veronica persica, Paederia foetida, Persicaria longiseta, and Oxalis corniculata with larger quantities of phytoseiid mites, especially after mid-summer. A PCR-based method to detect the ribosomal ITS sequences of Tetranychus kanzawai and Panonychus mori from phytoseiid mites was developed. Results showed that Euseius sojaensis (specialized pollen feeder/generalist predator) uses both spider mites as prey in the field.

  3. The evolutionary reality of species and higher taxa in plants: a survey of post-modern opinion and evidence.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, Timothy G; Humphreys, Aelys M

    2015-07-01

    Species are normally considered to be the fundamental unit for understanding the evolution of biodiversity. Yet, in a survey of botanists in 1940, twice as many felt that plant genera were more natural units than plant species. Revisiting the survey, we found more people now regarded species as a more evolutionarily real unit, but a sizeable number still felt that genera were more evolutionarily real than species. Definitions of 'evolutionarily real' split into those based on shared evolutionary history and those based on shared evolutionary fate via ongoing evolutionary processes. We discuss recent work testing for shared evolutionary fate at the species and higher levels and present preliminary evidence for evolutionarily significant higher taxa in plants.

  4. Adverse Effects of Plant Food Supplements Self-Reported by Consumers in the PlantLIBRA Survey Involving Six European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Restani, Patrizia; Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Badea, Mihaela; Ceschi, Alessandro; Egan, Bernadette; Dima, Lorena; Lüde, Saskia; Maggi, Franco M.; Marculescu, Angela; Milà-Villarroel, Raimon; Raats, Monique M.; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Uusitalo, Liisa; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of food supplements containing botanicals is increasing in European markets. Although intended to maintain the health status, several cases of adverse effects to Plant Food Supplements (PFS) have been described. Objectives To describe the self-reported adverse effects collected during the European PlantLIBRA PFS Consumer Survey 2011–2012, with a critical evaluation of the plausibility of the symptomatology reported using data from the literature and from the PlantLIBRA Poisons Centers' survey. Subjects/Setting From the total sample of 2359 consumers involved in the consumers' survey, 82 subjects reported adverse effects due to a total of 87 PFS. Results Cases were self-reported, therefore causality was not classified on the basis of clinical evidence, but by using the frequency/strength of adverse effects described in scientific papers: 52 out of 87 cases were defined as possible (59.8%) and 4 as probable (4.6%). Considering the most frequently cited botanicals, eight cases were due to Valeriana officinalis (garden valerian); seven to Camellia sinensis (tea); six to Ginkgo biloba (Maidenhair tree) and Paullinia cupana (guarana). Most adverse events related to the gastrointestinal tract, nervous and cardiovascular systems. Conclusions Comparing the data from this study with those published in scientific papers and obtained by the PlantLIBRA Poisons Centers' survey, some important conclusions can be drawn: severe adverse effects to PFS are quite rare, although mild or moderate adverse symptoms can be present. Data reported in this paper can help health professionals (and in particular family doctors) to become aware of possible new problems associated with the increasing use of food supplements containing botanicals. PMID:26928206

  5. Hunting, Exotic Carnivores, and Habitat Loss: Anthropogenic Effects on a Native Carnivore Community, Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Zach J.; Golden, Christopher D.; Karpanty, Sarah; Murphy, Asia; Stauffer, Dean; Ratelolahy, Felix; Andrianjakarivelo, Vonjy; Holmes, Christopher M.; Kelly, Marcella J.

    2015-01-01

    The wide-ranging, cumulative, negative effects of anthropogenic disturbance, including habitat degradation, exotic species, and hunting, on native wildlife has been well documented across a range of habitats worldwide with carnivores potentially being the most vulnerable due to their more extinction prone characteristics. Investigating the effects of anthropogenic pressures on sympatric carnivores is needed to improve our ability to develop targeted, effective management plans for carnivore conservation worldwide. Utilizing photographic, line-transect, and habitat sampling, as well as landscape analyses and village-based bushmeat hunting surveys, we provide the first investigation of how multiple forms of habitat degradation (fragmentation, exotic carnivores, human encroachment, and hunting) affect carnivore occupancy across Madagascar’s largest protected area: the Masoala-Makira landscape. We found that as degradation increased, native carnivore occupancy and encounter rates decreased while exotic carnivore occupancy and encounter rates increased. Feral cats (Felis species) and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) had higher occupancy than half of the native carnivore species across Madagascar’s largest protected landscape. Bird and small mammal encounter rates were negatively associated with exotic carnivore occupancy, but positively associated with the occupancy of four native carnivore species. Spotted fanaloka (Fossa fossana) occupancy was constrained by the presence of exotic feral cats and exotic small Indian civet (Viverricula indica). Hunting was intense across the four study sites where hunting was studied, with the highest rates for the small Indian civet (x¯ = 90 individuals consumed/year), the ring-tailed vontsira (Galidia elegans) (x¯ = 58 consumed/year), and the fosa (Cryptoprocta ferox) (x¯ = 31 consumed/year). Our modeling results suggest hunters target intact forest where carnivore occupancy, abundance, and species richness, are

  6. Rare Earth Metal Silicides and exotic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriske, Richard

    2009-11-01

    The use of Rare Earth Metal Silicides has been seen in thermal detection since World War II. What results can be expected when Rare Earths are used with certain isotopes? More to the point can exotic isotopes of Rare Earths be made from what is known more recently about Hadrons and their construction? What if anything can be gained from manipulating isotopes with a more recent theory than that known around World War II?

  7. RIB Production at LNL: the EXOTIC Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, Mazzocco

    2016-04-01

    Nuclear reactions involving radioactive isotopes are extremely relevant in several astrophysical scenarios, from the Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis to Supernovae explosions. In this contribution the production of Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) by means of the in-flight technique is reviewed. In particular, the use of direct reactions in inverse kinematics for the production of light weakly-bound RIBs by means of the facility EXOTIC at INFN-LNL (Italy) will be described in detail.

  8. Exotic Rotational Correlations in Quantum Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, Craig

    2015-09-26

    It is argued by extrapolation of general relativity and quantum mechanics that a classical inertial frame corresponds to a statistically defined observable that rotationally fluctuates due to Planck scale indeterminacy. Physical effects of exotic nonlocal rotational correlations on large scale field states are estimated. Their entanglement with the strong interaction vacuum is estimated to produce a universal, statistical centrifugal acceleration that resembles the observed cosmological constant.

  9. An ethnobotanical survey of plants used to manage HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Katima Mulilo, Caprivi region, Namibia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Katima Mulilo has the highest burden of HIV/AIDS in Namibia. Due to several constraints of the antiretroviral therapy programme, HIV-infected persons still use ethnomedicines to manage AIDS-related opportunistic infections. Despite the reliance on plants to manage HIV/AIDS in Katima Mulilo, there have been no empirical studies to document the specific plant species used by traditional healers to treat AIDS-related opportunistic infections. In this study, an ethnobotanical survey was conducted to record the various plant families, species, and plant parts used to manage different HIV/AIDS-related opportunistic infections in Katima Mulilo, Caprivi region, Namibia. The results showed that a total of 71 plant species from 28 families, mostly the Combretaceae (14%), Anacardiaceae (8%), Mimosaceae (8%), and Ebanaceae (7%), were used to treat conditions such as herpes zoster, diarrhoea, coughing, malaria, meningitis, and tuberculosis. The most plant parts used were leaves (33%), bark (32%), and roots (28%) while the least used plant parts were fruits/seeds (4%). Further research is needed to isolate the plants' active chemical compounds and understand their modes of action. PMID:20831821

  10. Infectious threats from exotic pets: dermatological implications.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Ted; Jablon, Jennifer

    2003-04-01

    Zoonoses are diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans. More than 250 distinct zoonoses have been described in the literature. It is estimated that 56% of United States households contain at least one pet, and although considerable research has been performed regarding the more common household animals including dogs, cats, small birds, and rodents, surprisingly little is known about the zoonotic hazards of owning the more exotic pets. According to the 1997 USPHS/IDSA Report on the Prevention of Opportunistic Infections in Persons Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus, the immunocompromised patient should avoid contact with feces-laden soil, litter boxes, reptiles, most pet birds, and any animal less than 6 months old . It has also been documented that because of their inquisitive nature, children are at even higher risk for infection from animals than adolescents or immunocompetent adults. In this article the authors have reviewed the available data regarding hazards associated with the hedgehog, flying squirrel, iguana, chinchilla, and cockatoo. With the growing popularity of such exotic pets, further observation and research is warranted. Physicians need to be aware of the possibility of zoonotic disease related to exotic pet ownership, and they should address this issue when obtaining a history and formulating a differential diagnosis of cutaneous lesions suggestive of such illnesses. PMID:12757244

  11. Exotic Forms of Silicon for Energy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, P. Craig

    2015-03-01

    Over the last few decades many exotic forms of carbon, such as carbon-60, carbon nanotubes, and graphene, have generated novel scientific discoveries and revolutionized many important applications. Similar potentially transformative breakthroughs may be expected with exotic forms of silicon. Such structures include, but are not necessarily limited to, (1) those formed under high pressure that are metastable at ambient pressure, (2) single layers of Si (silicene), (2) clathrate Si, which has been studied for superconducting and thermoelectric properties but not in any detail for semiconductor applications, (3) nanostructured forms of Si (nanodots and nanowires), including those composed of diamond Si, (4) porous Si, and (5) any other structures that differ in their structural, optical or electronic properties from bulk diamond Si. Silicon is an abundant, non-toxic element around which an advanced technology exists for semiconducting devices based on diamond Si. One of these exotic forms of Si could form the basis for the next revolution in electronics or even opto-electronics, since some forms exhibit direct, or nearly direct, band gaps. Recent results toward producing pure and dopable semiconductors out of Si nanodots imbedded in amorphous matrices and in clathrate Si and clathrate Si-Ge alloys will be discussed. The author acknowledges important collaborations with R. T. Collins, C. A. Koh, L. Krishna, M. Lusk, and P. Stradins. DOE SUNSHOT program, under Contract DE-EE0005326 and by the NSF MRSEC program under Grant DMR-0820518.

  12. Human salmonellosis associated with exotic pets.

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, D L; Khakhria, R; Johnson, W M

    1997-01-01

    During the period from 1994 to 1996, an increase in the number of laboratory-confirmed cases of human salmonellosis associated with exposure to exotic pets including iguanas, pet turtles, sugar gliders, and hedgehogs was observed in Canada. Pet turtle-associated salmonellosis was recognized as a serious public health problem in the 1960s and 1970s, and in February 1975 legislation banning the importation of turtles into Canada was enacted by Agriculture Canada. Reptile-associated salmonellosis is once again being recognized as a resurgent disease. From 1993 to 1995, there were more than 20,000 laboratory-confirmed human cases of salmonellosis in Canada. The major source of Salmonella infection is food; however, an estimated 3 to 5% of all cases of salmonellosis in humans are associated with exposure to exotic pets. Among the isolates from these patients with salmonellosis, a variety of Salmonella serotypes were also associated with exotic pets and included the following: S. java, S. stanley, S. poona, S. jangwani, S. tilene, S. litchfield, S. manhattan, S. pomona, S. miami, S. rubislaw, S. marina subsp. IV, and S. wassenaar subsp. IV. PMID:9350734

  13. Consequences of exotic host use: impacts on Lepidoptera and a test of the ecological trap hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Su'ad; Read, Quentin

    2016-08-01

    Investigating the effects of invasive species on native biodiversity is one of the most pressing challenges in ecology. Our goal in this study was to quantify the effects of invasive plants on butterfly and moth communities. In addition, we sought to elucidate the fitness consequences of non-native hosts on lepidopterans. We conducted a meta-analysis on a total of 76 studies which provided data on larval performance, survival, oviposition preference, abundance, and species richness of Lepidoptera on native and exotic plants. Overwhelmingly, we found that performance and survival were reduced for larvae developing on exotic hosts, relative to native hosts. At the community level, alien plant invasion was associated with a reduction in the overall abundance and richness of lepidopteran communities. We found that lepidopterans did not show strong oviposition preference for native hosts. This result suggests that many invasive plant species may decrease lepidopteran abundance by providing a target for oviposition where larvae have a relatively poor chance of survival. Among studies that tested both survival and preference on exotic hosts, 37.5 % found evidence for novel hosts that could function as ecological traps (the figure was 18 % when considering studies that only assayed larval performance). Thus, although the majority of novel hosts included in our analyses are not likely to act as ecological traps, the potential clearly exists for this effect, and the role of ecological traps should be considered along with other aspects of global change impacting natural communities. PMID:26820566

  14. A century of ecosystem change: human and seabird impacts on plant species extirpation and invasion on islands

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Joseph R.; Blight, Louise K.; Giesen, Marissa; Janssen, Michael H.; Schaminée, Joop J.H.J.; Arcese, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We used 116 years of floral and faunal records from Mandarte Island, British Columbia, Canada, to estimate the indirect effects of humans on plant communities via their effects on the population size of a surface-nesting, colonial seabird, the Glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens). Comparing current to historical records revealed 18 extirpations of native plant species (32% of species historically present), 31 exotic species introductions, and one case of exotic introduction followed by extirpation. Contemporary surveys indicated that native species cover declined dramatically from 1986 to 2006, coincident with the extirpation of ‘old-growth’ conifers. Because vegetation change co-occurred with an increasing gull population locally and regionally, we tested several predictions from the hypothesis that the presence and activities of seabirds help to explain those changes. Specifically, we predicted that on Mandarte and nearby islands with gull colonies, we should observe higher nutrient loading and exotic plant species richness and cover than on nearby islands without gull colonies, as a consequence of competitive dominance in species adapted to high soil nitrogen and trampling. As predicted, we found that native plant species cover and richness were lower, and exotic species cover and richness higher, on islands with versus without gull colonies. In addition, we found that soil carbon and nitrogen on islands with nesting gulls were positively related to soil depth and exotic species richness and cover across plots and islands. Our results support earlier suggestions that nesting seabirds can drive rapid change in insular plant communities by increasing nutrients and disturbing vegetation, and that human activities that affect seabird abundance may therefore indirectly affect plant community composition on islands with seabird colonies. PMID:27547531

  15. A century of ecosystem change: human and seabird impacts on plant species extirpation and invasion on islands.

    PubMed

    Lameris, Thomas K; Bennett, Joseph R; Blight, Louise K; Giesen, Marissa; Janssen, Michael H; Schaminée, Joop J H J; Arcese, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We used 116 years of floral and faunal records from Mandarte Island, British Columbia, Canada, to estimate the indirect effects of humans on plant communities via their effects on the population size of a surface-nesting, colonial seabird, the Glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens). Comparing current to historical records revealed 18 extirpations of native plant species (32% of species historically present), 31 exotic species introductions, and one case of exotic introduction followed by extirpation. Contemporary surveys indicated that native species cover declined dramatically from 1986 to 2006, coincident with the extirpation of 'old-growth' conifers. Because vegetation change co-occurred with an increasing gull population locally and regionally, we tested several predictions from the hypothesis that the presence and activities of seabirds help to explain those changes. Specifically, we predicted that on Mandarte and nearby islands with gull colonies, we should observe higher nutrient loading and exotic plant species richness and cover than on nearby islands without gull colonies, as a consequence of competitive dominance in species adapted to high soil nitrogen and trampling. As predicted, we found that native plant species cover and richness were lower, and exotic species cover and richness higher, on islands with versus without gull colonies. In addition, we found that soil carbon and nitrogen on islands with nesting gulls were positively related to soil depth and exotic species richness and cover across plots and islands. Our results support earlier suggestions that nesting seabirds can drive rapid change in insular plant communities by increasing nutrients and disturbing vegetation, and that human activities that affect seabird abundance may therefore indirectly affect plant community composition on islands with seabird colonies. PMID:27547531

  16. A century of ecosystem change: human and seabird impacts on plant species extirpation and invasion on islands.

    PubMed

    Lameris, Thomas K; Bennett, Joseph R; Blight, Louise K; Giesen, Marissa; Janssen, Michael H; Schaminée, Joop J H J; Arcese, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We used 116 years of floral and faunal records from Mandarte Island, British Columbia, Canada, to estimate the indirect effects of humans on plant communities via their effects on the population size of a surface-nesting, colonial seabird, the Glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens). Comparing current to historical records revealed 18 extirpations of native plant species (32% of species historically present), 31 exotic species introductions, and one case of exotic introduction followed by extirpation. Contemporary surveys indicated that native species cover declined dramatically from 1986 to 2006, coincident with the extirpation of 'old-growth' conifers. Because vegetation change co-occurred with an increasing gull population locally and regionally, we tested several predictions from the hypothesis that the presence and activities of seabirds help to explain those changes. Specifically, we predicted that on Mandarte and nearby islands with gull colonies, we should observe higher nutrient loading and exotic plant species richness and cover than on nearby islands without gull colonies, as a consequence of competitive dominance in species adapted to high soil nitrogen and trampling. As predicted, we found that native plant species cover and richness were lower, and exotic species cover and richness higher, on islands with versus without gull colonies. In addition, we found that soil carbon and nitrogen on islands with nesting gulls were positively related to soil depth and exotic species richness and cover across plots and islands. Our results support earlier suggestions that nesting seabirds can drive rapid change in insular plant communities by increasing nutrients and disturbing vegetation, and that human activities that affect seabird abundance may therefore indirectly affect plant community composition on islands with seabird colonies.

  17. Educational Plant Survey. The University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences on Campus--Alachua County. April 4-5, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    This report presents the results of a systematic study and evaluation of the existing educational plants of the University of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS), along with a determination of future plant needs. Section 1 contains an introduction to the educational plant survey, including statutory foundations, procedural…

  18. Survey of Medicinal Plants Used to Treat Malaria by Sidama People of Boricha District, Sidama Zone, South Region of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Asnake, Solomon; Teklehaymanot, Tilahun; Hymete, Ariaya; Erko, Berhanu; Giday, Mirutse

    2016-01-01

    In Ethiopia, malaria control has been complicated due to resistance of the parasite to the current drugs. Thus, new drugs are required against drug-resistant Plasmodium strains. Historically, many of the present antimalarial drugs were discovered from plants. This study was, therefore, conducted to document antimalarial plants utilized by Sidama people of Boricha District, Sidama Zone, South Region of Ethiopia. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out from September 2011 to February 2012. Data were collected through semistructured interview and field and market observations. Relative frequency of citation (RFC) was calculated and preference ranking exercises were conducted to estimate the importance of the reported medicinal plants in Boricha District. A total of 42 antimalarial plants belonging to 27 families were recorded in the study area. Leaf was the dominant plant part (59.0%) used in the preparation of remedies and oral (97.4%) was the major route of administration. Ajuga integrifolia scored the highest RFC value (0.80). The results of this study revealed the existence of rich knowledge on the use of medicinal plants in the study area to treat malaria. Thus, an attempt should be made to conserve and evaluate the claimed antimalarial medicinal plants with priority given to those that scored the highest RFC values. PMID:26989429

  19. Insect repellent plants traditional usage practices in the Ethiopian malaria epidemic-prone setting: an ethnobotanical survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The usage of insect repellent plants (IRPs) is one of the centuries-old practices in Africa. In Ethiopia, malaria remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, subsequently the majority of people have a tendency to apply various plants as repellents to reduce or interrupt the biting activity of insects. Accordingly, this survey was undertaken to document and evaluate knowledge and usage practices of the local inhabitants on IRPs in the malaria epidemic-prone setting of Ethiopia. Methods Ethnobotanical survey was conducted between January and May 2013. Selected 309 household members were interviewed by administering pre-tested questionnaire on knowledge and usage practices of repellent plants, in Bechobore Kebele, Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. Results Overall, 70.2% (217/309) and 91.8% (199/217) of the respondents have had ample awareness and usage practices of repellent plants, respectively. Informants cited about twenty-two plant species as repellents and also indicated that these plants are useful(85.5%), accessible(86.8%), and affordable(83.9%) too. Residents mainly applying dried leaves [93.9% (187/199)] by means of burning/smouldering [98.9% (197/199)] with the traditional charcoal stove to repel insects, primarily mosquitoes. About 52.8% (105/199) of the informants using aproximately15g of dried plant-materials every day. A Chi-square analysis shows statistically a significant link between the knowledge on repellent plants and gender as well as average monthly income although not with the age of the respondents. Nevertheless, the repellent plant usage custom was not significantly associated with gender, monthly income, and age of the informants. Conclusion Though most of the people have had an adequate awareness still a sizable faction of society suffers with deprivation of IRPs knowledge and usage practices. Therefore, this study calls for more surveys to conserve the existing indigenous knowledge and cultural practices. It could lay the first stone

  20. Aerial Survey Results for 131I Deposition on the Ground after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Torii, Tatsuo; Sugita, Takeshi; Okada, Colin E.; Reed, Michael S.; Blumenthal, Daniel J.

    2013-08-01

    In March 2011 the second largest accidental release of radioactivity in history occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant following a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent tsunami. Teams from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Emergency Response performed aerial surveys to provide initial maps of the dispersal of radioactive material in Japan. The initial results from the surveys did not report the concentration of 131I. This work reports on analyses performed on the initial survey data by a joint Japan-US collaboration to determine 131I ground concentration. This information is potentially useful in reconstruction of the inhalation and external exposure doses from this short-lived radionuclide. The deposited concentration of 134Cs is also reported.

  1. Wetland Survey of Selected Areas in the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Area of Responsibilty, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Rosensteel

    1997-01-01

    This document was prepared to summarize wetland surveys performed in the Y- 1 2 Plant area of responsibility in June and July 1994. Wetland surveys were conducted in three areas within the Oak Ridge Y- 12 Plant area of responsibility in June and July 1994: the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Operable Unit (OU), part of the Bear Creek Valley OU (the upper watershed of Bear Creek from the culvert under Bear Creek Road upstream through the Y-12 West End Environmental Management Area, and the catchment of Bear Creek North Tributary 1), and part of Chestnut Ridge OU 2 (the McCoy Branch area south of Bethel Valley Road). Using the criteria and methods set forth in the Wetlands Delineation Manual, 18 wetland areas were identified in the 3 areas surveyed; these areas were classified according to the system developed by Cowardin. Fourteen wetlands and one wetland/pond area that are associated with disturbed or remnant stream channels and seeps were identified in the UEFPC OU. Three wetlands were identified in the Bear Creek Valley OU portion of the survey area. One wetland was identified in the riparian zone of McCoy Branch in the southern portion of Chestnut Ridge OU 2.

  2. Survey and conceptual flow sheets for coal conversion plant handling-preparation and ash/slag removal operations

    SciTech Connect

    Zapp, F.C.; Thomas, O.W.; Silverman, M.D.; Dyslin, D.A.; Holmes, J.M.

    1980-03-01

    This study was undertaken at the request of the Fossil Fuel Processing Division of the Department of Energy. The report includes a compilation of conceptual flow sheets, including major equipment lists, and the results of an availability survey of potential suppliers of equipment associated with the coal and ash/slag operations that will be required by future large coal conversion plant complexes. Conversion plant flow sheet operations and related equipment requirements were based on two representative bituminous coals - Pittsburgh and Kentucky No. 9 - and on nine coal conversion processes. It appears that almost all coal handling and preparation and ash/slag removal equipment covered by this survey, with the exception of some coal comminution equipment, either is on hand or can readily be fabricated to meet coal conversion plant capacity requirements of up to 50,000 short tons per day. Equipment capable of handling even larger capacities can be developed. This approach appears to be unjustified, however, because in many cases a reasonable or optimum number of trains of equipment must be considered when designing a conversion plant complex. The actual number of trains of equipment selected will be influenced by the total requied capacity of the complex, the minimum on-line capacity that can be tolerated in case of equipment failure, reliability of specific equipment types, and the number of reactors and related feed injection stations needed for the specific conversion process.

  3. Discovering uncolored naturalness in exotic Higgs decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtin, David; Verhaaren, Christopher B.

    2015-12-01

    Solutions to the hierarchy problem usually require top partners. In standard SUSY or composite Higgs theories, the partners carry SM color and are becoming increasingly constrained by LHC searches. However, theories like Folded SUSY (FS), Twin Higgs (TH) and Quirky Little Higgs (QLH) introduce uncolored top partners, which can be SM singlets or carry electroweak charge. Their small production cross section left doubt as to whether the LHC can effectively probe such scenarios. Typically, these partners are charged under their own mirror color gauge group. In FS and QLH, the absence of light mirror matter allows glueballs to form at the bottom of the mirror spectrum. This is also the case in some TH realizations. The Higgs can decay to these mirror glueballs, with the glueballs decaying into SM particles with potentially observable lifetimes. We undertake the first detailed study of this glueball signature and quantitatively demonstrate the discovery potential of uncolored naturalness via exotic Higgs decays at the LHC and a potential future 100TeV collider. Our findings indicate that mirror glueballs are the smoking gun signature of natural FS and QLH type theories, in analogy to tree-level Higgs coupling shifts for the TH. We show that glueball masses in the ˜ 10-60 GeV mass range are theoretically preferred. Careful treatment of lifetime, mirror-hadronization and non-perturbative uncertainties is required to perform meaningful collider studies. We outline several new search strategies for exotic Higgs decays of the form h → XX → 4 f at the LHC, with X having lifetimes in the 10 μm to km range. We find that FS stops can be probed with masses up to 600 (1100) GeV at the LHC with 300 (3000) fb-1 of data, and TH top partners could be accessible with masses up to 900 (1500) GeV. This makes exotic Higgs decays the prime discovery channel for uncolored naturalness at the LHC.

  4. Exotic quarks in Twin Higgs models

    DOE PAGES

    Cheng, Hsin -Chia; Jung, Sunghoon; Salvioni, Ennio; Tsai, Yuhsin

    2016-03-14

    The Twin Higgs model provides a natural theory for the electroweak symmetry breaking without the need of new particles carrying the standard model gauge charges below a few TeV. In the low energy theory, the only probe comes from the mixing of the Higgs fields in the standard model and twin sectors. However, an ultraviolet completion is required below ~ 10 TeV to remove residual logarithmic divergences. In non-supersymmetric completions, new exotic fermions charged under both the standard model and twin gauge symmetries have to be present to accompany the top quark, thus providing a high energy probe of themore » model. Some of them carry standard model color, and may therefore be copiously produced at current or future hadron colliders. Once produced, these exotic quarks can decay into a top together with twin sector particles. If the twin sector particles escape the detection, we have the irreducible stop-like signals. On the other hand, some twin sector particles may decay back into the standard model particles with long lifetimes, giving spectacular displaced vertex signals in combination with the prompt top quarks. This happens in the Fraternal Twin Higgs scenario with typical parameters, and sometimes is even necessary for cosmological reasons. We study the potential displaced vertex signals from the decays of the twin bottomonia, twin glueballs, and twin leptons in the Fraternal Twin Higgs scenario. As a result, depending on the details of the twin sector, the exotic quarks may be probed up to ~ 2.5 TeV at the LHC and beyond 10 TeV at a future 100 TeV collider, providing a strong test of this class of ultraviolet completions.« less

  5. Global analysis of fermion mixing with exotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nardi, Enrico; Roulet, Esteban; Tommasini, Daniele

    1991-01-01

    The limits are analyzed on deviation of the lepton and quark weak-couplings from their standard model values in a general class of models where the known fermions are allowed to mix with new heavy particles with exotic SU(2) x U(1) quantum number assignments (left-handed singlets or right-handed doublets). These mixings appear in many extensions of the electroweak theory such as models with mirror fermions, E(sub 6) models, etc. The results update previous analyses and improve considerably the existing bounds.

  6. Exotic Magnetic Properties in {sup 17}C

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Toshio; Otsuka, Takaharu

    2008-12-15

    Magnetic dipole transitions in {sup 17}C are investigated by shell model calculations. The important role of the tensor interaction for magnetic dipole transitions in this exotic neutron-rich nucleus is pointed out. The recently observed anomalous quenching of the magnetic dipole transition in 1/2{sub 1}{sup +} {yields}3/2{sub g.s.}{sup +} is shown to be well explained by using a modified shell model Hamiltonian that takes full account of the tensor force and monopole corrections in the isospin T=1 channel. The predicted quadrupole moment of {sup 17}C is smaller than the value obtained by conventional shell model Hamiltonians.

  7. Overview of the Distribution, Habitat Association and Impact of Exotic Ants on Native Ant Communities in New Caledonia

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Maïa; Andersen, Alan N.; Hély, Christelle; Gaucherel, Cédric

    2013-01-01

    Ants are among the most ubiquitous and harmful invaders worldwide, but there are few regional studies of their relationships with habitat and native ant communities. New Caledonia has a unique and diverse ant fauna that is threatened by exotic ants, but broad-scale patterns of exotic and native ant community composition in relation to habitat remain poorly documented. We conducted a systematic baiting survey of 56 sites representing the main New Caledonian habitat types: rainforest on ultramafic soils (15 sites), rainforest on volcano-sedimentary soils (13), maquis shrubland (15), Melaleuca-dominated savannas (11) and Acacia spirorbis thickets (2). We collected a total of 49 species, 13 of which were exotic. Only five sites were free of exotic species, and these were all rainforest. The five most abundant exotic species differed in their habitat association, with Pheidole megacephala associated with rainforests, Brachymyrmex cf. obscurior with savanna, and Wasmannia auropunctata and Nylanderia vaga present in most habitats. Anoplolepis gracilipes occurred primarily in maquis-shrubland, which contrasts with its rainforest affinity elsewhere. Multivariate analysis of overall ant species composition showed strong differentiation of sites according to the distribution of exotic species, and these patterns were maintained at the genus and functional group levels. Native ant composition differed at invaded versus uninvaded rainforest sites, in the absence of differences in habitat variables. Generalised Myrmicinae and Forest Opportunists were particularly affected by invasion. There was a strong negative relationship between the abundance of W. auropunctata and native ant abundance and richness. This emphasizes that, in addition to dominating many ant communities numerically, some exotic species, and in particular W. auropunctata, have a marked impact on native ant communities. PMID:23840639

  8. Overview of the Distribution, Habitat Association and Impact of Exotic Ants on Native Ant Communities in New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Berman, Maïa; Andersen, Alan N; Hély, Christelle; Gaucherel, Cédric

    2013-01-01

    Ants are among the most ubiquitous and harmful invaders worldwide, but there are few regional studies of their relationships with habitat and native ant communities. New Caledonia has a unique and diverse ant fauna that is threatened by exotic ants, but broad-scale patterns of exotic and native ant community composition in relation to habitat remain poorly documented. We conducted a systematic baiting survey of 56 sites representing the main New Caledonian habitat types: rainforest on ultramafic soils (15 sites), rainforest on volcano-sedimentary soils (13), maquis shrubland (15), Melaleuca-dominated savannas (11) and Acacia spirorbis thickets (2). We collected a total of 49 species, 13 of which were exotic. Only five sites were free of exotic species, and these were all rainforest. The five most abundant exotic species differed in their habitat association, with Pheidole megacephala associated with rainforests, Brachymyrmex cf. obscurior with savanna, and Wasmannia auropunctata and Nylanderia vaga present in most habitats. Anoplolepis gracilipes occurred primarily in maquis-shrubland, which contrasts with its rainforest affinity elsewhere. Multivariate analysis of overall ant species composition showed strong differentiation of sites according to the distribution of exotic species, and these patterns were maintained at the genus and functional group levels. Native ant composition differed at invaded versus uninvaded rainforest sites, in the absence of differences in habitat variables. Generalised Myrmicinae and Forest Opportunists were particularly affected by invasion. There was a strong negative relationship between the abundance of W. auropunctata and native ant abundance and richness. This emphasizes that, in addition to dominating many ant communities numerically, some exotic species, and in particular W. auropunctata, have a marked impact on native ant communities.

  9. Rediscovering medicinal plants' potential with OMICS: microsatellite survey in expressed sequence tags of eleven traditional plants with potent antidiabetic properties.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Jagajjit; Sen, Priyabrata; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta; Dehury, Budheswar; Barooah, Madhumita; Modi, Mahendra Kumar; Talukdar, Anupam Das

    2014-05-01

    Herbal medicines and traditionally used medicinal plants present an untapped potential for novel molecular target discovery using systems science and OMICS biotechnology driven strategies. Since up to 40% of the world's poor people have no access to government health services, traditional and folk medicines are often the only therapeutics available to them. In this vein, North East (NE) India is recognized for its rich bioresources. As part of the Indo-Burma hotspot, it is regarded as an epicenter of biodiversity for several plants having myriad traditional uses, including medicinal use. However, the improvement of these valuable bioresources through molecular breeding strategies, for example, using genic microsatellites or Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) or Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs)-derived SSRs has not been fully utilized in large scale to date. In this study, we identified a total of 47,700 microsatellites from 109,609 ESTs of 11 medicinal plants (pineapple, papaya, noyontara, bitter orange, bermuda brass, ratalu, barbados nut, mango, mulberry, lotus, and guduchi) having proven antidiabetic properties. A total of 58,159 primer pairs were designed for the non-redundant 8060 SSR-positive ESTs and putative functions were assigned to 4483 unique contigs. Among the identified microsatellites, excluding mononucleotide repeats, di-/trinucleotides are predominant, among which repeat motifs of AG/CT and AAG/CTT were most abundant. Similarity search of SSR containing ESTs and antidiabetic gene sequences revealed 11 microsatellites linked to antidiabetic genes in five plants. GO term enrichment analysis revealed a total of 80 enriched GO terms widely distributed in 53 biological processes, 17 molecular functions, and 10 cellular components associated with the 11 markers. The present study therefore provides concrete insights into the frequency and distribution of SSRs in important medicinal resources. The microsatellite markers reported here markedly add to the genetic

  10. Rediscovering medicinal plants' potential with OMICS: microsatellite survey in expressed sequence tags of eleven traditional plants with potent antidiabetic properties.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Jagajjit; Sen, Priyabrata; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta; Dehury, Budheswar; Barooah, Madhumita; Modi, Mahendra Kumar; Talukdar, Anupam Das

    2014-05-01

    Herbal medicines and traditionally used medicinal plants present an untapped potential for novel molecular target discovery using systems science and OMICS biotechnology driven strategies. Since up to 40% of the world's poor people have no access to government health services, traditional and folk medicines are often the only therapeutics available to them. In this vein, North East (NE) India is recognized for its rich bioresources. As part of the Indo-Burma hotspot, it is regarded as an epicenter of biodiversity for several plants having myriad traditional uses, including medicinal use. However, the improvement of these valuable bioresources through molecular breeding strategies, for example, using genic microsatellites or Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) or Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs)-derived SSRs has not been fully utilized in large scale to date. In this study, we identified a total of 47,700 microsatellites from 109,609 ESTs of 11 medicinal plants (pineapple, papaya, noyontara, bitter orange, bermuda brass, ratalu, barbados nut, mango, mulberry, lotus, and guduchi) having proven antidiabetic properties. A total of 58,159 primer pairs were designed for the non-redundant 8060 SSR-positive ESTs and putative functions were assigned to 4483 unique contigs. Among the identified microsatellites, excluding mononucleotide repeats, di-/trinucleotides are predominant, among which repeat motifs of AG/CT and AAG/CTT were most abundant. Similarity search of SSR containing ESTs and antidiabetic gene sequences revealed 11 microsatellites linked to antidiabetic genes in five plants. GO term enrichment analysis revealed a total of 80 enriched GO terms widely distributed in 53 biological processes, 17 molecular functions, and 10 cellular components associated with the 11 markers. The present study therefore provides concrete insights into the frequency and distribution of SSRs in important medicinal resources. The microsatellite markers reported here markedly add to the genetic

  11. Monitoring two native Spodoptera species using an exotic pheromone lure developed for an exotic species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pheromone lure for the exotic species Spodoptera exempta was successful at attracting two native species, S. latifascia and S. albula. Trapping was conducted in north-central Florida and in southern Texas. Large numbers of both native species were collected throughout the season....

  12. Locations and monitoring well completion logs of wells surveyed by U.S. Geological Survey at Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station, Joint Reserve Base, Carswell Field, Fort Worth area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, M.D.; Kuniansky, E.L.

    1996-01-01

    Completion logs are presented for 16 monitoring wells installed by the U.S. Geological Survey at Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station, Joint Reserve Base, Carswell Field, in the Fort Worth area, Texas. Natural gamma-ray logs are presented for selected monitoring wells. Also included are survey data for eight wells installed by Geo-Marine, Inc.

  13. A survey of plants and plant products traditionally used in livestock health management in Buuri district, Meru County, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Up till now, nomadic communities in Africa have been the primary focus of ethnoveterinary research. Although mainly arable and/or mixed arable/pastoral farmers, Ameru of central Kenya are known to have a rich history of ethnoveterinary knowledge. Their collective and accumulative ethnoveterinary knowledge (EVK) is likely to be just as rich and worth documenting. The aim of the study was to document and analyse the ethnoveterinary knowledge of the Ameru. Methods Non-alienating, dialogic, participatory action research (PAR) and participatory rural appraisal (PRA) approaches involving 21 women and men aged between 50 and 79 years old were utilized. A combination of snowball and purposive sampling methods were used to select 21 key respondents. The methods comprised a set of triangulation approach needed in EVK for non-experimental validation of ethnoknowledge of the Ameru. Results A total of 48 plant species distributed in 26 families were documented with details of diseases/ill-health conditions, parts of plants used and form of preparation and administration methods applied to different animal groups. Of these families, Fabaceae had the highest number of species (16.67%), followed by Solanaceae (12.5%), Asteraceae and Euphorbiacea (each comprising 8.33%), Lamiaceae (6.25%), Apocynaceae and Boraginaceae (each comprising 4.17%), while the rest of the 19 families, each was represented by a single plant species. About 30 livestock diseases/ill-health conditions were described, each treated by at least one of the 48 plant species. Most prevalent diseases/ill-health conditions included: - anaplasmosis, diarrhea, East Coast fever, pneumonia, helminthiasis, general weakness and skin diseases involving wounds caused by ectoparasites. Conclusion The study showed that there was a rich knowledge and ethnopractices for traditional animal healthcare amongst the Ameru. This study therefore provides some groundwork for elucidating the efficacy of some of these plants

  14. Lattice QCD studies of pentaquarks and exotics

    SciTech Connect

    Ben Lasscock; John Hedditch; Waseem Kamleh; Derek Leinweber; Wolodymyr Melnitchouk; Anthony Thomas; Anthony Williams; Ross Young; James Zanotti

    2005-09-14

    The possible discovery of the {Theta}{sup +} pentaquark has motivated a number of studies into its nature using lattice QCD. Initial studies focused on spin-1/2 states and more recently also spin-3/2 states. Here we report the results of the first exploratory study in quenched lattice QCD of pentaquarks with both spin-1/2 and spin-3/2 using the FLIC fermion action. We do not find any evidence for the standard lattice resonance signature of attraction (i.e. binding at quark masses near the physical regime) in the spin-1/2 channels or in the J{sup P} = 3/2{sup -} channel. Some evidence of binding is inferred in the isoscalar 3/2{sup +} channel. We also present the results of our study into exotic meson states using hybrid meson interpolators with explicit gluonic degrees of freedom. We find a candidate for the J{sup PC} = 1{sup {-+}} exotic meson which has a mass consistent with the {pi}{sub 1}(1600) experimental candidate.

  15. Cascading effects of fire retardant on plant-microbe interactions, community composition, and invasion.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Abigail; Waller, Lauren; Lekberg, Ylva

    2016-06-01

    Climate change, historical fire suppression, and a rise in human movements in urban-forest boundaries have resulted in an increased use of long-term fire retardant (LTFR). While LTFR is an effective fire-fighting tool, it contains high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus, and little is known about how this nutrient pulse affects terrestrial ecosystems. We used field surveys and greenhouse experiments to quantify effects of LTFR on plant productivity, community composition, and plant interactions with the ubiquitous root symbiont arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). In the field, LTFR applications were associated with persistent shifts in plant communities toward exotic annuals with little or no dependency of AMF. Plants exposed to LTFR were less colonized by AMF, both in field surveys and in the greenhouse, and this was most likely due to the substantial and persistent increase in soil available phosphorus. All plants grew bigger with LTFR in the greenhouse, but the invasive annual cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) benefitted most. While LTFR can control fires, it may cause long-term changes in soil nutrient availabilities, disrupt plant interactions with beneficial soil microbes, and exasperate invasion by some exotic plants.

  16. Cascading effects of fire retardant on plant-microbe interactions, community composition, and invasion.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Abigail; Waller, Lauren; Lekberg, Ylva

    2016-06-01

    Climate change, historical fire suppression, and a rise in human movements in urban-forest boundaries have resulted in an increased use of long-term fire retardant (LTFR). While LTFR is an effective fire-fighting tool, it contains high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus, and little is known about how this nutrient pulse affects terrestrial ecosystems. We used field surveys and greenhouse experiments to quantify effects of LTFR on plant productivity, community composition, and plant interactions with the ubiquitous root symbiont arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). In the field, LTFR applications were associated with persistent shifts in plant communities toward exotic annuals with little or no dependency of AMF. Plants exposed to LTFR were less colonized by AMF, both in field surveys and in the greenhouse, and this was most likely due to the substantial and persistent increase in soil available phosphorus. All plants grew bigger with LTFR in the greenhouse, but the invasive annual cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) benefitted most. While LTFR can control fires, it may cause long-term changes in soil nutrient availabilities, disrupt plant interactions with beneficial soil microbes, and exasperate invasion by some exotic plants. PMID:27509743

  17. Pipeline Corridors through wetlands -- Impacts on plant communities: Mill Creek Tributary Crossing, Jefferson County, New York, 1992 Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dyke, G.D.; Shem, L.M.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to identify representative impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of the survey July 1992, at the Mills Creek tributary crossing, Jefferson County, New York. Data were collected from three wetland communities along the 1991 pipeline and compared with predisturbance data obtained in a June 1991 survey. Within one year after pipeline installation, 50% of the soil surface of the ROW in the scrub-shrub community was covered by emergent vegetation. Average wetland values for the ROW in 1992 were lower than in 1991, indicating that the removal of woody plants resulted in a community composed of species with greater fidelity to wetlands. In the emergent marsh community after one year, the average percentage of surface covered by standing water was greater in the ROW than in the adjacent natural areas. The ROW in the forested wetland community also contained standing water, although none was found in the natural forest areas. The entire study site remains a wetland, with the majority of plant species in all sites being either obligate or facultative wetland species. Weighted and unweighted average wetland indices for each community, using all species, indicated wetland vegetation within the newly established ROW.

  18. Repeated unidirectional introgression towards Populus balsamifera in contact zones of exotic and native poplars.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Stacey Lee; Lamothe, Manuel; Meirmans, Patrick G; Périnet, Pierre; Isabel, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    As the evolutionary significance of hybridization is largely dictated by its extent beyond the first generation, we broadly surveyed patterns of introgression across a sympatric zone of two native poplars (Populus balsamifera, Populus deltoides) in Quebec, Canada within which European exotic Populus nigra and its hybrids have been extensively planted since the 1800s. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that appeared fixed within each species were characterized by DNA-sequencing pools of pure individuals. Thirty-five of these diagnostic SNPs were employed in a high-throughput assay that genotyped 635 trees of different age classes, sampled from 15 sites with various degrees of anthropogenic disturbance. The degree of admixture within sampled trees was then assessed through Bayesian clustering of genotypes. Hybrids were present in seven of the populations, with 2.4% of all sampled trees showing spontaneous admixture. Sites with hybrids were significantly more disturbed than pure stands, while hybrids comprised both immature juveniles and trees of reproductive age. All three possible F1s were detected. Advanced-generation hybrids were consistently biased towards P. balsamifera regardless of whether hybridization had occurred with P. deltoides or P. nigra. Gene exchange between P. deltoides and P. nigra was not detected beyond the F1 generation; however, detection of a trihybrid demonstrates that even this apparent reproductive isolation does not necessarily result in an evolutionary dead end. Collectively, results demonstrate the natural fertility of hybrid poplars and suggest that introduced genes could potentially affect the genetic integrity of native trees, similar to that arising from introgression between natives.

  19. Biological surveys on the Savannah River in the vicinity of the Savannah River Plant (1951-1976)

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, R. A.

    1982-04-01

    In 1951, the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia was contracted by the Savannah River Plant to initiate a long-term monitoring program in the Savannah River. The purpose of this program was to determine the effect of the Savannah River Plant on the Savannah River aquatic ecosystem. The data from this monitoring program have been computerized by the Savannah River Laboratory, and are summarized in this report. During the period from 1951-1976, 16 major surveys were conducted by the Academy in the Savannah River. Water chemistry analyses were made, and all major biological communities were sampled qualitatively during the spring and fall of each survey year. In addition, quantitative diatom data have been collected quarterly since 1953. Major changes in the Savannah River basin, in the Savannah River Plant's activities, and in the Academy sampling patterns are discussed to provide a historical overview of the biomonitoring program. Appendices include a complete taxonomic listing of species collected from the Savannah River, and summaries of the entire biological and physicochemical data base.

  20. Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopic Survey of Northern Peruvian Plants: Baselines for Paleodietary and Paleoecological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Szpak, Paul; White, Christine D.; Longstaffe, Fred J.; Millaire, Jean-François; Vásquez Sánchez, Víctor F.

    2013-01-01

    The development of isotopic baselines for comparison with paleodietary data is crucial, but often overlooked. We review the factors affecting the carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopic compositions of plants, with a special focus on the carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of twelve different species of cultivated plants (n = 91) and 139 wild plant species collected in northern Peru. The cultivated plants were collected from nineteen local markets. The mean δ13C value for maize (grain) was −11.8±0.4 ‰ (n = 27). Leguminous cultigens (beans, Andean lupin) were characterized by significantly lower δ15N values and significantly higher %N than non-leguminous cultigens. Wild plants from thirteen sites were collected in the Moche River Valley area between sea level and ∼4,000 meters above sea level (masl). These sites were associated with mean annual precipitation ranging from 0 to 710 mm. Plants growing at low altitude sites receiving low amounts of precipitation were characterized by higher δ15N values than plants growing at higher altitudes and receiving higher amounts of precipitation, although this trend dissipated when altitude was >2,000 masl and MAP was >400 mm. For C3 plants, foliar δ13C was positively correlated with altitude and precipitation. This suggests that the influence of altitude may overshadow the influence of water availability on foliar δ13C values at this scale. PMID:23341996

  1. 78 FR 1879 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Indiana Bat Summer Survey Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ...--along with acoustic identification software testing criteria our 2013 contingency plan-- from local... or before February 8, 2013. ADDRESSES: Obtaining Documents: The draft survey guidelines, acoustic... for testing the accuracy and suitability of available acoustic identification software programs....

  2. A survey of PPR proteins identifies DYW domains like those of land plant RNA editing factors in diverse eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Schallenberg-Rüdinger, Mareike; Lenz, Henning; Polsakiewicz, Monika; Gott, Jonatha M; Knoop, Volker

    2013-01-01

    The pentatricopeptide repeat modules of PPR proteins are key to their sequence-specific binding to RNAs. Gene families encoding PPR proteins are greatly expanded in land plants where hundreds of them participate in RNA maturation, mainly in mitochondria and chloroplasts. Many plant PPR proteins contain additional carboxyterminal domains and have been identified as essential factors for specific events of C-to-U RNA editing, which is abundant in the two endosymbiotic plant organelles. Among those carboxyterminal domain additions to plant PPR proteins, the so-called DYW domain is particularly interesting given its similarity to cytidine deaminases. The frequency of organelle C-to-U RNA editing and the diversity of DYW-type PPR proteins correlate well in plants and both were recently identified outside of land plants, in the protist Naegleria gruberi. Here we present a systematic survey of PPR protein genes and report on the identification of additional DYW-type PPR proteins in the protists Acanthamoeba castellanii, Malawimonas jakobiformis, and Physarum polycephalum. Moreover, DYW domains were also found in basal branches of multi-cellular lineages outside of land plants, including the alga Nitella flexilis and the rotifers Adineta ricciae and Philodina roseola. Intriguingly, the well-characterized and curious patterns of mitochondrial RNA editing in the slime mold Physarum also include examples of C-to-U changes. Finally, we identify candidate sites for mitochondrial RNA editing in Malawimonas, further supporting a link between DYW-type PPR proteins and C-to-U editing, which may have remained hitherto unnoticed in additional eukaryote lineages.

  3. A survey of PPR proteins identifies DYW domains like those of land plant RNA editing factors in diverse eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Schallenberg-Rüdinger, Mareike; Lenz, Henning; Polsakiewicz, Monika; Gott, Jonatha M; Knoop, Volker

    2013-01-01

    The pentatricopeptide repeat modules of PPR proteins are key to their sequence-specific binding to RNAs. Gene families encoding PPR proteins are greatly expanded in land plants where hundreds of them participate in RNA maturation, mainly in mitochondria and chloroplasts. Many plant PPR proteins contain additional carboxyterminal domains and have been identified as essential factors for specific events of C-to-U RNA editing, which is abundant in the two endosymbiotic plant organelles. Among those carboxyterminal domain additions to plant PPR proteins, the so-called DYW domain is particularly interesting given its similarity to cytidine deaminases. The frequency of organelle C-to-U RNA editing and the diversity of DYW-type PPR proteins correlate well in plants and both were recently identified outside of land plants, in the protist Naegleria gruberi. Here we present a systematic survey of PPR protein genes and report on the identification of additional DYW-type PPR proteins in the protists Acanthamoeba castellanii, Malawimonas jakobiformis, and Physarum polycephalum. Moreover, DYW domains were also found in basal branches of multi-cellular lineages outside of land plants, including the alga Nitella flexilis and the rotifers Adineta ricciae and Philodina roseola. Intriguingly, the well-characterized and curious patterns of mitochondrial RNA editing in the slime mold Physarum also include examples of C-to-U changes. Finally, we identify candidate sites for mitochondrial RNA editing in Malawimonas, further supporting a link between DYW-type PPR proteins and C-to-U editing, which may have remained hitherto unnoticed in additional eukaryote lineages. PMID:23899506

  4. Resources for Teaching and Learning about Exotic Species. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyonyong; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    Exotic species are organisms transported by humans, wildlife, wind, and water into regions where they did not historically exist. This ERIC Digest describes available materials and resources for teaching and learning about these exotic species. Sixteen Internet sources are provided along with six videotape resources. The digest also provides…

  5. Application of laser technology to exotic veterinary practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clipsham, Robert C.

    1993-07-01

    Exotic veterinary practice has evolved in connection with the importation industry, development of zoological collections and rising private pet ownership to the point that laser technology is in demand. The specific needs of the many species presented for surgical care and the expectations of owners are examined in relationship to the currently understood diseases of exotic animals.

  6. Impact of an exotic N2-fixing Acacia on composition and N status of a native Mediterranean community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellmann, Christine; Sutter, Rabea; Rascher, Katherine G.; Máguas, Cristina; Correia, Otilia; Werner, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen fixing plant species are among the most invasive species worldwide. However, field studies directly estimating the differential effect of native versus invasive exotic N2-fixing plants on plant communities are lacking. The exotic leguminous shrub Acacia longifolia invades coastal dunes across Portugal often co-existing with the native N2-fixer Stauracanthus spectabilis. Moreover, this co-existence with native species is possible due to a relatively low cover of Acacia species particularly in the south of Portugal where drought is intense. In this study we compare the impact of two different legume species (native and exotic) on the nitrogen status of a protected Mediterranean dune system. We document how presence of the exotic invader A. longifolia impacted community structure, soil properties and the foliar nitrogen concentrations and growth rates of native species. A. longifolia invaded areas had decreased biodiversity, fewer seedlings and altered soil properties (e.g., increased soil organic matter, NO3- and NH4+). A. longifolia presence was also associated with significant increases in foliar nitrogen content and δ15N of the endemic shrub Corema album while presence of the native legume Stauracanthus spectabilis had no discernible impact on C. album. Furthermore, a strong correlation between increased foliar nitrogen and enhanced growth rates in C. album indicate a facilitative effect of A. longifolia on this native shrub. We posit that the combination of nitrogen fixation, a rapid growth rate and production of a thick litter layer result in a very substantial impact of the invader in invaded ecosystems.

  7. Differences in native soil ecology associated with invasion of the exotic annual chenopod, Halgeton glomeratus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duda, Jeffrey J.; Freeman, D. Carl; Emlen, John M.; Belnap, Jayne; Kitchen, Stanley G.; Zak, John C.; Sobek, Edward; Tracy, Mary; Montante, James

    2003-01-01

    Various biotic and abiotic components of soil ecology differed significantly across an area whereHalogeton glomeratus is invading a native winterfat, [ Krascheninnikovia (= Ceratoides) lanata] community. Nutrient levels were significantly different among the native, ecotone, and exotic-derived soils. NO3, P, K, and Na all increased as the cover of halogeton increased. Only Ca was highest in the winterfat area. A principal components analysis, conducted separately for water-soluble and exchangeable cations, revealed clear separation between halogeton- and winterfat-derived soils. The diversity of soil bacteria was highest in the exotic, intermediate in the ecotone, and lowest in the native community. Although further studies are necessary, our results offer evidence that invasion by halogeton alters soil chemistry and soil ecology, possibly creating conditions that favor halogeton over native plants.

  8. Role of the operator in nuclear power plants as determined from a survey of the North American nuclear community

    SciTech Connect

    Spelt, P.F.

    1993-03-01

    Results of an empirical survey, one of the first to deal with the Role of the Operator in nuclear power plants in North America, are presented. The survey showed that the theoretical match between operators` responsibility and control (written definition of ``role``) is not supported by the numerical evaluations of these two concepts. Across a dimension from existing to advanced reactors, there is increasingly a shift from hands-on manipulation and readout-by-readout information integration by the operators to a role in which the operator is a passive monitor whose primary task is to give permissives to the automated control system. There is a decreasing degree of control for operators, while responsibility remains high. Decreased control coupled with high responsibility may create shift operating staff problems.

  9. Role of the operator in nuclear power plants as determined from a survey of the North American nuclear community

    SciTech Connect

    Spelt, P.F.

    1993-01-01

    Results of an empirical survey, one of the first to deal with the Role of the Operator in nuclear power plants in North America, are presented. The survey showed that the theoretical match between operators' responsibility and control (written definition of role'') is not supported by the numerical evaluations of these two concepts. Across a dimension from existing to advanced reactors, there is increasingly a shift from hands-on manipulation and readout-by-readout information integration by the operators to a role in which the operator is a passive monitor whose primary task is to give permissives to the automated control system. There is a decreasing degree of control for operators, while responsibility remains high. Decreased control coupled with high responsibility may create shift operating staff problems.

  10. Surveying the potential of secreted antimicrobial peptides to enhance plant disease resistance

    PubMed Central

    Breen, Susan; Solomon, Peter S.; Bedon, Frank; Vincent, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are natural products found across diverse taxa as part of the innate immune system against pathogen attacks. Some AMPs are synthesized through the canonical gene expression machinery and are called ribosomal AMPs. Other AMPs are assembled by modular enzymes generating nonribosomal AMPs and harbor unusual structural diversity. Plants synthesize an array of AMPs, yet are still subject to many pathogen invasions. Crop breeding programs struggle to release new cultivars in which complete disease resistance is achieved, and usually such resistance becomes quickly overcome by the targeted pathogens which have a shorter generation time. AMPs could offer a solution by exploring not only plant-derived AMPs, related or unrelated to the crop of interest, but also non-plant AMPs produced by bacteria, fungi, oomycetes or animals. This review highlights some promising candidates within the plant kingdom and elsewhere, and offers some perspectives on how to identify and validate their bioactivities. Technological advances, particularly in mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), have been instrumental in identifying and elucidating the structure of novel AMPs, especially nonribosomal peptides which cannot be identified through genomics approaches. The majority of non-plant AMPs showing potential for plant disease immunity are often tested using in vitro assays. The greatest challenge remains the functional validation of candidate AMPs in plants through transgenic experiments, particularly introducing nonribosomal AMPs into crops. PMID:26579150

  11. Surveying the potential of secreted antimicrobial peptides to enhance plant disease resistance.

    PubMed

    Breen, Susan; Solomon, Peter S; Bedon, Frank; Vincent, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are natural products found across diverse taxa as part of the innate immune system against pathogen attacks. Some AMPs are synthesized through the canonical gene expression machinery and are called ribosomal AMPs. Other AMPs are assembled by modular enzymes generating nonribosomal AMPs and harbor unusual structural diversity. Plants synthesize an array of AMPs, yet are still subject to many pathogen invasions. Crop breeding programs struggle to release new cultivars in which complete disease resistance is achieved, and usually such resistance becomes quickly overcome by the targeted pathogens which have a shorter generation time. AMPs could offer a solution by exploring not only plant-derived AMPs, related or unrelated to the crop of interest, but also non-plant AMPs produced by bacteria, fungi, oomycetes or animals. This review highlights some promising candidates within the plant kingdom and elsewhere, and offers some perspectives on how to identify and validate their bioactivities. Technological advances, particularly in mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), have been instrumental in identifying and elucidating the structure of novel AMPs, especially nonribosomal peptides which cannot be identified through genomics approaches. The majority of non-plant AMPs showing potential for plant disease immunity are often tested using in vitro assays. The greatest challenge remains the functional validation of candidate AMPs in plants through transgenic experiments, particularly introducing nonribosomal AMPs into crops. PMID:26579150

  12. Native shrub reestablishment in exotic annual grasslands: do ecosystem processes recover?

    PubMed

    Yelenik, S G; Levine, J M

    2010-04-01

    The impacts of exotic plant species on ecosystem processes are well established, motivating numerous efforts to facilitate native-species recovery. Nonetheless, how the return of native species influences ecosystem processes and how these changes feed back to influence the recovery process are poorly understood. We examined these questions in exotic annual grasslands on Santa Cruz Island, California, USA, where the removal of nonnative herbivores has led to the recovery of the native shrubs Artemisia californica and Eriogonum arborescens. To examine the influence of shrub colonization on nutrient cycling, and the mechanisms by which these changes arise, we measured available nitrogen and phosphorus, and quantified nitrogen mineralization and litterfall rates under shrubs and grasses in the field and in experimental monoculture plots. Both native shrubs altered nitrogen cycling as they colonized the grassland, but they did so in opposite directions. Eriogonum depressed nitrogen pools and mineralization rates via large inputs of nitrogen-poor litter. In contrast Artemisia increased nitrogen and phosphorus pools and nitrogen mineralization rates. Last, to determine if shrub effects on soils favor shrubs or grasses, we conducted a nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization experiment in the field. Only the exotic grass was significantly limited by nitrogen. Thus the depressed nitrogen availability associated with Eriogonum colonization is more harmful to exotic grasses than to the native shrub. By contrast, the elevated nitrogen associated with recovering Artemisia favors grasses over the shrub, possibly hindering recovery of the native. Mechanistic studies of the ecosystem ,impacts of native-plant recovery are useful for managers wishing to predict which native species return ecosystem function, and whether such changes feed back to influence native recovery. PMID:20437958

  13. 9 CFR 352.13 - Handling and disposal of condemned or other inedible exotic animal products at official exotic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Handling and disposal of condemned or other inedible exotic animal products at official exotic animal establishments. 352.13 Section 352.13 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  14. 9 CFR 352.13 - Handling and disposal of condemned or other inedible exotic animal products at official exotic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Handling and disposal of condemned or other inedible exotic animal products at official exotic animal establishments. 352.13 Section 352.13 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  15. 9 CFR 352.13 - Handling and disposal of condemned or other inedible exotic animal products at official exotic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Handling and disposal of condemned or other inedible exotic animal products at official exotic animal establishments. 352.13 Section 352.13 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  16. Exotic resonances due to η exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karliner, Marek; Rosner, Jonathan L.

    2016-10-01

    The meson X (3872) and several related states appear to be in large part hadronic molecules in which a heavy flavored meson (e.g., D0) is bound to another heavy meson (e.g., D bar * 0). Although not the only contribution to the binding, pion exchange seems to play a crucial role in generating the longest-range force between constituents. Mesons without u and d light quarks (such as Ds) cannot exchange pions, but under suitable conditions can bind as a result of η exchange. Channels in which this mechanism is possible are identified, and suggestions are made for searches for the corresponding molecular states, including a manifestly exotic baryonic Λc Dbars * resonance decaying into J / ψ Λ.

  17. Probing Exotic Physics With Supernova Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Kelso, Chris; Hooper, Dan

    2010-09-01

    Future galactic supernovae will provide an extremely long baseline for studying the properties and interactions of neutrinos. In this paper, we discuss the possibility of using such an event to constrain (or discover) the effects of exotic physics in scenarios that are not currently constrained and are not accessible with reactor or solar neutrino experiments. In particular, we focus on the cases of neutrino decay and quantum decoherence. We calculate the expected signal from a core-collapse supernova in both current and future water Cerenkov, scintillating, and liquid argon detectors, and find that such observations will be capable of distinguishing between many of these scenarios. Additionally, future detectors will be capable of making strong, model-independent conclusions by examining events associated with a galactic supernova's neutronization burst.

  18. Exotic Photon Searches at CDF II

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eunsin; collaboration, for the CDF

    2009-10-01

    We present recent results of searches for exotic photons at CDF II. In the first signature-based search, we search for anomalous production of two photons with additional energetic objects. The results are consistent with the standard model expectations. In the second analysis, we present a signature-based search for anomalous production of events containing a photon, two jets, of which at least one is identified as originating from a b quark, and missing transverse energy. We find no indications of non-standard model phenomena. Finally, a search for a fermiophobic Higgs in the diphoton final state is presented. Since no evidence of a resonance in the diphoton mass spectrum is observed we exclude this Higgs boson with mass below 106 GeV/c{sup 2} at a 95% confidence level.

  19. Probing exotic physics with cosmic neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, Dan; /Fermilab

    2005-10-01

    Traditionally, collider experiments have been the primary tool used in searching for particle physics beyond the Standard Model. In this talk, I will discuss alternative approaches for exploring exotic physics scenarios using high energy and ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos. Such neutrinos can be used to study interactions at energies higher, and over baselines longer, than those accessible to colliders. In this way, neutrino astronomy can provide a window into fundamental physics which is highly complementary to collider techniques. I will discuss the role of neutrino astronomy in fundamental physics, considering the use of such techniques in studying several specific scenarios including low scale gravity models, Standard Model electroweak instanton induced interactions, decaying neutrinos and quantum decoherence.

  20. Invasion of an exotic forb impacts reproductive success and site fidelity of a migratory songbird.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Yvette Katina; McKelvey, Kevin Scot; Six, Diana Lee

    2006-08-01

    Although exotic plant invasions threaten natural systems worldwide, we know little about the specific ecological impacts of invaders, including the magnitude of effects and underlying mechanisms. Exotic plants are likely to impact higher trophic levels when they overrun native plant communities, affecting habitat quality for breeding songbirds by altering food availability and/or nest predation levels. We studied chipping sparrows (Spizella passerina) breeding in savannas that were either dominated by native vegetation or invaded by spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa), an exotic forb that substantially reduces diversity and abundance of native herbaceous plant species. Chipping sparrows primarily nest in trees but forage on the ground, consuming seeds and arthropods. We found that predation rates did not differ between nests at knapweed and native sites. However, initiation of first nests was delayed at knapweed versus native sites, an effect frequently associated with low food availability. Our seasonal fecundity model indicated that breeding delays could translate to diminished fecundity, including dramatic declines in the incidence of double brooding. Site fidelity of breeding adults was also substantially reduced in knapweed compared to native habitats, as measured by return rates and shifts in territory locations between years. Declines in reproductive success and site fidelity were greater for yearling versus older birds, and knapweed invasion appeared to exacerbate differences between age classes. In addition, grasshoppers, which represent an important prey resource, were substantially reduced in knapweed versus native habitats. Our results strongly suggest that knapweed invasion can impact chipping sparrow populations by reducing food availability. Food chain effects may be an important mechanism by which strong plant invaders impact songbirds and other consumers.

  1. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in Terai forest of western Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nepal Himalayas have been known as a rich source for valuable medicinal plants since Vedic periods. Present work is the documentation of indigenous knowledge on plant utilization as natural remedy by the inhabitants of terai forest in Western Nepal. Methods Study was conducted during 2010–2011 following standard ethnobotanical methods. Data about medicinal uses of plants were collected by questionnaire, personal interview and group discussion with pre identified informants. Voucher specimens were collected with the help of informants, processed into herbarium following standard methods, identified with the help of pertinent floras and taxonomic experts, and submitted in Department of Botany, Butwal Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Nepal for future references. Results During the present study 66 medicinal plant species belonging to 37 families and 60 genera has been documented. These plants were used to treat various diseases and ailments grouped under 11 disease categories, with the highest number of species (41) being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by dermatological disorders (34). In the study area the informants’ consensus about usages of medicinal plants ranges from 0.93 to 0.97 with an average value of 0.94. Herbs (53%) were the primary source of medicine, followed by trees (23%). Curcuma longa (84%) and Azadirachta indica (76%) are the most frequently and popularly used medicinal plant species in the study area. Acacia catechu, Bacopa monnieri, Bombax ceiba, Drymaria diandra, Rauvolfia serpentina, and Tribulus terrestris are threatened species which needs to be conserved for future use. Conclusions The high degree of consensus among the informants suggests that current use and knowledge are still strong, and thus the preservation of today's knowledge shows good foresight in acting before much has been lost. The connections between plant use and conservation are also important ones, especially as the authors note that

  2. Field Surveys of Rare Plants on Santa Cruz Island, California, 2003-2006: Historical Records and Current Distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEachern, A. Kathryn; Chess, Katherine A.; Niessen, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Santa Cruz Island is the largest of the northern Channel Islands located off the coast of California. It is owned and managed as a conservation reserve by The Nature Conservancy and the Channel Islands National Park. The island is home to nine plant taxa listed in 1997 as threatened or endangered under the federal Endangered Species Act, because of declines related to nearly 150 years of ranching on the island. Feral livestock were removed from the island as a major conservation step, which was part of a program completed in early 2007 with the eradication of pigs and turkeys. For the first time in more than a century, the rare plants of Santa Cruz Island have a chance to recover in the wild. This study provides survey information and living plant materials needed for recovery management of the listed taxa. We developed a database containing information about historical collections of the nine taxa and used it to plan a survey strategy. Our objectives were to relocate as many of the previously known populations as possible, with emphasis on documenting sites not visited in several decades, sites that were poorly documented in the historical record, and sites spanning the range of environmental conditions inhabited by the taxa. From 2003 through 2006, we searched for and found 39 populations of the taxa, indicating that nearly 80 percent of the populations known earlier in the 1900s still existed. Most populations are small and isolated, occupying native-dominated habitat patches in a highly fragmented and invaded landscape; they are still at risk of declining through population losses. Most are not expanding beyond the edges of their habitat patches. However, most taxa appeared to have good seed production and a range of size classes in populations, indicating a good capacity for plant recruitment and population growth in these restricted sites. For these taxa, seed collection and outplanting might be a good strategy to increase numbers of populations for species

  3. Medicinal plants used by tribal population of Coochbehar district, West Bengal, India-an ethnobotanical survey

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Tanmay; Patra, Amal Kumar; Dastidar, Santanu Ghosh

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore traditional ethnomedicinal knowledge of different tribes of Coochbehar district of West Bengal, India, and its present status. Methods With the help of standardized questionnaires, traditional healers and resource persons were interviewed on medicinal use of local flora in all the tribal villages of Coochbehar district during July, 2007 to December, 2009 and some of the places were revisited for this purpose again during July to December of 2012. Results A total of 46 plant species belonging to 42 genera and 27 families were reported to be used for treating 33 various physical ailments. In terms of the number of medicinal plant species, Fabaceae (5 species) and Euphorbiaceae (4 species) are dominant families. Among different plant parts used for the preparation of medicine, leaves were most frequently used for the treatment of diseases. Conclusions In all tribal villages we found the use of medicinal plants, particularly to treat common physical problems like smaller injuries, stomachache and abdominal disorder. However, non-availability of such plants in close vicinity is imposing restriction on using medicinal plants. Further research on these species may lead to the discovery of novel bioactive molecules in one hand and also it may open up a new horizon of sustainable development. PMID:25183132

  4. Survey and analysis of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) present in the genomes of plant viroids.

    PubMed

    Qin, Lü; Zhang, Zhixiang; Zhao, Xiangyan; Wu, Xiaolong; Chen, Yubao; Tan, Zhongyang; Li, Shifang

    2014-01-01

    Extensive simple sequence repeat (SSR) surveys have been performed for eukaryotic prokaryotic and viral genomes, but information regarding SSRs in viroids is limited. We undertook a survey to examine the presence of SSRs in viroid genomes. Our results show that the distribution of SSRs in viroids may influence secondary structure, and that SSRs could play a role in generating genetic diversity. We also discuss the potential evolutionary role of repeated sequences in the viroid genome. This is the first report of SSR loci in viroids, and our study could be helpful in understanding the structure and evolution of viroid genomes.

  5. Wastes from water-treatment plants: literature review, results of an Illinois survey, and effects of alum-sludge application to cropland

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, S.D.; Green, C.D.

    1987-11-01

    The objectives of the study were to update information on the characteristics and management of wastes from water-treatment plants and to assess the benefits and risks of alum-sludge application to cropland. The report has three major sections: a literature review; a summary of results of a survey of Illinois water-plant wastes; and a discussion of findings from a study of alum sludge for agricultural uses. The literature survey addresses characteristics and management of sludge. The literature review section discusses laws and regulations (PL 92-500, PL 94-580, PL 93-523) regarding waste disposal from water-treatment plants.

  6. Correlates of current transactional sex among a sample of female exotic dancers in Baltimore, MD.

    PubMed

    Reuben, Jacqueline; Serio-Chapman, Chris; Welsh, Christopher; Matens, Richard; Sherman, Susan G

    2011-04-01

    Transactional sex work, broadly defined as the exchange of money, drugs, or goods for sexual services, occurs in a wide range of environments. There is a large body of research characterizing the risks and harms associated with street- and venue-based sex work, but there is a dearth of research characterizing the risk associated with the environment of exotic dance clubs. The current study aimed to: (1) characterize the nature of female exotic dancers' sex- and drug-related risk behaviors, (2) to examine the role of the club environment in these behaviors, and (3) to examine correlates of currently exchanging sex. From June 2008 to February 2009, we conducted a cross-sectional study among women who were aged 18 years or older and reported exotic dancing within the past 3 months (n = 98). The survey ascertained socio-demographic characteristics, personal health, medical history, sexual practices, drug use, and employment at clubs on the block. Bivariate and multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance was used to identify correlates of current sex exchange. Participants were a median of 24 years old, and were 58% white; 43% had not completed high school. Seventy-four percent reported ever having been arrested. Twenty-six percent reported having injected heroin and 29% reported having smoked crack in the past 3 months. Fifty-seven percent reported using drugs in the club in the past 3 months. Sixty-one percent had ever engaged in transactional sex, and 67% of those did so for the first time after beginning to dance. Forty-three percent reported selling any sex in the club in the past 3 months. In multiple Poisson regression, factors associated with current sex exchange included: race, ever having been arrested, and using drugs in the club. High levels of both drug use and transactional sex among this sample of exotic dancers were reported. These findings indicate that there are a number of drug- and sex-related harms faced by exotic dancers in strip clubs

  7. Exotic interactions among C-jets and Pb-jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The C-jets and Pb-jets were surveyed on the part of Chacaltaya emulsion chamber No.19 amounting to an exposure of 28.8 sq m yr. It is shown that the adopted events make up an unbiased sample of C-jets for sigma sub E gamma TeV. Mini-Centauro interaction gives the most natural explanation for the eight pinaught-less C-jets with three or more constituent shower core. Out of the eight double-cored pinaught-less events, three are found to have visible invariant masses 1.8 GeV/c. Three Pb-jets-lower are composed of double cores whose respective visible transverse momenta are greater than 0.5 GeV/c, suggesting that they are of Geminion origin or chiron origin. The energies of the parent particles are estimated to be 100 to 200 TeV for all three kinds of events. The implications of this energy estimate and the frequency of observed exotic events are discussed.

  8. Ecosystem response to removal of exotic riparian shrubs and a transition to upland vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Lindsay V.; Cooper, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding plant community change over time is essential for managing important ecosystems such as riparian areas. This study analyzed historic vegetation using soil seed banks and the effects of riparian shrub removal treatments and channel incision on ecosystem and plant community dynamics in Canyon de Chelly National Monument, Arizona. We focused on how seeds, nutrients, and ground water influence the floristic composition of post-treatment vegetation and addressed three questions: (1) How does pre-treatment soil seed bank composition reflect post-treatment vegetation composition? (2) How does shrub removal affect post-treatment riparian vegetation composition, seed rain inputs, and ground water dynamics? and (3) Is available soil nitrogen increased near dead Russian olive plants following removal and does this influence post-treatment vegetation? We analyzed seed bank composition across the study area, analyzed differences in vegetation, ground water levels, and seed rain between control, cut-stump and whole-plant removal areas, and compared soil nitrogen and vegetation near removed Russian olive to areas lacking Russian olive. The soil seed bank contained more riparian plants, more native and fewer exotic plants than the extant vegetation. Both shrub removal methods decreased exotic plant cover, decreased tamarisk and Russian olive seed inputs, and increased native plant cover after 2 years. Neither method increased ground water levels. Soil near dead Russian olive trees indicated a short-term increase in soil nitrogen following plant removal but did not influence vegetation composition compared to areas without Russian olive. Following tamarisk and Russian olive removal, our study sites were colonized by upland plant species. Many western North American rivers have tamarisk and Russian olive on floodplains abandoned by channel incision, river regulation or both. Our results are widely applicable to sites where drying has occurred and vegetation

  9. Ethnobotanical survey of folklore plants used in treatment of snakebite in Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal

    PubMed Central

    Sarkhel, Sumana

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate and collect information from traditional health healers/tribal communities on the use of medicinal plants for treatment of snakebite. Methods The ethno-medicinal study was conducted in 8 villages of the Paschim Medinipur district of West Bengal in 2012-2013 through questionnaire and personal interviews. Following the method of Martin, information about medicinal plants used in snake bite, precise plant parts used, methods of treatment and administration was enquired from the tribal communities (Santhals, Mundas, Lodhas, Bhumijs, Oraon Kherias) of the region. Results The present study enumerates 20 ethnomedicinal plant species belonging to 16 families used by the tribal communities and medicinal healers of Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal in treatment of snakebite. Each plant species has been listed alphabetically according to its botanical name, family, vernacular name, part(s) used, mode of preparation/administration. Conclusions The importance of traditional medicinal system among the tribal communities of Paschim Medinipur district of West Bengal has been highlighted in the present study. PMID:25182729

  10. A survey of phytotoxic microbial and plant metabolites as potential natural products for pest management.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Kevin K; Andolfi, Anna; Cantrell, Charles L; Cimmino, Alessio; Duke, Stephen O; Osbrink, Weste; Wedge, David E; Evidente, Antonio

    2010-09-01

    Phytotoxic microbial metabolites produced by certain phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria, and a group of phytotoxic plant metabolites including Amaryllidacea alkaloids and some derivatives of these compounds were evaluated for algicide, bactericide, insecticide, fungicide, and herbicide activities in order to discover natural compounds for potential use in the management and control of several important agricultural and household structural pests. Among the various compounds evaluated: i) ophiobolin A was found to be the most promising for potential use as a selective algicide; ii) ungeremine was discovered to be bactericidal against certain species of fish pathogenic bacteria; iii) cycasin caused significant mortality in termites; iv) cavoxin, ophiobolin A, and sphaeropsidin A were most active towards species of plant pathogenic fungi; and v) lycorine and some of its analogues (1-O-acetyllycorine and lycorine chlorohydrate) were highly phytotoxic in the herbicide bioassay. Our results further demonstrated that plants and microbes can provide a diverse and natural source of compounds with potential use as pesticides.

  11. Initial success of native grasses is contingent on multiple interactions among exotic grass competition, temporal priority, rainfall and site effects

    PubMed Central

    Young, Truman P.; Zefferman, Emily P.; Vaughn, Kurt J.; Fick, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Ecological communities are increasingly being recognized as the products of contemporary drivers and historical legacies that are both biotic and abiotic. In an attempt to unravel multiple layers of ecological contingency, we manipulated (i) competition with exotic annual grasses, (ii) the timing of this competition (temporal priority in arrival/seeding times) and (iii) watering (simulated rainfall) in a restoration-style planting of native perennial grasses. In addition, we replicated this experiment simultaneously at three sites in north-central California. Native perennial grasses had 73–99 % less cover when planted with exotic annuals than when planted alone, but this reduction was greatly ameliorated by planting the natives 2 weeks prior to the exotics. In a drought year, irrigation significantly reduced benefits of early planting so that these benefits resembled those observed in a non-drought year. There were significant differences across the three sites (site effects and interactions) in (i) overall native cover, (ii) the response of natives to competition, (iii) the strength of the temporal priority effect and (iv) the degree to which supplemental watering reduced priority effects. These results reveal the strong multi-layered contingency that underlies even relatively simple communities. PMID:25480888

  12. Initial success of native grasses is contingent on multiple interactions among exotic grass competition, temporal priority, rainfall and site effects.

    PubMed

    Young, Truman P; Zefferman, Emily P; Vaughn, Kurt J; Fick, Stephen

    2014-12-05

    Ecological communities are increasingly being recognized as the products of contemporary drivers and historical legacies that are both biotic and abiotic. In an attempt to unravel multiple layers of ecological contingency, we manipulated (i) competition with exotic annual grasses, (ii) the timing of this competition (temporal priority in arrival/seeding times) and (iii) watering (simulated rainfall) in a restoration-style planting of native perennial grasses. In addition, we replicated this experiment simultaneously at three sites in north-central California. Native perennial grasses had 73-99 % less cover when planted with exotic annuals than when planted alone, but this reduction was greatly ameliorated by planting the natives 2 weeks prior to the exotics. In a drought year, irrigation significantly reduced benefits of early planting so that these benefits resembled those observed in a non-drought year. There were significant differences across the three sites (site effects and interactions) in (i) overall native cover, (ii) the response of natives to competition, (iii) the strength of the temporal priority effect and (iv) the degree to which supplemental watering reduced priority effects. These results reveal the strong multi-layered contingency that underlies even relatively simple communities.

  13. OXYGEN TRANSFER EFFICIENCY SURVEYS AT THE SOUTH SHORE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT - 1985-1987

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ceramic plate diffusers were among the earliest forms of fine pore diffusers used for oxygen transfer in activated sludge treatment. They have been successfully used for over 60 years in the Jones Island West Plant of the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District and, since initi...

  14. OXYGEN TRANSFER EFFICIENCY SURVEYS AT THE JONES ISLAND TREATMENT PLANTS - 1985-1988

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ceramic plate diffusers were among the earliest forms of fine pore diffusers used for oxygen transfer in activated sludge treatment. They have been successfully used for over 60 years in the Jones Island West Plant of the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District and, since initia...

  15. 78 FR 9409 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Indiana Bat Summer Survey Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Indiana Bat... bat (Myotis sodalis) for an additional 30 days. We announced availability of these documents in our...: Field Supervisor at the above U.S. mail address; Email: indiana_bat@fws.gov ; or Fax:...

  16. A Survey of Plant Iron Content—A Semi-Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ancuceanu, Robert; Dinu, Mihaela; Hovaneţ, Marilena Viorica; Anghel, Adriana Iuliana; Popescu, Carmen Violeta; Negreş, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Iron is an essential mineral nutrient for all living organisms, involved in a plurality of biological processes. Its deficit is the cause of the most common form of anemia in the world: iron deficiency anemia (IDA). This paper reviews iron content in various parts of 1228 plant species and its absorption from herbal products, based on data collected from the literature in a semi-systematic manner. Five hundred genera randomly selected from the Angiosperms group, 215 genera from the Pteridophytes groups and all 95 Gymnosperm genera as listed in the Plant List version 1.1 were used as keywords together with the word “iron” in computerized searches. Iron data about additional genera returned by those searches were extracted and included in the analysis. In total, iron content values for a number of 1228 species, 5 subspecies, and 5 varieties were collected. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to compare iron contents in various plant parts (whole plant, roots, stems, shoots, leaves, aerial parts, flowers, fruits, seeds, wood, bark, other parts) and exploratory analyses by taxonomic groups and life-forms were carried out. The absorption and potential relevance of herbal iron for iron supplementation are discussed. PMID:26690470

  17. 7 CFR 52.82 - Basis of survey and plant inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification Requirements for Plants to Be..., Packing, or Holding (21 CFR part 110)—as may be modified or augmented by the Federal Food and...

  18. A Survey of Plant Iron Content-A Semi-Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ancuceanu, Robert; Dinu, Mihaela; Hovaneţ, Marilena Viorica; Anghel, Adriana Iuliana; Popescu, Carmen Violeta; Negreş, Simona

    2015-12-01

    Iron is an essential mineral nutrient for all living organisms, involved in a plurality of biological processes. Its deficit is the cause of the most common form of anemia in the world: iron deficiency anemia (IDA). This paper reviews iron content in various parts of 1228 plant species and its absorption from herbal products, based on data collected from the literature in a semi-systematic manner. Five hundred genera randomly selected from the Angiosperms group, 215 genera from the Pteridophytes groups and all 95 Gymnosperm genera as listed in the Plant List version 1.1 were used as keywords together with the word "iron" in computerized searches. Iron data about additional genera returned by those searches were extracted and included in the analysis. In total, iron content values for a number of 1228 species, 5 subspecies, and 5 varieties were collected. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to compare iron contents in various plant parts (whole plant, roots, stems, shoots, leaves, aerial parts, flowers, fruits, seeds, wood, bark, other parts) and exploratory analyses by taxonomic groups and life-forms were carried out. The absorption and potential relevance of herbal iron for iron supplementation are discussed. PMID:26690470

  19. 7 CFR 52.82 - Basis of survey and plant inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification Requirements for Plants to Be..., Packing, or Holding (21 CFR Part 110)—as may be modified or augmented by the Federal Food and...

  20. A generic risk-based surveying method for invading plant pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive plant pathogens are increasing with international trade and travel with damaging environmental and economic consequences. Recent examples include tree diseases such as Sudden Oak Death in the Western US and Ash Dieback in Europe. To control an invading pathogen it is crucial that newly in...

  1. Ethnobotanical survey and antibacterial activity of some plants used in Guinean traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Magassouba, F B; Diallo, A; Kouyaté, M; Mara, F; Mara, O; Bangoura, O; Camara, A; Traoré, S; Diallo, A K; Zaoro, M; Lamah, K; Diallo, S; Camara, G; Traoré, S; Kéita, A; Camara, M K; Barry, R; Kéita, S; Oularé, K; Barry, M S; Donzo, M; Camara, K; Toté, K; Berghe, D Vanden; Totté, J; Pieters, L; Vlietinck, A J; Baldé, A M

    2007-10-01

    A total of 418 healers have been interviewed in Guinea, a coastal country of West Africa, ranging between 7 degrees 30 and 12 degrees 30 of northern latitude and 8 degrees and 15 degrees of western longitude. Plant species used by the local inhabitants to treat infectious diseases were identified using ethnobotanical, ethnographic and taxonomic methods. During these investigations, 218 plants were registered, of which the following were the most frequently used: Erythrina senegalensis, Bridelia ferruginea, Crossopteryx febrifuga, Ximenia americana, Annona senegalensis, Cochlospermum tinctorium, Cochlospermum planchonii, Lantana camara, Costus afer, Psidium guajava, Terminalia glaucescens, Uapaca somon and Swartzia madagascariensis. Most plants, and especially the leaves, were essentially used as a decoction. In order to assess antibacterial activity, 190 recipes were prepared and biologically tested, among which six showed activity (minimal inhibitory concentration<125 microg/ml) against Bacillus cereus, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Staphylococcus aureus, or Candida albicans, i.e., Entada africana, Chlorophora regia, Erythrina senegalensis, Harrisonia abyssinica, Uvaria tomentosa, and a mixture of six plants consisting of Swartzia madagascariensis, Isoberlinia doka, Annona senegalensis, Gardenia ternifolia, Terminalia glaucescens and Erythrina senegalensis. PMID:17825510

  2. Baseline survey of the anatomical microbial ecology of an important food plant: Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research to understand and control microbiological risks associated with the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables has examined many environments in the farm to fork continuum. An important data gap however, that remains poorly studied is the baseline description of microflora that may be associated with plant anatomy either endemically or in response to environmental pressures. Specific anatomical niches of plants may contribute to persistence of human pathogens in agricultural environments in ways we have yet to describe. Tomatoes have been implicated in outbreaks of Salmonella at least 17 times during the years spanning 1990 to 2010. Our research seeks to provide a baseline description of the tomato microbiome and possibly identify whether or not there is something distinctive about tomatoes or their growing ecology that contributes to persistence of Salmonella in this important food crop. Results DNA was recovered from washes of epiphytic surfaces of tomato anatomical organs; leaves, stems, roots, flowers and fruits of Solanum lycopersicum (BHN602), grown at a site in close proximity to commercial farms previously implicated in tomato-Salmonella outbreaks. DNA was amplified for targeted 16S and 18S rRNA genes and sheared for shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Amplicons and metagenomes were used to describe “native” bacterial microflora for diverse anatomical parts of Virginia-grown tomatoes. Conclusions Distinct groupings of microbial communities were associated with different tomato plant organs and a gradient of compositional similarity could be correlated to the distance of a given plant part from the soil. Unique bacterial phylotypes (at 95% identity) were associated with fruits and flowers of tomato plants. These include Microvirga, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas, Brachybacterium, Rhizobiales, Paracocccus, Chryseomonas and Microbacterium. The most frequently observed bacterial taxa across aerial plant regions were Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas

  3. Differentiating between effects of invasion and diversity: impacts of aboveground plant communities on belowground fungal communities.

    PubMed

    Kivlin, Stephanie N; Hawkes, Christine V

    2011-01-01

    Exotic plant species can affect soil microbial communities with the potential for community and ecosystem feedbacks. Yet, separating the effects of exotics from confounded changes in plant community diversity still remains a challenge. We focused on how plant diversity and native or exotic life history affected root fungi because of their significant roles in community and ecosystem processes. Specifically, we examined how fungi colonizing plant roots were affected by plant richness (one, two or four species) replicated across a range of plant community mixtures (natives, exotics, native-exotic mixtures). Fungal biomass inside roots was affected independently by plant richness and mixture, while root fungal community composition was affected only by plant richness. Extraradical networks also increased in size with plant richness. By contrast, plant biomass was a function of plant mixture, with natives consistently smaller than exotics and native-exotic mixtures intermediate. Plant invasions may have an impact on the belowground community primarily through their effects on diversity, at least in the short-term. Disentangling the effects of diversity and invasion on belowground microbial communities can help us to understand both the controllers of belowground resilience and mechanisms of successful colonization and spread of exotic plants.

  4. Water dispersal of vegetative bulbils of the invasive exotic Dioscorea oppositifolia L. in southern Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, J.R.; Gibson, D.J.; Middleton, B.A.

    2005-01-01

    Riparian corridors promote dispersal of several species of exotic invasives worldwide. Dispersal plays a role in the colonization of exotic invasive species into new areas and this study was conducted to determine if the invasiveness of Dioscorea oppositifolia L. (Chinese yam) is facilitated by secondary dispersal of vegetative diaspores (bulbils) by water. Since seed production of this plant has not been observed in the United States, bulbils represent the only means of dispersal to new habitats. Dispersal was monitored by placing aquatic traps, tethered bulbils, and painted bulbil caches in a tributary of Drury Creek, Giant City State Park, Illinois. Results indicate that high-energy flow in the creek accelerated secondary dispersal of bulbils downstream and onto the floodplain. The longest recorded dispersal distance was 206.2 m downstream. Dispersal distance of tethered bulbils was not related to rainfall or flow velocity in the creek; however the total number of bulbils trapped was positively related to flow velocity. We conclude that secondary dispersal by water in streams can facilitate dispersal of vegetative bulbils of this exotic species.

  5. Chemical and microbiological changes during vermicomposting of coffee pulp using exotic (Eudrilus eugeniae) and native earthworm (Perionyx ceylanesis) species.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Kurian; Velmourougane, K

    2011-06-01

    Coffee pulp is the main solid residue from the wet processing of coffee berries. Due to presence of anti-physiological and anti-nutritional factors, coffee pulp is not considered as adequate substrate for bioconversion process by coffee farmers. Recent stringent measures by Pollution Control authorities, made it mandatory to treat all the solid and liquid waste emanating from the coffee farms. A study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of an exotic (Eudrilus eugeniae) and a native earthworm (Perionyx ceylanesis) from coffee farm for decomposition of coffee pulp into valuable vermicompost. Exotic earthworms were found to degrade the coffee pulp faster (112 days) as compared to the native worms (165 days) and the vermicomposting efficiency (77.9%) and vermicompost yield (389 kg) were found to significantly higher with native worms. The multiplication rate of earthworms (280%) and worm yield (3.78 kg) recorded significantly higher with the exotic earthworms. The percentage of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium and magnesium in vermicompost was found to increase while C:N ratio, pH and total organic carbon declined as a function of the vermicomposting. The plant nutrients, nitrogen (80.6%), phosphorus (292%) and potassium (550%) content found to increase significantly in the vermicompost produced using native earthworms as compared to the initial values, while the calcium (85.7%) and magnesium (210%) content found to increase significantly in compost produced utilizing exotic worms. Vermicompost and vermicasts from native earthworms recorded significantly higher functional microbial group's population as compared to the exotic worms. The study reveals that coffee pulp can be very well used as substrate for vermicomposting using exotic (Eudrilus eugeniae) and native earthworm (Perionyx ceylanesis). PMID:20922463

  6. Chemical and microbiological changes during vermicomposting of coffee pulp using exotic (Eudrilus eugeniae) and native earthworm (Perionyx ceylanesis) species.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Kurian; Velmourougane, K

    2011-06-01

    Coffee pulp is the main solid residue from the wet processing of coffee berries. Due to presence of anti-physiological and anti-nutritional factors, coffee pulp is not considered as adequate substrate for bioconversion process by coffee farmers. Recent stringent measures by Pollution Control authorities, made it mandatory to treat all the solid and liquid waste emanating from the coffee farms. A study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of an exotic (Eudrilus eugeniae) and a native earthworm (Perionyx ceylanesis) from coffee farm for decomposition of coffee pulp into valuable vermicompost. Exotic earthworms were found to degrade the coffee pulp faster (112 days) as compared to the native worms (165 days) and the vermicomposting efficiency (77.9%) and vermicompost yield (389 kg) were found to significantly higher with native worms. The multiplication rate of earthworms (280%) and worm yield (3.78 kg) recorded significantly higher with the exotic earthworms. The percentage of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium and magnesium in vermicompost was found to increase while C:N ratio, pH and total organic carbon declined as a function of the vermicomposting. The plant nutrients, nitrogen (80.6%), phosphorus (292%) and potassium (550%) content found to increase significantly in the vermicompost produced using native earthworms as compared to the initial values, while the calcium (85.7%) and magnesium (210%) content found to increase significantly in compost produced utilizing exotic worms. Vermicompost and vermicasts from native earthworms recorded significantly higher functional microbial group's population as compared to the exotic worms. The study reveals that coffee pulp can be very well used as substrate for vermicomposting using exotic (Eudrilus eugeniae) and native earthworm (Perionyx ceylanesis).

  7. Issues and Opportunities in Exotic Hadrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceño, R. A.; Cohen, T. D.; Coito, S.; Dudek, J. J.; Eichten, E.; Fischer, C. S.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Jackura, A.; Kornicer, M.; Krein, G.; Lebed, R. F.; Machado, F. A.; Mitchell, R. E.; Morningstar, C. J.; Peardon, M.; Pennington, M. R.; Peters, K.; Richard, J. M.; Shen, C. P.; Shepherd, M. R.; Skwarnicki, T.; Swanson, E. S.; Szczepaniak, A. P.; Yuan, C. Z.

    2016-04-01

    The last few years have been witness to a proliferation of new results concerning heavy exotic hadrons. Experimentally, many new signals have been discovered that could be pointing towards the existence of tetraquarks, pentaquarks, and other exotic configurations of quarks and gluons. Theoretically, advances in lattice field theory techniques place us at the cusp of understanding complex coupled-channel phenomena, modelling grows more sophisticated, and effective field theories are being applied to an ever greater range of situations. It is thus an opportune time to evaluate the status of the field. In the following, a series of high priority experimental and theoretical issues concerning heavy exotic hadrons is presented. Supported by U.S. Department of Energy (Cohen); the Institute of Modern Physics and Chinese Academy of Sciences under contract Y104160YQ0 and agreement No. 2015-BH-02 (Coito); the U.S. Department of Energy, for grant DE-AC05-06OR23177, under which Jefferson Science Associates, LLC, manages and operates Jefferson Laboratory and DE-SC0006765, Early Career award (Dudek); Fermilab, operated by the Fermi Research Alliance under contract number DEAC02-07CH11359 with the U.S. Department of Energy (Eichten); BMBF, under contract No. 06GI7121, and the DAAD under contract No. 56889822 and by the Helmholtz International Center for FAIR within the LOEWE program of the State of Hesse (Fischer); the German Research Foundation DFG under contract number Collaborative Research Centre CRC-1044 (Gradl); the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - CNPq, Grant No. 305894/2009-9 and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo - FAPESP, Grant No. 2013/01907-0 (Krein); U.S. National Science Foundation, under grants PHY-1068286 and PHY-1403891 (Lebed); the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development under grant CNPq/CAPES-208188/2014-2 (Machado); U.S. Department of Energy under grant DE-FG02-05ER41374

  8. Ethnoveterinary medicines in four districts of Jimma zone, Ethiopia: cross sectional survey for plant species and mode of use

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditional medicines have been used for nearly 90% of livestock populations in Ethiopia where complimentary remedies are required to the modern health care system. All plants with pharmacological activity complimentarily prescribed as best choice against livestock diseases. A community based cross - sectional survey was conducted to investigate ethno-veterinary knowledge and practices of study area by purposive sampling techniques. The data from respondents were collected through face-to face interview using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaires, which was further accompanied by field observations of the medicinal plants. The vast majority of the statistics were analyzed descriptively by SPSS 16 Windows version to extrapolate our findings in ethno-botanical knowledge. Results In the study, a total of 74 species of ethnoveterinary medicinal plant species from 31 families have been identified for treating 22 different livestock ailments. The three families: Asteraceae, Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae make up larger proportion of reported medicinal plants which accounted for 10.41%, 8.33% and 6.25%, respectively. Of reported medicinal plants, 16.7% informant consensus was recorded for the species Croton macrostachyus Del., 10.7% for Nicotiana tabacum L. and 9.5% for Olea capensis L.Subsp. macrocarpa (C.H. Wright) I.Verd. in treatment of one or more veterinary ailments. The greater varieties of medicinal plant species that accounted for 28.2% were used against management of blackleg which was common livestock diseases in the study area. The findings showed, trees accounted for 43.24%, followed by shrubs (33.78%) and herbs (14.86%). Eighty one percent of medicinal plants reported by respondents were collected from wild habitats, and leaves reported to be used by 68% of the informants for ethnoveterinary medicines preparations. The preparations were applied through different routes of administration; oral administration accounted for (76.2%), followed by

  9. Comparison of genetic diversity between Canadian adapted genotypes and exotic germplasm of soybean.

    PubMed

    Iquira, Elmer; Gagnon, Eric; Belzile, François

    2010-05-01

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) was domesticated in China and the greatest genetic diversity for this species is found in Asia. In contrast, in North America, soybean cultivars trace back to a small number of plant introductions from Asia and genetic diversity is typically quite limited. The purpose of this work was to measure and compare the genetic diversity in two sets of soybean lines. The first set (termed "local") was composed of 100 lines used in a private breeding program in Quebec. The second set (termed "exotic") was composed of 200 lines from elsewhere in the world (but mostly from Asia) and included a few lines of Glycine soja, the wild progenitor of cultivated soybean. Almost all the genotypes belonged to maturity groups between 000 and II. A total of 39 microsatellites (SSRs) were used to genotype the two collections. The number of alleles per locus was almost twice as great in the exotic set compared with the local set. Also, the number of "unique" alleles, i.e., those uniquely present in one set and absent in the other, was almost fivefold greater (191 vs. 37) in a subset of 108 exotic lines with good adaptation than among the local set. A genetic distance matrix, a UPGMA cluster analysis, and a principal coordinate analysis were conducted based on the SSR data. These analyses all indicated that the exotic set was much more diverse and formed a clearly distinct group from the local set. Interestingly, some of the lines showing the best adaptation to local conditions were quite distinctive in terms of their genotype and could potentially contribute useful novel genetic variation within the breeding program. PMID:20616865

  10. A survey of repair practices for nuclear power plant containment metallic pressure boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Oland, C.B.; Naus, D.J.

    1998-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated a program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide assistance in their assessment of the effects of potential degradation on the structural integrity and leaktightness of metal containment vessels and steel liners of concrete containments in nuclear power plants. One of the program objectives is to identify repair practices for restoring metallic containment pressure boundary components that have been damaged or degraded in service. This report presents issues associated with inservice condition assessments and continued service evaluations and identifies the rules and requirements for the repair and replacement of nonconforming containment pressure boundary components by welding or metal removal. Discussion topics include base and welding materials, welding procedure and performance qualifications, inspection techniques, testing methods, acceptance criteria, and documentation requirements necessary for making acceptable repairs and replacements so that the plant can be returned to a safe operating condition.

  11. New plant records from the Hawaiian Archipelago: Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starr, Forest; Starr, Kim; Loope, Lloyd L.

    2010-01-01

    The following contributions include 19 new plant records for the islands of Kure Atoll (1), Midway Atoll (7), Lāna'i (9), Kaho'olawe (1), and Maui (1). The records are comprised of one new state record and 18 new island records. All but one of the records are nonnatives. Images of most of the material examined can be seen at . Voucher specimens are housed in the Bishop Museum's Herbarium Pacificum (BISH), Honolulu, Hawai'i.

  12. Ecosystem impacts of exotic annual invaders in the Genus Bromus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Germino, Matthew J.; Belnap, Jayne; Stark, John M.; Allen, Edith B.; Rau, Benjamin M.

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of the impacts of exotic plant species on ecosystems is necessary to justify and guide efforts to limit their spread, restore natives, and plan for conservation. Invasive annual grasses such as Bromus tectorum, B. rubens, B. hordeaceus, and B. diandrus (hereafter collectively referred to as Bromus) transform the structure and function of ecosystems they dominate. Experiments that prove cause-and-effect impacts of Bromus are rare, yet inferences can be gleaned from the combination of Bromus-ecosystem associations, ecosystem condition before/after invasion, and an understanding of underlying mechanisms. Bromus typically establishes in bare soil patches and can eventually replace perennials such as woody species or bunchgrasses, creating a homogeneous annual cover. Plant productivity and cover are less stable across seasons and years when Bromus dominates, due to a greater response to annual climate variability. Bromus’ “flash” of growth followed by senescence early in the growing season, combined with shallow rooting and annual habit, may lead to incomplete use of deep soil water, reduced C sequestration, and accelerated nutrient cycling. Litter produced by Bromus alters nearly all aspects of ecosystems and notably increases wildfire occurrence. Where Bromus has become dominant, it can decrease soil stability by rendering soils bare for months following fire or episodic, pathogen-induced stand failure. Bromus-invaded communities have lower species diversity, and associated species tend to be generalists adapted to unstable and variable habitats. Changes in litter, fire, and soil properties appear to feedback to reinforce Bromus’ dominance in a pattern that portends desertification.

  13. Ecological and geochemical impacts of exotic earthworm dispersal in forest ecosystems of Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouin, Melanie; Fugere, Martine; Lapointe, Line; Vellend, Mark; Bradley, Robert L.

    2016-04-01

    In Eastern Canada, native earthworm species did not survive the Wisconsin glaciation, which ended over 11,000 years ago. Accordingly, the 17 known Lumbricidae species in the province of Québec were introduced in recent centuries by European settlers. Given that natural migration rates are no more than 5-10 m yr-1, exotic earthworm dispersal across the landscape is presumed to be mediated by human activities, although this assertion needs further validation. In agroecosystems, earthworms have traditionally been considered beneficial soil organisms that facilitate litter decomposition, increase nutrient availability and improve soil structure. However, earthworm activities could also increase soil nutrient leaching and CO2 emissions. Furthermore, in natural forest ecosystems, exotic earthworms may reduce organic forest floors provoking changes in watershed hydrology and loss of habitat for some faunal species. Over the past decade, studies have also suggested a negative effect of exotic earthworms on understory plant diversity, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Finally, there are no studies to our knowledge that have tested the effects of Lumbricidae species on the production of N2O (an important greenhouse gas) in forest ecosystems. We report on a series of field, greenhouse and laboratory studies on the human activities responsible for the dispersal of exotic earthworms, and on their ecological / geochemical impacts in natural forest ecosystems. Our results show: (1) Car tire treads and bait discarded by fishermen are important human vectors driving the dispersal of earthworms into northern temperate forests; (2) Exotic earthworms significantly modify soil physicochemical properties, nutrient cycling, microbial community structure and biomass; (3) Earthworm abundances in the field correlate with a decrease in understory plant diversity; (4) Lumbricus terrestris, an anecic earthworm species and favorite bait of fishermen, reduces seed germination and

  14. Ecological and geochemical impacts of exotic earthworm dispersal in forest ecosystems of Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouin, Melanie; Fugere, Martine; Lapointe, Line; Vellend, Mark; Bradley, Robert L.

    2016-04-01

    In Eastern Canada, native earthworm species did not survive the Wisconsin glaciation, which ended over 11,000 years ago. Accordingly, the 17 known Lumbricidae species in the province of Québec were introduced in recent centuries by European settlers. Given that natural migration rates are no more than 5-10 m yr‑1, exotic earthworm dispersal across the landscape is presumed to be mediated by human activities, although this assertion needs further validation. In agroecosystems, earthworms have traditionally been considered beneficial soil organisms that facilitate litter decomposition, increase nutrient availability and improve soil structure. However, earthworm activities could also increase soil nutrient leaching and CO2 emissions. Furthermore, in natural forest ecosystems, exotic earthworms may reduce organic forest floors provoking changes in watershed hydrology and loss of habitat for some faunal species. Over the past decade, studies have also suggested a negative effect of exotic earthworms on understory plant diversity, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Finally, there are no studies to our knowledge that have tested the effects of Lumbricidae species on the production of N2O (an important greenhouse gas) in forest ecosystems. We report on a series of field, greenhouse and laboratory studies on the human activities responsible for the dispersal of exotic earthworms, and on their ecological / geochemical impacts in natural forest ecosystems. Our results show: (1) Car tire treads and bait discarded by fishermen are important human vectors driving the dispersal of earthworms into northern temperate forests; (2) Exotic earthworms significantly modify soil physicochemical properties, nutrient cycling, microbial community structure and biomass; (3) Earthworm abundances in the field correlate with a decrease in understory plant diversity; (4) Lumbricus terrestris, an anecic earthworm species and favorite bait of fishermen, reduces seed germination and

  15. Survey of Plant Drought-Resistance Promoting Bacteria from Populus euphratica Tree Living in Arid Area.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shanshan; Ouyang, Liming; Ju, Xiangyang; Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Qin; Li, Yanbin

    2014-12-01

    Two hundred and thirty-two bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizospheric soil of Populus euphratica which is the dominant tree living in extreme arid regions in northwest China. Some strains with plant growth-promoting bacteria related metabolic characteristics were able to promote drought resistance in plants after inoculation. Ten strains with the greatest effects increased the dry weight of wheat shoots from 0.5 to 34.4 %, and the surface area of the root systems from 12.56 to 212.17 % compared to the control after drought treatment whereas no obvious promoting effect was observed in normal water conditions. These 10 strains were identified to be of the genera Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Stenotrophomonas and Serratia by 16S rRNA (rrs) gene sequence alignment. Among these strains, Serratia sp. 1-9 and Pseudomonas sp. 5-23 were the two most effective strains. Both of them produced auxin and the production increased significantly when cultured under simulated drought conditions which are inferred to be the most plausible mechanism for their plant growth-promoting effect under drought stress. PMID:25320440

  16. Survey of Plant Drought-Resistance Promoting Bacteria from Populus euphratica Tree Living in Arid Area.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shanshan; Ouyang, Liming; Ju, Xiangyang; Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Qin; Li, Yanbin

    2014-12-01

    Two hundred and thirty-two bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizospheric soil of Populus euphratica which is the dominant tree living in extreme arid regions in northwest China. Some strains with plant growth-promoting bacteria related metabolic characteristics were able to promote drought resistance in plants after inoculation. Ten strains with the greatest effects increased the dry weight of wheat shoots from 0.5 to 34.4 %, and the surface area of the root systems from 12.56 to 212.17 % compared to the control after drought treatment whereas no obvious promoting effect was observed in normal water conditions. These 10 strains were identified to be of the genera Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Stenotrophomonas and Serratia by 16S rRNA (rrs) gene sequence alignment. Among these strains, Serratia sp. 1-9 and Pseudomonas sp. 5-23 were the two most effective strains. Both of them produced auxin and the production increased significantly when cultured under simulated drought conditions which are inferred to be the most plausible mechanism for their plant growth-promoting effect under drought stress.

  17. Exotic grasslands on reclaimed midwestern coal mines: An ornithological perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, P.E.; Lima, S.L.

    2004-07-01

    The largest grasslands in Indiana and Illinois are on reclaimed surface coal mines, which are numerous in the Illinois Coal Basin. The reclamation goal of establishing a vegetation cover with inexpensive, hardy exotic grass species (e.g., tall fescue, smooth brome) inadvertently created persistent, large grassland bird refuges. We review research documenting the importance of these sites for native prairie birds. On mines, grassland specialist birds (restricted to grassland throughout their range) prefer sites dominated by exotic grasses to those rich in forbs, whereas nonspecialist bird species show no significant preference. Midwestern mine grasslands potentially could be converted into landscapes that include native warm-season grasses and forbs adapted to the relatively dry, poor soil conditions, in addition to the present successful exotic grass stands. A key question is whether native mixtures will resist conversion to forb-rich or woody growth over the long term, as the exotic grasses have done.

  18. Bio-Invasions: The Spread of Exotic Species.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright, Chris

    1995-01-01

    Human mobility has radically increased the rate at which large numbers of living things are moving from one ecosystem to another. Discusses how ecosystems change when "exotic" species invade natural communities and notes efforts to control adverse effects. (LZ)

  19. Improving Qubit Quality Factors Through Exotic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, Victoria

    In the time since the first qubits were successfully fabricated, the coherence times of superconducting Josephson junction qubits have improved by several orders of magnitude. Yet as the quantum information and computation field moves forward, these coherence times still need further improvement. We are now finding that in some superconducting systems, non-thermal equilibrium quasiparticles are becoming the limiting factor in qubit lifetimes. For SIS superconducting qubits, the T1 and T2* values may be improved by the use of materials with higher superconducting band gap, EG, for which low values may allow for quasiparticles to break up cooper pairs more easily, leading to a shorter lifetime. At this time, Al-Al2Ox3-Al transmons are very well characterized and understood and will therefore serve as an appropriate baseline with which to compare the more exotic junction materials. Using tantalum and niobium, which have Eg values of 3 times and 10 times that of aluminum respectively, we expect the T1 and T2* values to increase significantly for the Al-Al2Ox3-Nb, Al-Al2Ox3-Ta, and Ta-Ta2Ox5-Nb qubits.

  20. Fecal shedding of Salmonella in exotic felids.

    PubMed

    Clyde, V L; Ramsay, E C; Bemis, D A

    1997-06-01

    Two collections of exotic felids were screened for the presence of Salmonella by selective fecal culture utilizing selenite broth and Hektoen enteric agar. In > 90% of the samples, Salmonella was isolated from a single culture. A commercial horsemeat-based diet was fed in both collections, and one collection also was fed raw chicken. Salmonella was cultured from the raw chicken and the horsemeat diet for both collections. Multiple Salmonella serotypes were identified, with S. typhimurium and S. typhimurium (copenhagen) isolated most frequently. Approximately half of the Salmonella isolates demonstrated multiple antibiotic resistance. The ability to harbor Salmonella as normal nonpathogenic bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract may be a physiological adaptation to carnivory. The high rate of fecal shedding of Salmonella in healthy individuals clouds the interpretation of a positive fecal culture in an ill felid, or one with diarrhea. All zoo employees having contact with cat feces or raw diets have a high rate of occupational exposure to Salmonella and should exercise appropriate hygienic precautions.

  1. Exotic differentiable structures and general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brans, Carl H.; Randall, Duane

    1993-02-01

    We review recent developments in differential topology with special concern for their possible significance to physical theories, especially general relativity. In particular we are concerned here with the discovery of the existence of non-standard (“fake” or “exotic”) differentiable structures on topologically simple manifolds such asS 7, ℝ4 andS 3 X ℝ1. Because of the technical difficulties involved in the smooth case, we begin with an easily understood toy example looking at the role which the choice of complex structures plays in the formulation of two-dimensional vacuum electrostatics. We then briefly review the mathematical formalisms involved with differentiable structures on topological manifolds, diffeomorphisms and their significance for physics. We summarize the important work of Milnor, Freedman, Donaldson, and others in developing exotic differentiable structures on well known topological manifolds. Finally, we discuss some of the geometric implications of these results and propose some conjectures on possible physical implications of these new manifolds which have never before been considered as physical models.

  2. Using exotic atoms to keep borders safe

    SciTech Connect

    Jason, A; Miyadera, H; Esch, E I; Hoteling, N J; Adelmann, A; Heffner, R H; Green, A; Olsthoorn, J; Stocki, T J

    2010-01-01

    Muons, created by a particle accelerator, can be used to scan cargo for special nuclear materials (SNM). These muons exist long enough and are penetrating enough that they can be used to actively scan cargo to ensure the non-proliferation of SNM. A set of 'proof-of-concept' experiments have been performed to show that active muon analysis can be used. Experiments were performed at high intensity, medium energy particle accelerators (TRIUMF and PSI). Negative muons form exotic atoms with one electron replaced by the muon. Since the muon is captured in an excited state, it will give off x-rays which can be detected by high purity germanium detectors. These characteristic x-rays can be used to identify the nuclide. The muonic x-rays corresponding to the SNM of interest have been measured, even with the use of various shielding configurations composed of lead, iron, polyethylene, or fiberglass. These preliminary results show that muons can be successfully used to find shielded SNM. The safety of North Americans can be protected by the use of this technology.

  3. Plants of the Big Cypress National Preserve, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muss, J.D.; Austin, D.F.; Snyder, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    A new survey of the Big Cypress National Preserve shows that the vascular flora consists of 145 families and 851 species. Of these, 72 are listed by the State of Florida as endangered or threatened plants, while many others are on the margins of their ranges. The survey also shows 158 species of exotic plants within the Preserve, some of which imperil native species by competing with them. Finally, we compare the flora of the Big Cypress National Preserve with those of the nearby Fakahatchee Strand State Preserve and the Everglades National Park. Although Big Cypress is less than half the size of Everglades National Park, it has 90% of the native species richness (693 vs. 772).

  4. Exotic Effects at the Charm Threshold and Other Novel Physics Topics at JLab-12 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2012-05-03

    I briefly survey a number of novel hadron physics topics which can be investigated with the 12 GeV upgrade at J-Lab. The topics include new the formation of exotic heavy quark resonances accessible above the charm threshold, intrinsic charm and strangeness phenomena, the exclusive Sivers effect, hidden-color Fock states of nuclei, local two-photon interactions in deeply virtual Compton scattering, and non-universal antishadowing.

  5. Reaction Studies with Exotic Nuclei in Storage Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Muenzenberg, Gottfried; Schrieder, Gerhard

    2000-12-31

    The first experiments to explore nuclear ground-state properties of exotic nuclei with heavy-ion storage rings have already proved the research potential of precision experiments with the new experimental technique. In this contribution the perspectives for reaction studies in storage rings with energetic exotic nuclei at internal targets and in a small electron -- heavy ion collider are addressed. The feasibility of such experiments is discussed.

  6. Using anti pp annihilation to find exotic mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, S.R.

    1987-10-01

    Present data suggests that a number of mesons have been found which cannot be accommodated in standard anti qq multiplets. Theory suggests that such exotic mesons should exist in the spectrum of Quantum Chromodynamics, but provides little guide to their properties. It is argued that a high luminosity, low energy anti pp machine would be a powerful tool with which to search for such exotics.

  7. Glueballs, Hybrids and Exotics: An Experimental and Phenomenological Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Curtis A.

    2006-11-17

    This paper provides a short overview of our current understanding of exotic mesons. In particular glueballs and hybrids. The lightest glueball appears to be where lattice predicts it to be, but is fully mixed with two neighboring mesons. The situations with hybrids is less clear. There are hints of {pi}1 states, but both the confirmation of these states as well as the mapping of exotic nonets awaits future experiments.

  8. Highly excited and exotic meson spectroscopy from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Thomas

    2011-05-01

    I will discuss recent progress in extracting highly excited and exotic meson spectra using lattice QCD. New results in the light meson sector will be presented, where a combination of techniques have enabled us to confidently identify the spin of extracted states. Highlights include many states with exotic quantum numbers and, for the first time in a lattice QCD calculation, spin-four states. I will conclude with comments on future prospects.

  9. Pond permanence and the effects of exotic vertebrates on anurans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    In many permanent ponds throughout western North America, the introduction of a variety of exotic fish and bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) correlates with declines in native amphibians. Direct effects of exotics are suspected to be responsible for the rarity of some native amphibians and are one hypothesis to explain the prevalence of amphibian declines in western North America. However, the prediction that the permanent ponds occupied by exotics would be suitable for native amphibians if exotics were absent has not been tested. I used a series of enclosure experiments to test whether survival of northern red-legged frog (Rana aurora aurora) and Pacific treefrog (Hyla regilla) larvae is equal in permanent and temporary ponds in the Puget Lowlands, Washington State, USA. I also examined the direct effects of bullfrog larvae and sunfish. Survival of both species of native anuran larvae was generally lower in permanent ponds. Only one permanent pond out of six was an exception to this pattern and exhibited increased larval survival rates in the absence of direct effects by exotics. The presence of fish in enclosures reduced survival to near zero for both native species. An effect of bullfrog larvae on Pacific treefrog larval survival was not detected, but effects on red-legged frog larvae were mixed. A hypothesis that food limitation is responsible for the low survival of native larvae in some permanent ponds was not supported. My results confirm that direct negative effects of exotic vertebrates on native anurans occur but suggest that they may not be important to broad distribution patterns. Instead, habitat gradients or indirect effects of exotics appear to play major roles. I found support for the role of permanence as a structuring agent for pond communities in the Puget Lowlands, but neither permanence nor exotic vertebrates fully explained the observed variability in larval anuran survival.

  10. Industrial-hygiene survey report of Borg Warner Chemicals, Inc. , Woodmar Plant, Washington, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.

    1986-08-01

    Due to possible worker exposure to 1,3-butadiene, a walk-through industrial-hygiene survey was conducted at Borg Warner Chemicals Woodmar Facility, Washington, West Virginia. The primary products of the facility are ABS plastics, polybutadiene latex and styrene butadiene rubber latex. In September 1981, a butadiene recovery system was added to the process vent streams. Of the total work force, 54 employees have potential for exposure to 1,3-butadiene. The mean 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) of 23 personal samples collected during several periods in 1983 and 1985 was 4.5 parts per million (ppm). Analysis of a bulk sample showed traces of 1,3-butadiene, in the 0.04 to 0.2 nanograms/milligram range. The exposures to 1,3-butadiene were greater than 10ppm for two job classifications, control room and high heat operators. The company has accurate records on terminated and current employees. The author concludes that the facility is a candidate for inclusion in an in-depth industrial hygiene survey regarding 1,3-butadiene. Recommendations were given.

  11. Traditional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in rural and urban areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh – an ethnobotanical survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The usage of medicinal plants is traditionally rooted in Bangladesh and still an essential part of public healthcare. Recently, a dramatically increasing prevalence brought diabetes mellitus and its therapy to the focus of public health interests in Bangladesh. We conducted an ethnobotanical survey to identify the traditional medicinal plants being used to treat diabetes in Bangladesh and to critically assess their anti-diabetic potentials with focus on evidence-based criteria. Methods In an ethnobotanical survey in defined rural and urban areas 63 randomly chosen individuals (health professionals, diabetic patients), identified to use traditional medicinal plants to treat diabetes, were interviewed in a structured manner about their administration or use of plants for treating diabetes. Results In total 37 medicinal plants belonging to 25 families were reported as being used for the treatment of diabetes in Bangladesh. The most frequently mentioned plants were Coccinia indica, Azadirachta indica, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia chebula, Ficus racemosa, Momordica charantia, Swietenia mahagoni. Conclusion Traditional medicinal plants are commonly used in Bangladesh to treat diabetes. The available data regarding the anti-diabetic activity of the detected plants is not sufficient to adequately evaluate or recommend their use. Clinical intervention studies are required to provide evidence for a safe and effective use of the identified plants in the treatment of diabetes. PMID:23800215

  12. A survey of medicinal plants used by the Deb barma clan of the Tripura tribe of Moulvibazar district, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    healer. A number of the plants used by the clan healer had reported similar uses in Ayurveda, but differ considerably in their therapeutic uses from that reported for other tribes in Bangladesh. The present survey also indicated that in recent years the Deb barma clan members are inclining more towards allopathic medicine. PMID:24502444

  13. Effects of exotic species on Yellowstone's grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinhart, D.P.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Mattson, D.J.; Gunther, Kerry A.

    2001-01-01

    Humans have affected grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) by direct mortality, competition for space and resources, and introduction of exotic species. Exotic organisms that have affected grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Area include common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), nonnative clovers (Trifolium spp.), domesticated livestock, bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus), lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola). Some bears consume substantial amounts of dandelion and clover. However, these exotic foods provide little digested energy compared to higher-quality bear foods. Domestic livestock are of greater energetic value, but use of this food by bears often leads to conflicts with humans and subsequent increases in bear mortality. Lake trout, blister rust, and brucellosis diminish grizzly bears foods. Lake trout prey on native cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) in Yellowstone Lake; white pine blister rust has the potential to destroy native whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) stands; and management response to bovine brucellosis, a disease found in the Yellowstone bison (Bison bison) and elk (Cervus elaphus), could reduce populations of these 2 species. Exotic species will likely cause more harm than good for Yellowstone grizzly bears. Managers have few options to mitigate or contain the impacts of exotics on Yellowstones grizzly bears. Moreover, their potential negative impacts have only begun to unfold. Exotic species may lead to the loss of substantial highquality grizzly bear foods, including much of the bison, trout, and pine seeds that Yellowstone grizzly bears currently depend upon.

  14. The mass formula for an exotic BTZ black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Baocheng

    2016-04-01

    An exotic Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole has an angular momentum larger than its mass in three dimension (3D), which suggests the possibility that cosmic censorship could be violated if angular momentum is extracted by the Penrose process. In this paper, we propose a mass formula for the exotic BTZ black hole and show no violation of weak cosmic censorship in the gedanken process above by understanding properly its mass formula. Unlike the other black holes, the total energy of the exotic BTZ black hole is represented by the angular momentum instead of the mass, which supports a basic point of view that the same geometry should be determined by the same energy in 3D general relativity whose equation of motion can be given either by normal 3D Einstein gravity or by exotic 3D Einstein gravity. However, only the mass of the exotic black hole is related to the thermodynamics and other forms of energy are "dumb", which is consistent with the earlier thermodynamic analysis about exotic black holes.

  15. Are mangroves in the tropical Atlantic ripe for invasion? Exotic mangrove trees in the forests of South Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fourqurean, James W.; Smith, Thomas J.; Possley, Jennifer; Collins, Timothy M.; Lee, David; Namoff, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Two species of mangrove trees of Indo-Pacific origin have naturalized in tropical Atlantic mangrove forests in South Florida after they were planted and nurtured in botanic gardens. Two Bruguiera gymnorrhiza trees that were planted in the intertidal zone in 1940 have given rise to a population of at least 86 trees growing interspersed with native mangrove species Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa along 100 m of shoreline; the population is expanding at a rate of 5.6% year-1. Molecular genetic analyses confirm very low genetic diversity, as expected from a population founded by two individuals. The maximumnumber of alleles at any locus was three, and we measured reduced heterozygosity compared to native-range populations. Lumnitzera racemosa was introduced multiple times during the 1960s and 1970s, it has spread rapidly into a forest composed of native R. mangle, A. germinans, Laguncularia racemosa and Conocarpus erectus and now occupies 60,500 m2 of mangrove forest with stem densities of 24,735 ha-1. We estimate the population growth rate of Lumnitzera racemosa to be between 17 and 23% year-1. Populations of both species of naturalized mangroves are dominated by young individuals. Given the long life and water-dispersed nature of propagules of the two exotic species, it is likely that they have spread beyond our survey area. We argue that the species-depauperate nature of tropical Atlantic mangrove forests and close taxonomic relatives in the more species-rich Indo-Pacific region result in the susceptibility of tropical Atlantic mangrove forests to invasion by Indo-Pacific mangrove species.

  16. Intensive archeological survey of the proposed Saltcrete area of the Defense Waste Processing Facility, Savannah River Plant, Aiken County, South Carolina. Research manuscript series 172

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, R.D.

    1981-06-01

    An intensive archeological survey of the proposed Saltcrete (200-Z) area of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken County, South Carolina was conducted. The purpose was to locate, describe and assess the archeological resources within the proposed construction area and to provide the Department of Energy with the recommendations as to the significance of the resources. This report presents a summary of the background, methods, results and recommendations resulting from the Saltcrete area intensive survey.

  17. Ticks imported to Europe with exotic reptiles.

    PubMed

    Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2015-09-30

    It is known that traded exotic animals carry with them an immense number of associated symbionts, including parasites. Reptiles are no exception. Most of the imported reptiles originate from tropical countries and their possibility to carry potentially dangerous pathogens is high. According to CITES, Europe is currently the main reptile importer in the world. Despite this, there is no review or analysis available for the risk related to the importation of tick-borne diseases with traded reptile to the EU. The main aim of the manuscript is to provide a review on the available literature on ticks introduced to and exchanged between European countries via the live reptile trade. So far, the published reports of ticks imported on reptiles are limited to few European countries: Italy, Poland, Spain, Netherlands, Belgium, Slovenia and UK. The following species have been reported: Hyalomma aegyptium, Amblyomma dissimile, Amblyomma exornatum, Amblyomma flavomaculatum, Amblyomma fuscolineatum, Amblyomma latum, Amblyomma quadricavum, Amblyomma marmoreum, Amblyomma nuttalli, Amblyomma sparsum, Amblyomma sphenodonti, Amblyomma transversale and Amblyomma varanense. The majority of species are of African origin, followed by American and Asian species. All groups of reptiles (chelonians, snakes, lizards, crocodiles, tuataras) were involved. However, it seems that certain groups (i.e. tortoises of genus Testudo, monitor lizards of genus Varanus, snakes of genus Python) are more important as host for imported ticks, but this may be related to higher levels of international trade. Even fewer are the reports of tick-borne pathogens associated with imported reptile ticks. Despite the diversity of tick species reported on imported reptiles, the situations of truly invasive species are atypical and are limited in natural environments to maximum two cases where H. aegyptium was involved. Otherwise, the risk associated with reptile trade for introduction of invasive tick to Europe is low

  18. Ticks imported to Europe with exotic reptiles.

    PubMed

    Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2015-09-30

    It is known that traded exotic animals carry with them an immense number of associated symbionts, including parasites. Reptiles are no exception. Most of the imported reptiles originate from tropical countries and their possibility to carry potentially dangerous pathogens is high. According to CITES, Europe is currently the main reptile importer in the world. Despite this, there is no review or analysis available for the risk related to the importation of tick-borne diseases with traded reptile to the EU. The main aim of the manuscript is to provide a review on the available literature on ticks introduced to and exchanged between European countries via the live reptile trade. So far, the published reports of ticks imported on reptiles are limited to few European countries: Italy, Poland, Spain, Netherlands, Belgium, Slovenia and UK. The following species have been reported: Hyalomma aegyptium, Amblyomma dissimile, Amblyomma exornatum, Amblyomma flavomaculatum, Amblyomma fuscolineatum, Amblyomma latum, Amblyomma quadricavum, Amblyomma marmoreum, Amblyomma nuttalli, Amblyomma sparsum, Amblyomma sphenodonti, Amblyomma transversale and Amblyomma varanense. The majority of species are of African origin, followed by American and Asian species. All groups of reptiles (chelonians, snakes, lizards, crocodiles, tuataras) were involved. However, it seems that certain groups (i.e. tortoises of genus Testudo, monitor lizards of genus Varanus, snakes of genus Python) are more important as host for imported ticks, but this may be related to higher levels of international trade. Even fewer are the reports of tick-borne pathogens associated with imported reptile ticks. Despite the diversity of tick species reported on imported reptiles, the situations of truly invasive species are atypical and are limited in natural environments to maximum two cases where H. aegyptium was involved. Otherwise, the risk associated with reptile trade for introduction of invasive tick to Europe is low

  19. A Preliminary Survey of Terrestrial Plant Communities in the Sierra de los Valles

    SciTech Connect

    Randy G. Balice

    1998-10-01

    To more fully understand the species compositions and environmental relationships of high-elevation terrestrial plant communities in the Los Alamos region, 30 plots in randomly selected, upland locations were sampled for vegetation, topographic, and soils characteristics. The locations of these plots were constrained to be above 2,134 m (7,000 ft) above mean sea level. The field results were summarized, analyzed, and incorporated into a previously developed classification of vegetation and land cover types. The revised and updated discussions of the environmental relationships at these sites and their associated species compositions are included in this report. A key to the major land cover types in the Los Alamos region was also revised in accordance with the new information and included herein its entirety.

  20. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Pre-project Rare Plant and Wildlife Surveys For the Pit 7 Drainage Diversion and Groundwater Extraction and Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, L; Woollett, J

    2007-07-17

    In January 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) released the final Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Environmental Remediation at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 Pit 7 Complex. At the same time, the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) released the final Negative Declaration and Initial Study covering the Pit 7 remediation. No substantial adverse effect on wildlife species of concern was anticipated from the project. However, it was proposed that wildlife surveys should be conducted prior to construction because species locations and breeding areas could potentially change by the time construction activities began. Although no known populations of rare or endangered/threatened plant species were known to occur within the project impact area at the time these documents were released, rare plants listed by the California Native Plant Society had been observed in the vicinity. As such, both DOE and DTSC proposed that plant surveys would be undertaken at the appropriate time of year to determine if rare plants would be impacted by project construction. This document provides the results of wildlife and rare plant surveys taken prior to the start of construction at the Pit 7 Complex.

  1. Survey of shell egg processing plant sanitation programs: effects on non-egg-contact surfaces.

    PubMed

    Musgrove, M T; Jones, D R; Northcutt, J K; Curtis, P A; Anderson, K E; Fletcher, D L; Cox, N A

    2004-12-01

    To successfully implement a hazard analysis critical control point plan, prerequisite programs are essential. Sanitation standard operating procedures are an important part of such a plan and can reduce contamination levels so that food safety and quality are not adversely affected. Noncontact surfaces in the shell egg processing plants can serve as a reservoir of cross-contamination. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of sanitation programs used in a variety of shell egg processing facilities (in-line, off-line, and mixed operations). Fourteen different noncontact surfaces were sampled in nine commercial facilities across the southeastern United States. Non-egg-contact surfaces were defined as those where the shell egg does not come into direct contact with the surface or with the fluid from that surface. Gauze pads soaked in sterile phosphate-buffered saline were used for sampling at the end of a processing day (POST) and again the next morning prior to operations (PRE). Aerobic plate counts (APCs) and numbers of Enterobacteriaceae were determined. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were found between POST and PRE counts for either population recovered from the 14 sampling sites. Only samples from the floor under the farm belts, nest-run loader, washers, and packer heads were reduced by 1 log CFU/ml of rinsate for APCs or Enterobacteriaceae counts. APCs of more than 10(4) CFU/ml of rinsate were recovered from many samples. Highest APCs were found on the floor under the farm belt and on shelves of the nest-run carts. High APCs were found on the wheel surface for off-line carts and on the loading dock floor. Highest Enterobacteriaceae counts were found in samples from the floor, drain, and nest-run egg cart shelves. A lack of significant difference between POST and PRE counts indicates that current sanitation programs could be improved. These data suggest that traffic patterns for the movement of eggs and materials through the plant should be

  2. Survey of shell egg processing plant sanitation programs: effects on non-egg-contact surfaces.

    PubMed

    Musgrove, M T; Jones, D R; Northcutt, J K; Curtis, P A; Anderson, K E; Fletcher, D L; Cox, N A

    2004-12-01

    To successfully implement a hazard analysis critical control point plan, prerequisite programs are essential. Sanitation standard operating procedures are an important part of such a plan and can reduce contamination levels so that food safety and quality are not adversely affected. Noncontact surfaces in the shell egg processing plants can serve as a reservoir of cross-contamination. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of sanitation programs used in a variety of shell egg processing facilities (in-line, off-line, and mixed operations). Fourteen different noncontact surfaces were sampled in nine commercial facilities across the southeastern United States. Non-egg-contact surfaces were defined as those where the shell egg does not come into direct contact with the surface or with the fluid from that surface. Gauze pads soaked in sterile phosphate-buffered saline were used for sampling at the end of a processing day (POST) and again the next morning prior to operations (PRE). Aerobic plate counts (APCs) and numbers of Enterobacteriaceae were determined. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were found between POST and PRE counts for either population recovered from the 14 sampling sites. Only samples from the floor under the farm belts, nest-run loader, washers, and packer heads were reduced by 1 log CFU/ml of rinsate for APCs or Enterobacteriaceae counts. APCs of more than 10(4) CFU/ml of rinsate were recovered from many samples. Highest APCs were found on the floor under the farm belt and on shelves of the nest-run carts. High APCs were found on the wheel surface for off-line carts and on the loading dock floor. Highest Enterobacteriaceae counts were found in samples from the floor, drain, and nest-run egg cart shelves. A lack of significant difference between POST and PRE counts indicates that current sanitation programs could be improved. These data suggest that traffic patterns for the movement of eggs and materials through the plant should be

  3. Survey of Field Programmable Gate Array Design Guides and Experience Relevant to Nuclear Power Plant Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bobrek, Miljko; Bouldin, Don; Holcomb, David Eugene; Killough, Stephen M; Smith, Stephen Fulton; Ward, Christina D

    2007-09-01

    From a safety perspective, it is difficult to assess the correctness of FPGA devices without extensive documentation, tools, and review procedures. NUREG/CR-6463, "Review Guidelines on Software Languages for Use in Nuclear Power Plant Safety Systems," provides guidance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on auditing of programs for safety systems written in ten high-level languages. A uniform framework for the formulation and discussion of language-specific programming guidelines was employed. Comparable guidelines based on a similar framework are needed for FPGA-based systems. The first task involves evaluation of regulatory experience gained by other countries and other agencies, and those captured in existing standards, to identify regulatory approaches that can be adopted by NRC. If existing regulations do not provide a sufficient regulatory basis for adopting relevant regulatory approaches that are uncovered, ORNL will identify the gaps. Information for this report was obtained through publicly available sources such as published papers and presentations. No proprietary information is represented.

  4. Survey and assessment of the rare vascular plants of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Site

    SciTech Connect

    Cholewa, A.F.; Henderson, D.M.

    1984-01-31

    A two-year study of the rare vascular plants of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory generated new data on the abundance, distribution, and habitat features of eight taxa presently under review at either the federal or state level, or recently proposed for such review. Astragalus ceramicus Sheld. var. apus Barneby is common on the INEL and adjacent areas and will be recommended for removal from further consideration at the federal level and placed on Idaho's Federal Watch List. Coryphanta missouriensis (Sweet) Britt and Rose is common throughout east central Idaho, but will be recommended for retainment on the State Watch List. Gymnosteris nudicaulis (H. and A.) Greene and Oxytheca dendroidea Nutt. are also recommended for retention on the State Watch List. Four taxa not previously known to occur in Idaho or not known from the southeastern part of the state (Astragalus gilviflorus Sheld., Astragalus kentrophyta Gray var. jessiae (Peck) Barneby, Gilia polycladon Torr., and Lesquerella kingii S. Watts. var. cobrensis Roll. and Shaw) were encountered and evaluated with reference to current or potential threats, and are recommended for placement on Idaho's State Watch List. 14 references, 1 figure.

  5. Secondary forest succession and tree planting at the Laguna Cartagena and Cabo Rojo wildlife refuges in southwestern Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Peter L; Schwagerl, Joseph J

    2008-12-01

    Secondary forest succession and tree planting are contributing to the recovery of the Cabo Rojo refuge (Headquarters and Salinas tracts) and Laguna Cartagena refuge (Lagoon and Tinaja tracts) of the Fish and Wildlife Service in southwestern Puerto Rico. About 80 species, mainly natives, have been planted on 44 ha during the past 25 y in an effort to reduce the threat of grass fires and to restore wildlife habitat. A 2007 survey of 9-y-old tree plantings on the Lagoon tract showed satisfactory growth rates for 16 native species. Multiple stems from individual trees at ground level were common. A sampling of secondary forest on the entire 109 ha Tinaja tract disclosed 141 native tree species, or 25% of Puerto Rico's native tree flora, along with 20 exotics. Five tree species made up about 58% of the total basal area, and seven species were island endemics. Between 1998 and 2003, tree numbers and basal area, as well as tree heights and diameter at breast height values (diameter at 1.4 m above the ground), increased on the lower 30 ha of the Tinaja tract. In this area, much of it subject to fires and grazing through 1996, exotic trees made up 25% of the species. Dry forest throughout the tropics is an endangered habitat, and its recovery (i.e., in biomass, structure, and species composition) at Tinaja may exceed 500 y. Future forests, however, will likely contain some exotics. PMID:19205183

  6. Secondary forest succession and tree planting at the Laguna Cartagena and Cabo Rojo wildlife refuges in southwestern Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Peter L; Schwagerl, Joseph J

    2008-12-01

    Secondary forest succession and tree planting are contributing to the recovery of the Cabo Rojo refuge (Headquarters and Salinas tracts) and Laguna Cartagena refuge (Lagoon and Tinaja tracts) of the Fish and Wildlife Service in southwestern Puerto Rico. About 80 species, mainly natives, have been planted on 44 ha during the past 25 y in an effort to reduce the threat of grass fires and to restore wildlife habitat. A 2007 survey of 9-y-old tree plantings on the Lagoon tract showed satisfactory growth rates for 16 native species. Multiple stems from individual trees at ground level were common. A sampling of secondary forest on the entire 109 ha Tinaja tract disclosed 141 native tree species, or 25% of Puerto Rico's native tree flora, along with 20 exotics. Five tree species made up about 58% of the total basal area, and seven species were island endemics. Between 1998 and 2003, tree numbers and basal area, as well as tree heights and diameter at breast height values (diameter at 1.4 m above the ground), increased on the lower 30 ha of the Tinaja tract. In this area, much of it subject to fires and grazing through 1996, exotic trees made up 25% of the species. Dry forest throughout the tropics is an endangered habitat, and its recovery (i.e., in biomass, structure, and species composition) at Tinaja may exceed 500 y. Future forests, however, will likely contain some exotics.

  7. EU-wide monitoring survey on emerging polar organic contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    PubMed

    Loos, Robert; Carvalho, Raquel; António, Diana C; Comero, Sara; Locoro, Giovanni; Tavazzi, Simona; Paracchini, Bruno; Ghiani, Michela; Lettieri, Teresa; Blaha, Ludek; Jarosova, Barbora; Voorspoels, Stefan; Servaes, Kelly; Haglund, Peter; Fick, Jerker; Lindberg, Richard H; Schwesig, David; Gawlik, Bernd M

    2013-11-01

    In the year 2010, effluents from 90 European wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were analyzed for 156 polar organic chemical contaminants. The analyses were complemented by effect-based monitoring approaches aiming at estrogenicity and dioxin-like toxicity analyzed by in vitro reporter gene bioassays, and yeast and diatom culture acute toxicity optical bioassays. Analyses of organic substances were performed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) or liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) or gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). Target microcontaminants were pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), veterinary (antibiotic) drugs, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), organophosphate ester flame retardants, pesticides (and some metabolites), industrial chemicals such as benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), iodinated x-ray contrast agents, and gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging agents; in addition biological endpoints were measured. The obtained results show the presence of 125 substances (80% of the target compounds) in European wastewater effluents, in concentrations ranging from low nanograms to milligrams per liter. These results allow for an estimation to be made of a European median level for the chemicals investigated in WWTP effluents. The most relevant compounds in the effluent waters with the highest median concentration levels were the artificial sweeteners acesulfame and sucralose, benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), several organophosphate ester flame retardants and plasticizers (e.g. tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate; TCPP), pharmaceutical compounds such as carbamazepine, tramadol, telmisartan, venlafaxine, irbesartan, fluconazole, oxazepam, fexofenadine, diclofenac, citalopram, codeine, bisoprolol, eprosartan, the antibiotics trimethoprim, ciprofloxacine, sulfamethoxazole, and clindamycine, the insect repellent N,N'-diethyltoluamide (DEET), the pesticides

  8. First report of Ecpyrrhoerrhoe puralis (South) (Pyraloidea: Crambidae: Pyraustinae) in North America: a naturalized exotic pyraustine from Asia feeding on Paulownia Siebold & Zucc

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first record and identification of a very large, yellow pyraustine in the eastern United States, Ecpyrrhoerrhoe puralis, is documented. This exotic moth is reported to feed on Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Steud., an invasive plant from China. A partial checklist of the species currently in Ecpy...

  9. Biological control of sentinel egg masses of the exotic invasive stink bug halyomorpha halys (Stål) in Mid-Atlantic USA ornamental landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological invasions have far reaching effects on native plant and arthropod communities. This study evaluated the effect of natural enemies on eggs of the exotic invasive stink bug Halyomorpha halys (Stål) in experimental plots comprising species pairs of 16 ornamental trees and shrub genera from e...

  10. EFFECTS OF LOW FLOW ON INVASION PROCESS OF EXOTIC STREAM INVERTEBRATES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane, Naoya; Sakai, Toru; Miyake, Yo

    This study aimed to demonstrate recent invasion status and low-flow resistance of two exotic invertebrates, Pyasa acuta and Crangonyx floridanus, in Shigenobu River, Ehime, Japan. Six years of longitudinal survey revealed that density of these two invasive species were high in the middle and lower segments of the mainstem, in which stream habitats were degraded. Furthermore, the distribution of Crangonyx floridanus appeared to expand toward upstream along the river. A short-term survey during a descending flow showed that Crangonyx floridanus decreased along with other major invertebrate taxa. In contrast, relative abundance of Pyasa acuta increased as flow decreased, indicating that this invasive species has relatively high resistance to low flow. Thus, low flow was suggested to facilitate the invasion of Pyasa acuta.

  11. EDITORIAL: Focus on Superconductors with Exotic Symmetries FOCUS ON SUPERCONDUCTORS WITH EXOTIC SYMMETRIES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, T. Maurice; Sigrist, Manfred; Maeno, Yoshiteru

    2009-05-01

    Superconductors can usefully be divided into two classes, those that are well described by the classic Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory and its extensions and those which require a different microscopic description. The BCS theory of superconductivity solved the long standing mystery of this spectacular phenomenon and described all superconductors that were known when it was formulated in the 1950s. The key ingredient is an attractive interaction generated by the exchange of phonons between electrons which overcomes a Coulomb repulsion weakened by screening, to give a net attractive force on the low energy scale. In this case the simplest s-wave pairing always maximises the energy gain. There were speculations a little later that other types of electron pairing could be possible, but it took a quarter of a century until the first signs of superconductors with different and exotic pairing appeared. In the intervening thirty years many superconductors with exotic pairing have been and continue to be discovered and the study of their superconductivity has grown into a major subfield of condensed matter physics today. The importance of these exotic superconductors with unconventional symmetry is that their pairing is of electronic origin. As a result they are freed from the restrictions of low transition temperatures that go along with the phonon driven conventional superconductors. However in two of the main classes of the exotic superconductors, namely heavy fermion and organic superconductors, the intrinsic energy scales are very small leading to low temperature scales. The third class contains the small number of superconducting transition metal compounds with exotic pairing symmetry. The most studied of these are the high-Tc cuprates, the newly discovered iron pnictides and strontium ruthenate which is closely related to superfluid 3He. Although the basic electronic structure of these materials is well understood, the origin of the pairing is more complex

  12. ALPI Setup as the SPES Accelerator of Exotic Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisoffi, G.; Bassato, G.; Battistella, A.; Bermudez, J.; Bortolato, D.; Canella, S.; Chalykh, B.; Comunian, M.; Facco, A.; Fagotti, E.; Galatà, A.; Giacchini, M.; Gramegna, F.; Lamy, T.; Modanese, P.; Palmieri, A.; Pengo, R.; Pisent, A.; Poggi, M.; Porcellato, A.; Roncolato, C.; Scarpa, D.

    2014-03-01

    The SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) project for a national exotic beam facility in Legnaro includes pivotal upgrades of the existing superconducting linac ALPI (Acceleratore Lineare Per Ioni), to make it appropriate as the RIB (Radioactive Ion Beam) accelerator. The new injector, consisting of an Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR)-type charge breeder and a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), will be described. Upgrade measures in ALPI to improve beam transmission and final energy, and handle low-intensity RIB will be explained, with the aim of increasing transmission to T > 90%, Ef by ~ 20%, reaching 10 MeV/u for the reference beam 132Sn.

  13. Single particle versus collectivity, shapes of exotic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungclaus, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    In this article some selected topics of nuclear structure research will be discussed as illustration of the progress reached in this field during the last thirty years. These examples evidence the improvement of our understanding of the atomic nucleus reached on the basis of countless experiments, performed to study both exotic nuclei (nuclei far-off the valley of stability) as well as nuclei under exotic conditions (high excitation energy/temperature or large angular momentum/rotational frequency), using stable and radioactive ion beams. The experimental progress, in parallel to the advancement of modern theoretical descriptions, led us to a much richer view of this fundamental many-body system.

  14. More on wormholes supported by small amounts of exotic matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhfittig, Peter K.F.

    2006-04-15

    Recent papers by Fewster and Roman have emphasized that wormholes supported by arbitrarily small amounts of exotic matter will have to be incredibly fine-tuned if they are to be traversable. This paper discusses a wormhole model that strikes a balance between two conflicting requirements, reducing the amount of exotic matter and fine-tuning the metric coefficients, ultimately resulting in an engineering challenge: one requirement can only be met at the expense of the other. The wormhole model is macroscopic and satisfies various traversability criteria.

  15. Annihilation physics of exotic galactic dark matter particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1990-01-01

    Various theoretical arguments make exotic heavy neutral weakly interacting fermions, particularly those predicted by supersymmetry theory, attractive candidates for making up the large amount of unseen gravitating mass in galactic halos. Such particles can annihilate with each other, producing secondary particles of cosmic-ray energies, among which are antiprotons, positrons, neutrinos, and gamma-rays. Spectra and fluxes of these annihilation products can be calculated, partly by making use of positron electron collider data and quantum chromodynamic models of particle production derived therefrom. These spectra may provide detectable signatures of exotic particle remnants of the big bang.

  16. Exotic hadron production in a quark combination model

    SciTech Connect

    Han Wei; Shao Fenglan; Li Shiyuan; Shang Yonghui; Yao Tao

    2009-09-15

    The philosophy on production of exotic hadrons (multiquark states) in the framework of the quark combination model is investigated, taking f{sub 0}(980) as an example. The production rate and p{sub T} spectra of f{sub 0}(980) considered as (ss) or (sqsq), respectively, are calculated and compared in Au+Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV. The unitarity of various combination models, when open for exotic hadron production, is addressed.

  17. JUSTIPEN: Japan US Theory Institute for Physics with Exotic Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Papenbrock, Thomas

    2014-05-16

    The grant “JUSTIPEN: Japan US Theory Institute for Physics with Exotic Nuclei ” (DOE DE-FG02-06ER41407) ran from 02/01/2006 thru 12/31/2013. JUSTIPEN is a venue for international collaboration between U.S.-based and Japanese scientists who share an interest in theory of rare isotopes. Since its inception JUSTIPEN has supported many visitors, fostered collaborations between physicists in the U.S. and Japan, and enabled them to deepen our understanding of exotic nuclei and their role in cosmos.

  18. Relativistic Energy Density Functionals: Exotic modes of excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Vretenar, D.; Paar, N.; Marketin, T.

    2008-11-11

    The framework of relativistic energy density functionals has been applied to the description of a variety of nuclear structure phenomena, not only in spherical and deformed nuclei along the valley of {beta}-stability, but also in exotic systems with extreme isospin values and close to the particle drip-lines. Dynamical aspects of exotic nuclear structure have been investigated with the relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation. We present results for the evolution of low-lying dipole (pygmy) strength in neutron-rich nuclei, and charged-current neutrino-nucleus cross sections.

  19. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used by traditional healers and indigenous people in chittagong hill tracts, bangladesh, for the treatment of snakebite.

    PubMed

    Kadir, Mohammad Fahim; Karmoker, James Regun; Alam, Md Rashedul; Jahan, Syeda Rawnak; Mahbub, Sami; Mia, M M K

    2015-01-01

    Snakebites are common in tropical countries like Bangladesh where most snakebite victims dwell in rural areas. Among the management options after snakebite in Bangladesh, snake charmers (Ozha in Bengali language) are the first contact following a snakebite for more than 80% of the victims and they are treated mostly with the help of some medicinal plants. Our aim of the study is to compile plants used for the treatment of snakebite occurrence in Bangladesh. The field survey was carried out in a period of almost 3 years. Fieldwork was undertaken in Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh, including Chittagong, Rangamati, Bandarban, and Khagrachari. Open-ended and semistructured questionnaire was used to interview a total of 110 people including traditional healers and local people. A total of 116 plant species of 48 families were listed. Leaves were the most cited plant part used against snake venom. Most of the reported species were herb in nature and paste mostly used externally is the mode of preparation. The survey represents the preliminary information of certain medicinal plants having neutralizing effects against snake venoms, though further phytochemical investigation, validation, and clinical trials should be conducted before using these plants as an alternative to popular antivenom.

  20. Ethnopharmacological Survey of Medicinal Plants Used by Traditional Healers and Indigenous People in Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh, for the Treatment of Snakebite

    PubMed Central

    Kadir, Mohammad Fahim; Karmoker, James Regun; Alam, Md. Rashedul; Jahan, Syeda Rawnak; Mahbub, Sami; Mia, M. M. K.

    2015-01-01

    Snakebites are common in tropical countries like Bangladesh where most snakebite victims dwell in rural areas. Among the management options after snakebite in Bangladesh, snake charmers (Ozha in Bengali language) are the first contact following a snakebite for more than 80% of the victims and they are treated mostly with the help of some medicinal plants. Our aim of the study is to compile plants used for the treatment of snakebite occurrence in Bangladesh. The field survey was carried out in a period of almost 3 years. Fieldwork was undertaken in Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh, including Chittagong, Rangamati, Bandarban, and Khagrachari. Open-ended and semistructured questionnaire was used to interview a total of 110 people including traditional healers and local people. A total of 116 plant species of 48 families were listed. Leaves were the most cited plant part used against snake venom. Most of the reported species were herb in nature and paste mostly used externally is the mode of preparation. The survey represents the preliminary information of certain medicinal plants having neutralizing effects against snake venoms, though further phytochemical investigation, validation, and clinical trials should be conducted before using these plants as an alternative to popular antivenom. PMID:25878719

  1. One-year monthly quantitative survey of noroviruses, enteroviruses, and adenoviruses in wastewater collected from six plants in Japan.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Hiroyuki; Haramoto, Eiji; Oguma, Kumiko; Yamashita, Hiromasa; Tajima, Atsushi; Nakajima, Hideichiro; Ohgaki, Shinichiro

    2008-03-01

    Sewerage systems are important nodes to monitor human enteric pathogens transmitted via water. A quantitative virus survey was performed once a month for a year to understand the seasonal profiles of noroviruses genotype 1 and genotype 2, enteroviruses, and adenoviruses in sewerage systems. A total of 72 samples of influent, secondary-treated wastewater before chlorination and effluent were collected from six wastewater treatment plants in Japan. Viruses were successfully recovered from 100ml of influent and 1000ml of the secondary-treated wastewater and effluent using the acid rinse method. Viruses were determined by the RT-PCR or PCR method to obtain the most probable number for each sample. All the samples were also assayed for fecal coliforms (FCs) by a double-layer method. The seasonal profiles of noroviruses genotype 1 and genotype 2 in influent were very similar, i.e. they were abundant in winter (from November to March) at a geometric mean value of 190 and 200 RT-PCR units/ml, respectively, and less frequent in summer (from June to September), at 4.9 and 9.1 RT-PCR units/ml, respectively. The concentrations of enteroviruses and adenoviruses were mostly constant all the year round, 17 RT-PCR units/ml and 320 PCR units/ml in influent, and 0.044 RT-PCR units/ml and 7.0 PCR units/ml in effluent, respectively.

  2. A preliminary pilot survey on head lice, pediculosis in Sharkia Governorate and treatment of lice with natural plant extracts.

    PubMed

    El-Basheir, Zeinab M; Fouad, Mahmoud A H

    2002-12-01

    Twelve different representative areas in Sharkia Governorate were surveyed for head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis. The pre-valence was investigated among 120 houses containing 2,448 individual, with different age, sex and socioeconomic status. Examination was done by naked eye aided with hand-lens. A total of 137 individuals were infested. Infestation rates were higher in the rural areas with low socioeconomic levels, concrete houses with over-crowded family members. Children had significantly higher infestation rates than adults. Males had lower infestation rates than females. However, the hair length and permanent hair washing were the factors accounted for both age and sex difference in prevalence of pediculosis. Head lice infestations were found all over the year, but increased in summer and spring. One hundred infested patients (90 females and 10 males) with different aged and hair length were treated with tour mixed cream from plants Lawsonia alba L. (Henna). Trigonella faemum-gracanum (Fenugreek), Hibiscus cannabinus (Hibiscus) and Artemisia cina (Wormseed). The head lice completely disappeared within a week among those patients treated by henna mixed with aqueous extract of sheah (100%) or mixed with helba (75%) or with karkada (50%).

  3. Survey on the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in ground beef from an industrial meat plant.

    PubMed

    Savi, R; Ricchi, M; Cammi, G; Garbarino, C; Leo, S; Pongolini, S; Arrigoni, N

    2015-06-12

    Paratuberculosis of ruminants is characterised by chronic enteritis but, at advanced stages of the disease, a systemic dissemination of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in tissues and organs can occur. MAP has been recovered from lymph nodes and muscles of clinical and sub-clinical cows. In most countries, dairy and beef cattle infected with paratuberculosis are routinely sent to slaughter and the consumption of their meat could be a possible route of human exposure to MAP. However, few studies on MAP in ground beef are currently available. During the period November 2013-March 2014 we carried out a survey on the ground beef produced in an industrial meat processing plant. One-hundred and forty samples of ground meat were analysed by IS900-qPCR and culture (VersaTrek System). The limit of detection (LOD) of qPCR was 630 MAP cells/g (107 CFU/g) while the LOD for culture was 170-230 MAP cells/g (62-115 CFU/g). No samples were positive by direct IS900 qPCR, while two samples were positive by liquid culture. Our data suggest that the presence of live MAP in raw minced meat is possible. In order to avoid exposure for humans through the consumption of contaminated meat, proper cooking of meat is recommended.

  4. Reductions in native grass biomass associated with drought facilitates the invasion of an exotic grass into a model grassland system.

    PubMed

    Manea, Anthony; Sloane, Daniel R; Leishman, Michelle R

    2016-05-01

    The invasion success of exotic plant species is often dependent on resource availability. Aspects of climate change such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and extreme climatic events will directly and indirectly alter resource availability in ecological communities. Understanding how these climate change-associated changes in resource availability will interact with one another to influence the invasion success of exotic plant species is complex. The aim of the study was to assess the establishment success of an invasive exotic species in response to climate change-associated changes in resource availability (CO2 levels and soil water availability) as a result of extreme drought. We grew grassland mesocosms consisting of four co-occurring native grass species common to the Cumberland Plain Woodland of western Sydney, Australia, under ambient and elevated CO2 levels and subjected them to an extreme drought treatment. We then added seeds of a highly invasive C3 grass, Ehrharta erecta, and assessed its establishment success (biomass production and reproductive output). We found that reduced biomass production of the native grasses in response to the extreme drought treatment enhanced the establishment success of E. erecta by creating resource pulses in light and space. Surprisingly, CO2 level did not affect the establishment success of E. erecta. Our results suggest that the invasion risk of grasslands in the future may be coupled to soil water availability and the subsequent response of resident native vegetation therefore making it strongly context- dependent. PMID:26780256

  5. Genetic variation and variation in aggressiveness to native and exotic hosts among Brazilian populations of Ceratocystis fimbriata.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Thomas C; Thorpe, Daniel J; Alfenas, Acelino C

    2011-05-01

    Ceratocystis fimbriata is a complex of many species that cause wilt and cankers on woody plants and rot of storage roots or corms of many economically important crops worldwide. In Brazil, C. fimbriata infects different cultivated crop plants that are not native to Brazil, including Gmelina arborea, Eucalyptus spp., Mangifera indica (mango), Ficus carica (fig), and Colocasia esculenta (inhame). Phylogenetic analyses and inoculation studies were performed to test the hypothesis that there are host-specialized lineages of C. fimbriata in Brazil. The internal transcribed spacer region ribosomal DNA sequences varied greatly but there was little resolution of lineages based on these sequences. A portion of the MAT1-2 mating type gene showed less variation, and this variation corresponded more closely with host of origin. However, mango isolates were found scattered throughout the tree. Inoculation experiments on the five exotic hosts showed substantial variation in aggressiveness within and among pathogen populations. Native hosts from the same families as the exotic hosts tended to be less susceptible than the cultivated hosts, but there was little correlation between aggressiveness to the cultivated and native hosts of the same family. Cultivation and vegetative propagation of exotic crops may select for strains that are particularly aggressive on those crops. PMID:21190423

  6. Plant species' origin predicts dominance and response to nutrient enrichment and herbivores in global grasslands.

    PubMed

    Seabloom, Eric W; Borer, Elizabeth T; Buckley, Yvonne M; Cleland, Elsa E; Davies, Kendi F; Firn, Jennifer; Harpole, W Stanley; Hautier, Yann; Lind, Eric M; MacDougall, Andrew S; Orrock, John L; Prober, Suzanne M; Adler, Peter B; Anderson, T Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D; Biederman, Lori A; Blumenthal, Dana M; Brown, Cynthia S; Brudvig, Lars A; Cadotte, Marc; Chu, Chengjin; Cottingham, Kathryn L; Crawley, Michael J; Damschen, Ellen I; Dantonio, Carla M; DeCrappeo, Nicole M; Du, Guozhen; Fay, Philip A; Frater, Paul; Gruner, Daniel S; Hagenah, Nicole; Hector, Andy; Hillebrand, Helmut; Hofmockel, Kirsten S; Humphries, Hope C; Jin, Virginia L; Kay, Adam; Kirkman, Kevin P; Klein, Julia A; Knops, Johannes M H; La Pierre, Kimberly J; Ladwig, Laura; Lambrinos, John G; Li, Qi; Li, Wei; Marushia, Robin; McCulley, Rebecca L; Melbourne, Brett A; Mitchell, Charles E; Moore, Joslin L; Morgan, John; Mortensen, Brent; O'Halloran, Lydia R; Pyke, David A; Risch, Anita C; Sankaran, Mahesh; Schuetz, Martin; Simonsen, Anna; Smith, Melinda D; Stevens, Carly J; Sullivan, Lauren; Wolkovich, Elizabeth; Wragg, Peter D; Wright, Justin; Yang, Louie

    2015-07-15

    Exotic species dominate many communities; however the functional significance of species' biogeographic origin remains highly contentious. This debate is fuelled in part by the lack of globally replicated, systematic data assessing the relationship between species provenance, function and response to perturbations. We examined the abundance of native and exotic plant species at 64 grasslands in 13 countries, and at a subset of the sites we experimentally tested native and exotic species responses to two fundamental drivers of invasion, mineral nutrient supplies and vertebrate herbivory. Exotic species are six times more likely to dominate communities than native species. Furthermore, while experimental nutrient addition increases the cover and richness of exotic species, nutrients decrease native diversity and cover. Native and exotic species also differ in their response to vertebrate consumer exclusion. These results suggest that species origin has functional significance, and that eutrophication will lead to increased exotic dominance in grasslands.

  7. Plant species' origin predicts dominance and response to nutrient enrichment and herbivores in global grasslands.

    PubMed

    Seabloom, Eric W; Borer, Elizabeth T; Buckley, Yvonne M; Cleland, Elsa E; Davies, Kendi F; Firn, Jennifer; Harpole, W Stanley; Hautier, Yann; Lind, Eric M; MacDougall, Andrew S; Orrock, John L; Prober, Suzanne M; Adler, Peter B; Anderson, T Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D; Biederman, Lori A; Blumenthal, Dana M; Brown, Cynthia S; Brudvig, Lars A; Cadotte, Marc; Chu, Chengjin; Cottingham, Kathryn L; Crawley, Michael J; Damschen, Ellen I; Dantonio, Carla M; DeCrappeo, Nicole M; Du, Guozhen; Fay, Philip A; Frater, Paul; Gruner, Daniel S; Hagenah, Nicole; Hector, Andy; Hillebrand, Helmut; Hofmockel, Kirsten S; Humphries, Hope C; Jin, Virginia L; Kay, Adam; Kirkman, Kevin P; Klein, Julia A; Knops, Johannes M H; La Pierre, Kimberly J; Ladwig, Laura; Lambrinos, John G; Li, Qi; Li, Wei; Marushia, Robin; McCulley, Rebecca L; Melbourne, Brett A; Mitchell, Charles E; Moore, Joslin L; Morgan, John; Mortensen, Brent; O'Halloran, Lydia R; Pyke, David A; Risch, Anita C; Sankaran, Mahesh; Schuetz, Martin; Simonsen, Anna; Smith, Melinda D; Stevens, Carly J; Sullivan, Lauren; Wolkovich, Elizabeth; Wragg, Peter D; Wright, Justin; Yang, Louie

    2015-01-01

    Exotic species dominate many communities; however the functional significance of species' biogeographic origin remains highly contentious. This debate is fuelled in part by the lack of globally replicated, systematic data assessing the relationship between species provenance, function and response to perturbations. We examined the abundance of native and exotic plant species at 64 grasslands in 13 countries, and at a subset of the sites we experimentally tested native and exotic species responses to two fundamental drivers of invasion, mineral nutrient supplies and vertebrate herbivory. Exotic species are six times more likely to dominate communities than native species. Furthermore, while experimental nutrient addition increases the cover and richness of exotic species, nutrients decrease native diversity and cover. Native and exotic species also differ in their response to vertebrate consumer exclusion. These results suggest that species origin has functional significance, and that eutrophication will lead to increased exotic dominance in grasslands. PMID:26173623

  8. Plant species' origin predicts dominance and response to nutrient enrichment and herbivores in global grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Seabloom, Eric W.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Cleland, Elsa E.; Davies, Kendi F.; Firn, Jennifer; Harpole, W. Stanley; Hautier, Yann; Lind, Eric M.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Orrock, John L.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Adler, Peter B.; Anderson, T. Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Biederman, Lori A.; Blumenthal, Dana M.; Brown, Cynthia S.; Brudvig, Lars A.; Cadotte, Marc; Chu, Chengjin; Cottingham, Kathryn L.; Crawley, Michael J.; Damschen, Ellen I.; Dantonio, Carla M.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Du, Guozhen; Fay, Philip A.; Frater, Paul; Gruner, Daniel S.; Hagenah, Nicole; Hector, Andy; Hillebrand, Helmut; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.; Humphries, Hope C.; Jin, Virginia L.; Kay, Adam; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Klein, Julia A.; Knops, Johannes M. H.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Ladwig, Laura; Lambrinos, John G.; Li, Qi; Li, Wei; Marushia, Robin; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Moore, Joslin L.; Morgan, John; Mortensen, Brent; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Pyke, David A.; Risch, Anita C.; Sankaran, Mahesh; Schuetz, Martin; Simonsen, Anna; Smith, Melinda D.; Stevens, Carly J.; Sullivan, Lauren; Wolkovich, Elizabeth; Wragg, Peter D.; Wright, Justin; Yang, Louie

    2015-01-01

    Exotic species dominate many communities; however the functional significance of species' biogeographic origin remains highly contentious. This debate is fuelled in part by the lack of globally replicated, systematic data assessing the relationship between species provenance, function and response to perturbations. We examined the abundance of native and exotic plant species at 64 grasslands in 13 countries, and at a subset of the sites we experimentally tested native and exotic species responses to two fundamental drivers of invasion, mineral nutrient supplies and vertebrate herbivory. Exotic species are six times more likely to dominate communities than native species. Furthermore, while experimental nutrient addition increases the cover and richness of exotic species, nutrients decrease native diversity and cover. Native and exotic species also differ in their response to vertebrate consumer exclusion. These results suggest that species origin has functional significance, and that eutrophication will lead to increased exotic dominance in grasslands. PMID:26173623

  9. Measurement of air dose rates over a wide area around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant through a series of car-borne surveys.

    PubMed

    Andoh, Masaki; Nakahara, Yukio; Tsuda, Shuichi; Yoshida, Tadayoshi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Mikami, Satoshi; Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Sato, Tetsuro; Tanigaki, Minoru; Takamiya, Koichi; Sato, Nobuhiro; Okumura, Ryo; Uchihori, Yukio; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-01-01

    A series of car-borne surveys using the Kyoto University RAdiation MApping (KURAMA) and KURAMA-II survey systems has been conducted over a wide area in eastern Japan since June 2011 to evaluate the distribution of air dose rates around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant and to evaluate the time-dependent trend of decrease in air dose rates. An automated data processing system for the KURAMA-II system was established, which enabled rapid analysis of large amounts of data obtained using about 100 KURAMA-II units. The initial data used for evaluating the migration status of radioactive cesium were obtained in the first survey, followed by other car-borne surveys conducted over more extensive and wider measurement ranges. By comparing the measured air dose rates obtained in each survey (until December 2012), the decreasing trend of air dose rates measured through car-borne surveys was found to be more pronounced than those expected on the basis of the physical decay of radioactive cesium and of the air dose rates measured using NaI (Tl) survey meters in the areas surrounding the roadways. In addition, it was found that the extent of decrease in air dose rates depended on land use, wherein it decreased faster for land used as building sites than for forested areas. PMID:24951121

  10. Measurement of air dose rates over a wide area around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant through a series of car-borne surveys.

    PubMed

    Andoh, Masaki; Nakahara, Yukio; Tsuda, Shuichi; Yoshida, Tadayoshi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Mikami, Satoshi; Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Sato, Tetsuro; Tanigaki, Minoru; Takamiya, Koichi; Sato, Nobuhiro; Okumura, Ryo; Uchihori, Yukio; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-01-01

    A series of car-borne surveys using the Kyoto University RAdiation MApping (KURAMA) and KURAMA-II survey systems has been conducted over a wide area in eastern Japan since June 2011 to evaluate the distribution of air dose rates around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant and to evaluate the time-dependent trend of decrease in air dose rates. An automated data processing system for the KURAMA-II system was established, which enabled rapid analysis of large amounts of data obtained using about 100 KURAMA-II units. The initial data used for evaluating the migration status of radioactive cesium were obtained in the first survey, followed by other car-borne surveys conducted over more extensive and wider measurement ranges. By comparing the measured air dose rates obtained in each survey (until December 2012), the decreasing trend of air dose rates measured through car-borne surveys was found to be more pronounced than those expected on the basis of the physical decay of radioactive cesium and of the air dose rates measured using NaI (Tl) survey meters in the areas surrounding the roadways. In addition, it was found that the extent of decrease in air dose rates depended on land use, wherein it decreased faster for land used as building sites than for forested areas.

  11. Nest success and reproductive ecology of the Texas Botteri’s Sparrow (Peucaea botterii texana) in exotic and native grasses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Katherine S.; McCarthy, Erin M.; Woodin, Marc C.; Withers, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Very little information is available for Peucaea botterii texana (Texas Botteri’s Sparrow) and nothing is known about its nesting ecology, in part due to its cryptic behavior and nesting strategies. Our goal was to examine the nesting ecology of Texas Botteri’s Sparrows and compare reproductive success between exotic and native grass- lands. We searched for and monitored nests in 2004 and 2005 on the King Ranch in southern Texas. We found no relationship in reproductive effort, nest characteristics, and plant species richness around the nest between grassland types. Vegetation surrounding Texas Botteri's Sparrow nests was significantly taller and denser in native grasslands than in exotic grasslands. Further research on nesting ecology for the Texas Botteri’s Sparrow is necessary to determine its habitat needs and its role as an indicator of grassland quality.

  12. Prevalence of coccidiosis among village and exotic breed of chickens in Maiduguri, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Lawal, Jallailudeen Rabana; Jajere, Saleh Mohammed; Ibrahim, Umar Isa; Geidam, Yaqub Ahmed; Gulani, Isa Adamu; Musa, Gambo; Ibekwe, Benjamin U.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Coccidiosis is an important enteric parasitic disease of poultry associated with significant economic losses to poultry farmers worldwide. This survey was conducted from June 2014 through July 2015 with the main goal of investigating the prevalence and associated risk factors of coccidiosis among village and exotic breeds of chickens in Maiduguri, Northeastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 600 fecal samples from live and slaughtered birds comprising 284 young, 141, growers and 175 adult birds; 379 male and 221 female birds; 450 exotic and 150 local breeds of birds were randomly collected either as bird’s fresh droppings or cutting open an eviscerated intestine of slaughtered birds, while noting their age, sex, and breeds. Samples were analyzed using standard parasitological methods and techniques. Results: An overall prevalence rate of 31.8% (95% confidence interval: 28.07-35.52) was obtained. Higher prevalence rates were recorded in growing birds 58.9% (50.78-67.02), female birds 35.3% (29.00-41.60), exotic birds 42.4% (37.83-46.97), and broiler birds 68.7% (61.28-76.12). Similarly, higher infection rates were also observed among birds sampled from Mairi ward 66.7% (56.03-77.37), intensive management system 46.5% (41.61-51.39), and constructed local cages 54.0% (46.02-61.98). The difference in prevalence of coccidiosis among age groups, breeds, among exotic breeds, sampling sites, husbandry management systems, and litter management systems was statistically significant (<0.0001). However, no significant difference (p>0.05) of infection rates was observed in sex. Conclusion: Coccidiosis is endemic in both commercial and backyard poultry farms in Maiduguri due to poor management practices encouraging Eimeria oocysts build-up. It is therefore, recommended that poultry farmers should practice strict biosecurity measures on their farms, creating awareness on the prevalence of coccidiosis, routine vaccination against coccidiosis and educating poultry

  13. Production of 199Ir via Exotic Nucleon Transfer Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kui; J, S. Lilley; P, V. Drumm; D, D. Warner; R, A. Cunningham; J, N. Mo

    1993-05-01

    A new nucleus 199Ir has been produced using the exotic transfer reaction 198Pt(18O, 17F)199Ir at 140 MeV. The mass of 199Ir has been measured by the determination of the reaction Q value. Its mass excess is -24.424 ± 0.034 MeV.

  14. Children prioritize virtual exotic biodiversity over local biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Ballouard, Jean-Marie; Brischoux, François; Bonnet, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Environmental education is essential to stem current dramatic biodiversity loss, and childhood is considered as the key period for developing awareness and positive attitudes toward nature. Children are strongly influenced by the media, notably the internet, about biodiversity and conservation issues. However, most media focus on a few iconic, appealing, and usually exotic species. In addition, virtual activities are replacing field experiences. This situation may curb children knowledge and concerns about local biodiversity. Focusing our analyses on local versus exotic species, we examined the level of knowledge and the level of diversity of the animals that French schoolchildren are willing to protect, and whether these perceptions are mainly guided by information available in the internet. For that, we collected and compared two complementary data sets: 1) a questionnaire was administered to schoolchildren to assess their knowledge and consideration to protect animals, 2) an internet content analysis (i.e. Google searching sessions using keywords) was performed to assess which animals are the most often represented. Our results suggest that the knowledge of children and their consideration to protect animal are mainly limited to internet contents, represented by a few exotic and charismatic species. The identification rate of local animals by schoolchildren was meager, suggesting a worrying disconnection from their local environment. Schoolchildren were more prone to protect "virtual" (unseen, exotic) rather than local animal species. Our results reinforce the message that environmental education must also focus on outdoor activities to develop conservation consciousness and concerns about local biodiversity.

  15. Children Prioritize Virtual Exotic Biodiversity over Local Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Ballouard, Jean-Marie; Brischoux, François; Bonnet, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Environmental education is essential to stem current dramatic biodiversity loss, and childhood is considered as the key period for developing awareness and positive attitudes toward nature. Children are strongly influenced by the media, notably the internet, about biodiversity and conservation issues. However, most media focus on a few iconic, appealing, and usually exotic species. In addition, virtual activities are replacing field experiences. This situation may curb children knowledge and concerns about local biodiversity. Focusing our analyses on local versus exotic species, we examined the level of knowledge and the level of diversity of the animals that French schoolchildren are willing to protect, and whether these perceptions are mainly guided by information available in the internet. For that, we collected and compared two complementary data sets: 1) a questionnaire was administered to schoolchildren to assess their knowledge and consideration to protect animals, 2) an internet content analysis (i.e. Google searching sessions using keywords) was performed to assess which animals are the most often represented. Our results suggest that the knowledge of children and their consideration to protect animal are mainly limited to internet contents, represented by a few exotic and charismatic species. The identification rate of local animals by schoolchildren was meager, suggesting a worrying disconnection from their local environment. Schoolchildren were more prone to protect “virtual” (unseen, exotic) rather than local animal species. Our results reinforce the message that environmental education must also focus on outdoor activities to develop conservation consciousness and concerns about local biodiversity. PMID:21829710

  16. On the exotic Higgs decays in effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bélusca-Maïto, Hermès; Falkowski, Adam

    2016-09-01

    We discuss exotic Higgs decays in an effective field theory where the Standard Model is extended by dimension-6 operators. We review and update the status of two-body lepton- and quark-flavor-violating decays involving the Higgs boson. We also comment on the possibility of observing three-body flavor-violating Higgs decays in this context.

  17. A RICH counter for trigger and detection of exotic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nóbrega, R.; Sonderegger, P.; Varela, J.

    1996-02-01

    This paper reports on the study of a RICH detector for SQUASH, an exotic particles search. We start by describing the physics problem we want to address, proceed with the experimental setup that could solve it and finally present some results obtained by simulation.

  18. A common-garden study of resource-island effects on a native and an exotic, annual grass after fire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoover, Amber N.; Germino, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Plant-soil variation related to perennial-plant resource islands (coppices) interspersed with relatively bare interspaces is a major source of heterogeneity in desert rangelands. Our objective was to determine how native and exotic grasses vary on coppice mounds and interspaces (microsites) in unburned and burned sites and underlying factors that contribute to the variation in sagebrush-steppe rangelands of the Idaho National Lab, where interspaces typically have abiotic crusts. We asked how the exotic cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) and native bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata [Pursh] A. Löve) were distributed among the microsites and measured their abundances in three replicate wildfires and nearby unburned areas. We conducted a common-garden study in which soil cores from each burned microsite type were planted with seed of either species to determine microsite effects on establishment and growth of native and exotic grasses. We assessed soil physical properties in the common-garden study to determine the intrinsic properties of each microsite surface and the retention of microsite soil differences following transfer of soils to the garden, to plant growth, and to wetting/drying cycles. In the field study, only bluebunch wheatgrass density was greater on coppice mounds than interspaces, in both unburned and burned areas. In the common-garden experiment, there were microsite differences in soil physical properties, particularly in crust hardness and its relationship to moisture, but soil properties were unaffected by plant growth. Also in the experiment, both species had equal densities yet greater dry mass production on coppice-mound soils compared to interspace soils, suggesting microsite differences in growth but not establishment (likely related to crust weakening resulting from watering). Coppice-interspace patterning and specifically native-herb recovery on coppices is likely important for postfire resistance of this rangeland to cheatgrass.

  19. 9 CFR 352.3 - Application by official exotic animal establishment for inspection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... establishment for inspection services. 352.3 Section 352.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... INSPECTION Exotic Animals § 352.3 Application by official exotic animal establishment for inspection services... meat food products in an establishment under exotic animal inspection service must receive approval...

  20. 9 CFR 352.3 - Application by official exotic animal establishment for inspection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... establishment for inspection services. 352.3 Section 352.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... INSPECTION Exotic Animals § 352.3 Application by official exotic animal establishment for inspection services... meat food products in an establishment under exotic animal inspection service must receive approval...

  1. 9 CFR 352.3 - Application by official exotic animal establishment for inspection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... establishment for inspection services. 352.3 Section 352.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... INSPECTION Exotic Animals § 352.3 Application by official exotic animal establishment for inspection services... meat food products in an establishment under exotic animal inspection service must receive approval...

  2. 9 CFR 352.3 - Application by official exotic animal establishment for inspection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... establishment for inspection services. 352.3 Section 352.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... INSPECTION Exotic Animals § 352.3 Application by official exotic animal establishment for inspection services... meat food products in an establishment under exotic animal inspection service must receive approval...

  3. 9 CFR 352.3 - Application by official exotic animal establishment for inspection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... establishment for inspection services. 352.3 Section 352.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... INSPECTION Exotic Animals § 352.3 Application by official exotic animal establishment for inspection services... meat food products in an establishment under exotic animal inspection service must receive approval...

  4. Exotic Meson Spectroscopy in Pion-Proton Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Gary

    2000-10-01

    Although the form of the QCD Lagrangian is well established, the structure of the low lying hadrons is still an open question. The existence of gluonic states has emerged as one of the most promising avenues for further study. Lattice gauge calculations of hybrid meson masses lead one to believe that there should be numerous states below 2.5 GeV/c^2 in mass.[1] Flux-tube model predictions suggest that many of these states should have decay widths comparable to those of other mesons.[2] The predictions for exotic hybrids, for example those with J^pc= 1^-+, are particularly noteworthy since those states are excluded in the conventional quark-model picture for mesons. Previous attempts to locate these exotic states met with rather limited success. The present experiment, E852 at Brookhaven National Laboratory, has carried out a high-statistics search for exotic mesons by measuring multi-meson final-state decays. The measurements were made with 18 GeV negative pions incident on a proton target. Partial wave analyses of the exclusive final states allow one to extract resonance parameters even in the presence of many overlapping states. The results of these fits demonstrate the existence of isovector exotic mesons at 1.4 and 1.6 GeV/c^2. The latter state dominates the η 'π ^- decay spectrum. The data on η π ^+ π ^-π ^- decay show large strength in several exotic waves as well. 1. C. Bernard, et al., Phys.Rev. D56, 7039 (1997); P. Lacock, et al., Phys. Lett. B401, 308 (1997). 2. N. Isgur and J. Paton, Phys. Rev. D31, 2910 (1985); T. Barnes, F.E. Close and E.S. Swanson, Phys. Rev. D52, 5242 (1995).

  5. Endemic and exotic tropical forests of Réunion Island observed by airborne lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Xiaoxia; Chazette, Patrick; Totems, Julien; Dieudonné, Elsa; Hamonou, Eric; Duflot, Valentin; Strasberg, Dominique; Flores, Olivier; Fournel, Jacques; Tulet, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Tropical forests are vital ecosystems widely threatened across the globe and yet remain the most difficult forest type to document. They are strongly perturbed by anthropogenic activities, which lead to coexistence of endemic and exotic tree species. We present an experiment performed over Réunion Island in May 2014, on sites ranging from coastal to rain forest, including tropical montane cloud forest as found on the Bélouve plateau. Réunion Island is home to the last remnants of primary tropical forest in the Mascarene archipelago, and still shelters significant biodiversity. Three key ecological parameters have been extracted from the lidar measurements: the canopy height (CH), the forest leaf area index (LAI) and the apparent foliage profile. The mean values of estimated LAI are between ~5 and 8 m2/m2 and the mean CH values are ~15 m for both tropical montane cloud and rain forests. Good agreement is found between Lidar- and MODIS-derived LAI for moderate LAI, but the LAI retrieved from lidar is larger than MODIS on rain forest sites (~8 against ~6 m2/m2 from MODIS). Regarding the characterization of tropical biomes, we show that the rain and montane tropical forests can be well distinguished from the planted forests by the use of the three ecological parameters retrieved, as the endemic and exotic forests can also be well distinguished.

  6. Impact of exotic carps in the polyculture with indigenous carps: competition for food.

    PubMed

    Siddiquee, M M R; Rahman, M F; Jahan, N; Jalal, K C A; Amin, S M N; Arshad, A

    2012-06-15

    The fingerlings of indigenous carps such as catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita) and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) with exotic carps such as silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) were cultured together in a fish pond at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, in order to determine the food electivity, dietary overlap and food competition among indigenous major carps and exotic carps. Phytoplankton (Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae), zooplankton (rotifers) were the dominant groups in the cultured pond. Chlorophyceae was dominant in the diet of rohu. Chlorophyceae and rotifers were the preferred food of catla. Mrigal preferred phytoplankton than zooplankton. Rohu showed positive electivity for zooplankton. Silver carp consumed large quantity of phytoplankton and also preferred rotifers. Chlorophyceae was the dominant food group in the diet of bighead. Mirror carp also preferred plant food organisms dominated by Chlorophyceae. Bighead had positive trends towards phytoplankton. Both mrigal and mirror carp had positive electivity towards phytoplankton. The higher level of dietary overlap occurred between rohu and silver carp followed by between rohu and bighead carp and between catla and silver carp. The lowest level of dietary overlaps occurred between rohu and mirror carp. PMID:24191618

  7. Quantitative analysis of the effects of the exotic Argentine ant on seed-dispersal mutualisms

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Cabal, Mariano A.; Stuble, Katharine L.; Nuñez, Martin A.; Sanders, Nathan J.

    2009-01-01

    Although it is increasingly clear that exotic invasive species affect seed-dispersal mutualisms, a synthetic examination of the effect of exotic invasive species on seed-dispersal mutualisms is lacking. Here, we review the impacts of the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) on seed dispersal. We found that sites with L. humile had 92 per cent fewer native ant seed dispersers than did sites where L. humile was absent. In addition, L. humile did not replace native seed dispersers, as rates of seed removal and seedling establishment were all lower in the presence of L. humile than in its absence. We conclude that potential shifts in plant diversity and concomitant changes in ecosystem function may be a consequence of Argentine ant invasions, as well as invasions by other ant species. Because very few studies have examined the effects of non-ant invasive species on seed-dispersal mutualisms, the prevalence of disruption of seed-dispersal mutualisms by invasive species is unclear. PMID:19465575

  8. Responses to shading of naturalized and non-naturalized exotic woody species

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yanhao; van Kleunen, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Recent studies have suggested that responses to shading gradients may play an important role in establishment success of exotic plants, but hitherto few studies have tested this. Therefore, a common-garden experiment was conducted using multiple Asian woody plant species that were introduced to Europe >100 years ago in order to test whether naturalized and non-naturalized species differ in their responses to shading. Specifically, a test was carried out to determine whether naturalized exotic woody species maintained better growth under shaded conditions, and whether they expressed greater (morphological and physiological) adaptive plasticity in response to shading, relative to non-naturalized species. Methods Nineteen naturalized and 19 non-naturalized exotic woody species were grown under five light levels ranging from 100 to 7 % of ambient light. For all plants, growth performance (i.e. biomass), morphological and CO2 assimilation characteristics were measured. For the CO2 assimilation characteristics, CO2 assimilation rate was measured at 1200 μmol m–2 s–1 (i.e. saturated light intensity, A1200), 50 μmol m–2 s–1 (i.e. low light intensity, A50) and 0 μmol m–2 s–1 (A0, i.e. dark respiration). Key Results Overall, the naturalized and non-naturalized species did not differ greatly in biomass production and measured morphological and CO2 assimilation characteristics across the light gradient. However, it was found that naturalized species grew taller and reduced total leaf area more than non-naturalized species in response to shading. It was also found that naturalized species were more capable of maintaining a high CO2 assimilation rate at low light intensity (A50) when grown under shading. Conclusions The results indicate that there is no clear evidence that the naturalized species possess a superior response to shading over non-naturalized species, at least not at the early stage of their growth. However, the higher CO2

  9. Physiological variation among native and exotic winter annuals associated with microphytic soil crusts in the Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeFalco, Lesley; Detling, James K.; Tracy, C. Richard; Warren, Steven D.

    2001-01-01

    Microbiotic crusts are important components of many aridland soils. Research on crusts typically focuses on the increase in soil fertility due to N-fixing micro-organisms, the stabilization of soils against water and wind erosion and the impact of disturbance on N-cycling. The effect of microbiotic crusts on the associated plant community has received little attention. We quantified the influence of crusts on the production, species diversity, nutrient content and water relations of winter annual plant species associated with microbiotic soil crusts in the northeast Mojave Desert. Shoot biomass of winter annuals was 37% greater and plant density was 77% greater on crusts than were biomass and density on soils lacking crust cover (=bare soils). This greater production of annuals on crusts was likely due to enhanced soil conditions including an almost two-fold increase in soil organic matter and inorganic N compared to bare soils. Crusted soils also had 53% greater volumetric water content than bare soils during November and December, the time when winter annuals become established. As plant development progressed into spring, however, soil water availability decreased: More negative plant xylem water potentials were associated with greater plant biomass on crusted soils. Plants associated with microbiotic soil crusts had lower concentrations of N in shoots (mg N g−1 dry mass). However, total shoot N (mg N m−2) was the same in plants growing on the different soil types when biomass production peaked in April. Shoots had similar patterns in their concentration and content of P. Species diversity of annuals was not statistically different between the two soil types. Yet, while native annuals comprised the greatest proportion of shoot biomass on bare soils, exotic forbs and grasses produced more biomass on crusts. Total shoot nutrient content (biomass×concentration) of the two exotic annual species examined was dramatically greater on crusts than bare soils; only

  10. 77 FR 76065 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Recovery Plan for Kendall Warm...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ..., exotic species, grazing, hydrologic changes, invasive plants, pollution, and energy resource exploration... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Recovery Plan...-772-2374. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Restoring an endangered or threatened animal or...

  11. Negative effects of an exotic grass invasion on small-mammal communities.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Eric D; Sharp, Tiffanny R; Larsen, Randy T; Knight, Robert N; Slater, Steven J; McMillan, Brock R

    2014-01-01

    Exotic invasive species can directly and indirectly influence natural ecological communities. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) is non-native to the western United States and has invaded large areas of the Great Basin. Changes to the structure and composition of plant communities invaded by cheatgrass likely have effects at higher trophic levels. As a keystone guild in North American deserts, granivorous small mammals drive and maintain plant diversity. Our objective was to assess potential effects of invasion by cheatgrass on small-mammal communities. We sampled small-mammal and plant communities at 70 sites (Great Basin, Utah). We assessed abundance and diversity of the small-mammal community, diversity of the plant community, and the percentage of cheatgrass cover and shrub species. Abundance and diversity of the small-mammal community decreased with increasing abundance of cheatgrass. Similarly, cover of cheatgrass remained a significant predictor of small-mammal abundance even after accounting for the loss of the shrub layer and plant diversity, suggesting that there are direct and indirect effects of cheatgrass. The change in the small-mammal communities associated with invasion of cheatgrass likely has effects through higher and lower trophic levels and has the potential to cause major changes in ecosystem structure and function.

  12. Bovicola tibialis (Phthiraptera:Trichodectidae): occurrence of an exotic chewing louse on cervids in North America.

    PubMed

    Mertins, James W; Mortenson, Jack A; Bernatowicz, Jeffrey A; Hall, P Briggs

    2011-01-01

    Through a recent (2003-2007) survey of ectoparasites on hoofed mammals in western North America, a literature review, and examination of archived museum specimens, we found that the exotic deer-chewing louse, Bovicola tibialis (Piaget), is a long-term, widespread resident in the region. The earliest known collection was from Salt Spring Island, Canada, in 1941. We found these lice on the typical host, that is, introduced European fallow deer (Dama dama L.), and on Asian chital (Axis axis [Erxleben] ), native Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus [Richardson] ), and Rocky Mountain mule deer (O. h. hemionus [Rafinesque]) x black-tailed deer hybrids. Chital and the hybrid deer are new host records. All identified hosts were known to be or probably were exposed to fallow deer. Geographic records include southwestern British Columbia, Canada; Marin and Mendocino Counties, California; Deschutes, Lincoln, and Linn Counties, Oregon; Yakima and Kittitas Counties, Washington; Curry County, New Mexico; and circumstantially, at least, Kerr County, Texas. All but the Canadian and Mendocino County records are new. Bovicola tibialis displays a number of noteworthy similarities to another exotic deer-chewing louse already established in the region, that is, Damalinia (Cervicola) sp., which is associated with a severe hair-loss syndrome in black-tailed deer. We discuss longstanding problems with proper identification of B. tibialis, the probability that it occurs even more widely in the United States, and the prospects for it to cause health problems for North American deer. Additional information gathered since our active survey establishes further new distribution and host records for B. tibialis. PMID:21337942

  13. Bovicola tibialis (Phthiraptera:Trichodectidae): occurrence of an exotic chewing louse on cervids in North America.

    PubMed

    Mertins, James W; Mortenson, Jack A; Bernatowicz, Jeffrey A; Hall, P Briggs

    2011-01-01

    Through a recent (2003-2007) survey of ectoparasites on hoofed mammals in western North America, a literature review, and examination of archived museum specimens, we found that the exotic deer-chewing louse, Bovicola tibialis (Piaget), is a long-term, widespread resident in the region. The earliest known collection was from Salt Spring Island, Canada, in 1941. We found these lice on the typical host, that is, introduced European fallow deer (Dama dama L.), and on Asian chital (Axis axis [Erxleben] ), native Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus [Richardson] ), and Rocky Mountain mule deer (O. h. hemionus [Rafinesque]) x black-tailed deer hybrids. Chital and the hybrid deer are new host records. All identified hosts were known to be or probably were exposed to fallow deer. Geographic records include southwestern British Columbia, Canada; Marin and Mendocino Counties, California; Deschutes, Lincoln, and Linn Counties, Oregon; Yakima and Kittitas Counties, Washington; Curry County, New Mexico; and circumstantially, at least, Kerr County, Texas. All but the Canadian and Mendocino County records are new. Bovicola tibialis displays a number of noteworthy similarities to another exotic deer-chewing louse already established in the region, that is, Damalinia (Cervicola) sp., which is associated with a severe hair-loss syndrome in black-tailed deer. We discuss longstanding problems with proper identification of B. tibialis, the probability that it occurs even more widely in the United States, and the prospects for it to cause health problems for North American deer. Additional information gathered since our active survey establishes further new distribution and host records for B. tibialis.

  14. The level of air pollution in the impact zone of coal-fired power plant (Karaganda City) using the data of geochemical snow survey (Republic of Kazakhstan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adil'bayeva, T. E.; Talovskaya, A. V.; Yazikov, Ye G.; Matveenko, I. A.

    2016-09-01

    Coal-fired power plants emissions impact the air quality and human health. Of great significance is assessment of solid airborne particles emissions from those plants and distance of their transportation. The article presents the results of air pollution assessment in the zone of coal-fired power plant (Karaganda City) using snow survey. Based on the mass of solid airborne particles deposited in snow, time of their deposition on snow at the distance from 0.5 to 4.5 km a value of dust load has been determined. It is stated that very high level of pollution is observed at the distance from 0.5 to 1 km. there is a trend in decrease of dust burden value with the distance from the stacks of coal-fired power plant that may be conditioned by the particle size and washing out smaller ash particles by ice pellets forming at freezing water vapour in stacks of the coal-fired power plant. Study in composition of solid airborne particles deposited in snow has shown that they mainly contain particulates of underburnt coal, Al-Si- rich spheres, Fe-rich spheres, and coal dust. The content of the particles in samples decreases with the distance from the stacks of the coal-fired power plant.

  15. Native plant and microbial contributions to a negative plant-plant interaction.

    PubMed

    Bains, Gurdeep; Kumar, Amutha Sampath; Rudrappa, Thimmaraju; Alff, Emily; Hanson, Thomas E; Bais, Harsh P

    2009-12-01

    A number of hypotheses have been suggested to explain why invasive exotic plants dramatically increase their abundance upon transport to a new range. The novel weapons hypothesis argues that phytotoxins secreted by roots of an exotic plant are more effective against naïve resident competitors in the range being invaded. The common reed Phragmites australis has a diverse population structure including invasive populations that are noxious weeds in North America. P. australis exudes the common phenolic gallic acid, which restricts the growth of native plants. However, the pathway for free gallic acid production in soils colonized by P. australis requires further elucidation. Here, we show that exotic, invasive P. australis contain elevated levels of polymeric gallotannin relative to native, noninvasive P. australis. We hypothesized that polymeric gallotannin can be attacked by tannase, an enzymatic activity produced by native plant and microbial community members, to release gallic acid in the rhizosphere and exacerbate the noxiousness of P. australis. Native plants and microbes were found to produce high levels of tannase while invasive P. australis produced very little tannase. These results suggest that both invasive and native species participate in signaling events that initiate the execution of allelopathy potentially linking native plant and microbial biochemistry to the invasive traits of an exotic species.

  16. Mapping plant invadedness in watersheds across the continental United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exotic aquatic plant invasions trigger a cascade of negative effects, resulting in altered structure and function of freshwater ecosystems, loss of native biodiversity, and reduction of valuable ecosystem services such as recreation and water quality. The problem of biological in...

  17. The accidental release of exotic species from breeding colonies and zoological collections.

    PubMed

    Barrat, J; Richomme, C; Moinet, M

    2010-04-01

    Exotic species have often been introduced into a new country in zoological or botanical gardens or on game and fur farms. When accidentally or deliberately released, these alien species can become invasive and have negative impacts on native plant and animal communities and human activities. This article focuses on a selection of such invasive species: principally the American mink (Neovison vison), but also the coypu (Myocastor coypus), muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), raccoon (Procyon lotor) and African sacred ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus). In each of these cases, the authors describe the biological characteristics and life history of the species, in relation to its invasive capacity, the origins and establishment of non-native populations, the environmental consequences and possible control measures. The main negative impacts observed are the destruction of habitat, the introduction and/or spread of pathogens and changes in the composition of native communities with consequent effects on biodiversity. PMID:20617652

  18. Exotic Small Mammals as Potential Reservoirs of Zoonotic Bartonella spp.

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kai; Kabeya, Hidenori; Hagiya, Keiko; Izumi, Yasuhito; Une, Yumi; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the risk for emerging human infections caused by zoonotic Bartonella spp. from exotic small mammals, we investigated the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in 546 small mammals (28 species) that had been imported into Japan as pets from Asia, North America, Europe, and the Middle and Near East. We obtained 407 Bartonella isolates and characterized them by molecular phylogenetic analysis of the citrate synthase gene, gltA. The animals examined carried 4 zoonotic Bartonella spp. that cause human endocarditis and neuroretinitis and 6 novel Bartonella spp. at a high prevalence (26.0%, 142/546). We conclude that exotic small mammals potentially serve as reservoirs of several zoonotic Bartonella spp. PMID:19331727

  19. Highly charged ions in exotic atoms research at PSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostopoulos, D. F.; Biri, S.; Boisbourdain, V.; Demeter, M.; Borchert, G.; Egger, J. P.; Fuhrmann, H.; Gotta, D.; Gruber, A.; Hennebach, M.; Indelicato, P.; Liu, Y. W.; Manil, B.; Markushin, V. E.; Marton, H.; Nelms, N.; Rusi El Hassani, A. J.; Simons, L. M.; Stingelin, L.; Wasser, A.; Wells, A.; Zmeskal, J.

    2003-05-01

    During their de-excitation, exotic atoms formed in low pressure gases reach a state of high or even complete ionization. X-rays emitted from higher n-states of electron-free atoms have well defined energies with the error originating only from the error in the mass values of the constituent particles. They served as a basis for a new determination of the pion mass as well as for a high precision measurement of the pionic hydrogen ground state shift. The response function of the Bragg spectrometer has been determined with X-rays from completely ionized pionic carbon and with a dedicated electron cyclotron resonance ion trap (ECRIT). A further extension of the ECRIT method implemented in the experiment allows a direct calibration of exotic atom transitions as well as a precise determination of the energy of fluorescence lines.

  20. Search for exotic short-range interactions using paramagnetic insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Pinghan; Weisman, E.; Liu, C. -Y.; Long, J. C.

    2015-05-26

    We describe a proposed experimental search for exotic spin-coupled interactions using a solid-state paramagnetic insulator. The experiment is sensitive to the net magnetization induced by the exotic interaction between the unpaired insulator electrons with a dense, nonmagnetic mass in close proximity. An existing experiment has been used to set limits on the electric dipole moment of the electron by probing the magnetization induced in a cryogenic gadolinium gallium garnet sample on application of a strong electric field. With suitable additions, including a movable source mass, this experiment can be used to explore “monopole-dipole” forces on polarized electrons with unique or unprecedented sensitivity. As a result, the solid-state, nonmagnetic construction, combined with the low-noise conditions and extremely sensitive magnetometry available at cryogenic temperatures could lead to a sensitivity over 10 orders of magnitude greater than exiting limits in the range below 1 mm.

  1. Search for exotic short-range interactions using paramagnetic insulators

    DOE PAGES

    Chu, Pinghan; Weisman, E.; Liu, C. -Y.; Long, J. C.

    2015-05-26

    We describe a proposed experimental search for exotic spin-coupled interactions using a solid-state paramagnetic insulator. The experiment is sensitive to the net magnetization induced by the exotic interaction between the unpaired insulator electrons with a dense, nonmagnetic mass in close proximity. An existing experiment has been used to set limits on the electric dipole moment of the electron by probing the magnetization induced in a cryogenic gadolinium gallium garnet sample on application of a strong electric field. With suitable additions, including a movable source mass, this experiment can be used to explore “monopole-dipole” forces on polarized electrons with unique ormore » unprecedented sensitivity. As a result, the solid-state, nonmagnetic construction, combined with the low-noise conditions and extremely sensitive magnetometry available at cryogenic temperatures could lead to a sensitivity over 10 orders of magnitude greater than exiting limits in the range below 1 mm.« less

  2. Excited and exotic charmonium spectroscopy from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Liuming Liu, Graham Moir, Michael Peardon, Sinead Ryan, Christopher Thomas, Pol Vilaseca, Jozef Dudek, Robert Edwards, Balint Joo, David Richards

    2012-07-01

    We present a spectrum of highly excited charmonium mesons up to around 4.5 GeV calculated using dynamical lattice QCD. Employing novel computational techniques and the variational method with a large basis of carefully constructed operators, we extract and reliably identify the continuum spin of an extensive set of excited states, states with exotic quantum numbers (0+-, 1-+, 2+-) and states with high spin. Calculations are performed on two lattice volumes with pion mass ? 400 MeV and the mass determinations have high statistical precision even for excited states. We discuss the results in light of experimental observations, identify the lightest 'supermultiplet' of hybrid mesons and comment on the phenomenological implications of the spectrum of exotic mesons.

  3. Towards a Deeper Understanding of the Nucleus with Exotic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormand, Erich

    2006-10-01

    Despite more than fifty years of study, many questions about now nuclei are put together remain. While nuclei near the valley of stability have provided a wealth of information, they are not sufficient to provide us with a comprehensive and unified description of the nucleus. Especially lacking is an accurate picture of those exotic species that are the basis of cosmic alchemy. The missing pieces in the puzzle can be filled in with a determined experimental and theoretical effort focusing on nuclei lying far from the valley of stability. Here, I will outline the intellectual challenges that can be addressed by proposed exotic-beam facilities, and how new experimental data will quide and refine theoretical descriptions of the nucleus.

  4. 9 CFR 352.8 - Time of inspection in the field and in an official exotic animal establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION EXOTIC ANIMALS AND HORSES; VOLUNTARY INSPECTION Exotic Animals § 352.8 Time of inspection in the field and in an official exotic animal... an official exotic animal establishment. 352.8 Section 352.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD...

  5. Exotic orientifolds in non-geometric flux cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Damian, Cesar; Loaiza-Brito, Oscar

    2013-07-23

    We report on the existence of a stable de Sitter vacum in Type IIB non-geometric string compactification on an isotropic tours with orientifold 3-planes in the presence of odd integer 3-form fluxes. These fluxes yields the presence of exotic orientifold 3-planes increasing the size of the flux configuration space. We also find that there exist suitable conditions for multi-field inflation driven by the Kähler and axio-dilaton moduli.

  6. Gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology of select exotic companion mammals.

    PubMed

    Kohles, Micah

    2014-05-01

    The anatomy and gastrointestinal physiology of rabbits, guinea pigs, and chinchillas are different from those of other exotic companion mammals. Rabbits, guinea pigs, and chinchillas are all concentrate selectors, hindgut fermenters, and coprophagic. They are designed to intake large quantities of high-fibrous, low-energy-density foods. They use unique colonic separation mechanisms and have open-rooted, constantly growing dentition. Gastrointestinal disease, often secondary to diet or environmental factors, is common in these species. PMID:24767739

  7. Global trade in exotic pets 2006-2012.

    PubMed

    Bush, Emma R; Baker, Sandra E; Macdonald, David W

    2014-06-01

    International trade in exotic pets is an important and increasing driver of biodiversity loss and often compromises the standards required for good animal welfare. We systematically reviewed the scientific and gray literature and used the United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC) Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) trade database to establish temporal and geographical trade patterns of live exotic birds, mammals, and reptiles and to describe trends in research, taxonomic representation, and level of threat and legal protection of species traded. Birds were the most species-rich and abundant class reported in trade; reptiles were second most abundant but unusually the most studied in this context; and mammals were least abundant in trade. Mammalian and reptilian species traded as pets were more likely to be threatened than expected by random. There have been a substantial number of Appendix I listed captive-bred mammals and birds and wild-caught birds and reptiles reported in trade to CITES. We identified the Middle East's emerging role as a driver of demand for exotic pets of all taxa alongside the well-established and increasing role of South America and Southeast Asia in the market. Europe, North America, and the Middle East featured most heavily in trade reports to CITES, whereas trade involving South America and Southeast Asia were given most emphasis in the literature. For effective monitoring of and appropriate response to the international exotic pet trade, it is imperative that the reliability and detail of CITES trade reports improve and that scientific research be directed toward those taxa and locations that are most vulnerable.

  8. Implications of a J{sup PC} exotic

    SciTech Connect

    P.R. Page

    1997-09-01

    Recent experimental data from BNL on the isovector J{sup PC} = 1{sup {-+}} exotic at 1.6 GeV indicate the existence of a non-quarkonium state consistent with lattice gauge theory predictions. The authors discuss how further experiments can strengthen this conclusion. They show that the {rho}{pi}, {eta}{prime}{pi} and {eta}{pi} couplings of this state qualitatively support the hypothesis that it is a hybrid meson, although other interpretations cannot be eliminated.

  9. Pathology of the exotic companion mammal gastrointestinal system.

    PubMed

    Reavill, Drury

    2014-05-01

    A variety of disease agents can affect the gastrointestinal tract of the exotic companion mammal, some of which can pose zoonotic health concerns. Many conditions present with nonspecific clinical signs (lethargy, variable degrees of diarrhea, and for most sick rodents, presenting hunched with spiky fur), necessitating additional laboratory testing to reach a diagnosis. Primary tumors of the digestive tract are also presented as well as miscellaneous conditions ranging from toxins to trauma. PMID:24767738

  10. Global trade in exotic pets 2006-2012.

    PubMed

    Bush, Emma R; Baker, Sandra E; Macdonald, David W

    2014-06-01

    International trade in exotic pets is an important and increasing driver of biodiversity loss and often compromises the standards required for good animal welfare. We systematically reviewed the scientific and gray literature and used the United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC) Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) trade database to establish temporal and geographical trade patterns of live exotic birds, mammals, and reptiles and to describe trends in research, taxonomic representation, and level of threat and legal protection of species traded. Birds were the most species-rich and abundant class reported in trade; reptiles were second most abundant but unusually the most studied in this context; and mammals were least abundant in trade. Mammalian and reptilian species traded as pets were more likely to be threatened than expected by random. There have been a substantial number of Appendix I listed captive-bred mammals and birds and wild-caught birds and reptiles reported in trade to CITES. We identified the Middle East's emerging role as a driver of demand for exotic pets of all taxa alongside the well-established and increasing role of South America and Southeast Asia in the market. Europe, North America, and the Middle East featured most heavily in trade reports to CITES, whereas trade involving South America and Southeast Asia were given most emphasis in the literature. For effective monitoring of and appropriate response to the international exotic pet trade, it is imperative that the reliability and detail of CITES trade reports improve and that scientific research be directed toward those taxa and locations that are most vulnerable. PMID:24661260

  11. Highly excited and exotic meson spectrum from dynamical lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Jozef Dudek, Robert Edwards, David Richards, Christopher Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Using a new quark-field construction algorithm and a large variational basis of operators, we extract a highly excited isovector meson spectrum on dynamical anisotropic lattices. We show how carefully constructed operators can be used to identify the continuum spin of extracted states. This method allows us to extract, with confidence, excited states, states of high spin and states with exotic quantum numbers, including, for the first time, spin-four states.

  12. [Requirements for the keeping of dangerous exotic animals].

    PubMed

    Moritz, J

    2003-05-01

    The problem of dangerous dogs receives a lot of public attention. However, there is another group of animals that can threaten public security--the group of dangerous exotic animals. In daily routine mainly venomous snakes, spiders and scorpions or crocodiles, giant snakes and snapping turtles are of practical importance. The paper gives hints how to keep these animals according to animal protection and public safety rules. PMID:12822263

  13. Discrete families of Saffman-Taylor fingers with exotic shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, Bennett P. J.; McCue, Scott W.; Moroney, Timothy J.

    The mathematical problem of determining the shape of a steadily propagating Saffman-Taylor finger in a rectangular Hele-Shaw cell is known to have a countably infinite number of solutions for each fixed surface tension value. For sufficiently large surface tension values, we find that fingers on higher solution branches are non-convex. The tips of the fingers have increasingly exotic shapes as the branch number increases.

  14. Failure under stress: the effect of the exotic herbivore Adelges tsugae on biomechanics of Tsuga canadensis

    PubMed Central

    Soltis, Nicole E.; Gomez, Sara; Leisk, Gary G.; Sherwood, Patrick; Preisser, Evan L.; Bonello, Pierluigi; Orians, Colin M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Exotic herbivores that lack a coevolutionary history with their host plants can benefit from poorly adapted host defences, potentially leading to rapid population growth of the herbivore and severe damage to its plant hosts. The hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) is an exotic hemipteran that feeds on the long-lived conifer eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), causing rapid mortality of infested trees. While the mechanism of this mortality is unknown, evidence indicates that A. tsugae feeding causes a hypersensitive response and alters wood anatomy. This study investigated the effect of A. tsugae feeding on biomechanical properties at different spatial scales: needles, twigs and branches. Methods Uninfested and A. tsugae-infested samples were collected from a common garden experiment as well as from naturally infested urban and rural field sites. Tension and flexure mechanical tests were used to quantify biomechanical properties of the different tissues. In tissues that showed a significant effect of herbivory, the potential contributions of lignin and tissue density on the results were quantified. Key Results Adelges tsugae infestation decreased the abscission strength, but not flexibility, of needles. A. tsugae feeding also decreased mechanical strength and flexibility in currently attacked twigs, but this effect disappeared in older, previously attacked branches. Lignin and twig tissue density contributed to differences in mechanical strength but were not affected by insect treatment. Conclusions Decreased strength and flexibility in twigs, along with decreased needle strength, suggest that infested trees experience resource stress. Altered growth patterns and cell wall chemistry probably contribute to these mechanical effects. Consistent site effects emphasize the role of environmental variation in mechanical traits. The mechanical changes measured here may increase susceptibility to abiotic physical stressors in hemlocks colonized by A

  15. CosmoBon for studying wood formation under exotic gravitational environment for future space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Baba, Keiichi; Suzuki, Toshisada; Funada, Ryo; Nakamura, Teruko; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Cosmobon, Jstwg

    We are proposing to raise woody plants in space for several applications and plant science. Japanese flowering cherry tree is one of a candidate for these studies. Mechanism behind sensing gravity and controlling shape of tree has been studied quite extensively. Even molecular mechanism for the response of plant against gravity has been investigated quite intensively for various species, woody plants are left behind. Morphology of woody branch growth is different from that of stem growth in herbs. Morphology in tree is strongly dominated by the secondary xylem formation. Nobody knows the tree shape grown under the space environment. If whole tree could be brought up to space as research materials, it might provide important scientific knowledge. Furthermore, trees produce excess oxygen, wooden materials for living cabin, and provide biomass for cultivating mushroom and insect as for the space agriculture. Excellent tree shapes which would be deeply related to wood formation improve quality of life under stressful environment in outer space. The serious problem would be their size. Bonsai is one of the Japanese traditional arts. We can study secondly xylem formation, wood formation, under exotic gravitational environment using Bonsai. "CosmoBon" is the small tree Bonsai for our space experiment. It has been recognized that the reaction wood in CosmoBon is formed similar to natural trees. Our goal is to examine feasibility to grow various species of trees in space as bioresource for space agriculture.

  16. The role of plant biosecurity in preventing and controlling emerging plant virus disease epidemics.

    PubMed

    Rodoni, B

    2009-05-01

    A number of research strategies have been initiated over the last decade to enhance plant biosecurity capacity at the pre-border, border and post-border frontiers. In preparation for emerging plant virus epidemics, diagnostic manuals for economically important plant viruses that threaten local industries have been developed and validated under local conditions. Contingency plans have also been prepared that provide guidelines to stakeholders on diagnostics, surveillance, survey strategies, epidemiology and pest risk analysis. Reference collections containing validated positive virus controls have been expanded to support a wide range of biosecurity sciences. Research has been conducted to introduce high throughput diagnostic capabilities and the design and development of advanced molecular techniques to detect virus genera. These diagnostic tools can be used by post entry quarantine agencies to detect known and unknown plant viral agents. Pre-emptive breeding strategies have also been initiated to protect plant industries if and when key exotic viruses become established in localized areas. With the emergence of free trade agreements between trading partners there is a requirement for quality assurance measures for pathogens, including viruses, which may occur in both the exporting and importing countries. These measures are required to ensure market access for the exporting country and also to minimize the risk of the establishment of a damaging virus epidemic in the importing country. PMID:19152816

  17. Nest-Site Selection by black sparrowhawks Accipiter melanoleucus: implications for managing exotic pulpwood and sawlog forests in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Malan, G; Robinson, E R

    2001-08-01

    This study provides timber growers with silvicultural guidelines for establishing and maintaining nest-tree habitat for native black sparrowhawks (Accipiter melanoleucus) in commercial planted forests in South Africa. In this country, exotic eucalypts and pines are planted principally for pulpwood and sawlog production. Nineteen nests were sampled in indigenous forests and 58 nests in exotic forests. Although mean nest heights differed between indigenous and exotic trees, in all trees, nests were positioned, on average, at 64% of tree height. Black sparrowhawks nested near stand edges, probably seeking a compromise between nesting adjacent to open hunting habitat and selecting an insulated tree from within the forest. Black sparrowhawks nested in tall trees ( X- = 18-33 m for different tree species classes) with a large diameter (>60 cm). Unfortunately, the South African pulpwood and sawlog industry employ short rotations (<16 years) and high tree densities (>700 trees/ha) that do not allow the trees to attain the characteristics suitable for black sparrowhawk nesting sites. Eucalypt and pine nest stands must be of 25 x 25 m minimum size and incorporate 10 trees at minimum heights of 21 and 18 m and diameters of 37 and 35 cm, respectively. If such nest-tree stands are set aside as islands in a sea of commercial forests, and black sparrowhawks and other forest raptors nest in them, timber growers will improve the tree-nesting raptor diversity of planted forests. If, however, these raptors prey upon species of conservation importance, the management recommendations could be reversed to limit the potential for predation.

  18. Foundation investigation of the upstream switchyard of Wilson Dam power plant: Microgravity survey. Final report, 1 August-31 December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Yule, D.E.; Butler, D.K.; Sharp, M.K.

    1990-09-01

    A microgravity survey consisting of 347 stations was conducted in the upstream switchyard of the Wilson Dam powerplant. The objective of the survey was the detection of subsurface cavities or other anomalous conditions that could threaten the integrity of the switchyard structures. Six anomalous areas were identified on the gravity anomaly map and ranked for their interpreted significance. From the results, nine boring locations were selected to investigate the cause of the anomalies. This report presents details of the field survey, data processing interpretations, and recommended drilling locations for subsurface investigation.

  19. Modeling plant-level industrial energy demand with the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) database and the Longitudinal Research Database (LRD)

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.A.; Neifer, M.J.; Ross, M.H.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses Phase 1 of a project to help the US Department of Energy determine the applicability of the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) database and the Longitudinal Research Database (LRD) for industrial modeling and analysis. Research was conducted at the US Bureau of the Census; disclosure of the MECS/LRD data used as a basis for this report was subject to the Bureau`s confidentiality restriction. The project is designed to examine the plant-level energy behavior of energy-intensive industries. In Phase 1, six industries at the four-digit standard industrial classification (SIC) level were studied. The utility of analyzing four-digit SIC samples at the plant level is mixed, but the plant-level structure of the MECS/LRD makes analyzing samples disaggregated below the four-digit level feasible, particularly when the MECS/LRD data are combined with trade association or other external data. When external data are used, the validity of using value of shipments as a measure of output for analyzing energy use can also be examined. Phase 1 results indicate that technical efficiency and the distribution of energy intensities vary significantly at the plant level. They also show that the six industries exhibit monopsony-like behavior; that is, energy prices vary significantly at the plant level, with lower prices being correlated with a higher level of energy consumption. Finally, they show to what degree selected energy-intensive products are manufactured outside their primary industry.

  20. SUITABILITY OF A NEW CALORIMETER FOR EXOTIC MESON SEARCHES

    SciTech Connect

    Bookwalter, C.; Ostrovidov, A.; Eugenio, P.

    2007-01-01

    Exotic mesons, particles that have quantum numbers that are inaccessible to conventional quark-model mesons, are predicted by quantum chromodynamics (QCD), but past experiments seeking to identify exotic candidates have produced controversial results. The HyCLAS experiment (E04005) at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF) proposes the use of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) in Hall B to study the photoproduction of exotic mesons. However, the base detector package at CLAS is not ideal for observing and measuring neutral particles, particularly at forward angles. The Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) experiment at TJNAF has commissioned a new calorimeter for detecting small-angle photons, but studies must be performed to determine its suitability for a meson spectroscopy experiment. The ηπ system has been under especial scrutiny in the community as a source for potential exotics, so the new calorimeter’s ability at reconstructing these resonances must be evaluated. To achieve this, the invariant mass of showers in the calorimeter are reconstructed. Also, two electroproduction reaction channels analogous to photoproduction channels of interest to HyCLAS are examined in DVCS data. It is found that, while not ideal, the new calorimeter will allow access to additional reaction channels, and its inclusion in HyCLAS is warranted. Results in basic shower reconstruction show that the calorimeter has good effi ciency in resolving π° decays, but its η reconstruction is not as strong. When examining ep → epπ°η, preliminary reconstruction of the ηπ° system shows faint signals in the a0(980) region. In the ep → e n π+ η channel, preliminary reconstruction of the ηπ+ system gave good signals in the a0(980) and a2(1320) regions, but statistics were poor. While more analyses are necessary to improve statistics and remove background, these preliminary results support the claim