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Sample records for expandable stand-alone cage

  1. Stand-Alone Cages for Anterior Cervical Fusion: Are There No Problems?

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang Youp; Lee, Cheol Young; Kim, Hong Rye; Park, Dong Ho

    2016-01-01

    Objective There are complications in stand-alone cage assisted anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), such as cage subsidence and kyphosis. Here we report our clinical result on ACDF, comparing with stand-alone cages and with cervical plate system for degenerative cervical spine diseases. Methods Patients with degenerative cervical disease who were diagnosed and treated in Konyang University Hospital between January 2004 and December 2014 were included in this study. Patients who had operation in single level ACDF were selected. Patients scored the degree of pain using visual analog scale before and after the surgery. Subsidence was defined as ≥3-mm decrease of the segmental height, and cervical kyphosis was defined as progression of ≥5° at 12 months after postoperative follow-up compared to that measured at the immediate postoperative period. Results A total of 81 patients were enrolled for this study. Forty-five patients were included in a cervical plate group and the others were in stand-alone cage group. There was no statistical difference in pain score between the 2 groups. Segmental subsidence was observed in 7 patients (15.6%) in plate-assisted cervical fusion group, and 13 patients (36.1%) in stand-alone cage group. Segmental kyphosis was observed in 4 patients (8.9%) in plate-assisted cervical fusion group, and 10 patients (27.8%) in stand-alone cage group. There was statistical difference between the 2 groups. Conclusion There was no difference in pain between 2 groups. But stand-alone case group showed higher incidence rate than plate-assisted cervical fusion group in segmental subsidence and cervical kyphosis. When designing cervical fusion, more attention should be given selecting the surgical technique. PMID:27123025

  2. Subsidence and Nonunion after Anterior Cervical Interbody Fusion Using a Stand-Alone Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) Cage

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jae Jun; Yu, Chang Hun; Yeom, Jin Sup; Lee, Jae Hyup; Lee, Choon-Ki

    2011-01-01

    Background The purposes of the present study are to evaluate the subsidence and nonunion that occurred after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion using a stand-alone intervertebral cage and to analyze the risk factors for the complications. Methods Thirty-eight patients (47 segments) who underwent anterior cervical fusion using a stand-alone polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage and an autologous cancellous iliac bone graft from June 2003 to August 2008 were enrolled in this study. The anterior and posterior segmental heights and the distance from the anterior edge of the upper vertebra to the anterior margin of the cage were measured on the plain radiographs. Subsidence was defined as ≥ a 2 mm (minor) or 3 mm (major) decrease of the segmental height at the final follow-up compared to that measured at the immediate postoperative period. Nonunion was evaluated according to the instability being ≥ 2 mm in the interspinous distance on the flexion-extension lateral radiographs. Results The anterior and posterior segmental heights decreased from the immediate postoperative period to the final follow-up at 1.33 ± 1.46 mm and 0.81 ± 1.27 mm, respectively. Subsidence ≥ 2 mm and 3 mm were observed in 12 segments (25.5%) and 7 segments (14.9%), respectively. Among the expected risk factors for subsidence, a smaller anteroposterior (AP) diameter (14 mm vs. 12 mm) of cages (p = 0.034; odds ratio [OR], 0.017) and larger intraoperative distraction (p = 0.041; OR, 3.988) had a significantly higher risk of subsidence. Intervertebral nonunion was observed in 7 segments (7/47, 14.9%). Compared with the union group, the nonunion group had a significantly higher ratio of two-level fusion to one-level fusions (p = 0.001). Conclusions Anterior cervical fusion using a stand-alone cage with a large AP diameter while preventing anterior intraoperative over-distraction will be helpful to prevent the subsidence of cages. Two-level cervical fusion might require more careful attention

  3. Radiologic Assessment of Subsidence in Stand-Alone Cervical Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) Cage

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Sung-Kon; Kim, Se-Hoon; Lim, Dong-Jun; Kim, Sang-Dae; Lee, Sang-Kook

    2008-01-01

    Objective Aim of study was to find a proper method for assessing subsidence using a radiologic measurement following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with stand-alone polyetheretherketone (PEEK), Solis™ cage. Methods Forty-two patients who underwent ACDF with Solis™ cage were selected. With a minimum follow-up of 6 months, the retrospective investigation was conducted for 37 levels in 32 patients. Mean follow-up period was 18.9 months. Total intervertebral height (TIH) of two fused vertebral bodies was measured on digital radiographs with built-in software. Degree of subsidence (ΔTIH) was reflected by the difference between the immediate postoperative and follow-up TIH. Change of postoperative disc space height (CT-MRΔTIH) was reflected by the difference between TIH of the preoperative mid-sagittal 2D CT and that of the preoperative mid-sagittal T1-weighted MRI. Results Compared to preoperative findings, postoperative disc height was increased in all cases and subsidence was observed only in 3 cases. For comparison of subsidence and non-subsidence group, TIH and CT-MRΔTIH of each group were analyzed. There was no statistically significant difference in TIH and CT-MRΔTIH between each group at 4 and 8 weeks, but a difference was observed at the last follow-up TIH (p=0.0497). Conclusion ACDF with Solis™ cage was associated with relatively good radiologic long-term results. Fusion was achieved in 94.5% and subsidence occurred in 8.1% by the radiologic assessment. Statistical analysis reveals that the subsidence seen later than 8 weeks after surgery and the development of subsidence does not correlate statistically with the change of the postoperative disc space height. PMID:19137081

  4. Outcomes of contemporary use of rectangular titanium stand-alone cages in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: cage subsidence and cervical alignment.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Toru; Takami, Toshihiro; Uda, Takehiro; Ikeda, Hidetoshi; Nagata, Takashi; Sakamoto, Shinichi; Tsuyuguchi, Naohiro; Ohata, Kenji

    2012-12-01

    Cervical intervertebral disc replacement using a rectangular titanium stand-alone cage has become a standard procedure for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). We examined outcomes resulting from the contemporary use of rectangular titanium stand-alone cages for ACDF, particularly focusing on cage subsidence and subsequent kyphotic malalignment. Patient data were collected prospectively, and a total of 47 consecutive patients who underwent periodic follow-up of at least 1 year's duration after ACDF were studied retrospectively. Sixty-three rectangular titanium cages were implanted during 31 1-level and 16 2-level procedures. None of the patients developed surgery-related complications (including cage displacement or extrusion). Mean Neurosurgical Cervical Spine Scale scores were significantly improved at 1 year after surgery. Twelve of the 63 inserted cages (19.0%) were found to have cage subsidence, occurring in 11 of 47 patients (23.4%). There was no significant difference in functional recovery between patients with and without cage subsidence. Logistic regression analysis indicated that fusion level, cage size and cage position were significantly related to cage subsidence. The distraction ratio among patients with cage subsidence was significantly higher than that among patients without cage subsidence. Cage subsidence resulted in early deterioration of local angle and total alignment of the cervical spine. Although a longer follow-up is warranted, a good surgical outcome with negligible complications appears to justify the use of rectangular titanium stand-alone cages in 1- and 2-level ACDF. Excessive distraction at the fusion level should be avoided, and cage position should be adjusted to the anterior vertical line.

  5. Long-Term Follow-Up Results of Anterior Cervical Inter-Body Fusion with Stand-Alone Cages

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woong-Beom; Choi, Hoyong; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Kim, Hyun-Jib

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term follow-up radiologic/clinical outcomes of patients who underwent anterior cervical discectomy and inter-body fusion (ACDF) with stand-alone cages (SAC) in a single academic institution. Methods Total 99 patients who underwent ACDF with SAC between February 2004 and December 2012 were evaluated retrospectively. A total of 131 segments were enrolled in this study. Basic demographic information, radiographic [segmental subsidence rate, fusion rate, C2–7 global angle, and segmental angle changes)/clinical outcomes (by Odom's criteria and visual analog score (VAS)] and complications were evaluated to determine the long-term outcomes. Results The majority were males (55 vs. 44) with average age of 53.2. Mean follow-up period was 62.9 months. The segmental subsidence rate was 53.4% and fusion rate was 73.3%. In the subsidence group, anterior intervertebral height (AIH) had more tendency of subsiding than middle or posterior intervertebral height (p=0.01). The segmental angle led kyphotic change related to the subsidence of the AIH. Adjacent segmental disease was occurred in 18 (18.2%) patients. Total 6 (6%) reoperations were performed at the index level. There was no statistical significance between clinical and radiological outcomes. But, overall long-term clinical outcome by Odom's criteria was unsatisfactory (64.64%). The neck and arm VAS score were increased by over time. Conclusion Long-term outcomes of ACDF with SAC group were acceptable but not satisfactory. For optimal decision making, more additional comparative long-term outcome data is needed between ACDF with SAC and ACDF with plating. PMID:27446521

  6. Difference in canal encroachment by the fusion mass between anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with bone autograft and anterior plating, and stand-alone cage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Eon; Chung, Chun Kee; Kim, Chi Heon

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a prospective randomized study comparing stand-alone cage and bone autograft and plate implants in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01011569). Our interim analysis showed autologous bone graft with plating was superior to a stand-alone cage for segmental lordosis. During this analysis, we noted a difference in canal encroachment by the fusion mass between the two fusion groups. A narrow cervical spinal canal is an important factor in the development of cervical spondylotic myelopathy, therefore this unexpected potential risk of spinal cord compression necessitated another interim analysis to investigate whether there was a difference in canal encroachment by the fusion mass between the two groups. Patients had a minimum 1year of follow-up. The Neck Disability Index, neck and arm pain Visual Analog Scales and lateral radiographs, including bone fusion patterns, were evaluated. Twenty-seven (16 males, 11 females, mean age 54.8years) and 31 (24 males, seven females, mean age 54.5years) patients were in the cage and plate group, respectively. Both groups improved after surgery. Fusion began at 2.6months and 1.3months and finished at 6.7months and 4.0months in 24 (88.9%) and 28 (90.3%) patients in the cage and plate group, respectively. Encroachment into the spinal canal by the fusion mass was significantly different between the fusion types, occuring in 21 (77.8%) patients in the cage group versus six (19.4%) in the plate group (p=0.003). There was a high incidence of spinal canal encroachment by the fusion mass in the stand-alone cage group, possibly limiting use in narrow spinal canals.

  7. Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion with Stand-Alone Trabecular Metal Cages as a Surgical Treatment for Cervical Radiculopathy: Mid-Term Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    ElAbed, Khaldoun; Shawky, Ahmad; Ainscow, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective case cohort study done between 2002 and 2012. Purpose To assess the mid-term clinical and radiological outcomes of 1-level and 2-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with stand-alone trabecular metal cages. Overview of Literature ACDF is the gold standard surgical treatment for cervical degenerative disease. The usual surgical practice is to use an anteriorly placed fusion plate with or without interdiscal cages. Methods Patients between 36 and 64 years of age diagnosed with cervical radiculopathy who underwent ACDF using stand-alone trabecular metal cages with at least 3 years follow-up were included in this study. Recorded clinical outcomes included residual axial neck pain, radicular arm pain, upper extremity weakness, and upper extremity altered sensation. Visual Analogue scores were also recorded. Fusion was assessed by lateral radiographs looking for bone breaching and radiolucent lines around the device at the latest follow-up. Results Ninety patients were included in the study. Fifty-one patients underwent 2-level surgery and 39 patients underwent 1-level surgery. Mean age was 44±10.4 years and mean follow-up time was 4.5±2.6 years. Patients reported excellent or good outcomes (90%), as well as improvements in axial neck pain (80%), radicular arm pain (95%), upper extremity weakness (85%), and upper extremity altered sensation (90%). Most patients (90%) progressed to fusion at the 1-year follow-up. The reoperation rate was 3.6%. There was no reported persistent dysphagia, voice complaints, dural tear, or tracheal or oesophageal perforation in any of the patients. One patient developed a deep methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infectious infarction of the spinal cord, which was treated with antibiotics. Recovery was complete at the 1-year follow up. Conclusions Mid-term results show that surgical treatment with ACDF with trabecular metal cages is a safe and effective treatment of single and 2-level

  8. Outcomes Evaluation of Zero-Profile Devices Compared to Stand-Alone PEEK Cages for the Treatment of Three- and Four-Level Cervical Disc Disease

    PubMed Central

    Paschel, Erin; Mashaly, Hazem; Sabry, Hatem; Jalalod'din, Hasan; Saoud, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a well-accepted treatment option for patients with cervical spine disease. Three- and four-level discectomies are known to be associated with a higher complication rate and lower fusion rate than single-level surgery. This study was performed to evaluate and compare zero-profile fixation and stand-alone PEEK cages for three- and four-level ACDF. Methods: Two cohorts of patients who underwent ACDF for the treatment of three- and four-level disease were compared. Thirty-three patients underwent implantation of zero-profile devices that included titanium screw fixation (Group A). Thirty-five patients underwent implantation of stand-alone PEEK cages without any form of screw fixation (Group B). Results: In Group A, twenty-seven patients underwent a three-level and six patients a four-level ACDF, with a total of 105 levels. In Group B, thirty patients underwent a three-level and five patients underwent a four-level ACDF, with a total number of 110 levels. In Group A, the mean preoperative visual analog scale score (VAS) for arm pain was 6.4 (range 3-8), and the mean postoperative VAS for arm pain decreased to 2.5 (range 1-7). In group B, the mean preoperative VAS of arm pain was 7.1 (range 3-10), and the mean postoperative VAS of arm pain decreased to 2 (range 0-4). In Group A, four patients (12%) developed dysphagia, and in Group B, three patients (9%) developed dysphagia.  Conclusions: This study found zero-profile instrumentation and PEEK cages to be both safe and effective for patients who underwent three- and four-level ACDF, comparable to reported series using plate devices. Rates of dysphagia for the cohort were much lower than reports using plate devices. Zero-profile segmental fixation devices and PEEK cages may be considered as viable alternatives over plate fixation for patients requiring multi-level anterior cervical fusion surgery. PMID:27738574

  9. A minimum 2-year comparative study of autologous cancellous bone grafting versus beta-tricalcium phosphate in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion using a rectangular titanium stand-alone cage.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Toru; Naito, Kentaro; Arima, Hironori; Yoshimura, Masaki; Ohata, Kenji; Takami, Toshihiro

    2016-07-01

    Although titanium stand-alone cages are commonly used in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), there are several concerns such as cage subsidence after surgery. The efficacy of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) granules as a packing material in 1- or 2-level ACDF using a rectangular titanium stand-alone cage is not fully understood. The purpose of this study is to investigate the validity of rectangular titanium stand-alone cages in 1- and 2-level ACDF with β-TCP. This retrospective study included 55 consecutive patients who underwent ACDF with autologous iliac cancellous bone grafting and 45 consecutive patients with β-TCP grafting. All patients completed at least 2-year postoperative follow-up. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to examine the associations between study variables and nonunion after surgery. Significant neurological recovery after surgery was obtained in both groups. Cage subsidence was noted in 14 of 72 cages (19.4 %) in the autograft group and 12 of 64 cages (18.8 %) in the β-TCP group. A total of 66 cages (91.7 %) in the autograft group showed osseous or partial union, and 58 cages (90.6 %) in the β-TCP group showed osseous or partial union by 2 years after surgery. There were no significant differences in cage subsidence and the bony fusion rate between the two groups. Multivariate analysis using a logistic regression model showed that fusion level at C6/7, 2-level fusion, and cage subsidence of grades 2-3 were significantly associated with nonunion at 2 years after surgery. Although an acceptable surgical outcome with negligible complication appears to justify the use of rectangular titanium stand-alone cages in 1- and 2-level ACDF with β-TCP, cage subsidence after surgery needs to be avoided to achieve acceptable bony fusion at the fused segments. Fusion level at C6/7 or 2-level fusion may be another risk factor of nonunion. PMID:27098659

  10. A minimum 2-year comparative study of autologous cancellous bone grafting versus beta-tricalcium phosphate in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion using a rectangular titanium stand-alone cage.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Toru; Naito, Kentaro; Arima, Hironori; Yoshimura, Masaki; Ohata, Kenji; Takami, Toshihiro

    2016-07-01

    Although titanium stand-alone cages are commonly used in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), there are several concerns such as cage subsidence after surgery. The efficacy of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) granules as a packing material in 1- or 2-level ACDF using a rectangular titanium stand-alone cage is not fully understood. The purpose of this study is to investigate the validity of rectangular titanium stand-alone cages in 1- and 2-level ACDF with β-TCP. This retrospective study included 55 consecutive patients who underwent ACDF with autologous iliac cancellous bone grafting and 45 consecutive patients with β-TCP grafting. All patients completed at least 2-year postoperative follow-up. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to examine the associations between study variables and nonunion after surgery. Significant neurological recovery after surgery was obtained in both groups. Cage subsidence was noted in 14 of 72 cages (19.4 %) in the autograft group and 12 of 64 cages (18.8 %) in the β-TCP group. A total of 66 cages (91.7 %) in the autograft group showed osseous or partial union, and 58 cages (90.6 %) in the β-TCP group showed osseous or partial union by 2 years after surgery. There were no significant differences in cage subsidence and the bony fusion rate between the two groups. Multivariate analysis using a logistic regression model showed that fusion level at C6/7, 2-level fusion, and cage subsidence of grades 2-3 were significantly associated with nonunion at 2 years after surgery. Although an acceptable surgical outcome with negligible complication appears to justify the use of rectangular titanium stand-alone cages in 1- and 2-level ACDF with β-TCP, cage subsidence after surgery needs to be avoided to achieve acceptable bony fusion at the fused segments. Fusion level at C6/7 or 2-level fusion may be another risk factor of nonunion.

  11. Surgical Outcome of a Zero-profile Device Comparing with Stand-alone Cage and Anterior Cervical Plate with Iliac Bone Graft in the Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jae Sik; Cho, Pyoung Goo

    2014-01-01

    Objective A Zero-profile device is a cervical stand-alone cage with integrated segmental fixation device. We characteristically evaluated the radiological changes as well as clinical outcomes in the application of Zero-profile devices compared with stand-alone cages and anterior cervical plates with iliac bone grafts for the cervical disease. Methods Retrospectively, total 60 patients at least more than one year follow-up were enrolled. Twenty patients were treated with Zero-profile devices (Group A), twenty patients with stand-alone cages (Group B) and twenty patients with anterior cervical plates and iliac bone grafts (Group C) for a single level cervical disease. The clinical outcomes were evaluated by Odom's criteria and Bazaz-Yoo dysphagia index. The radiologic parameters were by subsidence and the changes of the midpoint interbody height (IBH), the segmental kyphotic angle (SKA), the overall kyphotic angle (OKA) in index level. Results Although there was no significant clinical difference according to the Odom's criteria among them(p=0.766), post-operative dysphagia was significantly decreased in the Group A and B compared with the Group C (p=0.04). From the immediate postoperative to the last follow-up time, the mean change of IBH decrement and SKA increment were significant in the Group B compared with the Group A (p=0.025, p=0.033) and the Group C (p=0.001, p=0.000). The subsidence rate was not significant among all groups (p=0.338). Conclusion This Zero-profile device is a valuable alternative to the anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with a low incidence of postoperative dysphagia and without segmental kyphotic change. PMID:25346764

  12. Bilateral posterior cervical cages provide biomechanical stability: assessment of stand-alone and supplemental fixation for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion

    PubMed Central

    Voronov, Leonard I; Siemionow, Krzysztof B; Havey, Robert M; Carandang, Gerard; Phillips, Frank M; Patwardhan, Avinash G

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Supplemental posterior instrumentation has been widely used to enhance stability and improve fusion rates in higher risk patients undergoing anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). These typically involve posterior lateral mass or pedicle screw fixation with significant inherent risks and morbidities. More recently, cervical cages placed bilaterally between the facet joints (posterior cervical cages) have been used as a less disruptive alternative for posterior fixation. The purpose of this study was to compare the stability achieved by both posterior cages and ACDF at a single motion segment and determine the stability achieved with posterior cervical cages used as an adjunct to single- and multilevel ACDF. Methods Seven cadaveric cervical spine (C2–T1) specimens were tested in the following sequence: intact, C5–C6 bilateral posterior cages, C6–C7 plated ACDF with and without posterior cages, and C3–C5 plated ACDF with and without posterior cages. Range of motion in flexion–extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation was measured for each condition under moment loading up to ±1.5 Nm. Results All fusion constructs significantly reduced the range of motion compared to intact in flexion–extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation (P<0.05). Similar stability was achieved with bilateral posterior cages and plated ACDF at a single level. Posterior cages, when placed as an adjunct to ACDF, further reduced range of motion in both single- and multilevel constructs (P<0.05). Conclusion The biomechanical effectiveness of bilateral posterior cages in limiting cervical segmental motion is comparable to single-level plated ACDF. Furthermore, supplementation of single- and multilevel ACDF with posterior cervical cages provided a significant increase in stability and therefore may be a potential, minimally disruptive option for supplemental fixation for improving ACDF fusion rates. PMID:27471414

  13. Do Trunk Muscles Affect the Lumbar Interbody Fusion Rate?: Correlation of Trunk Muscle Cross Sectional Area and Fusion Rates after Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Using Stand-Alone Cage

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Man Kyu; Park, Bong Jin; Park, Chang Kyu; Kim, Sung Min

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although trunk muscles in the lumbar spine preserve spinal stability and motility, little is known about the relationship between trunk muscles and spinal fusion rate. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the correlation between trunk muscles cross sectional area (MCSA) and fusion rate after posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using stand-alone cages. Methods A total of 89 adult patients with degenerative lumbar disease who were performed PLIF using stand-alone cages at L4–5 were included in this study. The cross-sectional area of the psoas major (PS), erector spinae (ES), and multifidus (MF) muscles were quantitatively evaluated by preoperative lumbar magnetic resonance imaging at the L3–4, L4–5, and L5–S1 segments, and bone union was evaluated by dynamic lumbar X-rays. Results Of the 89 patients, 68 had bone union and 21 did not. The MCSAs at all segments in both groups were significantly different (p<0.05) for the PS muscle, those at L3–4 and L4–5 segments between groups were significantly different (p=0.048, 0.021) for the ES and MF muscles. In the multivariate analysis, differences in the PS MCSA at the L4–5 and L5–S1 segments remained significant (p=0.048, 0.043 and odds ratio=1.098, 1.169). In comparison analysis between male and female patients, most MCSAs of male patients were larger than female's. Fusion rates of male patients (80.7%) were higher than female's (68.8%), too. Conclusion For PLIF surgery, PS muscle function appears to be an important factor for bone union and preventing back muscle injury is essential for better fusion rate. PMID:27226860

  14. Standing alone with prosodic help*

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Lyn; Clifton, Charles; Carlson, Katy; Harris, Jesse A.

    2013-01-01

    Two partially independent issues are addressed in two auditory rating studies: under what circumstances is a sub-string of a sentence identified as a stand-alone sentence, and under what circumstances do globally ill-formed but ‘locally coherent’ analyses (Tabor, Galantucci, & Richardson., 2004) emerge? A new type of locally coherent structure is established in Experiment 1, where a that-less complement clause is at least temporarily analyzed as a stand-alone sentence when it corresponds to a prosodic phrase. In Experiment 2, reduced relative clause structures like those in Tabor et al. were investigated. As in Experiment 1, the root sentence (mis-)analyses emerged most frequently when the locally coherent clause corresponded to a prosodic phrase. However, a substantial number of locally coherent analyses emerged even without prosodic help, especially in examples with for-datives (which do not grammatically permit a reduced relative clause structure for some speakers). Overall, the results suggest that prosodic grouping of constituents encourages analysis of a sub-string as a root sentence, and raise the question of whether all local coherence structures involve analysis of an utterance-final sub-string as a root sentence. PMID:24729648

  15. Stand-alone microprobe at Livermore

    SciTech Connect

    Antolak, A J; Bench, G S; Brown, T A; Frantz, B R; Grant, P G; Morse, D H; Roberts, M L

    1998-10-02

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories/California have jointly constructed a new stand-alone microprobe facility. Although the facility was built to develop a method to rapidly locate and determine elemental concentrations of micron scale particulates on various media using PIXE, the facility has found numerous applications in biology and materials science. The facility is located at LLNL and uses a General Ionex Corporation Model 358 duoplasmatron negative ion source, a National Electrostatics Corporation 5SDH-2 tandem accelerator, and an Oxford triplet lens. Features of the system include complete computer control of the beam transport using LabVIEWTM for Macintosh, computer controlled beam collimating and divergence limiting slits, automated sample positioning to micron resolution, and video optics for beam positioning and sample observation. Data collection is accomplished with the simultaneous use of as many as four EG&G Ortec IGLET-XTM X-Ray detectors, digital amplifiers made by X-Ray Instruments and Associates (XIA), and LabVIEWTM for Macintosh acquisition software.

  16. 29 CFR 778.104 - Each workweek stands alone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Each workweek stands alone. 778.104 Section 778.104 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... Requirements Introductory § 778.104 Each workweek stands alone. The Act takes a single workweek as its...

  17. 45 CFR 155.1065 - Stand-alone dental plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PHS Act; and (2) The plan covers at least the pediatric dental essential health benefit as defined in... capacity of stand-alone dental plans during certification to ensure sufficient access to pediatric...

  18. Photovoltaic stand-alone modular systems, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naff, G. J.; Marshall, N. A.

    1983-01-01

    The final hardware and system qualification phase of a two part stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system development is covered. The final design incorporated modular, power blocks capable of expanding incrementally from 320 watts to twenty kilowatts (PK). The basic power unit (PU) was nominally rated 1.28 kWp. The controls units, power collection buses and main lugs, electrical protection subsystems, power switching, and load management circuits are housed in a common control enclosure. Photo-voltaic modules are electrically connected in a horizontal daisy-chain method via Amp Solarlok plugs mating with compatible connectors installed on the back side of each photovoltaic module. A pair of channel rails accommodate the mounting of the modules into a frameless panel support structure. Foundations are of a unique planter (tub-like) configuration to allow for world-wide deployment without restriction as to types of soil. One battery string capable of supplying approximately 240 ampere hours nominal of carryover power is specified for each basic power unit. Load prioritization and shedding circuits are included to protect critical loads and selectively shed and defer lower priority or noncritical power demands. The baseline system, operating at approximately 2 1/2 PUs (3.2 kW pk.) was installed and deployed. Qualification was successfully complete in March 1983; since that time, the demonstration system has logged approximately 3000 hours of continuous operation under load without major incident.

  19. Video tracking algorithm of long-term experiment using stand-alone recording system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Li, Yan-Chay; Huang, Ke-Nung; Jen, Sun-Lon; Young, Ming-Shing

    2008-08-01

    Many medical and behavioral applications require the ability to monitor and quantify the behavior of small animals. In general these animals are confined in small cages. Often these situations involve very large numbers of cages. Modern research facilities commonly monitor simultaneously thousands of animals over long periods of time. However, conventional systems require one personal computer per monitoring platform, which is too complex, expensive, and increases power consumption for large laboratory applications. This paper presents a simplified video tracking algorithm for long-term recording using a stand-alone system. The feature of the presented tracking algorithm revealed that computation speed is very fast data storage requirements are small, and hardware requirements are minimal. The stand-alone system automatically performs tracking and saving acquired data to a secure digital card. The proposed system is designed for video collected at a 640 x 480 pixel with 16 bit color resolution. The tracking result is updated every 30 frames/s. Only the locomotive data are stored. Therefore, the data storage requirements could be minimized. In addition, detection via the designed algorithm uses the Cb and Cr values of a colored marker affixed to the target to define the tracked position and allows multiobject tracking against complex backgrounds. Preliminary experiment showed that such tracking information stored by the portable and stand-alone system could provide comprehensive information on the animal's activity.

  20. Video tracking algorithm of long-term experiment using stand-alone recording system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Li, Yan-Chay; Huang, Ke-Nung; Jen, Sun-Lon; Young, Ming-Shing

    2008-08-01

    Many medical and behavioral applications require the ability to monitor and quantify the behavior of small animals. In general these animals are confined in small cages. Often these situations involve very large numbers of cages. Modern research facilities commonly monitor simultaneously thousands of animals over long periods of time. However, conventional systems require one personal computer per monitoring platform, which is too complex, expensive, and increases power consumption for large laboratory applications. This paper presents a simplified video tracking algorithm for long-term recording using a stand-alone system. The feature of the presented tracking algorithm revealed that computation speed is very fast data storage requirements are small, and hardware requirements are minimal. The stand-alone system automatically performs tracking and saving acquired data to a secure digital card. The proposed system is designed for video collected at a 640×480 pixel with 16 bit color resolution. The tracking result is updated every 30 frames/s. Only the locomotive data are stored. Therefore, the data storage requirements could be minimized. In addition, detection via the designed algorithm uses the Cb and Cr values of a colored marker affixed to the target to define the tracked position and allows multiobject tracking against complex backgrounds. Preliminary experiment showed that such tracking information stored by the portable and stand-alone system could provide comprehensive information on the animal's activity.

  1. 39 CFR 122.2 - Stand-alone special services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SPECIAL SERVICES PRODUCTS § 122.2 Stand-alone special services. (a) The service standard for P. O. BoxTM service is that mail be available for pickup at the box each delivery day no later than the daily “up-time” publicly posted at the Post OfficeTM location that includes the box section. (b) The service standard...

  2. 39 CFR 122.2 - Stand-alone special services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SPECIAL SERVICES PRODUCTS § 122.2 Stand-alone special services. (a) The service standard for P. O. BoxTM service is that mail be available for pickup at the box each delivery day no later than the daily “up-time” publicly posted at the Post OfficeTM location that includes the box section. (b) The service standard...

  3. 39 CFR 122.2 - Stand-alone special services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SPECIAL SERVICES PRODUCTS § 122.2 Stand-alone special services. (a) The service standard for P. O. BoxTM service is that mail be available for pickup at the box each delivery day no later than the daily “up-time” publicly posted at the Post OfficeTM location that includes the box section. (b) The service standard...

  4. Hanford tank initiative cone penetrometer stand alone grouting module

    SciTech Connect

    CALLAWAY, W.S.

    1998-10-15

    The HTI subsurface characterization task will use the Hanford Cone Penetrometer platform (CPP) to deploy contaminant sensor and soil sampling probes into the vadose zone surrounding SST 241-AX-104. Closure of the resulting penetration holes may be stipulated by WAC requirements. A stand alone grouting capability deployable by the CPP has been developed. This qualification test plan defines testing of this capability to be performed at the Immobilized Low Activity Waste Disposal Complex.

  5. Contribution of Round vs. Rectangular Expandable Cage Endcaps to Spinal Stability in a Cadaveric Corpectomy Model

    PubMed Central

    Mundis, Gregory M.; Moazzaz, Payam; Turner, Alexander W. L.; Cornwall, G. Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Background Expandable cages are gaining popularity in anterior reconstruction of the thoracolumbar spine following corpectomy as they can provide adjustable distraction and deformity correction. Rectangular, rather than circular, endcaps provide increased resistance to subsidence by spanning the apophyseal ring; however their impact on construct stability is not known. The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of expandable corpectomy cage endcap shape (round vs. rectangular) and fixation method (anterior plate vs. posterior pedicle screws) to the stability of an L1 sub-total corpectomy construct. Methods Eight fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens (T11-L3) were subjected to multi-directional flexibility testing to 6 N·m with a custom spine simulator. Test conditions were: intact, L1 sub-total corpectomy defect, expandable cage (round endcap) alone, expandable cage (round endcap) with anterior plate, expandable cage (round endcap) with bilateral pedicle screws, expandable cage (rectangular endcap) alone, expandable cage (rectangular endcap) with anterior plate, expandable cage (rectangular endcap) with bilateral pedicle screws. Range-of-motion across T12-L2 was measured with an optoelectronic system. Results The expandable cage alone with either endcap provided significant stability to the corpectomy defect, reducing motion to intact levels in flexion-extension with both endcap types, and in lateral bending with rectangular endcaps. Round endcaps allowed greater motion than intact in lateral bending, and axial rotation ROM was greater than intact for both endcaps. Supplemental fixation provided the most rigid constructs, although there were no significant differences between instrumentation or endcap types. Conclusions These results suggest anterior-only fixation may be adequate when using an expandable cage in a sub-total corpectomy application and choice of endcap type may be driven by other factors such as subsidence resistance. PMID:26609508

  6. Magnetic field measurements near stand-alone transformer stations.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Shaiela; Hareuveny, Ronen; Yitzhak, Nir-Mordechay; Ruppin, Raphael

    2013-12-01

    Extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic field (MF) measurements around and above three stand-alone 22/0.4-kV transformer stations have been performed. The low-voltage (LV) cables between the transformer and the LV switchgear were found to be the major source of strong ELF MFs of limited spatial extent. The strong fields measured above the transformer stations support the assessment method, to be used in future epidemiological studies, of classifying apartments located right above the transformer stations as highly exposed to MFs. The results of the MF measurements above the ground around the transformer stations provide a basis for the assessment of the option of implementing precautionary procedures.

  7. Modular photovoltaic stand-alone systems: Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naff, G. J.; Marshall, N. A.

    1983-01-01

    A family of modular stand-alone power systems that covered the range in power level from 1 kw to 14 kw was developed. Products within this family were required to be easily adaptable to different environments and applications, and were to be both reliable and cost effective. Additionally, true commonality in hardware was to be exploited, and unnecessary recurrence of design and development costs were to be minimized; thus improving hardware availability. Assurance of compatibility with large production runs, was also an underlying program goal. A secondary objective was to compile, evaluate, and determine the economic and technical status of available, and potentially available, technology options associated with the balance of systems (BOS) for stand-along photovoltaic (PV) power systems. The secondary objective not only directly supported the primary but additionally contributed to the definition and implementation of the BOS cost reduction plan.

  8. Test results of the solid state stand alone development calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Renz, D.P.; Breakall, K.L.; Fultz, R.L.; Wetzel, J.R.

    1993-12-31

    Radiometric heat flow calorimeters have been used to determine the heat output of radioactive materials for over 40 years. EG and G Mound Applied Technologies has developed a stand alone developmental calorimeter which utilizes solid state sensor technology. The sample size was increased to 8 in. high by 4 in. diameter in the system under test from 3 in. high by 5/8 in. diameter in the previous prototype. The calorimeter system uses an air bath for environmental stability which further reduces weight and assay time. Tests in the developmental system have produced excellent servo control results over the 0.5 to 5 watt range, with one sigma precision errors ranging from 1.3% at 0.5 watts to 0.1% at 4 watts. The average run time of these samples was approximately 90 minutes with no preconditioning used.

  9. DOE and AID stand-alone photovoltaic activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bifano, W. J.; Ratajczak, A. F.

    1983-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is managing stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system activities sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The DOE project includes village PV power demonstration projects in Gabon (four sites) and the Marshall Islands, PV-powered medical refrigerators in six countries, PV system microprocessor control development activities and PV-hybrid system assessments. The AID project includes a large village system in Tunisia, a water pumping/grain grinding project in Upper Volta, five medical clinics in four countries, PV-powered remote earth station application. These PV activities and summarizes significant findings to data are reviewed.

  10. A control strategy for PV stand-alone applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slouma, S.; Baccar, H.

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system study in domestic applications. Because of the decrease in power of photovoltaic module as a consequence of changes in solar radiation and temperature which affect the photovoltaic module performance, the design and control of DC-DC buck converter was proposed for providing power to the load from a photovoltaic source.In fact, the control of this converter is carried out with integrated MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) algorithm which ensures a maximum energy generated by the PV arrays. Moreover, the output stage is composed by a battery energy storage system, dc-ac inverter, LCL filter which enables higher efficiency, low distortion ac waveforms and low leakage currents. The control strategy adopted is cascade control composed by two regulation loops.Simulations performed with PSIM software were able to validate the control system.The realization and testing of the photovoltaic system were achieved in the Photovoltaic laboratory of the Centre for Research and Energy Technologies at the Technopark Borj Cedria. Experimental results verify the effeciency of the proposed system.

  11. Testing the stand-alone microbeam at Columbia University.

    PubMed

    Garty, G; Ross, G J; Bigelow, A W; Randers-Pehrson, G; Brenner, D J

    2006-01-01

    The stand-alone microbeam at Columbia University presents a novel approach to biological microbeam irradiation studies. Foregoing a conventional accelerator as a source of energetic ions, a small, high-specific-activity, alpha emitter is used. Alpha particles emitted from this source are focused using a compound magnetic lens consisting of 24 permanent magnets arranged in two quadrupole triplets. Using a 'home made' 6.5 mCi polonium source, a 1 alpha particle s(-1), 10 microm diameter microbeam can, in principle, be realised. As the alpha source energy is constant, once the microbeam has been set up, no further adjustments are necessary apart from a periodic replacement of the source. The use of permanent magnets eliminates the need for bulky power supplies and cooling systems required by other types of ion lenses and greatly simplifies operation. It also makes the microbeam simple and cheap enough to be realised in any large lab. The Microbeam design as well as first tests of its performance, using an accelerator-based beam are presented here.

  12. Stand-alone sensors monitor for combustible gas leaks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Elizabeth Gas Co., a gas distribution company in New Jersey, has added a network of combustible gas sensors to a computer system already in place for continuous monitoring of gas leaks. The computer center at the company's Erie St. facility controls all dispatching, which includes routing gas through the system and controlling gas pressure. The system uses redundant Hewlett-Packard A900 central processing units (CPU), 6 monitors, including a Mitsubishi 35-in. color monitor, and Fisher control software. The company's primary tank farm, which contains over a million gallons of propane and LNG, is located near several chemical plants, an oil refinery and a residential neighborhood. To monitor for combustible leaks at the site, the company installed 49 stand-alone combustible gas sensors manufactured by Mine Safety Appliances Co. (MSA) of Pittsburgh, Pa. The sensors are designed to measure the concentrations of propane and LNG and trigger alarms at 20% of the lower explosive limit (LEL). The sensors are diffusion types that sample ambient air rather than drawing in samples through a pump. Using the principle of catalytic oxidation, the sensors produce a signal proportional to the concentration of combustible gas in the atmosphere. If gas is detected above 20% of the LEL, a relay driver signal is sent into a remote annunciator panel which contains LED alarm displays for each sensor. The remote annunciator panel also houses a 24 VDC power supply.

  13. Design requirements for a stand alone EUV interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michallon, Ph.; Constancias, C.; Lagrange, A.; Dalzotto, B.

    2008-03-01

    EUV lithography is expected to be inserted for the 32/22 nm nodes with possible extension below. EUV resist availability remains one of the main issues to be resolved. There is an urgent need to provide suitable tools to accelerate resist development and to achieve resolution, LER and sensitivity specifications simultaneously. An interferometer lithography tool offers advantages regarding conventional EUV exposure tool. It allows the evaluation of resists, free from the deficiencies of optics and mask which are limiting the achieved resolution. Traditionally, a dedicated beam line from a synchrotron, with limited access, is used as a light source in EUV interference lithography. This paper identifies the technology locks to develop a stand alone EUV interferometer using a compact EUV source. It will describe the theoretical solutions adopted and especially look at the feasibility according to available technologies. EUV sources available on the market have been evaluated in terms of power level, source size, spatial coherency, dose uniformity, accuracy, stability and reproducibility. According to the EUV source characteristics, several optic designs were studied (simple or double gratings). For each of these solutions, the source and collimation optic specifications have been determined. To reduce the exposure time, a new grating technology will also be presented allowing to significantly increasing the transmission system efficiency. The optical grating designs were studied to allow multi-pitch resolution print on the same exposure without any focus adjustment. Finally micro mechanical system supporting the gratings was studied integrating the issues due to vacuum environment, alignment capability, motion precision, automation and metrology to ensure the needed placement control between gratings and wafer. A similar study was carried out for the collimation-optics mechanical support which depends on the source characteristics.

  14. Fuzzy logic multiobjective optimization for stand-alone photovoltaic plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tina, G.; Adorno, G.; Ragusa, C.

    1998-07-01

    The power generation by renewable energy sources involves a wide series of technical and economic problems, which condition its applications on a vast scale. Photovoltaic power generation presents many problems hardly to solve, such as: high cost in generating power and the power quality. In this background it is to insert the topic of optimal dimensioning of the PV power plants, meaning the achievement of an acceptable compromise between the power quality and the plant costs. This problem affects above all the small and medium size plants, such as: stand-alone PV domestic supply, where an incorrect dimensioning may cause difficulties to the functionality of the plant or higher costs. In this paper a method of optimal dimensioning of a PV power plant with battery storage is shown, but it is suitable to optimise also hybrid plants, which are based on the simultaneous presence of other and different energy sources. The project variables are the area and tilt of the PV modules and the accumulator capacity, whereas the project quality indexes (the objects to optimise) are the total plant cost and the supplied ratio of the electrical load. The calculation of the total ratio of load supplied was tackled using the availability method, which seems to be the one which best allows to make a long-term forecast, because of the systematic experimental studies over the last forty years and because of it correlates the solar radiation variability in the course of the day and of the year with the producible power. The economic cost has been calculated considering the plant's technical life, referring to current money all the future costs (by LCC, Life-Cycle Costing, method) and annualising them (by ALCC, Annualise Life-Cycle Costing, method) in order to obtain a total cost per kWh to compare with other power source costs. Particularly, the PV plant's cost has been related to the ALCC cost in case of supplying the electrical load connected to national grid. Since the objects of

  15. A Task-Oriented Framework for Stand-Alone Technology Integration Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Thomas C.

    2007-01-01

    A long-standing challenge for schools of education is how to prepare teachers to effectively integrate technology into classroom instruction. A widespread practice in training preservice teachers is the stand-alone technology class. These classes have evolved over time. This article suggests a further development in stand-alone technology classes:…

  16. A systematic review of the use of expandable cages in the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Elder, Benjamin D; Lo, Sheng-Fu; Kosztowski, Thomas A; Goodwin, C Rory; Lina, Ioan A; Locke, John E; Witham, Timothy F

    2016-01-01

    Expandable vertebral body replacement cages (VBRs) have been widely used for reconstruction of the thoracolumbar spine following corpectomy. However, their use in the cervical spine is less common, and currently, no expandable cages on the market are cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in the cervical spine. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review on the use of expandable cages in the treatment of cervical spine pathology with a focus on fusion rates, deformity correction, complications, and indications. A comprehensive Medline search was performed, and 24 applicable articles were identified and included in this review. The advantages of expandable cages include greater ease of implantation with less risk of damage to the end plate, less intraoperative manipulation of the device, and potentially greater control over lordosis. They may be particularly advantageous in cases with poor bone quality, such as patients with osteoporosis or metastatic tumors that have been radiated. However, there is a potential risk of overdistraction, which is increased in the cervical spine, their minimum height limits their use in cases with collapsed vertebra, and the amount of hardware in the expansion mechanism may limit the surface area available for fusion. The use of expandable VBRs are a valuable tool in the armamentarium for reconstruction of the anterior column of the cervical spine with an acceptable safety profile. Although expandable cervical cages are clearly beneficial in certain clinical situations, widespread use following all corpectomies is not justified due to their significantly greater cost compared to structural bone grafts or non-expandable VBRs, which can be utilized to achieve similar clinical outcomes. PMID:26212700

  17. Control algorithms and computer simulation of a stand-alone photovoltaic village power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groumpos, P. P.; Culler, J. E.; Delombard, R.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Cull, R.

    1984-01-01

    At Stand-Alone Photovoltaic (SAPV) power systems increase in size and load diversity, the design and simulation of control subsystems takes on added importance. These SAPV systems represent 'mini utilities' with commensurate controls requirements, albeit with the added complexity of the energy source (sunlight received) being an uncontrollable variable. This paper briefly describes a stand-alone photovoltaic power/load system computerized simulation model. The model was tested against operational data from the Schuchuli stand-alone village photovoltaic system and has achieved acceptable levels of simulation accuracy. The model can be used to simulate system designs although with probable battery modification.

  18. 45 CFR 156.150 - Application to stand-alone dental plans inside the Exchange.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the pediatric dental EHB under § 155.1065 of this subchapter in any Exchange, cost sharing may not... demonstrate that the stand-alone dental plan offers the pediatric dental essential health benefit at...

  19. 45 CFR 156.150 - Application to stand-alone dental plans inside the Exchange.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... pediatric dental EHB under § 155.1065 of this subchapter must demonstrate that it has a reasonable annual... that the stand-alone dental plan offers the pediatric dental essential health benefit at either: (i)...

  20. Life cycle cost analysis of a stand-alone PV system in rural Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Emma

    The purpose of this quantitative research study was to determine the economic feasibility of a stand-alone PV system to electrify a rural area in Kenya. The research conducted involved a comprehensive review of all the relevant literature associated with the study. Methodologies were extrapolated from this extensive literature to develop a model for the complete design and economic analysis of a stand-alone PV system. A women's center in rural Kenya was used as a worked example to demonstrate the workings of the model. The results suggest that electrifying the center using a stand-alone PV system is an economically viable option which is encouraging for the surrounding area. This model can be used as a business model to determine the economic feasibility of a stand-alone PV system in alternative sites in Kenya.

  1. Stand Alone Pressure Measurement Device (SAPMD) for the space shuttle Orbiter, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomlinson, Bill

    1989-01-01

    The Stand Alone Pressure Measurement Device (SAPMD) specifications are examined. The HP.SAPMD GSE software is listed; the HP/SGA readme program is presented; and the SPMD acceptance test procedure is described.

  2. 49 CFR 1109.4 - Mandatory mediation in rate cases to be considered under the stand-alone cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... under the stand-alone cost methodology. 1109.4 Section 1109.4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... § 1109.4 Mandatory mediation in rate cases to be considered under the stand-alone cost methodology. (a) A shipper seeking rate relief from a railroad or railroads in a case involving the stand-alone...

  3. Lumbar interbody expanding cage. A preliminary study on an animal model.

    PubMed

    Manunta, M L; Careddu, G M; Masala, G; Columbano, N; Doria, C; Crissantu, L; Sanna Passino, E

    2008-01-01

    Interbody fusion devices are used in human medicine for treating degenerative diseases of the spine. Currently, there is not a universally accepted assessment tool for determining fusion, and the definitive criteria for diagnosing a successful interbody fusion remain controversial. The aim of this study was to describe microscopic and helical computed tomography (CT) imaging in the assessment of lumbar interbody fusion using cylindrical threaded titanium expanding cage in sheep. One cylindrical threaded expanding titanium cage (Proconcept--SA, Orange, France) was inserted through a transperitoneal approach after radical discectomy and packed with cancellous bone autograft in five adult sheep. The subjects were euthanatized after three, six, 12, 18 and 24 months. CT images revealed lumbar fusion at 12 months post operation, whereas microscopic evaluations indicated the presence of lumbar fusion at 18 months. CT and histological grades were the same in 65% of the cases observed. There were not a significant difference between CT, histological and micro radiographic grades. Helical CT scanning can be considered to be a suitable method for the monitoring of lumbar fusion as it enables observation of the deposition of bony bridging within the cage. PMID:18704248

  4. Parametric analysis of stand-alone residential photovoltaic systems and the SOLSTOR simulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caskey, D. L.; Aronson, E. A.; Murphy, K. D.

    Grid-connected residential photovoltaic (PV) systems have been studied in great detail during the past few years. However, stand-alone systems have received considerably less attention. This paper describes the results of an evaluation of the economic feasibility of stand-alone systems. The SOLSTOR simulation program, developed by Sandia, was the primary analysis tool. The results indicate that stand-alone PV systems offer considerable economic advantage over the fossil-fueled generator systems. This is true even with no escalation of fuel prices, with PV array costs of twice the 1986 DOE goal, with present day battery costs, and in the Northeast as well as in the Southwest part of the United States. The on-site generator was generally used less than 1400 hours per year, and in fact can be eliminated in many cases in the Southwest.

  5. Integrated versus stand-alone second generation ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse and trash.

    PubMed

    Dias, Marina O S; Junqueira, Tassia L; Cavalett, Otávio; Cunha, Marcelo P; Jesus, Charles D F; Rossell, Carlos E V; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Bonomi, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials is often conceived considering independent, stand-alone production plants; in the Brazilian scenario, where part of the potential feedstock (sugarcane bagasse) for second generation ethanol production is already available at conventional first generation production plants, an integrated first and second generation production process seems to be the most obvious option. In this study stand-alone second generation ethanol production from surplus sugarcane bagasse and trash is compared with conventional first generation ethanol production from sugarcane and with integrated first and second generation; simulations were developed to represent the different technological scenarios, which provided data for economic and environmental analysis. Results show that the integrated first and second generation ethanol production process from sugarcane leads to better economic results when compared with the stand-alone plant, especially when advanced hydrolysis technologies and pentoses fermentation are included.

  6. A Current Sensorless MPPT Control Method for a Stand-Alone-Type PV Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itako, Kazutaka; Mori, Takeaki

    In this paper, a current sensorless MPPT control method for a stand-alone-type PV generation system is proposed. This control method offers advantages of the simplified hardware configuration and the low cost, by using only one sensor to measure the PV output voltage. In the application to stand-alone-type with a battery load, the experimental results show that the estimated values of PV output current are accurate, and the use of the proposed MPPT control increases the PV generated energy by 16.3% compared to the conventional system. Furthermore, it is clarified that the proposed method has extremely high UUF (Useful utilization factor) of 98.7%.

  7. Photovoltaic Module Simulink Model for a Stand-alone PV System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Chen; Ming, Zhu

    Photovoltaic(PV) Module is indispensable of a stand-alone PV system. In this paper, a one-diode equivalent circuit-based versatile simulation model in the form of masked block PV module is proposed. By the model, it is allowed to estimate behavior of PV module with respect changes on irradiance intensity, ambient temperature and parameters of the PV module. In addition, the model is capable of function of Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) which can be used in the dynamic simulation of stand-alone PV systems.

  8. Teaching Classroom Management: A Stand-Alone Necessity for Preparing New Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landau, Barbara McEwan

    This paper presents several arguments for including a stand-alone course on classroom management in every teacher preparation program. Some teacher preparation programs do not offer any course in classroom management, while others offer classroom management as an elective or as a topic embedded into another course. In the latter situation, the…

  9. US manufacturers of commercially available stand-alone photovoltaic lighting systems

    SciTech Connect

    McNutt, P

    1994-05-01

    This report introduces photovoltaic (PV) lighting systems, gives some specifications for ordering these systems, and provides a list of some of the manufacturers of these systems in the United States. These PV lighting systems are all commercially available. They are stand-alone systems because they are not tied to the electric utility power grid.

  10. Evolving circuits in seconds: experiments with a stand-alone board-level evolvable system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, A.; Zebulum, R. S.; Ferguson, M. I.; Keymeulen, D.; Duong, V.; Guo, X.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to illustrate a stand-alone board-level evolvable system (SABLES) and its performance, and second to illustrate some problems that occur during evolution with real hardware in the loop, or when the intention of the user is not completely reflected in the fitness function.

  11. EVALUATION AND USE OF STAND-ALONE COMMERCIAL PHOTOLYTIC CONVERTERS FOR NO2 TO NO CONVERSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two types of stand-alone commercial photolytic converters of NO2 to NO are now available for use with NO, O3 chemiluminescence monitors for the measurement of NO2. Both units have been tested for interferences resulting from photolysis of HONO or from decomposition of PAN. On...

  12. The Stand-Alone Microprocessor System: A Valuable Tool in College Admissions and Recruitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Larry Neal

    1983-01-01

    The stand-alone microprocessor is seen as one innovative tool that can be used both in the organizational management of decline and in meeting specific organizational needs such as those of the admissions director and staff. The term "microprocessor" is defined. (MLW)

  13. 21 CFR 801.50 - Labeling requirements for stand-alone software.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling requirements for stand-alone software. 801.50 Section 801.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Labeling Requirements for Unique Device Identification §...

  14. Using the Mars Ascent Vehicle as a Stand-Alone Sample Return System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, A. S.; Trinidad, M.; Guilmette, T.; Segura, T.

    2012-03-01

    Northrop Grumman is participating in a Phase I study of a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) design. As part of internal R&D, we conducted a feasibility study of using the MAV as a stand-alone sample return vehicle for the Moon. We discuss our results.

  15. Surgical Outcomes of Anterior Cervical Fusion Using Deminaralized Bone Matrix as Stand-Alone Graft Material: Single Arm, Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Ho-Jung; Ryu, Kyeong-Sik; Kim, Jin-Sung; Seong, Ji-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the safety and efficacy of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) as a bone graft substitute for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) surgery. Methods Twenty consecutive patients treated with ACDF using stand-alone polyestheretherketone (PEEK) cages (Zero-P) with DBM(CGDBM100) were prospectively evaluated with a minimum of 6 months of follow-up. Radiologic efficacy was evaluated with a 6-point scoring method for osseous fusion using plain radiograph and computed tomogrpahy scans. Clinical efficacy was evaluated using the visual analogue scale (VAS), Owestry disability index (ODI), and short-form health questionnaire-36. The safety of the bone graft substitute was assessed with vital sign monitoring and a survey measuring complications at each follow-up visit. Results There were significant improvements in VAS and ODI scores at a mean 6-month follow-up. Six months after surgery, solid fusion was achieved in all patients. Mean score on the 6-point scoring system was 5.1, and bony formation was found to score at least 4 points in all patients. There was no case with implant-related complications such as cage failure or migration, and no complications associated with the use of CGDBM100. Conclusion ACDF using CGDBM100 demonstrated good clinical and radiologic outcomes. The fusion rate was comparable with the published results of traditional ACDF. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that the use of a PEEK cage packed with DBM for ACDF is a safe and effective alternative to the gold standard of autologous iliac bone graft. PMID:27799989

  16. Directed evolution of the tryptophan synthase β-subunit for stand-alone function recapitulates allosteric activation

    PubMed Central

    Buller, Andrew R.; Brinkmann-Chen, Sabine; Romney, David K.; Herger, Michael; Murciano-Calles, Javier; Arnold, Frances H.

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes in heteromeric, allosterically regulated complexes catalyze a rich array of chemical reactions. Separating the subunits of such complexes, however, often severely attenuates their catalytic activities, because they can no longer be activated by their protein partners. We used directed evolution to explore allosteric regulation as a source of latent catalytic potential using the β-subunit of tryptophan synthase from Pyrococcus furiosus (PfTrpB). As part of its native αββα complex, TrpB efficiently produces tryptophan and tryptophan analogs; activity drops considerably when it is used as a stand-alone catalyst without the α-subunit. Kinetic, spectroscopic, and X-ray crystallographic data show that this lost activity can be recovered by mutations that reproduce the effects of complexation with the α-subunit. The engineered PfTrpB is a powerful platform for production of Trp analogs and for further directed evolution to expand substrate and reaction scope. PMID:26553994

  17. Scattering Optical Elements: Stand-Alone Optical Elements Exploiting Multiple Light Scattering.

    PubMed

    Park, Jongchan; Cho, Joong-Yeon; Park, Chunghyun; Lee, KyeoReh; Lee, Heon; Cho, Yong-Hoon; Park, YongKeun

    2016-07-26

    Optical design and fabrication techniques are crucial for making optical elements. From conventional lenses to diffractive optical elements and to recent metasurfaces, various types of optical elements have been proposed to manipulate light where optical materials are fabricated into desired structures. Here, we propose a scattering optical element (SOE) that exploits multiple light scattering and wavefront shaping. Instead of fabricating optical materials, the SOE consists of a disordered medium and a photopolymer-based wavefront recorder, with shapes impinging on light on demand. With the proposed stand-alone SOEs, we experimentally demonstrate control of various properties of light, including intensity, polarization, spectral frequency, and near field. Due to the tremendous freedom brought about by disordered media, the proposed approach will provide unexplored routes to manipulate arbitrary optical fields in stand-alone optical elements.

  18. Information systems for the materials management department: stand-alone and enterprise resource planning systems.

    PubMed

    2005-03-01

    Materials management information systems (MMISs) incorporate information tools that hospitals can use to automate certain business processes, increase staff compliance with these processes, and identify opportunities for cost savings. Recently, there has been a push by hospital administration to purchase enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems, information systems that promise to integrate many more facets of healthcare business. We offer this article to help materials managers, administrators, and others involved with information system selection understand the changes that have taken place in materials management information systems, decide whether they need a new system and, if so, whether a stand-alone MMIS or an ERP system will be the best choice. PMID:15887634

  19. System Simulation by Recursive Feedback: Coupling A Set of Stand-Alone Subsystem Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, Douglas D.; Hanson, John M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recursive feedback is defined and discussed as a framework for development of specific algorithms and procedures that propagate the time-domain solution for a dynamical system simulation consisting of multiple numerically coupled self-contained stand-alone subsystem simulations. A satellite motion example containing three subsystems (other dynamics, attitude dynamics, and aerodynamics) has been defined and constructed using this approach. Conventional solution methods are used in the subsystem simulations. Centralized and distributed versions of coupling structure have been addressed. Numerical results are evaluated by direct comparison with a standard total-system simultaneous-solution approach.

  20. System Simulation by Recursive Feedback: Coupling a Set of Stand-Alone Subsystem Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, Douglas D.; Ryan, Stephen G. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recursive feedback is defined and discussed as a framework for development of specific algorithms and procedures that propagate the time-domain solution for a dynamical system simulation consisting of multiple numerically coupled, self-contained, stand-alone subsystem simulations. A satellite motion example containing three subsystems (orbit dynamics, attitude dynamics, and aerodynamics) has been defined and constructed using this approach. Conventional solution methods are used in the subsystem simulations. Centralized and distributed versions of coupling structure have been addressed. Numerical results are evaluated by direct comparison with a standard total-system, simultaneous-solution approach.

  1. Development of a microprocessor controller for stand-alone photovoltaic power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millner, A. R.; Kaufman, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    A controller for stand-alone photovoltaic systems has been developed using a low power CMOS microprocessor. It performs battery state of charge estimation, array control, load management, instrumentation, automatic testing, and communications functions. Array control options are sequential subarray switching and maximum power control. A calculator keypad and LCD display provides manual control, fault diagnosis and digital multimeter functions. An RS-232 port provides data logging or remote control capability. A prototype 5 kW unit has been built and tested successfully. The controller is expected to be useful in village photovoltaic power systems, large solar water pumping installations, and other battery management applications.

  2. Stand-alone scattering optical device using holographic photopolymer (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jongchan; Lee, KyeoReh; Park, YongKeun

    2016-03-01

    When a light propagates through highly disordered medium, its optical parameters such as amplitude, phase and polarization states are completely scrambled because of multiple scattering events. Since the multiple scattering is a fundamental optical process that contains extremely high degrees of freedom, optical information of a transmitted light is totally mingled. Until recently, the presence of multiple scattering in an inhomogeneous medium is considered as a major obstacle when manipulating a light transmitting through the medium. However, a recent development of wavefront shaping techniques enable us to control the propagation of light through turbid media; a light transmitting through a turbid medium can be effectively controlled by modulating the spatial profile of the incident light using spatial light modulator. In this work, stand-alone scattering optical device is proposed; a holographic photopolymer film, which is much economic compared to the other digital spatial light modulators, is used to record and reconstruct permanent wavefront to generate optical field behind a scattering medium. By employing our method, arbitrary optical field can be generated since the scattering medium completely mixes all the optical parameters which allow us to access all the optical information only by modulating spatial phase profile of the impinging wavefront. The method is experimentally demonstrated in both the far-field and near-field regime where it shows promising fidelity and stability. The proposed stand-alone scattering optical device will opens up new avenues for exploiting the randomness inherent in disordered medium.

  3. International market assessment of stand-alone photovoltaic power systems for cottage industry applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philippi, T. M.

    1981-01-01

    The final result of an international assessment of the market for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in cottage industry applications is reported. Nonindustrialized countries without centrally planned economies were considered. Cottage industries were defined as small rural manufacturers, employing less than 50 people, producing consumer and simple products. The data to support this analysis were obtained from secondary and expert sources in the U.S. and in-country field investigations of the Philippines and Mexico. The near-term market for photovoltaics for rural cottage industry applications appears to be limited to demonstration projects and pilot programs, based on an in-depth study of the nature of cottage industry, its role in the rural economy, the electric energy requirements of cottage industry, and a financial analysis of stand-alone photovoltaic systems as compared to their most viable competitor, diesel driven generators. Photovoltaics are shown to be a better long-term option only for very low power requirements. Some of these uses would include clay mixers, grinders, centrifuges, lathes, power saws and lighting of a workshop.

  4. Fraction collection in capillary electrophoresis for various stand-alone mass spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Helmja, Kati; Borissova, Maria; Knjazeva, Tatjana; Jaanus, Martin; Muinasmaa, Urmas; Kaljurand, Mihkel; Vaher, Merike

    2009-04-24

    A procedure for collecting fractions during capillary electrophoresis for their analysis using various stand-alone instruments is described. The results of a systematic study of the optimization and application of capillary electrophoresis (CE) in conjunction with a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization quadrupole time of flight-tandem mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS) and inductively-coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to the analysis of the seed extract of the Japanese Pagoda Tree (Sophora japonica) are presented. The off-line coupling of CE to the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for the proteins mixture was applied. The cathode end of the capillary was placed inside a stainless steel needle using a coaxial liquid-sheath-flow configuration. The optimization of experimental parameters resulted in an efficient methodology for MS analysis of fractions. Several components contained in the extract of S. japonica were identified, some not previously known. It was demonstrated that low sensitivity, which is a real problem in off-line CE-MS analysis, could be tolerated because of a more flexible optimization of the CE separation conditions and the choice of independent stand-alone instruments for analysis of separated fractions. The estimated limit of detection for CE-RP-HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS was 50 microM of polyphenols and for CE-ICP-MS, 1-100 microg/l. PMID:19147148

  5. International market assessment of stand-alone photovoltaic power systems for cottage industry applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippi, T. M.

    1981-11-01

    The final result of an international assessment of the market for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in cottage industry applications is reported. Nonindustrialized countries without centrally planned economies were considered. Cottage industries were defined as small rural manufacturers, employing less than 50 people, producing consumer and simple products. The data to support this analysis were obtained from secondary and expert sources in the U.S. and in-country field investigations of the Philippines and Mexico. The near-term market for photovoltaics for rural cottage industry applications appears to be limited to demonstration projects and pilot programs, based on an in-depth study of the nature of cottage industry, its role in the rural economy, the electric energy requirements of cottage industry, and a financial analysis of stand-alone photovoltaic systems as compared to their most viable competitor, diesel driven generators. Photovoltaics are shown to be a better long-term option only for very low power requirements. Some of these uses would include clay mixers, grinders, centrifuges, lathes, power saws and lighting of a workshop.

  6. Study of locally manufactured motor vehicle batteries in stand alone home photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, S.

    1999-07-01

    Analysis of voltage, current, specific gravity, and temperature was performed on locally manufactured lead acid batteries operating in stand alone home photovoltaic (SAHPV) systems in the Dominican Republic. While voltage, charge/discharge current, and specific gravity of most batteries were within reasonable limits, there were indications of batteries spending an excessive time discharged and some incidents of overcharge. During charging above 1 amp, ambient temperatures were 6 to 13 C above the optimal operating temperature (25 C) and battery temperatures were 9 to 20 C above 25 C. Examination of worn out batteries from these SAHPV systems revealed that the majority had deteriorated positive plates and/or sulfation, while a smaller number showed signs of spalling. High temperature was determined to be a significant factor contributing to the premature failure of locally manufactured lead acid batteries operating in these systems.

  7. Status of DOE and AID stand-alone photovoltaic system field tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bifano, W. J.; Delombard, R.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Scudder, L. R.

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is managing stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system projects sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The DOE project includes village PV power demonstration projects in Gabon (four sites) and the Marshall Islands, and PV-powered vaccine refrigerator systems in six countries. The AID project includes a large village power system, a farmhouse system and two water pumping-irrigation systems in Tunisia, a water pumping/grain grinding system in Upper Volta, five medical clinic systems in four countries, PV-powered vaccine refrigerator systems in 18 countries and a PV-powered remote earth station in Indonesia. This paper reviews these PV projects and summarizes significant findings to date.

  8. High Angular Sensitivity, Absolute Rotary Encoding Device with Polygonal Mirror and Stand-Alone Diffraction Gratings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A device for position encoding of a rotating shaft in which a polygonal mirror having a number of facets is mounted to the shaft and a monochromatic light beam is directed towards the facets. The facets of the polygonal mirror direct the light beam to a stand-alone low line density diffraction grating to diffract the monochromatic light beam into a number of diffracted light beams such that a number of light spots are created on a linear array detector. An analog-to-digital converter is connected to the linear array detector for reading the position of the spots on the linear array detector means. A microprocessor with memory is connected to the analog-to-digital converter to hold and manipulate the data provided by the analog-to-digital converter on the position of the spots and to compute the position of the shaft based upon the data from the analog-lo-digital converter.

  9. The Stand-Alone Pressure Measurement Device, a digital memory telemeter for assessing Shuttle structural dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havey, Gary; Tanji, Todd; Olson, Richard; Wald, Jerry

    The Stand-Alone Pressure Measurement Device (SAPMD) is a microminiaturized recorder which has in association with the requisite miniature sensor been used to collect absolute Space Shuttle pressure data over various points of the Orbiter's surface during ascent. The SAPMD is entirely self-contained, incorporating its own sensor, power supply, self-starting sensor, nonvolatile memory for sensor data, and a real-time clock for time reference; it is also sufficiently small, at 6.28 x 1.5 x 0.5 in., to be mounted beneath The Shuttle Orbiter's thermal protection system tiles. Data acquired during Shuttle ascent is recovered after the mission without removal of the SAPMD. Strain gages, vibration gages, and differential pressure gages can be incorporated by the device.

  10. System Simulation by Recursive Feedback: Coupling a Set of Stand-Alone Subsystem Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, D. D.

    2001-01-01

    Conventional construction of digital dynamic system simulations often involves collecting differential equations that model each subsystem, arran g them to a standard form, and obtaining their numerical gin solution as a single coupled, total-system simultaneous set. Simulation by numerical coupling of independent stand-alone subsimulations is a fundamentally different approach that is attractive because, among other things, the architecture naturally facilitates high fidelity, broad scope, and discipline independence. Recursive feedback is defined and discussed as a candidate approach to multidiscipline dynamic system simulation by numerical coupling of self-contained, single-discipline subsystem simulations. A satellite motion example containing three subsystems (orbit dynamics, attitude dynamics, and aerodynamics) has been defined and constructed using this approach. Conventional solution methods are used in the subsystem simulations. Distributed and centralized implementations of coupling have been considered. Numerical results are evaluated by direct comparison with a standard total-system, simultaneous-solution approach.

  11. Study of Stand-Alone Microgrid under Condition of Faults on Distribution Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malla, S. G.; Bhende, C. N.

    2014-10-01

    The behavior of stand-alone microgrid is analyzed under the condition of faults on distribution feeders. During fault since battery is not able to maintain dc-link voltage within limit, the resistive dump load control is presented to do so. An inverter control is proposed to maintain balanced voltages at PCC under the unbalanced load condition and to reduce voltage unbalance factor (VUF) at load points. The proposed inverter control also has facility to protect itself from high fault current. Existing maximum power point tracker (MPPT) algorithm is modified to limit the speed of generator during fault. Extensive simulation results using MATLAB/SIMULINK established that the performance of the controllers is quite satisfactory under different fault conditions as well as unbalanced load conditions.

  12. Stand-alone digital data storage control system including user control interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth D. (Inventor); Gray, David L. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A storage control system includes an apparatus and method for user control of a storage interface to operate a storage medium to store data obtained by a real-time data acquisition system. Digital data received in serial format from the data acquisition system is first converted to a parallel format and then provided to the storage interface. The operation of the storage interface is controlled in accordance with instructions based on user control input from a user. Also, a user status output is displayed in accordance with storage data obtained from the storage interface. By allowing the user to control and monitor the operation of the storage interface, a stand-alone, user-controllable data storage system is provided for storing the digital data obtained by a real-time data acquisition system.

  13. Status of DOE and AID stand-alone photovoltaic system field tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bifano, W. J.; Delombard, R.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Scudder, L. R.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is managing stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system projects sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The DOE project includes village PV power demonstration projects in Gabon (four sites) and the Marshall Islands, and PV-powered vaccine refrigerator systems in six countries. The AID project includes a large village power system, a farmhouse system and two water pumping-irrigation systems in Tunisia, a water pumping/grain grinding system in Upper Volta, five medical clinic systems in four countries, PV-powered vaccine refrigerator systems in 18 countries and a PV-powered remote earth station in Indonesia. This paper reviews these PV projects and summarizes significant findings to date.

  14. Battery and charge controller evaluations in small stand-alone PV systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodworth, J. R.; Thomas, M. G.; Stevens, J. W.; Dunlop, J. L.; Swamy, M. R.; Demetrius, L.; Harrington, S. R.

    1994-12-01

    We report the results of two separate long-term tests of batteries and charge controllers in small stand-alone PV systems. In these experiments, seven complete systems were tested for two years at each of two locations: Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque and the Florida Solar Energy Center in Cape Canaveral, Florida. Each system contained a PV array, flooded-lead-acid battery, a charge controller and a resistive load. Performance of the systems was strongly influenced by the difference in solar irradiance at the two sites, with some batteries at Sandia exceeding manufacturer's predictions for cycle life. System performance was strongly correlated with regulation reconnect voltage (R(sup 2) correlation coefficient = 0.95) but only weakly correlated with regulation voltage. We will also discuss details of system performance, battery lifetime and battery water consumption.

  15. A Meta-Analytic Review of Stand-Alone Interventions to Improve Body Image

    PubMed Central

    Alleva, Jessica M.; Sheeran, Paschal; Webb, Thomas L.; Martijn, Carolien; Miles, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    Objective Numerous stand-alone interventions to improve body image have been developed. The present review used meta-analysis to estimate the effectiveness of such interventions, and to identify the specific change techniques that lead to improvement in body image. Methods The inclusion criteria were that (a) the intervention was stand-alone (i.e., solely focused on improving body image), (b) a control group was used, (c) participants were randomly assigned to conditions, and (d) at least one pretest and one posttest measure of body image was taken. Effect sizes were meta-analysed and moderator analyses were conducted. A taxonomy of 48 change techniques used in interventions targeted at body image was developed; all interventions were coded using this taxonomy. Results The literature search identified 62 tests of interventions (N = 3,846). Interventions produced a small-to-medium improvement in body image (d+ = 0.38), a small-to-medium reduction in beauty ideal internalisation (d+ = -0.37), and a large reduction in social comparison tendencies (d+ = -0.72). However, the effect size for body image was inflated by bias both within and across studies, and was reliable but of small magnitude once corrections for bias were applied. Effect sizes for the other outcomes were no longer reliable once corrections for bias were applied. Several features of the sample, intervention, and methodology moderated intervention effects. Twelve change techniques were associated with improvements in body image, and three techniques were contra-indicated. Conclusions The findings show that interventions engender only small improvements in body image, and underline the need for large-scale, high-quality trials in this area. The review identifies effective techniques that could be deployed in future interventions. PMID:26418470

  16. Charactrization of a Li-ion battery based stand-alone a-Si photovoltaic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid Vishkasougheh, Mehdi; Tunaboylu, Bahadir

    2014-11-01

    The number of photovoltaic (PV) system installations is increasing rapidly. As more people learn about this versatile and often cost-effective power option, this trend will accelerate. This document presents a recommended design for a battery based stand-alone photovoltaic system (BSPV). BSPV system has the ability to be applied in different areas, including warning signals, lighting, refrigeration, communication, residential water pumping, remote sensing, and cathodic protection. The presented calculation method gives a proper idea for a system sizing technique. Based on application load, different scenarios are possible for designing a BSPV system. In this study, a battery based stand-alone system was designed. The electricity generation part is three a-Si panels, which are connected in parallel, and for the storage part LFP (lithium iron phosphate) battery was used. The high power LFP battery packs are 40 cells each 8S5P (configured 8 series 5 parallel). Each individual pack weighs 0.5 kg and is 25.6 V. In order to evaluate the efficiency of a-Si panels with respect to the temperature and the solar irradiation, cities of Istanbul, Ankara and Adana in Turkey were selected. Temperature and solar irradiation were gathered from reliable sources and by using translation equations, current and voltage output of panels were calculated. As a result of these calculations, current and energy outputs were computed by considering an average efficient solar irradiation time value per day in Turkey. The calculated power values were inserted to a battery cycler system, and the behavior of high power LFP batteries in a time sequence of 7.2 h was evaluated. The charging and discharging cycles were obtained and their behavior was discussed. According to the results, Istanbul has the lowest number of peak month's energy, it followed by Ankara, and ultimately Adana has the highest number of peak months and energy storage. It was observed during the tests that values up to 4 A was

  17. Solar photovoltaic applications seminar: design, installation and operation of small, stand-alone photovoltaic power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    This seminar material was developed primarily to provide solar photovoltaic (PV) applied engineering technology to the Federal community. An introduction to photoconductivity, semiconductors, and solar photovoltaic cells is included along with a demonstration of specific applications and application identification. The seminar details general systems design and incorporates most known information from industry, academia, and Government concerning small solar cell power system design engineering, presented in a practical and applied manner. Solar PV power system applications involve classical direct electrical energy conversion and electric power system analysis and synthesis. Presentations and examples involve a variety of disciplines including structural analysis, electric power and load analysis, reliability, sizing and optimization; and, installation, operation and maintenance. Four specific system designs are demonstrated: water pumping, domestic uses, navigational and aircraft aids, and telecommunications. All of the applications discussed are for small power requirement (under 2 kilowatts), stand-alone systems to be used in remote locations. Also presented are practical lessons gained from currently installed and operating systems, problems at sites and their resolution, a logical progression through each major phase of system acquisition, as well as thorough design reviews for each application.

  18. Dynamic load management and optimum sizing of stand-alone hybrid PV/wind system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplani, E.; Ntafogiannis, P.; Pappas, K.; Diamantopoulos, N.

    2015-12-01

    Simulation algorithms for the sizing of stand-alone hybrid PV/Wind systems are a powerful tool in evaluating the optimum configuration that would cover the energy demand with a predefined reliability level at the lowest cost. Several parameters such as the interval of the simulation (day, day-night, hourly) and the consumption profile may significantly affect the optimum configuration. This paper examines the effect of these parameters within an optimum sizing simulation algorithm developed. The effect of these parameters was particularly evident at low battery capacities, which involve optimum configurations resulting in minimum cost. Furthermore, shift-able loads in the hourly-based weekly profile assumed in this study were identified, and a dynamic load management functionality was developed. In this approach, loads that could be shifted through time were dynamically allocated during periods of excess energy production by the hybrid PV/Wind system. The results showed an increase in system reliability from 95% to 97% when load shifting was introduced. Finally, sizing the system for only the static (non-shift-able loads) proved to withstand the addition of the extra shift-able loads while retaining the 95% reliability level when the load management functionality was introduced. Thus, a smaller installation with lower cost is achieved.

  19. SAPT units turn-on in an interference-dominant environment. [Stand Alone Pressure Transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, W.-C.; Yang, C.-C.; Lichtenberg, C.

    1990-01-01

    A stand alone pressure transducer (SAPT) is a credit-card-sized smart pressure sensor inserted between the tile and the aluminum skin of a space shuttle. Reliably initiating the SAPT units via RF signals in a prelaunch environment is a challenging problem. Multiple-source interference may exist if more than one GSE (ground support equipment) antenna is turned on at the same time to meet the simultaneity requirement of 10 ms. A polygon model for orbiter, external tank, solid rocket booster, and tail service masts is used to simulate the prelaunch environment. Geometric optics is then applied to identify the coverage areas and the areas which are vulnerable to multipath and/or multiple-source interference. Simulation results show that the underside areas of an orbiter have incidence angles exceeding 80 deg. For multipath interference, both sides of the cargo bay areas are found to be vulnerable to a worst-case multipath loss exceeding 20 dB. Multiple-source interference areas are also identified. Mitigation methods for the coverage and interference problem are described. It is shown that multiple-source interference can be eliminated (or controlled) using the time-division-multiplexing method or the time-stamp approach.

  20. Design of stand-alone brackish water desalination wind energy system for Jordan

    SciTech Connect

    Habali, S.M.; Saleh, I.A.

    1994-06-01

    More than 100 underground water wells drilled in Jordan are known to have brackish water with total desolved solids (TDS) over 1500 ppm but not greater than 4000 ppm. The world standard for potable water limits the TDS count to 500 ppm in addition to being free from live microorganisms or dangerous mineral and organic substances. A reverse osmosis desalination scheme powered by a stand-alone wind energy converter (WEC) is proposed to produce fresh water water from wells located in potentially high-wind sites. The purpose of this study if to present the main design parameters and economic estimates of a wind-assisted RO system using a diesel engine as the baseline energy source and an electric wind turbine for the wind energy source. It is found that brackish water pumping and desalinating using WECs costs 0.67 to 1.16 JD/m[sup 3] (JD = Jordanian Dinar, 1US$ = 0.68 JD), which is less than using conventional diesel engines especially in remote areas. In addition, the wind-reverse osmosis system becomes more economically feasible for higher annual production rates or in good wind regimes.

  1. Water Wisdom: 23 Stand-Alone Activities on Water Supply and Water Conservation for High School Students. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts State Water Resources Authority, Boston.

    This water conservation education program for high schools consists of both stand-alone activities and teacher support materials. Lessons are divided into six broad categories: (1) The Water Cycle; (2) Water and Society; (3) Keeping Water Pure; (4) Visualizing Volumes; (5) The Economics of Water Use; and (6) Domestic Water Conservation. The…

  2. Stand-Alone Ethics, Social Responsibility, and Sustainability Course Requirements: A Snapshot from Australia and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn R.; Wymer, Walter

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the extent to which Australian and New Zealand marketing educators use dedicated or stand-alone courses to equip students with alternative views of business. A census of marketing programs in degree-granting universities was conducted. Program brochures were obtained via the Internet and were content analyzed. This study…

  3. EVALUATION AND USE OF STAND-ALONE COMMERCIAL PHOTOLYTIC CONVERTERS FOR CONVERSION OF NO2 AND NO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two types of stand-alone photolytic converters of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) to nitric oxide (NO) are now commercially available for use with NO, ozone (O3) chemiluminescence detector (CLD) monitors for the measurement of NO2. Both units have been tested for interferences resulting...

  4. Stand-alone WIreless Magnetometer System: Concept Design and Development Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, B. J.; Carkhuff, B. G.; Rhodes, E.; Korth, H.

    2007-12-01

    The Stand-alone WIreless Magnetometer System (SWIMS) is intended to serve as a technology suitable for large scale deployment for magnetometer networks in sub-auroral latitudes with minimal logistical support and maintenance. SWIMS is based on a new magnetometer developed and licensed by JHU/APL. A SWIMS installation will consist of up to three solar/battery powered Sensor Modules (SM) each equipped with a new Mirror Image Differential Induction Amplitude Magnetometer (MIDIAM). The SMs are linked via wireless, radio frequency (RF) connection to a Central Node (CN). The RF link allows wireless installation over distances up to 300 meters between SMs. The CN may communicate either via land lines or wireless links to a central data facility. Because each SM is wireless, SWIMS can use more than one SM at a single site to discriminate against local noise sources. The present project objective is to develop a prototype SWIMS system of three SMs communicating via local RF link to a CN. The MIDIAM has yielded sub-nT performance with less than 1W power consumption in continuous operation. A conceptual system design using commercial solar/batter power system and RF communication components has been developed that is expected to achieve continuous operation at 1- second or higher rate sampling using a moderately sized solar cell array, 12" x 18", and a 6"x6"x4" AGM battery (144 W-hour). By monitoring the battery depth of discharge and duty cycling MIDIAM as required if incident effective power is low due to inclement conditions, the SM is expected to support continuous unattended operation with no coarser than one sample per minute on as little as four hours of sunlight every ten days.

  5. Stand-alone rolling circle amplification combined with capillary electrophoresis for specific detection of small RNA.

    PubMed

    Li, Ni; Jablonowski, Carolyn; Jin, Hailing; Zhong, Wenwan

    2009-06-15

    Noncoding small RNAs play diverse, important biological roles through gene expression regulation. However, their low expression levels make it difficult to identify new small RNA species and study their functions, calling for the development of detection schemes with higher simplicity, sensitivity, and specificity. Herein, we reported a straightforward assay that combined the stand-alone rolling circle amplification (RCA) with capillary electrophoresis (CE) for specific and sensitive detection of small RNAs in biological samples. In order to enhance the overall reaction efficiency and simplify the procedure, RCA was not preceded with ligation, and a preformed circular probe was employed as the template for the target small RNA-primed isothermal amplification. The long RCA product was digested and analyzed by CE. Two DNA polymerases, the Phi29 and Bst, were compared for their detection performance. Bst is superior in the aspects of specificity, procedure simplicity, and reproducibility, while Phi29 leads to a 5-fold lower detection limit and is able to detect as low as 35 amol of the target small RNA. Coamplification of an internal standard with the target and employment of the RNase A digestion step allow accurate and reproducible quantification of low amounts of small RNA targets spiked into hundreds of nanograms of the plant total RNA extract with a recovery below 110% using either enzyme. Our assay can be adapted to a capillary array system for high-throughput screening of small RNA expression in biological samples. Also, the one-step isothermal process has the potential to conveniently amplify a very limited amount of the RNA samples, e.g., RNA extracted from only a few cells, inside the capillary column or on a microchip.

  6. "Candidatus Fokinia solitaria", a Novel "Stand-Alone" Symbiotic Lineage of Midichloriaceae (Rickettsiales).

    PubMed

    Szokoli, Franziska; Sabaneyeva, Elena; Castelli, Michele; Krenek, Sascha; Schrallhammer, Martina; Soares, Carlos A G; da Silva-Neto, Inacio D; Berendonk, Thomas U; Petroni, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the family Midichloriaceae has been described within the bacterial order Rickettsiales. It includes a variety of bacterial endosymbionts detected in different metazoan host species belonging to Placozoa, Cnidaria, Arthropoda and Vertebrata. Representatives of Midichloriaceae are also considered possible etiological agents of certain animal diseases. Midichloriaceae have been found also in protists like ciliates and amoebae. The present work describes a new bacterial endosymbiont, "Candidatus Fokinia solitaria", retrieved from three different strains of a novel Paramecium species isolated from a wastewater treatment plant in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Symbionts were characterized through the full-cycle rRNA approach: SSU rRNA gene sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with three species-specific oligonucleotide probes. In electron micrographs, the tiny rod-shaped endosymbionts (1.2 x 0.25-0.35 μm in size) were not surrounded by a symbiontophorous vacuole and were located in the peripheral host cytoplasm, stratified in the host cortex in between the trichocysts or just below them. Frequently, they occurred inside autolysosomes. Phylogenetic analyses of Midichloriaceae apparently show different evolutionary pathways within the family. Some genera, such as "Ca. Midichloria" and "Ca. Lariskella", have been retrieved frequently and independently in different hosts and environmental surveys. On the contrary, others, such as Lyticum, "Ca. Anadelfobacter", "Ca. Defluviella" and the presently described "Ca. Fokinia solitaria", have been found only occasionally and associated to specific host species. These last are the only representatives in their own branches thus far. Present data do not allow to infer whether these genera, which we named "stand-alone lineages", are an indication of poorly sampled organisms, thus underrepresented in GenBank, or represent fast evolving, highly adapted evolutionary lineages. PMID:26731731

  7. "Candidatus Fokinia solitaria", a Novel "Stand-Alone" Symbiotic Lineage of Midichloriaceae (Rickettsiales).

    PubMed

    Szokoli, Franziska; Sabaneyeva, Elena; Castelli, Michele; Krenek, Sascha; Schrallhammer, Martina; Soares, Carlos A G; da Silva-Neto, Inacio D; Berendonk, Thomas U; Petroni, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the family Midichloriaceae has been described within the bacterial order Rickettsiales. It includes a variety of bacterial endosymbionts detected in different metazoan host species belonging to Placozoa, Cnidaria, Arthropoda and Vertebrata. Representatives of Midichloriaceae are also considered possible etiological agents of certain animal diseases. Midichloriaceae have been found also in protists like ciliates and amoebae. The present work describes a new bacterial endosymbiont, "Candidatus Fokinia solitaria", retrieved from three different strains of a novel Paramecium species isolated from a wastewater treatment plant in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Symbionts were characterized through the full-cycle rRNA approach: SSU rRNA gene sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with three species-specific oligonucleotide probes. In electron micrographs, the tiny rod-shaped endosymbionts (1.2 x 0.25-0.35 μm in size) were not surrounded by a symbiontophorous vacuole and were located in the peripheral host cytoplasm, stratified in the host cortex in between the trichocysts or just below them. Frequently, they occurred inside autolysosomes. Phylogenetic analyses of Midichloriaceae apparently show different evolutionary pathways within the family. Some genera, such as "Ca. Midichloria" and "Ca. Lariskella", have been retrieved frequently and independently in different hosts and environmental surveys. On the contrary, others, such as Lyticum, "Ca. Anadelfobacter", "Ca. Defluviella" and the presently described "Ca. Fokinia solitaria", have been found only occasionally and associated to specific host species. These last are the only representatives in their own branches thus far. Present data do not allow to infer whether these genera, which we named "stand-alone lineages", are an indication of poorly sampled organisms, thus underrepresented in GenBank, or represent fast evolving, highly adapted evolutionary lineages.

  8. Biomechanical comparison of two different concepts for stand alone anterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Schleicher, Philipp; Gerlach, R; Schär, B; Cain, C M J; Achatz, W; Pflugmacher, R; Haas, N P; Kandziora, F

    2008-12-01

    Segmental instability in degenerative disc disease is often treated with anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF). Current techniques require an additional posterior approach to achieve sufficient stability. The test device is an implant which consists of a PEEK-body and an integrated anterior titanium plate hosting four diverging locking screws. The test device avoids posterior fixation by enhancing stability via the locking screws. The test device was compared to an already established stand alone interbody implant in a human cadaveric three-dimensional stiffness test. In the biomechanical test, the L4/5 motion segment of 16 human cadaveric lumbar spines were isolated and divided into two test groups. Tests were performed in flexion, extension, right and left lateral bending, right and left axial rotation. Each specimen was tested in native state first, then a discectomy was performed and either of the test implants was applied. Finite element analysis (FE) was also performed to investigate load and stress distribution within the implant in several loading conditions. The FE models simulated two load cases. These were flexion and extension with a moment of 5 Nm. The biomechanical testing revealed a greater stiffness in lateral bending for the SynFix-LR compared to the established implant. Both implants showed a significantly higher stiffness in all loading directions compared to the native segment. In flexion loading, the PEEK component takes on most of the load, whereas the majority of the extension load is put on the screws and the screw-plate junction. Clinical investigation of the test device seems reasonable based on the good results reported here.

  9. Stand Alone Pressure Measurement Device (SAPMD) for the space shuttle Orbiter, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomlinson, Bill

    1989-01-01

    The specifications for the Stand Alone Pressure Measurement Device (SAPMD) are as follows: the SAPMD shall measure ambient pressure at the surface of the Orbiter TPS in the range of 0 to 15 pounds per square inch absolute (PSIA). Measurement will begin at solid rocket booster (SRB) ignition as sensed by appropriate vibration sensing elements in the SAPMD. Pressure and corresponding real-time data are to be recorded every one tenth second for 140 seconds and at the end of the recording period, the operation will be discontinued with the data preserved for interrogation subsequent to Orbiter re-entry and landing. The type and size of the battery shall be such as to allow the vibration sensing elements and a real-time clock to be initialized a minimum of 30 day prior to launch and still provide power as necessary to perform the 140 second data recording period after SRB ignition. Battery installation shall be in such a manner as to allow battery replacement without removing the SAPMD from its position or removing more than one TPS tile. The SAPMD must be mounted in specific locations under tile of the TPS. To accommodate such mounting, the absolute maximum physical dimensions much not exceed 6.0 inches in length, 1.5 inches in width, and 0.4 inches in height, and the device shall be of such configuration that it can be bonded to the Orbiter skin at the joint line of two TPS tiles with the pressure sensing port at the surface of the tile. The SAPMD must remain operational in the temperature range of -40 to +85 C and survive storage temperature of -55 to +125 C. The pressure port must withstand 934 C without causing damage to the TPS during entry and must remain functional at 262 C during ascent. The accuracy of the pressure measurement must be plus or minus one-half PSIA over a temperature range of 0 to +36 C. All the specifications were met and verified by prototype testing and documented in the enclosed test data. Four flight-qualified models were fabricated and of

  10. A stand-alone demography and landscape structure module for Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieradzik, L. P.; Haverd, V.; Smith, B.; Cook, G. D.; Briggs, P.; Roxburgh, S.; Liedloff, A.; Meyer, C.; Canadell, J.

    2013-12-01

    component of any LSM, represents a significant advance in our ability to use in-situ and remotely sensed observations of biomass and individual level parameters (e.g. crown-size, tree-height, stem diameter) as constraints on the terrestrial carbon cycle. Haverd, V., B. Smith, G. Cook, P. Briggs, L. Nieradzik, S. Roxburgh, A. Liedloff, C. Meyer, and J. G. Canadell, A stand-alone tree demography and landscape structure module for Earth system models, submitted to Geophys. Res. Let., 2013 Wolf, A., P. Ciais, V. Bellassen, N. Delbart, C.B. Field, and J.A. Berry, Forest biomass allometry in global land surface models, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 25, GB3015, doi:10.1029/2010GB003917, 2011

  11. Stand-alone flat-plate photovoltaic power systems: System sizing and life-cycle costing methodology for Federal agencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borden, C. S.; Volkmer, K.; Cochrane, E. H.; Lawson, A. C.

    1984-01-01

    A simple methodology to estimate photovoltaic system size and life-cycle costs in stand-alone applications is presented. It is designed to assist engineers at Government agencies in determining the feasibility of using small stand-alone photovoltaic systems to supply ac or dc power to the load. Photovoltaic system design considerations are presented as well as the equations for sizing the flat-plate array and the battery storage to meet the required load. Cost effectiveness of a candidate photovoltaic system is based on comparison with the life-cycle cost of alternative systems. Examples of alternative systems addressed are batteries, diesel generators, the utility grid, and other renewable energy systems.

  12. Clinical outcome of stand-alone ALIF compared to posterior instrumentation for degenerative disc disease: A pilot study and a literature review.

    PubMed

    Udby, Peter M; Bech-Azeddine, Rachid

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the article was to: a) present results from a case cohort pilot study comparing stand-alone ALIF and TLIF and, b) review the literature on studies comparing the clinical outcome of stand-alone ALIF with posterior instrumentation including TLIF or PLIF, in patients with disabling low back pain resulting from degenerative disc disease. ALIF surgery has previously been linked with certain high risk complications and unfavorable long term fusion results. Newer studies suggest that stand-alone ALIF can possibly be advantageous compared to other types of posterior instrumented interbody fusion for a selected group of DDD patients. The methods and material consisted of a cohort pilot study of patients, with DDD treated with stand-alone ALIF or TLIF followed by a literature review conducted through a comprehensive PubMed database search of the English literature. Studies comparing stand-alone ALIF with posterior instrumented interbody fusion were selected and reviewed. Results from the pilot study, n = 21, showed a reduced perioperative blood loss, shorter operative time and a trend towards better pain reduction and decreased use of opioid analgesics in patients undergoing stand-alone ALIF compared to posterior instrumented fusion with TLIF. The literature review included three studies, n = 630. All three studies were retrospective cohort studies. The average patient follow-up was 2-years but with heterogeneous selected outcomes. Two of three articles documented significant advantages when using stand-alone ALIF on outcomes such as ODI, VAS, surgical time, blood loss and patient satisfaction. No study found stand-alone ALIF inferior in chosen outcomes including fusion. In conclusion the pilot study and the literature review, finds similar clinical outcomes and fusion rates after stand-alone ALIF and posterior interbody fusion. Stand-alone ALIF was associated with a shorter duration of surgery, less perioperative blood loss and a faster improvement post

  13. Novel reconstruction of the anterior craniocervical junction using an expandable cage with integrated fixation after total C2 spondylectomy for chordoma.

    PubMed

    Wewel, Joshua T; Nunna, Ravi S; Tan, Lee A; Kasliwal, Manish K; O'Toole, John E

    2016-08-01

    Chordoma is a locally aggressive malignant tumor that generally occurs in the clivus, mobile spine and sacrum. While en bloc resection with wide margins has been advocated as the only cure for chordomas, tumor characteristics and violation of critical anatomical boundaries may preclude pursuing this treatment option in the cervical spine. We present a C2 chordoma in a 35-year-old man with epidural and prevertebral extension that was treated with a single stage anterior-posterior total C2 spondylectomy with novel reconstruction using an expandable cage with integrated fixation followed by stereotactic radiosurgery. Single stage intralesional total C2 spondylectomy via anterior transoral and posterior approaches was performed. The anterior column was reconstructed using an expandable cage with integrated fixation from the clivus to C3. The patient maintained his intact neurological status at 6 month follow-up with full resumption of activities of daily living without any significant morbidity.

  14. NICIL: A Stand Alone Library to Self-Consistently Calculate Non-Ideal Magnetohydrodynamic Coefficients in Molecular Cloud Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurster, James

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we introduce Nicil: Non-Ideal magnetohydrodynamics Coefficients and Ionisation Library. Nicil is a stand-alone Fortran90 module that calculates the ionisation values and the coefficients of the non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics terms of Ohmic resistivity, the Hall effect, and ambipolar diffusion. The module is fully parameterised such that the user can decide which processes to include and decide upon the values of the free parameters, making this a versatile and customisable code. The module includes both cosmic ray and thermal ionisation; the former includes two ion species and three species of dust grains (positively charged, negatively charged, and neutral), and the latter includes five elements which can be doubly ionised. We demonstrate tests of the module, and then describe how to implement it into an existing numerical code.

  15. SADIST (the SAndia Data Index STructure): a stand-alone data base for computer-aided design and general use

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, J D

    1980-11-01

    A file structure has been designed that fills the needs of multilevel hierarchical design of integrated circuits (ICs). Since the structure is actualized by a stand-alone FORTRAN program, it is applicable to general-purpose use in situations where the structure of the data modeled is similar to that of IC data. Though the structure itself is a FORTRAN direct-access file, its interface with user programs is a small sequential subfile accessible to FORTRAN, PASCAL, and most other languages. This ability facilitates linkup to systems already in use and requires minimal recoding. Backup, restore, and other data base recovery and integrity operations are automatic, but may be initiated by the user if desired. 3 figures.

  16. Microstructure of high c-axis oriented stand-alone ZnO self-assembled film.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Yoshitake; Kato, Kazumi

    2009-01-01

    Stand-alone ZnO films were fabricated at air-liquid interfaces. The Microstructures of the films were observed precisely using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) in this study. They were assemblies of nano-sheets having uniform film thickness. The nano-sheets grew down toward the bottom of solutions by the supply of Zn ions from the solutions. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated high c-axis orientation of the films perpendicular to the air-liquid interface. An area of the nano-sheets was magnified for further observation. Electron diffraction patterns and lattice images indicated that the nano-sheets consisted of ZnO crystals. A slight amount of co-precipitated zinc carbonate hydroxide (Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6) was also observed. Their morphologies were drastically changed by electron beam irradiation because of dehydration and crystallization to ZnO.

  17. The effects of controls and controllable and storage loads on the performance of stand-alone photovoltaic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cull, R. C.; Eltimsahy, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    Stand-alone photovoltaic systems have been modeled and analyzed from sunlight in to consumer product out. By including the consumer product in the analysis, concepts such as 'product storage' (a storage tank for water or cold-plates for refrigeration) and loads controllable by the system controller have been added to the system analysis. From a controls analysis viewpoint, this adds state variables to the system. The result is that the system controller can make operating control decisions on the energy flow between these various system elements to optimize system performance and reduce system cost. The effects on system performance of various control schemes employing these concepts are presented. Analysis of water pumping and/or refrigeration systems show possible performance improvements of greater than 15% with the addition of controllable loads with product storage.

  18. Standing Alone in Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freado, Mark D.; Bath, Howard I.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Mark Freado and Howard Bath present the case of an 11 year boy who had been arrested and charged with the murder of his two-year-old cousin. Because of the severity of the criminal charge against this boy, and despite his age, a transfer hearing was set to determine whether he would be tried as a juvenile or an adult. Such…

  19. An expanded family of dysprosium-scandium mixed-metal nitride clusterfullerenes: the role of the lanthanide metal on the carbon cage size distribution.

    PubMed

    Wei, Tao; Liu, Fupin; Wang, Song; Zhu, Xianjun; Popov, Alexey A; Yang, Shangfeng

    2015-04-01

    A large family of dysprosium-scandium (Dy-Sc) mixed-metal nitride clusterfullerenes (MMNCFs), Dy(x)Sc(3-x)N@C2n (x = 1, 2, 2n = 68, 70, 76-86) have been successfully synthesized and isolated. Among these, the C70 and C82-based MMNCFs are two new cages that have never been isolated for MMNCFs. Synthesis of Dy(x)Sc(3-x)N@C2n was accomplished by the "selective organic solid" route using guanidinium thiocyanate as the nitrogen source, and their isolation was fulfilled by recycling HPLC. UV/Vis-NIR spectroscopic study indicates that almost all Dy(x)Sc(3-x)N@C2n MMNCFs are kinetically stable fullerenes with optical band gaps beyond 1 eV. This feature is distinctly different to their counterparts Dy3N@C2n (78≤2n≤88), whose for optical band-gaps are below 1 eV for relatively large cages such as C84 and C86. An FTIR spectroscopic study in combination with DFT calculations enables reasonable assignments of the cage isomeric structures of all isolated Dy(x)Sc(3-x)N@C2n (x = 1, 2, 2n = 68, 70, 76-86) MMNCFs. The carbon cage size distribution of Dy(x)Sc(3-x)N@C2n (2n = 68, 70, 76-86) is compared to the reported Dy3N@C2n (78≤2n≤8) homogeneous NCF and Dy(x)Sc(3-x)N@C2n (78≤2n≤88) MMNCF families, revealing that the medium-sized Dy metal plays a crucial role on the expanded cage size distribution of MMNCFs. As a result, Dy(x)Sc(3-x)N@C2n MMNCFs are the largest MMNCF family reported to date.

  20. Neural network based short-term electric load forecasting: EMS-integrated and PC-based stand-alone systems

    SciTech Connect

    Khadem, M.; Lago, A.

    1996-10-01

    This paper presents the application of a neural network (NN) based short-term electric load forecast model that is being used for the energy control center of the electric utilities. This NN based short-term load forecast program has been developed with a version integrated with the electric utility`s Energy management System (EMS), as well as a PC-based stand-alone version. The model forecasts the hourly electrical load for the current day and up to seven days. A multi-layer neural network is used to provide a non-linear mapping between weather parameters and electric load. Using historical weather parameters and electric load. Using historical weather parameters (such as dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity and light intensity), and historical hourly loads, a neural network is trained for each day type and each weather-defined season. The forecast of weather parameters can be obtained by a weather station for the forecast period. The program is capable to generate hourly weather forecast if the forecast form the weather service is partial, such as if only a few hours per day are available, or even if the maximum or minimum daily values of the temperature forecast is available. A separate NN model has also been developed for identifying seasons based on the historical weather data. This paper will discuss features of the system, the neural network models and algorithm, and a sample result of the program performance.

  1. System dynamic model and charging control of lead-acid battery for stand-alone solar PV system

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, B.J.; Hsu, P.C.; Wu, M.S.; Ho, P.Y.

    2010-05-15

    The lead-acid battery which is widely used in stand-alone solar system is easily damaged by a poor charging control which causes overcharging. The battery charging control is thus usually designed to stop charging after the overcharge point. This will reduce the storage energy capacity and reduce the service time in electricity supply. The design of charging control system however requires a good understanding of the system dynamic behaviour of the battery first. In the present study, a first-order system dynamics model of lead-acid battery at different operating points near the overcharge voltage was derived experimentally, from which a charging control system based on PI algorithm was developed using PWM charging technique. The feedback control system for battery charging after the overcharge point (14 V) was designed to compromise between the set-point response and the disturbance rejection. The experimental results show that the control system can suppress the battery voltage overshoot within 0.1 V when the solar irradiation is suddenly changed from 337 to 843 W/m{sup 2}. A long-term outdoor test for a solar LED lighting system shows that the battery voltage never exceeded 14.1 V for the set point 14 V and the control system can prevent the battery from overcharging. The test result also indicates that the control system is able to increase the charged energy by 78%, as compared to the case that the charging stops after the overcharge point (14 V). (author)

  2. Automation infrastructure and operation control strategy in a stand-alone power system based on renewable energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziogou, Chrysovalantou; Ipsakis, Dimitris; Elmasides, Costas; Stergiopoulos, Fotis; Papadopoulou, Simira; Seferlis, Panos; Voutetakis, Spyros

    The design of the automation system and the implemented operation control strategy in a stand-alone power system in Greece are fully analyzed in the present study. A photovoltaic array and three wind generators serve as the system main power sources and meet a predefined load demand. A lead-acid accumulator is used to compensate the inherent power fluctuations (excess or shortage) and to regulate the overall system operation, based on a developed power management strategy. Hydrogen is produced by using system excess power in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer and is further stored in pressurized cylinders for subsequent use in a PEM fuel cell in cases of power shortage. A diesel generator complements the integrated system and is employed only in emergency cases, such as subsystems failure. The performance of the automatic control system is evaluated through the real-time operation of the power system where data from the various subsystems are recorded and analyzed using a supervised data acquisition unit. Various network protocols were used to integrate the system devices into one central control system managing in this way to compensate for the differences between chemical and electrical subunits. One of the main advantages is the ability of process monitoring from distance where users can perform changes to system principal variables. Furthermore, the performance of the implemented power management strategy is evaluated through simulated scenarios by including a case study analysis on system abilities to meet higher than expected electrical load demands.

  3. Minimization of the energy storage requirements of a stand-alone wind power installation by means of photovoltaic panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaldellis, J. K.; Kostas, P.; Filios, A.

    2006-07-01

    Autonomous wind power systems are among the most interesting and environmentally friendly technological solutions for the electrification of remote consumers. In many cases, however, the battery contribution to the initial or the total operational cost is found to be dominant, discouraging further penetration of the available wind resource. This is basically the case for areas possessing a medium-low wind potential. On the other hand, several isolated consumers are located in regions having the regular benefit of an abundant and reliable solar energy supply. In this context the present study investigates the possibility of reducing the battery size of a stand-alone wind power installation by incorporating a small photovoltaic generator. For this purpose an integrated energy production installation based exclusively on renewable energy resources is hereby proposed. Subsequently a new numerical algorithm is developed that is able to estimate the appropriate dimensions of a similar system. According to the results obtained by long-term experimental measurements, the introduction of the photovoltaic panels considerably improves the operational and financial behaviour of the complete installation owing to the imposed significant battery capacity diminution. Copyright

  4. Fundamental-Frequency-Modulated Six-Level Diode-Clamped Multilevel Inverter for Three-Phase Stand-Alone Photovoltaic System

    SciTech Connect

    Ozdemir, Engin; Ozdemir, Sule; Tolbert, Leon M

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a fundamental-frequency-modulated diode-clamped multilevel inverter (DCMLI) scheme for a three-phase stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system. The system consists of five series-connected PV modules, a six-level DCMLI generating fundamental-modulation staircase three-phase output voltages, and a three-phase induction motor as the load. In order to validate the proposed concept, simulation studies and experimental measurements using a small-scale laboratory prototype are also presented. The results show the feasibility of the fundamental frequency switching application in three-phase stand-alone PV power systems.

  5. Preparing Teachers to Integrate Technology into K-12 Instruction: Comparing a Stand-Alone Technology Course with a Technology-Infused Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buss, Ray R.; Wetzel, Keith; Foulger, Teresa S.; Lindsey, LeeAnn

    2015-01-01

    We compared the effectiveness of learning technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge (TPACK) domain knowledge in a new technology-infused approach for teaching technology to teacher candidates with a more traditional, stand-alone course. In the new approach, learning to use technology is infused into program methods courses. Candidates all…

  6. Estuary Data Mapper: A Stand-Alone Tool for Geospatial Data Access, Visualization and Download for Estuaries and Coastal Watersheds of the United States. (UNH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA Estuary Data Mapper (EDM; http://badger.epa.gov/rsig/edm/index.html) has been designed as a free stand-alone tool for geospatial data discovery, visualization, and data download for estuaries and their associated watersheds in the conterminous United States. EDM requi...

  7. Estuary Data Mapper: A Stand-Alone Tool for Geospatial Data Access, Visualization and Download for Estuaries and Coastal Watersheds of the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA Estuary Data Mapper (EDM; http://badger.epa.gov/rsig/edm/index.html) has been designed as a free stand-alone tool for geospatial data discovery, visualization, and data download for estuaries and their associated watersheds in the conterminous United States. EDM requi...

  8. Stand-Alone Front-End System for High-Frequency, High-Frame-Rate Coded Excitation Ultrasonic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jinhyoung; Hu, Changhong; Shung, K. Kirk

    2012-01-01

    A stand-alone front-end system for high-frequency coded excitation imaging was implemented to achieve a wider dynamic range. The system included an arbitrary waveform amplifier, an arbitrary waveform generator, an analog receiver, a motor position interpreter, a motor controller and power supplies. The digitized arbitrary waveforms at a sampling rate of 150 MHz could be programmed and converted to an analog signal. The pulse was subsequently amplified to excite an ultrasound transducer, and the maximum output voltage level achieved was 120 Vpp. The bandwidth of the arbitrary waveform amplifier was from 1 to 70 MHz. The noise figure of the preamplifier was less than 7.7 dB and the bandwidth was 95 MHz. Phantoms and biological tissues were imaged at a frame rate as high as 68 frames per second (fps) to evaluate the performance of the system. During the measurement, 40-MHz lithium niobate (LiNbO3) single-element lightweight (<0.28 g) transducers were utilized. The wire target measurement showed that the −6-dB axial resolution of a chirp-coded excitation was 50 µm and lateral resolution was 120 µm. The echo signal-to-noise ratios were found to be 54 and 65 dB for the short burst and coded excitation, respectively. The contrast resolution in a sphere phantom study was estimated to be 24 dB for the chirp-coded excitation and 15 dB for the short burst modes. In an in vivo study, zebrafish and mouse hearts were imaged. Boundaries of the zebrafish heart in the image could be differentiated because of the low-noise operation of the implemented system. In mouse heart images, valves and chambers could be readily visualized with the coded excitation. PMID:23443698

  9. Automated gas-phase purification for accurate, multiplexed quantification on a stand-alone ion trap mass spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Catherine E.; Rensvold, Jarred W.; Westphall, Michael S.; Pagliarini, David J.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2012-01-01

    Isobaric tagging enables the acquisition of highly-multiplexed proteome quantification but is hindered by the pervasive problem of precursor interference. The elimination of co-isolated contaminants prior to reporter tag generation can be achieved through the use of gas-phase purification via proton transfer ion/ion reactions (QuantMode); however, the original QuantMode technique was implemented on the high resolution linear ion trap-Orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometer enabled with electron transfer dissociation (ETD). Here we extend this technology to stand-alone linear ion trap systems (trapQuantMode). Facilitated by the use of inlet beam-type activation (i.e., trapHCD) for production and observation of the low mass-to-charge reporter region, this scan sequence comprises three separate events to maximize peptide identifications, minimize duty cycle requirements, and increase quantitative accuracy, precision, and dynamic range. Significant improvements in quantitative accuracy were attained over standard methods when using trapQuantMode (trapQM) to analyze an interference model system comprising tryptic peptides of yeast that we contaminated with human peptides. Finally, we demonstrate practical benefits of this method by analysis of the proteomic changes that occur during mouse skeletal muscle myoblast differentiation. While trapQM’s reduced duty cycle led to the identification of fewer proteins than conventional operation (4,050 vs. 2,964), trapQM identified more significant differences (>1.5 fold, 1,362 vs 1,132, respectively; P<0.05) between the proteomes of undifferentiated myoblasts and differentiated myotubes and nearly ten-fold more differences with changes greater than 5-fold (96 vs. 12). We further show that our trapQM dataset is superior for identifying changes in protein abundance that are consistent with the metabolic and structural changes known to accompany myotube formation. PMID:23046161

  10. Leadership in Dental Hygiene Degree Completion Programs: A Pilot Study Comparing Stand-Alone Leadership Courses and Leadership-Infused Curricula.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michelle L; Gurenlian, JoAnn R; Freudenthal, Jacqueline J; Farnsworth, Tracy J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to define the extent to which leadership and leadership skills are taught in dental hygiene degree completion programs by comparing stand-alone leadership courses/hybrid programs with programs that infuse leadership skills throughout the curricula. The study involved a mixed-methods approach using qualitative and quantitative data. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with program directors and faculty members who teach a stand-alone leadership course, a hybrid program, or leadership-infused courses in these programs. A quantitative comparison of course syllabi determined differences in the extent of leadership content and experiences between stand-alone leadership courses and leadership-infused curricula. Of the 53 U.S. dental hygiene programs that offer degree completion programs, 49 met the inclusion criteria, and 19 programs provided course syllabi. Of the program directors and faculty members who teach a stand-alone leadership course or leadership-infused curriculum, 16 participated in the interview portion of the study. The results suggested that competencies related to leadership were not clearly defined or measurable in current teaching. Reported barriers to incorporating a stand-alone leadership course included overcrowded curricula, limited qualified faculty, and lack of resources. The findings of this study provide a synopsis of leadership content and gaps in leadership education for degree completion programs. Suggested changes included defining a need for leadership competencies and providing additional resources to educators such as courses provided by the American Dental Education Association and the American Dental Hygienists' Association. PMID:27139211

  11. An expandable prosthesis with dual cage-and-plate function in a single device for vertebral body replacement: clinical experience on 14 cases with vertebral tumors.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Juan J; Chiquete, Erwin; Ramírez, Juan J; Gómez-Limón, Ernesto; Ramírez, Juan M

    2010-08-01

    An expandable vertebral body prosthesis with dual cage-and-plate function in a single device (JR prosthesis) was designed to test the hypothesis that this modular system can provide the biomechanical requirements for immediate and durable spine stabilization after corpectomy. Cadaver assays were performed with a stainless steal device to test fixation and adequacy to the human spine anatomy. Then, 14 patients with vertebral tumors (eight metastatic) underwent corpectomy and vertebral body replacement with a titanium-made JR prosthesis. All patients had neurological deficit, severe pain and spine instability prior to surgery. Mean pain score before surgery on a visual analog scale decreased from 7.6-3.0 points after operation (p = 0.002). All patients achieved at least one grade of improvement in the Frankel score (p = 0.003), excepting the three patients with Frankel grade A before surgery. Two patients with renal cell carcinoma died during the following 4 days after surgery. The remaining patients attained a painless and stable spine immediately, which was maintained for long periods (mean follow-up: 25.4 months). No significant infections or implant failures were registered. A nonfatal case of inferior vena cava surgical injury was observed (repaired during surgery without further complications). In conclusion, the JR prosthesis stabilizes the spine immediately after surgery and for the rest of the patients' life. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the clinical experience of any expandable vertebral body prosthesis with dual cage-and-plate function in a single device.

  12. Comparison between solar utilization of a closed microalgae-based bio-loop and that of a stand-alone photovoltaic system.

    PubMed

    Jin, Qiang; Chen, Lei; Li, Aimin; Liu, Fuqiang; Long, Chao; Shan, Aidang; Borthwick, Alistair G L

    2015-05-01

    This study compared the solar energy utilization of a closed microalgae-based bio-loop for energy efficient production of biogas with fertilizer recovery against that of a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system. The comparison was made from the perspective of broad life cycle assessment, simultaneously taking exergy to be the functional unit. The results indicated that the bio-loop was more environmentally competitive than an equivalent stand-alone PV system, but had higher economic cost due to high energy consumption during the operational phase. To fix the problem, a patented, interior pressurization scheduling method was used to operate the bio-loop, with microalgae and aerobic bacterial placed together in the same reactor. As a result, the overall environmental impact and total investment were respectively reduced by more than 75% and 84%, a vast improvement on the bio-loop.

  13. An evaluation of the accuracy and precision of a stand-alone submersible continuous ruminal pH measurement system.

    PubMed

    Penner, G B; Beauchemin, K A; Mutsvangwa, T

    2006-06-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to develop and evaluate the accuracy and precision of a new stand-alone submersible continuous ruminal pH measurement system called the Lethbridge Research Centre ruminal pH measurement system (LRCpH; Experiment 1); 2) to establish the accuracy and precision of a well-documented, previously used continuous indwelling ruminal pH system (CIpH) to ensure that the new system (LRCpH) was as accurate and precise as the previous system (CIpH; Experiment 2); and 3) to determine the required frequency for pH electrode standardization by comparing baseline millivolt readings of pH electrodes in pH buffers 4 and 7 after 0, 24, 48, and 72 h of ruminal incubation (Experiment 3). In Experiment 1, 6 pregnant Holstein heifers, 3 lactating, primiparous Holstein cows, and 2 Black Angus heifers were used. All experimental animals were fitted with permanent ruminal cannulas. In Experiment 2, the 3 cannulated, lactating, primiparous Holstein cows were used. In both experiments, ruminal pH was determined continuously using indwelling pH electrodes. Subsequently, mean pH values were then compared with ruminal pH values obtained using spot samples of ruminal fluid (MANpH) obtained at the same time. A correlation coefficient accounting for repeated measures was calculated and results were used to calculate the concordance correlation to examine the relationships between the LRCpH-derived values and MANpH, and the CIpH-derived values and MANpH. In Experiment 3, the 6 pregnant Holstein heifers were used along with 6 new submersible pH electrodes. In Experiments 1 and 2, the comparison of the LRCpH output (1- and 5-min averages) to MANpH had higher correlation coefficients after accounting for repeated measures (0.98 and 0.97 for 1- and 5-min averages, respectively) and concordance correlation coefficients (0.96 and 0.97 for 1- and 5-min averages, respectively) than the comparison of CIpH to MANpH (0.88 and 0.87, correlation coefficient and concordance

  14. Solution and crystal structure of BA42, a protein from the Antarctic bacterium Bizionia argentinensis comprised of a stand-alone TPM domain.

    PubMed

    Aran, Martin; Smal, Clara; Pellizza, Leonardo; Gallo, Mariana; Otero, Lisandro H; Klinke, Sebastián; Goldbaum, Fernando A; Ithurralde, Esteban R; Bercovich, Andrés; Mac Cormack, Walter P; Turjanski, Adrián G; Cicero, Daniel O

    2014-11-01

    The structure of the BA42 protein belonging to the Antarctic flavobacterium Bizionia argentinensis was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray crystallography. This is the first structure of a member of the PF04536 family comprised of a stand-alone TPM domain. The structure reveals a new topological variant of the four β-strands constituting the central β-sheet of the αβα architecture and a double metal binding site stabilizing a pair of crossing loops, not observed in previous structures of proteins belonging to this family. BA42 shows differences in structure and dynamics in the presence or absence of bound metals. The affinity for divalent metal ions is close to that observed in proteins that modulate their activity as a function of metal concentration, anticipating a possible role for BA42.

  15. Effects of ozone as a stand-alone and coagulation-aid treatment on the reduction of trihalomethanes precursors from high DOC and hardness water.

    PubMed

    Sadrnourmohamadi, Mehrnaz; Gorczyca, Beata

    2015-04-15

    This study investigates the effect of ozone as a stand-alone and coagulation aid on the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the water with a high level of DOC (13.8 mgL(-1)) and calcium hardness (270 mgL(-1)) CaCO3. Natural water collected from the Assiniboine River (Manitoba, Canada) was used in this study. Effectiveness of ozone treatment was evaluated by measurement of DOC, DOC fractions, UV254, and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP). Additionally, zeta potential and dissolved calcium concentration were measured to discern the mechanism of ozone reactions. Results indicated that 0.8 mg O3/mg DOC ozone stand-alone can cause up to 86% UV254 reduction and up to 27% DOC reduction. DOC fractionation results showed that ozone can change the composition of DOC in the water samples, converting the hydrophobic fractions into hydrophilic ones and resulting in the reduction of THMFP. Also, ozone caused a decrease in particle stability and dissolved calcium concentration. These simultaneous ozonation effects caused improved water flocculation and enhanced removal of DOC. This resulted in reduction of the coagulant dosage when ozone doses higher than 0.2 mg O3/mg DOC were applied prior to coagulation with ferric sulfate. Also, pre-ozonation-coagulation process achieved preferential THMFP removal for all of the ozone doses tested (0-0.8 mg O3/mg DOC), leading to a lower specific THMFP in pre-ozonated-coagulated waters than in the corresponding ozonated waters.

  16. Grid parity analysis of stand-alone hybrid microgrids: A comparative study of Germany, Pakistan, South Africa and the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Jawad M.

    Grid parity for alternative energy resources occurs when the cost of electricity generated from the source is lower than or equal to the purchasing price of power from the electricity grid. This thesis aims to quantitatively analyze the evolution of hybrid stand-alone microgrids in the US, Germany, Pakistan and South Africa to determine grid parity for a solar PV/Diesel/Battery hybrid system. The Energy System Model (ESM) and NREL's Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources (HOMER) software are used to simulate the microgrid operation and determine a Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) figure for each location. This cost per kWh is then compared with two distinct estimates of future retail electricity prices at each location to determine grid parity points. Analysis results reveal that future estimates of LCOE for such hybrid stand-alone microgrids range within the 35-55 cents/kWh over the 25 year study period. Grid parity occurs earlier in locations with higher power prices or unreliable grids. For Pakistan grid parity is already here, while Germany hits parity between the years 2023-2029. Results for South Africa suggest a parity time range of the years 2040-2045. In the US, places with low grid prices do not hit parity during the study period. Sensitivity analysis results reveal the significant impact of financing and the cost of capital on these grid parity points, particularly in developing markets of Pakistan and South Africa. Overall, the study helps conclude that variations in energy markets may determine the fate of emerging energy technologies like microgrids. However, policy interventions have a significant impact on the final outcome, such as the grid parity in this case. Measures such as eliminating uncertainty in policies and improving financing can help these grids overcome barriers in developing economies, where they may find a greater use much earlier in time.

  17. Dynamical downscaling of historical climate over CORDEX East Asia domain: A comparison of regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model to stand-alone RCM simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Liwei; Zhou, Tianjun; Peng, Dongdong

    2016-02-01

    The FROALS (flexible regional ocean-atmosphere-land system) model, a regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model, has been applied to the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) East Asia domain. Driven by historical simulations from a global climate system model, dynamical downscaling for the period from 1980 to 2005 has been conducted at a uniform horizontal resolution of 50 km. The impacts of regional air-sea couplings on the simulations of East Asian summer monsoon rainfall have been investigated, and comparisons have been made to corresponding simulations performed using a stand-alone regional climate model (RCM). The added value of the FROALS model with respect to the driving global climate model was evident in terms of both climatology and the interannual variability of summer rainfall over East China by the contributions of both the high horizontal resolution and the reasonably simulated convergence of the moisture fluxes. Compared with the stand-alone RCM simulations, the spatial pattern of the simulated low-level monsoon flow over East Asia and the western North Pacific was improved in the FROALS model due to its inclusion of regional air-sea coupling. The results indicated that the simulated sea surface temperature (SSTs) resulting from the regional air-sea coupling were lower than those derived directly from the driving global model over the western North Pacific north of 15°N. These colder SSTs had both positive and negative effects. On the one hand, they strengthened the western Pacific subtropical high, which improved the simulation of the summer monsoon circulation over East Asia. On the other hand, the colder SSTs suppressed surface evaporation and favored weaker local interannual variability in the SST, which led to less summer rainfall and weaker interannual rainfall variability over the Korean Peninsula and Japan. Overall, the reference simulation performed using the FROALS model is reasonable in terms of rainfall over the land area of

  18. Continuous monitoring bed-level dynamics on an intertidal flat: introducing novel stand-alone high-resolution SED-sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhan; Lenting, Walther; van der Wal, Daphne; Bouma, Tjeerd

    2015-04-01

    Tidal flat morphology is continuously shaped by hydrodynamic force, resulting in highly dynamic bed elevations. The knowledge of short-term bed-level changes is important both for understanding sediment transport processes as well as for assessing critical ecological processes such as e.g. vegetation recruitment chances on tidal flats. Due to the labour involved, manual discontinuous measurements lack the ability to continuously monitor bed-elevation changes. Existing methods for automated continuous monitoring of bed-level changes lack vertical accuracy (e.g., Photo-Electronic Erosion Pin sensor and resistive rod) or limited in spatial application by using expensive technology (e.g., acoustic bed level sensors). A method provides sufficient accuracy with a reasonable cost is needed. In light of this, a high-accuracy sensor (2 mm) for continuously measuring short-term Surface-Elevation Dynamics (SED-sensor) was developed. This SED-sensor makes use of photovoltaic cells and operates stand-alone using internal power supply and data logging system. The unit cost and the labour in deployments is therefore reduced, which facilitates monitoring with a number of units. In this study, the performance of a group of SED-sensors is tested against data obtained with precise manual measurements using traditional Sediment Erosion Bars (SEB). An excellent agreement between the two methods was obtained, indicating the accuracy and precision of the SED-sensors. Furthermore, to demonstrate how the SED-sensors can be used for measuring short-term bed-level dynamics, two SED-sensors were deployed for 1 month at two sites with contrasting wave exposure conditions. Daily bed-level changes were obtained including a severe storm erosion event. The difference in observed bed-level dynamics at both sites was statistically explained by their different hydrodynamic conditions. Thus, the stand-alone SED-sensor can be applied to monitor sediment surface dynamics with high vertical and temporal

  19. Life-cycle cost comparisons of advanced storage batteries and fuel cells for utility, stand-alone, and electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a comparison of battery and fuel cell economics for ten different technologies. To develop an equitable economic comparison, the technologies were evaluated on a life-cycle cost (LCC) basis. The LCC comparison involved normalizing source estimates to a standard set of assumptions and preparing a lifetime cost scenario for each technology, including the initial capital cost, replacement costs, operating and maintenance (O M) costs, auxiliary energy costs, costs due to system inefficiencies, the cost of energy stored, and salvage costs or credits. By considering all the costs associated with each technology over its respective lifetime, the technology that is most economical to operate over any given period of time can be determined. An analysis of this type indicates whether paying a high initial capital cost for a technology with low O M costs is more or less economical on a lifetime basis than purchasing a technology with a low initial capital cost and high O M costs. It is important to realize that while minimizing cost is important, the customer will not always purchase the least expensive technology. The customer may identify benefits associated with a more expensive option that make it the more attractive over all (e.g., reduced construction lead times, modularity, environmental benefits, spinning reserve, etc.). The LCC estimates presented in this report represent three end-use applications: utility load-leveling, stand-alone power systems, and electric vehicles.

  20. CRionScan: A stand-alone real time controller designed to perform ion beam imaging, dose controlled irradiation and proton beam writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daudin, L.; Barberet, Ph.; Serani, L.; Moretto, Ph.

    2013-07-01

    High resolution ion microbeams, usually used to perform elemental mapping, low dose targeted irradiation or ion beam lithography needs a very flexible beam control system. For this purpose, we have developed a dedicated system (called “CRionScan”), on the AIFIRA facility (Applications Interdisciplinaires des Faisceaux d'Ions en Région Aquitaine). It consists of a stand-alone real-time scanning and imaging instrument based on a Compact Reconfigurable Input/Output (Compact RIO) device from National Instruments™. It is based on a real-time controller, a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), input/output modules and Ethernet connectivity. We have implemented a fast and deterministic beam scanning system interfaced with our commercial data acquisition system without any hardware development. CRionScan is built under LabVIEW™ and has been used on AIFIRA's nanobeam line since 2009 (Barberet et al., 2009, 2011) [1,2]. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) embedded in the Compact RIO as a web page is used to control the scanning parameters. In addition, a fast electrostatic beam blanking trigger has been included in the FPGA and high speed counters (15 MHz) have been implemented to perform dose controlled irradiation and on-line images on the GUI. Analog to Digital converters are used for the beam current measurement and in the near future for secondary electrons imaging. Other functionalities have been integrated in this controller like LED lighting using Pulse Width Modulation and a “NIM Wilkinson ADC” data acquisition.

  1. A Study on Electric Power Smoothing System for Lead-Acid Battery of Stand-Alone Natural Energy Power System Using EDLC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yan; Shibata, Ryosuke; Yamamura, Naoki; Ishida, Muneaki

    To resolve energy shortage and global warming problem, renewable natural resource and its power system has been gradually generalizing. However, the power fluctuation suppressing in short period and the balance control of consumption and supply in long period are two of main problems that need to be resolved urgently in natural energy power system. In Stand-alone Natural Energy Power System (SNEPS) with power energy storage devices, power fluctuation in short period is one of the main reasons that recharge cycle times increase and lead-acid battery early failure. Hence, to prolong the service life of lead-acid battery and improve power quality through suppressing the power fluctuation, we proposed a method of electric power smoothing for lead-acid battery of SNEPS using bi-directional Buck/Boost converter and Electric Double Layer Capacitor (EDLC) in this paper. According to the test data of existing SNEPS, a power fluctuation condition is selected and as an example to analyze the validity of the proposed method. The analysis of frequency characteristics indicates the power fluctuation is suppressed a desired range in the target frequency region. The experimental results of confirmed the feasibility of the proposed system and the results well satisfy the requirement of system design.

  2. On the conversion of a mass selective detector from gas chromatography/mass spectrometry application to stand-alone, on-line, real-time mass spectrometry application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, M.

    1994-09-01

    Development of initial versions of hardware and software for a Hewlett-Packard HP-5971A mass selective detector (MSD) was performed in order to improve its capabilities for monitoring gaseous waste streams. The development allowed for initial evaluation of the feasibility of the conversion of the MSD from an integrated gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detector to a stand-alone, on-line, real-time mass spectrometry (SOR-MS) detector. Chemical compound quantitation is accomplished via mass spectrometric step heights, rather than gas chromatographic peak areas or heights. Contributions of more than one chemical compound to a single M/Z ratio are accounted for by nonlinear deconvolution of the mass spectrum, provided a calibration can be obtained for all contributing chemical compounds. The enhanced MSD was tested by a number of calibration and monitoring experiments in order to evaluate the potential and limitations of the conversion. With sufficient care and awareness of the potential and limitations, it appears to be possible to convert the GC-MS detector to a SOR-MS detector. In particular, this conversion could allow for simple monitoring of reactive chemical compounds.

  3. Estimation of the potential array output charge in the performance analysis of stand-alone photovoltaic systems without MPPT (Case study: Mediterranean climate)

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz, F.J.; Echbarthi, I.; Nofuentes, G.; Fuentes, M.; Aguilera, J.

    2009-11-15

    The potential array output energy, E{sub P}, stated by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in their European Guidelines for the Assessment of Photovoltaic Plants and the IEC Standard 61724 does not estimate properly the potential array output of stand-alone photovoltaic (SAPV) systems without maximum power point tracker (MPPT) as it is the case for SAPV systems with MPPT and grid connected systems. In this way, the main purpose of this paper is to validate an expression that compromises simplicity and accuracy when estimating the potential array output of SAPV systems without MPPT. This issue can be of high interest to photovoltaic (PV) practitioners and experts as it can improve the analysis performance of this type of systems, helping to discriminate better the different losses in this kind of systems. Furthermore, a study of the array potential estimation through different expressions will be developed in order to evaluate which matches better the array potential output in SAPV system without MPPT. Although the analysis will be focused especially in Mediterranean climates, it will be derived some general conclusions that can be considered in other climates. (author)

  4. The Impact of Course Delivery Systems on Student Achievement and Sense of Community: A Comparison of Learning Community versus Stand-Alone Classroom Settings in an Open-Enrollment Inner City Public Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandyopadhyay, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of two types of course delivery systems (learning community classroom environments versus stand-alone classroom environments) on the achievement of students who were simultaneously enrolled in remedial and college-level social science courses at an inner city open-enrollment public community college. This study was…

  5. Optimal design of proportional-integral controllers for stand-alone solid oxide fuel cell power plant using differential evolution algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ashik; Ullah, Md Shahid

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the application of differential evolution (DE) algorithm for the optimal tuning of proportional-integral (PI) controller designed to improve the small signal dynamic response of a stand-alone solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. The small signal model of the study system is derived and considered for the controller design as the target here is to track small variations in SOFC load current. Two PI controllers are incorporated in the feedback loops of hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures with an aim to improve the small signal dynamic responses. The controller design problem is formulated as the minimization of an eigenvalue based objective function where the target is to find out the optimal gains of the PI controllers in such a way that the discrepancy of the obtained and desired eigenvalues are minimized. Eigenvalue and time domain simulations are presented for both open-loop and closed loop systems. To test the efficacy of DE over other optimization tools, the results obtained with DE are compared with those obtained by particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm and invasive weed optimization (IWO) algorithm. Three different types of load disturbances are considered for the time domain based results to investigate the performances of different optimizers under different sorts of load variations. Moreover, non-parametric statistical analyses, namely, one sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test and paired sample t test are used to identify the statistical advantage of one optimizer over the other for the problem under study. The presented results suggest the supremacy of DE over PSO and IWO in finding the optimal solution. PMID:27066389

  6. Optimal design of proportional-integral controllers for stand-alone solid oxide fuel cell power plant using differential evolution algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ashik; Ullah, Md Shahid

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the application of differential evolution (DE) algorithm for the optimal tuning of proportional-integral (PI) controller designed to improve the small signal dynamic response of a stand-alone solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. The small signal model of the study system is derived and considered for the controller design as the target here is to track small variations in SOFC load current. Two PI controllers are incorporated in the feedback loops of hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures with an aim to improve the small signal dynamic responses. The controller design problem is formulated as the minimization of an eigenvalue based objective function where the target is to find out the optimal gains of the PI controllers in such a way that the discrepancy of the obtained and desired eigenvalues are minimized. Eigenvalue and time domain simulations are presented for both open-loop and closed loop systems. To test the efficacy of DE over other optimization tools, the results obtained with DE are compared with those obtained by particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm and invasive weed optimization (IWO) algorithm. Three different types of load disturbances are considered for the time domain based results to investigate the performances of different optimizers under different sorts of load variations. Moreover, non-parametric statistical analyses, namely, one sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test and paired sample t test are used to identify the statistical advantage of one optimizer over the other for the problem under study. The presented results suggest the supremacy of DE over PSO and IWO in finding the optimal solution.

  7. Size-exclusion chromatography as a stand-alone methodology identifies novel markers in mass spectrometry analyses of plasma-derived vesicles from healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    de Menezes-Neto, Armando; Sáez, María José Fidalgo; Lozano-Ramos, Inés; Segui-Barber, Joan; Martin-Jaular, Lorena; Ullate, Josep M Estanyol; Fernandez-Becerra, Carmen; Borrás, Francesc E; Del Portillo, Hernando A

    2015-01-01

    Plasma-derived vesicles hold a promising potential for use in biomedical applications. Two major challenges, however, hinder their implementation into translational tools: (a) the incomplete characterization of the protein composition of plasma-derived vesicles, in the size range of exosomes, as mass spectrometric analysis of plasma sub-components is recognizably troublesome and (b) the limited reach of vesicle-based studies in settings where the infrastructural demand of ultracentrifugation, the most widely used isolation/purification methodology, is not available. In this study, we have addressed both challenges by carrying-out mass spectrometry (MS) analyses of plasma-derived vesicles, in the size range of exosomes, from healthy donors obtained by 2 alternative methodologies: size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) on sepharose columns and Exo-Spin™. No exosome markers, as opposed to the most abundant plasma proteins, were detected by Exo-Spin™. In contrast, exosomal markers were present in the early fractions of SEC where the most abundant plasma proteins have been largely excluded. Noticeably, after a cross-comparative analysis of all published studies using MS to characterize plasma-derived exosomes from healthy individuals, we also observed a paucity of "classical exosome markers." Independent of the isolation method, however, we consistently identified 2 proteins, CD5 antigen-like (CD5L) and galectin-3-binding protein (LGALS3BP), whose presence was validated by a bead-exosome FACS assay. Altogether, our results support the use of SEC as a stand-alone methodology to obtain preparations of extracellular vesicles, in the size range of exosomes, from plasma and suggest the use of CD5L and LGALS3BP as more suitable markers of plasma-derived vesicles in MS.

  8. Broadly tunable, high-power terahertz radiation up to 73 K from a stand-alone Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ} mesa

    SciTech Connect

    Kitamura, T.; Watanabe, C.; Ishida, K.; Sekimoto, S.; Asanuma, K.; Yasui, T.; Nakade, K.; Shibano, Y.; Saiwai, Y.; Kashiwagi, T.; Minami, H.; Kadowaki, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Tsujimoto, M.; Klemm, R. A.

    2014-11-17

    High-power, continuous, broadly tunable THz radiation from 0.29 to 1.06 THz, was obtained from the outer current-voltage characteristic (IVC) branch of a single stand-alone mesa of the high-transition temperature T{sub c} superconductor Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ}. The particular metallic film structures placed both beneath and atop the mesas resulted in more efficient heat dissipation, higher allowed applied dc voltages, larger IVC loops, wider emission temperature ranges, and much broader emission frequency tunability than obtained previously.

  9. Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections in At-Risk Adolescent Females at a Comprehensive, Stand-Alone Adolescent Health Center in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Yavorsky, Risa L.; Hollman, Dominic; Steever, John; Soghomonian, Christine; Diaz, Angela; Strickler, Howard; Schlecht, Nicolas; Burk, Robert D.; Ochner, Christopher N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are common among adolescents, and multiple STIs over one’s lifetime can increase health risks. Few studies have assessed lifetime STI prevalence. This study evaluates minority, underserved adolescents’ self-reported lifetime STI history and objective STI rates. Methods Lifetime STI rates of female patients at an urban adolescent health center were obtained from self-administered questionnaires. Additionally, STI test results were retrieved from electronic medical records. Results Patients reported a high lifetime prevalence of STIs. By comparing self-report and objective data, underreporting was identified for chlamydia, gonorrhea, and herpes. Conclusions STI rates in at-risk adolescent females are higher than in the general population and remain elevated over time. Lifetime STI reports could expand our understanding of sexual health and should be further studied. Underreporting, which may increase health risks and hinder health care delivery, requires further investigation. Improvements in STI screening and prevention targeting at-risk populations are warranted. PMID:24807980

  10. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: Comparison of titanium and polyetheretherketone cages

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Titanium (TTN) cages have a higher modulus of elasticity when compared with polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages. This suggests that TTN-cages could show more frequent cage subsidence after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and therefore might lead to a higher loss of correction. We compared the long term results of stand-alone PEEK- and TTN-cages in a comparable patient collective that was operated under identical operative settings. Methods From 2002 to 2007 154 patients underwent single-level ACDF for degenerative disc disease (DDD). Clinical and radiological outcome were assessed in 86 eligible patients after a mean of 28.4 months. 44 patients received a TTN- and 42 patients a PEEK-cage. Results Solid arthrodesis was found in 93.2% of the TTN-group and 88.1% of the PEEK-group. Cage subsidence was observed in 20.5% of the TTN- and 14.3% of the PEEK-group. A significant segmental lordotic correction was achieved by both cage-types. Even though a loss of correction was found at the last follow-up in both groups, it did not reach the level of statistical significance. Statistical analysis of these results revealed no differences between the TTN- and PEEK-group. When assessed with the neck disability index (NDI), the visual analogue scale (VAS) of neck and arm pain and Odom’s criteria the clinical data showed no significant differences between the groups. Conclusions Clinical and radiological outcomes of ACDF with TTN- or PEEK-cages do not appear to be influenced by the chosen synthetic graft. The modulus of elasticity represents only one of many physical properties of a cage. Design, shape, size, surface architecture of a cage as well as bone density, endplate preparation and applied distraction during surgery need to be considered as further important factors. PMID:22978810

  11. Chapter 2: Stand-alone Applications - TOPCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C. J.

    Tool for OPerations on Catalogues And Tables or TOPCAT is a graphical viewer for table data. It offers a variety of ways to work with data tables, including a browser for the cell data, viewers for information about table and column metadata, dataset visualization, and even analysis. We discuss a small subset of TOPCAT's functionalities in this chapter. TOPCAT was originally developed as part of the Starlink program in the United Kingdom. It is now maintained by AstroGrid. The program is written in pure Java and available under the GNU General Public License. It is available for download and a version is included in the software distribution accompanying this book. TOPCAT is a GUI interface on top of the STIL library. A command line interface to this library, STILTS, described in Chapter 21 provides scriptable access to many of the capabilities described here. The purpose of this tutorial is to provide an overview of TOPCAT to the novice user. The best place to look for and learn about TOPCAT is the web page maintained by Mark B. Taylor. There, TOPCAT documentation is provided in HTML, PDF, via screen shots, etc. In this chapter we take the user through a few examples that give the general idea of how TOPCAT works. The majority of the functionality of TOPCAT is not included in this short tutorial. Our goal in this tutorial is to lead the reader through an exercise that would result in a publication quality figure (e.g. for a journal article). Specifically, we will use TOPCAT to show how the color-magnitude relation of a galaxy cluster compares to that of all galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (York et al. 2000). This diagnostic is used not only in cluster finding, but its linear fit can provide insight into the age and/or metallicity of the oldest galaxies in galaxy clusters (which are some of the oldest galaxies in the Universe). The data we need for this exercise are: 1) the entire spectroscopic galaxy catalog from the SDSS, with galaxy positions, galaxy redshifts, and galaxy magnitudes and 2) galaxy members of a known galaxy cluster. For the former, we will download data directly from the SDSS servers to our local machine for analysis. For the latter, we will use TOPCAT's ability to call live cone search services.

  12. Diagnosis: genetic testing cannot stand alone.

    PubMed

    Morales-Peralta, Estela

    2014-01-01

    Genetic testing uses advanced laboratory techniques to identify protein alterations, certain metabolites, chromosomes, or nucleic acids by which a genotype is determined or inferred. These tests provide insights into the molecular basis and physiopathology of genetic diseases, information which is critical for prevention, treatment and genetic counseling. Initiated in 1982, Cuba's National Program for Diagnosis, Management and Prevention of Birth Defects and Hereditary Diseases ensures availability of genetic tests to all Cubans who need them, free of charge, assisting physician-patient decisions. The tests may be used to confirm diagnoses, point to hereditary diseases and potential congenital problems during pregnancy or in pre-symptomatic stages, and diagnose carriers of recessive diseases.

  13. Stand Alone Battery Thermal Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Brodie, Brad

    2015-09-30

    The objective of this project is research, development and demonstration of innovative thermal management concepts that reduce the cell or battery weight, complexity (component count) and/or cost by at least 20%. The project addresses two issues that are common problems with current state of the art lithium ion battery packs used in vehicles; low power at cold temperatures and reduced battery life when exposed to high temperatures. Typically, battery packs are “oversized” to satisfy the two issues mentioned above. The first phase of the project was spent making a battery pack simulation model using AMEsim software. The battery pack used as a benchmark was from the Fiat 500EV. FCA and NREL provided vehicle data and cell data that allowed an accurate model to be created that matched the electrical and thermal characteristics of the actual battery pack. The second phase involved using the battery model from the first phase and evaluate different thermal management concepts. In the end, a gas injection heat pump system was chosen as the dedicated thermal system to both heat and cool the battery pack. Based on the simulation model. The heat pump system could use 50% less energy to heat the battery pack in -20°C ambient conditions, and by keeping the battery cooler at hot climates, the battery pack size could be reduced by 5% and still meet the warranty requirements. During the final phase, the actual battery pack and heat pump system were installed in a test bench at DENSO to validate the simulation results. Also during this phase, the system was moved to NREL where testing was also done to validate the results. In conclusion, the heat pump system can improve “fuel economy” (for electric vehicle) by 12% average in cold climates. Also, the battery pack size, or capacity, could be reduced 5%, or if pack size is kept constant, the pack life could be increased by two years. Finally, the total battery pack and thermal system cost could be reduced 5% only if the system is integrated with the vehicle cabin air conditioning system. The reason why we were not able to achieve the 20% reduction target is because of the natural decay of the battery cell due to the number of cycles. Perhaps newer battery chemistries that are not so sensitive to cycling would have more potential for reducing the battery size due to thermal issues.

  14. A Stand-Alone Interactive Physics Showcase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfaff, Daniel; Hagelgans, Anja; Weidemuller, Matthias; Bretzer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    We present a showcase with interactive exhibits of basic physical experiments that constitutes a complementary method for teaching physics and interesting students in physical phenomena. Our interactive physics showcase, shown in Fig. 1, stimulates interest for science by letting the students experience, firsthand, surprising phenomena and…

  15. Exhibits Enhanced by Stand-Alone Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rennes, Eve C.

    Both the development and evaluation of one of a set of computer programs designed for use by visitors as adjuncts to museum exhibits are described. Museum displays used were (1) a static, behind-glass exhibit on evolution; (2) a hands-on primitive stone age tools exhibit; and (3) a Foucault pendulum. A computer placed next to each exhibit served…

  16. Temperature dependence of polyhedral cage volumes in clathrate hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chakoumakos, B.C.; Rawn, C.J.; Rondinone, A.J.; Stern, L.A.; Circone, S.; Kirby, S.H.; Ishii, Y.; Jones, C.Y.; Toby, B.H.

    2003-01-01

    The polyhedral cage volumes of structure I (sI) (carbon dioxide, methane, trimethylene oxide) and structure II (sII) (methane-ethane, propane, tetrahydrofuran, trimethylene oxide) hydrates are computed from atomic positions determined from neutron powder-diffraction data. The ideal structural formulas for sI and sII are, respectively, S2L6 ?? 46H2O and S16L???8 ?? 136H2O, where S denotes a polyhedral cage with 20 vertices, L a 24-cage, and L??? a 28-cage. The space-filling polyhedral cages are defined by the oxygen atoms of the hydrogen-bonded network of water molecules. Collectively, the mean cage volume ratio is 1.91 : 1.43 : 1 for the 28-cage : 24-cage : 20-cage, which correspond to equivalent sphere radii of 4.18, 3.79, and 3.37 A??, respectively. At 100 K, mean polyhedral volumes are 303.8, 227.8, and 158.8 A??3 for the 28-cage, 24-cage, and 20-cage, respectively. In general, the 20-cage volume for a sII is larger than that of a sI, although trimethylene oxide is an exception. The temperature dependence of the cage volumes reveals differences between apparently similar cages with similar occupants. In the case of trimethylene oxide hydrate, which forms both sI and sII, the 20-cages common to both structures contract quite differently. From 220 K, the sII 20-cage exhibits a smooth monotonic reduction in size, whereas the sI 20-cage initially expands upon cooling to 160 K, then contracts more rapidly to 10 K, and overall the sI 20-cage is larger than the sII 20-cage. The volumes of the large cages in both structures contract monotonically with decreasing temperature. These differences reflect reoriented motion of the trimethyelene oxide molecule in the 24-cage of sI, consistent with previous spectroscopic and calorimetric studies. For the 20-cages in methane hydrate (sI) and a mixed methane-ethane hydrate (sII), both containing methane as the guest molecule, the temperature dependence of the 20-cage volume in sII is much less than that in sI, but sII is overall

  17. Effect of Initial Powder Morphology and Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Stand-Alone Plasma-Sprayed 7 wt%Y2O3-ZrO2 Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Ercan, Batur; Bowman, Keith; Trice, Rodney; Wang, Hsin; Porter, Wallace D

    2006-01-01

    The effects of starting powder morphology on the thermal and mechanical properties of stand-alone plasma-sprayed 7 wt.% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2}(YSZ) coatings were studied. Two powder morphologies were investigated: an agglomerated and sintered powder (referred to presently as 'AS') and a powder manufactured using plasma spheroidization to create hollow spheres (referred to presently as 'HS'). Coatings made from AS powders contained 0.21 wt.% SiO{sub 2} impurity, twice as much as observed in coatings made from HS powders. Properties of coatings made from each powder type were compared in the as-sprayed state and after 50 h heat treatments at temperatures ranging from 1000 to 1400 C. SEM microstructural investigations revealed significant differences in the porosity and distribution of pores in the coatings. In coatings made with AS powders the majority of the high aspect ratio pores were located between lamella (interlamellar porosity). In addition to interlamellar pores, coatings made with HS powders demonstrated 1.5 times more spherical-shaped globular pores by number located within lamella. Globular pores were shown to still exist in coatings made with HS powders after 50 h heat treatments at 1400 C. Archimedes porosity measurements showed that coatings made with AS powders typically contained 4-5% less total porosity than coatings made with HS powders. Thermal conductivity experiments using laser flash showed that there was no difference in the thermal conductivity of coatings made from either powder type in the as-sprayed state despite higher porosity in the coatings made from HS powders. After a 50 h heat treatment at 1000 and 1200 C, coatings made from both powder types still demonstrated statistically similar thermal conductivities. However, after a 50 h heat treatment at 1400 C the thermal conductivity of coatings made from AS powders was found to be 0.3 W/m/K higher than coatings made from HS powders. Microstructural differences in the coatings made

  18. Multi-site evaluation of a computer aided detection (CAD) algorithm for small acute intra-cranial hemorrhage and development of a stand-alone CAD system ready for deployment in a clinical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Ruchi R.; Fernandez, James; Lee, Joon K.; Chan, Tao; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.

    2010-03-01

    Timely detection of Acute Intra-cranial Hemorrhage (AIH) in an emergency environment is essential for the triage of patients suffering from Traumatic Brain Injury. Moreover, the small size of lesions and lack of experience on the reader's part could lead to difficulties in the detection of AIH. A CT based CAD algorithm for the detection of AIH has been developed in order to improve upon the current standard of identification and treatment of AIH. A retrospective analysis of the algorithm has already been carried out with 135 AIH CT studies with 135 matched normal head CT studies from the Los Angeles County General Hospital/ University of Southern California Hospital System (LAC/USC). In the next step, AIH studies have been collected from Walter Reed Army Medical Center, and are currently being processed using the AIH CAD system as part of implementing a multi-site assessment and evaluation of the performance of the algorithm. The sensitivity and specificity numbers from the Walter Reed study will be compared with the numbers from the LAC/USC study to determine if there are differences in the presentation and detection due to the difference in the nature of trauma between the two sites. Simultaneously, a stand-alone system with a user friendly GUI has been developed to facilitate implementation in a clinical setting.

  19. Evaluation of NorESM-OC (versions 1 and 1.2), the ocean carbon-cycle stand-alone configuration of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwinger, Jörg; Goris, Nadine; Tjiputra, Jerry F.; Kriest, Iris; Bentsen, Mats; Bethke, Ingo; Ilicak, Mehmet; Assmann, Karen M.; Heinze, Christoph

    2016-08-01

    Idealised and hindcast simulations performed with the stand-alone ocean carbon-cycle configuration of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM-OC) are described and evaluated. We present simulation results of three different model configurations (two different model versions at different grid resolutions) using two different atmospheric forcing data sets. Model version NorESM-OC1 corresponds to the version that is included in the NorESM-ME1 fully coupled model, which participated in CMIP5. The main update between NorESM-OC1 and NorESM-OC1.2 is the addition of two new options for the treatment of sinking particles. We find that using a constant sinking speed, which has been the standard in NorESM's ocean carbon cycle module HAMOCC (HAMburg Ocean Carbon Cycle model), does not transport enough particulate organic carbon (POC) into the deep ocean below approximately 2000 m depth. The two newly implemented parameterisations, a particle aggregation scheme with prognostic sinking speed, and a simpler scheme that uses a linear increase in the sinking speed with depth, provide better agreement with observed POC fluxes. Additionally, reduced deep ocean biases of oxygen and remineralised phosphate indicate a better performance of the new parameterisations. For model version 1.2, a re-tuning of the ecosystem parameterisation has been performed, which (i) reduces previously too high primary production at high latitudes, (ii) consequently improves model results for surface nutrients, and (iii) reduces alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon biases at low latitudes. We use hindcast simulations with prescribed observed and constant (pre-industrial) atmospheric CO2 concentrations to derive the past and contemporary ocean carbon sink. For the period 1990-1999 we find an average ocean carbon uptake ranging from 2.01 to 2.58 Pg C yr-1 depending on model version, grid resolution, and atmospheric forcing data set.

  20. Cage redesign explains assembly

    PubMed Central

    Theil, Elizabeth C; Turano, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Control of protein self-assembly and disassembly, which is central to metabolism and engineering applications, remains challenging. Here, a perspicacious redesign of interfaces in the multisubunit ferritin protein cage provides single, modifiable subunits that assemble with Cu2+ templating and give insights into the cage assembly code. PMID:23416399

  1. New Ventilated Isolation Cage

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Reginald O.

    1968-01-01

    A multifunction lid has been developed for a commercially available transparent animal cage which permits feeding, watering, viewing, long-term holding, and local transport of laboratory rodents on experiment while isolating the surrounding environment. The cage is airtight except for its inlet and exhaust high-efficiency particulate air filters, and it is completely steam-sterilizable. Opening of the cage's feed and water ports causes an inrush of high velocity air which prevents back-migration of aerosols and permits feeding and watering while eliminating need for chemical vapor decontamination. Ventilation system design permits the holding in adjacent cages of animals infected with different organisms without danger of cross-contamination; leaves the animal room odor-free; reduces required bedding changes to twice a month or less, and provides investigators with capability to control precisely individual cage ventilation rates. Forty-eight cages can be conveniently placed on a standard NIH “shoebox” cage rack (60 inches wide × 28 inches deep × 74 inches high) fitted with a simple manifold exhaust system. The entire system is mobile, requiring only an electrical power outlet. Principal application of the caging system is in the area of preventing exposure of animal caretakers to pathogenic substances associated with the animal host, and in reducing handling of animals and their exposure to extraneous contamination. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 9 PMID:5659368

  2. Multiexpandable cage for minimally invasive posterior lumbar interbody fusion

    PubMed Central

    Coe, Jeffrey D; Zucherman, James F; Kucharzyk, Donald W; Poelstra, Kornelis A; Miller, Larry E; Kunwar, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    The increasing adoption of minimally invasive techniques for spine surgery in recent years has led to significant advancements in instrumentation for lumbar interbody fusion. Percutaneous pedicle screw fixation is now a mature technology, but the role of expandable cages is still evolving. The capability to deliver a multiexpandable interbody cage with a large footprint through a narrow surgical cannula represents a significant advancement in spinal surgery technology. The purpose of this report is to describe a multiexpandable lumbar interbody fusion cage, including implant characteristics, intended use, surgical technique, preclinical testing, and early clinical experience. Results to date suggest that the multiexpandable cage allows a less invasive approach to posterior/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion surgery by minimizing iatrogenic risks associated with static or vertically expanding interbody prostheses while providing immediate vertebral height restoration, restoration of anatomic alignment, and excellent early-term clinical results. PMID:27729817

  3. Caged oligonucleotides for studying biological systems

    PubMed Central

    Ruble, Brittani K.; Yeldell, Sean B.; Dmochowski, Ivan J.

    2015-01-01

    Light-activated (“caged”) compounds have been widely employed for studying biological processes with high spatial and temporal control. In the past decade, several new approaches for caging the structure and function of DNA and RNA oligonucleotides have been developed. This review focuses on caged oligonucleotides that incorporate site-specifically one or two photocleavable linkers, whose photolysis yields oligonucleotides with dramatic structural and functional changes. This technique has been employed by our laboratory and others to photoregulate gene expression in cells and living organisms, typically using near UV-activated organic chromophores. To improve capabilities for in vivo studies, we harnessed the rich inorganic photochemistry of ruthenium bipyridyl complexes to synthesize Ru-caged morpholino antisense oligonucleotides that remain inactive in zebrafish embryos until uncaged with visible light. Expanding into new caged oligonucleotide applications, our lab has developed Transcriptome In Vivo Analysis (TIVA) technology, which provides the first noninvasive, unbiased method for isolating mRNA from single neurons in brain tissues. TIVA-isolated mRNA can be amplified and then analyzed using next-generation sequencing (RNA-seq). PMID:25865001

  4. Genetic encoding of caged cysteine and caged homocysteine in bacterial and mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Uprety, Rajendra; Luo, Ji; Liu, Jihe; Naro, Yuta; Samanta, Subhas; Deiters, Alexander

    2014-08-18

    We report the genetic incorporation of caged cysteine and caged homocysteine into proteins in bacterial and mammalian cells. The genetic code of these cells was expanded with an engineered pyrrolysine tRNA/tRNA synthetase pair that accepts both light-activatable amino acids as substrates. Incorporation was validated by reporter assays, western blots, and mass spectrometry, and differences in incorporation efficiency were explained by molecular modeling of synthetase-amino acid interactions. As a proof-of-principle application, the genetic replacement of an active-site cysteine residue with a caged cysteine residue in Renilla luciferase led to a complete loss of enzyme activity; however, upon brief exposure to UV light, a >150-fold increase in enzymatic activity was observed, thus showcasing the applicability of the caged cysteine in live human cells. A simultaneously conducted genetic replacement with homocysteine yielded an enzyme with greatly reduced activity, thereby demonstrating the precise probing of a protein active site. These discoveries provide a new tool for the optochemical control of protein function in mammalian cells and expand the set of genetically encoded unnatural amino acids.

  5. Interpenetrated Cage Structures.

    PubMed

    Frank, Marina; Johnstone, Mark D; Clever, Guido H

    2016-09-26

    This Review covers design strategies, synthetic challenges, host-guest chemistry, and functional properties of interlocked supramolecular cages. Some dynamic covalent organic structures are discussed, as are selected examples of interpenetration in metal-organic frameworks, but the main focus is on discrete coordination architectures, that is, metal-mediated dimers. Factors leading to interpenetration, such as geometry, flexibility and chemical makeup of the ligands, coordination environment, solvent effects, and selection of suitable counter anions and guest molecules, are discussed. In particular, banana-shaped bis-pyridyl ligands together with square-planar metal cations have proven to be suitable building blocks for the construction of interpenetrated double-cages obeying the formula [M4 L8 ]. The peculiar topology of these double-cages results in a linear arrangement of three mechanically coupled pockets. This allows for the implementation of interesting guest encapsulation effects such as allosteric binding and template-controlled selectivity. In stimuli-responsive systems, anionic triggers can toggle the binding of neutral guests or even induce complete structural conversions. The increasing structural and functional complexity in this class of self-assembled hosts promises the construction of intelligent receptors, novel catalytic systems, and functional materials. PMID:27417259

  6. Interpenetrated Cage Structures.

    PubMed

    Frank, Marina; Johnstone, Mark D; Clever, Guido H

    2016-09-26

    This Review covers design strategies, synthetic challenges, host-guest chemistry, and functional properties of interlocked supramolecular cages. Some dynamic covalent organic structures are discussed, as are selected examples of interpenetration in metal-organic frameworks, but the main focus is on discrete coordination architectures, that is, metal-mediated dimers. Factors leading to interpenetration, such as geometry, flexibility and chemical makeup of the ligands, coordination environment, solvent effects, and selection of suitable counter anions and guest molecules, are discussed. In particular, banana-shaped bis-pyridyl ligands together with square-planar metal cations have proven to be suitable building blocks for the construction of interpenetrated double-cages obeying the formula [M4 L8 ]. The peculiar topology of these double-cages results in a linear arrangement of three mechanically coupled pockets. This allows for the implementation of interesting guest encapsulation effects such as allosteric binding and template-controlled selectivity. In stimuli-responsive systems, anionic triggers can toggle the binding of neutral guests or even induce complete structural conversions. The increasing structural and functional complexity in this class of self-assembled hosts promises the construction of intelligent receptors, novel catalytic systems, and functional materials.

  7. Building a better Faraday cage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MartinAlfven; Wright, David; skocpol; Rounce, Graham; Richfield, Jon; W, Nick; wheelsonfire

    2015-11-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com news article “Are Faraday cages less effective than previously thought?” (15 September, http://ow.ly/SfklO), about a study that indicated, based on mathematical modelling, that conducting wire-mesh cages may not be as good at excluding electromagnetic radiation as is commonly assumed.

  8. Advances in Spinal Interbody Cages.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sukrit; Eltorai, Adam E M; Ruttiman, Roy; Daniels, Alan H

    2016-08-01

    Since the late 1980s, spinal interbody cages (ICs) have been used to aid bone fusion in a variety of spinal disorders. Utilized to restore intervertebral height, enable bone graft containment for arthrodesis, and restore anterior column biomechanical stability, ICs have since evolved to become a highly successful means of achieving fusion, being associated with less postoperative pain, shorter hospital stay, fewer complications and higher rates of fusion when than bone graft only spinal fusion. IC design and materials have changed considerably over the past two decades. The threaded titanium-alloy cylindrical screw cages, typically filled with autologous bone graft, of the mid-1990s achieved greater fusion rates than bone grafts and non-threaded cages. Threaded screw cages, however, were soon found to be less stable in extension and flexion; additionally, they had a high incidence of cage subsidence. As of the early 2000s, non-threaded box-shaped titanium or polyether ether ketone IC designs have become increasingly more common. This modern design continues to achieve greater cage stability in flexion, axial rotation and bending. However, cage stability and subsidence, bone fusion rates and surgical complications still require optimization. Thus, this review provides an update of recent research findings relevant to ICs over the past 3 years, highlighting trends in optimization of cage design, materials, alternatives to bone grafts, and coatings that may enhance fusion. PMID:27627709

  9. Cryogenic Caging for Science Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin; Chui, Talso C.

    2011-01-01

    A method has been developed for caging science instrumentation to protect from pyro-shock and EDL (entry, descent, and landing) acceleration damage. Caging can be achieved by immersing the instrument (or its critical parts) in a liquid and solidifying the liquid by cooling. After the launch shock and/or after the payload has landed, the solid is heated up and evaporated.

  10. The Cage-Busting Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.

    2015-01-01

    "The Cage-Busting Teacher" adopts the logic of "Cage-Busting Leadership" and applies it to the unique challenges and opportunities of classroom teachers. Detailed, accessible, and thoroughly engaging, it uncovers the many ways in which teachers can break out of familiar constraints in order to influence school and classroom…

  11. She stands alone: Pakistani woman film director, Shireen Pasha.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, A

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the activities of film director Shireen Pasha in promoting truth in the mass media in Pakistan. Pasha is described as one who finds it inexcusable in a state-subsidized system that national problems of poverty are not aired openly. Pasha has pursued the goal of exposing the real lives of Pakistanis on film in contrast to the publicly aired segments of "pretty girls in nice drawing rooms." Foreign channels available through satellite communications technology are viewed by Pasha as inappropriate with regard to people's needs and uncreative. Pakistan began with one channel, PTV, which recently refused to air her documentary on living conditions in Pakistan's rural areas "The Travelogue Pakistan." "The Walled City of Lahore" was her film about life in the old city. Both films poetically depicted the honor of humans and their struggle to stay alive. Some of her documentaries are made to show the value of indigenous skills, centuries old know-how, and traditions, regardless of the poverty. Pasha is described as fighting with PTV management over use of resources. Pasha desires to invest in training people to do documentaries or be more field-oriented rather than investing in equipment. Pasha joined PTV in 1975 and left in 1990. Pasha is recognized for her isolation as a woman in the business world, her commitment to exposing remote cultures and truth, and the odds she must confront in attaining her goals. Pasha is committed to doing extensive research, usually conducted during the summer months, in order to construct a credible story line that is produced usually during the winter months. One model of film story line is defined as one where women are portrayed as starting from an indigenous skill or knowledge and shifting to a greater position of power and control over their lives. Pasha believes that people who make films have the responsibility to evoke a reaction in people and to offer solutions. Two acclaimed films, which were supported by USAID and the government, were "Before It's Too Late" and "Only One Way." Both deal with resource issues and the environment. She is currently director of her own film house, The Film Makers, in Lahore. After graduating from the National College of Arts in 1968, she furthered her education in the US in the history of art. PMID:12290699

  12. Performance evaluation of stand alone hybrid PV-wind generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Saharuddin, N. Z.; Sulaima, M. F.; Jali, Mohd Hafiz; Bukhari, W. M.; Bohari, Z. H.; Yahaya, M. S.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of standalone hybrid system on Photovoltaic (PV)-Wind generator at Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FKE), UTeM. The hybrid PV-Wind in UTeM system is combining wind turbine system with the solar system and the energy capacity of this hybrid system can generate up to charge the battery and supply the LED street lighting load. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of PV-Wind hybrid generator. Solar radiation meter has been used to measure the solar radiation and anemometer has been used to measure the wind speed. The effectiveness of the PV-Wind system is based on the various data that has been collected and compared between them. The result shows that hybrid system has greater reliability. Based on the solar result, the correlation coefficient shows strong relationship between the two variables of radiation and current. The reading output current followed by fluctuate of solar radiation. However, the correlation coefficient is shows moderate relationship between the two variables of wind speed and voltage. Hence, the wind turbine system in FKE show does not operate consistently to produce energy source for this hybrid system compare to PV system. When the wind system does not fully operate due to inconsistent energy source, the other system which is PV will operate and supply the load for equilibrate the extra load demand.

  13. Stand-Alone Hardware-Based Learning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarkson, Trevor; Ng, Chi

    1995-02-01

    The probabilistic Random Access Memory (pRAM) is a biologically-inspired model of a neuron. The pRAM behaviour is described in this paper in relation to binary and real-valued input vectors. The pRAM is hardware-realisable, as is its reinforcement training algorithm. The pRAM model may be applied to a wide range of artificial neural network applications, many of which are classification tasks. The application presented here is a control problem where an inverted pendulum, mounted on a cart, is to be balanced. The solution to this problem using the pRAM-256, a VLSI pRAM controller, is shown.

  14. Field Testing Stand-Alone Courseware: A Proven Practical Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westgaard, Odin

    1979-01-01

    Describes procedure to measure a new course's ability to meet standards in three areas: student acceptance, student gains, and student comprehension. It has been used over three years to test the acceptability of 31 courses which contain more than 200 videotape presentations, and thousands of pages of print materials. (Author/JEG)

  15. 39 CFR 122.2 - Stand-alone special services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... from November 16 through January 1. (c) For the domestic market-dominant mail products identified above... when and where mailpieces undergo barcode scans in mail processing operations. The service standard for the electronic provision of CONFIRM service scan information is that it be made available to...

  16. Stand-alone and hybrid positioning using asynchronous pseudolites.

    PubMed

    Gioia, Ciro; Borio, Daniele

    2014-12-24

    global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers are usually unable to achieve satisfactory performance in difficult environments, such as open-pit mines, urban canyons and indoors. Pseudolites have the potential to extend GNSS usage and significantly improve receiver performance in such environments by providing additional navigation signals. This also applies to asynchronous pseudolite systems, where different pseudolites operate in an independent way. Asynchronous pseudolite systems require, however, dedicated strategies in order to properly integrate GNSS and pseudolite measurements. In this paper, several asynchronous pseudolite/GNSS integration strategies are considered: loosely- and tightly-coupled approaches are developed and combined with pseudolite proximity and receiver signal strength (RSS)-based positioning. The performance of the approaches proposed has been tested in different scenarios, including static and kinematic conditions. The tests performed demonstrate that the methods developed are effective techniques for integrating heterogeneous measurements from different sources, such as asynchronous pseudolites and GNSS.

  17. Array structure design handbook for stand alone photovoltaic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Didelot, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    This handbook will permit the user to design a low-cost structure for a variety of photovoltaic system applications under 10 kW. Any presently commercially available photovoltaic modules may be used. Design alternatives are provided for different generic structure types, structural materials, and electric interfaces. The use of a hand-held calculator is sufficient to perform the necessary calculations for the array designs.

  18. Photovoltaic stand-alone systems: Preliminary engineering design handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macomber, H. L.; Ruzek, J. B.; Costello, F. A.

    1981-08-01

    Component design and engineering information, including estimation and reduction strategies, FV array characteristics, and material on batteries, power handling equipment, and back up systems are presented. The data needed to begin the design process and preliminary system design considerations are discussed. These considerations include analysis of insolation and siting, system sizing, feasibility assessment and reliability engineering approaches. Information on system design procedures and applicable codes and standards is presented. Information on system installation, operation, maintenance issues, personnel and facility safety requirements and various means of calculating insolation, including computer software and statistical computations are emphasized.

  19. 45 CFR 155.1065 - Stand-alone dental plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... EXCHANGE ESTABLISHMENT STANDARDS AND OTHER RELATED STANDARDS UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT Exchange... section 1302(b)(1)(J) of the Affordable Care Act, provided that, with respect to this benefit, the plan... that are otherwise required under section 1302(b)(1)(J) of the Affordable Care Act....

  20. 45 CFR 155.1065 - Stand-alone dental plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... EXCHANGE ESTABLISHMENT STANDARDS AND OTHER RELATED STANDARDS UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT Exchange... section 1302(b)(1)(J) of the Affordable Care Act, provided that, with respect to this benefit, the plan... that are otherwise required under section 1302(b)(1)(J) of the Affordable Care Act....

  1. Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) powered electrochromic window

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Crandall, Richard S.; Deb, Satyendra K.; Stone, Jack L.

    1995-01-01

    A variable transmittance double pane window includes an electrochromic material that has been deposited on one pane of the window in conjunction with an array of photovoltaic cells deposited along an edge of the pane to produce the required electric power necessary to vary the effective transmittance of the window. A battery is placed in a parallel fashion to the array of photovoltaic cells to allow the user the ability to manually override the system when a desired transmittance is desired.

  2. Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) powered electrochromic window

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Crandall, R.S.; Deb, S.K.; Stone, J.L.

    1995-01-24

    A variable transmittance double pane window includes an electrochromic material that has been deposited on one pane of the window in conjunction with an array of photovoltaic cells deposited along an edge of the pane to produce the required electric power necessary to vary the effective transmittance of the window. A battery is placed in a parallel fashion to the array of photovoltaic cells to allow the user the ability to manually override the system when a desired transmittance is desired. 11 figures.

  3. Performance evaluation of stand alone hybrid PV-wind generator

    SciTech Connect

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Saharuddin, N. Z.; Sulaima, M. F.; Jali, Mohd Hafiz; Bukhari, W. M.; Bohari, Z. H.; Yahaya, M. S.

    2015-05-15

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of standalone hybrid system on Photovoltaic (PV)-Wind generator at Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FKE), UTeM. The hybrid PV-Wind in UTeM system is combining wind turbine system with the solar system and the energy capacity of this hybrid system can generate up to charge the battery and supply the LED street lighting load. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of PV-Wind hybrid generator. Solar radiation meter has been used to measure the solar radiation and anemometer has been used to measure the wind speed. The effectiveness of the PV-Wind system is based on the various data that has been collected and compared between them. The result shows that hybrid system has greater reliability. Based on the solar result, the correlation coefficient shows strong relationship between the two variables of radiation and current. The reading output current followed by fluctuate of solar radiation. However, the correlation coefficient is shows moderate relationship between the two variables of wind speed and voltage. Hence, the wind turbine system in FKE show does not operate consistently to produce energy source for this hybrid system compare to PV system. When the wind system does not fully operate due to inconsistent energy source, the other system which is PV will operate and supply the load for equilibrate the extra load demand.

  4. Molecular marriage through partner preferences in covalent cage formation and cage-to-cage transformation.

    PubMed

    Acharyya, Koushik; Mukherjee, Sandip; Mukherjee, Partha Sarathi

    2013-01-16

    Unprecedented self-sorting of three-dimensional purely organic cages driven by dynamic covalent bonds is described. Four different cages were first synthesized by condensation of two triamines and two dialdehydes separately. When a mixture of all the components was allowed to react, only two cages were formed, which suggests a high-fidelity self-recognition. The issue of the preference of one triamine for a particular dialdehyde was further probed by transforming a non-preferred combination to either of the two preferred combinations by reacting it with the appropriate triamine or dialdehyde.

  5. Furnished Cage System and Hen Well-Being: Comparative Effects of Furnished Cages and Battery Cages on Behavioral Exhibitions in White Leghorn Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The battery cage system is being banned in the European Union before or by 2012; and the furnished cage system will be the only cage system allowed after 2012. This study was conducted to examine the different effects of caging systems, furnished cages vs. battery cages, on bird behaviors. One hundr...

  6. An evaluation of intra-cage ventilation in three animal caging systems.

    PubMed

    Keller, L S; White, W J; Snider, M T; Lang, C M

    1989-05-01

    Although temperature and relative humidity have been quantitated and their effects on research data studied, few studies have measured the air turnover rates at cage level. We evaluated the air distribution and air turnover rates in unoccupied shoe-box mouse cages, filter-top covered cages and shoe-box mouse cages housed in a flexible film isolator by using discontinuous gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and smoke. Results showed that air turnover was most rapid in the unoccupied shoe-box mouse cage and slowest in the filter-top covered cage. Placing mice in the filter-top covered cage did not significantly improve the air turnover rate. Although filter-top covered cages reduce cage-to-cage transmission of disease, the poor airflow observed within these cages could lead to a buildup of gaseous pollutants that may adversely affect the animal's health. PMID:2724925

  7. Expanding Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A universe that expands with time. Although the possibility had been raised earlier through theoretical work carried out by Willem de Sitter (1872-1934), Aleksandr Friedmann (1888-1925), and the Abbé Georges Lemaître (1894-1966), that our universe is expanding was first demonstrated observationally in 1929 by Edwin P Hubble (1889-1953), through his measurements of the redshifts in the spectra of ...

  8. A Mobile Phone Faraday Cage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, M. M. J.

    2011-01-01

    A Faraday cage is an interesting physical phenomenon where an electromagnetic wave can be excluded from a volume of space by enclosure with an electrically conducting material. The practical application of this in the classroom is to block the signal to a mobile phone by enclosing it in a metal can. The background of the physics behind this is…

  9. Be a Cage-Buster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.

    2013-01-01

    "A cage-buster can't settle for ambiguity, banalities, or imprecision," writes well-known educator and author Rick Hess. "These things provide dark corners where all manners of ineptitude and excuse-making can hide." Hess suggests that leaders need to clearly define the problems they're trying to solve and open…

  10. DNA Cages with Icosahedral Symmetry in Bionanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonoska, Nataša; Taormina, Anne; Twarock, Reidun

    Blueprints for polyhedral cages with icosahedral symmetry made of circular DNA molecules are provided. The basic rule is that every edge of the cage is met twice in opposite directions by the DNA strand(s), and vertex junctions are realized by a set of admissible junction types. As nanocontainers for cargo storage and delivery, the icosidodecahedral cages are of special interest because they have the largest volume per surface ratio of all cages discussed here.

  11. The influence of cage positioning and cage type on cage migration and fusion rates in patients with monosegmental posterior lumbar interbody fusion and posterior fixation

    PubMed Central

    Abbushi, Alexander; Čabraja, Mario; Thomale, Ulrich-Wilhelm; Woiciechowsky, Christian

    2009-01-01

    In posterior lumbar interbody fusion, cage migrations and lower fusion rates compared to autologous bone graft used in the anterior lumbar interbody fusion procedure are documented. Anatomical and biomechanical data have shown that the cage positioning and cage type seem to play an important role. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of cage positioning and cage type on cage migration and fusion. We created a grid system for the endplates to analyze different cage positions. To analyze the influence of the cage type, we compared “closed” box titanium cages with “open” box titanium cages. This study included 40 patients with 80 implanted cages. After pedicle screw fixation, 23 patients were treated with a “closed box” cage and 17 patients with an “open box” cage. The follow-up period averaged 25 months. Twenty cages (25%) showed a migration into one vertebral endplate of <3 mm and four cages (5%) showed a migration of ≥3 mm. Cage migration was highest in the medio-medial position (84.6%), followed by the postero-lateral (42.9%), and the postero-medial (16%) cage position. Closed box cages had a significantly higher migration rate than open box cages, but fusion rates did not differ. In conclusion, cage positioning and cage type influence cage migration. The medio-medial cage position showed the highest migration rate. Regarding the cage type, open box cages seem to be associated with lower migration rates compared to closed box cages. However, the cage type did not influence bone fusion. PMID:19475436

  12. Storage of molecular hydrogen in B-N cage: energetics and thermal stability.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiang; Wang, Qian; Jena, Puru

    2005-07-01

    Using first principles theory based on density functional formulation we have studied the energetics and thermal stability of storing hydrogen in B-N-based nanostructures. We show that hydrogen molecule enters through the hexagonal face of the B36N36 cage and prefers to remain inside the cage in molecular form. The energy barriers for the hydrogen molecule to enter into or escape from the cage are respectively 1.406 eV and 1.516 eV. As the concentration of hydrogen inside the cage increases, the cage expands and the bond length of the hydrogen molecule contracts, resulting in significant energy cost. At zero temperature, up to 18 hydrogen molecules can be stored inside a B36N36 cage corresponding to a gravimetric density of 4 wt %. However, molecular dynamics simulation by using Nose algorithm at room temperature (T = 300 K) indicates that high weight percentage hydrogen storage cannot be achieved in B-N cage structures and thus these materials may not be good for practical applications.

  13. Corpectomy cage subsidence with rectangular versus round endcaps.

    PubMed

    Deukmedjian, Armen R; Manwaring, Jotham; Le, Tien V; Turner, Alexander W L; Uribe, Juan S

    2014-09-01

    Corpectomy cages with rectangular endcaps utilize the stronger peripheral part of the endplate, potentially decreasing subsidence risk. The authors evaluated cage subsidence during cyclic biomechanical testing, comparing rectangular versus round endcaps. Fourteen cadaveric spinal segments (T12-L2) were dissected and potted at T12 and L2, then assigned to a rectangular (n=7) or round (n=7) endcap group. An L1 corpectomy was performed and under uniform conditions a cage/plate construct was cyclically tested in a servo-hydraulic frame with increasing load magnitude. Testing was terminated if the test machine actuator displacement exceeded 6mm, or the specimen completed cyclic loading at 2400 N. Number of cycles, compressive force and force-cycles product at test completion were all greater in the rectangular endcap group compared with the round endcap group (cycles: 3027 versus 2092 cycles; force: 1943 N versus 1533 N; force-cycles product: 6162kN·cycles versus 3973 kN·cycles), however these differences were not statistically significant (p ⩾ 0.076). After normalizing for individual specimen bone mineral density, the same measures increased to a greater extent with the rectangular endcaps (cycles: 3014 versus 1855 cycles; force: 1944 N versus 1444 N; force-cycles product: 6040 kN·cycles versus 2980 kN·cycles), and all differences were significant (p⩽0.030). The rectangular endcap expandable corpectomy cage displayed increased resistance to subsidence over the round endcap cage under cyclic loading as demonstrated by the larger number of cycles, maximum load and force-cycles product at test completion. This suggests rectangular endcaps will be less susceptible to subsidence than the round endcap design.

  14. Corpectomy cage subsidence with rectangular versus round endcaps.

    PubMed

    Deukmedjian, Armen R; Manwaring, Jotham; Le, Tien V; Turner, Alexander W L; Uribe, Juan S

    2014-09-01

    Corpectomy cages with rectangular endcaps utilize the stronger peripheral part of the endplate, potentially decreasing subsidence risk. The authors evaluated cage subsidence during cyclic biomechanical testing, comparing rectangular versus round endcaps. Fourteen cadaveric spinal segments (T12-L2) were dissected and potted at T12 and L2, then assigned to a rectangular (n=7) or round (n=7) endcap group. An L1 corpectomy was performed and under uniform conditions a cage/plate construct was cyclically tested in a servo-hydraulic frame with increasing load magnitude. Testing was terminated if the test machine actuator displacement exceeded 6mm, or the specimen completed cyclic loading at 2400 N. Number of cycles, compressive force and force-cycles product at test completion were all greater in the rectangular endcap group compared with the round endcap group (cycles: 3027 versus 2092 cycles; force: 1943 N versus 1533 N; force-cycles product: 6162kN·cycles versus 3973 kN·cycles), however these differences were not statistically significant (p ⩾ 0.076). After normalizing for individual specimen bone mineral density, the same measures increased to a greater extent with the rectangular endcaps (cycles: 3014 versus 1855 cycles; force: 1944 N versus 1444 N; force-cycles product: 6040 kN·cycles versus 2980 kN·cycles), and all differences were significant (p⩽0.030). The rectangular endcap expandable corpectomy cage displayed increased resistance to subsidence over the round endcap cage under cyclic loading as demonstrated by the larger number of cycles, maximum load and force-cycles product at test completion. This suggests rectangular endcaps will be less susceptible to subsidence than the round endcap design. PMID:24831343

  15. Expanding Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrödinger, E.

    2011-02-01

    Preface; Part I. The de Sitter Universe: 1. Synthetic construction; 2. The reduced model: geodesics; 3. The elliptic interpretation; 4. The static frame; 5. The determination of parallaxes; 6. The Lemaître-Robertson frame; Part II. The Theory of Geodesics: 7. On null geodesics; i. Determination of the parameter for null lines in special cases; ii. Frequency shift; 8. Free particles and light rays in general expanding spaces, flat or hyperspherical; i. Flat spaces; ii. Spherical spaces; iii. The red shift for spherical spaces; Part III. Waves in General Riemannian Space-Time: 9. The nature of our approximation; 10. The Hamilton-Jacobi theory in a gravitational field; 11. Procuring approximate solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation from wave theory; Part IV. Waves in an Expanding Universe: 12. General considerations; 13. Proper vibrations and wave parcels; Bibliography.

  16. Expanding Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisenberg, Sol

    2005-04-01

    Newton's gravitational constant Gn and Laws of Gravity are based upon observations in our solar system. Mysteries appear when they are used far outside our solar system Apparently, Newton's gravitational constant can not be applied at large distances. Dark matter was needed to explain the observed flat rotational velocity curves of spiral galaxies (Rubin), and of groups of remote galaxies (Zwicky). Our expansion of Newton's gravitational constant Gn as a power series in distance r, is sufficient to explain these observations without using dark matter. This is different from the MOND theory of Milgrom involving acceleration. Also, our Expanded Gravitational Constant (EGC) can show the correct use of the red shift. In addition to the Doppler contribution, there are three other contributions and these depend only upon gravity. Thus, velocity observations only based on the red shift can not be used to support the concept of the expanding universe, the accelerating expansion, or dark energy. Our expanded gravity constant can predict and explain Olbers' paradox (dark sky), and the temperature of the CMB (cosmic microwave background). Thus, CMB may not support the big bang and inflation.

  17. Development of furnished cages for laying hens.

    PubMed

    Appleby, M C; Walker, A W; Nicol, C J; Lindberg, A C; Freire, R; Hughes, B O; Elson, H A

    2002-09-01

    1. A 3-year trial was carried out of cages for laying hens, occupying a full laying house. The main cage designs used were 5000 cm2 in area, 50 cm high at the rear and furnished with nests and perches. F cages had a front rollaway nest at the side, lined with artificial turf. FD cages also had a dust bath containing sand over the nest. H cages had two nest hollows at the side, one in front of the other. They were compared with conventional cages 2500 cm2 in area and 38 cm high at the rear. 2. Cages were stocked with from 4 to 8 ISA Brown hens per cage, resulting in varied allowances of area, feeder and perch per bird. No birds were beak trimmed. In F and FD cages two further treatments were applied: nests and dust baths were sometimes fitted with gates to exclude birds from dust baths in the morning and from both at night; elevated food troughs, with a lip 33 cm above the cage floor, were compared with standard troughs. 3. Management of the house was generally highly successful, with temperature control achieved by ventilation. Egg production was above breeders' standards and not significantly affected by cage design. More eggs per bird were collected when there were fewer birds per cage but food consumption also then tended to be higher. 4. The number of downgraded eggs was variable, with some tendency for more in furnished cages. Eggs laid in dust baths were often downgraded. Those laid at the back of the cage were frequently dirty because of accumulation of droppings. H nests were unsuccessful, with less than 50% of eggs laid in the nest hollows. However, up to 93% of eggs were laid in front rollaways, and few of these were downgraded. 5. Feather and foot damage were generally less in furnished than in conventional cages, greater where there were more birds per cage. With an elevated food trough there was less feather damage but more overgrowth of claws. In year 2, mortality was greater in cages with more birds. 6. Pre-laying behaviour was mostly settled in

  18. Polymers containing borane or carborane cage compounds and related applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, III, Daniel E; Eastwood, Eric A

    2013-04-23

    Polymers comprising residues of cage compound monomers having at least one polyalkoxy silyl substituent are provided. The cage compound monomers are selected from borane cage compound monomers comprising at least 7 cage atoms and/or carborane cage compound monomers comprising 7 to 11 cage compound monomers. Such polymers can further comprise one or more reactive matrices and/or co-monomers covalently bound with the cage compound monomer residues. Articles of manufacture comprising such polymers are also disclosed.

  19. Cleaning Animals' Cages With Little Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harman, Benjamin J.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed freeze/thaw method for cleaning animals' cages requires little extra weight and consumes little power and water. Cleaning concept developed for maintaining experimental rat cages on extended space missions. Adaptable as well to similar use on Earth. Reduces cleaning time. Makes use of already available facilities such as refrigerator, glove box, and autoclave. Rat waste adheres to steel-wire-mesh floor of cage. Feces removed by loosening action of freezing-and-thawing process, followed by blast of air.

  20. Humidity and cage and bedding temperatures in unoccupied static mouse caging after steam sterilization.

    PubMed

    Ward, Gina M; Cole, Kelly; Faerber, Jennifer; Hankenson, F Claire

    2009-11-01

    Contemporary rodent caging and equipment often are sterilized by steam autoclaves prior to use in facilities. This work assessed the microenvironment of unoccupied static mouse cages after steam sterilization to determine when internal temperatures had cooled to levels appropriate for rodent housing. Polycarbonate static cages containing food and corncob bedding were stacked (10 rows x 7 columns) in duplicate (front and back; n = 140 cages) on a storage truck and autoclaved to 249 degrees F (121 degrees C). Cages (n = 6) were assessed to represent top, middle, and bottom rows and edges of columns. After cage sterilization, hygrothermometers were placed in cages to measure internal cage temperature (IT), bedding temperature (BT), and cage humidity (CH) every 10 min for 150 min. At time 0, there were no significant differences in averaged temperatures or humidity across cage locations: IT, 95.9 degrees F; BT, 109.8 degrees F; and CH, 84.1%. Over time, significant positional effects occurred. Whereas IT and BT for cages in the center row cooled more slowly than those on the bottom row, CH in top row cages decreased more quickly compared with other cages. After 150 min, the average measures overall were IT, 75.8 degrees F; BT, 77.9 degrees F; and CH, 82.4%. Comparison of the overall measures at 150 min with those of cages cooled overnight (IT, 72.4 degrees F; BT, 71.0 degrees F; and CH, 49%) and cages housing mice (IT, 72.2 degrees F; BT, 70.7 degrees F; and CH, 82%) indicated that a poststerilization cooling period of greater than 2.5 h was necessary to achieve permissible rodent housing conditions at our institution, particularly with corncob bedding autoclaved within the cage.

  1. Humidity and Cage and Bedding Temperatures in Unoccupied Static Mouse Caging after Steam Sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Gina M; Cole, Kelly; Faerber, Jennifer; Hankenson, F Claire

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary rodent caging and equipment often are sterilized by steam autoclaves prior to use in facilities. This work assessed the microenvironment of unoccupied static mouse cages after steam sterilization to determine when internal temperatures had cooled to levels appropriate for rodent housing. Polycarbonate static cages containing food and corncob bedding were stacked (10 rows × 7 columns) in duplicate (front and back; n = 140 cages) on a storage truck and autoclaved to 249 °F (121 °C). Cages (n = 6) were assessed to represent top, middle, and bottom rows and edges of columns. After cage sterilization, hygrothermometers were placed in cages to measure internal cage temperature (IT), bedding temperature (BT), and cage humidity (CH) every 10 min for 150 min. At time 0, there were no significant differences in averaged temperatures or humidity across cage locations: IT, 95.9 °F; BT, 109.8 °F; and CH, 84.1%. Over time, significant positional effects occurred. Whereas IT and BT for cages in the center row cooled more slowly than those on the bottom row, CH in top row cages decreased more quickly compared with other cages. After 150 min, the average measures overall were IT, 75.8 °F; BT, 77.9 °F; and CH, 82.4%. Comparison of the overall measures at 150 min with those of cages cooled overnight (IT, 72.4 °F; BT, 71.0 °F; and CH, 49%) and cages housing mice (IT, 72.2 °F; BT, 70.7 °F; and CH, 82%) indicated that a poststerilization cooling period of greater than 2.5 h was necessary to achieve permissible rodent housing conditions at our institution, particularly with corncob bedding autoclaved within the cage. PMID:19930826

  2. Expanded Yegua

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, R.E.; Grayson, S.; Benes, J.

    1988-01-01

    The upper Eocene Yegua Formation expands dramatically across a regional flexure generally 12-15 km wide. During each of several postulated Yegua sea level drops, this flexure became a focal point for deltaic deposition of good to excellent reservoir-quality sands. From the western edge of the Houston salt dome basin to the San Marcos arch, this trend has yielded, since 1982, at least seven noteworthy discoveries: Toro Grande and Lost Bridge fields in Jackson County, and Black Owl, Shanghai, Shanghai East, El Campo, and Phase Four fields in Wharton County, Texas. El Campo field in Wharton County, Texas, was discovered in December 1985 by Ladd Petroleum Corporation with the drilling of the Ladd Petroleum 1 Popp well. Mud logs acquired while drilling indicated that a very sandy reservoir, with encouraging quantities of natural gas and condensate had been encountered. Subsequent open-hold logging generated more questions than answers about the prospective sand section. Additional open hole logs (EPT/ML,SHDT) were run to identify what turned out to be an extremely laminated sand-shale sequence over 400 ft thick. Subsequent development drilling and the acquisition of a 120 ft whole core provided valuable data in analyzing this prolific, geopressured natural gas and condensate Yegua reservoir. Whole-core data, open-hole logs, and computer logs were integrated to develop petro-physical evaluation procedures and to determine the environment of deposition. El Campo field is believed to represent an extremely thick, delta front slope to distal delta front facies.

  3. COATING ALTERNATIVES GUIDE (CAGE) USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The guide provides instructions for using the Coating Alternatives GuidE (CAGE) software program, version 1.0. It assumes that the user is familiar with the fundamentals of operating an IBM-compatible personal computer (PC) under the Microsoft disk operating system (MS-DOS). CAGE...

  4. Holographic photolysis of caged neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Christoph; Otis, Thomas S.; DeSars, Vincent; Charpak, Serge; DiGregorio, David A.; Emiliani, Valentina

    2009-01-01

    Stimulation of light-sensitive chemical probes has become a powerful tool for the study of dynamic signaling processes in living tissue. Classically, this approach has been constrained by limitations of lens–based and point-scanning illumination systems. Here we describe a novel microscope configuration that incorporates a nematic liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM) to generate holographic patterns of illumination. This microscope can produce illumination spots of variable size and number and patterns shaped to precisely match user-defined elements in a specimen. Using holographic illumination to photolyse caged glutamate in brain slices, we demonstrate that shaped excitation on segments of neuronal dendrites and simultaneous, multi-spot excitation of different dendrites enables precise spatial and rapid temporal control of glutamate receptor activation. By allowing the excitation volume shape to be tailored precisely, the holographic microscope provides an extremely flexible method for activation of various photosensitive proteins and small molecules. PMID:19160517

  5. Active cage model of glassy dynamics.

    PubMed

    Fodor, Étienne; Hayakawa, Hisao; Visco, Paolo; van Wijland, Frédéric

    2016-07-01

    We build up a phenomenological picture in terms of the effective dynamics of a tracer confined in a cage experiencing random hops to capture some characteristics of glassy systems. This minimal description exhibits scale invariance properties for the small-displacement distribution that echo experimental observations. We predict the existence of exponential tails as a crossover between two Gaussian regimes. Moreover, we demonstrate that the onset of glassy behavior is controlled only by two dimensionless numbers: the number of hops occurring during the relaxation of the particle within a local cage and the ratio of the hopping length to the cage size. PMID:27575182

  6. Active cage model of glassy dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fodor, Étienne; Hayakawa, Hisao; Visco, Paolo; van Wijland, Frédéric

    2016-07-01

    We build up a phenomenological picture in terms of the effective dynamics of a tracer confined in a cage experiencing random hops to capture some characteristics of glassy systems. This minimal description exhibits scale invariance properties for the small-displacement distribution that echo experimental observations. We predict the existence of exponential tails as a crossover between two Gaussian regimes. Moreover, we demonstrate that the onset of glassy behavior is controlled only by two dimensionless numbers: the number of hops occurring during the relaxation of the particle within a local cage and the ratio of the hopping length to the cage size.

  7. Testresults of digital caged strapdown DTGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handrich, E.

    Strapdown DTGs with digital cage loops, accuracy of 0.15-0.01 degree/hr, and high dynamic ranges were tested using loops of conventional pulse-width modulation type. The stability, repeatability, and linearity were determined in scale factor tests. Gyro bias, repeatability, and stability were degraded by the digital cage loops in comparison to test results with analog cage loops. Error sources were measured, including H-switch, current source, capacity load on wiring, and the influence of the torquer inductance and rotor amplitude.

  8. Synergy of Two Assembly Languages in DNA Nanostructures: Self-Assembly of Sequence-Defined Polymers on DNA Cages.

    PubMed

    Chidchob, Pongphak; Edwardson, Thomas G W; Serpell, Christopher J; Sleiman, Hanadi F

    2016-04-01

    DNA base-pairing is the central interaction in DNA assembly. However, this simple four-letter (A-T and G-C) language makes it difficult to create complex structures without using a large number of DNA strands of different sequences. Inspired by protein folding, we introduce hydrophobic interactions to expand the assembly language of DNA nanotechnology. To achieve this, DNA cages of different geometries are combined with sequence-defined polymers containing long alkyl and oligoethylene glycol repeat units. Anisotropic decoration of hydrophobic polymers on one face of the cage leads to hydrophobically driven formation of quantized aggregates of DNA cages, where polymer length determines the cage aggregation number. Hydrophobic chains decorated on both faces of the cage can undergo an intrascaffold "handshake" to generate DNA-micelle cages, which have increased structural stability and assembly cooperativity, and can encapsulate small molecules. The polymer sequence order can control the interaction between hydrophobic blocks, leading to unprecedented "doughnut-shaped" DNA cage-ring structures. We thus demonstrate that new structural and functional modes in DNA nanostructures can emerge from the synergy of two interactions, providing an attractive approach to develop protein-inspired assembly modules in DNA nanotechnology. PMID:26998893

  9. Maintenance of a Drosophila melanogaster Population Cage

    PubMed Central

    Caravaca, Juan Manuel; Lei, Elissa P.

    2016-01-01

    Large quantities of DNA, RNA, proteins and other cellular components are often required for biochemistry and molecular biology experiments. The short life cycle of Drosophila enables collection of large quantities of material from embryos, larvae, pupae and adult flies, in a synchronized way, at a low economic cost. A major strategy for propagating large numbers of flies is the use of a fly population cage. This useful and common tool in the Drososphila community is an efficient way to regularly produce milligrams to tens of grams of embryos, depending on uniformity of developmental stage desired. While a population cage can be time consuming to set up, maintaining a cage over months takes much less time and enables rapid collection of biological material in a short period. This paper describes a detailed and flexible protocol for the maintenance of a Drosophila melanogaster population cage, starting with 1.5 g of harvested material from the previous cycle. PMID:27023790

  10. Dual-purpose laboratory cage/antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalande, B. H.

    1977-01-01

    Part of steel cage enclosing laboratory animals is used as an antenna to transmit biotelemetry over short distances. Receiving and signal processing equipment are located above ground potential to avoid transmission-path difficulties.

  11. 50 CFR 648.77 - Cage identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... fishing year for which they are issued, or if rendered null and void in accordance with 15 CFR part 904... Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.77 Cage identification. Except as provided in §...

  12. 50 CFR 648.77 - Cage identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... fishing year for which they are issued, or if rendered null and void in accordance with 15 CFR part 904... Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.77 Cage identification. Except as provided in §...

  13. 50 CFR 648.77 - Cage identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... fishing year for which they are issued, or if rendered null and void in accordance with 15 CFR part 904... Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.77 Cage identification. Except as provided in §...

  14. Compositions containing borane or carborane cage compounds and related applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, III, Daniel E; Eastwood, Eric A

    2013-05-28

    Compositions comprising a polymer-containing matrix and a filler comprising a cage compound selected from borane cage compounds, carborane cage compounds, metal complexes thereof, residues thereof, mixtures thereof, and/or agglomerations thereof, where the cage compound is not covalently bound to the matrix polymer. Methods of making and applications for using such compositions are also disclosed.

  15. Compositions containing borane or carborane cage compounds and related applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, III, Daniel E; Eastwood, Eric A

    2014-11-11

    Compositions comprising a polymer-containing matrix and a filler comprising a cage compound selected from borane cage compounds, carborane cage compounds, metal complexes thereof, residues thereof, mixtures thereof, and/or agglomerations thereof, where the cage compound is not covalently bound to the matrix polymer. Methods of making and applications for using such compositions are also disclosed.

  16. Compositions containing borane or carborane cage compounds and related applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, III, Daniel E.; Eastwood, Eric A.

    2015-09-15

    Compositions comprising a polymer-containing matrix and a filler comprising a cage compound selected from borane cage compounds, carborane cage compounds, metal complexes thereof, residues thereof, mixtures thereof, and/or agglomerations thereof, where the cage compound is not covalently bound to the matrix polymer. Methods of making and applications for using such compositions are also disclosed.

  17. Growth of conformal graphene cages on micrometre-sized silicon particles as stable battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuzhang; Yan, Kai; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Lu, Zhenda; Liu, Nian; Cui, Yi

    2016-02-01

    Nanostructuring has been shown to be fruitful in addressing the problems of high-capacity Si anodes. However, issues with the high cost and poor Coulombic efficiencies of nanostructured Si still need to be resolved. Si microparticles are a low-cost alternative but, unlike Si nanoparticles, suffer from unavoidable particle fracture during electrochemical cycling, thus making stable cycling in a real battery impractical. Here we introduce a method to encapsulate Si microparticles (˜1-3 µm) using conformally synthesized cages of multilayered graphene. The graphene cage acts as a mechanically strong and flexible buffer during deep galvanostatic cycling, allowing the microparticles to expand and fracture within the cage while retaining electrical connectivity on both the particle and electrode level. Furthermore, the chemically inert graphene cage forms a stable solid electrolyte interface, minimizing irreversible consumption of lithium ions and rapidly increasing the Coulombic efficiency in the early cycles. We show that even in a full-cell electrochemical test, for which the requirements of stable cycling are stringent, stable cycling (100 cycles; 90% capacity retention) is achieved with the graphene-caged Si microparticles.

  18. Relative effects of nutrient emission from intensive cage aquaculture on the semiarid reservoir water quality.

    PubMed

    Molisani, Mauricio Mussi; do Monte, Thiago Maia; Vasconcellos, George Harrison; de Souza Barroso, Hortência; Moreira, Maria Odete Parente; Becker, Helena; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo; Franco, Marcos Alberto Lima; de Farias, Eduardo Guilherme Gentil; de Camargo, Plínio Barbosa

    2015-11-01

    The effects of cage aquaculture on freshwater ecosystems are determined by multiple farming and environmental variables, and thus, the assessment of a wide range of abiotic and biotic variables enables better understanding of the impacts generated by this nutrient source. This study was carried out at Castanhão reservoir located in the State of Ceará, which is the largest Brazilian producer of Nile tilapia in cage systems, wherein about 8000 reservoirs provide a vast area to expand not only this important socio-economic but also pollution-prone activity. Nutrient mass budget, water quality monitoring, hydrodynamic characterization, and elemental/stable isotopic composition of end-member products were measured in cage aquaculture and other reservoir areas in order to determine the relative effects on reservoir conditions. Nutrient budgets showed that 34% of the artificial feed was lost to the water column but water quality monitoring and isotopic composition analysis suggested that the cages were not extensively impacting the water quality probably because of the physiographic and hydrodynamic features of the cage site. PMID:26502728

  19. Relative effects of nutrient emission from intensive cage aquaculture on the semiarid reservoir water quality.

    PubMed

    Molisani, Mauricio Mussi; do Monte, Thiago Maia; Vasconcellos, George Harrison; de Souza Barroso, Hortência; Moreira, Maria Odete Parente; Becker, Helena; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo; Franco, Marcos Alberto Lima; de Farias, Eduardo Guilherme Gentil; de Camargo, Plínio Barbosa

    2015-11-01

    The effects of cage aquaculture on freshwater ecosystems are determined by multiple farming and environmental variables, and thus, the assessment of a wide range of abiotic and biotic variables enables better understanding of the impacts generated by this nutrient source. This study was carried out at Castanhão reservoir located in the State of Ceará, which is the largest Brazilian producer of Nile tilapia in cage systems, wherein about 8000 reservoirs provide a vast area to expand not only this important socio-economic but also pollution-prone activity. Nutrient mass budget, water quality monitoring, hydrodynamic characterization, and elemental/stable isotopic composition of end-member products were measured in cage aquaculture and other reservoir areas in order to determine the relative effects on reservoir conditions. Nutrient budgets showed that 34% of the artificial feed was lost to the water column but water quality monitoring and isotopic composition analysis suggested that the cages were not extensively impacting the water quality probably because of the physiographic and hydrodynamic features of the cage site.

  20. Cage change intervals for opossums (Monodelphis domestica) in individually ventilated cages.

    PubMed

    Allison, Sarah O; Criley, Jennifer M; Kim, Ji Young; Goodly, Lyndon J

    2011-09-01

    The opossum Monodelphis domestica is the most commonly used marsupial in biomedical research. At our institution, these opossums are housed in polycarbonate (35.6 cm × 25.4 cm × 17.8 cm) individually ventilated cages. Previous studies of the cage microenvironment of rodents housed in individually ventilated cages have demonstrated that the cage-change frequency could be extended from 7 to 14 d, without detriment to the animals' wellbeing. We sought to determine whether the cage change frequency for opossums housed in individually ventilated cages could be extended to 14 d. Opossums were placed into 3 experimental groups: singly housed males, singly housed females, and females housed with litters. The 14-d testing period was repeated twice, with temperature, relative humidity, and ammonia levels tested on days 0, 7, and 14. Acceptable ranges for the cage microenvironment were based on standards followed by our institution for housing rodents: temperature between 22 to 26 °C, relative humidity between 30% to 70%, and ammonia less than 25 ppm. Throughout both 14-d testing periods, temperature, relative humidity, and ammonia levels for singly housed male and singly housed female opossums were within acceptable ranges. However, ammonia levels exceeded the recommended 25 ppm on day 7 of both testing periods for female opossums housed with litters. In summary, the cage-change frequency for a singly housed opossum in an individually ventilated cage can be extended to 14 d.

  1. Self-Assembled Pyridine-Dipyrrolate Cages.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huacheng; Lee, Juhoon; Lammer, Aaron D; Chi, Xiaodong; Brewster, James T; Lynch, Vincent M; Li, Hao; Zhang, Zhan; Sessler, Jonathan L

    2016-04-01

    An inherently nonlinear pyridine dipyrrolate ligand, namely 2,6-bis(3,4-diethyl-5-carboxy-1H-pyrrol-2yl)pyridine (compound 1), is able to distinguish between different zinc(II) cation sources, namely Zn(acac)2 and Zn(OAc)2, respectively. This differentiation is manifest both in terms of the observed fluorescent behavior in mixed organic media and the reaction chemistry. Treatment of 1 with Zn(acac)2 gives rise to a cage dimer, cage-1, wherein two molecules of compound 1 act as double bridging units to connect two individual cage subunits. As inferred from X-ray crystallographic studies, this cage system consists of discrete zinc dimers with hydroxide bridges that, with the assistance of bound DMF solvent molecules, serve to fix the geometry and orientation of the pyridine dipyrrolate building blocks. When a different zinc source, Zn(OAc)2, is used to carry out an ostensibly similar complexation reaction with compound 1, an acetate-bridged 1D abacus-like cage polymer is obtained as inferred from X-ray diffraction analysis. This extended solid state structure, cage-2, contains individual zinc dimer cage submits and appears stabilized by solvent molecules (DMF) and the counteranion (acetate). Rod-like assemblies are also observed by DLS and SEM. This construct, in contrast to cage-1, proved fluorescent in mixed organic media. The structure of the ligand itself (i.e., in the absence of Zn(II)) was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis and was found to assemble into a supramolecular polymer. Conversion to a dimer form was seen upon the addition of TBAOAc. On the basis of the metric parameters, the structures seen in the solid state are stabilized via hydrogen bonding interactions involving solvent molecules.

  2. Self-Assembled Pyridine-Dipyrrolate Cages.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huacheng; Lee, Juhoon; Lammer, Aaron D; Chi, Xiaodong; Brewster, James T; Lynch, Vincent M; Li, Hao; Zhang, Zhan; Sessler, Jonathan L

    2016-04-01

    An inherently nonlinear pyridine dipyrrolate ligand, namely 2,6-bis(3,4-diethyl-5-carboxy-1H-pyrrol-2yl)pyridine (compound 1), is able to distinguish between different zinc(II) cation sources, namely Zn(acac)2 and Zn(OAc)2, respectively. This differentiation is manifest both in terms of the observed fluorescent behavior in mixed organic media and the reaction chemistry. Treatment of 1 with Zn(acac)2 gives rise to a cage dimer, cage-1, wherein two molecules of compound 1 act as double bridging units to connect two individual cage subunits. As inferred from X-ray crystallographic studies, this cage system consists of discrete zinc dimers with hydroxide bridges that, with the assistance of bound DMF solvent molecules, serve to fix the geometry and orientation of the pyridine dipyrrolate building blocks. When a different zinc source, Zn(OAc)2, is used to carry out an ostensibly similar complexation reaction with compound 1, an acetate-bridged 1D abacus-like cage polymer is obtained as inferred from X-ray diffraction analysis. This extended solid state structure, cage-2, contains individual zinc dimer cage submits and appears stabilized by solvent molecules (DMF) and the counteranion (acetate). Rod-like assemblies are also observed by DLS and SEM. This construct, in contrast to cage-1, proved fluorescent in mixed organic media. The structure of the ligand itself (i.e., in the absence of Zn(II)) was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis and was found to assemble into a supramolecular polymer. Conversion to a dimer form was seen upon the addition of TBAOAc. On the basis of the metric parameters, the structures seen in the solid state are stabilized via hydrogen bonding interactions involving solvent molecules. PMID:26972781

  3. Microclimatic variation within sleeve cages used in ecological studies.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Lori A; Rieske, Lynne K

    2014-01-01

    Sleeve cages for enclosing or excluding arthropods are essential components of field studies evaluating trophic interactions. Microclimatic variation in sleeve cages was evaluated to characterize its potential effects on subsequent long-term experiments. Two sleeve cage materials, polyester and nylon, and two cage sizes, 400 and 6000 cm(2), were tested on eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière. Temperature and relative humidity inside and outside cages, and the cost and durability of the cage materials, were compared. Long-term effects of the sleeve cages were observed by measuring new growth on T. canadensis branches. The ultimate goal was to identify a material that minimizes bag-induced microclimatic variation. Bagged branches whose microclimates mimic those of surrounding unbagged branches should have minimal effects on plant growth and may prove ideal venues for assessing herbivore and predator behavior under natural conditions. No differences were found in temperature or humidity between caging materials. Small cages had higher average temperatures than large cages, especially in the winter, but this difference was confounded by the fact that small cages were positioned higher in trees than large cages. Differences in plant growth were detected. Eastern hemlock branches enclosed within polyester cages produced fewer new growth tips than uncaged controls. Both polyester and nylon cages reduced the length of new shoot growth relative to uncaged branches. In spite of higher costs, nylon cages were superior to polyester with respect to durability and ease of handling. PMID:25368083

  4. Protection characteristics of a Faraday cage compromised by lightning burnthrough.

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Bystrom, Edward; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Montoya, Sandra L.; Merewether, Kimball O.; Coats, Rebecca Sue; Martinez, Leonard E.; Jojola, John M.

    2012-01-01

    A lightning flash consists of multiple, high-amplitude but short duration return strokes. Between the return strokes is a lower amplitude, continuing current which flows for longer duration. If the walls of a Faraday cage are made of thin enough metal, the continuing current can melt a hole through the metal in a process called burnthrough. A subsequent return stroke can couple energy through this newly-formed hole. This LDRD is a study of the protection provided by a Faraday cage when it has been compromised by burnthrough. We initially repeated some previous experiments and expanded on them in terms of scope and diagnostics to form a knowledge baseline of the coupling phenomena. We then used a combination of experiment, analysis and numerical modeling to study four coupling mechanisms: indirect electric field coupling, indirect magnetic field coupling, conduction through plasma and breakdown through the hole. We discovered voltages higher than those encountered in the previous set of experiments (on the order of several hundreds of volts).

  5. Development of net cage acoustic alarm system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Shih-Wei; Wei, Ruey-Chang

    2001-05-01

    In recent years, the fishery production has been drastically decreased in Taiwan, mainly due to overfishing and coast pollution; therefore, fishermen and corporations are encouraged by government to invest in ocean net cage aquaculture. However, the high-price fishes in the net cage are often coveted, so incidences of fish stealing and net cage breaking were found occasionally, which cause great economical loss. Security guards or a visual monitoring system has limited effect, especially in the night when these intrusions occur. This study is based on acoustic measure to build a net cage alarm system, which includes the sonobuoy and monitor station on land. The sonobuoy is a passive sonar that collects the sounds near the net cage and transmits the suspected signal to the monitor station. The signals are analyzed by the control program on the personal computer in the monitor station, and the alarms at different stages could be activated by the sound levels and durations of the analyzed data. To insure long hours of surveillance, a solar panel is applied to charge the battery, and a photodetector is used to activate the system.

  6. Usefulness of the "CAGE" in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Indran, S K

    1995-04-01

    This study examines the usefulness of the "CAGE", (which is an acronym for "cut down", "annoyed", "guilty" and "eye-opener"), a 4-question screening test to identify excessive drinkers among Malaysian inpatients. The CAGE questionnaire after translation and back translation was administered to all inpatients in the General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. The author interviewed 'blindly' all who score positive on the CAGE score and 10% of all negatives using the DSM III interview schedule for alcohol abuse dependence. The results show that the CAGE performs best at a cut-off point of 2 and above, with a sensitivity of 92%, specificity of 62%, positive predictive values of 38% and Kappa (K) of 0.37 with a DSM III R diagnosis for alcohol abuse/dependence. The poor agreement with a DSM III diagnosis indicates that the CAGE is not useful in the Malaysian population. Reasons suggested for this are: cultural factors in the Malaysian population resulting in the overrating of the question of 'guilt' by Muslims and translations into the local languages which are only the closest approximations.

  7. Uranium pyrophosphate / methylenediphosphonate polyoxometalate cage clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, Jie; Qiu, Jie; Sigmon, Ginger E.; Ward, Matt; Szymanowski, Jennifer E.S.; Burns, Peter C

    2010-09-29

    Despite potential applications in advanced nuclear energy systems, nanoscale control of uranium materials is in its infancy. In its hexavalent state, U occurs as (UO{sub 2}){sup 2+} uranyl ions that are coordinated by various ligands to give square, pentagonal, or hexagonal bipyramids. Creation and design of nanostructured uranyl materials requires interruption of the tendency of uranyl bipyramids to share equatorial edges to form infinite sheets that occur in extended structures. Where a bidentate peroxide group bridges uranyl bipyramids, the configuration is inherently bent, fostering formation of cage clusters. Here the bent configurations of four- and five-membered rings of uranyl peroxide hexagonal bipyramids are bridged by pyrophosphate or methylenediphosphonate, creating eight chemically complex cage clusters with specific topologies. Chemical complexity in such clusters provides opportunities for the tuning of cage sizes, pore sizes, and properties such as aqueous solubility. Several of these are topological derivatives of simpler clusters that contain only uranyl bipyramids, whereas others exhibit new topologies.

  8. Phosphonate Based High Nuclearity Magnetic Cages.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Javeed Ahmad; Jena, Himanshu Sekhar; Clearfield, Abraham; Konar, Sanjit

    2016-06-21

    Transition metal based high nuclearity molecular magnetic cages are a very important class of compounds owing to their potential applications in fabricating new generation molecular magnets such as single molecular magnets, magnetic refrigerants, etc. Most of the reported polynuclear cages contain carboxylates or alkoxides as ligands. However, the binding ability of phosphonates with transition metal ions is stronger than the carboxylates or alkoxides. The presence of three oxygen donor sites enables phosphonates to bridge up to nine metal centers simultaneously. But very few phosphonate based transition metal cages were reported in the literature until recently, mainly because of synthetic difficulties, propensity to result in layered compounds, and also their poor crystalline properties. Accordingly, various synthetic strategies have been followed by several groups in order to overcome such synthetic difficulties. These strategies mainly include use of small preformed metal precursors, proper choice of coligands along with the phosphonate ligands, and use of sterically hindered bulky phosphonate ligands. Currently, the phosphonate system offers a library of high nuclearity transition metal and mixed metal (3d-4f) cages with aesthetically pleasing structures and interesting magnetic properties. This Account is in the form of a research landscape on our efforts to synthesize and characterize new types of phosphonate based high nuclearity paramagnetic transition metal cages. We quite often experienced synthetic difficulties with such versatile systems in assembling high nuclearity metal cages. Few methods have been emphasized for the self-assembly of phosphonate systems with suitable transition metal ions in achieving high nuclearity. We highlighted our journey from 2005 until today for phosphonate based high nuclearity transition metal cages with V(IV/V), Mn(II/III), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) metal ions and their magnetic properties. We observed that

  9. Cloning simulation in the cage environment.

    PubMed Central

    Douthart, R J; Thomas, J J; Rosier, S D; Schmaltz, J E; West, J W

    1986-01-01

    The CAGE/GEM(TM) software toolkit for genetic engineering is briefly described. The system functionally uses color graphics and is menu driven. It integrates genetics and features information ("Overlays") with information based on sequence analysis ("Representations"). The system is structured around CAD (Computer Aided Design) principles. The CAGE (Computer Aided Genetic Engineering) aspects of the software are emphasized and illustrated by a simulated cloning of the hepatitis B core antigen gene into the BAMHI site of plasmid pBR322. Images PMID:3003674

  10. Bicontinuous Nanoporous Frameworks: Caged Longevity for Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jae-Sung; Jeon, Eunkyung; Moon, Su-Young; Oh, Wangsuk; Han, Sun-Young; Lee, Jeong Hun; Yang, Sung Yun; Kim, Dong-Myung; Park, Ji-Woong

    2016-09-12

    The preparation of bicontinuous nanoporous covalent frameworks, which are promising for caging active enzymes, is demonstrated. The frameworks have three- dimensionally continuous, hydrophilic pores with widths varying between 5 and 30 nm. Enzymes were infiltrated into the bicontinuous pore by applying a pressured enzyme solution. The new materials and methods allowed the amount of caged proteins to be controlled precisely. The resulting enzyme-loaded framework films could be recycled many times with nearly no loss of catalytic activity. Entropic trapping of proteins by a bicontinuous pore with the right size distribution is an unprecedented strategy toward facile in vitro utilization of biocatalysts. PMID:27513827

  11. Positive interactions expand habitat use and the realized niches of sympatric species.

    PubMed

    Crotty, Sinead M; Bertness, Mark D

    2015-10-01

    Niche theory, the oldest, most established community assembly model, predicts that in sympatry, the realized niche will contract due to negative interspecific interactions, but fails to recognize the effects of positive interactions on community assembly. The stress gradient hypothesis predicts that positive interactions expand realized niches in stressful habitats. We tested the predictions of the stress gradient hypothesis in a cobble beach model system across both physical and biological stress gradients. We transplanted seven common littoral species within, adjacent to, and below Spartina alterniflora cordgrass stands in control, cage control, predator exclusion cage, shade, and shaded predator exclusion cage treatments to test the hypothesis that cordgrass expands intertidal organism habitats. On cobble beaches, cordgrass ameliorates physical and predation stresses, expanding the distribution and realized niches of species to habitats in which they cannot live without facilitation, suggesting that niche theory and species distribution models should be amended to accommodate the role of positive interactions in community assembly. PMID:26649378

  12. Expanding the Space: Inclusion of Most-at-Risk Populations in HIV Prevention, Treatment, and Care Services

    PubMed Central

    Beyrer, Chris; Baral, Stefan; Kerrigan, Deanna; El-Bassel, Nabila; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Celentano, David D

    2011-01-01

    The provision of appropriate HIV prevention, treatment, and care services for most-at-risk populations (MARP) will challenge many health care systems. For people who sell sex (SW) or inject drugs (IDU) and for men who have sex with men (MSM), stigma, discrimination, and criminalization can limit access to care, inhibit service uptake, and reduce the disclosure of risks. Several models for provision of HIV services to MARP may address these issues. We discuss integrated models, stand-alone services, and hybrid models, which may be appropriate for some MARP in some settings. Both public health and human rights frameworks concur that those at greatest risk should have expanded access to services. PMID:21857306

  13. Cage RACK ventilation options for laboratory animal facilities.

    PubMed

    Stakutis, Richard E

    2003-09-01

    Individually ventilated cage systems have become the method of choice for housing rodents. The author describes the various options for cage ventilation, from using supply and exhaust fans to directly connecting the racks to the building ventilation system. PMID:12966448

  14. 48 CFR 204.7202-1 - CAGE codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Additional information on obtaining NCAGE codes is available at http://www.dlis.dla.mil/Forms/Form_AC135.asp.../cage_welcome.asp. (ii) If no CAGE code is identified through use of the procedures in paragraph...

  15. CO chemisorption on the surfaces of the golden cages

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Wei; Bulusu, Satya; Pal, R; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Wang, Lai S

    2009-12-18

    We report a joint experimental and theoretical study of CO chemisorption on the golden cages. We find that the Au17- cage is highly robust and retains its cage structure in Au17-CO-. On the other hand, the Au16 - cage is transformed to a structure similar to Au17- upon the adsorption of CO. Au18 - is known to consist of two nearly degenerate structures, i.e., a cage and a pyramidal isomer, which coexist in the cluster beam. However, upon CO chemisorption only the cage isomer is observed while the pyramidal isomer no longer exists due to its less favorable interaction with CO, compared to the cage isomer. We find that inclusion of the spin-orbit effects is critical in yielding simulated spectra in quantitative agreement with the experimental data and providing unequivocal structural information and molecular insights into the chemical interactions between CO and the golden cages.

  16. Chemical contamination of animal feeding systems: evaluation of two caging systems and standard cage-washing equipment.

    PubMed

    Fox, J G; Helfrich-Smith, M E

    1980-12-01

    Sodium fluorescein was added as a tracer to an ager gel diet which was fed for 5 day to 90 of 180 rats housed in two different polycarbonate caging systems, shoe-box cages and suspension solid-bottom cages. Cage racks, supplementary equipment, and case washer surfaces were analysed for fluorescein both before and after a complete wash and rinse cycle. Efficacy of washing was greater than 99% for both the inside and outside of the suspended cages and greater than 99% for the inside, but only 93% for the outside, of the shoe-box cages. The shoe-box cages, which were larger than the suspended cages, were spaced closer together on the washer rack, which may account for this variation in cleaning effectiveness. The cage washer surfaces and the water, which was recirculated during each cycle, also became contaminated with fluorescein. Strict adherence to proper cage-washing procedures and careful selection of cage design are important factors in controlling the potential for residual contamination of caging and cage-washing equipment. PMID:7464031

  17. An Easy Synthesis of Two Cage Hydrocarbons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Dao Cong

    1982-01-01

    Describes a simple, three-step synthesis of two cage molecules, birdcage hydrocarbon (VIII) and its homologue, the homobirdcage hydrocarbon IX. Indicates that all products are easily purified and formed in high yields in this activity suitable for advanced undergraduate laboratory courses. (Author/JN)

  18. A caged substrate peptide for matrix metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Decaneto, Elena; Abbruzzetti, Stefania; Heise, Inge; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Viappiani, Cristiano; Knipp, Markus

    2015-02-01

    Based on the widely applied fluorogenic peptide FS-6 (Mca-Lys-Pro-Leu-Gly-Leu-Dpa-Ala-Arg-NH2; Mca = methoxycoumarin-4-acetyl; Dpa = N-3-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)l-α,β-diaminopropionyl) a caged substrate peptide Ac-Lys-Pro-Leu-Gly-Lys*-Lys-Ala-Arg-NH2 (*, position of the cage group) for matrix metalloproteinases was synthesized and characterized. The synthesis implies the modification of a carbamidated lysine side-chain amine with a photocleavable 2-nitrobenzyl group. Mass spectrometry upon UV irradiation demonstrated the complete photolytic cleavage of the protecting group. Time-resolved laser-flash photolysis at 355 nm in combination with transient absorption spectroscopy determined the biphasic decomposition with τa = 171 ± 3 ms (79%) and τb = 2.9 ± 0.2 ms (21%) at pH 6.0 of the photo induced release of the 2-nitrobenzyl group. The recombinantly expressed catalytic domain of human membrane type I matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP or MMP-14) was used to determine the hydrolysis efficiency of the caged peptide before and after photolysis. It turned out that the cage group sufficiently shields the peptide from peptidase activity, which can be thus controlled by UV light.

  19. Busting out of the Teacher Cage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.

    2015-01-01

    The author lays out guidelines and suggestions for how teachers can actually become policy leaders, taken from his book, "The Cage-Busting Teacher" (Harvard Education Press, 2015). Teachers serious about leadership can get the ear of policy makers by leveraging their positional and moral authority--though they may need to be persistent…

  20. 50 CFR 648.75 - Cage identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... are issued, or if rendered null and void in accordance with 15 CFR part 904. (d) Return. Tags that..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Surf... following cage identification requirements apply to all vessels issued a Federal fishing permit for...

  1. 50 CFR 648.75 - Cage identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in accordance with 15 CFR part 904. (d) Return. Tags that have been rendered null and void must be... Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.75 Cage identification. Link to an amendment published... requirements apply to all vessels issued a Federal fishing permit for surf clams and ocean quahogs: (a)...

  2. 30 CFR 56.19070 - Closing cage doors or gates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closing cage doors or gates. 56.19070 Section 56.19070 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19070 Closing cage doors or gates. Cage doors or gates shall be...

  3. 30 CFR 57.19070 - Closing cage doors or gates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closing cage doors or gates. 57.19070 Section 57.19070 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19070 Closing cage doors or gates. Cage doors or gates shall be...

  4. 30 CFR 56.19070 - Closing cage doors or gates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closing cage doors or gates. 56.19070 Section 56.19070 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19070 Closing cage doors or gates. Cage doors or gates shall be...

  5. 30 CFR 56.19070 - Closing cage doors or gates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closing cage doors or gates. 56.19070 Section 56.19070 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19070 Closing cage doors or gates. Cage doors or gates shall be...

  6. 30 CFR 57.19070 - Closing cage doors or gates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closing cage doors or gates. 57.19070 Section 57.19070 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19070 Closing cage doors or gates. Cage doors or gates shall be...

  7. 30 CFR 57.19070 - Closing cage doors or gates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closing cage doors or gates. 57.19070 Section 57.19070 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19070 Closing cage doors or gates. Cage doors or gates shall be...

  8. 30 CFR 56.19070 - Closing cage doors or gates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Closing cage doors or gates. 56.19070 Section 56.19070 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19070 Closing cage doors or gates. Cage doors or gates shall be...

  9. 30 CFR 57.19070 - Closing cage doors or gates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closing cage doors or gates. 57.19070 Section 57.19070 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19070 Closing cage doors or gates. Cage doors or gates shall be...

  10. 30 CFR 56.19070 - Closing cage doors or gates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closing cage doors or gates. 56.19070 Section 56.19070 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19070 Closing cage doors or gates. Cage doors or gates shall be...

  11. 30 CFR 57.19070 - Closing cage doors or gates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Closing cage doors or gates. 57.19070 Section 57.19070 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19070 Closing cage doors or gates. Cage doors or gates shall be...

  12. Social organization in caged layers: the peck order revisited.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, T R; Graves, H B; Siegel, H S

    1988-07-01

    The dominance hierarchy that exists among free ranging chickens is a peck order. Several researchers have attempted to correlate various production parameters of caged layers with dominance rank, with mixed results. Animal welfare groups have expressed increasing concern over the effects of battery cage housing on the behavior of layers, even though several researchers have shown that the incidence of aggressive pecks decreases in these cages. The studies presented here demonstrate that agonistic interactions occur among most pairs of hens housed in pens but do not occur among most pairs of hens housed in cages. Therefore, peck orders could be constructed for hens housed in pens but not for hens housed in cages. Incidence of agonistic interactions is highest in cage-housed hens immediately following housing of the hens; this peak is matched when group membership is mixed. These results suggest that a social system does form among caged hens even if a peck order does not. A single dominant hen in each cage was involved in and won a large majority of the agonistic encounters in the cages. The lack of evidence of dominance relationships between pairs of hens in cages, other than those between a single dominant hen and its cage mates, supports the hypothesis that despotism, not a peck order, was the prevailing social organization among hens housed in high-density cages.

  13. CAGEd-oPOSSUM: motif enrichment analysis from CAGE-derived TSSs

    PubMed Central

    Arenillas, David J.; Forrest, Alistair R. R.; Kawaji, Hideya; Lassmann, Timo; Wasserman, Wyeth W.; Mathelier, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    With the emergence of large-scale Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE) datasets from individual labs and the FANTOM consortium, one can now analyze the cis-regulatory regions associated with gene transcription at an unprecedented level of refinement. By coupling transcription factor binding site (TFBS) enrichment analysis with CAGE-derived genomic regions, CAGEd-oPOSSUM can identify TFs that act as key regulators of genes involved in specific mammalian cell and tissue types. The webtool allows for the analysis of CAGE-derived transcription start sites (TSSs) either provided by the user or selected from ∼1300 mammalian samples from the FANTOM5 project with pre-computed TFBS predicted with JASPAR TF binding profiles. The tool helps power insights into the regulation of genes through the study of the specific usage of TSSs within specific cell types and/or under specific conditions. Availability and Implementation: The CAGEd-oPOSUM web tool is implemented in Perl, MySQL and Apache and is available at http://cagedop.cmmt.ubc.ca/CAGEd_oPOSSUM. Contacts: anthony.mathelier@ncmm.uio.no or wyeth@cmmt.ubc.ca Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27334471

  14. Rotational and constitutional dynamics of caged supramolecules

    PubMed Central

    Kühne, Dirk; Klappenberger, Florian; Krenner, Wolfgang; Klyatskaya, Svetlana; Ruben, Mario; Barth, Johannes V.

    2010-01-01

    The confinement of molecular species in nanoscale environments leads to intriguing dynamic phenomena. Notably, the organization and rotational motions of individual molecules were controlled by carefully designed, fully supramolecular host architectures. Here we use an open 2D coordination network on a smooth metal surface to steer the self-assembly of discrete trimeric guest units, identified as noncovalently bound dynamers. Each caged chiral supramolecule performs concerted, chirality-preserving rotary motions within the template honeycomb pore, which are visualized and quantitatively analyzed using temperature-controlled scanning tunneling microscopy. Furthermore, with higher thermal energies, a constitutional system dynamics appears, which is revealed by monitoring repetitive switching events of the confined supramolecules’ chirality signature, reflecting decay and reassembly of the caged units. PMID:21098303

  15. Cage Destruction in Metal-Fullerene Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Tast, F.; Malinowski, N.; Frank, S.; Heinebrodt, M.; Billas, I.M.; Martin, T.P.

    1996-10-01

    Mass spectrometric studies on free clusters composed of single fullerene molecules and transition metal atoms (C{sub 60}{ital M}{sub {ital x}} and C{sub 70}{ital M}{sub {ital x}}; {ital x}=0.150, {ital M}{element_of}{l_brace}Ti,V,Nb,Ta{r_brace}) reveal that they undergo a laser induced transformation from metal-fullerene clusters to metal carbide and metallo-carbohedrene clusters. Two types of fragmentation behavior are observed. Fullerenes doped with titanium or vanadium seem to be stable at low laser intensities, whereas tantalum and niobium severely destabilize the fullerene cage. Photofragmentation spectra of preselected C{sub 60}Ta{sub {ital x}} indicate that the C{sub 60} cage is destroyed for {ital x}{ge}3. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  16. Screening Surface Contamination with BetaCage

    SciTech Connect

    Schnee, R. W.; Grant, D. R.; Poinar, K.; Ahmed, Z.; Golwala, S. R.

    2007-03-28

    Existing screening facilities are insufficiently sensitive to meet the needs of rare-event experiments for low-energy electron emitters and alpha-decaying isotopes. To provide such screening, the BetaCage will be a low-background, atmospheric-pressure neon drift chamber with unprecedented sensitivity to emitters of low-energy electrons and alpha particles. Minimization of the detector mass and use of radiopure materials reduce background events. The chamber design accepts nearly all alphas and low-energy electrons from the sample surface while allowing excellent rejection of residual backgrounds. A non-radiopure prototype is under construction to test the design. The BetaCage will provide new infrastructure for rare-event science as well as for a wider community that uses radioactive screening for areas including archaeology, biology, climatology, environmental science, geology, planetary science, and integrated-circuit quality control.

  17. What Expands in an Expanding Universe?

    PubMed

    Pacheco, José A De Freitas

    2015-01-01

    In the present investigation, the possible effects of the expansion of the Universe on systems bonded either by gravitational or electromagnetic forces, are reconsidered. It will be shown that the acceleration (positive or negative) of the expanding background, is the determinant factor affecting planetary orbits and atomic sizes. In the presently accepted cosmology (ΛCDM) all bonded systems are expanding at a decreasing rate that tends to be zero as the universe enters in a de Sitter phase. It is worth mentioning that the estimated expansion rates are rather small and they can be neglected for all practical purposes. PMID:26628035

  18. What Expands in an Expanding Universe?

    PubMed

    Pacheco, José A De Freitas

    2015-01-01

    In the present investigation, the possible effects of the expansion of the Universe on systems bonded either by gravitational or electromagnetic forces, are reconsidered. It will be shown that the acceleration (positive or negative) of the expanding background, is the determinant factor affecting planetary orbits and atomic sizes. In the presently accepted cosmology (ΛCDM) all bonded systems are expanding at a decreasing rate that tends to be zero as the universe enters in a de Sitter phase. It is worth mentioning that the estimated expansion rates are rather small and they can be neglected for all practical purposes.

  19. Non-Gaussian nature of glassy dynamics by cage to cage motion

    SciTech Connect

    Vorselaars, Bart; Lyulin, Alexey V.; Michels, M. A. J.; Karatasos, K.

    2007-01-15

    A model based on a single Brownian particle moving in a periodic effective field is used to understand the non-Gaussian dynamics in glassy systems of cage escape and subsequent recaging, often thought to be caused by a heterogeneous glass structure. The results are compared to molecular-dynamics simulations of systems with varying complexity: quasi-two-dimensional colloidlike particles, atactic polystyrene, and a dendritic glass. The model nicely describes generic features of all three topologically different systems, in particular around the maximum of the non-Gaussian parameter. This maximum is a measure for the average distance between cages.

  20. Influence of 5 Different Caging Types and the Use of Cage-Changing Stations on Mouse Allergen Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Feistenauer, Susan; Sander, Ingrid; Schmidt, Jörg; Zahradnik, Eva; Raulf, Monika; Brielmeier, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Animal allergens constitute a serious health risk in laboratory animal facilities. To assess possibilities for allergen reduction by technical and organizational measures, we studied personnel exposure to mouse urinary aeroallergens in an animal facility with a holding capacity of 30,000 cages. Short-term (2 h) and intermediate-term (12 h) stationary samples (n = 107) and short-term (2 h) personnel samples (n = 119) were collected on polytetrafluorethylene filters by using air pumps. Long-term (14 d) stationary dust samples containing airborne allergens (n = 165) were collected with electrostatic dust fall collectors (EDC). Mouse allergens were quantified by ELISA. Personnel samples were collected during bedding disposal and refilling of clean cages as well as during cage changing with and without use of cage-changing station. Animal rooms were equipped with either open cages, cages with a soft filter top, cages with a rigid filter top (static microisolation caging), or with individually ventilated cages (IVC) with either a sealed or nonsealed lid, each in positive- or negative-pressure mode. Highest personnel allergen exposure was detected during cage change and emptying of soiled cages. Allergen concentrations were lowest in rooms with sealed IVC under positive or negative pressure, with unsealed IVC under negative pressure, and with static microisolation caging. The use of cage-changing stations and a vacuum bedding-disposal system reduced median personnel exposures 14- to 25-fold, respectively. Using sealed IVC and changing stations minimized allergen exposure, indicating that state-of-the-art equipment reduces exposure to mouse allergens and decreases health risks among animal facility personnel. PMID:25199090

  1. Influence of 5 different caging types and the use of cage-changing stations on mouse allergen exposure.

    PubMed

    Feistenauer, Susan; Sander, Ingrid; Schmidt, Jörg; Zahradnik, Eva; Raulf, Monika; Brielmeier, Markus

    2014-07-01

    Animal allergens constitute a serious health risk in laboratory animal facilities. To assess possibilities for allergen reduction by technical and organizational measures, we studied personnel exposure to mouse urinary aeroallergens in an animal facility with a holding capacity of 30,000 cages. Short-term (2 h) and intermediate-term (12 h) stationary samples (n = 107) and short-term (2 h) personnel samples (n = 119) were collected on polytetrafluorethylene filters by using air pumps. Long-term (14 d) stationary dust samples containing airborne allergens (n = 165) were collected with electrostatic dust fall collectors (EDC). Mouse allergens were quantified by ELISA. Personnel samples were collected during bedding disposal and refilling of clean cages as well as during cage changing with and without use of cage-changing station. Animal rooms were equipped with either open cages, cages with a soft filter top, cages with a rigid filter top (static microisolation caging), or with individually ventilated cages (IVC) with either a sealed or nonsealed lid, each in positive- or negative-pressure mode. Highest personnel allergen exposure was detected during cage change and emptying of soiled cages. Allergen concentrations were lowest in rooms with sealed IVC under positive or negative pressure, with unsealed IVC under negative pressure, and with static microisolation caging. The use of cage-changing stations and a vacuum bedding-disposal system reduced median personnel exposures 14- to 25-fold, respectively. Using sealed IVC and changing stations minimized allergen exposure, indicating that state-of-the-art equipment reduces exposure to mouse allergens and decreases health risks among animal facility personnel. PMID:25199090

  2. The effect of pesticide residue on caged mosquito bioassays.

    PubMed

    Barber, J A S; Greer, Mike; Coughlin, Jamie

    2006-09-01

    Wind tunnel experiments showed that secondary pickup of insecticide residue by mosquitoes in cage bioassays had a significant effect on mortality. Cage bioassays using adult Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) investigated the effect of exposure time to a contaminated surface. Cages were dosed in a wind tunnel using the LC50 for naled (0.124 mg a.i./ml) and an LC25 (0.0772 mg a.i./ml) for naled. Half of the bioassay mosquitoes were moved directly into clean cages with the other half remaining in the sprayed, hence contaminated, cage. Treatment mortality was assessed at 8, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, and 1,440 min postapplication. Cage contamination had a significant effect on mosquito mortality for both the LC25 and LC50 between 15 and 30 min postapplication. PMID:17067048

  3. Treatment of Thoracolumbar Spinal Infections through Anterolateral Approaches Using Expandable Titanium Mesh Cage for Spine Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Tarantino; Daniele, Marruzzo; Martina, Cappelletti; Tiziano, De Giacomo; Roberto, Delfini

    2012-01-01

    Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis (PVO) is still a rare pathology. However, its incidence is on the rise. This is due to an increasing population with predisposing factors. Also, the availability of more effective diagnostic tools has brought it increasingly to the surgeon's attention. In this study the patients were treated in the Neurosurgery Division of the Department of Neurological Sciences and Psychiatry of the Sapienza University of Rome, between 2001 and 2009. They had thoracolumbar pyogenic spondylitis. This study was undertaken in order to identify the correct diagnostic and therapeutic treatment needed in such cases. From the cases studied here, it is evident that spinal infections can be extremely insidious and that diagnosis tends to be reached late. Surgery, along with the antibiotic treatment, allows for eradication of the causes of the pathology by the reclamation of the affected region. Surgery is also fundamental in helping to recover vital functions and in restoring as much as possible the correct curvature of the rachises. The use of an anterolateral approach is dictated by the necessity of obtaining 360° stability as well as by the need to clear away extensive infections, which are not always reachable using a posterior approach. PMID:23193382

  4. Extended cage adjustable speed electric motors and drive packages

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.

    1999-01-01

    The rotor cage of a motor is extended, a second stator is coupled to this extended rotor cage, and the windings have the same number of poles. The motor torque and speed can be controlled by either injecting energy into or extracting energy out from the rotor cage. The motor produces less harmonics than existing doubly-fed motors. Consequently, a new type of low cost, high efficiency drive is produced.

  5. Extended cage adjustable speed electric motors and drive packages

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, J.S.

    1999-03-23

    The rotor cage of a motor is extended, a second stator is coupled to this extended rotor cage, and the windings have the same number of poles. The motor torque and speed can be controlled by either injecting energy into or extracting energy out from the rotor cage. The motor produces less harmonics than existing doubly-fed motors. Consequently, a new type of low cost, high efficiency drive is produced. 12 figs.

  6. Multi-responsive metal-organic lantern cages in solution.

    PubMed

    Brega, Valentina; Zeller, Matthias; He, Yufan; Lu, H Peter; Klosterman, Jeremy K

    2015-03-25

    Soluble copper-based M4L4 lantern-type metal-organic cages bearing internal amines were synthesized. The solution state integrity of the paramagnetic metal-organic cages was demonstrated using NMR, DLS, MS, and AFM spectroscopy. 1D supramolecular pillars of pre-formed cages or covalent host-guest complexes selectively formed upon treatment with 4,4'-bipyridine and acetic anhydride, respectively.

  7. Bioresorbable polymers: heading for a new generation of spinal cages.

    PubMed

    Wuisman, P I J M; Smit, T H

    2006-02-01

    The use of polymer-based bioresorbable materials is now expanding to the realm of spinal interbody fusion. Bioresorbable polymers have important advantages over metals, because they are temporary, much less stiff, and radiolucent. Most promising is a group of alpha-polyesters, in particular polylactide acids (PLAs). Their biocompatibility is excellent, and they have sufficient stiffness and strength to provide initial and intermediate-term stability required for bone healing. However, polylactides have characteristics that make them vulnerable to complications if not properly controlled. Degradation rate strongly depends on polymer type, impurities, manufacturing process, sterilization, device size, and the local environment. The fact that larger implants degrade faster is contra-intuitive, and should be considered in the design process. Also optimal surgical techniques, such as careful bone bed preparation, are required for a successful application of these materials. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the specific properties of these bioresorbable polymers and to discuss their potential and limitations. This is illustrated with early preclinical and clinical data.Bioresorbable cage technology is just emerging: their time-engineered degradation characteristics allow controlled dynamization in interbody applications, facilitating spinal fusion. Their radiolucency improves image assessment of fusion healing. Acceptance and use of bioresorbable implants may increase as further research and clinical studies report on their safety, efficacy, and proper usage. PMID:16292588

  8. Application of bicyclic and cage compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. D.; Archuleta, B. S.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a literature survey of the field of bicyclic and cage compounds were presented, with the objective of identifying those types of compounds with unusual physical and chemical stability, and determining what practical applications have been found for these compounds. Major applications have been as polymers, polymer additives, medicinals, and pesticides. Lesser applications have included fuels, fuel additives, lubricants, lubricant additives, and perfumes. Several areas where further work might be useful were also outlined; these are primarily in the areas of polymers, polymer additives, medicinals, and synthetic lubricants.

  9. Effects of cage density on behavior in young adult mice.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Lauren P; Chedester, Alan L; Cole, Marlene N

    2007-08-01

    Optimal housing conditions for mice can be achieved by minimizing environmental variables, such as those that may contribute to anxiety-like behavior. This study evaluated the effects of cage size on juvenile mice through assessment of differences in weaning weight, locomotor skills, and anxiety-like behavior. Eighteen pairs of male and pregnant female Swiss-Webster (Cr:SW) mice were housed in 3 different caging scenarios, providing 429, 505, or 729 cm2 of space. Litters were standardized to 10 pups per litter in each cage. Mice reared in each caging scenario were assessed with the open-field, light-dark exploration, and elevated plus-maze tests. No differences in weaning weight were noted. Mice reared in the 505- and 729-cm2 cages explored a significantly larger area of the open-field arena than did those in the 429-cm2 cages. Those reared in the 505-cm2 cages spent more time in the center of the open field than did those in the 729-cm2 cages, suggesting that anxiety-like behavior may be increased in the animals housed in the larger cages. This study did not establish a consistent link between decreased floor space and increased anxiety-like behavior; neither does there appear to be a consistent effect of available floor area on the development of locomotor skills on mouse pups.

  10. Horizontal transmission of Salmonella and Campylobacter among caged and cage-free laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In each of five trials, laying hens (56-72 wk-of-age) were challenged orally, intracolonally, and intravaginally with Salmonella and Campylobacter. One wk post inoculation, challenged hens (n=3) were commingled with non-challenged hens (n=12) in conventional wire cages, on all wire slats, or on all...

  11. Design of a stand-alone active damper for distributed control of vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinquemani, S.; Cazzulani, G.; Costa, A.; Resta, F.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of active vibration control is to enhance the performance of a system (eg. comfort, fatigue life, etc.) by limiting vibrations. One of the most effective technique to reach this goal is to increase the equivalent damping of the system and then the dissipation of the kinetic energy (the so called skyhook damping technique). Application of active vibration control often require a complex setup. When large structures are considered, it is often necessary to have a high number of sensors and actuators, suitably cabled, in addition to all the devices necessary to condition and amplify the signals of measurement and control and to execute in real time the control algorithms synthesized. This work arises from the need to simplify this situation, developing a standalone device that is able of carrying out operations of vibration control in an autonomous way, thus containing in itself an actuator, the sensors needed to evaluate the vibratory state of the structure, and a micro-controller embedding different control algorithm. The design of the smart damper covers many aspects and requires a strong integration of different disciplines. A prototype has been realized and tested on a vibrating structure. The experimental results show good performance in suppress vibration.

  12. Porous silicon with embedded tritium as a stand-alone prime power source for optoelectronic applications

    DOEpatents

    Tam, S.W.

    1997-02-25

    Disclosed is an illumination source comprising a porous silicon having a source of electrons on the surface and/or interstices thereof having a total porosity in the range of from about 50 v/o to about 90 v/o. Also disclosed are a tritiated porous silicon and a photovoltaic device and an illumination source of tritiated porous silicon. 1 fig.

  13. Porous silicon with embedded tritium as a stand-alone prime power source for optoelectronic applications

    DOEpatents

    Tam, Shiu-Wing

    1997-01-01

    An illumination source comprising a porous silicon having a source of electrons on the surface and/or interticies thereof having a total porosity in the range of from about 50 v/o to about 90 v/o. Also disclosed are a tritiated porous silicon and a photovoltaic device and an illumination source of tritiated porous silicon.

  14. Porous silicon with embedded tritium as a stand-alone prime power source for optoelectronic applications

    DOEpatents

    Tam, S.W.

    1998-06-16

    An illumination source is disclosed comprising a porous silicon having a source of electrons on the surface and/or interstices thereof having a total porosity in the range of from about 50 v/o to about 90 v/o. Also disclosed are a tritiated porous silicon and a photovoltaic device and an illumination source of tritiated porous silicon. 1 fig.

  15. Porous silicon with embedded tritium as a stand-alone prime power source for optoelectronic applications

    DOEpatents

    Tam, Shiu-Wing

    1998-01-01

    An illumination source comprising a porous silicon having a source of electrons on the surface and/or interticies thereof having a total porosity in the range of from about 50 v/o to about 90 v/o. Also disclosed are a tritiated porous silicon and a photovoltaic device and an illumination source of tritiated porous silicon.

  16. Methods to Fabricate and Improve Stand-alone and Integrated Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, Frank (Inventor); Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments of the invention provide for fabricating a filter, for electromagnetic radiation, in at least three ways, including (1) fabricating integrated thin film filters directly on a detector; (2) fabricating a free standing thin film filter that may be used with a detector; and (3) treating an existing filter to improve the filter's properties.

  17. Letting Go of Stand-Alone Technology: How to Blend Technology into Literacy Stations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Heather

    2015-01-01

    With the nationwide focus on increasing students understanding and use of technology, many teachers are beginning to incorporate a variety of technology into small group rotations. However, the use of technology during these rotations often does not require students to use higher level thinking or problem solving skills. By eliminating the…

  18. Analysis of a stand-alone power system for remote-site applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thacker, J.R.

    1986-05-01

    The Coast Guard has over 40 automated remote lighthouses which are powered by a continuously run, diesel-electric generator. Continuous operation of a diesel generator increases maintenance requirements as well as fuel costs. Previous studies have indicated that maintenance and operational costs at remote, automated lighthouses could be substantially reduced by incorporating a hybrid-energy-management system. Such a 120-volt system was designed, developed, and built and includes the following major components: diesel-electric generator, wind turbine generator, battery storage, inverter, system controller and lighthouse load. This report discusses the system design, the chronological record of events, conclusions, and recommendations of over three months of continuous data collection and system operation. Additionally, each major system component is discussed in detail in an appropriate appendix.

  19. Particulate matter concentrations in residences: an intervention study evaluating stand-alone filters and air conditioners

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, S.; Du, L.; Mentz, G.; Mukherjee, B.; Parker, E.; Godwin, C.; Chin, J.-Y.; O'Toole, A.; Robins, T.; Rowe, Z.; Lewis, T.

    2014-01-01

    This study, a randomized controlled trial, evaluated the effectiveness of free-standing air filters and window air conditioners (ACs) in 126 low-income households of children with asthma. Households were randomized into a control group, a group receiving a free-standing HEPA filter placed in the child's sleeping area, and a group receiving the filter and a window-mounted AC. Indoor air quality (IAQ) was monitored for week-long periods over three to four seasons. High concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and carbon dioxide were frequently seen. When IAQ was monitored, filters reduced PM levels in the child's bedroom by an average of 50%. Filter use varied greatly among households and declined over time, for example, during weeks when pollutants were monitored, filter use was initially high, averaging 84 ± 27%, but dropped to 63 ± 33% in subsequent seasons. In months when households were not visited, use averaged only 34 ± 30%. Filter effectiveness did not vary in homes with central or room ACs. The study shows that measurements over multiple seasons are needed to characterize air quality and filter performance. The effectiveness of interventions using free-standing air filters depends on occupant behavior, and strategies to ensure filter use should be an integral part of interventions. PMID:22145709

  20. Effects of Teaching Critical Thinking to Saudi Female University Students Using a Stand-Alone Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Ghamdi, Amani K. Hamdan; Deraney, Philline M.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching critical thinking, an educational goal widely discussed in the last 30 years (Halpern, 1993), is an essential element of professional and higher education as it promotes reasoned judgments under "conditions of uncertainty," a hallmark of professionalism (Levine, 2010; Shulman, 2005; Perry, 1970). In this study, the researchers…

  1. APT - NASA ENHANCED VERSION OF AUTOMATICALLY PROGRAMMED TOOL SOFTWARE - STAND-ALONE VERSION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premo, D. A.

    1994-01-01

    The APT code is one of the most widely used software tools for complex numerically controlled (N/C) machining. APT is an acronym for Automatically Programmed Tools and is used to denote both a language and the computer software that processes that language. Development of the APT language and software system was begun over twenty years ago as a U. S. government sponsored industry and university research effort. APT is a "problem oriented" language that was developed for the explicit purpose of aiding the N/C machine tools. Machine-tool instructions and geometry definitions are written in the APT language to constitute a "part program." The APT part program is processed by the APT software to produce a cutter location (CL) file. This CL file may then be processed by user supplied post processors to convert the CL data into a form suitable for a particular N/C machine tool. This June, 1989 offering of the APT system represents an adaptation, with enhancements, of the public domain version of APT IV/SSX8 to the DEC VAX-11/780 for use by the Engineering Services Division of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Enhancements include the super pocket feature which allows concave and convex polygon shapes of up to 40 points including shapes that overlap, that leave islands of material within the pocket, and that have one or more arcs as part of the pocket boundary. Recent modifications to APT include a rework of the POCKET subroutine and correction of an error that prevented the use within a macro of a macro variable cutter move statement combined with macro variable double check surfaces. Former modifications included the expansion of array and buffer sizes to accommodate larger part programs, and the insertion of a few user friendly error messages. The APT system software on the DEC VAX-11/780 is organized into two separate programs: the load complex and the APT processor. The load complex handles the table initiation phase and is usually only run when changes to the APT processor capabilities are made. This phase initializes character recognition and syntax tables for the APT processor by creating FORTRAN block data programs. The APT processor consists of four components: the translator, the execution complex, the subroutine library, and the CL editor. The translator examines each APT statement in the part program for recognizable structure and generates a new statement, or series of statements, in an intermediate language. The execution complex processes all of the definition, motion, and related statements to generate cutter location coordinates. The subroutine library contains routines defining the algorithms required to process the sequenced list of intermediate language commands generated by the translator. The CL editor re-processes the cutter location coordinates according to user supplied commands to generate a final CL file. A sample post processor is also included which translates a CL file into a form for use with a Wales Strippit Fabramatic Model 30/30 sheet metal punch. The user should be able to readily develop post processors for other N/C machine tools. The APT language is a statement oriented, sequence dependent language. With the exception of such programming techniques as looping and macros, statements in an APT program are executed in a strict first-to-last sequence. In order to provide programming capability for the broadest possible range of parts and of machine tools, APT input (and output) is generalized, as represented by 3-dimensional geometry and tools, and arbitrarily uniform, as represented by the moving tool concept and output data in absolute coordinates. A command procedure allows the user to select the desired part program, ask for a graphics file of cutter motions in IGES format, and submit the procedure as a batch job, if desired. The APT system software is written in FORTRAN 77 for batch and interactive execution and has been implemented on a DEC VAX series computer under VMS 4.4. The enhancements for this version of APT were last updated in June, 1989. The NASA adaptation, with enhancements, of the public domain version of the APT IV/SSX8 software to the DEC VAX-11/780 is available by license for a period of ten (10) years to approved licensees. The licensed program product delivered includes the APT IV/SSX8 system source code, object code, executable images, and command procedures and one set of supporting documentation. Additional copies of the supporting documentation may be purchased at any time at the price indicated below.

  2. Solar photovoltaics: Stand alone applications. [NASA Lewis Research Center research and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyo, J. N.

    1980-01-01

    The Lewis Research Center involvement in space photovoltaic research and development and in using photovoltaics for terrestrial applications is described with emphasis on applications in which the normal source of power may be a diesel generator, batteries, or other types of power not connected to a utility grid. Once an application is processed, technology is developed and demonstrated with a user who participates in the cost and furnishes the site. Projects completed related to instruments, communication, refrigeration, and highways, are described as well as warning systems, weather stations, fire lookouts, and village power systems. A commercially available photovoltaic powered electric fence charger is the result of Lewis research and development.

  3. SSTAR, a Stand-Alone Easy-To-Use Antimicrobial Resistance Gene Predictor.

    PubMed

    de Man, Tom J B; Limbago, Brandi M

    2016-01-01

    We present the easy-to-use Sequence Search Tool for Antimicrobial Resistance, SSTAR. It combines a locally executed BLASTN search against a customizable database with an intuitive graphical user interface for identifying antimicrobial resistance (AR) genes from genomic data. Although the database is initially populated from a public repository of acquired resistance determinants (i.e., ARG-ANNOT), it can be customized for particular pathogen groups and resistance mechanisms. For instance, outer membrane porin sequences associated with carbapenem resistance phenotypes can be added, and known intrinsic mechanisms can be included. Unique about this tool is the ability to easily detect putative new alleles and truncated versions of existing AR genes. Variants and potential new alleles are brought to the attention of the user for further investigation. For instance, SSTAR is able to identify modified or truncated versions of porins, which may be of great importance in carbapenemase-negative carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. SSTAR is written in Java and is therefore platform independent and compatible with both Windows and Unix operating systems. SSTAR and its manual, which includes a simple installation guide, are freely available from https://github.com/tomdeman-bio/Sequence-Search-Tool-for-Antimicrobial-Resistance-SSTAR-. IMPORTANCE Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is quickly becoming a routine method for identifying genes associated with antimicrobial resistance (AR). However, for many microbiologists, the use and analysis of WGS data present a substantial challenge. We developed SSTAR, software with a graphical user interface that enables the identification of known AR genes from WGS and has the unique capacity to easily detect new variants of known AR genes, including truncated protein variants. Current software solutions do not notify the user when genes are truncated and, therefore, likely nonfunctional, which makes phenotype predictions less accurate. SSTAR users can apply any AR database of interest as a reference comparator and can manually add genes that impact resistance, even if such genes are not resistance determinants per se (e.g., porins and efflux pumps).

  4. Review of stand-alone photovoltaic application projects sponsored by US DOE and US AID

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bifano, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    Experience with dc photovoltaic systems (without backup power) and ranging in output from 23 to 3,500 peak watts, in a wide range of environmental conditions and with a wide range of insolation, is described. Cooperation of NASA with other government agencies resulted in the installation of an air pollution monitor in New Jersey, a seismic sensor in Hawaii, power for lookout towers in national forests in California, an electric power system for a Papago Indian village in Arizona, and a power system for a grain mill and water pump in Tangaye, Upper Volta. Significant operational results are discussed and system reliability is assessed for the 20 experimental systems installed since 1976. Additional systems to be installed overseas are highlighted, and economic factors are considered.

  5. An Approach for High-precision Stand-alone Positioning in a Dynamic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halis Saka, M.; Metin Alkan, Reha; Ozpercin, Alişir

    2015-04-01

    In this study, an algorithm is developed for precise positioning in dynamic environment utilizing a single geodetic GNSS receiver using carrier phase data. In this method, users should start the measurement on a known point near the project area for a couple of seconds making use of a single dual-frequency geodetic-grade receiver. The technique employs iono-free carrier phase observations with precise products. The equation of the algorithm is given below; Sm(t(i+1))=SC(ti)+[ΦIF (t(i+1) )-ΦIF (ti)] where, Sm(t(i+1)) is the phase-range between satellites and the receiver, SC(ti) is the initial range computed from the initial known point coordinates and the satellite coordinates and ΦIF is the ionosphere-free phase measurement (in meters). Tropospheric path delays are modelled using the standard tropospheric model. To accomplish the process, an in-house program was coded and some functions were adopted from Easy-Suite available at http://kom.aau.dk/~borre/easy. In order to assess the performance of the introduced algorithm in a dynamic environment, a dataset from a kinematic test measurement was used. The data were collected from a kinematic test measurement in Istanbul, Turkey. In the test measurement, a geodetic dual-frequency GNSS receiver, Ashtech Z-Xtreme, was set up on a known point on the shore and a couple of epochs were recorded for initialization. The receiver was then moved to a vessel and data were collected for approximately 2.5 hours and the measurement was finalized on a known point on the shore. While the kinematic measurement on the vessel were carried out, another GNSS receiver was set up on a geodetic point with known coordinates on the shore and data were collected in static mode to calculate the reference trajectory of the vessel using differential technique. The coordinates of the vessel were calculated for each measurement epoch with the introduced method. With the purpose of obtaining more robust results, all coordinates were calculated once again by inversely, i.e. from the last epoch to the first one. In this way, the estimated coordinates were also controlled. The average of both computed coordinates were used as vessel coordinates and then compared with the known-coordinates those of geodetic receiver epoch by epoch. The results indicate that the calculated coordinates from the introduced method are consistent with the reference trajectory with an accuracy of about 1 decimeter. In contrast, the findings imply lower accuracy for height components with an accuracy of about 2 decimeters. This accuracy level meets the requirement of many applications including some marine applications, precise hydrographic surveying, dredging, attitude control of ships, buoys and floating platforms, marine geodesy, navigation and oceanography.

  6. Data acquisition system of the NANOSAW-2 stand alone wind diesel plant. Document and user's guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manninen, L. M.

    1993-12-01

    This document is the report of a wind-diesel measurement and modeling project. A measurement system comprising signal transducers, wiring, data logger, and data acquisition software has been constructed. The system produces comprehensive data of high quality. Remote control of measurement system and monitoring of plant status is also possible. The selected data logging unit has proved to be reliable. The logger and software can also be applied to other data acquisition applications with minor changes. Chapters 2 and 3 describe the physical measurement system excluding the data logger. The data acquisition including the hardware (data logger) and the software are discussed in chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains the user instructions.

  7. Stand-alone error characterisation of microwave satellite soil moisture using a Fourier method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Error characterisation of satellite-retrieved soil moisture (SM) is crucial for maximizing their utility in research and applications in hydro-meteorology and climatology. Error characteristics can provide insights for retrieval development and validation, and inform suitable strategies for data fus...

  8. COMPARING UTILITY CONNECTED TO STAND ALONE MICRO-GRIDS: FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF A UTILITY ENGINEER

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Michael G.; Russo, Bryan J.

    2011-06-23

    Project examples of grid connected micro grid & example of grid isolated micro grid: drivers – economic, environmental and financial tools to plan/design modeling software resource options, tools to plan/design generation types, fuel options and services to provide smooth transitions required equipment and software controls minimal expense to maximum functionality, real time operational interfaces, getting it built real world complications and advice. This paper is an attempt to present a broad overview of micro grids, project examples, modeling tools, technology options, practical and business insights to enable those interested in micro-grids to quickly come up to speed on the basics and potentially move forward on their own projects with the tools and resources presented. Knowledge and experience with electrical distribution systems will make such an effort easier.

  9. Development and evaluation of a stand-alone web-based CAL program. A case study.

    PubMed

    Perryer, G; Walmsley, A D; Barclay, C W; Shaw, L; Smith, A J

    2000-08-01

    The use of web browser technology allows the construction of computer-aided learning programs which will have a familiar interface to dentists. This paper reports on the evaluation of a web-based CAL program which covered the topic of tooth wear with an emphasis on the rôle of erosion in its aetiology. Evaluation of the software was made by 50 dentists contacted by an electronic mailing list. They completed a questionnaire which evaluated aspects of the functionality of the program educational objectives. The average age of the dentists was 39 years (range 24-70) and 82% were male. The average time of use was 1 h 10 min (range 15 min to 3 h). A significant change in their knowledge of tooth wear before and after using the program was recorded. Both the use of patient cases and leaflets scored highly with other aspects such as treatment planning and patient advice receiving high marks. All dentists commented that they had gained greater knowledge with particular reference to treatment and advice of tooth wear problems. 34 dentists (68%) found the web interface easy to use. Negative comments were mainly attributed to the quality of the pictures (4/50) which were corrected in the final release version. Respondents were asked to compare the program to other educational media on the same subject. 80% rated this CAL program as better than video, and 14% claimed it was as good as video. 84% rated it better than books, and 14% said it was as good as books. 98% preferred it to audio tapes and 86% preferred it to journals. The average amount that they would pay for a CAL package such as "tooth wear" would be 42 ECU. It is concluded that web browser software is a suitable medium for the use of a CAL program and this is reflected in its ease of use by dentists.

  10. Stand-alone receiver module for near-infrared gated or nongated single-photon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochas, A.; Monat, L.; Page, J. B.; Legré, M.; Moraes, D.; Ribordy, G.

    2009-05-01

    A single photon receiver module combining an InGaAsP/InP avalanche photodiode with peak responsivity at 1064nm and a CMOS integrated electronic circuit for operation in both gated and free running modes is presented. The standalone module exhibits a single photon detection probability as high as 30% at 1064nm that is by far higher than silicon devices. The dark count rate mean value over eight devices cooled down to -40°C is about 100Hz at 7.5% detection probability and 1.2kHz at 30%. Dark count rate versus temperature measurements show that trap-assisted tunneling in the InP multiplication layer progressively dominates the total dark count rate when the device is cooled down. At medium cooling, the thermal generation in the absorber is the dominant mechanism. Afterpulsing rate is relatively high when compared to silicon devices. However, the integration of a dedicated pulser in close-proximity with the APD makes possible free-running operation. The timing resolution was measured at 430ps FWHM at 30% detection probability. Though comparing favorably with silicon reach-through avalanche photodiodes, we believe that a large uncertainty stands on this measurement. A timing resolution of less than 300ps is expected with the developed receiver module.

  11. Implicit, Stand-Alone or Integrated Skills Education for Undergraduates: A Longitudinal Analysis of Programme Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacVaugh, Jason; Jones, Anna; Auty, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a longitudinal investigation into the effectiveness of skills education programmes within business and management undergraduate degree courses. During the period between 2005 and 2011, a large business school in the south-west of England was developed and implemented two distinct approaches to skills education.…

  12. Comparison of two stand-alone CADe systems at multiple operating points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahiner, Berkman; Chen, Weijie; Pezeshk, Aria; Petrick, Nicholas

    2015-03-01

    Computer-aided detection (CADe) systems are typically designed to work at a given operating point: The device displays a mark if and only if the level of suspiciousness of a region of interest is above a fixed threshold. To compare the standalone performances of two systems, one approach is to select the parameters of the systems to yield a target false-positive rate that defines the operating point, and to compare the sensitivities at that operating point. Increasingly, CADe developers offer multiple operating points, which necessitates the comparison of two CADe systems involving multiple comparisons. To control the Type I error, multiple-comparison correction is needed for keeping the family-wise error rate (FWER) less than a given alpha-level. The sensitivities of a single modality at different operating points are correlated. In addition, the sensitivities of the two modalities at the same or different operating points are also likely to be correlated. It has been shown in the literature that when test statistics are correlated, well-known methods for controlling the FWER are conservative. In this study, we compared the FWER and power of three methods, namely the Bonferroni, step-up, and adjusted step-up methods in comparing the sensitivities of two CADe systems at multiple operating points, where the adjusted step-up method uses the estimated correlations. Our results indicate that the adjusted step-up method has a substantial advantage over other the two methods both in terms of the FWER and power.

  13. Demonstration of a stand-alone cylindrical fiber coil for optical amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laxton, Steven R.; Bravo, Tyler; Madsen, Christi K.

    2015-08-01

    The design, fabrication and measurement of a cylindrical fiber coil structure is presented that has applications for compact fiber-optic amplifiers. A multimode fiber is used as a surrogate for a dual clad, rare-earth doped fiber for coil fabrication and optical testing. A ray trace algorithm, written in Python, was used to simulate the behavior of light travelling along the waveguide path. An in-house fabrication method was developed using 3D printed parts designed in SolidWorks and assembled with Arduino-controlled stepper motors for coil winding. Ultraviolet-cured epoxy was used to bind the coils into a rigid cylinder. Bend losses are introduced by the coil, and a measurement of the losses for two coil lengths was obtained experimentally. The measurements confirm that bend losses through a multimode fiber, representative of pump light propagating in a dual-clad rare-earth doped fiber, are relatively wavelength independent over a large spectral range and that higher order modes are extinguished quickly while lower order modes transmit through the windings with relatively low loss.

  14. The Small, Stand-Alone Early College: Impact on Postsecondary Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unlu, Fatih; Furey, Jane

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results from the longitudinal experimental study conducted on North Carolina's early college model described in an earlier paper. The primary purpose of this paper is to present the impact of the early college model on outcomes related to postsecondary enrollment. The specific research questions driving this study include: (1)…

  15. Control aspects of the Schuchuli Village stand-alone photovoltaic power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groumpos, P. P.; Culler, J. E.; Delombard, R.

    1984-01-01

    A photovoltaic power system in an Arizona Indian village was installed. The control subsystem of this photovoltaic power system was analyzed. The four major functions of the control subsystem are: (1) voltage regulation; (2) load management; (3) water pump control; and (4) system protection. The control subsystem functions flowcharts for the control subsystem operation, and a computer program that models the control subsystem are presented.

  16. The Small, Stand-Alone Early College: Impact on High School Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennie, Elizabeth; Unlu, Fatih; Furey, Jane

    2016-01-01

    North Carolina's Early College model is the subject of an IES-funded eleven-year longitudinal experimental study that utilized a lottery process to assign early college applicants to either treatment or control groups. This paper presents findings related to high school outcomes. The primary goal of the early college model is to increase the…

  17. Review of stand-alone photovoltaic application projects sponsored by US DOE and US AID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bifano, W. J.

    Experience with dc photovoltaic systems (without backup power) and ranging in output from 23 to 3,500 peak watts, in a wide range of environmental conditions and with a wide range of insolation, is described. Cooperation of NASA with other government agencies resulted in the installation of an air pollution monitor in New Jersey, a seismic sensor in Hawaii, power for lookout towers in national forests in California, an electric power system for a Papago Indian village in Arizona, and a power system for a grain mill and water pump in Tangaye, Upper Volta. Significant operational results are discussed and system reliability is assessed for the 20 experimental systems installed since 1976. Additional systems to be installed overseas are highlighted, and economic factors are considered.

  18. SSTAR, a Stand-Alone Easy-To-Use Antimicrobial Resistance Gene Predictor.

    PubMed

    de Man, Tom J B; Limbago, Brandi M

    2016-01-01

    We present the easy-to-use Sequence Search Tool for Antimicrobial Resistance, SSTAR. It combines a locally executed BLASTN search against a customizable database with an intuitive graphical user interface for identifying antimicrobial resistance (AR) genes from genomic data. Although the database is initially populated from a public repository of acquired resistance determinants (i.e., ARG-ANNOT), it can be customized for particular pathogen groups and resistance mechanisms. For instance, outer membrane porin sequences associated with carbapenem resistance phenotypes can be added, and known intrinsic mechanisms can be included. Unique about this tool is the ability to easily detect putative new alleles and truncated versions of existing AR genes. Variants and potential new alleles are brought to the attention of the user for further investigation. For instance, SSTAR is able to identify modified or truncated versions of porins, which may be of great importance in carbapenemase-negative carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. SSTAR is written in Java and is therefore platform independent and compatible with both Windows and Unix operating systems. SSTAR and its manual, which includes a simple installation guide, are freely available from https://github.com/tomdeman-bio/Sequence-Search-Tool-for-Antimicrobial-Resistance-SSTAR-. IMPORTANCE Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is quickly becoming a routine method for identifying genes associated with antimicrobial resistance (AR). However, for many microbiologists, the use and analysis of WGS data present a substantial challenge. We developed SSTAR, software with a graphical user interface that enables the identification of known AR genes from WGS and has the unique capacity to easily detect new variants of known AR genes, including truncated protein variants. Current software solutions do not notify the user when genes are truncated and, therefore, likely nonfunctional, which makes phenotype predictions less accurate. SSTAR users can apply any AR database of interest as a reference comparator and can manually add genes that impact resistance, even if such genes are not resistance determinants per se (e.g., porins and efflux pumps). PMID:27303709

  19. Can History Stand Alone? Drawbacks and Blind Spots of a "Disciplinary" Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Stephen J.; Barton, Keith C.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: Over the past quarter-century, many historians, politicians, and educators have argued for an increase in the amount of history taught in schools, for a clear separation of history and social studies, and for an emphasis on disciplinary structures and norms as the proper focus for the subject. Unfortunately, discussions of…

  20. Development and evaluation of a stand-alone web-based CAL program. A case study.

    PubMed

    Perryer, G; Walmsley, A D; Barclay, C W; Shaw, L; Smith, A J

    2000-08-01

    The use of web browser technology allows the construction of computer-aided learning programs which will have a familiar interface to dentists. This paper reports on the evaluation of a web-based CAL program which covered the topic of tooth wear with an emphasis on the rôle of erosion in its aetiology. Evaluation of the software was made by 50 dentists contacted by an electronic mailing list. They completed a questionnaire which evaluated aspects of the functionality of the program educational objectives. The average age of the dentists was 39 years (range 24-70) and 82% were male. The average time of use was 1 h 10 min (range 15 min to 3 h). A significant change in their knowledge of tooth wear before and after using the program was recorded. Both the use of patient cases and leaflets scored highly with other aspects such as treatment planning and patient advice receiving high marks. All dentists commented that they had gained greater knowledge with particular reference to treatment and advice of tooth wear problems. 34 dentists (68%) found the web interface easy to use. Negative comments were mainly attributed to the quality of the pictures (4/50) which were corrected in the final release version. Respondents were asked to compare the program to other educational media on the same subject. 80% rated this CAL program as better than video, and 14% claimed it was as good as video. 84% rated it better than books, and 14% said it was as good as books. 98% preferred it to audio tapes and 86% preferred it to journals. The average amount that they would pay for a CAL package such as "tooth wear" would be 42 ECU. It is concluded that web browser software is a suitable medium for the use of a CAL program and this is reflected in its ease of use by dentists. PMID:11168474

  1. Insights into the Value of a "Stand-Alone" Course for Sustainability Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegarty, Kathryn; Thomas, Ian; Kriewaldt, Cathryn; Holdsworth, Sarah; Bekessy, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Education for sustainability (EfS) is emerging as an urgent imperative and challenge for higher education. But what exactly does it mean to put sustainability into higher education? How do we bring sustainability themes into university curriculum, across the enormous diversity of academic disciplines? This paper describes the experience of…

  2. Stand-alone hybrid wind-photovoltaic power generation systems optimal sizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crǎciunescu, Aurelian; Popescu, Claudia; Popescu, Mihai; Florea, Leonard Marin

    2013-10-01

    Wind and photovoltaic energy resources have attracted energy sectors to generate power on a large scale. A drawback, common to these options, is their unpredictable nature and dependence on day time and meteorological conditions. Fortunately, the problems caused by the variable nature of these resources can be partially overcome by integrating the two resources in proper combination, using the strengths of one source to overcome the weakness of the other. The hybrid systems that combine wind and solar generating units with battery backup can attenuate their individual fluctuations and can match with the power requirements of the beneficiaries. In order to efficiently and economically utilize the hybrid energy system, one optimum match design sizing method is necessary. In this way, literature offers a variety of methods for multi-objective optimal designing of hybrid wind/photovoltaic (WG/PV) generating systems, one of the last being genetic algorithms (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). In this paper, mathematical models of hybrid WG/PV components and a short description of the last proposed multi-objective optimization algorithms are given.

  3. Applying Rhetorical Genre Studies to a Stand-Alone Online Professional Writing Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Heather Brook; Jenkins, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This program profile explains and illustrates a pedagogical application of Rhetorical Genre Studies (RGS) to a one-semester, upper-division online Professional Writing course. We explain our use of a heuristic, which we liken to "night-vision goggles," that enables students to systematically analyze field data that they gather from a…

  4. Performance of a stand-alone wind-electric ice maker for remote villages

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.C.; Brandemuehl, M.J.; Bergey, M.L.S.

    1995-01-01

    Two ice makers in the 1.1 metric tons per 24 hours (1.2 tons per day) size range were tested to determine their performance when directly coupled to a variable-frequency wind turbine generator. Initial tests were conducted using a dynamometer to simulate to wind to evaluate whether previously determined potential problems were significant and to define basic performance parameters. Field testing in Norman, Oklahoma, was completed to determine the performance of one of the ice makers under real wind conditions. As expected, the ice makers produced more ice at a higher speed than rated, and less ice at a lower speed. Due to the large start-up torque requirement of reciprocating compressors, the ice making system experienced a large start-up current and corresponding voltage drop which required a larger wind turbine that expected to provide the necessary current and voltage. Performance curves for ice production and power consumption are presented. A spreadsheet model was constructed to predict ice production at a user-defined site given the wind conditions for that location. Future work should include long-term performance tests and research on reducing the large start-up currents the system experiences when first coming on line.

  5. Alignment of the CMS silicon strip tracker during stand-alone commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, W.; et al.

    2009-07-01

    The results of the CMS tracker alignment analysis are presented using the data from cosmic tracks, optical survey information, and the laser alignment system at the Tracker Integration Facility at CERN. During several months of operation in the spring and summer of 2007, about five million cosmic track events were collected with a partially active CMS Tracker. This allowed us to perform first alignment of the active silicon modules with the cosmic tracks using three different statistical approaches; validate the survey and laser alignment system performance; and test the stability of Tracker structures under various stresses and temperatures ranging from +15C to -15C. Comparison with simulation shows that the achieved alignment precision in the barrel part of the tracker leads to residual distributions similar to those obtained with a random misalignment of 50 (80) microns in the outer (inner) part of the barrel.

  6. Standing Alone No More: Linking Research to a Writing Course in a Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapchak, Marcia; Cipr, Ava

    2015-01-01

    Collaborating with teaching faculty is a well-established method of making library instruction more meaningful and engaging to students, and learning communities provide an excellent opportunity to work closely with both teaching faculty and a cohort of students. A typical learning community brings students together around a similar discipline or…

  7. 49 CFR 1111.8 - Procedural schedule in stand-alone cost cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... files opening evidence on absence of intermodal and intramodal competition, variable cost, and stand..., and revenue-variable cost percentage generated by complainant's traffic. Day 180—Complainant and... the variable cost calculations for the movements at issue. The parties should jointly propose...

  8. 49 CFR 1111.8 - Procedural schedule in stand-alone cost cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... files opening evidence on absence of intermodal and intramodal competition, variable cost, and stand..., and revenue-variable cost percentage generated by complainant's traffic. Day 180—Complainant and... the variable cost calculations for the movements at issue. The parties should jointly propose...

  9. 49 CFR 1111.8 - Procedural schedule in stand-alone cost cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... files opening evidence on absence of intermodal and intramodal competition, variable cost, and stand..., and revenue-variable cost percentage generated by complainant's traffic. Day 180—Complainant and... the variable cost calculations for the movements at issue. The parties should jointly propose...

  10. 49 CFR 1111.8 - Procedural schedule in stand-alone cost cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... files opening evidence on absence of intermodal and intramodal competition, variable cost, and stand..., and revenue-variable cost percentage generated by complainant's traffic. Day 180—Complainant and... the variable cost calculations for the movements at issue. The parties should jointly propose...

  11. 49 CFR 1111.8 - Procedural schedule in stand-alone cost cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... files opening evidence on absence of intermodal and intramodal competition, variable cost, and stand..., and revenue-variable cost percentage generated by complainant's traffic. Day 180—Complainant and... the variable cost calculations for the movements at issue. The parties should jointly propose...

  12. Networking Microcomputers in the Writing Center: Alternative Pedagogical Applications to Using Stand Alones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Andrea W.; Herrmann, John

    To illustrate the capabilities of local area networking (LAN) and integrated software programs, this paper reviews current software programs relevant to writing instruction. It is argued that the technology exists for students sitting at one microcomputer to be able to effectively carry out all phases of the writing process from gathering online…

  13. 1/f Noise Inside a Faraday Cage

    SciTech Connect

    Handel, Peter H.; George, Thomas F.

    2009-04-23

    We show that quantum 1/f noise does not have a lower frequency limit given by the lowest free electromagnetic field mode in a Faraday cage, even in an ideal cage. Indeed, quantum 1/f noise comes from the infrared-divergent coupling of the field with the charges, in their joint nonlinear system, where the charges cause the field that reacts back on the charges, and so on. This low-frequency limitation is thus not applicable for the nonlinear system of matter and field in interaction. Indeed, this nonlinear system is governed by Newton's laws, Maxwell's equations, in general also by the diffusion equations for particles and heat, or reaction kinetics given by quantum matrix elements. Nevertheless, all the other quantities can be eliminated in principle, resulting in highly nonlinear integro-differential equations for the electromagnetic field only, which no longer yield a fundamental frequency. Alternatively, we may describe this through the presence of an infinite system of subharmonics. We show how this was proven early in the classical and quantum domains, adding new insight.

  14. Functionalized expanded porphyrins

    DOEpatents

    Sessler, Jonathan L; Pantos, Patricia J

    2013-11-12

    Disclosed are functionalized expanded porphyrins that can be used as spectrometric sensors for high-valent actinide cations. The disclosed functionalized expanded porphyrins have the advantage over unfunctionalized systems in that they can be immobilized via covalent attachment to a solid support comprising an inorganic or organic polymer or other common substrates. Substrates comprising the disclosed functionalized expanded porphyrins are also disclosed. Further, disclosed are methods of making the disclosed compounds (immobilized and free), methods of using them as sensors to detect high valent actinides, devices that comprise the disclosed compounds, and kits.

  15. Theme: The Expanded Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finley, Eddy; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This theme issue covers the following topics: modernization of agricultural education, an expanded mission for the field, community development, a national presence for agricultural education, revising curriculum, and interesting students in new careers in agriculture. (SK)

  16. Optimization of expander plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.B.

    1985-01-01

    A computer program that uses the Tomich technique to solve multistage, multi-feed distillation problems was modified. The MSEQ method was utilized to generate initial temperature and vapor rate profiles. The modified fractionator program coupled with the MSEQ method was used to generate required rigorous data for expander-plant demethanizer splits. Furthermore, a shortcut method was developed to facilitate expander process simulation. Calculated demethanizer results from a simulation were compared with a commercial program with good agreement. The results from the shortcut method were in good agreement with rigorous calculations. Computer simulations were made for four different natural gases ranging from lean to rich in liquefiable hydrocarbons for various turboexpander plant processes. These processes included self-refrigerated expander process with/without external refrigeration, and with/without demethanizer heat recovery. Only lean gases can be utilized in the self-refrigerated expander process with high ethane recovery. While the use of external refrigeration in conjunction with the expander process can reduce overall horsepower requirements, it may not be economical to do so. In general, the processing should be carried out at the highest practical processing pressure. The use of demethanizer heat recovery is an efficient method to reduce both refrigeration horsepower and recompression energy requirements. This work emphasizes high ethane recovery. Further study of expander processes emphasizing ethane rejection is advisable.

  17. Teaching in the Institutional Cage: Metaphor and Collateral Oppression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noël Smith, Becky L.

    2014-01-01

    This analysis is a philosophical exploration of Marilyn Frye's metaphor of the cage and Patricia Hill Collins' theory of intersecting oppressions. It argues that social structures and forms of oppressive knowledge make up the individual wires on each person's cage and that these work to confine individuals, particularly those in the…

  18. 48 CFR 204.7202-1 - CAGE codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... System for Award Management (SAM) database (see FAR subpart 4.11) and does not have a CAGE code, DLA... for registration in the SAM database. Foreign registrants must obtain a North Atlantic Treaty Organization CAGE (NCAGE) code in order to register in the SAM database. NCAGE codes may be obtained from...

  19. 48 CFR 204.7202-1 - CAGE codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... available at http://www.dlis.dla.mil/Forms/Form_AC135.asp. (2) If registration in the CCR database is not... (D) The Internet to access the CAGE Lookup Server at http://www.dlis.dla.mil/cage_welcome.asp....

  20. 48 CFR 204.7202-1 - CAGE codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... available at http://www.dlis.dla.mil/Forms/Form_AC135.asp. (2) If registration in the SAM database is not... (D) The Internet to access the CAGE Lookup Server at http://www.dlis.dla.mil/cage_welcome.asp....

  1. 48 CFR 204.7202-1 - CAGE codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... available at http://www.dlis.dla.mil/Forms/Form_AC135.asp. (2) If registration in the CCR database is not... (D) The Internet to access the CAGE Lookup Server at http://www.dlis.dla.mil/cage_welcome.asp....

  2. Polymers containing borane or carborane cage compounds and related applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, III, Daniel E.; Eastwood, Eric A.

    2012-06-05

    Polymers comprising residues of borane and/or carborane cage compound monomers having at least one polyalkoxy silyl substituent. Such polymers can further comprise one or more reactive matrices and/or co-monomers covalently bound with the cage compound monomer residues. Methods of making and applications for using such polymers are also disclosed.

  3. Caging Mechanism for a drag-free satellite position sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacker, R.; Mathiesen, J.; Debra, D. B.

    1976-01-01

    A disturbance compensation system for satellites based on the drag-free concept was mechanized and flown, using a spherical proof mass and a cam-guided caging mechanism. The caging mechanism controls the location of the proof mass for testing and constrains it during launch. Design requirements, design details, and hardware are described.

  4. Abnormal Behavior in Relation to Cage Size in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulk, H. H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Examines the effects of cage size on stereotyped and normal locomotion and on other abnormal behaviors in singly caged animals, whether observed abnormal behaviors tend to co-occur, and if the development of an abnormal behavior repertoire leads to reduction in the number of normal behavior categories. (Author/RK)

  5. Computational analyses of different intervertebral cages for lumbar spinal fusion.

    PubMed

    Bashkuev, Maxim; Checa, Sara; Postigo, Sergio; Duda, Georg; Schmidt, Hendrik

    2015-09-18

    Lumbar spinal fusion is the most common approach for treating spinal disorders such as degeneration or instability. Although this procedure has been performed for many years, there are still important challenges that must be overcome and questions that need to be addressed regarding the high rates of non-union. The present finite element model study aimed to investigate the influence of different cage designs on the fusion process. An axisymmetric finite element model of a spinal segment with an interbody fusion cage was used. The fusion process was based on an existing mechano-regulation algorithm for tissue formation. With this model, the following principal concepts of cage design were investigated: (1) different cage geometries with constant compressive stiffness and (2) cage designs optimized to provide the ideal mechanical stimulus for bone formation, first at the beginning of fusion and then throughout the entire fusion process. The cage geometry substantially influenced the fusion outcome. A cage that created an optimized initial mechanical stimulus did not necessarily lead to accelerated fusion, but rather resulted in delayed fusion or non-union. In contrast, a cage made of a degradable material produced a significantly higher amount of bone and resulted in higher segmental stiffness. However, different compressive loads (250, 500 and 1000 N) substantially affected the amount of newly formed bone tissue. The results of the present study suggest that aiming for an optimal initial mechanical stimulus may be misleading because the initial mechanical environment is not preserved throughout the bone modeling process.

  6. A Locust Cage and Hatchery from Plastic Aquarium Tanks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneman, C. F.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Describes how to construct a locust cage from two plastic aquaria and four coffee jars with plastic lids. Its advantages over a conventional locust cage include the inexpensive cost, lack of breakable glass, ease of cleaning, and visibility from all angles. (JR)

  7. Structural analysis of aquaculture net cages in current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, H.; Fredheim, A.; Hopperstad, O. S.

    2010-04-01

    A method for structural analysis of aquaculture net cages has been developed and verified for a netting solidity of 0.23, water current velocities from 0.1 to 0.5 m/s and relatively large deformations (volume reduction up to 70%) by comparing the numerical results to tests in a flume tank. Strength analysis was performed using commercial explicit finite element software to calculate distribution of loads in the net cage due to current, weights and gravity. The net cage was modelled using truss elements that represented several parallel twines. Sub-elements allowed the trusses to buckle in compression, and only negligible compressive forces were seen in the numerical results. Resulting drag loads and cage volume were shown to be dependent on the net cage size and weight system. Drag loads increased almost proportional to the current velocity for velocities in the range of 0.2-0.5 m/s, while the cage volume was reduced proportional to the current velocity. The calculated forces in ropes and netting of full-size net cages were well below the design capacity for current velocities up to 0.5 m/s. However, netting seams in the bottom panel of the net cage were identified as a potential problem area as the forces could reach the design capacity.

  8. Ammonia Levels and Urine-Spot Characteristics as Cage-Change Indicators for High-Density Individually Ventilated Mouse Cages.

    PubMed

    Washington, Ida M; Payton, Mark E

    2016-01-01

    Mouse cage and bedding changes are potentially stressful to mice and are also labor- and resource-intensive. These changes are often performed on a calendar-based schedule to maintain a clean microenvironment and limit the concentrations of ammonia to which mice and workers are exposed. The current study sought to establish a performance-based approach to mouse cage-changing that uses urine spot characteristics as visual indicators of intracage ammonia levels. Colorimetric ammonia indicators were used to measure ammonia levels in individually-ventilated cages (IVC) housing male or female mice (n =5 per cage) of various strains at 1 to 16 d after cage change. Urine spot characteristics were correlated with ammonia levels to create a visual indicator of the cage-change criterion of 25 ppm ammonia. Results demonstrated a consistent increase in ammonia levels with days since cage change, with cages reaching the cage-change criterion at approximately 10 d for IVC containing male mice and 16 d for those with female mice. Ammonia levels were higher for male than female mice but were not correlated with mouse age. However, urine spot diameter, color, and edge characteristics were strongly correlated with ammonia levels. Husbandry practices based on using urine spot characteristics as indicators of ammonia levels led to fewer weekly cage changes and concomitant savings in labor and resources. Therefore, urine spot characteristics can be used as visual indicators of intracage ammonia levels for use of a performance (urine spot)-based approach to cage-changing frequency that maintains animal health and wellbeing. PMID:27177558

  9. Performance and welfare of rabbit does in various caging systems.

    PubMed

    Mikó, A; Matics, Zs; Gerencsér, Zs; Odermatt, M; Radnai, I; Nagy, I; Szendrő, K; Szendrő, Zs

    2014-07-01

    The objective of the study was to compare production and welfare of rabbit does and their kits housed in various types of cages. Female rabbits were randomly allocated to four groups with the following cage types: CN: common wire-mesh flat-deck cage, without footrest; CF: cage similar to the CN but with plastic footrest; ECWP: enlarged cage with wire-mesh platform; and ECPP: extra enlarged cage with plastic-mesh platform. All does were inseminated on the same day, 11 days after kindlings. Reproductive performance was evaluated during the first five consecutive kindlings. Severity of sore hocks was scored at each insemination. Location preference of the does and the platform usage of their kits were evaluated. Kindling rate, litter size (total born, born alive, alive at 21 and 35 days) and kit mortality were not significantly influenced by the cage types. The litter weight at 21 days was higher in ECWP and ECPP cages than in the CF group (3516, 3576 and 3291 g, respectively; P2.5 cm) and 3 to 4 (3=callus opened, cracks present; 4=wounds) were 58%, 60%, 78% and 48%, and 0%, 5%, 0% and 48% in groups ECPP, ECWP, CF and CN, respectively. Higher number of daily nest visits was observed for CF does than for ECWP does (12.5 v. 5.9; P2/day) was higher in the CF group than in the ECWP group (12.1 v. 3.2%; P<0.01). Within large cages, the does were observed on the platform more frequently in the ECPP cages compared with the ECWP cages (56.9% v. 31.7%; P<0.001). Similarly, 2.7% and 0.2% of kits at 21 days of age, and 33.2% and 5.2% of kits at 28 days of age, were found on the platforms of ECPP and ECWP cages, respectively. In conclusion, cages larger than the conventional ones improved kits' weaning weight, plastic footrests and plastic-mesh platforms in conventional and/or large cages reduced sore hocks' problems, plastic-mesh platforms were more used by both does and kits compared with the wire-mesh platforms. PMID:26263030

  10. Entropic cages for trapping DNA near a nanopore.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Mihovilovic Skanata, Mirna; Stein, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Nanopores can probe the structure of biopolymers in solution; however, diffusion makes it difficult to study the same molecule for extended periods. Here we report devices that entropically trap single DNA molecules in a 6.2-femtolitre cage near a solid-state nanopore. We electrophoretically inject DNA molecules into the cage through the nanopore, pause for preset times and then drive the DNA back out through the nanopore. The saturating recapture time and high recapture probability after long pauses, their agreement with a convection-diffusion model and the observation of trapped DNA under fluorescence microscopy all confirm that the cage stably traps DNA. Meanwhile, the cages have 200 nm openings that make them permeable to small molecules, like the restriction endonuclease we use to sequence-specifically cut trapped DNA into fragments whose number and sizes are analysed upon exiting through the nanopore. Entropic cages thus serve as reactors for chemically modifying single DNA molecules. PMID:25648853

  11. Entropic cages for trapping DNA near a nanopore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xu; Skanata, Mirna Mihovilovic; Stein, Derek

    2015-02-01

    Nanopores can probe the structure of biopolymers in solution; however, diffusion makes it difficult to study the same molecule for extended periods. Here we report devices that entropically trap single DNA molecules in a 6.2-femtolitre cage near a solid-state nanopore. We electrophoretically inject DNA molecules into the cage through the nanopore, pause for preset times and then drive the DNA back out through the nanopore. The saturating recapture time and high recapture probability after long pauses, their agreement with a convection-diffusion model and the observation of trapped DNA under fluorescence microscopy all confirm that the cage stably traps DNA. Meanwhile, the cages have 200 nm openings that make them permeable to small molecules, like the restriction endonuclease we use to sequence-specifically cut trapped DNA into fragments whose number and sizes are analysed upon exiting through the nanopore. Entropic cages thus serve as reactors for chemically modifying single DNA molecules.

  12. Ion-cage interpretation for the structural and dynamic changes of ionic liquids under an external electric field.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rui; Wang, Yanting

    2013-05-01

    In many applications, ionic liquids (ILs) work in a nonequilibrium steady state driven by an external electric field. However, how the electric field changes the structure and dynamics of ILs and its underlying mechanism still remain poorly understood. In this paper, coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the structure and dynamics of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate ([EMIm][NO3]) under a static electric field. The ion cage structure was found to play an essential role in determining the structural and dynamic properties of the IL system. With a weak or moderate electric field (0-10(7) V/m), the external electric field is too weak to modify the ion cage structure in an influential way and thus the changes of structural and dynamic properties are negligible. With a strong electric field (10(7)-10(9) V/m) applied, ion cages expand and deform apparently, leading to the increase of ion mobility and self-diffusion coefficient with electric field, and the self-diffusion of ions along the electric field becomes faster than the other two directions due to the anisotropic deformation of ion cages. In addition, the Einstein relation connecting diffusion and mobility breaks down at strong electric fields, and it also breaks down for a single ion species even at moderate electric fields (linear-response region).

  13. Electrofriction method of manufacturing squirrel cage rotors

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.

    2005-04-12

    A method of making a squirrel cage rotor of copper material for use in AC or DC motors, includes forming a core with longitudinal slots, inserting bars of conductive material in the slots, with ends extending out of opposite ends of the core, and joining the end rings to the bars, wherein the conductive material of either the end rings or the bars is copper. Various methods of joining the end rings to the bars are disclosed including electrofriction welding, current pulse welding and brazing, transient liquid phase joining and casting. Pressure is also applied to the end rings to improve contact and reduce areas of small or uneven contact between the bar ends and the end rings. Rotors made with such methods are also disclosed.

  14. Protein Cages as Containers for Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Aijie; Verwegen, Martijn; de Ruiter, Mark V; Maassen, Stan J; Traulsen, Christoph H-H; Cornelissen, Jeroen J L M

    2016-07-01

    Abundant and highly diverse, viruses offer new scaffolds in nanotechnology for the encapsulation, organization, or even synthesis of novel materials. In this work the coat protein of the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) is used to encapsulate gold nanoparticles with different sizes and stabilizing ligands yielding stable particles in buffered solutions at neutral pH. The sizes of the virus-like particles correspond to T = 1, 2, and 3 Caspar-Klug icosahedral triangulation numbers. We developed a simple one-step process enabling the encapsulation of commercially available gold nanoparticles without prior modification with up to 97% efficiency. The encapsulation efficiency is further increased using bis-p-(sufonatophenyl)phenyl phosphine surfactants up to 99%. Our work provides a simplified procedure for the preparation of metallic particles stabilized in CCMV protein cages. The presented results are expected to enable the preparation of a variety of similar virus-based colloids for current focus areas. PMID:27135176

  15. Photocatalyzed oxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolite cages

    SciTech Connect

    Frei, H.; Blatter, F.; Sun, H.

    1996-06-01

    Oxidation of hydrocarbons by molecular oxygen is a key process in chemical industry. But reactions that use O{sub 2} as the primary oxidant often produce large amounts of unwanted byproducts. One major reason that selectivities are low is that the desired products (such as alcohols or carbonyls) are more easily oxidized by O{sub 2} than the parent hydrocarbon. The authors recently discovered a simple method that gives partial oxidation of small alkenes, alkanes, and alkyl-substituted benzenes by O{sub 2} at unprecedented selectivity, even at high conversion of the hydrocarbon. The approach is based on visible light-induced chemistry of hydrocarbon-O{sub 2} collisional pairs in the cages of large-pore zeolites. Reactions are conducted at ambient temperature in the absence of solvent or photosensitizer. Here the authors describe the most interesting reactions established thus far and define issues that pertain to scale-up of the method.

  16. Preparation and structure of novel hexaazaisowurtzitane cages.

    PubMed

    Herve, Grégoire; Jacob, Guy; Gallo, Roger

    2006-04-12

    Hexaazaisowurtzitane or cage molecules have attracted attention concerning their synthesis because hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW or CL20) is presently the most powerful energetic compound. The synthesis of hexaazaisowurtzitanes was considered to be limited solely to the condensation of certain benzylamines with glyoxal. Here, we present the synthesis and characterization of seven novel non-benzylic hexaazaisowurtzitanes, such as hexapropargylhexaazaisowurtzitane. The substituents on the six nitrogen atoms are different to those of the benzyl or substituted benzyl groups to which previous syntheses were limited. X-ray structures are given for the hexapropargyl and hexa-2-thienylmethylene derivatives. Steric strains limit the synthesis with alpha-substituted benzyl and allyl derivatives. The reaction mechanism and the role of the intermediate diimines are discussed. Some of the novel hexaazaisowurtzitanes are potential precursors of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane.

  17. In-situ bioassays using caged bivalves

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, M.H.; Salazar, S.M.

    1995-12-31

    It is important to make the distinction between chemical measurements to assess bioaccumulation potential versus biological measurements to assess potential bioeffects because bioaccumulation is not a bioeffect. Caging provides a unique opportunity to make synoptic measurements of each and facilitates making these measurements over space and time. Measuring bioaccumulation in resident and transplanted bivalves has probably been the most frequently used form of an in-situ bioassay because bivalves concentrate chemicals in their tissues. They are also easy to collect, cage, and measure. The authors have refined bivalve bioassay methods by minimizing the size range of test animals, making repetitive measurements of the same individuals, and standardizing test protocols for a variety of applications. They are now attempting to standardize criteria for accepting and interpreting data in the same way that laboratory bioassays have been standardized. Growth measurements can serve two purposes in this assessment strategy: (1) An integrated biological response endpoint that is easily quantifiable and with significance to the population, and (2) A means of calibrating bioaccumulation by assessing the relative health and physiological state of tissues that have accumulated the chemicals. In general, the authors have found the highest bioconcentration factors associated with the highest growth rates, the highest concentrations ({micro}g/g) of chemicals in juvenile mussels, and the highest chemical content ({micro}g/animal) in adult mussels. Without accounting for possible dilution of chemical concentrations by tissue growth or magnification through degrowth, contaminant concentrations can be misleading. Examples are provided for the Sudbury River in Massachusetts (Elliptio complanata), San Diego Bay (Mytilus galloprovincialis), and the Harbor Island Superfund Site in Puget Sound (Mytilus trossulus).

  18. Coordinating subdomains of ferritin protein cages with catalysis and biomineralization viewed from the C4 cage axes.

    PubMed

    Theil, Elizabeth C; Turano, Paola; Ghini, Veronica; Allegrozzi, Marco; Bernacchioni, Caterina

    2014-06-01

    Integrated ferritin protein cage function is the reversible synthesis of protein-caged, solid Fe2O3·H2O minerals from Fe(2+) for metabolic iron concentrates and oxidant protection; biomineral order differs in different ferritin proteins. The conserved 432 geometric symmetry of ferritin protein cages parallels the subunit dimer, trimer, and tetramer interfaces, and coincides with function at several cage axes. Multiple subdomains distributed in the self-assembling ferritin nanocages have functional relationships to cage symmetry such as Fe(2+) transport though ion channels (threefold symmetry), biomineral nucleation/order (fourfold symmetry), and mineral dissolution (threefold symmetry) studied in ferritin variants. On the basis of the effects of natural or synthetic subunit dimer cross-links, cage subunit dimers (twofold symmetry) influence iron oxidation and mineral dissolution. 2Fe(2+)/O2 catalysis in ferritin occurs in single subunits, but with cooperativity (n = 3) that is possibly related to the structure/function of the ion channels, which are constructed from segments of three subunits. Here, we study 2Fe(2+) + O2 protein catalysis (diferric peroxo formation) and dissolution of ferritin Fe2O3·H2O biominerals in variants with altered subunit interfaces for trimers (ion channels), E130I, and external dimer surfaces (E88A) as controls, and altered tetramer subunit interfaces (L165I and H169F). The results extend observations on the functional importance of structure at ferritin protein twofold and threefold cage axes to show function at ferritin fourfold cage axes. Here, conserved amino acids facilitate dissolution of ferritin-protein-caged iron biominerals. Biological and nanotechnological uses of ferritin protein cage fourfold symmetry and solid-state mineral properties remain largely unexplored.

  19. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    SciTech Connect

    Othman, A. Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A.; Ain, M. F.

    2015-03-30

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.

  20. Expander plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Expander plant design is iterative. In order to calculate an answer it is necessary to have an answer to start with. Consequently, the starting point for a final design is a function of the experience level of the designer and his personal preference. This paper assumes that the designer has no experience in expander plant design and concentrates on providing methods for assuming an answer that will be close enough to the final answer that the design can be done with a minimum number of iterations. For illustration, several typical process designs are presented.

  1. Cage design and configuration for an arboreal species of primate.

    PubMed

    Williams, L E; Abee, C R; Barnes, S R; Ricker, R B

    1988-06-01

    The squirrel monkey (genus Saimiri) is an arboreal primate from equatorial South America. This species forms large social groups that consist of multiple females and males of varying ages, from infant to adult. As the use of squirrel monkeys in research continues to grow, an understanding of optimal cage design and environment is essential. The University of South Alabama Primate Research Laboratory houses a breeding colony of 350 squirrel monkeys. Each group cage, measuring 4.5 X 2.5 X 1.5 meters, can contain up to 20 animals. A breeding group consists of one adult male, eight to ten adult females, and varying numbers of infant and juvenile animals. In order to determine the most suitable cage environment for the squirrel monkey, a series of studies were carried out to compare various perch materials and cage configurations. Squirrel monkeys preferred a poly-vinyl-chloride pipe perch (rigid) over rope perches (non-rigid). When provided with multiple levels of perches, all levels were used. Males tended to distribute their activities randomly at different levels. In a two tiered perch arrangement, females concentrated 67% of their social activity on the top tier. In a triple tier configuration, females concentrated 66% of their travel on the top tier. These results indicate that by creating a cage environment with multiple tiers of horizontal perches the effective cage space can be doubled or tripled. This provides an effective means of reducing population density without enlarging the dimensions of the cage or reducing social group size.

  2. Expanding Student Assessment Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartscher, Beth; Carter, Andrea; Lawlor, Anna; McKelvey, Barbara

    This paper describes an approach for expanding assessment opportunities for students to demonstrate their understanding of content. The targeted population consisted of elementary and junior high school students in two schools in a growing middle-class community in north central Illinois. The elementary school enrolled 467 students and the junior…

  3. Expanded Roles for HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on expanded roles for human resource development (HRD). "The Roles of Consultants in Gainsharing Firms: Empirical Results" (Eunsang Cho, Gary N. McLean) reports findings that consultants are moderately involved at the separation, preparation, evaluation, and design stages and have low…

  4. Endohedral dynamics of push-pull rotor-functionalized cages.

    PubMed

    Krick, Marcel; Holstein, Julian; Würtele, Christian; Clever, Guido H

    2016-08-16

    A series of [Pd2L4] coordination cages featuring endohedral functionalities in central backbone positions was synthesized. Although attached via C[double bond, length as m-dash]C double bonds, the substituents behave as molecular rotors. This is explained by their pronounced donor-acceptor character which lowers rotational barriers and allows for electronic control over the spinning rates inside the cage. The dynamic behaviour of the free ligands, assembled cages and host-guest complexes is compared with the aid of NMR experiments, X-ray structure analysis and molecular modelling.

  5. Beam-induced graphitic carbon cage transformation from sumanene aggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Jun-ichi Tachi, Masashi; Murakami, Katsuhisa; Sakurai, Hidehiro; Morita, Yuki; Higashibayashi, Shuhei; Takeguchi, Masaki

    2014-01-27

    We found that electron-beam irradiation of sumanene aggregates strongly enhanced their transformation into a graphitic carbon cage, having a diameter of about 20 nm. The threshold electron dose was about 32 mC/cm{sup 2} at 200 keV, but the transformation is still induced at 20 keV. The transformation sequence suggested that the cage was constructed accompanied by the dynamical movement of the transiently linked sumanene molecules in order to pile up inside the shell. Thus, bond excitation in the sumanene molecules rather than a knock-on of carbon atoms seems to be the main cause of the cage transformation.

  6. Metabolic Cage for a Space Flight Model in the Rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Jennifer S.; Mulenburg, Gerald M.; Evans, Juli; Navidi, Meena; Wolinsky, Ira; Arnaud, Sara B.

    1994-01-01

    The new cage facilitates the collection of 24-h specimens of separated urine and feces apparently uncontaminated by food, as required for precise nutritional and metabolic studies, while maintaining the large floor area and suspension method of Holton's design (3). Although the cage was evaluated, using 6-month-old rats weighing 408 to 488 g, it can be easily adjusted for smaller rats. It also was successfully used to collect post-flight urine after the recent Spacelab Life Sciences-2 space shuttle flight. With its flexibility and ease of use, this new cage design adds a new tool to study the physiologic effects of simulated space flight and other disuse conditions.

  7. Jamming versus caging in three dimensional jamming percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segall, Nimrod; Teomy, Eial; Shokef, Yair

    2016-05-01

    We investigate a three-dimensional kinetically-constrained model that exhibits two types of phase transitions at different densities. At the jamming density $ \\rho_J $ there is a mixed-order phase transition in which a finite fraction of the particles become frozen, but the other particles may still diffuse throughout the system. At the caging density $ \\rho_C > \\rho_J $, the mobile particles are trapped in finite cages and no longer diffuse. The caging transition occurs due to a percolation transition of the unfrozen sites, and we numerically find that it is a continuous transition with the same critical exponents as random percolation.

  8. ExpandED Options: Learning beyond High School Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ExpandED Schools, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Through ExpandED Options by TASC, New York City high school students get academic credit for learning career-related skills that lead to paid summer jobs. Too many high school students--including those most likely to drop out--are bored or see classroom learning as irrelevant. ExpandED Options students live the connection between mastering new…

  9. Opportunity Studies Bait in Shark's Cage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In its 49th sol on Mars, NASA's Opportunity had nearly concluded its scientific examination of the extreme southwestern end of the outcrop in Meridiani Planum. In the 'Shark's Cage' area of the neighborhood called 'Shoemaker's Patio,' featured in this image from the front hazard avoidance camera, Opportunity deployed its arm to study the features called 'Shark's Tooth,' 'Shark Pellets,' and 'Lamination.' 'Shark's Tooth' is a piece of the unusual red rind that appears to fill cracks in the outcrop. This rind may be some kind of chemical alteration of the rocks. 'Shark Pellets' is an area of soil that was under investigation as part of the crater soil survey. 'Lamination' is a target with very thin layers that resemble uniform pages in a book, an indication of how the sediments were deposited. A final experiment in this area will be attempted on sol 51. Opportunity's front left wheel will 'scuff' the rock called 'Carousel.' 'Scuffing' involves scraping the rock with one wheel while holding all the others still. This experiment essentially turns the rover wheels into tools, to try and determine the hardness of the target rock.

  10. Linear diffusion into a Faraday cage.

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Lin, Yau Tang; Merewether, Kimball O.; Chen, Kenneth C.

    2011-11-01

    Linear lightning diffusion into a Faraday cage is studied. An early-time integral valid for large ratios of enclosure size to enclosure thickness and small relative permeability ({mu}/{mu}{sub 0} {le} 10) is used for this study. Existing solutions for nearby lightning impulse responses of electrically thick-wall enclosures are refined and extended to calculate the nearby lightning magnetic field (H) and time-derivative magnetic field (HDOT) inside enclosures of varying thickness caused by a decaying exponential excitation. For a direct strike scenario, the early-time integral for a worst-case line source outside the enclosure caused by an impulse is simplified and numerically integrated to give the interior H and HDOT at the location closest to the source as well as a function of distance from the source. H and HDOT enclosure response functions for decaying exponentials are considered for an enclosure wall of any thickness. Simple formulas are derived to provide a description of enclosure interior H and HDOT as well. Direct strike voltage and current bounds for a single-turn optimally-coupled loop for all three waveforms are also given.

  11. Metal dimer and trimer within spherical carbon cage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Tatsuhisa

    2007-07-01

    C 80 fulleren cage can be used to realize confinement with the highest possible icosahedral ( Ih) symmetry. As examples, La 2@C 80 and Sc 3C 2@C 80 are molecules in which metal dimer and trimer are encapsulated within the C 80 cage. They are recently purified in the substantial amount by using a high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC), and studied by spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The confinement of the metal cluster with the high symmetry ( Ih) cage is reflected in their specific potential of the intra-molecular rotation for the cluster. The result of electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements indicates that the intra-molecular potential is modified by the chemical modification of the C 80 cage as well as by the injection of an excess electron.

  12. In Silico Promoter Recognition from deepCAGE Data.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinyi; Marsico, Annalisa

    2017-01-01

    The accurate identification of transcription start regions corresponding to the promoters of known genes, novel coding, and noncoding transcripts, as well as enhancer elements, is a crucial step towards a complete understanding of state-specific gene regulatory networks. Recent high-throughput techniques, such as deepCAGE or single-molecule CAGE, have made it possible to identify the genome-wide location, relative expression, and differential usage of transcription start regions across hundreds of different tissues and cell lines. Here, we describe in detail the necessary computational analysis of CAGE data, with focus on two recent in silico methodologies for CAGE peak/profile definition and promoter recognition, namely the Decomposition-based Peak Identification (DPI) and the PROmiRNA software. We apply both methodologies to the challenging task of identifying primary microRNAs transcript (pri-miRNA) start sites and compare the results. PMID:27662877

  13. Porous organic cages: soluble, modular and molecular pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasell, Tom; Cooper, Andrew I.

    2016-09-01

    Porosity is a rare property for molecular materials but, surprisingly, porous solids built from discrete organic cage molecules have emerged as a versatile functional-materials platform. From modest beginnings less than a decade ago, there are now organic cage solids with surface areas that can rival extended metal-organic frameworks. In contrast to network polymers and frameworks, these organic cages are synthesized first and then assembled in the solid state in a separate step. This offers solution-processing options that are not available for insoluble organic and inorganic frameworks. In this Review, we highlight examples of porous organic cages and focus on the unique features that set them apart, such as their molecular solubility, their increased tendency to exhibit polymorphism and the scope for modular co-crystallization.

  14. 6. VIEW OF UTILITY TUNNEL, DRYDOCK NO., 4 (CAGE ENCLOSES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF UTILITY TUNNEL, DRYDOCK NO., 4 (CAGE ENCLOSES ACCESS TO SEWAGE PIT) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Dry Dock No. 4, West of State Route 92, West of Nimitz Gate, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. Porous organic cages: soluble, modular and molecular pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasell, Tom; Cooper, Andrew I.

    2016-09-01

    Porosity is a rare property for molecular materials but, surprisingly, porous solids built from discrete organic cage molecules have emerged as a versatile functional-materials platform. From modest beginnings less than a decade ago, there are now organic cage solids with surface areas that can rival extended metal–organic frameworks. In contrast to network polymers and frameworks, these organic cages are synthesized first and then assembled in the solid state in a separate step. This offers solution-processing options that are not available for insoluble organic and inorganic frameworks. In this Review, we highlight examples of porous organic cages and focus on the unique features that set them apart, such as their molecular solubility, their increased tendency to exhibit polymorphism and the scope for modular co-crystallization.

  16. Expandable LED array interconnect

    DOEpatents

    Yuan, Thomas Cheng-Hsin; Keller, Bernd

    2011-03-01

    A light emitting device that can function as an array element in an expandable array of such devices. The light emitting device comprises a substrate that has a top surface and a plurality of edges. Input and output terminals are mounted to the top surface of the substrate. Both terminals comprise a plurality of contact pads disposed proximate to the edges of the substrate, allowing for easy access to both terminals from multiple edges of the substrate. A lighting element is mounted to the top surface of the substrate. The lighting element is connected between the input and output terminals. The contact pads provide multiple access points to the terminals which allow for greater flexibility in design when the devices are used as array elements in an expandable array.

  17. Grazing incidence beam expander

    SciTech Connect

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  18. Discovering the Expanding Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaumer, Harry; Bieri, Lydia; Sandage, Foreword by Allan

    2009-03-01

    Acknowledgments; Foreword; 1. Introduction; 2. Cosmological concepts at the end of the Middle Ages; 3. Nebulae as a new astronomical phenomenon; 4. On the construction of the Heavens; 5. Island universes turn into astronomical facts: a universe of galaxies; 6. The early cosmology of Einstein and de Sitter; 7. The dynamical universe of Friedmann; 8. Redshifts: how to reconcile Slipher and de Sitter?; 9. Lemaître discovers the expanding universe; 10. Hubble's contribution of 1929; 11. The breakthrough for the expanding universe; 12. Hubble's anger about de Sitter; 13. Robertson and Tolman join the game; 14. The Einstein-de Sitter universe; 15. Are Sun and Earth older than the universe?; 16. In search of alternative tracks; 17. The seed for the Big Bang; 18. Summary and Postscript; Appendix; References; Index.

  19. Theoretical study of Si20Li20 cage cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdetsis, Aristides D.; Koukaras, Emmanuel N.

    2012-12-01

    The stabilization effects of Li on Si20Li20 cage clusters, as a special example of SinLin clusters, are studied by high accuracy all electron density functional theory calculations. This allows to assess the capability of Li to play a role similar to hydrogen in stabilizing silicon cages similar to SinHn (and CnHn), in view of its capacity to stabilize planar Si6Li6 rings similar to benzene. It is shown that indeed Si20Li20 is a very stable cage of high D5d symmetry with large HOMO-LUMO gap and real frequencies. Based on the binding energy, its stability is the highest among all Si20Li20 clusters examined here, including almost all conceivable best and worst bonding and stability cases. This is highly suggestive that this highly symmetric "icosahedral" cage should be the global, or at least a very low-lying local minimum of the energy hyper-surface. It is therefore illustrated that the "rule of thumb" for building stable SinLin structures homologous to the corresponding aromatic CnHn molecules suggested earlier by Zdetsis [J. Chem. Phys. 127, 214306 (2007)], is also valid for "Fulleranes" and cages, including also the geometry and symmetry of the ideal structure(s). Preliminary results on Si60Li60 cages confirm this assertion.

  20. Folding Dynamics and Pathways of the Trp-Cage Miniproteins

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Using alternate measures of fold stability for a wide variety of Trp-cage mutants has raised the possibility that prior dynamics T-jump measures may not be reporting on complete cage formation for some species. NMR relaxation studies using probes that only achieve large chemical shift difference from unfolded values on complete cage formation indicate slower folding in some but not all cases. Fourteen species have been examined, with cage formation time constants (1/kF) ranging from 0.9–7.5 μs at 300 K. The present study does not change the status of the Trp-cage as a fast folding, essentially two-state system, although it does alter the stage at which this description applies. A diversity of prestructuring events, depending on the specific analogue examined, may appear in the folding scenario, but in all cases, formation of the N-terminal helix is complete either at or before the cage-formation transition state. In contrast, the fold-stabilizing H-bonding interactions of the buried Ser14 side chain and the Arg/Asp salt bridge are post-transition state features on the folding pathway. The study has also found instances in which a [P12W] mutation is fold destabilizing but still serves to accelerate the folding process. PMID:25184759

  1. Rat Breeding Parameters According to Floor Space Available in Cage.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kenneth P; Dwinell, Melinda R; Zappa, Allison M; Michaels, Andrea M; Murray, Kathleen M; Thulin, Joseph D

    2016-01-01

    The cage floor space recommended for a female rat with a litter is greater in the 8th edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals than in previous editions. As a result, research institutions using commonly available cages to house rats may not offer the recommended amount of space for a breeding pair and litter housed in the same cage. We evaluated breeding parameters in rats housed in cages with 143 in(2) (922.6 cm(2)) compared with 210 in(2) (1355 cm(2)) of floor space. Given the strains of rats typically used at our institution, a monogamous breeding pair and litter requires 164 in(2) (1058.1 cm(2)) of floor space according to the Guide. Pairs of breeding animals were housed in each type of cage; and average time between litters, number of litters born, percentage of litter weaned, numbers of pups born and weaned, and average weaning weights were evaluated. None of the breeding parameters evaluated differed according to the floor space of the cage in which the rats were housed.

  2. Caged Protein Prenyltransferase Substrates: Tools for Understanding Protein Prenylation

    SciTech Connect

    DeGraw, Amanda J.; Hast, Michael A.; Xu, Juhua; Mullen, Daniel; Beese, Lorena S.; Barany, George; Distefano, Mark D.

    2010-11-15

    Originally designed to block the prenylation of oncogenic Ras, inhibitors of protein farnesyltransferase currently in preclinical and clinical trials are showing efficacy in cancers with normal Ras. Blocking protein prenylation has also shown promise in the treatment of malaria, Chagas disease and progeria syndrome. A better understanding of the mechanism, targets and in vivo consequences of protein prenylation are needed to elucidate the mode of action of current PFTase (Protein Farnesyltransferase) inhibitors and to create more potent and selective compounds. Caged enzyme substrates are useful tools for understanding enzyme mechanism and biological function. Reported here is the synthesis and characterization of caged substrates of PFTase. The caged isoprenoid diphosphates are poor substrates prior to photolysis. The caged CAAX peptide is a true catalytically caged substrate of PFTase in that it is to not a substrate, yet is able to bind to the enzyme as established by inhibition studies and X-ray crystallography. Irradiation of the caged molecules with 350 nm light readily releases their cognate substrate and their photolysis products are benign. These properties highlight the utility of those analogs towards a variety of in vitro and in vivo applications.

  3. Homogenized boundary conditions and resonance effects in Faraday cages

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, I. J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a mathematical study of two-dimensional electrostatic and electromagnetic shielding by a cage of conducting wires (the so-called ‘Faraday cage effect’). Taking the limit as the number of wires in the cage tends to infinity, we use the asymptotic method of multiple scales to derive continuum models for the shielding, involving homogenized boundary conditions on an effective cage boundary. We show how the resulting models depend on key cage parameters such as the size and shape of the wires, and, in the electromagnetic case, on the frequency and polarization of the incident field. In the electromagnetic case, there are resonance effects, whereby at frequencies close to the natural frequencies of the equivalent solid shell, the presence of the cage actually amplifies the incident field, rather than shielding it. By appropriately modifying the continuum model, we calculate the modified resonant frequencies, and their associated peak amplitudes. We discuss applications to radiation containment in microwave ovens and acoustic scattering by perforated shells. PMID:27279775

  4. Rat Breeding Parameters According to Floor Space Available in Cage

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Kenneth P; Dwinell, Melinda R; Zappa, Allison M; Michaels, Andrea M; Murray, Kathleen M; Thulin, Joseph D

    2016-01-01

    The cage floor space recommended for a female rat with a litter is greater in the 8th edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals than in previous editions. As a result, research institutions using commonly available cages to house rats may not offer the recommended amount of space for a breeding pair and litter housed in the same cage. We evaluated breeding parameters in rats housed in cages with 143 in2 (922.6 cm2) compared with 210 in2 (1355 cm2) of floor space. Given the strains of rats typically used at our institution, a monogamous breeding pair and litter requires 164 in2 (1058.1 cm2) of floor space according to the Guide. Pairs of breeding animals were housed in each type of cage; and average time between litters, number of litters born, percentage of litter weaned, numbers of pups born and weaned, and average weaning weights were evaluated. None of the breeding parameters evaluated differed according to the floor space of the cage in which the rats were housed. PMID:26817975

  5. Electrostatic assembly of binary nanoparticle superlattices using protein cages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostiainen, Mauri A.; Hiekkataipale, Panu; Laiho, Ari; Lemieux, Vincent; Seitsonen, Jani; Ruokolainen, Janne; Ceci, Pierpaolo

    2013-01-01

    Binary nanoparticle superlattices are periodic nanostructures with lattice constants much shorter than the wavelength of light and could be used to prepare multifunctional metamaterials. Such superlattices are typically made from synthetic nanoparticles, and although biohybrid structures have been developed, incorporating biological building blocks into binary nanoparticle superlattices remains challenging. Protein-based nanocages provide a complex yet monodisperse and geometrically well-defined hollow cage that can be used to encapsulate different materials. Such protein cages have been used to program the self-assembly of encapsulated materials to form free-standing crystals and superlattices at interfaces or in solution. Here, we show that electrostatically patchy protein cages--cowpea chlorotic mottle virus and ferritin cages--can be used to direct the self-assembly of three-dimensional binary superlattices. The negatively charged cages can encapsulate RNA or superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, and the superlattices are formed through tunable electrostatic interactions with positively charged gold nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles and viruses form an AB8fcc crystal structure that is not isostructural with any known atomic or molecular crystal structure and has previously been observed only with large colloidal polymer particles. Gold nanoparticles and empty or nanoparticle-loaded ferritin cages form an interpenetrating simple cubic AB structure (isostructural with CsCl). We also show that these magnetic assemblies provide contrast enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging.

  6. Evaluation of individually ventilated cage systems for laboratory rodents: cage environment and animal health aspects.

    PubMed

    Höglund, A U; Renström, A

    2001-01-01

    The use of individually ventilated cage (IVC) systems has become an attractive housing regime of laboratory rodents. The benefits of IVC systems are, reportedly, a high degree of containment combined with relative ease of handling, and a high degree of protection from allergenes. In the present study we tested whether two IVC systems (BioZone VentiRack, IVC1 and Techniplast SealSafe, IVC2S), in which we held mature male NMRI mice, were constructed to maintain a constant differential pressure, positive or negative, during a prolonged period of time. We also measured ammonia (NH3) concentrations after about 2 weeks of use, and CO2 build-up during a 60 min simulated power failure situation. In addition, animal weight development and bite-wound frequency were recorded (Renström et al. 2000). From the present study it is concluded that the IVC1 air handling system provides a more uniform and balanced differential pressure than the IVC2S. Both systems effectively scavenge NH3 when bedding material is not soaked by urine. Although the IVCs are dependent on the continual function of the fans to work properly, it seems unlikely that CO2 concentrations increase to hazardous levels, as a result of a one hour power failure, with the type of cages used in this study. Differences in weight development and bite-wound occurrence were noted between the two IVC systems. Causes for these differences could not be established and need more investigation. PMID:11201288

  7. Automated home cage observations as a tool to measure the effects of wheel running on cage floor locomotion.

    PubMed

    de Visser, Leonie; van den Bos, Ruud; Spruijt, Berry M

    2005-05-28

    This paper introduces automated observations in a modular home cage system as a tool to measure the effects of wheel running on the time distribution and daily organization of cage floor locomotor activity in female C57BL/6 mice. Mice (n = 16) were placed in the home cage system for 6 consecutive days. Fifty percent of the subjects had free access to a running wheel that was integrated in the home cage. Overall activity levels in terms of duration of movement were increased by wheel running, while time spent inside a sheltering box was decreased. Wheel running affected the hourly pattern of movement during the animals' active period of the day. Mice without a running wheel, in contrast to mice with a running wheel, showed a clear differentiation between novelty-induced and baseline levels of locomotion as reflected by a decrease after the first day of introduction to the home cage. The results are discussed in the light of the use of running wheels as a tool to measure general activity and as an object for environmental enrichment. Furthermore, the possibilities of using automated home cage observations for e.g. behavioural phenotyping are discussed.

  8. 14C-age tracers in global ocean circulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeve, W.; Wagner, H.; Kähler, P.; Oschlies, A.

    2015-07-01

    The natural abundance of 14C in total CO2 dissolved in seawater (DIC) is a property applied to evaluate the water age structure and circulation in the ocean and in ocean models. In this study we use three different representations of the global ocean circulation augmented with a suite of idealised tracers to study the potential and limitations of using natural 14C to determine water age, which is the time elapsed since a body of water has been in contact with the atmosphere. We find that, globally, bulk 14C-age is dominated by two equally important components, one associated with ageing, i.e. the time component of circulation, and one associated with a "preformed 14C-age". The latter quantity exists because of the slow and incomplete atmosphere-ocean equilibration of 14C particularly in high latitudes where many water masses form. In the ocean's interior, preformed 14C-age behaves like a passive tracer. The relative contribution of the preformed component to bulk 14C-age varies regionally within a given model, but also between models. Regional variability in the Atlantic Ocean is associated with the mixing of waters with very different end members of preformed 14C-age. Here, variations in the preformed component over space and time mask the circulation component to an extent that its patterns are not detectable from bulk 14C-age. Between models, the variability of preformed 14C-age can also be considerable (factor of 2), related to the combination of physical model parameters, which influence circulation dynamics or gas exchange. The preformed component was found to be very sensitive to gas exchange and moderately sensitive to ice cover. In our model evaluation, the choice of the gas-exchange constant from within the currently accepted range of uncertainty had such a strong influence on preformed and bulk 14C-age that if model evaluation would be based on bulk 14C-age, it could easily impair the evaluation and tuning of a model's circulation on global and regional

  9. Expanded criteria donors.

    PubMed

    Feng, Sandy; Lai, Jennifer C

    2014-08-01

    The greatest challenge facing liver transplantation today is the shortage of donor livers. Demand far exceeds supply, and this deficit has driven expansion of what is considered an acceptable organ. The evolving standard has not come without costs, however, as each new frontier of expanded donor quality (i.e., advancing donor age, donation after cardiac death, and split liver) may have traded wait-list for post-transplant morbidity and mortality. This article delineates the nature and severity of risk associated with specific deceased donor liver characteristics and recommends strategies to maximally mitigate these risks. PMID:25017080

  10. The Light Cage Limit to Interstellar Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInnes, C. R.

    It has long been argued that an advanced space-faring civilisation must be gradualists who evolve and migrate within the limits imposed by resources and whose culture avoids conflict and exploitation. However, it is argued here that a relatively young civilisation which develops a set of technologies which enable it to engage in economic interstellar travel is unlikely to constrain its activities in this way and will experience rapid economic expansion and growth. In such a scenario the speed of light imposes a fundamental limit to the distance over which the civilisation can expand, providing a possible mechanism whereby interstellar expansion is self-limiting and possibly self-terminating.

  11. Metabolic Cages for a Space Flight Model in the Rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Jennifer S.; Mulenburg, Gerald M.; Evans, Juli; Navidi, Meena; Wolinsky, Ira; Arnaud, Sara B.

    1994-01-01

    A variety of space flight models are available to mimic the physiologic changes seen in the rat during weightlessness. The model reported by Wronski and Morey-Holton has been widely used by many investigators, in musculoskeletal physiologic studies especially, resulting in accumulation of an extensive database that enables scientists to mimic space flight effects in the 1-g environment of Earth. However, information on nutrition or gastrointestinal and renal function in this space flight model is limited by the difficulty in acquiring uncontaminated metabolic specimens for analysis. In the Holton system, a traction tape harness is applied to the tail, and the rat's hindquarters are elevated by attaching the harness to a pulley system. Weight-bearing hind limbs are unloaded, and there is a headward fluid shift. The tail-suspended rats are able to move freely about their cages on their forelimbs and tolerate this procedure with minimal signs of stress. The cage used in Holton's model is basically a clear acrylic box set on a plastic grid floor with the pulley and tail harness system attached to the open top of the cage. Food is available from a square food cup recessed into a corner of the floor. In this system, urine, feces, and spilled food fall through the grid floor onto absorbent paper beneath the cage and cannot be separated and recovered quantitatively for analysis in metabolic balance studies. Commercially available metabolic cages are generally cylindrical and have been used with a centrally located suspension apparatus in other space flight models. The large living area, three times as large as most metabolic cages, and the free range of motion unique to Holton's model, essential for musculoskeletal investigations, were sacrificed. Holton's cages can accommodate animals ranging in weight from 70 to 600 g. Although an alternative construction of Holton's cage has been reported, it does not permit collection of separate urine and fecal samples. We describe

  12. Endohedral metal atoms in pristine and functionalized fullerene cages.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Michio; Akasaka, Takeshi; Nagase, Shigeru

    2010-01-19

    Fullerene, an allotropic form of carbon made up of spherical molecules formed from pentagonal and hexagonal rings, was first discovered in 1985. Because fullerenes have spacious inner cavities, atoms and clusters can be encapsulated inside the fullerene cages to form endohedral fullerenes. In particular, the unique structural and electronic properties of endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs), where metal atoms are encapsulated within the fullerene, have attracted wide interest from physicists and chemists as well as materials scientists and biologists. The remarkable characteristics of these molecules originate in the electron transfer from the encapsulated metal atoms to the carbon cage. The positions and movements of the encapsulated metal atoms are important determinants of the chemical and physical properties of EMFs. In this Account, we specifically describe the positions and dynamic behavior of the metal atoms encapsulated in pristine and functionalized fullerene cages. First, we examined whether the metal atoms are attached rigidly to cage carbons or move around. Our systematic investigations of EMFs, including M@C(2v)-C(82), M(2)@D(2)(10611)-C(72), M(2)@D(3h)(5)-C(78), M(2)@I(h)-C(80), and M(2)@D(5h)-C(80), revealed that the metal positions and movements vary widely with different cage structures and numbers of metal atoms. Second, we wanted to understand whether we could control the positions and movements of the untouchable metal atoms in EMFs. One possible way to modulate this behavior was through attachment of a molecule to the outer surface of the cage. We developed synthetic methods to modify EMFs and have examined the metal positions and movements in the functionalized carbon cages. Remarkably, we could alter the dynamic behavior of the encaged metal atoms in M(2)@I(h)-C(80) drastically through chemical modification of the outer cage. We anticipate that the control of metal atom structures and dynamics within a cage could be valuable for designing

  13. Instrumented posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with interbody fusion device (Cage) in degenerative disc disease (DDD): 3 years outcome.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, M K; Hossain, M A; Sakeb, N; Khan, S I; Zaman, N

    2013-10-01

    This prospective interventional study carried out at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University and a private hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh during the period from October 2003 to September 2011. Surgical treatment of degenerative disc disease (DDD) should aim to re-expand the interbody space and stabilize until fusion is complete. The present study conducted to find out the efficacy of using interbody fusion device (Cage) to achieve interbody space re-expansion and fusion in surgical management of DDD. We have performed the interventional study on 53 patients, 42 female and 11 male, with age between 40 to 67 years. All the patients were followed up for 36 to 60 months (average 48 months). Forty seven patients were with spondylolisthesis and 06 with desiccated disc. All subjects were evaluated with regard to immediate and long term complications, radiological fusion and interbody space re-expansion and maintenance. The clinical outcome (pain and disability) was scored by standard pre and postoperative questionnaires. Intrusion, extrusion and migration of the interbody fusion cage were also assessed. Forty seven patients were considered to have satisfactory outcome in at least 36 months follow up. Pseudoarthrosis developed in 04 cases and 06 patients developed complications. In this series posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with interbody cage and instrumentation in DDD showed significant fusion rate and maintenance of interbody space. Satisfactory outcome observed in 88.68% cases.

  14. Role of Cages in Revision Arthroplasty of the Acetabulum.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Tatu J; Kuzyk, Paul; Safir, Oleg A; Backstein, David; Gross, Allan E

    2016-02-01

    ➤ The outcome of acetabular revision is heavily influenced by the degree of associated bone loss.➤ Uncemented hemispherical acetabular components can be used in the majority of acetabular revisions, although occasionally the degree of bone loss precludes the stability of the hemispherical component at the correct anatomic level or there is minimal bleeding host bone left for biologic fixation.➤ Massive acetabular bone loss resulting in the need for bone grafts or highly porous augments involving more than half of the acetabulum is one of the main indications for the use of cages.➤ The cup-cage reconstruction is based on bone-grafting the deficient acetabulum and securing a hemispherical, highly porous metal component with multiple screws to bridge the discontinuity and off-loading the hemispherical component with a titanium cage spanning from ischium to ilium.➤ In addition to managing pelvic discontinuities, the cup-cage construct can also be used in hips without discontinuity as the hemispherical, highly porous metal component is used to restore bone stock.➤ In situations in which there is not enough bleeding host bone to secure a hemispherical component, a highly porous metal augment can be used to address the osseous deficiency. The augment is also protected with a cage to assist bone ingrowth. PMID:26842414

  15. A metabolic cage for the hindlimb suspended rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J.; Mulenburg, G. M.; Harper, J. S.; Skundberg, T. L.; Navidi, M.; Arnaud, S. B.

    1994-01-01

    Hindlimb suspension has been successfully used to simulate the effects of microgravity in rats. The cage and suspension system developed by E. R. Holton is designed to produce a headward shift of fluid and unload the hindlimbs in rodents, causing changes in bone and muscle similar to those in animals and humans exposed to spaceflight. While the Holton suspension system simulates many of the conditions observed in the spaceflight animal, it does not provide for the collection of urine and feces needed to monitor some metabolic activities. As a result, only limited information has been gathered on the nutritional status, and the gastrointestinal and renal function of animals using that model. Although commercial metabolic cages are available, they are usually cylindrical and require a centrally located suspension system and thus, do not readily permit movement of the rats. The limited floor space of commercial cages may affect comparisons with studies using the Holton model which has more than twice the living space of most commercially available cages. To take advantage of the extra living space and extensive data base that has been developed with the Holton model, Holton's cage was modified to make urine and fecal collections possible.

  16. Expandable pattern casting research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-09-01

    The Expandable Pattern Casting (EPC) Process is a developing foundry technology that allows designers the opportunity to consolidate parts, reduce machining, and minimize assembly operations. An air gauging system was developed for measuring foam patterns; exact shrinkage depended on type and density of the foam. Compaction studies showed that maximum sand densities in cavities and under overhangs are achieved with vibrational amplitudes 0.001-0.004 in., and that sand moved most freely within a few inches of the top free surface. Key to complete mold filling while minimizing casting defects lies in removing the foam decomposition products. The most precise iron castings were made by EPC in four commercial EPC foundries, with attention paid to molding and compaction. EP cast 60-45-12 ductile iron had yield strengths, ultimate strengths, and elastic modulus similar to conventionally cast ductile iron cast from the same ladle.

  17. Expanding hollow metal rings

    DOEpatents

    Peacock, Harold B.; Imrich, Kenneth J.

    2009-03-17

    A sealing device that may expand more planar dimensions due to internal thermal expansion of a filler material. The sealing material is of a composition such that when desired environment temperatures and internal actuating pressures are reached, the sealing materials undergoes a permanent deformation. For metallic compounds, this permanent deformation occurs when the material enters the plastic deformation phase. Polymers, and other materials, may be using a sealing mechanism depending on the temperatures and corrosivity of the use. Internal pressures are generated by either rapid thermal expansion or material phase change and may include either liquid or solid to gas phase change, or in the gaseous state with significant pressure generation in accordance with the gas laws. Sealing material thickness and material composition may be used to selectively control geometric expansion of the seal such that expansion is limited to a specific facing and or geometric plane.

  18. Mechanically expandable annular seal

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Richard F.

    1983-01-01

    A mechanically expandable annular reusable seal assembly to form an annular hermetic barrier between two stationary, parallel, and planar containment surfaces. A rotatable ring, attached to the first surface, has ring wedges resembling the saw-tooth array of a hole saw. Matching seal wedges are slidably attached to the ring wedges and have their motion restricted to be perpendicular to the second surface. Each seal wedge has a face parallel to the second surface. An annular elastomer seal has a central annular region attached to the seal wedges' parallel faces and has its inner and outer circumferences attached to the first surface. A rotation of the ring extends the elastomer seal's central region perpendicularly towards the second surface to create the fluidtight barrier. A counterrotation removes the barrier.

  19. Mechanically expandable annular seal

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, R.F.

    1983-07-19

    A mechanically expandable annular reusable seal assembly to form an annular hermetic barrier between two stationary, parallel, and planar containment surfaces is described. A rotatable ring, attached to the first surface, has ring wedges resembling the saw-tooth array of a hole saw. Matching seal wedges are slidably attached to the ring wedges and have their motion restricted to be perpendicular to the second surface. Each seal wedge has a face parallel to the second surface. An annular elastomer seal has a central annular region attached to the seal wedges' parallel faces and has its inner and outer circumferences attached to the first surface. A rotation of the ring extends the elastomer seal's central region perpendicularly towards the second surface to create the fluid tight barrier. A counter rotation removes the barrier. 6 figs.

  20. Interspinous Process Decompression: Expanding Treatment Options for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Nunley, Pierce D.; Shamie, A. Nick; Blumenthal, Scott L.; Orndorff, Douglas; Geisler, Fred H.

    2016-01-01

    Interspinous process decompression is a minimally invasive implantation procedure employing a stand-alone interspinous spacer that functions as an extension blocker to prevent compression of neural elements without direct surgical removal of tissue adjacent to the nerves. The Superion® spacer is the only FDA approved stand-alone device available in the US. It is also the only spacer approved by the CMS to be implanted in an ambulatory surgery center. We computed the within-group effect sizes from the Superion IDE trial and compared them to results extrapolated from two randomized trials of decompressive laminectomy. For the ODI, effect sizes were all very large (>1.0) for Superion and laminectomy at 2, 3, and 4 years. For ZCQ, the 2-year Superion symptom severity (1.26) and physical function (1.29) domains were very large; laminectomy effect sizes were very large (1.07) for symptom severity and large for physical function (0.80). Current projections indicate a marked increase in the number of patients with spinal stenosis. Consequently, there remains a keen interest in minimally invasive treatment options that delay or obviate the need for invasive surgical procedures, such as decompressive laminectomy or fusion. Stand-alone interspinous spacers may fill a currently unmet treatment gap in the continuum of care and help to reduce the burden of this chronic degenerative condition on the health care system.

  1. Anterior cervical corpectomy: review and comparison of results using titanium mesh cages and carbon fibre reinforced polymer cages.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Syed M R; Alabi, J; Rezajooi, Kia; Casey, Adrian T H

    2010-10-01

    Different types of cages have recently become available for reconstruction following anterior cervical corpectomy. We review the results using titanium mesh cages (TMC) and stackable CFRP (carbon fibre reinforced polymer) cages. Forty-two patients who underwent anterior cervical corpectomy between November 2001 and September 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. Pathologies included cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), cervical radiculopathy, OPLL (ossified posterior longitudinal ligament), metastasis/primary bone tumour, rheumatoid arthritis and deformity correction. All patients were evaluated clinically and radiologically. Outcome was assessed on the basis of the Odom's criteria, neck disability index (NDI) and myelopathy disability index (MDI). Mean age was 60 years and mean follow-up was 1½ years. Majority of the patients had single-level corpectomy. Twenty-three patients had TMC cages while 19 patients had CFRP cages. The mean subsidence noted with TMC cage was 1.91 mm, while with the stackable CFRP cage it was 0.5 mm. This difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). However, there was no statistically significant correlation noted between subsidence and clinical outcome (p > 0.05) or between subsidence and post-operative sagittal alignment (p > 0.05) in either of the groups. Three patients had significant subsidence (> 3 mm), one of whom was symptomatic. There were no hardware-related complications. On the basis of the Odom's criterion, 9 patients (21.4%) had an excellent outcome, 14 patients (33.3%) had a good outcome, 9 patients (21.4%) had a fair outcome and 5 patients (11.9%) had a poor outcome, i.e. symptoms and signs unchanged or exacerbated. Mean post-operative NDI was 26.27% and mean post-operative MDI was 19.31%. Fusion was noted in all 42 cases. Both TMC and stackable CFRP cages provide solid anterior column reconstruction with good outcome following anterior cervical corpectomy. However, more subsidence is noted with TMC cages though

  2. Hollow Li20B60 Cage: Stability and Hydrogen Storage

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Wei, Zhi-Jing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    A stable hollow Li20B60 cage with D2 symmetry has been identified using first-principles density functional theory studies. The results of vibrational frequency analysis and molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that this Li20B60 cage is exceptionally stable. The feasibility of functionalizing Li20B60 cage for hydrogen storage was explored theoretically. Our calculated results show that the Li20B60 molecule can adsorb a maximum of 28 hydrogen molecules. With a hydrogen uptake of 8.190 wt% and an average binding energy of 0.336 eV/H2, Li20B60 is a remarkable high-capacity storage medium. PMID:27076264

  3. Hollow Li20B60 Cage: Stability and Hydrogen Storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Wei, Zhi-Jing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Liu, Ying

    2016-04-14

    A stable hollow Li20B60 cage with D2 symmetry has been identified using first-principles density functional theory studies. The results of vibrational frequency analysis and molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that this Li20B60 cage is exceptionally stable. The feasibility of functionalizing Li20B60 cage for hydrogen storage was explored theoretically. Our calculated results show that the Li20B60 molecule can adsorb a maximum of 28 hydrogen molecules. With a hydrogen uptake of 8.190 wt% and an average binding energy of 0.336 eV/H2, Li20B60 is a remarkable high-capacity storage medium.

  4. Cage the firefly luciferin! - a strategy for developing bioluminescent probes.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Chen, Laizhong; Du, Lupei; Li, Minyong

    2013-01-21

    Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) has been widely applicable in the imaging of process envisioned in life sciences. As the most conventional technique for BLI, the firefly luciferin-luciferase system is exceptionally functional in vitro and in vivo. The state-of-the-art strategy in such a system is to cage the luciferin, in which free luciferin is conjugated with distinctive functional groups, thus accommodating an impressive toolkit for exploring various biological processes, such as monitoring enzymes activity, detecting bioactive small molecules, evaluating the properties of molecular transporters, etc. This review article summarizes the rational design of caged luciferins towards diverse biotargets, as well as their applications in bioluminescent imaging. It should be emphasized that these caged luciferins can stretch out the applications of bioluminescence imaging and shed light upon understanding the pathogenesis of various diseases.

  5. A new approach to evaluate multimodal orientation behaviour of migratory passerine birds recorded in circular orientation cages.

    PubMed

    Ozarowska, Agnieszka; Ilieva, Mihaela; Zehtindjiev, Pavel; Akesson, Susanne; Muś, Krzysztof

    2013-11-01

    Circular orientation cages have been used for several decades to record the migratory orientation of passerine migrants, and have been central to the investigation of the functional characteristics of the biological compasses used for orientation. The use of these cages offers unique possibilities to study the migratory behaviour of songbirds, but suffers from statistical limitations in evaluating the directions of the activity recorded in the cages. The migratory activity has been reported to vary, including complex multimodal orientation of migratory passerines tested in orientation cages irrespective of species studied. The currently applied circular statistical methods fail to describe orientation responses differing from unimodal and axial distributions. We propose for the first time a modelling procedure enabling the analysis of multimodal distributions at either an individual or a group level. In this paper we compare the results of conventional methods and the recommended modelling approach. Migratory routes may be more complex than a simple migratory direction, and multimodal behaviour in migratory species at the individual and population levels can be advantageous. Individuals may select the expected migratory direction, but may also return to safer sites en route, i.e. sites already known, which provide food and/or shelter in reverse directions. In individual birds, several directions may be expressed in the same test hour. At the species level, multimodal orientation may give an opportunity to expand the range or may refer to differential migration route preferences in different populations of birds. A conflicting experimental situation may also result in a different preferential orientation. In this paper we suggest a statistical solution to deal with these types of variations in orientation preference.

  6. Caged compounds for multichromic optical interrogation of neural systems.

    PubMed

    Amatrudo, Joseph M; Olson, Jeremy P; Agarwal, Hitesh K; Ellis-Davies, Graham C R

    2015-01-01

    Caged compounds are widely used by neurophysiologists to study many aspects of cellular signaling in glia and neurons. Biologically inert before irradiation, they can be loaded into cells via patch pipette or topically applied in situ to a defined concentration; photolysis releases the caged compound in a very rapid and spatially defined way. As caged compounds are exogenous optical probes, they include not only natural products such neurotransmitters, calcium and IP3 but non-natural products such as fluorophores, drugs and antibodies. In this Technical Spotlight we provide a short introduction to the uncaging technique by discussing the nitroaromatic caging chromophores most widely used in such experiments [e.g. α-carboxy-ortho-nitrobenyl (CNB), dimethoxynitrobenzyl (DMNB), 4-methoxy-7-nitroindolinyl (MNI) and 4-carboxymethoxy-7-nitroindolinyl (CDNI)]. We show that recently developed caging chromophores [rutheniumbipyridial (RuBi) and 7-diethylaminocoumarin (DEAC)450] that are photolyzed with blue light (~ 430-480 nm range) can be combined with traditional nitroaromatic caged compounds to enable two-color optical probing of neuronal function. For example, one-photon uncaging of either RuBi-GABA or DEAC450-GABA with a 473-nm laser is facile, and can block nonlinear currents (dendritic spikes or action potentials) evoked by two-photon uncaging of CDNI-Glu at 720 nm. We also show that two-photon uncaging of DEAC450-Glu and CDNI-GABA at 900 and 720 nm, respectively, can be used to fire and block action potentials. Our experiments illustrate that recently developed chromophores have taken uncaging out of the 'monochrome era', in which it has existed since 1978, so as to enable multichromic interrogation of neuronal function with single-synapse precision.

  7. Caged compounds for multichromic optical interrogation of neural systems

    PubMed Central

    Amatrudo, Joseph M.; Olson, Jeremy P.; Agarwal, Hitesh K.; Ellis-Davies, Graham C.R.

    2014-01-01

    Caged compounds have widely used by neurophysiologists to study many aspects of cellular signaling in glia and neurons. Biologically inert before irradiation, they can be loaded into cells via patch pipette or topically applied in situ to a defined concentration, photolysis releases the caged compound in a very rapid and spatially defined way. Since caged compounds are exogenous optical probes, they include not only natural products such neurotransmitters, calcium and IP3, but non-natural products such as fluorophores, drugs and antibodies. In this Technical Spotlight we provide a short introduction to the uncaging technique by discussing the nitroaromatic caging chromophores most widely used in such experiments (e.g. CNB1, DMNB, MNI and CDNI). We show that recently developed caging chromophores (RuBi and DEAC450) that are photolyzed with blue light (ca. 430–480 nm range) can be combined with traditional nitroaromatic caged compounds to enable two-color optical probing of neuronal function. For example, one-photon uncaging of either RuBi-GABA or DEAC450-GABA with a 473-nm laser is facile, and can block non-linear currents (dendritic spikes or action potentials) evoked by two-photon uncaging of CDNI-Glu at 720 nm. We also show that two-photon uncaging of DEAC450-Glu and CDNI-GABA at 900 and 720 nm, respectively, can be used to fire and block action potentials. Our experiments illustrate that recently developed chromophores have taken uncaging out of the “monochrome era”, in which it has existed since 1978, so as to enable multichromic interrogation of neuronal function with single synapse precision. PMID:25471355

  8. Laboratory animal welfare: cage enrichment and mouse behaviour.

    PubMed

    Wolfer, David P; Litvin, Oxana; Morf, Samuel; Nitsch, Roger M; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Würbel, Hanno

    2004-12-16

    Mice housed in standard cages show impaired brain development, abnormal repetitive behaviours (stereotypies) and an anxious behavioural profile, all of which can be lessened by making the cage environment more stimulating. But concerns have been raised that enriched housing might disrupt standardization and so affect the precision and reproducibility of behavioural-test results (for example, see ref. 4). Here we show that environmental enrichment increases neither individual variability in behavioural tests nor the risk of obtaining conflicting data in replicate studies. Our findings indicate that the housing conditions of laboratory mice can be markedly improved without affecting the standardization of results. PMID:15602544

  9. Study for elevator cage position during the braking period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungureanu, M.; Crăciun, I.; Bănică, M.; Dăscălescu, A.

    2016-08-01

    An important problem in order to study an elevator cage position for its braking period is to establish a correlation between the studies in the fields of mechanics and electric. The classical approaches to establish the elevator kinematic parameters are position, velocity and acceleration, but the last studies performed in order to determine the positioning performed by introducing supplementary another parameter - the jerk- which is derived with respect to time of acceleration. Thus we get a precise method for cage motion control for third-order trajectory planning.

  10. Caged DNA does not aggregate in high ionic strength solutions.

    PubMed

    Trubetskoy, V S; Loomis, A; Slattum, P M; Hagstrom, J E; Budker, V G; Wolff, J A

    1999-01-01

    The assembly of DNA into compact particles that do not aggregate in physiologic salt solution occurs naturally in chromatin and viral particles but has been challenging to duplicate using artificial constructs. Cross-linking amino-containing polycations in the presence of DNA with bisimidoester cross-linker leads to the formation of caged DNA particles that are stable in salt solutions. This first demonstration of caged DNA provides insight into how natural condensation processes avoid aggregation and a promising avenue for developing nonviral gene therapy vectors.

  11. 14C-age tracers in global ocean circulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeve, W.; Wagner, H.; Kähler, P.; Oschlies, A.

    2014-10-01

    The natural abundance of 14C in total CO2 dissolved in seawater is a property applied to evaluate the water age structure and circulation in the ocean and in ocean models. In this study we use three different representations of the global ocean circulation augmented with a suite of idealised tracers to study the potential and limitations of using natural 14C to determine water age, the time elapsed since a body of water had contact with the atmosphere. We find that, globally, bulk 14C-age is dominated by two equally important components, one associated with aging, i.e. the time component of circulation and one associated with a "preformed 14C-age". This latter quantity exists because of the slow and incomplete atmosphere/ocean equilibration of 14C in particular in high latitudes where many water masses form. The relative contribution of the preformed component to bulk 14C-age varies regionally within a given model, but also between models. Regional variability, e.g. in the Atlantic Ocean is associated with the mixing of waters with very different end members of preformed 14C-age. In the Atlantic, variations in the preformed component over space and time mask the circulation component to an extent that its patterns are not detectable from bulk 14C-age alone. Between models the variability of age can also be considerable (factor of 2), related to the combinations of physical model parameters, which influence circulation dynamics, and gas exchange in the models. The preformed component was found to be very sensitive to gas exchange and moderately sensitive to ice cover. In our model evaluation exercise, the choice of the gas exchange constant from within the current range of uncertainty had such a strong influence on preformed and bulk 14C-age that if model evaluation would be based on bulk 14C-age it could easily impair the evaluation and tuning of a models circulation on global and regional scales. Based on the results of this study, we propose that considering

  12. Carbon dioxide and oxygen levels in disposable individually ventilated cages after removal from mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Nagamine, Claude M; Long, C Tyler; McKeon, Gabriel P; Felt, Stephen A

    2012-03-01

    Disposable individually ventilated cages have lids that restrict air exchange when the cage is not mechanically ventilated. This design feature may cause intracage CO2 to increase and O2 to decrease (hypercapnic and hypoxic conditions, respectively) when the electrical supply to the ventilated rack fails, the ventilated rack malfunctions, cages are docked in the rack incorrectly, or cages are removed from the ventilated rack for extended periods of time. We investigated how quickly hypercapnic and hypoxic conditions developed within disposable individually ventilated cages after removal from mechanical ventilation and compared the data with nondisposable static cages, disposable static cages, and unventilated nondisposable individually ventilated cages. When disposable individually ventilated cages with 5 adult mice per cage were removed from mechanical ventilation, CO2 concentrations increased from less than 1% at 0 h to approximately 5% at 3 h and O2 levels dropped from more than 20% at 0 h to 11.7% at 6 h. The breathing pattern of the mice showed a prominent abdominal component (hyperventilation). Changes were similar for 4 adult mice per cage, reaching at least 5% CO2 at 4 h and 13.0% O2 at 6 h. For 3 or 2 mice per cage, values were 4.6% CO2 and 14.7% O2 and 3.04% CO2 and 17.1% O2, respectively, at 6 h. These results document that within disposable individually ventilated cages, a hypercapnic and hypoxic microenvironment develops within hours in the absence of mechanical ventilation.

  13. The Artful Universe Expanded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, John D.

    2005-07-01

    Our love of art, writes John Barrow, is the end product of millions of years of evolution. How we react to a beautiful painting or symphony draws upon instincts laid down long before humans existed. Now, in this enhanced edition of the highly popular The Artful Universe , Barrow further explores the close ties between our aesthetic appreciation and the basic nature of the Universe. Barrow argues that the laws of the Universe have imprinted themselves upon our thoughts and actions in subtle and unexpected ways. Why do we like certain types of art or music? What games and puzzles do we find challenging? Why do so many myths and legends have common elements? In this eclectic and entertaining survey, Barrow answers these questions and more as he explains how the landscape of the Universe has influenced the development of philosophy and mythology, and how millions of years of evolutionary history have fashioned our attraction to certain patterns of sound and color. Barrow casts the story of human creativity and thought in a fascinating light, considering such diverse topics as our instinct for language, the origins and uses of color in nature, why we divide time into intervals as we do, the sources of our appreciation of landscape painting, and whether computer-generated fractal art is really art. Drawing on a wide variety of examples, from the theological questions raised by St. Augustine and C.S. Lewis to the relationship between the pure math of Pythagoras and the music of the Beatles, The Artful Universe Expanded covers new ground and enters a wide-ranging debate about the meaning and significance of the links between art and science.

  14. A novel test cage with an air ventilation system as an alternative to conventional cages for the efficacy testing of mosquito repellents.

    PubMed

    Obermayr, U; Rose, A; Geier, M

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a novel test cage and improved method for the evaluation of mosquito repellents. The method is compatible with the United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2000 draft OPPTS 810.3700 Product Performance Test Guidelines for Testing of Insect Repellents. The Biogents cages (BG-cages) require fewer test mosquitoes than conventional cages and are more comfortable for the human volunteers. The novel cage allows a section of treated forearm from a volunteer to be exposed to mosquito probing through a window. This design minimizes residual contamination of cage surfaces with repellent. In addition, an air ventilation system supplies conditioned air to the cages after each single test, to flush out and prevent any accumulation of test substances. During biting activity tests, the untreated skin surface does not receive bites because of a screen placed 150 mm above the skin. Compared with the OPPTS 810.3700 method, the BG-cage is smaller (27 liters, compared with 56 liters) and contains 30 rather than hundreds of blood-hungry female mosquitoes. We compared the performance of a proprietary repellent formulation containing 20% KBR3023 with four volunteers on Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) in BG- and conventional cages. Repellent protection time was shorter in tests conducted with conventional cages. The average 95% protection time was 4.5 +/- 0.4 h in conventional cages and 7.5 +/- 0.6 h in the novel BG-cages. The protection times measured in BG-cages were more similar to the protection times determined with these repellents in field tests. PMID:21175061

  15. Three-dimensional protonic conductivity in porous organic cage solids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming; Chen, Linjiang; Lewis, Scott; Chong, Samantha Y; Little, Marc A; Hasell, Tom; Aldous, Iain M; Brown, Craig M; Smith, Martin W; Morrison, Carole A; Hardwick, Laurence J; Cooper, Andrew I

    2016-01-01

    Proton conduction is a fundamental process in biology and in devices such as proton exchange membrane fuel cells. To maximize proton conduction, three-dimensional conduction pathways are preferred over one-dimensional pathways, which prevent conduction in two dimensions. Many crystalline porous solids to date show one-dimensional proton conduction. Here we report porous molecular cages with proton conductivities (up to 10(-3) S cm(-1) at high relative humidity) that compete with extended metal-organic frameworks. The structure of the organic cage imposes a conduction pathway that is necessarily three-dimensional. The cage molecules also promote proton transfer by confining the water molecules while being sufficiently flexible to allow hydrogen bond reorganization. The proton conduction is explained at the molecular level through a combination of proton conductivity measurements, crystallography, molecular simulations and quasi-elastic neutron scattering. These results provide a starting point for high-temperature, anhydrous proton conductors through inclusion of guests other than water in the cage pores. PMID:27619230

  16. 3. SHOP AREA. Looking west into storage cage from near ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SHOP AREA. Looking west into storage cage from near northeast corner of room. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A Terminal Room, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  17. Flexible, symmetry-directed approach to assembling protein cages.

    PubMed

    Sciore, Aaron; Su, Min; Koldewey, Philipp; Eschweiler, Joseph D; Diffley, Kelsey A; Linhares, Brian M; Ruotolo, Brandon T; Bardwell, James C A; Skiniotis, Georgios; Marsh, E Neil G

    2016-08-01

    The assembly of individual protein subunits into large-scale symmetrical structures is widespread in nature and confers new biological properties. Engineered protein assemblies have potential applications in nanotechnology and medicine; however, a major challenge in engineering assemblies de novo has been to design interactions between the protein subunits so that they specifically assemble into the desired structure. Here we demonstrate a simple, generalizable approach to assemble proteins into cage-like structures that uses short de novo designed coiled-coil domains to mediate assembly. We assembled eight copies of a C3-symmetric trimeric esterase into a well-defined octahedral protein cage by appending a C4-symmetric coiled-coil domain to the protein through a short, flexible linker sequence, with the approximate length of the linker sequence determined by computational modeling. The structure of the cage was verified using a combination of analytical ultracentrifugation, native electrospray mass spectrometry, and negative stain and cryoelectron microscopy. For the protein cage to assemble correctly, it was necessary to optimize the length of the linker sequence. This observation suggests that flexibility between the two protein domains is important to allow the protein subunits sufficient freedom to assemble into the geometry specified by the combination of C4 and C3 symmetry elements. Because this approach is inherently modular and places minimal requirements on the structural features of the protein building blocks, it could be extended to assemble a wide variety of proteins into structures with different symmetries. PMID:27432965

  18. Genotoxicity monitoring of freshwater environments using caged crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus).

    PubMed

    Klobučar, Göran I V; Malev, Olga; Šrut, Maja; Štambuk, Anamaria; Lorenzon, Simonetta; Cvetković, Želimira; Ferrero, Enrico A; Maguire, Ivana

    2012-03-01

    Genotoxicity of freshwater pollution was assessed by measuring DNA damage in haemocytes of caged freshwater crayfish Astacus leptodactylus by the means of Comet assay and micronucleus test, integrated with the measurements of physiological (total protein concentration) and immunological (total haemocyte count) haemolymph parameters as biomarkers of undergone stress. Crayfish were collected at the reference site (River Mrežnica) and exposed in cages for 1 week at three polluted sites along the Sava River (Zagreb, Sisak, Krapje). The long term pollution status of these locations was confirmed by chemical analyses of sediments. Statistically significant increase in DNA damage measured by the Comet assay was observed at all three polluted sites comparing to the crayfish from reference site. In addition, native crayfish from the mildly polluted site (Krapje) cage-exposed on another polluted site (Zagreb) showed lower DNA damage than crayfish from the reference site exposed at the same location indicating adaptation and acclimatisation of crayfish to lower levels of pollution. Micronuclei induction showed similar gradient of DNA damage as Comet assay, but did not reach the statistical significance. Observed increase in total haemocyte count and total protein content in crayfish from polluted environments in the Sava River also confirmed stress caused by exposure to pollution. The results of this study have proved the applicability of caging exposure of freshwater crayfish A. leptodactylus in environmental genotoxicity monitoring using Comet assay and micronucleus test.

  19. EFFECTS OF CAGING DENSITY ON PITUITARY AND TESTICLE RELATED RESPONSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of caging density on pituitary and testicle related responses

    A significant negative correlation between the incidence of testicular interstitial cell tumors (ICT) and of pituitary tumors (PT) in control male F344 rats is reported associated with the number of ani...

  20. 48 CFR 204.7204 - Maintenance of the CAGE file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... electronic equivalent, to— DLA Logistics Information Service, DLIS-SBB, Federal Center, 74 Washington Avenue... a change-of-name agreement (see FAR subpart 42.12) must submit the agreement to DLIS-SBB. If there... CAGE code to DLIS-SBB unless the change notice indicates that DLIS-SBB already has been notified....

  1. 48 CFR 204.7204 - Maintenance of the CAGE file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... electronic equivalent, to— DLA Logistics Information Service, DLIS-SBB, Federal Center, 74 Washington Avenue... a change-of-name agreement (see FAR subpart 42.12) must submit the agreement to DLIS-SBB. If there... CAGE code to DLIS-SBB unless the change notice indicates that DLIS-SBB already has been notified....

  2. 48 CFR 204.7204 - Maintenance of the CAGE file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... electronic equivalent, to— DLA Logistics Information Service, DLIS-SBB, Federal Center, 74 Washington Avenue... a change-of-name agreement (see FAR subpart 42.12) must submit the agreement to DLIS-SBB. If there... CAGE code to DLIS-SBB unless the change notice indicates that DLIS-SBB already has been notified....

  3. 48 CFR 204.7204 - Maintenance of the CAGE file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... electronic equivalent, to— DLA Logistics Information Service, DLIS-SBB, Federal Center, 74 Washington Avenue... a change-of-name agreement (see FAR subpart 42.12) must submit the agreement to DLIS-SBB. If there... CAGE code to DLIS-SBB unless the change notice indicates that DLIS-SBB already has been notified....

  4. 48 CFR 204.7204 - Maintenance of the CAGE file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Information Service, DLIS-SBB, Federal Center, 74 Washington Avenue, North, Battle Creek, MI 49017-3084... FAR subpart 42.12) must submit the agreement to DLIS-SBB. If there are no current contracts, each... must forward a copy of the change notice annotated with the CAGE code to DLIS-SBB unless the...

  5. Pathogen Prevalence From Traditional Cage and Free Range Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Overview: A study was conducted to determine if differences in pathogen prevalence occurred between a sister flock of conventional cage and free range laying hens. Both environmental and egg microbiology was monitored throughout 20 – 79 weeks of age. Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Listeria preval...

  6. Normal and abnormal spine and thoracic cage development

    PubMed Central

    Canavese, Federico; Dimeglio, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Development of the spine and thoracic cage consists of a complex series of events involving multiple metabolic processes, genes and signaling pathways. During growth, complex phenomena occur in rapid succession. This succession of events, this establishment of elements, is programmed according to a hierarchy. These events are well synchronized to maintain harmonious limb, spine and thoracic cage relationships, as growth in the various body segments does not occur simultaneously at the same magnitude or rate. In most severe cases of untreated progressive early-onset spinal deformities, respiratory insufficiency and pulmonary and cardiac hypertension (cor pulmonale), which characterize thoracic insufficiency syndrome (TIS), can develop, sometimes leading to death. TIS is the inability of the thorax to ensure normal breathing. This clinical condition can be linked to costo-vertebral malformations (e.g., fused ribs, hemivertebrae, congenital bars), neuromuscular diseases (e.g., expiratory congenital hypotonia), Jeune or Jarcho-Levin syndromes or to 50% to 75% fusion of the thoracic spine before seven years of age. Complex spinal deformities alter normal growth plate development, and vertebral bodies become progressively distorted, perpetuating the disorder. Therefore, many scoliotic deformities can become growth plate disorders over time. This review aims to provide a comprehensive review of how spinal deformities can affect normal spine and thoracic cage growth. Previous conceptualizations are integrated with more recent scientific data to provide a better understanding of both normal and abnormal spine and thoracic cage growth. PMID:24147251

  7. Dynamics of caged ions in glassy ionic conductors.

    PubMed

    Habasaki, J; Ngai, K L; Hiwatari, Y

    2004-05-01

    At sufficiently high frequency and low temperature, the dielectric responses of glassy, crystalline, and molten ionic conductors all invariably exhibit nearly constant loss. This ubiquitous characteristic occurs in the short-time regime when the ions are still caged, indicating that it could be a determining factor of the mobility of the ions in conduction at longer times. An improved understanding of its origin should benefit the research of ion conducting materials for portable energy source as well as the resolution of the fundamental problem of the dynamics of ions. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of glassy lithium metasilicate (Li2SiO3) and find that the length scales of the caged Li+ ions motions are distributed according to a Levy distribution that has a long tail. These results suggest that the nearly constant loss originates from "dynamic anharmonicity" experienced by the moving but caged Li+ ions and provided by the surrounding matrix atoms executing correlated movements. The results pave the way for rigorous treatments of caged ion dynamics by nonlinear Hamiltonian dynamics.

  8. Structure and Organization of Coat Proteins in the COPll Cage

    SciTech Connect

    Fath,S.; Mancias, J.; Bi, X.; Goldberg, J.

    2007-01-01

    COPII-coated vesicles export newly synthesized proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum. The COPII coat consists of the Sec23/24-Sar1 complex that selects cargo and the Sec13/31 assembly unit that can polymerize into an octahedral cage and deform the membrane into a bud. Crystallographic analysis of the assembly unit reveals a 28 nm long rod comprising a central {alpha}-solenoid dimer capped by two {beta}-propeller domains at each end. We construct a molecular model of the COPII cage by fitting Sec13/31 crystal structures into a recently determined electron microscopy density map. The vertex geometry involves four copies of the Sec31 {beta}-propeller that converge through their axial ends; there is no interdigitation of assembly units of the kind seen in clathrin cages. We also propose that the assembly unit has a central hinge -- an arrangement of interlocked {alpha}-solenoids -- about which it can bend to adapt to cages of variable curvature.

  9. Three-dimensional protonic conductivity in porous organic cage solids

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming; Chen, Linjiang; Lewis, Scott; Chong, Samantha Y.; Little, Marc A.; Hasell, Tom; Aldous, Iain M.; Brown, Craig M.; Smith, Martin W.; Morrison, Carole A.; Hardwick, Laurence J.; Cooper, Andrew I.

    2016-01-01

    Proton conduction is a fundamental process in biology and in devices such as proton exchange membrane fuel cells. To maximize proton conduction, three-dimensional conduction pathways are preferred over one-dimensional pathways, which prevent conduction in two dimensions. Many crystalline porous solids to date show one-dimensional proton conduction. Here we report porous molecular cages with proton conductivities (up to 10−3 S cm−1 at high relative humidity) that compete with extended metal-organic frameworks. The structure of the organic cage imposes a conduction pathway that is necessarily three-dimensional. The cage molecules also promote proton transfer by confining the water molecules while being sufficiently flexible to allow hydrogen bond reorganization. The proton conduction is explained at the molecular level through a combination of proton conductivity measurements, crystallography, molecular simulations and quasi-elastic neutron scattering. These results provide a starting point for high-temperature, anhydrous proton conductors through inclusion of guests other than water in the cage pores. PMID:27619230

  10. Three-dimensional protonic conductivity in porous organic cage solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Chen, Linjiang; Lewis, Scott; Chong, Samantha Y.; Little, Marc A.; Hasell, Tom; Aldous, Iain M.; Brown, Craig M.; Smith, Martin W.; Morrison, Carole A.; Hardwick, Laurence J.; Cooper, Andrew I.

    2016-09-01

    Proton conduction is a fundamental process in biology and in devices such as proton exchange membrane fuel cells. To maximize proton conduction, three-dimensional conduction pathways are preferred over one-dimensional pathways, which prevent conduction in two dimensions. Many crystalline porous solids to date show one-dimensional proton conduction. Here we report porous molecular cages with proton conductivities (up to 10-3 S cm-1 at high relative humidity) that compete with extended metal-organic frameworks. The structure of the organic cage imposes a conduction pathway that is necessarily three-dimensional. The cage molecules also promote proton transfer by confining the water molecules while being sufficiently flexible to allow hydrogen bond reorganization. The proton conduction is explained at the molecular level through a combination of proton conductivity measurements, crystallography, molecular simulations and quasi-elastic neutron scattering. These results provide a starting point for high-temperature, anhydrous proton conductors through inclusion of guests other than water in the cage pores.

  11. Porous Triphenylbenzene-Based Bicyclooxacalixarene Cage for Selective Adsorption of CO2/N2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Luo, Yi; Zhai, Tian-Long; Ma, Hui; Chen, Jing-Jing; Shu, Yuanjie; Zhang, Chun

    2016-09-16

    A bicyclooxacalixarene cage with triangular prism structure was synthesized by a one-pot SNAr reaction. The structure of the oxacalixarene cage 1 was characterized by NMR, MS spectra, and X-ray crystal structure analyses. In the solid state, the molecular cage was assembled into an interlaced porous network structure. Gas adsorption studies indicated that cage 1 exhibited high CO2/N2 selectivity of 106. PMID:27585239

  12. Clinical outcomes of two types of cages used in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for the treatment of degenerative lumbar diseases: n-HA/PA66 cages versus PEEK cages.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qian-xing; Ou, Yun-sheng; Zhu, Yong; Zhao, Zeng-hui; Liu, Bo; Huang, Qiu; Du, Xing; Jiang, Dian-ming

    2016-06-01

    This study reports the clinical effects of nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide66 cages (n-HA/PA66 cages) and compares the clinical outcomes between n-HA/PA66 and polyetheretherketone cages (PEEK cages) for application in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). A retrospective and case-control study involving 124 patients using n-HA/PA66 cages and 142 patients using PEEK cages was conducted. All patients underwent TLIF and had an average of 2-years of follow-up. The Oswestry Disability Index and Visual Analog Scale were selected to assess the pain of low back and leg, as well as neurological status. The intervertebral space height and segmental angle were also measured to estimate the radiological changes. At the 1-year and final follow-ups, the fusion and subsidence rates were evaluated. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding clinical and radiological results. At the final follow-up, the bony fusion rate was 92.45 and 91.57 % for the n-HA/PA66 and PEEK groups, respectively, and the subsidence rate was 7.55 and 8.99 %, respectively. The study indicated that both n-HA/PA66 and PEEK cages could promote effective clinical and radiographic outcomes when used to treat degenerative lumbar diseases. The high fusion and low subsidence rates revealed that n-HA/PA66 cages could be an alternative ideal choice as the same to PEEK cages for lumbar reconstruction after TLIF. PMID:27091044

  13. Advanced expander test bed program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, A. I.; Mitchell, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB) is a key element in NASA's Chemical Transfer Propulsion Program for development and demonstration of expander cycle oxygen/hydrogen engine technology component technology for the next space engine. The AETB will be used to validate the high-pressure expander cycle concept, investigate system interactions, and conduct investigations of advanced missions focused components and new health monitoring techniques. The split-expander cycle AETB will operate at combustion chamber pressures up to 1200 psia with propellant flow rates equivalent to 20,000 lbf vacuum thrust.

  14. Advanced expander test bed engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB) is a key element in NASA's Space Chemical Engine Technology Program for development and demonstration of expander cycle oxygen/hydrogen engine and advanced component technologies applicable to space engines as well as launch vehicle upper stage engines. The AETB will be used to validate the high pressure expander cycle concept, study system interactions, and conduct studies of advanced mission focused components and new health monitoring techniques in an engine system environment. The split expander cycle AETB will operate at combustion chamber pressures up to 1200 psia with propellant flow rates equivalent to 20,000 lbf vacuum thrust.

  15. Cage Versus Noncage Laying-Hen Housings: Worker Respiratory Health.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Diane; Arteaga, Veronica; Armitage, Tracey; Mitloehner, Frank; Tancredi, Daniel; Kenyon, Nicholas; Schenker, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare respiratory health of poultry workers in conventional cage, enriched cage and aviary layer housing on a single commercial facility, motivated by changing requirements for humane housing of hens. Three workers were randomly assigned daily, one to each of conventional cage, enriched cage, and aviary housing in a crossover repeated-measures design for three observation periods (for a total of 123 worker-days, eight different workers). Workers' exposure to particles were assessed (Arteaga et al. J Agromedicine. 2015;20:this issue) and spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, respiratory symptoms, and questionnaires were conducted pre- and post-shift. Personal exposures to particles and endotoxin were significantly higher in the aviary than the other housings (Arteaga et al., 2015). The use of respiratory protection was high; the median usage was 70% of the shift. Mixed-effects multivariate regression models of respiratory cross-shift changes were marginally significant, but the aviary system consistently posted the highest decrements for forced expiratory volume in 1 and 6 seconds (FEV1 and FEV6) compared with the enriched or conventional housing. The adjusted mean difference in FEV1 aviary - enriched cage housing was -47 mL/s, 95% confidence interval (CI): (-99 to 4.9), P = .07. Similarly, for FEV6, aviary - conventional housing adjusted mean difference was -52.9 mL/6 s, 95% CI: (-108 to 2.4), P = .06. Workers adopting greater than median use of respiratory protection were less likely to exhibit negative cross-shift pulmonary function changes. Although aviary housing exposed workers to significantly higher respiratory exposures, cross-shift pulmonary function changes did not differ significantly between houses. Higher levels of mask use were protective; poultry workers should wear respiratory protection as appropriate to avoid health decrements. PMID:26237715

  16. Flash photolysis of caged compounds in Limulus ventral photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Rapid concentration jumps of Ins(1,4,5)P3 or ATP were made inside Limulus ventral photoreceptors by flash photolysis of the parent caged compounds. In intact ventral photoreceptors, the photolysis flash evokes a maximum amplitude light-activated current; therefore, a procedure was developed for uncoupling phototransduction by blocking two of the initial reactions in the cascade, rhodopsin excitation and G protein activation. Rhodopsin was inactivated by exposure to hydroxylamine and bright light. This procedure abolished the early receptor potential and reduced the quantum efficiency by 325 +/- 90- fold (mean +/- SD). G protein activation was blocked by injection of guanosine-5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (GDP beta S). GDP beta S injection reduced the quantum efficiency by 1,881 +/- 1,153-fold (mean +/- SD). Together hydroxylamine exposure and GDP beta S injection reduced the quantum efficiency by 870,000 +/- 650,000-fold (mean +/- SD). After the combined treatment, photoreceptors produced quantum bumps to light that was approximately 10(6) times brighter than the intensity that produced quantum bumps before treatment. Experiments were performed with caged compounds injected into photoreceptors in which phototransduction was largely uncoupled. Photolysis of one compound, myo-inositol 1,4,5- triphosphate P4(5)-1-(2-nitrophenyl)ethyl ester (caged IP3), increased the voltage clamp current in response to the flashlamp by more than twofold without changing the latency of the response. The effect was not seen with photolysis of either adenosine-5'-triphosphate P3-1-(2- nitrophenyl)ethyl ester (caged ATP) or caged IP3 in cells preloaded with either heparin or (1,2-bis-(o-amino-phenoxy)ethane-N-N-N'-N' tetraacetic acid tetrapotassium salt (BAPTA). The results suggest that photoreleased IP3 releases calcium ions from intracellular stores and the resulting increase in [Ca2+]i enhances the amplification of the phototransduction cascade. PMID:1431805

  17. Application of Taguchi method in optimization of cervical ring cage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai; Teo, Ee-Chon; Fuss, Franz Konstantin

    2007-01-01

    The Taguchi method is a statistical approach to overcome the limitation of the factorial and fractional factorial experiments by simplifying and standardizing the fractional factorial design. The objective of the current study is to illustrate the procedures and strengths of the Taguchi method in biomechanical analysis by using a case study of a cervical ring cage optimization. A three-dimensional finite element (FE) model of C(5)-C(6) with a generic cervical ring cage inserted was modelled. Taguchi method was applied in the optimization of the cervical ring cage in material property and dimensions for producing the lowest stress on the endplate to reduce the risk of cage subsidence, as in the following steps: (1) establishment of objective function; (2) determination of controllable factors and their levels; (3) identification of uncontrollable factors and test conditions; (4) design of Taguchi crossed array layout; (5) execution of experiments according to trial conditions; (6) analysis of results; (7) determination of optimal run; (8) confirmation of optimum run. The results showed that a cage with larger width, depth and wall thickness can produce the lower von Mises stress under various conditions. The contribution of implant materials is found trivial. The current case study illustrates that the strengths of the Taguchi method lie in (1) consistency in experimental design and analysis; (2) reduction of time and cost of experiments; (3) robustness of performance with removing the noise factors. The Taguchi method will have a great potential application in biomechanical field when factors of the issues are at discrete level. PMID:17822708

  18. Cage Versus Noncage Laying-Hen Housings: Worker Respiratory Health.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Diane; Arteaga, Veronica; Armitage, Tracey; Mitloehner, Frank; Tancredi, Daniel; Kenyon, Nicholas; Schenker, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare respiratory health of poultry workers in conventional cage, enriched cage and aviary layer housing on a single commercial facility, motivated by changing requirements for humane housing of hens. Three workers were randomly assigned daily, one to each of conventional cage, enriched cage, and aviary housing in a crossover repeated-measures design for three observation periods (for a total of 123 worker-days, eight different workers). Workers' exposure to particles were assessed (Arteaga et al. J Agromedicine. 2015;20:this issue) and spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, respiratory symptoms, and questionnaires were conducted pre- and post-shift. Personal exposures to particles and endotoxin were significantly higher in the aviary than the other housings (Arteaga et al., 2015). The use of respiratory protection was high; the median usage was 70% of the shift. Mixed-effects multivariate regression models of respiratory cross-shift changes were marginally significant, but the aviary system consistently posted the highest decrements for forced expiratory volume in 1 and 6 seconds (FEV1 and FEV6) compared with the enriched or conventional housing. The adjusted mean difference in FEV1 aviary - enriched cage housing was -47 mL/s, 95% confidence interval (CI): (-99 to 4.9), P = .07. Similarly, for FEV6, aviary - conventional housing adjusted mean difference was -52.9 mL/6 s, 95% CI: (-108 to 2.4), P = .06. Workers adopting greater than median use of respiratory protection were less likely to exhibit negative cross-shift pulmonary function changes. Although aviary housing exposed workers to significantly higher respiratory exposures, cross-shift pulmonary function changes did not differ significantly between houses. Higher levels of mask use were protective; poultry workers should wear respiratory protection as appropriate to avoid health decrements.

  19. Impaired Fear Extinction as Displayed by Serotonin Transporter Knockout Rats Housed in Open Cages Is Disrupted by IVC Cage Housing

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Ling; Schipper, Pieter; Nonkes, Lourens J. P.; Homberg, Judith R.

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. A well-known example for gene x environment interactions in psychiatry is the low activity (s) allelic variant of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) that in the context of stress increases risk for depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previously, we observed robust anxiety-related phenotypes, such as an impairment in fear extinction, in 5-HTT knockout (5-HTT−/−) versus wild-type (5-HTT+/+) rats housed in open cages. Recently, housing conditions were changed from open cages to individually ventilated cages (IVC), which are associated with a high ventilation fold and noise. This switch in housing conditions prompted an unplanned 5-HTT gene x environment interaction study in our rats. The current study shows that lifetime stress by means of IVC cage housing abolished genotype differences in fear extinction between 5-HTT−/− and 5-HTT+/+ rats. Although this effect was not attributed specifically to either the 5-HTT+/+ or the 5-HTT−/− genotype, the findings are in agreement with the modulatory role of serotonin in the processing of environmental stimuli. Our findings also underline the possibility that housing conditions confound the interpretation of anxiety-related behaviours in rodents. PMID:24658187

  20. Intra-cage dynamics of molecular hydrogen confined in cages of two different dimensions of clathrate hydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russina, Margarita; Kemner, Ewout; Mezei, Ferenc

    2016-06-01

    In porous materials the molecular confinement is often realized by means of weak Van der Waals interactions between the molecule and the pore surface. The understanding of the mechanism of such interactions is important for a number of applications. In order to establish the role of the confinement size we have studied the microscopic dynamics of molecular hydrogen stored in the nanocages of clathrate hydrates of two different dimensions. We have found that by varying the size of the pore the diffusive mobility of confined hydrogen can be modified in both directions, i.e. reduced or enhanced compared to that in the bulk solid at the same temperatures. In the small cages with a mean crystallographic radius of 3.95 Å the confinement reduces diffusive mobility by orders of magnitude. In contrast, in large cages with a mean radius of 4.75 Å hydrogen molecules displays diffusive jump motion between different equilibrium sites inside the cages, visible at temperatures where bulk H2 is solid. The localization of H2 molecules observed in small cages can promote improved functional properties valuable for hydrogen storage applications.

  1. Intra-cage dynamics of molecular hydrogen confined in cages of two different dimensions of clathrate hydrates

    PubMed Central

    Russina, Margarita; Kemner, Ewout; Mezei, Ferenc

    2016-01-01

    In porous materials the molecular confinement is often realized by means of weak Van der Waals interactions between the molecule and the pore surface. The understanding of the mechanism of such interactions is important for a number of applications. In order to establish the role of the confinement size we have studied the microscopic dynamics of molecular hydrogen stored in the nanocages of clathrate hydrates of two different dimensions. We have found that by varying the size of the pore the diffusive mobility of confined hydrogen can be modified in both directions, i.e. reduced or enhanced compared to that in the bulk solid at the same temperatures. In the small cages with a mean crystallographic radius of 3.95 Å the confinement reduces diffusive mobility by orders of magnitude. In contrast, in large cages with a mean radius of 4.75 Å hydrogen molecules displays diffusive jump motion between different equilibrium sites inside the cages, visible at temperatures where bulk H2 is solid. The localization of H2 molecules observed in small cages can promote improved functional properties valuable for hydrogen storage applications. PMID:27270444

  2. Intra-cage dynamics of molecular hydrogen confined in cages of two different dimensions of clathrate hydrates.

    PubMed

    Russina, Margarita; Kemner, Ewout; Mezei, Ferenc

    2016-01-01

    In porous materials the molecular confinement is often realized by means of weak Van der Waals interactions between the molecule and the pore surface. The understanding of the mechanism of such interactions is important for a number of applications. In order to establish the role of the confinement size we have studied the microscopic dynamics of molecular hydrogen stored in the nanocages of clathrate hydrates of two different dimensions. We have found that by varying the size of the pore the diffusive mobility of confined hydrogen can be modified in both directions, i.e. reduced or enhanced compared to that in the bulk solid at the same temperatures. In the small cages with a mean crystallographic radius of 3.95 Å the confinement reduces diffusive mobility by orders of magnitude. In contrast, in large cages with a mean radius of 4.75 Å hydrogen molecules displays diffusive jump motion between different equilibrium sites inside the cages, visible at temperatures where bulk H2 is solid. The localization of H2 molecules observed in small cages can promote improved functional properties valuable for hydrogen storage applications. PMID:27270444

  3. Effects of cage density, sanitation frequency, and bedding type on animal wellbeing and health and cage environment in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Horn, Mandy J; Hudson, Shanice V; Bostrom, Linda A; Cooper, Dale M

    2012-11-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of cage density, sanitation frequency, and bedding type on animal growth and welfare. At weaning, Sprague-Dawley rats and C57BL/6 mice were allocated to treatment groups according to sex, bedding type (shredded aspen, cellulose, or a 50:50 mixture), and cage density and sanitation frequency (inhouse cage density standards and sanitation procedures measured against Guide recommendations) for an 8-wk period. Body weight, feed disappearance, cage ammonia, ATP concentrations, behavior, morbidity, and mortality were assessed weekly; fecal corticosterone, microbiology, and lung histopathology (rats only) were evaluated at the culmination of the trial. In both rats and mice, parameters indicative of animal health and welfare were not significantly affected by cage density and sanitation frequency or bedding type. Occasional effects of feed disappearance and cage ammonia concentrations due to density and sanitation guidelines were noted in rat cages, and bedding type affected cage ammonia and ATP concentrations. Periodic spikes of cage ammonia and ATP concentrations were recorded in mouse cages maintained according to inhouse compared with Guide standards and in cages containing aspen compared with cellulose or aspen-cellulose mixed bedding. Ongoing studies and historical data support the finding that deviations or exceptions from the cage density and sanitation frequency standards set forth in the Guide do not negatively affect animal health, welfare, or production parameters at our institution. These parameters appear to be credible measures of animal health and wellbeing and may be useful for evaluating performance standards for animal husbandry. PMID:23294884

  4. Effects of Cage Density, Sanitation Frequency, and Bedding Type on Animal Wellbeing and Health and Cage Environment in Mice and Rats

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Mandy J; Hudson, Shanice V; Bostrom, Linda A; Cooper, Dale M

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of cage density, sanitation frequency, and bedding type on animal growth and welfare. At weaning, Sprague–Dawley rats and C57BL/6 mice were allocated to treatment groups according to sex, bedding type (shredded aspen, cellulose, or a 50:50 mixture), and cage density and sanitation frequency (inhouse cage density standards and sanitation procedures measured against Guide recommendations) for an 8-wk period. Body weight, feed disappearance, cage ammonia, ATP concentrations, behavior, morbidity, and mortality were assessed weekly; fecal corticosterone, microbiology, and lung histopathology (rats only) were evaluated at the culmination of the trial. In both rats and mice, parameters indicative of animal health and welfare were not significantly affected by cage density and sanitation frequency or bedding type. Occasional effects of feed disappearance and cage ammonia concentrations due to density and sanitation guidelines were noted in rat cages, and bedding type affected cage ammonia and ATP concentrations. Periodic spikes of cage ammonia and ATP concentrations were recorded in mouse cages maintained according to inhouse compared with Guide standards and in cages containing aspen compared with cellulose or aspen–cellulose mixed bedding. Ongoing studies and historical data support the finding that deviations or exceptions from the cage density and sanitation frequency standards set forth in the Guide do not negatively affect animal health, welfare, or production parameters at our institution. These parameters appear to be credible measures of animal health and wellbeing and may be useful for evaluating performance standards for animal husbandry. PMID:23294884

  5. Effects of single caging and cage size on behavior and stress level of domestic neutered cats housed in an animal shelter.

    PubMed

    Uetake, Katsuji; Goto, Akihiro; Koyama, Rumi; Kikuchi, Rieko; Tanaka, Toshio

    2013-03-01

    Cats need a minimum amount of space even in animal shelters. In this study the effects of single caging and cage size on the behavior and stress level of domestic cats were investigated. Six neutered cats (2-15 years old) that had been housed in a group for at least 7 months were moved to three kinds of single cages (small, medium and large) by rotation on a Latin square design. They experienced each cage size for 6 days. Cats could use vertical dimensions when housed in a group room and the large cage. Behavioral observation was conducted for 3 h in the evening, and stress levels were assessed by urine cortisol-to-creatinine ratios. The amounts (estimated proportions) of time spent in locomotion and social/solitary play were lower even in large cages than in group housing (both P < 0.05). Conversely, the amount of time spent resting tended to increase when housed singly (P = 0.104). The urine cortisol-to-creatinine ratios of singly housed cats tended to be higher than that of group-housed cats (P = 0.086). The results indicate that cats become less active when they are housed singly in cages regardless of the cage size. Cats seem to feel no undue stress even in small cages if the stay is short. PMID:23480709

  6. Complete cage migration/subsidence into the adjacent vertebral body after posterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Corniola, Marco V; Jägersberg, Max; Stienen, Martin N; Gautschi, Oliver P

    2015-03-01

    A variety of implant-related short and long-term complications after lumbar fusion surgery are recognized. Mid to long-term complications due to cage migration and/or cage subsidence are less frequently reported. Here, we report a patient with a complete cage migration into the superior adjacent vertebral body almost 20 years after the initial posterior lumbar interbody fusion procedure. In this patient, the cage migration/subsidence was clinically silent, but a selective decompression for adjacent segment degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis was performed. We discuss the risk factors for cage migration/subsidence in view of the current literature.

  7. The VariLift® Interbody Fusion System: expandable, standalone interbody fusion

    PubMed Central

    Emstad, Erik; del Monaco, Diana Cardenas; Fielding, Louis C; Block, Jon E

    2015-01-01

    Intervertebral fusion cages have been in clinical use since the 1990s. Cages offer the benefits of bone graft containment, restored intervertebral and foraminal height, and a more repeatable, stable procedure compared to interbody fusion with graft material alone. Due to concerns regarding postoperative stability, loss of lordosis, and subsidence or migration of the implant, interbody cages are commonly used with supplemental fixation such as pedicle screw systems or anterior plates. While providing additional stability, supplemental fixation techniques increase operative time, exposure, cost, and morbidity. The VariLift® Interbody Fusion System (VariLift® system) has been developed as a standalone solution to provide the benefits of intervertebral fusion cages without the requirement of supplemental fixation. The VariLift® system, FDA-cleared for standalone use in both the cervical and lumbar spine, is implanted in a minimal profile and then expanded in situ to provide segmental stability, restored lordosis, and a large graft chamber. Preclinical testing and analyses have found that the VariLift® System is durable, and reduces stresses that may contribute to subsidence and migration of other standalone interbody cages. Fifteen years of clinical development with the VariLift® system have demonstrated positive clinical outcomes, continued patient maintenance of segmental stability and lordosis, and no evidence of implant migration. The purpose of this report is to describe the VariLift® system, including implant characteristics, principles of operation, indications for use, patient selection criteria, surgical technique, postoperative care, preclinical testing, and clinical experience. The VariLift® System represents an improved surgical option for a stable interbody fusion without requiring supplemental fixation. PMID:26060414

  8. Reliability of Joint Mobility and Pain Assessment of the Thoracic Spine and Rib Cage in Asymptomatic Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Heiderscheit, Bryan; Boissonnault, William

    2008-01-01

    Despite the importance of correctly diagnosing a spinal dysfunction, limited research exists related to physical therapists' ability to reliably identify a joint exhibiting signs of dysfunction. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the inter- and intra-examiner reliability of a thoracic spine and rib cage joint mobility and pain assessment between two experienced manipulative physical therapists. Nine healthy subjects (3 male, 6 female; ages 23–35) without history of mid- or low back pain participated. Posterior-to-anterior pressures were applied to the thoracic spine and rib articulations with anterior-to-posterior pressures applied to the costosternal joints of each subject by two examiners to evaluate joint mobility and pain provocation. Both examiners assessed all subjects twice and were blinded to subject identity. Kappa statistics were calculated using a strict and expanded definition of agreement to determine the between- and within-examiner reliability for each outcome. Intra-examiner reliability of joint mobility assessment ranged from slight to fair based on the strict agreement but improved to good when findings were compared across ± 1 spinal/rib level. Pain provocation reliability increased to very good under the expanded agreement; however, this finding should be viewed with caution due to limited pain prevalence in the subject sample. Selected clinical prediction rules, applied to the care of individuals with back pain, characterize the patient's regional mobility simply as hypomobile, normal, or hypermobile; consequently, we feel the results of an expanded definition of agreement may be more appropriate for clinic practice. Further research is needed to determine the reliability in individuals with thoracic spine and rib cage symptoms. PMID:19771193

  9. Monolithical aspherical beam expanding systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, U.; Matthias, Sabrina

    2014-10-01

    Beam expanding is a common task, where Galileo telescopes are preferred. However researches and customers have found limitations when using these systems. A new monolithical solution which is based on the usage of only one aspherical component will be presented. It will be shown how to combine up to five monolithical beam expanding systems and to keep the beam quality at diffraction limitation. Insights will be given how aspherical beam expanding systems will help using larger incoming beams and reducing the overall length of such a system. Additionally an add-on element for divergence and wavelength adaption will be presented.

  10. Animal Welfare and Food Safety Aspects of Confining Broiler Chickens to Cages

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Sara; Greger, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In commercial chicken meat production, broiler chickens are usually kept on the floor in ware-house like buildings, but the use of cages is becoming more common. Confining chickens to cages is a welfare problem, as has been thoroughly demonstrated for laying hens used for egg production. Caged broiler chickens may suffer from poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, feather loss, and restriction of natural behavior. There are also potential food safety concerns associated with the use of cages. While cages may provide an economic advantage in some geographical regions of the world, the severe, inherent disadvantages should also be considered before cages are more widely adopted in the global broiler chicken industry. Abstract In most areas of the world, broiler chickens are raised in floor systems, but cage confinement is becoming more common. The welfare of broiler chickens in cages is affected by movement restriction, poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, and prevention of key behavioral patterns such as dustbathing and ground scratching. Cages for broiler chickens also have a long history of causing skin and leg conditions that could further compromise welfare, but a lack of controlled studies makes it difficult to draw conclusions about newer cage designs. Cage environments are usually stocked at a higher density than open floor systems, and the limited studies available suggest that caging may lead to increased levels of fear and stress in the birds. Further, birds reared on the floor appear less likely to harbor and shed Salmonella, as litter may serve as a seeding agent for competitive exclusion by other microorganisms. Cages for laying hens used in egg production have met with substantial opposition due to welfare concerns and caging broiler chickens will likely be subject to the same kinds of social disapproval. PMID:26487409

  11. Hydrogen trapped in Ben cluster cages: The atomic encapsulation option

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumkin, Fedor Y.; Wales, David J.

    2012-08-01

    Core-shell (kH)@Ben (k = 1-3, n = 6-11) systems are studied computationally. The smallest system with endohedral hydrogen is H@Be6 with a central H anion, thermodynamically stable to dissociation into H + Be6. Larger structures are constructed by merging a few such units and have reduced stability. Potential energy barriers to hydrogen exit from the cage assemblies are estimated. Face- and edge-sharing combinations of the structural units are considered. The extrapolated upper bound for the potential 'nanofoam' material storage capacity is 10 weight-% of hydrogen. The changes in shape and electronic properties of the Ben cages upon insertion of hydrogen are also analyzed.

  12. Mutual Inductance in the Bird-Cage Resonator

    PubMed

    Tropp

    1997-05-01

    Formulas are derived to account for the effect of the mutual inductances, between all meshes, upon the electrical resonance spectra bird-cage resonators, and similar structures such as the TEM resonator of P. K. H. Roschmann (United States Patent 4,746,866) and J. T. Vaughan et al. (Magn. Reson. Med. 32, 206, 1994). The equations are parameterized in terms of isolated mesh frequencies and coupling coefficients, and ought therefore apply not only to simple magnetic couplings used in the derivation, but to electromagnetic couplings as well. A method for measuring the coupling coefficients-applicable to shielded as well as unshielded resonators-is described, based upon the splitting of frequencies in pairs of coupled resonators; and detailed comparisons are given between calculated and measured resonance spectra: for bird-cage resonators, with and without shields, and for the TEM resonator.

  13. Optical triggered seizures using a caged 4-Aminopyridine.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mingrui; McGarry, Laura M; Ma, Hongtao; Harris, Samuel; Berwick, Jason; Yuste, Rafael; Schwartz, Theodore H

    2015-01-01

    Animal models of epilepsy are critical not only for understanding the fundamental mechanism of epilepsy but also for testing the efficacy of new antiepileptic drugs and novel therapeutic interventions. Photorelease of caged molecules is widely used in biological research to control pharmacologic events with high spatio-temporal resolution. We developed a technique for in vivo optical triggering of neocortical seizures using a novel caged compound based on ruthenium photochemistry (RuBi-4AP). Epileptiform events in mouse cortex were induced with blue light in both whole brain and focal illumination. Multi-electrode array recording and optical techniques were used to characterize the propagation of these epileptic events, including interictal spikes, polyspikes, and ictal discharges. These results demonstrate a novel optically-triggered seizure model, with high spatio-temporal control, that could have widespread application in the investigation of ictal onset, propagation and to develop novel light-based therapeutic interventions. PMID:25698919

  14. Battery with modular air cathode and anode cage

    DOEpatents

    Niksa, Marilyn J.; Pohto, Gerald R.; Lakatos, Leslie K.; Wheeler, Douglas J.; Niksa, Andrew J.; Schue, Thomas J.; Turk, Thomas R.

    1988-01-01

    A battery assembly of the consumable metal anode type has now been constructed for ready assembly as well as disassembly. In a non-conductive and at least substantially inert cell body, space is provided for receiving an open-structured, non-consumable anode cage. The cage has an open top for facilitating insertion of an anode. A modular cathode is used, comprising a peripheral current conductor frame clamped about a grid reinforced air cathode in sheet form. The air cathode may be double gridded. The cathode frame can be sealed, during assembly, with electrolyte-resistant-sealant as well as with adhesive. The resulting cathode module can be assembled outside the cell body and readily inserted therein, or can later be easily removed therefrom.

  15. Battery with modular air cathode and anode cage

    DOEpatents

    Niksa, Marilyn J.; Pohto, Gerald R.; Lakatos, Leslie K.; Wheeler, Douglas J.; Niksa, Andrew J.; Schue, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    A battery assembly of the consumable metal anode type has now been constructed for ready assembly as well as disassembly. In a non-conductive and at least substantially inert cell body, space is provided for receiving an open-structured, non-consumable anode cage. The cage has an open top for facilitating insertion of an anode. A modular cathode is used, comprising a peripheral current conductor frame clamped about a grid reinforced air cathode in sheet form. The air cathode may be double gridded. The cathode frame can be sealed, during assembly, with electrolyte-resistant-sealant as well as with adhesive. The resulting cathode module can be assembled outside the cell body and readily inserted therein, or can later be easily removed therefrom.

  16. Rotational Brownian Dynamics simulations of clathrin cage formation

    SciTech Connect

    Ilie, Ioana M.; Briels, Wim J.; Otter, Wouter K. den

    2014-08-14

    The self-assembly of nearly rigid proteins into ordered aggregates is well suited for modeling by the patchy particle approach. Patchy particles are traditionally simulated using Monte Carlo methods, to study the phase diagram, while Brownian Dynamics simulations would reveal insights into the assembly dynamics. However, Brownian Dynamics of rotating anisotropic particles gives rise to a number of complications not encountered in translational Brownian Dynamics. We thoroughly test the Rotational Brownian Dynamics scheme proposed by Naess and Elsgaeter [Macromol. Theory Simul. 13, 419 (2004); Naess and Elsgaeter Macromol. Theory Simul. 14, 300 (2005)], confirming its validity. We then apply the algorithm to simulate a patchy particle model of clathrin, a three-legged protein involved in vesicle production from lipid membranes during endocytosis. Using this algorithm we recover time scales for cage assembly comparable to those from experiments. We also briefly discuss the undulatory dynamics of the polyhedral cage.

  17. Lanthanides caged by the organic chelates; structural properties.

    PubMed

    Smentek, Lidia

    2011-04-13

    The structure, in particular symmetry, geometry and morphology of organic chelates coordinated with the lanthanide ions are analyzed in the present review. This is the first part of a complete presentation of a theoretical description of the properties of systems, which are widely used in technology, but most of all, in molecular biology and medicine. The discussion is focused on the symmetry and geometry of the cages, since these features play a dominant role in the spectroscopic activity of the lanthanides caged by organic chelates. At the same time, the spectroscopic properties require more formal presentation in the language of Racah algebra, and deserve a separate analysis. In addition to the parent systems of DOTA, DOTP, EDTMP and CDTMP presented here, their modifications by various antennas are analyzed. The conclusions that have a strong impact upon the theory of the energy transfer and the sensitized luminescence of these systems are based on the results of numerical density functional theory calculations.

  18. Modelling of current loads on aquaculture net cages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristiansen, Trygve; Faltinsen, Odd M.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we propose and discuss a screen type of force model for the viscous hydrodynamic load on nets. The screen model assumes that the net is divided into a number of flat net panels, or screens. It may thus be applied to any kind of net geometry. In this paper we focus on circular net cages for fish farms. The net structure itself is modelled by an existing truss model. The net shape is solved for in a time-stepping procedure that involves solving a linear system of equations for the unknown tensions at each time step. We present comparisons to experiments with circular net cages in steady current, and discuss the sensitivity of the numerical results to a set of chosen parameters. Satisfactory agreement between experimental and numerical prediction of drag and lift as function of the solidity ratio of the net and the current velocity is documented.

  19. Engineering Porous Organic Cage Crystals with Increased Acid Gas Resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guanghui; Hoffman, Christopher D; Liu, Yang; Bhattacharyya, Souryadeep; Tumuluri, Uma; Jue, Melinda L; Wu, Zili; Sholl, David S; Nair, Sankar; Jones, Christopher W; Lively, Ryan P

    2016-07-25

    Both known and new CC3-based porous organic cages are prepared and exposed to acidic SO2 in vapor and liquid conditions. Distinct differences in the stability of the CC3 cages exist depending on the chirality of the diamine linkers used. The acid catalyzed CC3 degradation mechanism is probed via in situ IR and a degradation pathway is proposed and supported with computational results. CC3 crystals synthesized with racemic mixtures of diaminocyclohexane exhibited enhanced stability compared to CC3-R and CC3-S. Confocal fluorescent microscope images reveal that the stability difference in CC3 species originates from an abundance of mesoporous grain boundaries in CC3-R and CC3-S, allowing facile access of aqueous SO2 throughout the crystal, promoting decomposition. These grain boundaries are absent from CC3 crystals made with racemic linkers. PMID:27253350

  20. Lanthanides caged by the organic chelates; structural properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smentek, Lidia

    2011-04-01

    The structure, in particular symmetry, geometry and morphology of organic chelates coordinated with the lanthanide ions are analyzed in the present review. This is the first part of a complete presentation of a theoretical description of the properties of systems, which are widely used in technology, but most of all, in molecular biology and medicine. The discussion is focused on the symmetry and geometry of the cages, since these features play a dominant role in the spectroscopic activity of the lanthanides caged by organic chelates. At the same time, the spectroscopic properties require more formal presentation in the language of Racah algebra, and deserve a separate analysis. In addition to the parent systems of DOTA, DOTP, EDTMP and CDTMP presented here, their modifications by various antennas are analyzed. The conclusions that have a strong impact upon the theory of the energy transfer and the sensitized luminescence of these systems are based on the results of numerical density functional theory calculations.

  1. Supramolecular Archimedean Cages Assembled with 72 Hydrogen Bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yuzhou; Hu, Chunhua; Comotti, Angiolina; Ward, Michael D.

    2011-12-09

    Self-assembly of multiple components into well-defined and predictable structures remains one of the foremost challenges in chemistry. Here, we report on the rational design of a supramolecular cage assembled from 20 ions of three distinct species through 72 hydrogen bonds. The cage is constructed from two kinds of hexagonal molecular tiles, a tris(guanidinium)nitrate cluster and a hexa(4-sulfonatophenyl)benzene, joined at their edges through complementary and metrically matched N-H {hor_ellipsis} O-S hydrogen bonds to form a truncated octahedron, one of the Archimedean polyhedra. The truncated octahedron, with an interior volume of 2200 cubic angstroms, serves as the composite building unit of a body-centered cubic zeolite-like framework, which exhibits an ability to encapsulate a wide range of differently charged species, including organic molecules, transition metal complexes, and 'ship-in-a-bottle' nanoclusters not observed otherwise.

  2. Differential regulation of protein subdomain activity with caged bivalent ligands.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Günter; Müller, Jens; Mack, Timo; Freitag, Daniel F; Höver, Thomas; Pötzsch, Bernd; Heckel, Alexander

    2009-03-01

    Subtle change: Spatiotemporal modulation of individual protein subdomains with light as the trigger signal becomes possible by using bivalent aptamers and introducing photolabile "caging groups" to switch individual aptamer modules ON or OFF differentially. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that it is possible to modulate individual domain activity in aptamers, and thus also domain activity in proteins, with light.

  3. Chemical control of Ornithonyssus sylviarum on caged layer hens.

    PubMed

    Levot, G W

    1992-04-01

    Manual application of aqueous solutions of malathion, carbaryl and permethrin controlled northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum Canestrini and Fanzago, on caged layer hens for at least 118 days. Azamethiphos sprayed manually provided acceptable control for a shorter period. Machine application, particularly of azamethiphos, but also malathion, provided lesser control. The addition of surfactant increased the wetting ability of the sprays but interfered with the efficacy of azamethiphos. PMID:1421482

  4. Encapsulation of Halocarbons in a Tetrahedral Anion Cage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dong; Zhao, Jie; Zhao, Yanxia; Lei, Yibo; Cao, Liping; Yang, Xiao-Juan; Davi, Martin; Amadeu, Nader de Sousa; Janiak, Christoph; Zhang, Zhibin; Wang, Yao-Yu; Wu, Biao

    2015-07-20

    Caged supramolecular systems are promising hosts for guest inclusion, separation, and stabilization. Well-studied examples are mainly metal-coordination-based or covalent architectures. An anion-coordination-based cage that is capable of encapsulating halocarbon guests is reported for the first time. This A4L4-type (A=anion) tetrahedral cage, [(PO4)4L4](12-), assembled from a C3-symmetric tris(bisurea) ligand (L) and phosphate ion (PO4(3-)), readily accommodates a series of quasi-tetrahedral halocarbons, such as the Freon components CFCl3, CF2Cl2, CHFCl2, and C(CH3)F3, and chlorocarbons CH2Cl2, CHCl3, CCl4, C(CH3)Cl3, C(CH3)2Cl2, and C(CH3)3Cl. The guest encapsulation in the solid state is confirmed by crystal structures, while the host-guest interactions in solution were demonstrated by NMR techniques. PMID:26053734

  5. Genotoxicity monitoring of freshwater environments using caged carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Klobucar, Göran I V; Stambuk, Anamaria; Pavlica, Mirjana; Sertić Perić, Mirela; Kutuzović Hackenberger, Branimir; Hylland, Ketil

    2010-01-01

    The present study deals with genotoxicity assessment of freshwaters using caged carp (Cyprinus carpio). Carps were transplanted from a fish-farm to three differently polluted sites in eastern Croatia. Two polluted sites were situated in the river Drava, downstream from the cities of Belisće and Osijek, while the reference site was in the Nature Park Kopacki rit, a preserved wetland area with limited anthropogenic influence. Exposure lasted for 3 weeks and was repeated for 3 years (2002-2004). DNA damage was assessed in erythrocytes of the exposed animals by the Comet assay and micronucleus test (MNT). In order to evaluate possible differences in stress responses to polluted water in situ and in aquaria a laboratory exposure was performed with water from the studied location in the second year of the study. Carp from the sites with high anthropogenic influence (Belisće and Osijek) had higher average DNA damage as expressed in both the MNT and Comet assay. Of the two, the Comet assay appeared to be more sensitive following both caging and aquaria exposures. The results from this study suggest that 3 weeks caging exposure of C. carpio may be a useful strategy to monitor for genotoxic agents in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:19626438

  6. A comparison of rodent caging systems based on microenvironmental parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Corning, B.F.; Lipman, N.S. )

    1991-10-01

    Four different mouse caging systems were evaluated for microenvironmental temperature, carbon dioxide, relative humidity (RH) and ammonia levels during a 7-day testing period. All caging systems evaluated had polycarbonate bases and consisted of either a molded polyester (MP) filter lid, one of two different polycarbonate filter lids, or no filter lid which served as a control. At 50% macroenvironmental RH (study I), all systems maintained an intracage temperature of 75.5 degrees F +/- 0.5 degrees. Both polycarbonate systems averaged greater than 2200 ppm of carbon dioxide more than the MP system and the controls. When compared with RH in the control cages, RH levels averaged over 20% and 5 to 8% RH greater in the polycarbonate filter lid systems and the MP system, respectively. There were no appreciable ammonia levels in either the MP or control systems. In the polycarbonate filter lid systems, ammonia levels were detectable on day 4 and were greater than 200 ppm by day 6. At 20% macroenvironmental RH (study II), there was a proportional 15 to 30% RH decrease from study I levels. Ammonia levels were undetectable in any system until day 7 and averaged only 17 ppm in one of the polycarbonate systems. Minimal differences were observed in studies III, IV and V when pine shavings were used instead of hardwood chips, a CD-1 stock instead of a DBA/2J strain, and different grades of filter inserts in the polycarbonate systems, respectively.

  7. Advanced expander test bed program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccardi, D. P.; Mitchell, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB) is a key element in NASA's Space Chemical Engine Technology Program for development and demonstration of expander cycle oxygen/hydrogen engine and advanced component technologies applicable to space engines as well as launch vehicle upper stage engines. The AETB will be used to validate the high-pressure expander cycle concept, investigate system interactions, and conduct investigations of advanced mission focused components and new health monitoring techniques in an engine system environment. The split expander cycle AETB will operate at combustion chamber pressures up to 1200 psia with propellant flow rates equivalent to 20,000 lbf vacuum thrust. Contract work began 27 Apr. 1990. During 1992, a major milestone was achieved with the review of the final design of the oxidizer turbopump in Sep. 1992.

  8. Improved synthesis of the two-photon caging group 3-nitro-2-ethyldibenzofuran and its application to a caged thymidine phosphoramidite

    PubMed Central

    Lusic, Hrvoje; Uprety, Rajendra; Deiters, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    A new and efficient route to the recently reported 3-nitro-2-ethyldibenzofuran caging group was developed. Furthermore, its installation on a thymidine phosphoramidite is described. This caging group is efficiently removed through light-irradiation at 365 nm. PMID:20112966

  9. Furnished Cage System and Hen Well-Being: Comparative Effects of Furnished and Battery Cages on Egg Production and Physiological Parameters of White Leghorn Hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory animal well-being can be improved by housing the animals in a species-special “natural” or “near to natural” environment. This study was to examine if housing environment, furnished cages vs. battery cages, causes a similar impact on well-being in laying hens. One hundred seventy-two, on...

  10. Development of 4-methoxy-7-nitroindolinyl (MNI)-caged auxins which are extremely stable in planta

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Kusaka, Naoyuki; Yamasaki, Soma; Zhao, Yunde; Nozaki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Phytohormone auxin is a master regulator in plant growth and development. Regulation of cellular auxin level plays a central role in plant development. Auxin polar transport system modulates an auxin gradient that determines plant developmental process in response to environmental conditions and developmental programs. Photolabile caged auxins allow optical control of artificial auxin gradients at cellular resolution. Especially, two-photon uncaging system achieves high spatiotemporal control of photolysis reaction at two-photon cross-section. However, the development of caged versions of auxin has been limited by the instability of the caged auxins to higher plant metabolic activities. Here, we describe the synthesis and application of highly stable caged auxins, 4-methoxy-7-nitroindolinyl (MNI)-caged auxins. Natural auxin, indole 3-acetic acid, and two synthetic auxins, 1-NAA and 2,4-D were caged by MNI caging group. MNI-caged auxins showed a high stability in planta and a rapid release the original auxin when photolyzed. We demonstrated that optical control of auxin-responsive gene expression and auxin-related physiological responses by using MNI-caged auxins. We anticipate that MNI-caged auxins will be an effective tool for high-resolution control of endogenous auxin level. PMID:26364943

  11. Clinical Assessment of Low-dose Osteoinductive Protein as a Stand-alone Regimen in Self-reported Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Spinks, Katherine; Walker, Matthew; Scaffidi, James

    2015-01-01

    Context Osteoarthritis, sometimes called degenerative joint disease, is the most common form of arthritis. It affects more than 20 million people in the United States, who mostly are older than age 45 y. No specific treatment exists to halt the progressive cartilage degeneration of osteoarthritis or to repair the damaged cartilage. Alternatives to pharmaceuticals include natural therapies and nutritional supplements. Objective The present study examined the clinical response to daily supplementation with bioactive protein complex containing a collagen type 2 network, with associated growth factors, and osteoinductive proteins, known as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Design The research team designed an open-label preliminary study. Setting Joint evaluations were self-administered by participants at their residences. Participants Participants were 44 individuals with self-reported osteoarthritis in the hip, knee, or ankle (ie, in weight-bearing joints). Intervention Participants self-administered orally a low-dose form of the ingredient (ie, 150 mg of Cyplexinol® Standard, once daily for 4 wk). Outcome Measures Four parameters—pain intensity, frequency of pain, activity level, and strength—were evaluated using a visual analog scale (VAS), both at baseline and at the end of the 4-wk period. Results Pain intensity decreased 45% on a 10-cm VAS from 2.85 cm (P = .0001; 95% CI, 2.54, 3.16) at baseline to 1.41 cm (P = .0001; 95% CI, 1.18, 1.64) at wk 4. Pain frequency decreased 55% from 3.16 cm (P = .0001; 95% CI, 2.88, 3.44) at baseline to 1.22 cm (P = .0001; 95% CI, 0.85, 1.59) at wk 4. Activity level increased from 1.58 cm (P = .0001; 95% CI, 1.34, 1.82) at baseline to 2.91 cm (P = .0001; 95% CI, 2.71, 3.11) at wk 4. Strength increased 80% from 1.24 cm (P = .0001; 95% CI, 0.91, 1.57) at baseline to 2.10 cm (P = .0001; 95% CI, 1.73, 2.47) at wk 4. Conclusions The 44 participants reported subjective improvements in pain frequency and intensity as well as in activity level following administration of Cyplexinol®. The results from this study identify the possible pathways associated with cartilage degradation, pain, and inflammation, which should be the focus of future research, and they suggest that the ingredient can be effective in helping to maintain joint homeostasis. PMID:26770136

  12. Field detection of bacillus spore aerosols with stand-alone pyrolysis-gas chromatography and ion mobility spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, A.; Maswadeh, Waleed M.; Parsons, John A.; Tripathi, Ashish; Meuzelaar, Henk L. C.; Dworzanski, Jacek P.; Kim, Man-Goo

    1999-12-01

    A commercially available, hand-held chemical vapor detector was modified to detect Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis var. globigii spores (BG) in outdoor field scenarios. An Airborne Vapor Monitor (AVM) ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) vapor detector was interfaced to a biological sample processing and transfer introduction system. The biological sample processing was accomplished by quartz tube pyrolysis (Py), and the resultant vapor was transferred by gas chromatography (GC) to the IMS detector. The Py-GC/IMS system can be described as a hyphenated device where two analytical dimensions, in series, allow the separation and isolation of individual components from the pyrolytic decomposition of biological analytes. Gram positive spores such as BG contain 5 - 15% by weight of dipicolinic acid (DPA), and picolinic acid is a pyrolysis product of DPA. Picolinic acid has a high proton affinity, and it is detected in a sensitive fashion by the atmospheric pressure-based IMS device. Picolinic acid occupies a unique region in the GC/IMS data domain with respect to other bacterial pyrolysis products. A 1000 to 1, air-to-air, aerosol concentrator was interfaced to the Py-GC/IMS instrument, and the system was placed in an open-air, Western United States desert environment. The system was tested with BG spore aerosol releases, and the instrument was remotely operated during a trial. A Met-One aerosol particle counter was placed next to the Py-GC/IMS so as to obtain a real-time record of the ambient and bacterial aerosol challenges. The presence/absence of an aerosol event, determined by an aerosol particle counter and a slit sampler-agar plate system, was compared to the presence/absence of a picolinic acid response in a GC/IMS data window at selected times in a trial with respect to a BG challenge. In the 21 BG trials, the Py-GC/IMS instrument experienced two true negatives, no false positives, and the instrument developed a software failure in one trial. The remaining 18 trials were true positive determinations for the presence of BG aerosol, and a limit of detection for the Py-GC/IMS instrument was estimated at approximately 3300 BG spore-containing particles.

  13. Fuel cells, batteries and super-capacitors stand-alone power systems management using optimal/flatness based-control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaouadj, M.; Aboubou, A.; Ayad, M. Y.; Bahri, M.; Boucetta, A.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, an optimal control (under constraints) based on the Pontryagin's maximum principle is used to optimally manage energy flows in a basic PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane) fuel cells system associated to lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors through a common DC bus having a voltage to stabilize using the differential flatness approach. The adaptation of voltage levels between different sources and load is ensured by use of three DC-DC converters, one boost connected to the PEM fuel cells, while the two others are buck/boost and connected to the lithiumion batteries and supercapacitors. The aim of this paper is to develop an energy management strategy that is able to satisfy the following objectives: - Impose the power requested by a habitat (representing the load) according to a proposed daily consumption profile, - Keep fuel cells working at optimal power delivery conditions, - Maintain constant voltage across the common DC bus, - Stabilize the batteries voltage and stored quantity of charge at desired values given by the optimal control.Results obtained under MATLAB/Simulink environment prove that the cited objectives are satisfied, validating then, effectiveness and complementarity between the optimal and flatness concepts proposed for energy management. Note that this study is currently in experimentally validation within MSE Laboratory.

  14. [From stand-alone solution to longitudinal communication curriculum--development and implementation at the Faculty of Medicine in Heidelberg].

    PubMed

    Sator, Marlene; Jünger, Jana

    2015-05-01

    At the Faculty of Medicine in Heidelberg, implementation of an interdisciplinary longitudinal curriculum was started in 2001 with the goal of achieving sustained promotion of communicative and clinical competences. The aim of this paper is to describe the development and implementation of Heidelberg's longitudinal communication curriculum. Furthermore, innovative aspects and strategies are discussed. The methodological approaches for development and implementation were Kern's "Six-step Approach" and a SWOT analysis. The process resulted in an innovative communication curriculum that starts with an integrated curriculum for developing clinical and communicative competence in the pre-clinical phase and continues in the clinical phase with medical communication and interactive training. Satisfaction with the communication curriculum and its effectiveness were rated highly by students. Residents who had graduated from Faculty of Medicine in Heidelberg rated the extent to which they had communicative competencies at the time of their graduation at their disposal significantly higher than residents who had graduated from the other 4 medical faculties in Baden-Württemberg. The experiences gained in Heidelberg can be applied by other faculties.

  15. The Compact Disk-Circulation System Interface at the Tacoma Public Library: Beyond Stand-Alone CD-ROM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegarty, Kevin

    1988-01-01

    Describes the development of a CD-ROM public access catalog (CD-PAC)-circulation system interface at the Tacoma (Washington) Public Library. Cost considerations, advantages and disadvantages, access time, and currency of the CD-PAC are discussed. Sidebars cover CD-ROM and the library market, future technologies, and comparisons of prices for…

  16. Reliable detection of milk allergens in food using a high-resolution, stand-alone mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Monaci, Linda; Losito, Ilario; Palmisano, Francesco; Visconti, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    Reliable methods are needed for detection of allergenic milk proteins in complex food matrixes. The feasibility of an LC/high-resolution MS method for the analysis of milk proteins in a thermally processed model food (incurred cookies) and in white wine spiked, respectively, with milk powder and caseinate is described. Detection of milk proteins was based on the identification of unique peptides in the tryptic digests of cookie/wine extracts using an RP-HPLC separation coupled to an Exactive nonhybrid mass spectrometer using Orbitrap technology. The extremely high mass accuracy and resolution provided by the Orbitrap analyzer allowed a fast preliminary identification of four previously proposed peptide markers of caseins using only accurate values of the m/z of their ions. No interference was observed, despite the complexity of the analyzed matrixes. Moreover, the availability of a high- energy, collisionally activated dissociation cell integrated in the mass spectrometer enabled acquisition of peptide MS/MS-like spectra through post-source fragmentation. Confirmation of peptide marker identity could then be achieved by a comparison between experimental and predicted product ions. The described method shows the great potential of Orbitrap MS as a reliable technique in the field of protein allergen detection once the peptide markers are identified.

  17. [From stand-alone solution to longitudinal communication curriculum--development and implementation at the Faculty of Medicine in Heidelberg].

    PubMed

    Sator, Marlene; Jünger, Jana

    2015-05-01

    At the Faculty of Medicine in Heidelberg, implementation of an interdisciplinary longitudinal curriculum was started in 2001 with the goal of achieving sustained promotion of communicative and clinical competences. The aim of this paper is to describe the development and implementation of Heidelberg's longitudinal communication curriculum. Furthermore, innovative aspects and strategies are discussed. The methodological approaches for development and implementation were Kern's "Six-step Approach" and a SWOT analysis. The process resulted in an innovative communication curriculum that starts with an integrated curriculum for developing clinical and communicative competence in the pre-clinical phase and continues in the clinical phase with medical communication and interactive training. Satisfaction with the communication curriculum and its effectiveness were rated highly by students. Residents who had graduated from Faculty of Medicine in Heidelberg rated the extent to which they had communicative competencies at the time of their graduation at their disposal significantly higher than residents who had graduated from the other 4 medical faculties in Baden-Württemberg. The experiences gained in Heidelberg can be applied by other faculties. PMID:25941988

  18. Factors Influencing the Presence of Ethics and CSR Stand-Alone Courses in the Accounting Masters Curricula: An International Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrán Jorge, Manuel; Andrades Peña, Francisco Javier; Muriel de los Reyes, María José

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a web-content analysis of the curriculum and subjects of the top accounting and auditing masters identified in the Eduniversal 2012-2013 ratings of the best business schools in the world. The main aim of this study is to analyze the influence exerted by different factors on the extent to which accounting programs are…

  19. Study of a thermoelectric system equipped with a maximum power point tracker for stand-alone electric generation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favarel, C.; Champier, D.; Bédécarrats, J. P.; Kousksou, T.; Strub, F.

    2012-06-01

    According to the International Energy Agency, 1.4 billion people are without electricity in the poorest countries and 2.5 billion people rely on biomass to meet their energy needs for cooking in developing countries. The use of cooking stoves equipped with small thermoelectric generator to provide electricity for basic needs (LED, cell phone and radio charging device) is probably a solution for houses far from the power grid. The cost of connecting every house with a landline is a lot higher than dropping thermoelectric generator in each house. Thermoelectric generators have very low efficiency but for isolated houses, they might become really competitive. Our laboratory works in collaboration with plane`te-bois (a non governmental organization) which has developed energy-efficient multifunction (cooking and hot water) stoves based on traditional stoves designs. A prototype of a thermoelectric generator (Bismuth Telluride) has been designed to convert a small part of the energy heating the sanitary water into electricity. This generator can produce up to 10 watts on an adapted load. Storing this energy in a battery is necessary as the cooking stove only works a few hours each day. As the working point of the stove varies a lot during the use it is also necessary to regulate the electrical power. An electric DC DC converter has been developed with a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) in order to have a good efficiency of the electronic part of the thermoelectric generator. The theoretical efficiency of the MMPT converter is discussed. First results obtained with a hot gas generator simulating the exhaust of the combustion chamber of a cooking stove are presented in the paper.

  20. 77 FR 14006 - Proposed Development of the Alaska Stand Alone Gas Pipeline Project (ASAP), From the North Slope...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... January 20, 2012, issue of the Federal Register (77 FR No. 13), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps... Project (ASAP), From the North Slope to South Central Alaska, Draft Environmental Impact Statement...

  1. Sensitive detection of black powder by stand-alone ion mobility spectrometer with chlorinated hydrocarbon modifiers in drift gas.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xixi; Wang, Xin; Wang, Weiguo; Zhou, Qinghua; Chen, Chuang; Peng, Liying; Wen, Meng; Qu, Tuanshuai; Wang, Zhenxin; Zhao, Kun; Li, Jinghua; Li, Haiyang

    2014-04-01

    This paper introduces a simple method for selective and sensitive detection of black powder by adding chlorinated hydrocarbons in the drift gas instead of changing the structure of conventional ion mobility spectrometer (IMS). The function of chloride modifiers was to substitute Cl(-)(H₂O)n for [O₂⁻ (H₂O)(n)] in the drift region so as to avoid the overlap between O₂⁻ (H₂O)(n) and sulfur ion peaks. Among CH₂Cl₂, CHCl₃ and CCl₄, CCl₄ was chosen as the modifier due to the best peak-to-peak resolution and stability towards the fluctuation of modifier concentration. With 1.4 ppm CCl₄ as the modifier, the minimum detectable quantity of 0.1 ng for sulfur was achieved. Moreover, this method showed the ability for detection of common explosives at sub-nanogram level, such as black powder (BP), ammonium nitrate fuel oil (ANFO), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN). In summary, this method requiring no configuration modification has high sensitivity and selectivity, and consumes trace amount of modifier. And these characteristics make it easy to be adopted in current deployed IMS to detect black powder explosives.

  2. BET 1: Safety and efficacy of colchicine as stand-alone therapy for the prevention of recurrent pericarditis.

    PubMed

    Manspeaker, Andrew; Andrews-Dickert, Rebecca

    2016-08-01

    A short cut review was carried out looking for evidence of the benefits of using colchicine as a single therapy for acute pericarditis. A literature search was performed but no papers were found to provide evidence of the efficacy of colchicine without the concurrent use of Non-steriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for this condition. PMID:27440768

  3. Life, Learning, and Standing Alone: The Adaptation Process of Wives of South Korean Students to New Circumstances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jun, JuSung

    Adjustment experiences of South Korean graduate students' wives living in Georgia were examined from a feminist viewpoint. The adaptive process, its cultural meaning, and related social ramifications, was hypothesized to be an example of transformative learning. These two questions guided the study: (1) how did South Korean students' wives adapt…

  4. A new technique based on Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for optimal sizing of stand-alone photovoltaic system.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ahmed F; Elarini, Mahdi M; Othman, Ahmed M

    2014-05-01

    One of the most recent optimization techniques applied to the optimal design of photovoltaic system to supply an isolated load demand is the Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm (ABC). The proposed methodology is applied to optimize the cost of the PV system including photovoltaic, a battery bank, a battery charger controller, and inverter. Two objective functions are proposed: the first one is the PV module output power which is to be maximized and the second one is the life cycle cost (LCC) which is to be minimized. The analysis is performed based on measured solar radiation and ambient temperature measured at Helwan city, Egypt. A comparison between ABC algorithm and Genetic Algorithm (GA) optimal results is done. Another location is selected which is Zagazig city to check the validity of ABC algorithm in any location. The ABC is more optimal than GA. The results encouraged the use of the PV systems to electrify the rural sites of Egypt.

  5. An Assessment of the Lasting Effects of a Stand-Alone Information Literacy Course: The Students' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Alice L.; Russo, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    The authors wished to measure the degree to which a library information literacy course establishes a foundation for life-long learning. A web-based survey was administered to 2147 currently-matriculating Louisiana State University students who had taken the one-credit information literacy course, Library and Information Science (LIS) 1001…

  6. 49 CFR 1109.4 - Mandatory mediation in rate cases to be considered under the stand-alone cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PRACTICE USE OF ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION IN BOARD PROCEEDINGS AND THOSE IN WHICH THE BOARD IS A PARTY... methodology must engage in non-binding mediation of its dispute with the railroad upon filing a formal complaint under 49 CFR Part 1111. (b) Within 10 business days after the shipper files its formal...

  7. A new technique based on Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for optimal sizing of stand-alone photovoltaic system

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Ahmed F.; Elarini, Mahdi M.; Othman, Ahmed M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most recent optimization techniques applied to the optimal design of photovoltaic system to supply an isolated load demand is the Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm (ABC). The proposed methodology is applied to optimize the cost of the PV system including photovoltaic, a battery bank, a battery charger controller, and inverter. Two objective functions are proposed: the first one is the PV module output power which is to be maximized and the second one is the life cycle cost (LCC) which is to be minimized. The analysis is performed based on measured solar radiation and ambient temperature measured at Helwan city, Egypt. A comparison between ABC algorithm and Genetic Algorithm (GA) optimal results is done. Another location is selected which is Zagazig city to check the validity of ABC algorithm in any location. The ABC is more optimal than GA. The results encouraged the use of the PV systems to electrify the rural sites of Egypt. PMID:25685507

  8. JChainsAnalyser: an ImageJ-based stand-alone application for the study of magneto-rheological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-García, P.; Rubio, M. A.

    2009-10-01

    JChainsAnalyser is a Java-based program for the analysis of two-dimensional images of magneto-rheological fluids (MRF) at low concentration of particles obtained using the video-microscopy technique. MRF are colloidal dispersions of micron-sized polarizable particles in a carrier fluid with medium to low viscosity. When a magnetic field is applied to the suspension, the particles aggregate forming chains or clusters. Aggregation dynamics [P. Domínguez-García, S. Melle, J.M. Pastor, M.A. Rubio, Phys. Rev. E 76 (2007) 051403] and morphology of the aggregates [P. Domínguez-García, S. Melle, M.A. Rubio, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 333 (2009) 221-229] have been studied capturing images of the fluid and analyzing them by using this software. The program allows to analyze automatically the MRF images by means of an adequate combination of different imaging methods, while magnitudes and statistics are calculated and saved in data files. It is possible to run the program on a desktop computer, using the GUI (graphical user interface), or in a cluster of processors or remote computer by means of command-line instructions. Program summaryProgram title: JChainsAnalyser Catalogue identifier: AEDT_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEDT_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC license, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 79 071 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4 367 909 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Java 2 Computer: Any computer with Java Runtime Environment (JRE) installed Operating system: Any OS with Java Runtime Environment (JRE) installed RAM: Typically, 3.3 MB Classification: 23 External routines: ImageJ, ij-imageIO, jdom, L2FProd Nature of problem: The video-microscopy technique usually produces quite a big quantity of images to analyze. Although ImageJ gives the required filters and methods for image analysis, it fails when a large number of images is used. Moreover, an adequate combination of filters is needed for the segmentation and binarization of this kind of images. Solution method: JChainsAnalyser filters and analyses any quantity of MRF images automatically, so the application can be run on a desktop computer or using a cluster of processors. It can be run in a desktop computer using the GUI (graphical user interface) or by a command-line interface. JChainsAnalyser uses XML files to define input/output data and Java to ensure portability between operating systems. It also utilizes an image algorithm based on the application of different and adaptative ImageJ's filters. Running time: The test run provided takes only a few seconds.

  9. Synthesis and photochemical properties of PEGylated coumarin-caged ceramides for cell studies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Ah; Day, Jenna; Lirette, Carol Ann; Costain, Willard J; Johnston, Linda J; Bittman, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Caged ceramide analogues (C6-, C16-, C18-, C22- and C24-Cer) have been prepared by introducing a hydrophilic coumarin-based cage bearing a short polyethylene glycol (PEG) chain. (6-Bromo-7-mTEGylated-coumarin-4-yl)methyl (Btc) caged ceramide showed efficient photo-uncaging to release the parent ceramide upon direct exposure to 350 nm UV light; in contrast (7-mTEGylated-coumarin-4-yl)methyl (Tc) caged ceramide was photolysed more slowly. In preliminary experiments, Btc-caged ceramides were taken up by cells and their photolysis led to decreases in cell viability, but not to activation of caspase enzymes, suggesting that either reactive oxygen species or an alternate caspase-independent pathway may be responsible for the decreases in cell viability caused by photolysis of caged ceramides.

  10. Smallest fullerene-like silicon cage stabilized by a V{sub 2} unit

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Hong-Guang E-mail: zhengwj@iccas.ac.cn; Kong, Xiang-Yu; Deng, Xiao-Jiao; Zhang, Zeng-Guang; Zheng, Wei-Jun E-mail: zhengwj@iccas.ac.cn

    2014-01-14

    We conducted a combined anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory study on V{sub 2}Si{sub 20} cluster. Our results show that the V{sub 2}Si{sub 20} cluster has an elongated dodecahedron cage structure with a V{sub 2} unit encapsulated inside the cage. It is the smallest fullerene-like silicon cage and can be used as building block to make cluster-assembled materials, such as pearl-chain style nanowires.

  11. Shape assisted fabrication of fluorescent cages of squarate based metal-organic coordination frameworks.

    PubMed

    Jayaramulu, Kolleboyina; Krishna, Katla Sai; George, Subi J; Eswaramoorthy, Muthuswamy; Maji, Tapas Kumar

    2013-05-11

    Micronic cage structures of squarate based metal-organic coordination frameworks (MOCFs) have been fabricated for the first time by specific anion selective etching of metal squarate cubes. Time and stoichiometry dependent synthesis and the corresponding microscopic studies have provided mechanistic insight into the cage formation. Furthermore, a non-covalent post-synthetic strategy has been adopted to functionalize the micronic cubes or cages with chromophores rendering the resulting hybrids green fluorescent.

  12. Federal government expands compliance initiatives.

    PubMed

    Dugan, J K

    1997-09-01

    In 1995, the Federal government initiated Operation Restore Trust to increase enforcement of fraud and abuse regulations in Medicare and Medicaid programs. With the success of the original initiative, the government is expanding the project to additional states and program areas. The initial scrutiny of home health agencies, nursing homes, hospice care, and durable medical equipment is being expanded to managed care plans and acute care hospitals with an eye toward DRG creep. To manage this increased enforcement activity, healthcare organizations should institute comprehensive corporate compliance programs. Such programs should provide a framework that delineates responsibilities and provides a systematic means to resolve issues in a timely manner. PMID:10170318

  13. Federal government expands compliance initiatives.

    PubMed

    Dugan, J K

    1997-09-01

    In 1995, the Federal government initiated Operation Restore Trust to increase enforcement of fraud and abuse regulations in Medicare and Medicaid programs. With the success of the original initiative, the government is expanding the project to additional states and program areas. The initial scrutiny of home health agencies, nursing homes, hospice care, and durable medical equipment is being expanded to managed care plans and acute care hospitals with an eye toward DRG creep. To manage this increased enforcement activity, healthcare organizations should institute comprehensive corporate compliance programs. Such programs should provide a framework that delineates responsibilities and provides a systematic means to resolve issues in a timely manner.

  14. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Three Cage Layer Housing Systems.

    PubMed

    Fournel, Sébastien; Pelletier, Frédéric; Godbout, Stéphane; Lagacé, Robert; Feddes, John

    2011-12-27

    Agriculture accounts for 10 to 12% of the World's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Manure management alone is responsible for 13% of GHG emissions from the agricultural sector. During the last decade, Québec's egg production systems have shifted from deep-pit housing systems to manure belt housing systems. The objective of this study was to measure and compare carbon dioxide (CO₂), methane (CH₄) and nitrous oxide (N₂O) emissions from three different cage layer housing systems: a deep liquid manure pit and a manure belt with natural or forced air drying. Deep liquid manure pit housing systems consist of "A" frame layer cages located over a closed pit containing the hens' droppings to which water is added to facilitate removal by pumping. Manure belt techniques imply that manure drops on a belt beneath each row of battery cages where it is either dried naturally or by forced air until it is removed. The experiment was replicated with 360 hens reared into twelve independent bench-scale rooms during eight weeks (19-27 weeks of age). The natural and forced air manure belt systems reduced CO₂ (28.2 and 28.7 kg yr(-1) hen(-1), respectively), CH₄ (25.3 and 27.7 g yr(-1) hen(-1), respectively) and N₂O (2.60 and 2.48 g yr(-1) hen(-1), respectively) emissions by about 21, 16 and 9% in comparison with the deep-pit technique (36.0 kg CO₂ yr(-1) hen(-1), 31.6 g CH₄ yr(-1) hen(-1) and 2.78 g N₂O yr(-1) hen(-1)). The shift to manure belt systems needs to be encouraged since this housing system significantly decreases the production of GHG.

  15. Brain injury and deprivation of liberty on neurosciences wards: 'a gilded cage is still a cage'.

    PubMed

    Ashby, Gillian Alice; Griffin, Colette; Agrawal, Niruj

    2015-10-01

    In March 2014, a UK Supreme Court case, known as Cheshire West, reached a judgement that greatly expanded the group of people in England and Wales who could be considered deprived of their liberty when under the care of the state. This now includes anyone meeting what is known as the 'acid test': whether the person is under 'continuous supervision and control' and 'not free to leave'. The case concerned three people with learning disability, living in community residential placements; all were judged to have been deprived of their liberty, despite being apparently content, and having 'relative normality' for people in their situation. Many people consider the case to apply to hospital settings. Clearly, many neurosciences inpatients are under 'continuous supervision and control'. This might include being told when to eat or sleep, what medication to take or being under close nursing observation. Many also are not free to leave because of safety concerns. Inpatients may also be eligible for detention under Mental Health Act--if they have a mental disorder sufficient to warrant this--such as a risk to that person's health or safety, or the safety of others. Thus, we have a confusing combination of two laws that might apply. This article aims to demystify the legal background and apply it to clinical practice in England and Wales and elsewhere.

  16. A calibration model for screen-caged Peltier thermocouple psychrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. W.; Bartos, D. L.

    1982-07-01

    A calibration model for screen-caged Peltier thermocouple psychrometers was developed that applies to a water potential range of 0 to 80 bars, over a temperature range of 0 to 40 C, and for cooling times of 15 to 60 seconds. In addition, the model corrects for the effects of temperature gradients over zero-offsets from -60 to +60 microvolts. Complete details of model development are discussed, together with the theory of thermocouple psychrometers, and techniques of calibration and cleaning. Also, information for computer programing and tabular summaries of model characteristics are provided.

  17. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Three Cage Layer Housing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fournel, Sébastien; Pelletier, Frédéric; Godbout, Stéphane; Lagacé, Robert; Feddes, John

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were measured from three different cage layer housing systems. A comparative study was conducted to identify the housing system with the least impact on the environment. The results showed that liquid manure from deep-pit housing systems produces greater emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) than natural and forced dried manure from belt housing systems. The influencing factors appeared to be the manure removal frequency and the dry matter content of the manure. Abstract Agriculture accounts for 10 to 12% of the World’s total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Manure management alone is responsible for 13% of GHG emissions from the agricultural sector. During the last decade, Québec’s egg production systems have shifted from deep-pit housing systems to manure belt housing systems. The objective of this study was to measure and compare carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from three different cage layer housing systems: a deep liquid manure pit and a manure belt with natural or forced air drying. Deep liquid manure pit housing systems consist of “A” frame layer cages located over a closed pit containing the hens’ droppings to which water is added to facilitate removal by pumping. Manure belt techniques imply that manure drops on a belt beneath each row of battery cages where it is either dried naturally or by forced air until it is removed. The experiment was replicated with 360 hens reared into twelve independent bench-scale rooms during eight weeks (19–27 weeks of age). The natural and forced air manure belt systems reduced CO2 (28.2 and 28.7 kg yr−1 hen−1, respectively), CH4 (25.3 and 27.7 g yr−1 hen−1, respectively) and N2O (2.60 and 2.48 g yr−1 hen−1, respectively) emissions by about 21, 16 and 9% in comparison with the deep-pit technique (36.0 kg CO2 yr−1 hen−1, 31.6 g CH4 yr−1 hen−1 and 2.78 g N2O yr−1 hen−1). The

  18. Encapsulation of Semiconducting Polymers in Vault Protein Cages

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, B.C.; Yu, M.; Gopal, A.; Rome, L.H.; Monbouquette, H.G.; Tolbert, S.H.

    2009-05-22

    We demonstrate that a semiconducting polymer [poly(2-methoxy-5-propyloxy sulfonate phenylene vinylene), MPS-PPV] can be encapsulated inside recombinant, self-assembling protein nanocapsules called 'vaults'. Polymer incorporation into these nanosized protein cages, found naturally at {approx}10,000 copies per human cell, was confirmed by fluorescence spectroscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. Although vault cellular functions and gating mechanisms remain unknown, their large internal volume and natural prevalence within the human body suggests they could be used as carriers for therapeutics and medical imaging reagents. This study provides the groundwork for the use of vaults in encapsulation and delivery applications.

  19. Evolution of Design of Interbody Cages for Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Phan, Kevin; Mobbs, Ralph J

    2016-08-01

    Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) is one of the surgical procedures for the relief of chronic back pain, radiculopathy and neurogenic claudication in patients with degenerative lumbar spine disease that is refractory to conservative therapy, low-grade spondylolisthesis and pseudo arthrosis. Over the past half century, both the surgical techniques and instrumentation required for ALIF have changed significantly. In particular, the designs of ALIF cage and the materials used have evolved dramatically, the common goal being to improve fusion rates and optimize clinical outcomes. The increasing popularity of ALIF is reflected by the increasing abundance of published studies reporting clinical outcomes, surgical techniques and grafting options for ALIF. Developments in cage designs include cylindrical Bagby and Kuslich, cylindrical ray, cylindrical mesh, lumbar-tapered, polyethyl-etherketone cage and integral fixation cages. Biologic implants include bone dowels and femoral ring allografts. Methods for optimization of cage design have included cage dimensions, use of novel composite cage materials and integral fixation technologies. However, the historical development and evolution of cages used for ALIF has not been extensively documented. This article therefore aims to provide an overview of the historical basis for the anterior approach, evolution in design of ALIF cage implants and potential future research directions. PMID:27627708

  20. Biocentrifuge system capable of exchanging specimen cages while in operational mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belew, R. R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    The centrifuge comprises a generally circular, rotatably mounted frame carrying a plurality of removable and replaceable cages for the animal specimens. Pairs of opposing cages may be removed from the frame while it is rotating by means of a cage exchanger which rotates concentrically within the centrifuge and the speed of which is controlled independently of the frame speed. An image rotator is provided for selective observation of the rotating animals. The system further includes a waste conveyor system, a food supply system, and a water supply system for each cage for creating a life sustaining environment so that the animals can live in the rotating centrifuge for extended periods.

  1. Temporal variation of the static electric field inside an animal cage.

    PubMed

    Shigemitsu, T; Tsuchida, Y; Nishiyama, F; Matsumoto, G; Nakamura, H; Shimizu, K

    1981-01-01

    The temporal variation of a static electric field inside an animal cage was investigated with a newly developed small, simple field meter. The field inside the cage was found to be highly dependent on the surface conductivity of the dielectric material. As the surface of the cage became dirty because of animal occupancy, the static electric field inside it became considerably smaller from the moment the field was turned on. Clean cages also modified the static electric field inside them, the field decaying from an initial to a much lower value over several hours. The mechanism of field attenuation for both cases is surface leakage. Surface leakage for a clean cage takes place much more slowly than for a dirty cage. This was confirmed by measuring DC insulation resistance. To examine this phenomenon further, the field in a metal cage width high electrical conductivity was measured. The static electric field inside the metal cage was also found to be reduced. An improved cage design that avoids these problems, is suggested for the study of the biologic effects of static electric fields. PMID:7326060

  2. Biomechanical investigation into the structural design of porous additive manufactured cages using numerical and experimental approaches.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pei-I; Hsu, Ching-Chi; Chen, San-Yuan; Wu, Tsung-Han; Huang, Chih-Chieh

    2016-09-01

    Traditional solid cages have been widely used in posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) surgery. However, solid cages significantly affect the loading mechanism of the human spine due to their extremely high structural stiffness. Previous studies proposed and investigated porous additive manufactured (AM) cages; however, their biomechanical performances were analyzed using oversimplified bone-implant numerical models. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the outer shape and inner porous structure of the AM cages. The outer shape of the AM cages was discovered using a simulation-based genetic algorithm; their inner porous structure was subsequently analyzed parametrically using T10-S1 multilevel spine models. Finally, six types of the AM cages, which were manufactured using selective laser melting, were tested to validate the numerical outcomes. The subsidence resistance of the optimum design was superior to the conventional cage designs. A porous AM cage with a pillar diameter of 0.4mm, a pillar angle of 40°, and a porosity of between 69% and 80% revealed better biomechanical performances. Both the numerical and experimental outcomes can help surgeons to understand the biomechanics of PLIF surgery combined with the use of AM cages. PMID:27392226

  3. A high-precision instrument for analyzing nonlinear dynamic behavior of bearing cage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Chen, H.; Yu, T.; Li, B.

    2016-08-01

    The high-precision ball bearing is fundamental to the performance of complex mechanical systems. As the speed increases, the cage behavior becomes a key factor in influencing the bearing performance, especially life and reliability. This paper develops a high-precision instrument for analyzing nonlinear dynamic behavior of the bearing cage. The trajectory of the rotational center and non-repetitive run-out (NRRO) of the cage are used to evaluate the instability of cage motion. This instrument applied an aerostatic spindle to support and spin test the bearing to decrease the influence of system error. Then, a high-speed camera is used to capture images when the bearing works at high speeds. A 3D trajectory tracking software tema Motion is used to track the spot which marked the cage surface. Finally, by developing the matlab program, a Lissajous' figure was used to evaluate the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the cage with different speeds. The trajectory of rotational center and NRRO of the cage with various speeds are analyzed. The results can be used to predict the initial failure and optimize cage structural parameters. In addition, the repeatability precision of instrument is also validated. In the future, the motorized spindle will be applied to increase testing speed and image processing algorithms will be developed to analyze the trajectory of the cage.

  4. Sensitivity of BN nano-cages to caffeine and nicotine molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltani, Alireza; Baei, Mohammad T.; Tazikeh Lemeski, E.; Shahini, Malihe

    2014-12-01

    Adsorption of caffeine and nicotine molecules over B12N12 and B16N16 nano-cages were investigated by using first-principles calculations to define whether BN nano-cages are applicable for filtering or sensing caffeine and nicotine molecules. The chemisorption energy of nicotine molecule on BN nano-cages is very stronger than caffeine molecule. Upon the adsorption of caffeine and nicotine molecules, the electronic properties of the BN nano-cages can be significantly changed, being too much sensitized on the caffeine and nicotine adsorptions.

  5. A stochastic frontier analysis of technical efficiency of fish cage culture in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Islam, Gazi Md Nurul; Tai, Shzee Yew; Kusairi, Mohd Noh

    2016-01-01

    Cage culture plays an important role in achieving higher output and generating more export earnings in Malaysia. However, the cost of fingerlings, feed and labour have increased substantially for cage culture in the coastal areas in Peninsular Malaysia. This paper uses farm level data gathered from Manjung, Perak and Kota Tinggi, Johor to investigate the technical efficiency of brackish water fish cage culture using the stochastic frontier approach. The technical efficiency was estimated and specifically the factors affecting technical inefficiencies of fish cage culture system in Malaysia was investigated. On average, 37 percent of the sampled fish cage farms are technically efficient. The results suggest very high degrees of technical inefficiency exist among the cage culturists. This implies that great potential exists to increase fish production through improved efficiency in cage culture management in Peninsular Malaysia. The results indicate that farmers obtained grouper fingerlings from other neighboring countries due to scarcity of fingerlings from wild sources. The cost of feeding for grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) requires relatively higher costs compared to seabass (Lates calcarifer) production in cage farms in the study areas. Initiatives to undertake extension programmes at the farm level are needed to help cage culturists in utilizing their resources more efficiently in order to substantially enhance their fish production. PMID:27478744

  6. High pressure oxygen turbopump bearing cage stability analyses. [space shuttle main engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriman, T. L.; Kannel, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    The low service life of the high pressure oxygen turbopump (HPOTP) bearings used in the space shuttle main engine was examined by use of the Battelle "BASDAP' bearing computer stability model. The dynamic instability of the bearing cage resulted in excessive wear and eventual failure of the unit. By maintaining a cage/race clearance of no more than 0.25 millimeters (0.010 inches), ball/pocket clearance of no less than 0.54 millimeters (0.025 inches), dynamic balancing of the cages, and maintaining adequate lubricant films between the balls and races, cage instability and subsequent bearing degradation can be reduced.

  7. Rearing Laying Hens in Aviaries Reduces Fearfulness following Transfer to Furnished Cages

    PubMed Central

    Brantsæter, Margrethe; Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Moe, Randi O.; Hansen, Tone B.; Orritt, Rachel; Nicol, Christine; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate rearing is essential for ensuring the welfare and productivity of laying hens. Early experience has the potential to affect the development of fearfulness. This study tested whether rearing in aviaries, as opposed to cages, reduces the fearfulness of laying hens after transfer to furnished cages. Fear responses were recorded as avoidance of a novel object in the home cage. Lohmann Selected Leghorns were reared in an aviary system or conventional rearing cages and then transported to furnished cages at 16 weeks, before the onset of lay. Observations of a selection of birds were conducted at 19 (N = 50 independent cages) and 21 (N = 48 independent cages) weeks of age. At 19 and 21 weeks, cage-reared birds showed higher levels of fearfulness indicated by spending more time away from the novel object compared to aviary-reared birds. These results suggest that rearing in an enriched aviary environment reduces fearfulness up to the fifth week after transfer to a new housing system, compared to rearing in cages. PMID:26955634

  8. Effects of Nominal Differences in Cage Height and Floor Space on the Wellbeing of Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Kay L; Suckow, Mark A

    2016-03-01

    The 8th edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals recommends a cage height of 16 in. for rabbits, compared with 14 in. in the previous edition. In contrast, the Animal Welfare Act Regulations prescribes a cage height of 14 in. for rabbits. A review of the literature failed to identify published data that support an advantage to rabbits having 16 in. of cage height compared with 14 or 15 in. The study described here evaluated the effect of a 3-in. difference in cage height on the health, growth, behavior, and overall wellbeing of rabbits. Groups of 10 New Zealand white rabbits were housed in cages that provided either 15 in. of interior cage height (720 in(2) of floor space) or 18 in. of interior height (784 in(2) of floor space). The rabbits were observed during 25 periods (1 h each) over 7 wk, and various behavioral parameters were scored. In addition, rabbits were weighed weekly, and general clinical health was assessed. After 4 wk, the groups were switched to the alternate housing. No significant differences in body weight gain or behavioral parameters were detected between groups housed in cages with different heights and amounts of floor space, nor were significant behavioral differences noted in individual rabbits when moved from one cage type to the other. In addition, all rabbits remained clinically healthy throughout the study. These results demonstrate that these differences in interior cage height neither benefit nor harm rabbits. PMID:27025808

  9. Effects of Nominal Differences in Cage Height and Floor Space on the Wellbeing of Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Kay L; Suckow, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    The 8th edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals recommends a cage height of 16 in. for rabbits, compared with 14 in. in the previous edition. In contrast, the Animal Welfare Act Regulations prescribes a cage height of 14 in. for rabbits. A review of the literature failed to identify published data that support an advantage to rabbits having 16 in. of cage height compared with 14 or 15 in. The study described here evaluated the effect of a 3-in. difference in cage height on the health, growth, behavior, and overall wellbeing of rabbits. Groups of 10 New Zealand white rabbits were housed in cages that provided either 15 in. of interior cage height (720 in2 of floor space) or 18 in. of interior height (784 in2 of floor space). The rabbits were observed during 25 periods (1 h each) over 7 wk, and various behavioral parameters were scored. In addition, rabbits were weighed weekly, and general clinical health was assessed. After 4 wk, the groups were switched to the alternate housing. No significant differences in body weight gain or behavioral parameters were detected between groups housed in cages with different heights and amounts of floor space, nor were significant behavioral differences noted in individual rabbits when moved from one cage type to the other. In addition, all rabbits remained clinically healthy throughout the study. These results demonstrate that these differences in interior cage height neither benefit nor harm rabbits. PMID:27025808

  10. A high-precision instrument for analyzing nonlinear dynamic behavior of bearing cage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z; Chen, H; Yu, T; Li, B

    2016-08-01

    The high-precision ball bearing is fundamental to the performance of complex mechanical systems. As the speed increases, the cage behavior becomes a key factor in influencing the bearing performance, especially life and reliability. This paper develops a high-precision instrument for analyzing nonlinear dynamic behavior of the bearing cage. The trajectory of the rotational center and non-repetitive run-out (NRRO) of the cage are used to evaluate the instability of cage motion. This instrument applied an aerostatic spindle to support and spin test the bearing to decrease the influence of system error. Then, a high-speed camera is used to capture images when the bearing works at high speeds. A 3D trajectory tracking software tema Motion is used to track the spot which marked the cage surface. Finally, by developing the matlab program, a Lissajous' figure was used to evaluate the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the cage with different speeds. The trajectory of rotational center and NRRO of the cage with various speeds are analyzed. The results can be used to predict the initial failure and optimize cage structural parameters. In addition, the repeatability precision of instrument is also validated. In the future, the motorized spindle will be applied to increase testing speed and image processing algorithms will be developed to analyze the trajectory of the cage. PMID:27587158

  11. Evaluation of cage micro-environment of mice housed on various types of bedding materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, E.; Stockwell, J.D.; Schweitzer, I.; Langley, S.H.; Smith, A.L.

    2004-01-01

    A variety of environmental factors can affect the outcomes of studies using laboratory rodents. One such factor is bedding. Several new bedding materials and processing methods have been introduced to the market in recent years, but there are few reports of their performance. In the studies reported here, we have assessed the cage micro-environment (in-cage ammonia levels, temperature, and humidity) of mice housed on various kinds of bedding and their combinations. We also compared results for bedding supplied as Nestpaks versus loose bedding. We studied C57BL/6J mice (commonly used) and NOD/LtJ mice (heavy soilers) that were maintained, except in one study, in static duplex cages. In general, we observed little effect of bedding type on in-cage temperature or humidity; however, there was considerable variation in ammonia concentrations. The lowest ammonia concentrations occurred in cages housing mice on hardwood bedding or a mixture of corncob and alpha cellulose. In one experiment comparing the micro-environments of NOD/LtJ male mice housed on woodpulp fiber bedding in static versus ventilated caging, we showed a statistically significant decrease in ammonia concentrations in ventilated cages. Therefore, our data show that bedding type affects the micro-environment in static cages and that effects may differ for ventilated cages, which are being used in vivaria with increasing frequency.

  12. Development and application of fluorescent, green light-activatable caged compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, Nobuhiro; Urano, Yasuteru; Nagano, Tetsuo

    2011-03-01

    Caged compound is one of the most powerful tools for spatiotemporal control of biomolecules in cells, which can be activated by irradiation of light. However, ultra violet light, which is required for activation of caged compounds, can damage cells and has poor permeability into tissues. In addition, invisibility of caged compounds makes it difficult to tell distribution of released small molecules. At the conference, we will describe the development of novel caging group and new caged compounds which are fluorescently visible and efficiently activatable with green light. We have found that boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY), known as a widely used fluorophore, is a potential caging group for phenol, carboxyl acid and amine, which can be photolized with irradiation of green light at around 500 nm wavelength. Based on the novel photo-reaction of 4-phenoxy BODIPY derivatives, we have developed caged histamine and applied it to HeLa cells. Photo-irradiation to cells in the presence of caged histamine induced transient increase of calcium ion in cytosol, which was specifically inhibited with pyrilamine, a H1 blocker. Also, we showed that BODIPY-caged compound can be utilized in vivo with tissue-permeable 500 nm green light.

  13. Porous titanium-6 aluminum-4 vanadium cage has better osseointegration and less micromotion than a poly-ether-ether-ketone cage in sheep vertebral fusion.

    PubMed

    Wu, Su-Hua; Li, Yi; Zhang, Yong-Quan; Li, Xiao-Kang; Yuan, Chao-Fan; Hao, Yu-Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Guo, Zheng

    2013-12-01

    Interbody fusion cages made of poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) have been widely used in clinics for spinal disorders treatment; however, they do not integrate well with surrounding bone tissue. Ti-6Al-4V (Ti) has demonstrated greater osteoconductivity than PEEK, but the traditional Ti cage is generally limited by its much greater elastic modulus (110 GPa) than natural bone (0.05-30 GPa). In this study, we developed a porous Ti cage using electron beam melting (EBM) technique to reduce its elastic modulus and compared its spinal fusion efficacy with a PEEK cage in a preclinical sheep anterior cervical fusion model. A porous Ti cage possesses a fully interconnected porous structure (porosity: 68 ± 5.3%; pore size: 710 ± 42 μm) and a similar Young's modulus as natural bone (2.5 ± 0.2 GPa). When implanted in vivo, the porous Ti cage promoted fast bone ingrowth, achieving similar bone volume fraction at 6 months as the PEEK cage without autograft transplantation. Moreover, it promoted better osteointegration with higher degree (2-10x) of bone-material binding, demonstrated by histomorphometrical analysis, and significantly higher mechanical stability (P < 0.01), shown by biomechanical testing. The porous Ti cage fabricated by EBM could achieve fast bone ingrowth. In addition, it had better osseointegration and superior mechanical stability than the conventional PEEK cage, demonstrating great potential for clinical application.

  14. Comparative investigation of polyhedral water cages of (H2O)n (n = 20, 24, and 28) encaging CH4 and SF6 as guest molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung Soo; Lee, Sanghun; Won, Yong Sun; Ahn, Young Ju

    2014-09-01

    Endohedral complexes of X@(H2O)n (n = 20, 24, and 28) fused with guest molecules (X = CH4 and SF6) are computationally analyzed with respect to geometric and energetics by use of B3LYP, B3LYP-D, and M06-2X methods with 6-311++G(d,p) and cc-PVQZ basis sets. The interaction energies (IEs) of the endohedral CH4@(H2O)n and SF6@(H2O)n complexes represent a clear preference for the latter forms, except for X@(H2O)20; the SF6@(H2O)20 is less stable than the CH4@(H2O)20, unlike the larger complexes, X@(H2O)24 and X@(H2O)28. Based on the relative stability of the SF6 guest molecule in larger cages which is consistent with experimental Raman findings, possible structures of SF6@(H2O)n are examined. Our study, in which B3LYP-D and M06-2X methods were employed to elucidate the non-bonding characteristics properly, proposes that CH4 and SF6 molecules exist stably in (H2O)n without noticeable destruction of the cages. However, the X@(H2O)20 complex expands considerably upon the insertion of the guest molecule in the cage.

  15. The Expanding Frontier of Pluralism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Edmund

    1983-01-01

    Looks at the expanding frontier of pluralism in terms of reappraising the relationship of formal education to the advent of the constant change (occupational and social) accelerated by the microprocessor revolution and readjusting provisions in educational systems to meet the different needs of different populations. (AH)

  16. Expanding the Concept of Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Explores four arguments for an expanded definition of literacy to include the multimedia language of the screen. Describes efforts to develop this literacy in students at the Institute for Multimedia Literacy at the Annenberg Center of the University of Southern California. (EV)

  17. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    DOEpatents

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2010-09-14

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  18. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    DOEpatents

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2009-10-27

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  19. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2009-11-17

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  20. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, Jason W; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G

    2015-02-03

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  1. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    DOEpatents

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2012-02-14

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  2. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2009-12-01

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  3. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2013-01-22

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  4. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    DOEpatents

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2012-05-08

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  5. Expanding the Universe of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Elizabeth

    1996-01-01

    Definitions of "education" and "rural" are debunked and expanded. The three major tasks of rural education are educating people to understand their own needs, the unavoidable changes that will transform rural Australia within their lifetimes, and the range of technologies that can enhance their well-being. Presents a strategy for educating…

  6. Common Ground: Expanding Our Horizons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDevitt, Michele J.

    In "Common Ground: Dialogue, Understanding, and the Teaching of Composition," Kurt Spellmeyer seeks to familiarize students and teachers with the linguistic and cultural no-man's-land separating them. Reinstating the value of two writing conventions often used by traditional students--expressive and commonplaces--can help expand on the horizons of…

  7. Teleteach Expanded Delivery System: Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, G. Ronald; Milam, Alvin L.

    In order to meet the demand for Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) professional continuing education (PCE) courses within the School of Systems and Logistics and the School of Engineering, the Teleteach Expanded Delivery System (TEDS) for instruction of Air Force personnel at remote locations was developed and evaluated. TEDS uses a device…

  8. Animal welfare beyond the cage...and beyond the evidence?

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Robert J

    2010-01-01

    In "Laboratory Rodent Welfare: Thinking Outside the Cage," Balcombe (2010/this issue) suggests that laboratory cage housing is damaging to rats and mice because it does not meet their evolved needs and may damage their psychological and physical health. The article also indicates that larger and more enriched spaces reduce aggression and mortality and improve the health and friendliness of rodents in the laboratory. Remarkably, many of the studies cited as supporting these assertions fail to provide data bearing on the issues involved or may even report findings opposite to those described by Balcombe, whereas many studies that are highly relevant to these issues are not cited or described. Moreover, although the "evolved needs" of rats and mice are presented as the basis for an analysis of rodent welfare, the important and well-documented changes in needs- or motivation-related behaviors of a rodent in the laboratory (due to human selection over hundreds of generations) is ignored. This pattern of disconnections between data and conclusions is so pervasive as to demolish the scientific value of the exposition. PMID:20017049

  9. Batting cage performance of wood and nonwood youth baseball bats.

    PubMed

    Crisco, Joseph J; Rainbow, Michael J; Schwartz, Joel B; Wilcox, Bethany J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the batting cage performance of wood and nonwood baseball bats used at the youth level. Three wood and ten nonwood bats were swung by 22 male players (13 to 18 years old) in a batting cage equipped with a 3-dimensional motion capture (300 Hz) system. Batted ball speeds were compared using a one-way ANOVA and bat swing speeds were analyzed as a function of bat moment of inertia by linear regression. Batted ball speeds were significantly faster for three nonwood bat models (P<.001), significantly slower for one nonwood model, and not different for six nonwood bats when compared with wood bats. Bat impact speed significantly (P<.05) decreased with increasing bat moment of inertia for the 13-, 14-, and 15-year-old groups, but not for the other age groups. Ball-bat coefficients of restitution (BBCOR) for all nonwood were greater than for wood, but this factor alone did not correlate with bat performance. Our findings indicate that increases in BBCOR and swing speed were not associated with faster batted ball speeds for the bats studied whose moment of inertia was substantially less than that of a wood bat of similar length. PMID:25083683

  10. Cage experiments in an East African mangrove forest: a synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijvers, J.; Vincx, M.

    1997-12-01

    The impact of epibenthos on endobenthos has frequently been investigated for temperate saltmarsh regions by using cage exclusion experiments. Although the insight into the function of the endobenthos of mangrove forests is crucial for their management, very few cage experiments have so far been carried out in such areas. The present paper summaries the results of such experiments in a typical East African mangrove forest at Gazi Bay about 60 km south of Mombasa, Kenya. Epibenthic animals were excluded for one year in two mangrove zones which differed in forest morphology and intertidal position ( Ceriops tagal and Avicennia marina). Environmental factors and meiobenthic and macrobenthic densities were followed in a randomised block design, and procedural and exclusion effects were statistically detected. In confronting the separate responses of all faunal groups in the two mangrove zones, this synthesis gives a better insight into the tropho-dynamical interactions than the earlier separate reports on the same experiment. The ecosystem of the mangrove zones and the competitive interactions within this system provided an ideal opportunity to discover the existence of two food systems. This confirmed a strong involvement of the majority of the endobenthos in an isolated decompositional pathway in the mangrove sediment. It became clear that this exploitative competition was more important than the epibenthic predation in structuring and regulating the global endobenthic community. This synthesis therefore both demonstrates the decisive role of the endobenthos as regenators of mangrove material, and suggests that endobenthos plays a minor role as prey for the demersal or pelagic carnivores.

  11. Abnormal behavior in caged birds kept as pets.

    PubMed

    van Hoek, C S; ten Cate, C

    1998-01-01

    There are a limited number of studies dealing with abnormal behavior in caged birds kept as pets. However, these studies demonstrate the presence of abnormal behavior in both songbirds and parrots. Ethological studies on these birds, as well as studies on domestic and zoo birds, indicate that inappropriate rearing and housing conditions may lead to behavioral abnormalities. Together these data indicate that behavioral abnormalities occur among both wild-caught and domesticated pet birds. The severity and magnitude of these abnormalities is probably underestimated, and there is a need for systematic studies on the nature, origin, variability, species-specificity, and reversibility of behavioral problems in pet birds. Abnormal behavior in caged birds may to some extent be prevented and reduced by environmental enrichment. However, most enrichment studies are anecdotal and not based on a thorough analysis of the behavioral abnormalities, which may lead to measures resulting in a reduction of symptoms rather than the underlying causes. Although it is likely that several of these problems could be reduced by modifying rearing and housing conditions, the current insights into the causal mechanisms underlying abnormal behavior of domesticated and wild-caught pet birds are limited, as are the insights into the possibilities of preventing or curing abnormal behavior.

  12. Cage Opening of a Carborane Ligand by Metal Cluster Complexes.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard D; Kiprotich, Joseph; Peryshkov, Dmitry V; Wong, Yuen Onn

    2016-05-01

    The reaction of Os3 (CO)10 (NCMe)2 with closo-o-C2 B10 H10 has yielded two interconvertible isomers Os3 (CO)9 (μ3 -4,5,9-C2 B10 H8 )(μ-H)2 (1 a) and Os3 (CO)9 (μ3 -3,4,8-C2 B10 H8 )(μ-H)2 (1 b) formed by the loss of the two NCMe ligands and one CO ligand from the Os3 cluster. Two BH bonds of the o-C2 B10 H10 were activated in its addition to the osmium cluster. A second triosmium cluster was added to the 1 a/1 b mixture to yield the complex Os3 (CO)9 (μ-H)2 (μ3 -4,5,9-μ3 -7,11,12-C2 B10 H7 )Os3 (CO)9 (μ-H)3 (2) that contains two triosmium triangles attached to the same carborane cage. When heated, 2 was transformed to the complex Os3 (CO)9 (μ-H)(μ3 -3,4,8-μ3 -7,11,12-C2 B10 H8 )Os3 (CO)9 (μ-H) (3) by a novel opening of the carborane cage with loss of H2 . PMID:26971388

  13. Animal welfare beyond the cage...and beyond the evidence?

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Robert J

    2010-01-01

    In "Laboratory Rodent Welfare: Thinking Outside the Cage," Balcombe (2010/this issue) suggests that laboratory cage housing is damaging to rats and mice because it does not meet their evolved needs and may damage their psychological and physical health. The article also indicates that larger and more enriched spaces reduce aggression and mortality and improve the health and friendliness of rodents in the laboratory. Remarkably, many of the studies cited as supporting these assertions fail to provide data bearing on the issues involved or may even report findings opposite to those described by Balcombe, whereas many studies that are highly relevant to these issues are not cited or described. Moreover, although the "evolved needs" of rats and mice are presented as the basis for an analysis of rodent welfare, the important and well-documented changes in needs- or motivation-related behaviors of a rodent in the laboratory (due to human selection over hundreds of generations) is ignored. This pattern of disconnections between data and conclusions is so pervasive as to demolish the scientific value of the exposition.

  14. Batting cage performance of wood and nonwood youth baseball bats.

    PubMed

    Crisco, Joseph J; Rainbow, Michael J; Schwartz, Joel B; Wilcox, Bethany J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the batting cage performance of wood and nonwood baseball bats used at the youth level. Three wood and ten nonwood bats were swung by 22 male players (13 to 18 years old) in a batting cage equipped with a 3-dimensional motion capture (300 Hz) system. Batted ball speeds were compared using a one-way ANOVA and bat swing speeds were analyzed as a function of bat moment of inertia by linear regression. Batted ball speeds were significantly faster for three nonwood bat models (P<.001), significantly slower for one nonwood model, and not different for six nonwood bats when compared with wood bats. Bat impact speed significantly (P<.05) decreased with increasing bat moment of inertia for the 13-, 14-, and 15-year-old groups, but not for the other age groups. Ball-bat coefficients of restitution (BBCOR) for all nonwood were greater than for wood, but this factor alone did not correlate with bat performance. Our findings indicate that increases in BBCOR and swing speed were not associated with faster batted ball speeds for the bats studied whose moment of inertia was substantially less than that of a wood bat of similar length.

  15. Effects of Furnished Cage Type on Behavior and Welfare of Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Donghua; Li, Jianhong; Bao, Jun

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of layout of furniture (a perch, nest, and sandbox) in cages on behavior and welfare of hens. Two hundred and sixteen Hyline Brown laying hens were divided into five groups (treatments) with four replicates per group: small furnished cages (SFC), medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I), medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II), and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III) and conventional cages (CC). The experiment started at 18 week of age and finished at 52 week of age. Hens' behaviors were filmed during the following periods: 8:00 to 10:00; 13:00 to 14:00; 16:00 to 17:00 on three separate days and two hens from each cage were measured for welfare parameters at 50 wk of age. The results showed that feeding and laying of all hens showed no effect by cage type (p>0.05), and the hens in the furnished cages had significantly lower standing and higher walking than CC hens (p<0.05). The birds in MFC-III had significant higher preening, scratching and feather-pecking behavior than in the other cages (p<0.05). No difference in nesting behavior was found in the hens between the furnished cages (p>0.05). The hens in MFC-I, -II, and -III showed a significant higher socializing behavior than SFC and CC (p<0.05). The lowest perching was for the hens in SFC and the highest perching found for the hens in MFC-III. Overall, the hens in CC showed poorer welfare conditions than the furnished cages, in which the feather condition score, gait score and tonic immobility duration of the hens in CC was significantly higher than SFC, MFC-I, MFC-II, and MFC-III (p<0.05). In conclusion, the furnished cage design affected both behavior and welfare states of hens. Overall, MFC-III cage design was better than SFC, MFC-I, and MFC-II cage designs. PMID:26954171

  16. Effects of Furnished Cage Type on Behavior and Welfare of Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Donghua; Li, Jianhong; Bao, Jun

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of layout of furniture (a perch, nest, and sandbox) in cages on behavior and welfare of hens. Two hundred and sixteen Hyline Brown laying hens were divided into five groups (treatments) with four replicates per group: small furnished cages (SFC), medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I), medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II), and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III) and conventional cages (CC). The experiment started at 18 week of age and finished at 52 week of age. Hens' behaviors were filmed during the following periods: 8:00 to 10:00; 13:00 to 14:00; 16:00 to 17:00 on three separate days and two hens from each cage were measured for welfare parameters at 50 wk of age. The results showed that feeding and laying of all hens showed no effect by cage type (p>0.05), and the hens in the furnished cages had significantly lower standing and higher walking than CC hens (p<0.05). The birds in MFC-III had significant higher preening, scratching and feather-pecking behavior than in the other cages (p<0.05). No difference in nesting behavior was found in the hens between the furnished cages (p>0.05). The hens in MFC-I, -II, and -III showed a significant higher socializing behavior than SFC and CC (p<0.05). The lowest perching was for the hens in SFC and the highest perching found for the hens in MFC-III. Overall, the hens in CC showed poorer welfare conditions than the furnished cages, in which the feather condition score, gait score and tonic immobility duration of the hens in CC was significantly higher than SFC, MFC-I, MFC-II, and MFC-III (p<0.05). In conclusion, the furnished cage design affected both behavior and welfare states of hens. Overall, MFC-III cage design was better than SFC, MFC-I, and MFC-II cage designs.

  17. Effects of Furnished Cage Type on Behavior and Welfare of Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Donghua; Li, Jianhong; Bao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of layout of furniture (a perch, nest, and sandbox) in cages on behavior and welfare of hens. Two hundred and sixteen Hyline Brown laying hens were divided into five groups (treatments) with four replicates per group: small furnished cages (SFC), medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I), medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II), and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III) and conventional cages (CC). The experiment started at 18 week of age and finished at 52 week of age. Hens’ behaviors were filmed during the following periods: 8:00 to 10:00; 13:00 to 14:00; 16:00 to 17:00 on three separate days and two hens from each cage were measured for welfare parameters at 50 wk of age. The results showed that feeding and laying of all hens showed no effect by cage type (p>0.05), and the hens in the furnished cages had significantly lower standing and higher walking than CC hens (p<0.05). The birds in MFC-III had significant higher preening, scratching and feather-pecking behavior than in the other cages (p<0.05). No difference in nesting behavior was found in the hens between the furnished cages (p>0.05). The hens in MFC-I, −II, and −III showed a significant higher socializing behavior than SFC and CC (p<0.05). The lowest perching was for the hens in SFC and the highest perching found for the hens in MFC-III. Overall, the hens in CC showed poorer welfare conditions than the furnished cages, in which the feather condition score, gait score and tonic immobility duration of the hens in CC was significantly higher than SFC, MFC-I, MFC-II, and MFC-III (p<0.05). In conclusion, the furnished cage design affected both behavior and welfare states of hens. Overall, MFC-III cage design was better than SFC, MFC-I, and MFC-II cage designs. PMID:26954171

  18. Isolation and partial characterization of a cage of filaments that surrounds the mammalian mitotic spindle

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    Mitotic cells have been detergent extracted under conditions that support microtubule assembly. When HeLa cells are lysed in the presence of brain tubulin, mitotic-arrested cells nucleate large asters and true metaphase cells yield spindles that remain enclosed within a roughly spherical cage of filamentous material. Detergent-extracted mitotic Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells show a similar, insoluble cage but the mitotic apparatus is only occasionally stabilized. In later stages of mitosis, HeLa cages are observed in elongated and furrowed configurations. In the terminal stages of cell division, two daughter filamentous networks are connected by the intercellular bridge. When observed in the electron microscope the cages include fibers 7-11 nm in diameter. The polypeptide composition of cages isolated from mitotic HeLa cells is complex, but the major polypeptides are a group with mol wt ranging from 43,000-60,000 daltons and a high molecular weight polypeptide. CHO cells contain a subset of these proteins which includes a major 58,000-dalton and a high molecular weight polypeptide. Two different antisera directed against the vimentin-containing intermediate filaments bind to polypeptides in the electrophoretic profiles of isolated HeLa and CHO cages and stain the cages, as visualized by indirect immunofluorescence. These results suggest that the HeLa and CHO cages include intermediate filaments of the vimentin type. The polypeptide composition of HeLa cages suggests that they also contain tonofilaments. The cages apparently form as the cells enter mitosis. We propose that these filamentous cages maintain the structural continuity of the cytoplasm while the cell is in mitosis. PMID:7191425

  19. Laser photolysis of caged compounds at 405 nm: photochemical advantages, localisation, phototoxicity and methods for calibration.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Federico F; Corrie, John E T; Ogden, David

    2009-05-30

    Rapid, localised photolytic release of neurotransmitters from caged precursors at synaptic regions in the extracellular space is greatly hampered at irradiation wavelengths in the near-UV, close to the wavelength of maximum absorption of the caged precursor, because of inner-filtering by strong absorption of light in the cage solution between the objective and cell. For this reason two-photon excitation is commonly used for photolysis, particularly at multiple points distributed over large fields; or, with near-UV, if combined with local perfusion of the cage. These methods each have problems: the small cross-sections of common cages with two-photon excitation require high cage concentrations and light intensities near the phototoxic limit, while local perfusion gives non-uniform cage concentrations over the field of view. Single-photon photolysis at 405 nm, although less efficient than at 330-350 nm, with present cages is more efficient than two-photon photolysis. The reduced light absorption in the bulk cage solution permits efficient wide-field uncaging at non-toxic intensities with uniform cage concentration. Full photolysis of MNI-glutamate with 100 micros pulses required intensities of 2 mW microm(-2) at the preparation, shown to be non-toxic with repeated exposures. Light scattering at 405 nm was estimated as 50% at 18 microm depth in 21-day rat cerebellum. Methods are described for: (1) varying the laser spot size; (2) photolysis calibration in the microscope with the caged fluorophore NPE-HPTS over the wavelength range 347-405 nm; and (3) determining the point-spread function of excitation. Furthermore, DM-Nitrophen photolysis at 405 nm was efficient for intracellular investigations of Ca2+-dependent processes.

  20. Bisphenol A is released from used polycarbonate animal cages into water at room temperature.

    PubMed Central

    Howdeshell, Kembra L; Peterman, Paul H; Judy, Barbara M; Taylor, Julia A; Orazio, Carl E; Ruhlen, Rachel L; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Welshons, Wade V

    2003-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a monomer with estrogenic activity that is used in the production of food packaging, dental sealants, polycarbonate plastic, and many other products. The monomer has previously been reported to hydrolyze and leach from these products under high heat and alkaline conditions, and the amount of leaching increases as a function of use. We examined whether new and used polycarbonate animal cages passively release bioactive levels of BPA into water at room temperature and neutral pH. Purified water was incubated at room temperature in new polycarbonate and polysulfone cages and used (discolored) polycarbonate cages, as well as control (glass and used polypropylene) containers. The resulting water samples were characterized with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and tested for estrogenic activity using an MCF-7 human breast cancer cell proliferation assay. Significant estrogenic activity, identifiable as BPA by GC/MS (up to 310 micro g/L), was released from used polycarbonate animal cages. Detectable levels of BPA were released from new polycarbonate cages (up to 0.3 micro g/L) as well as new polysulfone cages (1.5 micro g/L), whereas no BPA was detected in water incubated in glass and used polypropylene cages. Finally, BPA exposure as a result of being housed in used polycarbonate cages produced a 16% increase in uterine weight in prepubertal female mice relative to females housed in used polypropylene cages, although the difference was not statistically significant. Our findings suggest that laboratory animals maintained in polycarbonate and polysulfone cages are exposed to BPA via leaching, with exposure reaching the highest levels in old cages. PMID:12842771