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Sample records for expectancy manipulation piloting

  1. Patient expectations for placebo treatments commonly used in osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) clinical trials: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fulda, Kimberly G; Slicho, Turner; Stoll, Scott T

    2007-01-12

    Placebo treatments should be believable to ensure expectation of benefit, yet not provide a true treatment effect. One obstacle to conducting clinical trials with osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) is choosing an appropriate placebo. Various placebo treatments have been used in OMT clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to determine expectations of 3 treatments (HVLA, placebo light touch, placebo sub-therapeutic ultrasound) commonly used in OMT clinical research trials. A randomized, cross-over design was utilized. Subjects were recruited from the Family Medicine Clinic, Texas College of Osteopathic Medicine. Participants watched a video with 2 minute demonstrations of a High Velocity Low Amplitude (HVLA), placebo light touch (LT), and placebo sub-therapeutic ultrasound (ULTRA) treatment for low back pain. The order of presentations was randomized to control for order effect bias. Subjects indicated the extent of their agreement (using a 4 point Likert scale) with 4 statements that were presented after each treatment was viewed: 1)I believe this treatment would allow me to get better quicker; 2)I believe this treatment would decrease my low back pain; 3)I believe this treatment would make me more able to do the things I want to do; 4)This seems like a logical way to treat low back pain. Repeated measures analysis of variance was performed, and a partial Eta squared was calculated for each statement. Effect sizes (Cohen's d) were calculated where appropriate. Thirty of 40 eligible subjects participated. Twenty-two (73%) were female, 16 (53%) were Caucasian, and 11 (37%) had completed college. The mean age was 43 (SD = 15.). Repeated measures ANOVA revealed no significant differences for statements 2 and 4. For both statements 1 (p = 0.025) and 3 (p = 0.039), post hoc analysis revealed a difference between HVLA and LT. The partial Eta squared (etap2) was 0.105, 0.072, 0.107, and 0.024 for each statement, respectively. There is a difference in treatment

  2. Patient expectations for placebo treatments commonly used in osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) clinical trials: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Fulda, Kimberly G; Slicho, Turner; Stoll, Scott T

    2007-01-01

    Background Placebo treatments should be believable to ensure expectation of benefit, yet not provide a true treatment effect. One obstacle to conducting clinical trials with osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) is choosing an appropriate placebo. Various placebo treatments have been used in OMT clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to determine expectations of 3 treatments (HVLA, placebo light touch, placebo sub-therapeutic ultrasound) commonly used in OMT clinical research trials. Methods A randomized, cross-over design was utilized. Subjects were recruited from the Family Medicine Clinic, Texas College of Osteopathic Medicine. Participants watched a video with 2 minute demonstrations of a High Velocity Low Amplitude (HVLA), placebo light touch (LT), and placebo sub-therapeutic ultrasound (ULTRA) treatment for low back pain. The order of presentations was randomized to control for order effect bias. Subjects indicated the extent of their agreement (using a 4 point Likert scale) with 4 statements that were presented after each treatment was viewed: 1)I believe this treatment would allow me to get better quicker; 2)I believe this treatment would decrease my low back pain; 3)I believe this treatment would make me more able to do the things I want to do; 4)This seems like a logical way to treat low back pain. Repeated measures analysis of variance was performed, and a partial Eta squared was calculated for each statement. Effect sizes (Cohen's d) were calculated where appropriate. Results Thirty of 40 eligible subjects participated. Twenty-two (73%) were female, 16 (53%) were Caucasian, and 11 (37%) had completed college. The mean age was 43 (SD = 15.). Repeated measures ANOVA revealed no significant differences for statements 2 and 4. For both statements 1 (p = 0.025) and 3 (p = 0.039), post hoc analysis revealed a difference between HVLA and LT. The partial Eta squared (ηp2) was 0.105, 0.072, 0.107, and 0.024 for each statement, respectively

  3. A Theory of False Cognitive Expectancies in Airline Pilots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortes, Antonio I.

    The Theory of False Cognitive Expectancies was developed by studying high reliability flight operations. Airline pilots depend extensively on cognitive expectancies to perceive, understand, and predict actions and events. Out of 1,363 incident reports submitted by airline pilots to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Aviation Safety Reporting System over a year's time, 110 reports were found to contain evidence of 127 false cognitive expectancies in pilots. A comprehensive taxonomy was developed with six categories of interest. The dataset of 127 false expectancies was used to initially code tentative taxon values for each category. Intermediate coding through constant comparative analysis completed the taxonomy. The taxonomy was used for the advanced coding of chronological context-dependent visualizations of expectancy factors, known as strands, which depict the major factors in the creation and propagation of each expectancy. Strands were mapped into common networks to detect highly represented expectancy processes. Theoretical integration established 11 sources of false expectancies, the most common expectancy errors, and those conspicuous factors worthy of future study. The most prevalent source of false cognitive expectancies within the dataset was determined to be unconscious individual modeling based on past events. Integrative analyses also revealed relationships between expectancies and flight deck automation, unresolved discrepancies, and levels of situation awareness. Particularly noteworthy were the findings that false expectancies can combine in three possible permutations to diminish situation awareness and examples of how false expectancies can be unwittingly transmitted from one person to another. The theory resulting from this research can enhance the error coding process used during aircraft line oriented safety audits, lays the foundation for developing expectancy management training programs, and will allow researchers to proffer

  4. Host manipulation by cancer cells: Expectations, facts, and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Tissot, Tazzio; Arnal, Audrey; Jacqueline, Camille; Poulin, Robert; Lefèvre, Thierry; Mery, Frédéric; Renaud, François; Roche, Benjamin; Massol, François; Salzet, Michel; Ewald, Paul; Tasiemski, Aurélie; Ujvari, Beata; Thomas, Frédéric

    2016-03-01

    Similar to parasites, cancer cells depend on their hosts for sustenance, proliferation and reproduction, exploiting the hosts for energy and resources, and thereby impairing their health and fitness. Because of this lifestyle similarity, it is predicted that cancer cells could, like numerous parasitic organisms, evolve the capacity to manipulate the phenotype of their hosts to increase their own fitness. We claim that the extent of this phenomenon and its therapeutic implications are, however, underappreciated. Here, we review and discuss what can be regarded as cases of host manipulation in the context of cancer development and progression. We elaborate on how acknowledging the applicability of these principles can offer novel therapeutic and preventive strategies. The manipulation of host phenotype by cancer cells is one more reason to adopt a Darwinian approach in cancer research.

  5. An Exploratory Study on the Effects of an Expectancy Manipulation on Chemotherapy-Related Nausea

    PubMed Central

    Roscoe, Joseph A.; O’Neill, Michael; Jean-Pierre, Pascal; Heckler, Charles E.; Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Bushunow, Peter; Shayne, Michelle; Huston, Alissa; Qazi, Raman; Smith, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Context Previous research has shown that the effectiveness of acupressure bands in reducing chemotherapy-related nausea is related to patients’ expectations of efficacy. Objective To test whether an informational manipulation designed to increase expectation of efficacy regarding acupressure bands would enhance their effectiveness. Methods We conducted an exploratory four-arm randomized clinical trial in breast cancer patients about to begin chemotherapy. All patients received acupressure bands and a relaxation CD. This report focuses on Arm 1(expectancy-neutral informational handout and CD) compared to Arm 4 (expectancy-enhancing handout and CD). Randomization was stratified according to the patient’s level of certainty that she would have treatment-induced nausea (two levels: high, low). Experience of nausea and use of antiemetics were assessed with a 5-day diary. Results Our expectancy-enhancing manipulation resulted in improved control of nausea in the 26 patients with high nausea expectancies, but lessened control of nausea in 27 patients having low nausea expectancies. This interaction effect (between expected nausea and intervention effectiveness) approached statistical significance for our analysis of Average Nausea (P = 0.084) and reached statistical significance for our analysis of Peak Nausea (P = 0.030). Patients receiving the expectancy-enhancing manipulation took fewer antiemetic pills outside the clinic (meanenhanced = 12.6; meanneutral = 18.5, P = 0.003). Conclusions This exploratory intervention reduced antiemetic use overall and also reduced nausea in patients who had high levels of expected nausea. Interestingly, it increased nausea in patients who had low expectancies for nausea. Confirmatory research is warranted. PMID:20579837

  6. Thoracic spinal manipulation for musculoskeletal shoulder pain: Can an instructional set change patient expectation and outcome?

    PubMed

    Riley, Sean P; Bialosky, Joel; Cote, Mark P; Swanson, Brian T; Tafuto, Vincent; Sizer, Phillip S; Brismée, Jean-Michel

    2015-06-01

    Planned secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial. To examine: 1) patients' baseline expectations for treatment outcome of thoracic high velocity low amplitude thrust manipulations (HVLATM) to the thoracic spine for shoulder pain; 2) if the message conveyed by the clinician changed the patients' expectation; 3) any differences in outcome based on expectation independent of messaging.; and 4) any differences in outcome for those patients whose expectations significantly changed as a result of the messaging. Thoracic HVLATM may be an effective intervention for patients suffering from musculoskeletal shoulder pain. The role of expectation in the treatment effectiveness of this intervention has not been established. Subjects' expectations regarding the effectiveness of HVLATM on shoulder pain were recorded at baseline. This was reassessed immediately following the provision of positive or neutral instructional set. The subjects then received a thoracic or scapular HVLATM. The Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) and the numeric pain rating scale (NPRS) were used as outcomes measures. There was a 10 subject change (23%) in positive expectation that was statistically significant (p = 0.019) following a positive message. There was no statistically significant difference in pain and function when these subjects were compared to all other subjects. Although patients' expectations of positive outcome significantly changed when providing a positive instructional set, these changes did not translate into clinically significant short term changes in shoulder pain and function. 1b. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pilot study of the impact sacroiliac joint manipulation has on walking kinematics using motion analysis technology

    PubMed Central

    Ward, John S.; Coats, Jesse; Sorrels, Kenneth; Walters, Mathew; Williams, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of engaging in a series of larger studies measuring the effect of sacroiliac joint manipulation on walking kinematics using motion analysis technology. Methods Twelve college students engaged in a baseline 90-second gait analysis at 1.5 mph using infrared VICON cameras. Following this, they underwent a prone heel comparison test for functional leg length inequality. Upon examination, participants were then classified as follows: left short leg, right short leg, or no short leg. Participants in each of the 2 short leg branches of this study were then randomized to receive either chiropractic manipulative therapy to the posterior superior iliac spine on the short limb side or no manipulation. Recruitment was ongoing for this pilot study until 1 participant was recruited in each of the following 5 comparative study groups: left short leg—manipulation, left short leg—no manipulation (control 1), right short leg—manipulation, right short leg—no manipulation (control 2), and no short leg (control 3). All participants then underwent another 90-second gait analysis. Data were then grouped and submitted to a blinded biomechanist to determine if there were any unique biomechanical differences between the groups. Results No statistically significant differences were measured because of this being a pilot study with a small sample size. Conclusions The data from this study indicate that a series of larger studies with this design is feasible. PMID:24396314

  8. Hearing Aids: Expectations and Satisfaction of People with an Intellectual Disability, a Descriptive Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meuwese-Jongejeugd, A.; Verschuure, H.; Evenhuis, H. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: In spite of an increased risk of hearing impairment in persons with an intellectual disability (ID), rehabilitation with hearing aids often fails. We performed a descriptive pilot study with the following study questions: (1) Do comparable elements as in the general population contribute to expectations of and satisfaction with hearing…

  9. Hearing Aids: Expectations and Satisfaction of People with an Intellectual Disability, a Descriptive Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meuwese-Jongejeugd, A.; Verschuure, H.; Evenhuis, H. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: In spite of an increased risk of hearing impairment in persons with an intellectual disability (ID), rehabilitation with hearing aids often fails. We performed a descriptive pilot study with the following study questions: (1) Do comparable elements as in the general population contribute to expectations of and satisfaction with hearing…

  10. Co-Occurrence of Depressive Moods and Delinquency in Early Adolescence: The Role of Failure Expectations, Manipulativeness, and Social Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overbeek, Geertjan; Biesecker, Gretchen; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Hakan; Meeus, Wim; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the co-occurrence of depression and delinquency in early adolescents, focusing on longitudinal associations with failure expectations and manipulativeness, and on perceptions of relationships with parents, school and teachers, and peers. Data were used from 1,059 Swedish adolescents aged 13 to 15, who participated in 2 waves…

  11. Factors Associated With Met Expectations in Patients With Hand and Upper Extremity Disorders: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Briet, Jan Paul; Hageman, Michiel G J S; Overbeek, Celeste L; Mudgal, Chaitanya; Ring, David C; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria

    2016-01-01

    The degree to which patients' expectations are met during an office visit consistently correlates with patients' satisfaction, whereas the relationship between previsit expectations and satisfaction varies. The aim of this pilot study was to preliminarily assess the relationship of psychosocial factors, pain intensity, and magnitude of disability to previsit expectations, met expectations, and satisfaction with medical care in patients with hand and upper extremity conditions in a surgical outpatient clinic. A cohort of 85 outpatients with upper extremity illnesses indicated their previsit expectations (Patients Intention Questionnaire), degree to which these expectations were met (Expectations Met Questionnaire), level of depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-2), confidence about the ability to achieve one's goals in spite of pain (Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire), pain intensity (Numerical Rating Scale for pain), disability (Disabilities of the Arm Shoulder and Hand, short version; QuickDASH), and satisfaction with the medical visit (Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale). Higher previsit expectations were associated with more depressive symptoms, lower pain self-efficacy, higher pain intensity, and fewer years of education. Patients in the low and moderate met expectations categories had significantly more symptoms of depression, fewer years of education, and more pain compared to those in the high-met expectations category. Fewer years of education and higher pain intensity predicted higher previsit expectations and explained 19% of variance. Psychosocial factors affect both previsit expectations and met expectations during an outpatient visit to a hand surgeon. Met expectations, but not previsit expectations, affect satisfaction. Prognostic, level II. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fascial Manipulation(®) method applied to pubescent postural hyperkyphosis: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ćosić, Vilma; Day, Julie Ann; Iogna, Pietro; Stecco, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Treatment of pubescent postural hyperkyphosis commonly includes postural exercises and auto-elongation. Myofascial imbalances can be involved in functional, sagittal plane deviations of spinal curves. This pilot-study assesses the effects of one manual therapy approach that addresses fascial dysfunctions (Fascial Manipulation(®)) in pubescent subjects with postural hyperkyphosis. 17 subjects (mean age 11.8 DS 0.8; 9 males, 8 females) were evaluated for familiarity; psychological aspects; sport; pain; anteposition of shoulders, head, and pelvis; distance C7 and L3 from plumb-line; distance fingers to floor on forward bend. Each subject received 2-4 weekly sessions of Fascial Manipulation(®). Parameters were evaluated before and after manual treatment, with a follow-up at 7 months. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) was present in all the parameters analysed before and after treatment and at a 7 month follow-up. Results suggest that Fascial Manipulation(®) could represent an approach to integrate into treatment of postural hyperkyphosis in pubescent subjects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of individual differences and manipulated life expectancies on the willingness to engage in sexual coercion.

    PubMed

    Dunkel, Curtis S; Mathes, Eugene

    2011-12-16

    The role of the individual difference variables of mate value, short-term and long-term mating preferences, and life history strategy along with the manipulated variable of life expectancy were used to predict differences in the willingness to engage in sexually coercive behaviors. Short-term preferences and long-term preferences were correlated with the willingness to engage in sexual coercion at all life expectancies. Life history strategy was correlated with the willingness to engage in sexual coercion at only the shortest and longest life expectancies. Most importantly short-term and long-term mating preferences interacted with life expectancy to predict the willingness to engage in sexually coercive behaviors. Short life expectancies increased willingness in individuals with high short-term and low long-term preferences. The results are discussed in terms of the varying theories of sexual coercion with emphasis put on a life history approach.

  14. Neural Response During a Mechanically Assisted Spinal Manipulation in an Animal Model: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Reed, William R.; Liebschner, Michael A.K.; Sozio, Randall S.; Pickar, Joel G.; Gudavalli, Maruti R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mechanoreceptor stimulation is theorized to contribute to the therapeutic efficacy of spinal manipulation. Use of mechanically-assisted spinal manipulation (MA-SM) devices is increasing among manual therapy clinicians worldwide. The purpose of this pilot study is to determine the feasibility of recording in vivo muscle spindle responses during a MA-SM in an intervertebral fixated animal model. Methods Intervertebral fixation was created by inserting facet screws through the left L5-6 and L6-7 facet joints of a cat spine. Three L6muscle spindle afferents with receptive fields in back muscles were isolated. Recordings were made during MA-SM thrusts delivered to the L7 spinous process using an instrumented Activator IV clinical device. Results Nine MA-SM thrusts were delivered with peak forces ranging from 68-122N and with thrust durations of less than 5ms. High frequency muscle spindle discharge occurred during MA-SM. Following the MA-SM, muscle spindle responses included returning to pre-manipulation levels, slightly decreasing for a short window of time, and greatly decreasing for more than 40s. Conclusion This study demonstrates that recording in vivo muscle spindle response using clinical MA-SM devices in an animal model is feasible. Extremely short duration MA-SM thrusts (<5ms) can have an immediate and/or a prolonged (> 40s) effect on muscle spindle discharge. Greater peak forces during MA-SM thrusts may not necessarily yield greater muscle spindle responses. Determining peripheral response during and following spinal manipulation may be an important step in optimizing its’ clinical efficacy. Future studies may investigate the effect of thrust dosage and magnitude. PMID:26618202

  15. Framing and personalizing informed consent to prevent negative expectations: An experimental pilot study.

    PubMed

    Heisig, Sarah R; Shedden-Mora, Meike C; Hidalgo, Pablo; Nestoriuc, Yvonne

    2015-10-01

    Informing patients about medical treatments and their possible side effects is ethically and legally obligatory but may trigger negative expectations and nocebo-related side effects. This pilot study aims to investigate the effect of different informed consent procedures on treatment expectations for adjuvant breast cancer treatments (Study 1: endocrine therapy; Study 2: chemotherapy). Using an experimental 2-factorial design, healthy women were informed about endocrine therapy (n = 60) or chemotherapy (n = 64) within a hypothetical scenario. Information was framed with or without treatment benefit information and delivered in a personalized or standardized interaction. Primary outcomes were necessity-concern beliefs about the treatment and side-effect expectations, secondary outcomes were decisional conflicts. In Study 1, side-effect expectations (η²p= .08) and decisional conflicts (η²p = .07) were lower when framed treatment information was given. Providing personalized information resulted in more functional necessity-concern beliefs (η²p = .06) and lower decisional conflicts (η²p = .07). Personalizing and framing of information resulted in more functional necessity-concern beliefs (η²p = .10) and lower decisional conflicts. In Study 2, necessity-concern beliefs were more functional with framing (η²p = .06). Participants in the personalized groups reported lower decisional conflicts (η²p = .06). No differences in side-effect expectations were revealed. This is the first study to provide evidence for optimized treatment expectations through altered informed consent strategies. The results emphasize that framing and personalizing informed consent can positively influence treatment expectations and reduce decisional conflicts. However, generalizations are impaired by the study's pilot character. The potential to prevent nocebo responses in clinical practice should be analyzed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. The effects of experimentally manipulated social status on acute eating behavior: A randomized, crossover pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cardel, M I; Johnson, S L; Beck, J; Dhurandhar, E; Keita, A D; Tomczik, A C; Pavela, G; Huo, T; Janicke, D M; Muller, K; Piff, P K; Peters, J C; Hill, J O; Allison, D B

    2016-08-01

    Both subjective and objectively measured social status has been associated with multiple health outcomes, including weight status, but the mechanism for this relationship remains unclear. Experimental studies may help identify the causal mechanisms underlying low social standing as a pathway for obesity. Our objective was to investigate the effects of experimentally manipulated social status on ad libitum acute dietary intakes and stress-related outcomes as potential mechanisms relating social status and weight. This was a pilot feasibility, randomized, crossover study in Hispanic young adults (n=9; age 19-25; 67% female; BMI ≥18.5 and ≤30kg/m(2)). At visit 1, participants consumed a standardized breakfast and were randomized to a high social status position (HIGH) or low social status position (LOW) in a rigged game of Monopoly™. The rules for the game differed substantially in terms of degree of 'privilege' depending on randomization to HIGH or LOW. Following Monopoly™, participants were given an ad libitum buffet meal and energy intakes (kcal) were estimated by pre- and post-weighing foods consumed. Stress-related markers were measured at baseline, after the game of Monopoly™, and after lunch. Visit 2 used the same standardized protocol; however, participants were exposed to the opposite social status condition. When compared to HIGH, participants in LOW consumed 130 more calories (p=0.07) and a significantly higher proportion of their daily calorie needs in the ad libitum buffet meal (39% in LOW versus 31% in HIGH; p=0.04). In LOW, participants reported decreased feelings of pride and powerfulness following Monopoly™ (p=0.05) and after their lunch meal (p=0.08). Relative to HIGH, participants in LOW demonstrated higher heart rates following Monopoly™ (p=0.06), but this relationship was not significant once lunch was consumed (p=0.31). Our pilot data suggest a possible causal relationship between experimentally manipulated low social status and

  17. Microbial Gas Generation Under Expected Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Repository Conditions: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.

    2011-07-01

    Gas generation from the microbial degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic (TRU) waste under conditions expected in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was investigated. The biodegradation of mixed cellulosic materials and electron-beam irradiated plastic and rubber materials (polyethylene, polyvinylchloride, hypalon, leaded hypalon, and neoprene) was examined. We evaluated the effects of environmental variables such as initial atmosphere (air or nitrogen), water content (humid ({approx}70% relative humidity, RH) and brine inundated), and nutrient amendments (nitogen phosphate, yeast extract, and excess nitrate) on microbial gas generation. Total gas production was determined by pressure measurement and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) were analyzed by gas chromatography; cellulose degradation products in solution were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Microbial populations in the samples were determined by direct microscopy and molecular analysis. The results of this work are summarized.

  18. Manipulation of responsibility in non-clinical subjects: does expectation of failure exacerbate obsessive-compulsive behaviors?

    PubMed

    Mancini, Francesco; D'Olimpio, Francesca; Cieri, Luca

    2004-04-01

    An exaggerated sense of responsibility is currently considered as the ground for the obsessive-compulsive disorder. Obsessive-like behaviors, such as hesitations and checks, may be induced in non-clinical subjects by increasing perceived responsibility (i.e., perceived personal influence on negative outcomes). In line with Salkovskis' proposal [The cognitive approach to anxiety: threat beliefs, safety-seeking behavior, and the special case of health anxiety and obsessions, in: P.M. Salkovskis (Ed.), Frontiers of Cognitive Therapy, Guilford, New York], we tested the hypothesis that reduced coping abilities (i.e., an exaggerated expectation of failure) are another effectual factor contributing to obsessive-like behaviors. We examined 47 normal volunteers in a visuo-spatial memory task, and manipulated their perceived personal influence and expectation of failure by giving differential instructions and feedback about their performance. Increase of perceived personal influence induced slowness, hesitations and checks without enhancing performance. Expectation of failure exacerbated obsessive-like behaviors, again without affecting performance. These results confirm the role of responsibility in obsessive-like behavior and indicate that reduced coping abilities may contribute to worsen dysfunctional strategies.

  19. Effects of comprehensive osteopathic manipulative treatment on balance in elderly patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Daniel; King, Hollis H; Knebl, Janice A; Kosmopoulos, Victor; Collins, Deraan; Patterson, Rita M

    2011-06-01

    Falls, many of which are caused by balance problems, are a leading cause of injuries in elderly persons. Few studies have investigated osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) for patients with balance problems. To test whether an OMT protocol with an emphasis on cranial manipulation can improve vestibular balance control structures and postural stability in a healthy elderly population. A pilot prospective clinical trial. Research laboratories of the University of North Texas Health Science Center Texas College of Osteopathic Medicine in Fort Worth. Forty healthy elderly patients aged 65 or older were enrolled and separated into an OMT group and a control group. Owing to the recruitment process and limited time for the study, the first 20 patients to enroll were in the OMT group, and the next 20 were in the control group. Patients were excluded if they had a condition that could impair balance. The OMT protocol comprised 7 OMT techniques applied weekly by the same osteopathic physician before balance tests. Patients in the control group received no treatment. Patients were asked to stand on a force plate and to perform 3 balance tests: (1) eyes open, (2) eyes closed, and (3) a modified Romberg test. The center of pressure between their feet was recorded for 30 seconds. The average center of pressure displacement for each test was used to determine anteroposterior (AP) sway and mediolateral (ML) sway. Balance tests were performed each week for 4 weeks. Tests were performed at the same time of day as the first test. Changes in AP sway values between visits 1 and 4 were as follows: eyes open, -0.72 and 0.75 mm for the control and OMT groups, respectively; eyes closed, -0.49 and 0.44 mm; and Romberg test, -0.17 and 0.52 mm. The changes in ML sway values between visits 1 and 4 were as follows: eyes open, -0.58 and 0.07 mm for the control and OMT groups, respectively; eyes closed, -0.21 and 0.03 mm; and Romberg test, -0.15 and 0.39 mm. The OMT group had significantly

  20. Effect of Spinal Manipulation of Upper Cervical Vertebrae on Blood Pressure: Results of a Pilot Sham-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Goertz, Christine M; Salsbury, Stacie A; Vining, Robert D; Long, Cynthia R; Pohlman, Katherine A; Weeks, William B; Lamas, Gervasio A

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this pilot sham-controlled clinical trial was to estimate the treatment effect and safety of toggle recoil spinal manipulation for blood pressure management. Fifty-one participants with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension (systolic blood pressure ranging from 135 to 159 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ranging from 85 to 99 mm Hg) were allocated by an adaptive design to 2 treatments: toggle recoil spinal manipulation or a sham procedure. Participants were seen by a doctor of chiropractic twice weekly for 6 weeks and remained on their antihypertensive medications, as prescribed, throughout the trial. Blood pressure was assessed at baseline and after study visits 1, 6 (week 3), and 12 (week 6), with the primary end point at week 6. Analysis of covariance was used to compare mean blood pressure changes from baseline between groups at each end point, controlling for sex, age, body mass index, and baseline blood pressure. Adjusted mean change from baseline to week 6 was greater in the sham group (systolic, -4.2 mm Hg; diastolic, -1.6 mm Hg) than in the spinal manipulation group (systolic, 0.6 mm Hg; diastolic, 0.7 mm Hg), but the difference was not statistically significant. No serious and few adverse events were noted. Six weeks of toggle recoil spinal manipulation did not lower systolic or diastolic blood pressure when compared with a sham procedure. No serious adverse events from either treatment were reported. Our results do not support a larger clinical trial. Further research to understand the potential mechanisms of action involving upper cervical manipulation on blood pressure is warranted before additional clinical investigations are conducted. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Microbial gas generation under expected Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, A.J.; Gillow, J.B.; Giles, M.R.

    1997-03-01

    Gas generation from the microbial degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic waste under conditions expected at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository was investigated at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The biodegradation of mixed cellulosics (various types of paper) and electron-beam irradiated plastic and rubber materials (polyethylene, polyvinylchloride, neoprene, hypalon, and leaded hypalon) was examined. The rate of gas production from cellulose biodegradation in inundated samples incubated for 1,228 days at 30 C was biphasic, with an initial rapid rate up to approximately 600 days incubation, followed by a slower rate. The rate of total gas production in anaerobic samples containing mixed inoculum was as follows: 0.002 mL/g cellulose/day without nutrients; 0.004 mL/g cellulose/day with nutrients; and 0.01 mL/g cellulose/day in the presence of excess nitrate. Carbon dioxide production proceeded at a rate of 0.009 {micro}mol/g cellulose/day in anaerobic samples without nutrients, 0.05 {micro}mol/g cellulose/day in the presence of nutrients, and 0.2 {micro}mol/g cellulose/day with excess nitrate. Adding nutrients and excess nitrate stimulated denitrification, as evidenced by the accumulation of N{sub 2}O in the headspace (200 {micro}mol/g cellulose). The addition of the potential backfill bentonite increased the rate of CO{sub 2} production to 0.3 {micro}mol/g cellulose/day in anaerobic samples with excess nitrate. Analysis of the solution showed that lactic, acetic, propionic, butyric, and valeric acids were produced due to cellulose degradation. Samples incubated under anaerobic humid conditions for 415 days produced CO{sub 2} at a rate of 0.2 {micro}mol/g cellulose/day in the absence of nutrients, and 1 {micro}mol/g cellulose/day in the presence of bentonite and nutrients. There was no evidence of biodegradation of electron-beam irradiated plastic and rubber.

  2. Pilot study on effectiveness of simulation for surgical robot design using manipulability.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Kazuya; Seno, Hiroto; Kobayashi, Yo; Fujie, Masakatsu G

    2011-01-01

    Medical technology has advanced with the introduction of robot technology, which facilitates some traditional medical treatments that previously were very difficult. However, at present, surgical robots are used in limited medical domains because these robots are designed using only data obtained from adult patients and are not suitable for targets having different properties, such as children. Therefore, surgical robots are required to perform specific functions for each clinical case. In addition, the robots must exhibit sufficiently high movability and operability for each case. In the present study, we focused on evaluation of the mechanism and configuration of a surgical robot by a simulation based on movability and operability during an operation. We previously proposed the development of a simulator system that reproduces the conditions of a robot and a target in a virtual patient body to evaluate the operability of the surgeon during an operation. In the present paper, we describe a simple experiment to verify the condition of the surgical assisting robot during an operation. In this experiment, the operation imitating suturing motion was carried out in a virtual workspace, and the surgical robot was evaluated based on manipulability as an indicator of movability. As the result, it was confirmed that the robot was controlled with low manipulability of the left side manipulator during the suturing. This simulation system can verify the less movable condition of a robot before developing an actual robot. Our results show the effectiveness of this proposed simulation system.

  3. Improving the Manners of a Student with Autism: The Effects of Manipulating Perspective Holders in Social Stories[TM]--A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okada, Shingo; Ohtake, Yoshihisa; Yanagihara, Masafumi

    2010-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the impact of manipulating the value of perspective sentences on improving the manners of a student with autism spectrum disorders. Three types of perspective sentences (sentences held by unknown persons, those held by familiar persons, and those held by the most preferred person) were alternately added to a Social…

  4. Manipulation of hyperbaric lidocaine using a weak magnetic field: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Robert H; Colquhoun, Douglas A; Gillies, George T; Tiouririne, Mohamed

    2012-06-01

    High spinal block is a potentially fatal complication of spinal anesthesia, with an incidence of 0.6 per 1000. Current prevention strategies include decreasing the dose of local anesthetic drug and altering patient positioning such that the location of hyperbaric anesthetic drugs in the neuraxis can be manipulated by gravity. Incorporation of a ferrofluid into a local anesthetic solution, combined with application of an external magnetic field in an in vitro spine model, allowed control of position of a solution of ferrofluid, dye, and local anesthetic against gravity, suggesting an additional mechanism by which anesthesia providers may prevent high spinal block.

  5. Influence of expectations plus mobilization with movement in patient with lateral epicondylalgia: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Cervera, Francisco Vicente; Olteanu, Theodor Emanuel; Gil-Martínez, Alfonso; Díaz-Pulido, Belén; Ferrer-Peña, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of expectations plus mobilization with movement (MWM) in kinesiophobia, perceived disability and sensorimotor variables in patients with lateral epicondylalgia. A pilot randomized controlled trial in 24 patients with lateral epicondylalgia was conducted. Perceived pain, pain-free grip strength, pressure pain detection threshold, kinesiophobia measured with the short version of Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia, perceived disability of the upper limb measured with disability of the arm, hand and shoulder questionnaire, and perceived disability specifically for the elbow joint measured with patient-rating tennis elbow evaluation, and also satisfaction were assessed. Participants were randomized to receive written instructions in order to create positive expectations regarding the technique in one group (n=12) or neutral expectations in the other one (n=12). All patients were treated for three sessions with the MWM technique. Measures were recorded before and after treatment. The effect size was calculated by Rosenthal “r” for nonparametrical tests. There were no significant statistical differences (P>0.05) between groups after receiving the treatment for none of the physical analyzed variables. The Wilcoxon test showed statistically significant changes in kinesiophobia (Z=−2.278, r=0.47, P=0.023) and perceived disability (Z= −2.934, r=0.61, P=0.003) within positive expectations group. In conclusion this pilot study shows that a positive expectation almost given in a sealed envelope before treatment plus MWM produced changes in kinesiophobia and perceived disability in the immediate term, in patients with lateral epicondylalgia. PMID:28349041

  6. Influence of expectations plus mobilization with movement in patient with lateral epicondylalgia: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cervera, Francisco Vicente; Olteanu, Theodor Emanuel; Gil-Martínez, Alfonso; Díaz-Pulido, Belén; Ferrer-Peña, Raúl

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of expectations plus mobilization with movement (MWM) in kinesiophobia, perceived disability and sensorimotor variables in patients with lateral epicondylalgia. A pilot randomized controlled trial in 24 patients with lateral epicondylalgia was conducted. Perceived pain, pain-free grip strength, pressure pain detection threshold, kinesiophobia measured with the short version of Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia, perceived disability of the upper limb measured with disability of the arm, hand and shoulder questionnaire, and perceived disability specifically for the elbow joint measured with patient-rating tennis elbow evaluation, and also satisfaction were assessed. Participants were randomized to receive written instructions in order to create positive expectations regarding the technique in one group (n=12) or neutral expectations in the other one (n=12). All patients were treated for three sessions with the MWM technique. Measures were recorded before and after treatment. The effect size was calculated by Rosenthal "r" for nonparametrical tests. There were no significant statistical differences (P>0.05) between groups after receiving the treatment for none of the physical analyzed variables. The Wilcoxon test showed statistically significant changes in kinesiophobia (Z=-2.278, r=0.47, P=0.023) and perceived disability (Z= -2.934, r=0.61, P=0.003) within positive expectations group. In conclusion this pilot study shows that a positive expectation almost given in a sealed envelope before treatment plus MWM produced changes in kinesiophobia and perceived disability in the immediate term, in patients with lateral epicondylalgia.

  7. Exercise stage of change, barriers, expectations, values and preferences among breast cancer patients during treatment: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rogers, L Q; Courneya, K S; Shah, P; Dunnington, G; Hopkins-Price, P

    2007-01-01

    With increasing evidence supporting physical activity benefits during breast cancer treatment, addressing exercise adherence with consideration of the unique exercise barriers, outcome expectations and preferences of cancer patients is needed. Our pilot study aimed to determine the following during breast cancer treatment: (1) exercise barriers, outcome expectations/values and associations with exercise stage of change and (2) exercise preferences. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 23 breast cancer patients during treatment. Participants were primarily aged 50-60 years (52%), Caucasian (91%), with stage I (30%), II (44%) or III (26%) disease. A total of 48% were receiving chemotherapy. In total, 50% were in the pre-contemplation/contemplation stage of change, with 34% in action/maintenance. Common exercise adherence barriers (i.e. lack of priority, self-discipline, procrastination and fatigue) demonstrated statistically significant negative associations with exercise. Frequent outcome expectations included improving heart/lungs, reducing disease risk, building muscle strength and losing weight. Important outcomes included improving state of mind, reducing fatigue and avoiding injury. Outcome expectations (i.e. less depression, boredom and nausea) were positively associated with exercise. The majority preferred walking (100%), moderate-intensity (61%), home-based (78%) exercise. Among breast cancer patients during treatment, exercise adherence barriers are general and disease specific. Outcome expectations are physical benefits, with the most important outcomes being psychological or avoidance of risk (i.e. injury).

  8. Task-Oriented Performance Evaluation for Assistive Robotic Manipulators: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Chung, Cheng-Shiu; Wang, Hongwu; Hannan, Matthew J; Ding, Dan; Kelleher, Annmarie R; Cooper, Rory A

    2017-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of commercially available assistive robotic manipulators (ARMs) user interfaces and to investigate the concurrent validity and sensitivity to change with task-oriented performance evaluation tools (TO-PETs) for ARMs. This was a nonblinded randomized controlled study with power-wheelchair users with upper-extremity impairments (N = 10). Participants were trained to use 2 ARMs with their respective original user interfaces (keypad and joystick) and evaluated the performance using TO-PET and the adapted Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT-ARM). Task completion time, ISO 9241-9 throughput, trajectory parameters, NASA-TLX, and questionnaires were the main outcome measurements. Concurrent validity and sensitivity were evaluated. Statistical differences were found in ISO 9241-9 throughput between the 2 user interfaces for the single motion tasks and WMFT-ARM. However, there was no statistical difference found on the self-reported perceived workload and ease of use. Moderate to high correlation was found between the TO-PET and WMFT-ARM (P < 0.001). The TO-PET demonstrated higher Cohen d (0.910-1.085) than the WMFT-ARM. The findings of this study provide a preliminary comparison between 2 commercial ARMs with their different user interfaces among novice ARM users. Recommendations for training and evaluation were revealed.

  9. A pilot study to investigate the induction and manipulation of learned helplessness in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Joseph J; Neitzke, Daniel J; Khouri, George; Borckardt, Jeffrey J; Acierno, Ron; Tuerk, Peter W; Schmidt, Matthew; George, Mark S

    2014-11-30

    Eliminating the controllability of a noxious stimulus may induce a learned helplessness (LH) that resembles aspects of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study examined whether repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) promotes resilience in an aversive stimulus model of LH. All 55 participants were told that an undisclosed sequence of button presses would terminate an aversive stimulus on their forearm. In truth, only half had control (+C). The other half had no control (-C). All participants received real (R) or sham (S) left DLPFC rTMS during the paradigm (+C/R, -C/S,+C/S,-C/R). We evaluated the cognitive effects of LH using an anagram task. The LH paradigm successfully reduced perceived control in the -C groups. As predicted, the +C/R and +C/S groups tended to give up less quickly and take less time to solve each anagram than did the -C/S group. Superior anagram performance in the -C/R group approached statistical significance. Our preliminary results suggest that manipulating the controllability of an aversive stimulus may induce an LH effect that manifests as impaired anagram performance. Further research is needed to refine this model and determine if DLPFC rTMS mitigates any LH effects.

  10. Effect of chiropractic manipulation on vertical jump height in young female athletes with talocrural joint dysfunction: a single-blind randomized clinical pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Hedlund, Sofia; Nilsson, Hans; Lenz, Markus; Sundberg, Tobias

    2014-02-01

    The main objective of this pilot study was to explore the effect of chiropractic high-velocity, low-amplitude (HVLA) manipulation on vertical jump height in young female athletes with talocrural joint dysfunction. This was a randomized assessor-blind clinical pilot trial. Twenty-two female handball players with talocrural joint dysfunction were randomized to receive either HVLA manipulation (n = 11) or sham treatment (n = 11) once a week during a 3-week period. The main outcome was change in vertical jump height from baseline to follow-up within and between groups after 3 weeks. Nineteen athletes completed the study. After 3 weeks, the group receiving HVLA manipulation (n = 11) had a statistically significant mean (SD) improvement in vertical jump height of 1.07 (1.23) cm (P = .017). The sham treatment group (n = 8) improved their vertical jump height by 0.59 (2.03) cm (P = .436). The between groups' change was 0.47 cm (95% confidence interval, -1.31 to 2.26; P = .571) in favor of the group receiving HVLA manipulation. Blinding and sham procedures were feasible, and there were no reported adverse events. The results of this pilot study show that a larger-scale study is feasible. Preliminary results suggest that chiropractic HVLA manipulation may increase vertical jump height in young female athletes with talocrural joint dysfunction. However, the clinical result in favor of HVLA manipulation compared with sham treatment needs statistical confirmation in a larger randomized clinical trial. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. HIV symptom distress and smoking outcome expectancies among HIV+ smokers: a pilot test.

    PubMed

    Grover, Kristin W; Gonzalez, Adam; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Smoking occurs at high rates among people with HIV/AIDS, but little attention has been paid to understanding the nature of tobacco use among HIV+ smokers, especially the role that HIV symptoms may play in cognitive smoking processes. Accordingly, the present investigation examined the relation between HIV symptom distress (i.e., the degree to which HIV symptoms are bothersome) and smoking outcome expectancies. Fifty-seven HIV+ adult smokers (82.50% male; M(age)=47.18; 45.6% White, 28.1% Black, 17.5% Hispanic) were recruited from AIDS service organizations and hospital-based clinics. On average, participants reported knowing their HIV+ status for 16 years and the majority of participants reported that they acquired HIV through unprotected sex (66.6%). Participants completed measures pertaining to HIV symptoms, smoking behavior, and smoking outcome expectancies. HIV symptom distress was positively related to negative reinforcement, negative consequences, and positive reinforcement smoking outcome expectancies after accounting for relevant covariates. The present research suggests that HIV symptom distress may play an important role in understanding smoking outcome expectancies for smokers with HIV/AIDS. Clinical implications for HIV+ smokers are discussed, including the importance of developing effective smoking cessation treatments that meet the unique needs of this group of smokers.

  12. Effect of Manipulating Descriptive Norms and Positive Outcome Expectations on Physical Activity of University Students During Exams.

    PubMed

    Crozier, Alyson J; Spink, Kevin S

    2017-06-01

    This experimental study examined the interaction between messages conveying different levels of descriptive norms and positive outcome expectations on university students' engagement in moderate and vigorous physical activity over an exam period. Using a pre-post design, university students entering a final examination period (N = 74) were randomly assigned to one of four message conditions, receiving a message motivating them to exercise over the exam period. Messages included both a descriptive norm (how many others reported being active during a previous exam period; high vs. low) and a positive outcome expectation (those who exercise during exams report better grades; high vs. low). The results from an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for baseline levels of daily physical activity, revealed a significant interaction. Post hoc analyses indicated that when the descriptive norm was high, those who received a high positive outcome expectation reported being more active during the exam period compared to those receiving the low positive outcome expectation. Results provide preliminary support for the idea that activity during an exam period can be positively influenced if individuals are presented with normative messages that (a) many others are being active during the exams and (b) many of those being active also are benefiting academically.

  13. Virtual reality does not meet expectations in a pilot study on multimodal laparoscopic surgery training.

    PubMed

    Nickel, Felix; Bintintan, Vasile V; Gehrig, Tobias; Kenngott, Hannes G; Fischer, Lars; Gutt, Carsten N; Müller-Stich, Beat P

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the value of virtual reality (VR) training for a multimodality training program of basic laparoscopic surgery. Participants in a two-day multimodality training for laparoscopic surgery used box trainers, live animal training, and cadaveric training on the pulsating organ perfusion (POP) trainer in a structured and standardized training program. The participants were divided into two groups. The VR group (n = 13) also practiced with VR training during the program, whereas the control group (n = 14) did not use VR training. The training modalities were assessed using questionnaires with a five-point Likert scale after the program. Concerning VR training, members of the control group assessed their expectations, whereas the VR group assessed the actual experience of using it. Skills performance was evaluated with five standardized test tasks in a live porcine model before (pre-test) and after (post-test) the training program. Laparoscopic skills were measured by task completion time and a general performance score for each task. Baseline tests were compared with laparoscopic experience of all participants for construct validity of the skills test. The expected benefit from VR training of the control group was higher than the experienced benefit of the VR group. Box and POP training received better ratings from the VR group than from the control group for some purposes. Both groups improved their skill parameters significantly from pre-training to post-training tests [score +17 % (P < 0.01), time -29 % (P < 0.01)]. No significant difference was found between the two groups for laparoscopic skills improvement except for the score in the instrument coordination task. Construct validity of the skills test was significant for both time and score. At its current level of performance, VR training does not meet expectations. No additional benefit was observed from VR training in our multimodality training program.

  14. Manual and manipulative therapy in addition to rehabilitation for osteoarthritis of the knee: assessor-blind randomized pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Lauren; Parkin-Smith, Gregory F; Brantingham, James W; Korporaal, Charmaine; Cassa, Tammy K; Globe, Gary; Bonnefin, Debra; Tong, Victor

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the methodological integrity, sample size requirements, and short-term preliminary clinical outcomes of manual and manipulative therapy (MMT) in addition to a rehabilitation program for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA). This was a pilot study of an assessor-blinded, randomized, parallel-group trial in 2 independent university-based outpatient clinics. Participants with knee OA were randomized to 3 groups: 6 MMT sessions alone, training in rehabilitation followed by a home rehabilitation program alone, or MMT plus the same rehabilitation program, respectively. Six MMT treatment sessions (provided by a chiropractic intern under supervision or by an experienced chiropractor) were provided to participants over the 4-week treatment period. The primary outcome was a description of the research methodology and sample size estimation for a confirmatory study. The secondary outcome was the short-term preliminary clinical outcomes. Data were collected at baseline and 5weeks using the Western Ontario and McMasters Osteoarthritis Index questionnaire, goniometry for knee flexion/extension, and the McMaster Overall Therapy Effectiveness inventory. Analysis of variance was used to compare differences between groups. Eighty-three patients were randomly allocated to 1 of the 3 groups (27, 28, and 28, respectively). Despite 5 dropouts, the data from 78 participants were available for analysis with 10% of scores missing. A minimum of 462 patients is required for a confirmatory 3-arm trial including the respective interventions, accounting for cluster effects and a 20% dropout rate. Statistically significant and clinically meaningful changes in scores from baseline to week 5 were found for all groups for the Western Ontario and McMasters Osteoarthritis Index (P ≤ .008), with a greater change in scores for MMT and MMT plus rehabilitation. Between-group comparison did not reveal statistically significant differences between group scores at

  15. Early individualised manipulative rehabilitation following lumbar open laser microdiscectomy improves early post-operative functional disability: A randomized, controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byungho J; Ahn, Junghoon; Cho, Heecheol; Kim, Dongyun; Kim, Taeyeong; Yoon, Bumchul

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar open laser microdiscectomy has been shown to be an effective intervention and safe approach for lumbar disc prolapse. However early post-operative physical disability affecting daily activities have been sporadically reported. To evaluate the feasibility of using early individualised manipulative rehabilitation to improve early post-operative functional disability following lumbar discectomy. Randomised controlled pilot trial. Setting at a major metropolitan spine surgery hospital. Twenty-one patients aged 25-69 years who underwent lumbar microdiscectomy were randomised to either the manipulative rehabilitation treatment group or the active control group. Rehabilitation was initiated 2-3 weeks after surgery, twice a week for 4 weeks. Each session was for 30 minutes. Primary outcomes were the Roland-Morris disability questionnaire and the visual analogue pain scale. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Early post-operative physical disability was improved with a 55% reduction by early individualised manipulative rehabilitation, compared to that of control care with a 5% increase. Early post-operative residual leg pain decreased with rehabilitation (55%) and control care (9%). This pilot study supports the feasibility of a future definitive randomised control trial and indicates this type of rehabilitation may be an important option for post-operative management after spinal surgery.

  16. A Pilot Study to Examine the Effects of a Nutrition Intervention on Nutrition Knowledge, Behaviors, and Efficacy Expectations in Middle School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahlman, Mariane M.; Dake, Joseph A.; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Background: This was a pilot study to determine the impact of the Michigan Model (MM) Nutrition Curriculum on nutrition knowledge, efficacy expectations, and eating behaviors in middle school students. Methods: The study was conducted in a large metropolitan setting and approved by the Institutional Review Board. The participants for this study…

  17. A Pilot Study to Examine the Effects of a Nutrition Intervention on Nutrition Knowledge, Behaviors, and Efficacy Expectations in Middle School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahlman, Mariane M.; Dake, Joseph A.; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Background: This was a pilot study to determine the impact of the Michigan Model (MM) Nutrition Curriculum on nutrition knowledge, efficacy expectations, and eating behaviors in middle school students. Methods: The study was conducted in a large metropolitan setting and approved by the Institutional Review Board. The participants for this study…

  18. Short-Term Effects of Thoracic Spine Manipulation on the Biomechanical Organisation of Gait Initiation: A Randomized Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Ditcharles, Sébastien; Yiou, Eric; Delafontaine, Arnaud; Hamaoui, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Speed performance during gait initiation is known to be dependent on the capacity of the central nervous system to generate efficient anticipatory postural adjustments (APA). According to the posturo-kinetic capacity (PKC) concept, any factor enhancing postural chain mobility and especially spine mobility, may facilitate the development of APA and thus speed performance. "Spinal Manipulative Therapy High-Velocity, Low-Amplitude" (SMT-HVLA) is a healing technique applied to the spine which is routinely used by healthcare practitioners to improve spine mobility. As such, it may have a positive effect on the PKC and therefore facilitate gait initiation. The present study aimed to investigate the short-term effect of thoracic SMT-HVLA on spine mobility, APA and speed performance during gait initiation. Healthy young adults (n = 22) performed a series of gait initiation trials on a force plate before ("pre-manipulation" condition) and after ("post-manipulation" condition) a sham manipulation or an HVLA manipulation applied to the ninth thoracic vertebrae (T9). Participants were randomly assigned to the sham (n = 11) or the HVLA group (n = 11).The spine range of motion (ROM) was assessed in each participant immediately after the sham or HVLA manipulations using inclinometers. The results showed that the maximal thoracic flexion increased in the HVLA group after the manipulation, which was not the case in the sham group. In the HVLA group, results further showed that each of the following gait initiation variables reached a significantly lower mean value in the post-manipulation condition as compared to the pre-manipulation condition: APA duration, peak of anticipatory backward center of pressure displacement, center of gravity velocity at foot-off, mechanical efficiency of APA, peak of center of gravity velocity and step length. In contrast, for the sham group, results showed that none of the gait initiation variables significantly differed between the pre- and post-manipulation

  19. Expectations for treatment outcomes in neck/back patients regarding improvements in pain and function. A cross-sectional pilot study.

    PubMed

    Skatteboe, S; Røe, C; Fagerland, M W; Granan, L P

    2014-12-01

    Literature has suggested that patients' pretreatment expectations may influence both prognosis and outcome. Investigation of these possible benefits requires knowledge about what is actually expected among these patients. To investigate neck/back patients' expectations for treatment outcomes (pain and functional improvement) prior to their first meetings with specialists in physical medicine and rehabilitation (PMR). Cross-sectional pilot study. PMR Neck/Back Outpatient Clinic, Oslo University Hospital. Patients with neck/back pain and/or functional problems referred for the first time to a neck/back PMR outpatient clinic. Questionnaires were completed prior to an appointment with a PMR specialist. The forms consisted of one earlier designed instrument (PSOE) and one self-constructed part with six 11-point numeric rating scales (11-NRS). Eligible patients were randomly selected between January and June 2012. Approximately 42 % expected their status to remain un-changed. A total of 17 % expected exacerbation of their status. No differences were found between expectations regarding pain and function. Full recovery was not expected. Highly educated patients, and those reporting high usage of analgesics, had higher expectations for improvement. Few of the selected patients seemed to expect improvement. These expectations are quite pessimistic, in our opinion. More elaborate studies are needed to confirm these results.

  20. Immediate effects of lower cervical spine manipulation on handgrip strength and free-throw accuracy of asymptomatic basketball players: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Kelley M.; Ward, John; Coats, Jesse; Nobert, Jeannique; Amonette, William; Dyess, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this pilot study was to collect preliminary information for a study to determine the immediate effects of a single unilateral chiropractic manipulation to the lower cervical spine on handgrip strength and free-throw accuracy in asymptomatic male recreational basketball players. Methods For this study, 24 asymptomatic male recreational right-handed basketball players (age = 26.3 ± 9.2 years, height = 1.81 ± 0.07 m, body mass = 82.6 ± 10.4 kg [mean ± SD]) underwent baseline dominant handgrip isometric strength and free-throw accuracy testing in an indoor basketball court. They were then equally randomized to receive either (1) diversified left lower cervical spine chiropractic manipulative therapy (CMT) at C5/C6 or (2) placebo CMT at C5/C6 using an Activator adjusting instrument on zero force setting. Participants then underwent posttesting of isometric handgrip strength and free-throw accuracy. A paired-samples t test was used to make within-group pre to post comparisons and between-group pre to post comparisons. Results No statistically significant difference was shown between either of the 2 basketball performance variables measured in either group. Isometric handgrip strength marginally improved by 0.7 kg (mean) in the CMT group (P = .710). Free-throw accuracy increased by 13.2% in the CMT group (P = .058). The placebo CMT group performed the same or more poorly during their second test session. Conclusions The results of this preliminary study showed that a single lower cervical spine manipulation did not significantly impact basketball performance for this group of healthy asymptomatic participants. A slight increase in free-throw percentage was seen, which deserves further investigation. This pilot study demonstrates that a larger study to evaluate if CMT affects handgrip strength and free-throw accuracy is feasible. PMID:24396315

  1. Short-Term Effects of Thoracic Spine Manipulation on the Biomechanical Organisation of Gait Initiation: A Randomized Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Ditcharles, Sébastien; Yiou, Eric; Delafontaine, Arnaud; Hamaoui, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Speed performance during gait initiation is known to be dependent on the capacity of the central nervous system to generate efficient anticipatory postural adjustments (APA). According to the posturo-kinetic capacity (PKC) concept, any factor enhancing postural chain mobility and especially spine mobility, may facilitate the development of APA and thus speed performance. “Spinal Manipulative Therapy High-Velocity, Low-Amplitude” (SMT-HVLA) is a healing technique applied to the spine which is routinely used by healthcare practitioners to improve spine mobility. As such, it may have a positive effect on the PKC and therefore facilitate gait initiation. The present study aimed to investigate the short-term effect of thoracic SMT-HVLA on spine mobility, APA and speed performance during gait initiation. Healthy young adults (n = 22) performed a series of gait initiation trials on a force plate before (“pre-manipulation” condition) and after (“post-manipulation” condition) a sham manipulation or an HVLA manipulation applied to the ninth thoracic vertebrae (T9). Participants were randomly assigned to the sham (n = 11) or the HVLA group (n = 11).The spine range of motion (ROM) was assessed in each participant immediately after the sham or HVLA manipulations using inclinometers. The results showed that the maximal thoracic flexion increased in the HVLA group after the manipulation, which was not the case in the sham group. In the HVLA group, results further showed that each of the following gait initiation variables reached a significantly lower mean value in the post-manipulation condition as compared to the pre-manipulation condition: APA duration, peak of anticipatory backward center of pressure displacement, center of gravity velocity at foot-off, mechanical efficiency of APA, peak of center of gravity velocity and step length. In contrast, for the sham group, results showed that none of the gait initiation variables significantly differed between the pre

  2. How Often are Patient and Surgeon Recovery Expectations for Total Joint Arthroplasty Aligned? Results of a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Ghomrawi, Hassan M K; Franco Ferrando, Nuria; Mandl, Lisa A; Do, Huong; Noor, Neaz; Gonzalez Della Valle, Alejandro

    2011-10-01

    Surgeons strive to set patient expectations for recovery following total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, some patients report dissatisfaction after surgery due to unmet expectations. We compared patients' and surgeon's recovery expectations prior to primary THA and TKA. Sixty eight patients scheduled to undergo primary total hip replacement (THR) or total knee replacement (TKR) surgery were enrolled. Before surgery, patients filled out a validated recovery expectations questionnaire that quantified expectations of postoperative pain relief, function, and well-being with a value from 0 to 100 (higher being more optimistic). The surgeon independently completed the same questionnaire for each patient. Overall score and item-specific comparisons were conducted. Correlations were explored between agreement level, demographics, patient-reported health status measures, and patients' assessments of the risk of complications associated with surgery. Most patients undergoing THR or TKR had higher expectations for recovery than their surgeon. Applying the clinically meaningful difference in expectations (≥7 points), 52.5% of the TKA patients' expectations exceeded those of the surgeon, while 22.5% expected less than their surgeon and 60.7% of THA patients' expectations exceeded those of the surgeon, while 21.4% expected less than their surgeon. THA patients with either lower or higher expectations than their surgeon had lower physical and mental health status scores. TKA patients with lower expectations compared to their surgeon had a higher expectation of complications. More than 50% of the patients had higher expectations than their surgeon and this was driven by expectations of high-level activities and extreme range of motion. Further investigations are needed to understand these differences so as to enhance patient preoperative education.

  3. Learned Helplessness in Children with Visual Handicaps: A Pilot Study of Expectations, Persistence, and Attributions. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, Dan; And Others

    This report describes the outcomes of a one-year federally funded pilot study of 14 students with low vision or blindness (grades 3-6) and 13 teachers. The study was designed to generate practical classroom assessment procedures for measuring "learned helplessness" and recommendations for a conceptual intervention model for use in the classroom.…

  4. Spinal manipulation and anterior headweighting for the correction of forward head posture and cervical hypolordosis: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Morningstar, Mark W; Strauchman, Megan N.; Weeks, Darin A

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of Pettibon spinal manipulation and anterior headweighting for correct cervical hypolordosis and forward head posture, quantified by measurements taken from pre and post intervention lateral cervical radiographs. Methods A total of 15 subjects were selected for investigation at random. An initial seated lateral cervical radiograph was taken to evaluate forward head posture and the amount of cervical lordosis. A series of 3 manipulative procedures were performed, followed immediately by introduction of an anterior headweight device. This headweight device was worn for 5 minutes while walking on a treadmill. A post intervention seated lateral cervical radiograph was taken while each subject wore the headweight. Measurements of cervical lordosis and forward head posture were again quantified and compared to the initial radiographs. Results The average overall decrease in forward head posture among all subjects was 0.83 inches. The largest reduction in forward head posture was 1.25 inches. One subject failed to show any reduction. The largest and smallest improvements in the cervical lordosis were 23° and 4°, respectively. The average increase in cervical lordosis for all subjects was 9.9°. Conclusions This specific protocol was able to provide measurable improvement in cervical lordosis and reduction of forward head posture after only 1 session. However, it is not known which component, the spinal manipulation or the anterior headweighting, made the biggest impact. This study shows the immediate effects of spinal manipulation and headweighting combined. Future research should focus on the headweighting effects over a longer period of time. Additionally, anterior headweighting alone needs to be tested to evaluate its effectiveness as a sole treatment intervention. PMID:19674595

  5. Pilot study of the impact that bilateral sacroiliac joint manipulation using a drop table technique has on gait parameters in asymptomatic individuals with a leg length inequality.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, John; Sorrels, Ken; Coats, Jesse; Pourmoghaddam, Amir; DeLeon, Carlos; Daigneault, Paige

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to pilot test our study procedures and estimate parameters for sample size calculations for a randomized controlled trial to determine if bilateral sacroiliac (SI) joint manipulation affects specific gait parameters in asymptomatic individuals with a leg length inequality (LLI). Methods: Twenty-one asymptomatic chiropractic students engaged in a baseline 90-second walking kinematic analysis using infrared Vicon® cameras. Following this, participants underwent a functional LLI test. Upon examination participants were classified as: left short leg, right short leg, or no short leg. Half of the participants in each short leg group were then randomized to receive bilateral corrective SI joint chiropractic manipulative therapy (CMT). All participants then underwent another 90-second gait analysis. Pre- versus post-intervention gait data were then analyzed within treatment groups by an individual who was blinded to participant group status. For the primary analysis, all p-values were corrected for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni method. Results: Within groups, no differences in measured gait parameters were statistically significant after correcting for multiple comparisons. Conclusions: The protocol of this study was acceptable to all subjects who were invited to participate. No participants refused randomization. Based on the data collected, we estimated that a larger main study would require 34 participants in each comparison group to detect a moderate effect size. PMID:24587501

  6. A pilot, short-term dietary manipulation of branched chain amino acids has modest influence on fasting levels of branched chain amino acids

    PubMed Central

    Cavallaro, Nicole Landa; Garry, Jamie; Shi, Xu; Gerszten, Robert E.; Anderson, Ellen J.; Walford, Geoffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Elevated fasting levels of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs: valine, isoleucine, leucine) in venous blood are associated with a variety of metabolic impairments, including increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Fasting BCAA levels are influenced by non-dietary factors. However, it is unknown whether fasting BCAAs can be altered through manipulation of dietary intake alone. Objective To test whether a specific dietary intervention, using differences in BCAA intake, alters fasting BCAA levels independent of other factors. Design Five healthy male volunteers underwent 4 days of a low and 4 days of a high BCAA content dietary intervention (ClinicalTrials.gov [NCT02110602]). All food and supplements were provided. Fasting BCAAs were measured from venous blood samples by mass spectrometry at baseline and after each intervention. Results Diets were isocaloric; contained equal percentages of calories from carbohydrate, fats, and protein; and differed from each other in BCAA content (1.5±0.1 vs. 14.0±0.6 g for valine; 4.5±0.9 g vs. 13.8±0.5 g for isoleucine; 2.1±0.2 g vs. 27.1±1.0 g for leucine; p<0.0001 for all). Fasting valine was significantly lower (p=0.02) and fasting isoleucine and leucine were numerically lower following the low BCAA content vs. the high BCAA content diet levels. The inter-individual response to the dietary interventions was variable and not explained by adherence. Conclusion Short-term dietary manipulation of BCAA intake led to modest changes in fasting levels of BCAAs. The approach from our pilot study can be expanded to test the metabolic implications of dietary BCAA manipulation. PMID:26781817

  7. A pilot study to examine the effects of a nutrition intervention on nutrition knowledge, behaviors, and efficacy expectations in middle school children.

    PubMed

    Fahlman, Mariane M; Dake, Joseph A; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey

    2008-04-01

    This was a pilot study to determine the impact of the Michigan Model (MM) Nutrition Curriculum on nutrition knowledge, efficacy expectations, and eating behaviors in middle school students. The study was conducted in a large metropolitan setting and approved by the Institutional Review Board. The participants for this study were divided into an intervention group (n = 407) and a control group (n = 169). An MM instructor trained health teachers in the use of the curriculum, and the teacher subsequently taught the curriculum to students in the intervention group. A valid and reliable questionnaire was used to determine pre-post differences. It consisted of 3 subscales assessing eating habits, nutrition knowledge, and efficacy expectations toward healthy eating. Subscale scores were analyzed using a 2 groups (intervention vs control) x 2 times (pre vs post) analysis of variance. The intervention group increased their nutrition knowledge at post. There was also a significant main effect for groups in the subscales "Eating Behaviors" and "Efficacy Expectations Regarding Healthy Eating." Subsequent post hoc analysis revealed that the intervention group was significantly more likely to eat fruits and vegetables and less likely to eat junk food than the control group. Students in the intervention group also felt more confident that they could eat healthy. The results of this pilot study suggest that the MM Nutrition Curriculum delivered by trained professionals resulted in significant positive changes in both nutrition knowledge and behaviors in middle school children. Further research needs to be conducted to determine the long-term impact.

  8. Osteopathic manipulative treatment in conjunction with medication relieves pain associated with fibromyalgia syndrome: results of a randomized clinical pilot project.

    PubMed

    Gamber, Russell G; Shores, Jay H; Russo, David P; Jimenez, Cynthia; Rubin, Benard R

    2002-06-01

    Osteopathic physicians caring for patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) often use osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) in conjunction with other forms of standard medical care. Despite a growing body of evidence on the efficacy of manual therapy for the treatment of selected acute musculoskeletal conditions, the role of OMT in treating patients with chronic conditions such as FM remains largely unknown. Twenty-four female patients meeting American College of Rheumatology criteria for FM were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: (1) manipulation group, (2) manipulation and teaching group, (3) moist heat group, and (4) control group, which received no additional treatment other than current medication. Participants' pain perceptions were assessed by use of pain thresholds measured at each of 10 bilateral tender points using a 9-kg dolorimeter, the Chronic Pain Experience Inventory, and the Present Pain Intensity Rating Scale. Patients' affective response to treatment was assessed using the Self-Evaluation Questionnaire. Activities of daily living were assessed using the Stanford Arthritis Center Disability and Discomfort Scales: Health Assessment Questionnaire. Depression was assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Significant findings between the four treatment groups on measures of pain threshold, perceived pain, attitude toward treatment, activities of daily living, and perceived functional ability were found. All of these findings favored use of OMT. This study found OMT combined with standard medical care was more efficacious in treating FM than standard care alone. These findings need to be replicated to determine if cost savings are incurred when treatments for FM incorporate nonpharmacologic approaches such as OMT.

  9. Arbitrary visuo-motor mapping during object manipulation in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ameli, Mitra; Kemper, Friederike; Sarfeld, Anna-Sophia; Kessler, Josef; Fink, Gereon R; Nowak, Dennis A

    2011-07-01

    Empirical evidence for an essential role of the hippocampal system in arbitrary visuo-motor mapping suggests that acquisition and retrieval of arbitrary visuo-motor mapping might be impaired in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present pilot study investigated whether MCI of amnestic type or AD impact upon the capacity to scale grip force in a predictive manner to the mass of an object to be lifted based on learned associations between arbitrary colour cues and mass. Patients with MCI (n=8) and AD (n=8) grasped and lifted two different masses (400g and 600g) in random order using a precision grip between index finger and thumb. In a "no cue" experiment, a non-informative neutral visual stimulus was presented prior to each lift, thereby disallowing any prediction about which of the two masses was going to be lifted in the next trial. In a "cue" experiment an arbitrary colour cue provided advance information about which of the two masses to be lifted. In the "no cue" condition patients scaled their grip force according to the mass of the preceding lift. In the "cue" experiment neither patients with amnestic MCI nor those with AD were able to adjust their grip force based on visuo-motor mappings with arbitrary colour cues. These preliminary data suggest that the hippocampal system plays an essential role for arbitrary visuo-motor mapping in the grip-lift task. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging and acute low back pain: a pilot study to characterize lumbar muscle activity asymmetries and examine the effects of osteopathic manipulative treatment

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Brian C; Walkowski, Stevan; Conatser, Robert R; Eland, David C; Howell, John N

    2009-01-01

    Background Muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging (mfMRI) measures transverse relaxation time (T2), and allows for determination of the spatial pattern of muscle activation. The purposes of this pilot study were to examine whether MRI-derived T2 or side-to-side differences in T2 (asymmetries) differ in low back muscles between subjects with acute low back pain (LBP) compared to asymptomatic controls, and to determine if a single osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) session alters these T2 properties immediately and 48-hours after treatment. Methods Subjects with non-specific acute LBP (mean score on 1-10 visual analog score = 3.02 ± 2.81) and asymptomatic controls (n = 9/group) underwent an MRI, and subsequently the LBP subjects received OMT and then underwent another MRI. The LBP subjects reported back for an additional MRI 48-hours following their initial visit. T2 and T2 asymmetry were calculated from regions of interest for the psoas, quadratus lumborum (QL), multifidus, and iliocostalis lumborum/longissimus thoracis (IL/LT) muscles. Results No differences were observed between the groups when T2 was averaged for the left and right side muscles. However, the QL displayed a significantly greater T2 asymmetry in LBP subjects when compared to controls (29.1 ± 4.3 vs. 15.9 ± 4.1%; p = 0.05). The psoas muscle also displayed a relatively large, albeit non-significant, mean difference (22.7 ± 6.9 vs. 9.5 ± 2.8%; p = 0.11). In the subjects with LBP, psoas T2 asymmetry was significantly reduced immediately following OMT (25.3 ± 6.9 to 6.1 ± 1.8%, p = 0.05), and the change in LBP immediately following OMT was correlated with the change in psoas T2 asymmetry (r = 0.75, p = 0.02). Conclusion Collectively, this pilot work demonstrates the feasibility of mfMRI for quantification and localization of muscle abnormalities in patients with acute low back pain. Additionally, this pilot work provides insight into the mechanistic actions of OMT during acute LBP, as

  11. Effect of osteopathic manipulative treatment on middle ear effusion following acute otitis media in young children: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Steele, Karen M; Carreiro, Jane E; Viola, Judith Haug; Conte, Josephine A; Ridpath, Lance C

    2014-06-01

    Childhood acute otitis media (AOM) is highly prevalent. Its usual sequela of middle ear effusion (MEE) can lead to conductive hearing loss, for which surgery is commonly used. To evaluate the efficacy of an osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) protocol on MEE resolution following an episode of AOM. The authors hypothesized that OMT provided adjunctively to standard care for young children with AOM would reduce the duration of MEE following the onset of AOM. We compared standard care only (SCO) and standard care plus OMT (SC+OMT) for the duration of MEE following AOM. Patients were aged 6 months to 2 years. The SC+OMT group received OMT during 3 weekly visits. Weekly tympanometric and acoustic reflectometer (AR) readings were obtained from all patients. There were 52 patients enrolled, with 43 completing the study and 9 dropping out. No demographic differences were noted. Only ears from each patient with abnormal tympanograms at entry were included. There were 76 ears in the tympanogram analysis (38 from SCO; 38 from SC+OMT) and 61 ears in the AR data analysis (31 from SCO; 30 from SC+OMT). Dependence of bilateral ear disease noted in AR readings was accounted for in statistical analysis. Tympanogram data demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in MEE at visit 3 in patients in the SC+OMT group (odds ratio, 2.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.16, 7.62; χ(2) test for independence, P=.02). The AR data analysis showed statistically significant improvement at visit 3 for the SC+OMT group (z=2.05; P=.02). There was no statistically significant change in MEE before or immediately after the OMT protocol. A standardized OMT protocol administered adjunctively with standard care for patients with AOM may result in faster resolution of MEE following AOM than standard treatment alone. (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00520039.). © 2014 The American Osteopathic Association.

  12. Perceptions, expectations, and reactions to cleft lip and palate surgery in native populations: a pilot study in rural India.

    PubMed

    Weatherley-White, R C A; Eiserman, William; Beddoe, Marie; Vanderberg, Richard

    2005-09-01

    Many charitable organizations conduct overseas missions to correct cleft lip and palate where surgical care is unavailable. However, little is known about cultural and societal attitudes regarding the cleft deformity. A 15-item questionnaire was designed to elicit from parents general knowledge concerning cleft lip and palate, beliefs regarding its causation, and expectations of what surgery would accomplish. Shorter second and third questionnaires were administered after the screening process and after surgery. The initial phase of this project was undertaken in Deesa, a midsized rural town in India. Fifty-two families were selected randomly for the initial questionnaire. These interviews were conducted verbally, assisted by translators. Children in 25 of these 52 families subsequently underwent surgery. The results of the interviews indicated that 64% of parents did not limit their child's social interaction and were not ashamed to be seen in public. Twenty-six percent exercised some constraints, and 10% kept their children totally isolated, not permitting them to leave the house or attend school. Regarding causation, the vast majority (84%) ascribed the cleft to "God's will" and 10% to sins committed in past lives. Only one parent acknowledged the influence of genetics, although several had a positive family history. Environmental factors were not an issue. Most families expected their child's life to be better when the facial deformity was corrected. Marriage prospects were the main concern, more so for girls than boys. Educational opportunity was a second strong theme. A greater understanding of the beliefs and expectations in this region was gained by means of this study.

  13. A path analysis of the effects of the doctor-patient encounter and expectancy in an open-label randomized trial of spinal manipulation for the care of low back pain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The doctor-patient encounter (DPE) and associated patient expectations are potential confounders in open-label randomized trials of treatment efficacy. It is therefore important to evaluate the effects of the DPE on study outcomes. Methods Four hundred participants with chronic low back pain (LBP) were randomized to four dose groups: 0, 6, 12, or 18 sessions of spinal manipulation from a chiropractor. Participants were treated three times per week for six weeks. They received light massage control at visits when manipulation was not scheduled. Treating chiropractors were instructed to have equal enthusiasm for both interventions. A path analysis was conducted to determine the effects of dose, patient expectations of treatment success, and DPE on LBP intensity (100-point scale) at the end of care (6 weeks) and primary endpoint (12 weeks). Direct, indirect, and total standardized effects (βtotal) were computed. Expectations and DPE were evaluated on Likert scales. The DPE was assessed as patient-rated perception of chiropractor enthusiasm, confidence, comfort with care, and time spent. Results The DPE was successfully balanced across groups, as were baseline expectations. The principal finding was that the magnitude of the effects of DPE on LBP at 6 and 12 weeks (|β|total = 0.22 and 0.15, p < .05) were comparable to the effects of dose of manipulation at those times (|β|total = 0.11 and 0.12, p < .05). In addition, baseline expectations had no notable effect on follow-up LBP. Subsequent expectations were affected by LBP, DPE, and dose (p < .05). Conclusions The DPE can have a relatively important effect on outcomes in open-label randomized trials of treatment efficacy. Therefore, attempts should be made to balance the DPE across treatment groups and report degree of success in study publications. We balanced the DPE across groups with minimal training of treatment providers. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00376350 PMID

  14. Perineal resuturing versus expectant management following vaginal delivery complicated by a dehisced wound (PREVIEW): a pilot and feasibility randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, L; Kettle, C; Thomas, P W; Ismail, K M K

    2017-01-01

    Objective To establish the feasibility of conducting a definitive randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing the effectiveness of resuturing versus expectant management for dehisced perineal wounds. Design A multicentre pilot and feasibility RCT. Setting Ten UK maternity units from July 2011 to July 2013. Population Eligible women with a dehisced perineal wound within 2 weeks of childbirth. Methods The interventions were resuturing or expectancy. Randomisation was via web or telephone, stratified by participating centre. Blinding was not possible due to the nature of the interventions. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Outcome The primary outcome measure was wound healing at 6–8 weeks. Results The study revealed a number of feasibility issues, particularly strong patient and clinician preference for treatment options at recruiting centres and the timing of the primary outcome measure. Thirty-four women were randomised (17 in each arm). Data from 33 women were analysed on an intention-to-treat analysis to obtain preliminary estimates of effect size. There was a difference in wound healing at 2 weeks favouring resuturing (OR 20.00, 95% CI 2.04 to 196.37, p=0.004). However, by 6–8 weeks all but one wound in both groups had healed. Conclusions PREVIEW revealed a number of feasibility issues, which impacted on recruitment rate. These will have to be taken into account in the design of any future definitive study. In this feasibility study, resuturing was associated with quicker wound healing and women reported higher satisfaction rates with the outcome at 3 months. Trial registration number ISRCTN05754020. PMID:28188151

  15. Reduction of frontal-plane hip joint reaction force via medio-lateral foot center of pressure manipulation: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Solomonow-Avnon, Deborah; Wolf, Alon; Herman, Amir; Rozen, Nimrod; Haim, Amir

    2015-02-01

    Footwear-generated biomechanical manipulation of lower-limb joints has been shown to influence lower-limb biomechanics. Numerous studies report the influence of such interventions on the knee, however little is known about the influence of these interventions on the hip. The present study analyzed kinetic and kinematic changes about the hip of 12 healthy young males who underwent biomechanical manipulation utilizing the APOS biomechanical device (APOS-Medical and Sports Technologies Ltd., Herzliya, Israel) allowing controlled foot center of pressure manipulation. Subjects underwent gait testing in four para-sagittal device configurations: Medial, lateral, neutral, and regular shoes. In the medial configuration, subjects demonstrated no change in step width (i.e., distance between right and left foot center of pressure), however inter-malleolar distance significantly increased. Likewise with the medial setting, greater hip abduction was recorded, while hip adduction moment and joint reaction force decreased significantly. We speculate that subjects adopt a modified gait pattern aimed to maintain constant base of support. As a result, hip abductor muscle moment arm increases and adduction moment and joint reaction force decreases. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study to show this relationship. These results contribute to the understanding of lower-limb biomechanics and warrant further investigation.

  16. A pilot study of sensory feedback by transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation to improve manipulation deficit caused by severe sensory loss after stroke

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sensory disturbance is common following stroke and can exacerbate functional deficits, even in patients with relatively good motor function. In particular, loss of appropriate sensory feedback in severe sensory loss impairs manipulation capability. We hypothesized that task-oriented training with sensory feedback assistance would improve manipulation capability even without sensory pathway recovery. Methods We developed a system that provides sensory feedback by transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (SENS) for patients with sensory loss, and investigated the feasibility of the system in a stroke patient with severe sensory impairment and mild motor deficit. The electrical current was modulated by the force exerted by the fingertips so as to allow the patient to identify the intensity. The patient had severe sensory loss due to a right thalamic hemorrhage suffered 27 months prior to participation in the study. The patient first practiced a cylindrical grasp task with SENS for 1 hour daily over 29 days. Pressure information from the affected thumb was fed back to the unaffected shoulder. The same patient practiced a tip pinch task with SENS for 1 hour daily over 4 days. Pressure information from the affected thumb and index finger was fed back to the unaffected and affected shoulders, respectively. We assessed the feasibility of SENS and examined the improvement of manipulation capability after training with SENS. Results The fluctuation in fingertip force during the cylindrical grasp task gradually decreased as the training progressed. The patient was able to maintain a stable grip force after training, even without SENS. Pressure exerted by the tip pinch of the affected hand was unstable before intervention with SENS compared with that of the unaffected hand. However, they were similar to each other immediately after SENS was initiated, suggesting that the somatosensory information improved tip pinch performance. The patient’s manipulation

  17. Genetic Manipulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, David

    1973-01-01

    Knowledge of genetic manipulations opens the door to ambitious possibilities of inhabiting the world with genetically perfect human beings. Legal, technological and social problems are involved. Attempts must be made to identify hereditary complaints in individuals. (PS)

  18. Robot Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Space Shuttle's Remote Manipulator System (Canadarm) is a 50 foot robot arm used to deploy, retrieve or repair satellites in orbit. Initial spinoff version is designed to remove, inspect and replace large components of Ontario Hydro's CANDU nuclear reactors, which supply 50 percent of Ontario Hydro's total power reduction. CANDU robot is the first of SPAR's Remote Manipulator Systems intended for remote materials handling operations in nuclear servicing, chemical processing, smelting and manufacturing. Inco Limited used remote manipulator for remote control mining equipment to enhance safety and productivity of Inco's hardrock mining operations. System not only improves safety in a hazardous operation that costs more than a score of lives annually, it also increases productivity fourfold. Remote Manipulator System Division is also manufacturing a line of industrial robots and developing additional system for nuclear servicing, mining, defense and space operations.

  19. Effect of spinal manipulative therapy with stretching compared with stretching alone on full-swing performance of golf players: a randomized pilot trial☆

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Soraya M.V.; Chibana, Yumi E.T.; Giavarotti, Leandro; Compagnoni, Débora S.; Shiono, Adriana H.; Satie, Janice; Bracher, Eduardo S.B.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective There has been a steady growth of chiropractic treatment using spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) that aims to increase the performance of athletes in various sports. This study evaluates the effect of SMT by chiropractors on the performance of golf players. Methods Golfers of 2 golf clubs in São Paulo, Brazil, participated in this study. They were randomized to 1 of 2 groups: Group I received a stretch program, and group II received a stretch program in addition to SMT. Participants in both groups performed the same standardized stretching program. Spinal manipulative therapy to dysfunctional spinal segments was performed on group II only. All golfers performed 3 full-swing maneuvers. Ball range was considered as the average distance for the 3 shots. Treatment was performed after the initial measurement, and the same maneuvers were performed afterward. Each participant repeated these procedures for a 4-week period. Student t test, Mann-Whitney nonparametric test, and 1-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with significance level of 5% were used to analyze the study. Results Forty-three golfers completed the protocol. Twenty participants were allocated to group I and 23 to group II. Average age, handicap, and initial swing were comparable. No improvement of full-swing performance was observed during the 4 sessions on group I (stretch only). An improvement was observed at the fourth session of group II (P = .005); when comparing the posttreatment, group II had statistical significance at all phases (P = .003). Conclusions Chiropractic SMT in association with muscle stretching may be associated with an improvement of full-swing performance when compared with muscle stretching alone. PMID:19948307

  20. Underwater manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Schrum, P.B.; Cohen, G.H.

    1993-04-20

    Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is described for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer [plus minus]45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer [plus minus]10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

  1. Underwater manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Schrum, Phillip B.; Cohen, George H.

    1993-01-01

    Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is provided for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer .+-.45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer .+-.10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

  2. Underwater manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Schrum, P.B.; Cohen, G.H.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus provided for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer {plus_minus} 45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer {plus_minus} 10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

  3. 14 CFR 135.115 - Manipulation of controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manipulation of controls. 135.115 Section 135.115 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Operations § 135.115 Manipulation of controls. No pilot in command may allow any person to manipulate the...

  4. 14 CFR 135.115 - Manipulation of controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manipulation of controls. 135.115 Section 135.115 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Operations § 135.115 Manipulation of controls. No pilot in command may allow any person to manipulate the...

  5. 14 CFR 135.115 - Manipulation of controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manipulation of controls. 135.115 Section 135.115 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Operations § 135.115 Manipulation of controls. No pilot in command may allow any person to manipulate the...

  6. Voluntary intravenous self-administration of alcohol detects an interaction between GABAergic manipulation and GABRG1 polymorphism genotype: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Plawecki, Martin H; Wetherill, Leah; Vitvitskiy, Victor; Kosobud, Ann; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Edenberg, Howard J; O'Connor, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Operant responding paradigms quantify a subject's motivation for reward, but such studies employing ingested alcohol cannot assure the same incremental increase in brain exposure to alcohol across subjects because of substantial variability in absorption kinetics. We developed a human progressive ratio (PR) paradigm using the computer-assisted self-infusion of ethanol (CASE) system that overcomes such variability and conducted a pilot study to assess its utility for detecting an interaction of subjects' GABRA2 or GABRG1 genotype and pretreatment with 1 mg of lorazepam (LZ) vs. placebo on their willingness to work for alcohol rewards. Twenty healthy, nondependent drinkers, aged 21 to 27, were balanced on rs279871 and rs2350439 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the GABRA2 and GABRG1 genes, respectively. Subjects worked for alcohol, with water as an alternative reinforcer (AR), using a progressive schedule of a task that required constant attention and adapted to both fatigue and drug effects. Testing began 1 hour after pretreatment with 1 mg LZ or placebo in a crossover design. The CASE system performed well, and the constant attention task was perceived as work by all subjects. GABRA2 homozygosity did not significantly predict either breakpoint or cumulative work, whereas a significant GABRG1 genotype by LZ pretreatment interaction for cumulative work was detected (p = 0.04). Breakpoint revealed a weak trend toward pretreatment drug effects (p = 0.11), and a somewhat stronger interaction of LZ pretreatment with GABRG1 genotype (p = 0.06). GABRG1 status revealed a more complex relationship with respect to motivation for alcohol with and without LZ pretreatment; AG and GG individuals worked more for alcohol under both pretreatment conditions, while AA individuals worked more for the AR. The CASE PR paradigm shows promise as a laboratory method for use in drug development and phenotyping studies. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  7. Manipulation hardware for microgravity research

    SciTech Connect

    Herndon, J.N.; Glassell, R.L.; Butler, P.L.; Williams, D.M. ); Rohn, D.A. . Lewis Research Center); Miller, J.H. )

    1990-01-01

    The establishment of permanent low earth orbit occupation on the Space Station Freedom will present new opportunities for the introduction of productive flexible automation systems into the microgravity environment of space. The need for robust and reliable robotic systems to support experimental activities normally intended by astronauts will assume great importance. Many experimental modules on the space station are expected to require robotic systems for ongoing experimental operations. When implementing these systems, care must be taken not to introduce deleterious effects on the experiments or on the space station itself. It is important to minimize the acceleration effects on the experimental items being handled while also minimizing manipulator base reaction effects on adjacent experiments and on the space station structure. NASA Lewis Research Center has been performing research on these manipulator applications, focusing on improving the basic manipulator hardware, as well as developing improved manipulator control algorithms. By utilizing the modular manipulator concepts developed during the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed an experimental testbed system called the Microgravity Manipulator, incorporating two pitch-yaw modular positioners to provide a 4 dof experimental manipulator arm. A key feature in the design for microgravity manipulation research was the use of traction drives for torque transmission in the modular pitch-yaw differentials.

  8. High-content screening data management for drug discovery in a small- to medium-size laboratory: results of a collaborative pilot study focused on user expectations as indicators of effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Berlinicke, Cynthia A; Ackermann, Christopher F; Chen, Steve H; Schulze, Christoph; Shafranovich, Yakov; Myneni, Sahiti; Patel, Vimla L; Wang, Jian; Zack, Donald J; Lindvall, Mikael; Bova, G Steven

    2012-08-01

    High-content screening (HCS) technology provides a powerful vantage point to approach biological problems; it allows analysis of cell parameters, including changes in cell or protein movement, shape, or texture. As part of a collaborative pilot research project to improve bioscience research data integration, we identified HCS data management as an area ripe for advancement. A primary goal was to develop an integrated data management and analysis system suitable for small- to medium-size HCS programs that would improve research productivity and increase work satisfaction. A system was developed that uses Labmatrix, a Web-based research data management platform, to integrate and query data derived from a Cellomics STORE database. Focusing on user expectations, several barriers to HCS productivity were identified and reduced or eliminated. The impact of the project on HCS research productivity was tested through a series of 18 lab-requested integrated data queries, 7 of which were fully enabled, 7 partially enabled, and 4 enabled through data export to standalone data analysis tools. The results are limited to one laboratory, but this pilot suggests that through an "implementation research" approach, a network of small- to medium-size laboratories involved in HCS projects could achieve greater productivity and satisfaction in drug discovery research.

  9. Randomized expectancy-enhanced placebo-controlled trial of the impact of Quantum BioEnergetic distant healing and paranormal belief on mood disturbance: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rock, Adam J; Permezel, Fiona E; Storm, Lance

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the effects of ostensible subtle energy on physical systems and subjective experience. However, one subtle energy technique that has been neglected, despite anecdotal support for its efficacy, is Quantum BioEnergetics (QBE). Furthermore, the influence of paranormal belief and experience (either real belief/experience or suggested belief/experience) on subtle energy effects remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate experimentally the effects of distant QBE healing, and paranormal belief/experience, on mood. A randomized expectancy-enhanced placebo-controlled design was used. Data were collected at the QBE Centre, Melbourne. Participants were students from Deakin University and from the general public. Snowball sampling (ie, word-of-mouth) and convenience sampling using a ballot box placed in the university library. Profile of Mood States-Short Form was used to quantify positive and negative mood states. The QBE condition was associated with (1) significantly less Tension-Anxiety compared with the placebo and control condition; and (2) significantly less Anger-Hostility and Total Mood Disturbance compared with the control condition (but not the placebo condition). Furthermore, there was an interaction of condition and paranormal belief/experience with regard to Depression-Dejection, with believers assigned to the placebo condition scoring lowest on this Mood variable. Findings suggest that the use of QBE by an experienced practitioner reduces mood disturbance. In addition, the placebo condition may have evoked suggestibility effects in believers, which would mean that they may be more likely than nonbelievers to believe that they were receiving healing, thus resulting in lower Depression-Dejection scores. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Medical examinations for pilots.

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, P. J.

    1995-01-01

    High altitude is an environment that is alien to man. Stressors associated with the mechanics of flight include motion and acceleration forces applied in three vectors and in degrees that are foreign to the human vestibular apparatus. Furthermore, the work patterns of a pilot can interfere with lifestyle and circadian rhythms. Therefore medical fitness is an important consideration in determining an individual's suitability to exercise a pilot's licence. The medical standards applied depend on the type of aircraft flown and the duties expected of a pilot. There are three broad categories of pilot. In ascending order of stringency of medical standards these are the private pilot, the professional pilot and the military pilot. PMID:7494767

  11. To Educate Pilots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Dayton Y.

    1968-01-01

    As the highly trained ex-military pilots of World War II began to retire from commercial flying, there was concern over the pilot shortage, especially among the airlines with their growing needs. Miami-Dade Junior College, in January 1965, was the first to respond to this need. Although initial enrollment was expected to be small, 150 applications…

  12. The Ethics of Setting Course Expectations to Manipulate Student Evaluations of Teaching Effectiveness in Higher Education: An Examination of the Ethical Dilemmas Created by the Use of SETEs and a Proposal for Further Study and Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Catherine S.; Elliott, Teressa

    2009-01-01

    Because student evaluations of teaching effectiveness (SETEs) are an important and widely used tool used in the evaluation and reward systems for faculty members in higher education, a discussion and analysis of the ethical problems that may arise as a result of the conflict created by expectations of performance is provided. This discussion…

  13. Employee involvement: motivation or manipulation?

    PubMed

    McConnell, C R

    1998-03-01

    Employee involvement is subject to a great deal of verbal tribute; there is hardly a manager at work today who will not praise the value of employee input. However, many employee involvement efforts leave employees feeling more manipulated than motivated. This occurs because supervisors and managers, while expecting employees to change the way they work, are themselves either unwilling to change or remain unconscious of the need to change. The result is that, although employee input is regularly solicited in a number of forms, it is often discounted, ignored, or altered to fit the manager's preconceptions. Often the employee is left feeling manipulated. Since the opportunity for involvement can be a strong motivator, it becomes the manager's task to learn how to provide involvement opportunity in manipulative fashion. This can be accomplished by providing involvement opportunity accompanied by clear outcome expectations and allowing employees the freedom to pursue those outcomes in their own way.

  14. Great Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1993-01-01

    Inside one Washington, DC, elementary school, Principal John Pannell has high hopes for his students and an expansive school vision. Malcolm X School compensates for disorder outside by clearly inculcating rules and behavior expectations. Children in school uniforms daily repeat a motto promoting Malcolm X as a school of love allowing no hitting,…

  15. Leadership Expectancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Ray C.

    A review of theories of expectation as related to behavior shows a high correlation between educational leaders' perceptions of their faculties and the climate and quality of instructional programs. Thus, effective faculties and high quality educational programs could be linked to a particular type of leadership. Leaders who hold high expectations…

  16. Great Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1993-01-01

    Inside one Washington, DC, elementary school, Principal John Pannell has high hopes for his students and an expansive school vision. Malcolm X School compensates for disorder outside by clearly inculcating rules and behavior expectations. Children in school uniforms daily repeat a motto promoting Malcolm X as a school of love allowing no hitting,…

  17. Teacher Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Maureen McCormack

    This report examines the background and implementation of the Milwaukee (Wisconsin) Teacher Expectation Project and the Milwaukee School Improvement Program (Project RISE). The author presents a brief overview of educational research on low achievement, which includes the cultural deficit theory, the latter upon which the projects were based.…

  18. Great Expectations for "Great Expectations."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridley, Cheryl

    Designed to make the study of Dickens'"Great Expectations" an appealing and worthwhile experience, this paper presents a unit of study intended to help students gain (1) an appreciation of Dickens' skill at creating realistic human characters; (2) an insight into the problems of a young man confused by false values and unreal ambitions…

  19. Manipulator mounted transfer platform

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbins, J.C.; Hoover, M.A.; May, K.W.; Ross, M.J.

    1990-01-23

    The patent describes in a manipulator system for use in hazardous environments including a manipulator adapted for reciprocal movement upon a guide device, a transfer platform. It comprises: a bed frame defining a generally horizontal bed projecting outwardly from the manipulator; and frame mounting means securing the bed frame to the manipulator in a generally cantilevered fashion, thereby essentially minimizing the structure necessary to support the platform outwardly of the manipulator while enhancing operator visibility of the platform and the manipulator during use of the manipulator system.

  20. Pilot climate data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A usable data base, the Pilot climate Data System (PCDS) is described. The PCDS is designed to be an interactive, easy-to-use, on-line generalized scientific information system. It efficiently provides uniform data catalogs; inventories, and access method, as well as manipulation and display tools for a large assortment of Earth, ocean and atmospheric data for the climate-related research community. Researchers can employ the PCDS to scan, manipulate, compare, display, and study climate parameters from diverse data sets. Software features, and applications of the PCDS are highlighted.

  1. Prior expectations facilitate metacognition for perceptual decision.

    PubMed

    Sherman, M T; Seth, A K; Barrett, A B; Kanai, R

    2015-09-01

    The influential framework of 'predictive processing' suggests that prior probabilistic expectations influence, or even constitute, perceptual contents. This notion is evidenced by the facilitation of low-level perceptual processing by expectations. However, whether expectations can facilitate high-level components of perception remains unclear. We addressed this question by considering the influence of expectations on perceptual metacognition. To isolate the effects of expectation from those of attention we used a novel factorial design: expectation was manipulated by changing the probability that a Gabor target would be presented; attention was manipulated by instructing participants to perform or ignore a concurrent visual search task. We found that, independently of attention, metacognition improved when yes/no responses were congruent with expectations of target presence/absence. Results were modeled under a novel Bayesian signal detection theoretic framework which integrates bottom-up signal propagation with top-down influences, to provide a unified description of the mechanisms underlying perceptual decision and metacognition.

  2. Theoretical linear approach to the combined man-manipulator system in manual control of an aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brauser, K.

    1981-01-01

    An approach to the calculation of the dynamic characteristics of the combined man manipulator system in manual aircraft control was derived from a model of the neuromuscular system. This model combines the neuromuscular properties of man with the physical properties of the manipulator system which is introduced as pilot manipulator model into the manual aircraft control. The assumption of man as a quasilinear and time invariant control operator adapted to operating states, depending on the flight phases, of the control system gives rise to interesting solutions of the frequency domain transfer functions of both the man manipulator system and the closed loop pilot aircraft control system. It is shown that it is necessary to introduce the complete precision pilot manipulator model into the closed loop pilot aircraft transfer function in order to understand the well known handling quality criteria, and to derive these criteria directly from human operator properties.

  3. Progress in nonprehensile manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, M.T.

    1999-11-01

    This paper reviews my recent research in robotic manipulation and speculates on potentially fruitful directions for future work. My recent work is focused on nonprehensile manipulation: manipulating objects without grasping them. In particular, the paper surveys work on a single joint robot that orients parts on a conveyor belt; a robot that uses dynamics to snatch, roll, or throw objects; hitting things to position them; manipulating things whose shapes are not completely known; and integration of manipulation with locomotion. In the future, a broad view of robotics will allow us to focus on fundamental principles and at the same time address a variety of new applications.

  4. Giant optical manipulation.

    PubMed

    Shvedov, Vladlen G; Rode, Andrei V; Izdebskaya, Yana V; Desyatnikov, Anton S; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2010-09-10

    We demonstrate a new principle of optical trapping and manipulation increasing more than 1000 times the manipulation distance by harnessing strong thermal forces while suppressing their stochastic nature with optical vortex beams. Our approach expands optical manipulation of particles into a gas media and provides a full control over trapped particles, including the optical transport and pinpoint positioning of ∼100  μm objects over a meter-scale distance with ±10  μm accuracy.

  5. Microfluidics for manipulating cells.

    PubMed

    Mu, Xuan; Zheng, Wenfu; Sun, Jiashu; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Xingyu

    2013-01-14

    Microfluidics, a toolbox comprising methods for precise manipulation of fluids at small length scales (micrometers to millimeters), has become useful for manipulating cells. Its uses range from dynamic management of cellular interactions to high-throughput screening of cells, and to precise analysis of chemical contents in single cells. Microfluidics demonstrates a completely new perspective and an excellent practical way to manipulate cells for solving various needs in biology and medicine. This review introduces and comments on recent achievements and challenges of using microfluidics to manipulate and analyze cells. It is believed that microfluidics will assume an even greater role in the mechanistic understanding of cell biology and, eventually, in clinical applications.

  6. Manipulator mounted transfer platform

    DOEpatents

    Dobbins, James C.; Hoover, Mark A.; May, Kay W.; Ross, Maurice J.

    1990-01-01

    A transfer platform for the conveyance of objects by a manipulator includes a bed frame and saddle clamp secured along an edge of the bed frame and adapted so as to secure the bed frame to a horizontal crosspiece of the manipulator. The platform may thus move with the manipulator in a reciprocal linear path defined by a guide rail. A bed insert may be provided for the support of conveyed objects and a lifting bail may be provided to permit the manipulator arm to install the bed frame upon the crosspiece under remote control.

  7. Superparasitism evolution: adaptation or manipulation?

    PubMed

    Gandon, Sylvain; Rivero, Ana; Varaldi, Julien

    2006-01-01

    Superparasitism refers to the oviposition behavior of parasitoid females who lay their eggs in an already parasitized host. This often yields intense competition among larvae that are sharing the same host. Why would a female oviposit in such hostile habitat instead of looking for a better quality, unparasitized host? Here we present a continuous-time model of host-parasitoid interaction and discuss alternative scenarios. This model is first used to analyze the evolution of the superparasitism behavior of a solitary proovigenic parasitoid under both time and egg limitation. Then, following the recent discovery by Varaldi et al., we allow the parasitoid to be infected by a virus that alters the superparasitism behavior of its host to enhance its own horizontal transmission. The analysis of the coevolution of this manipulative behavior with the oviposition behavior of uninfected females clarifies and quantifies the conflict that emerges between the parasitoid and its virus. The model also yields new testable predictions. For example, we expect that uninfected parasitoids should superparasite less after coevolving with the manipulative virus. More generally, this model provides a theoretical framework for analyzing the evolution of the manipulation of parasitoid life-history traits by microparasites.

  8. Linearization of Robot Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreutz, Kenneth

    1987-01-01

    Four nonlinear control schemes equivalent. Report discusses theory of nonlinear feedback control of robot manipulator, emphasis on control schemes making manipulator input and output behave like decoupled linear system. Approach, called "exact external linearization," contributes efforts to control end-effector trajectories, positions, and orientations.

  9. Actuability of Underactuated Manipulators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    of a manipulator with passive joints in operational space. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, 9(1), February 1993. [6] !irohiko Arai and...Susumu Tachi Position control of a manipulator with passive joints using dynamic coupling. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, 7(4), August

  10. Cell manipulation in microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Yun, Hoyoung; Kim, Kisoo; Lee, Won Gu

    2013-06-01

    Recent advances in the lab-on-a-chip field in association with nano/microfluidics have been made for new applications and functionalities to the fields of molecular biology, genetic analysis and proteomics, enabling the expansion of the cell biology field. Specifically, microfluidics has provided promising tools for enhancing cell biological research, since it has the ability to precisely control the cellular environment, to easily mimic heterogeneous cellular environment by multiplexing, and to analyze sub-cellular information by high-contents screening assays at the single-cell level. Various cell manipulation techniques in microfluidics have been developed in accordance with specific objectives and applications. In this review, we examine the latest achievements of cell manipulation techniques in microfluidics by categorizing externally applied forces for manipulation: (i) optical, (ii) magnetic, (iii) electrical, (iv) mechanical and (v) other manipulations. We furthermore focus on history where the manipulation techniques originate and also discuss future perspectives with key examples where available.

  11. Manipulator comparative testing program

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.; Handel, S.J.; Sundstrom, E.; Herndon, J.N.; Fujita, Y.; Maeda, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Manipulator Comparative Testing Program examined differences among manipulator systems from the United States and Japan. The manipulator systems included the Meidensha BILARM 83A, the Model M-2 of Central Research Laboratories Division of Sargent Industries (CRL), and the GCA Corporation PaR Systems Model 6000. The site of testing was the Remote Operations Maintenance Demonstration (ROMD) facility, operated by the Fuel Recycle Division in the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In all stages of testing, operators using the CRL Model M-2 manipulator had consistently lower times to completion and error rates than they did using other machines. Performance was second best with the Meidensha BILARM 83A in master-slave mode. Performance with the BILARM in switchbox mode and the PaR 6000 manipulator was approximately equivalent in terms of criteria recorded in testing. These data show no impact of force reflection on task performance.

  12. Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Shannon M.; Walkowski, Stevan

    2012-01-01

    Dermatological diseases, such as dysesthesia syndromes, stasis dermatoses, and hyperhidrosis are difficult to treat due to their complex etiologies. Current theories suggest these diseases are caused by physiological imbalances, such as nerve impingement, localized tissue congestion, and impaired autonomic regulation. Osteopathic manipulative therapy targets these physiological dysfunctions and may serve as a beneficial therapeutic option. Osteopathic manipulative therapy techniques include high velocity low amplitude, muscle energy, counterstrain, myofascial release, craniosacral, and lymphatic drainage. An osteopathic manipulative therapy technique is chosen based on its physiological target for a particular disease. Osteopathic manipulative therapy may be useful alone or in combination with standard therapeutic options. However, due to the lack of standardized trials supporting the efficacy of osteopathic manipulative therapy treatment for dermatological disease, randomized, well-controlled studies are necessary to confirm its therapeutic value. PMID:23125887

  13. Manipulating the edge of instability

    PubMed Central

    Venkadesan, Madhusudhan; Guckenheimer, John; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the integration of visual and tactile sensory input for dynamic manipulation. Our experimental data and computational modeling reveal that time-delays are as critical to task-optimal multisensory integration as sensorimotor noise. Our focus is a dynamic manipulation task “at the edge of instability.” Mathematical bifurcation theory predicts that this system will exhibit well-classified low-dimensional dynamics in this regime. The task was using the thumbpad to compress a slender spring prone to buckling as far as possible, just shy of slipping. As expected from bifurcation theory, principal components analysis gives a projection of the data onto a low dimensional subspace that captures 91-97% of its variance. In this subspace, we formulate a low-order model for the brain+hand+spring dynamics based on known mechanical and neurophysiological properties of the system. By systematically occluding vision and anesthetically blocking thumbpad sensation in 12 consenting subjects, we found that vision contributed to dynamic manipulation only when thumbpad sensation was absent. The reduced ability of the model system to compress the spring with absent sensory channels closely resembled the experimental results. Moreover, we found that the model reproduced the contextual usefulness of vision only if we took account of time-delays. Our results shed light on critical features of dynamic manipulation distinct from those of static pinch, as well as the mechanism likely responsible for loss of manual dexterity and increased reliance on vision when age or neuromuscular disease increase noisiness and/or time-delays during sensorimotor integration. PMID:17400231

  14. CAVITATION SOUNDS DURING CERVICOTHORACIC SPINAL MANIPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Mourad, Firas; Zingoni, Andrea; Iorio, Raffaele; Perreault, Thomas; Zacharko, Noah; de las Peñas, César Fernández; Butts, Raymond; Cleland, Joshua A.

    2017-01-01

    frequencies for all 58 manipulations. Discussion Cavitation was significantly more likely to occur unilaterally, and on the side contralateral to the short-lever applicator contact, during cervicothoracic HVLA thrust manipulation. Clinicians should expect multiple cavitation sounds when performing HVLA thrust manipulation to the CTJ. Due to the presence of multi-peak energy bursts and sounds of multiple frequencies, the cavitation hypothesis (i.e. intra-articular gas bubble collapse) alone appears unable to explain all of the audible sounds during HVLA thrust manipulation, and the possibility remains that several phenomena may be occurring simultaneously. Level of Evidence 2b PMID:28900571

  15. CAVITATION SOUNDS DURING CERVICOTHORACIC SPINAL MANIPULATION.

    PubMed

    Dunning, James; Mourad, Firas; Zingoni, Andrea; Iorio, Raffaele; Perreault, Thomas; Zacharko, Noah; de Las Peñas, César Fernández; Butts, Raymond; Cleland, Joshua A

    2017-08-01

    significantly more likely to occur unilaterally, and on the side contralateral to the short-lever applicator contact, during cervicothoracic HVLA thrust manipulation. Clinicians should expect multiple cavitation sounds when performing HVLA thrust manipulation to the CTJ. Due to the presence of multi-peak energy bursts and sounds of multiple frequencies, the cavitation hypothesis (i.e. intra-articular gas bubble collapse) alone appears unable to explain all of the audible sounds during HVLA thrust manipulation, and the possibility remains that several phenomena may be occurring simultaneously. 2b.

  16. 14 CFR 135.115 - Manipulation of controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight... flight controls of an aircraft during flight conducted under this part, nor may any person manipulate the... permission of the pilot in command, is qualified in the aircraft, and is checking flight operations....

  17. 14 CFR 135.115 - Manipulation of controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight... flight controls of an aircraft during flight conducted under this part, nor may any person manipulate the... permission of the pilot in command, is qualified in the aircraft, and is checking flight operations....

  18. Robots and manipulator systems. Part 2. [Conference papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, E.

    1977-01-01

    This book represents a conference on robots and manipulator systems. Topics discussed include: mathematical modeling systems integrators, the use of TV monitors for remote operation of machinery on earth and in space, an evaluation of various control modes, remotely piloted aircraft, undersea operations, and prosthetic devices for the physically handicapped.

  19. Anthropomorphic Remote Manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jau, Bruno M.

    1991-01-01

    Two-armed telerobot undergoing development manipulates objects with dexterity approaching that of human. Designed to be remotely operated by human. Operator wears harness with exoskeletonlike sleeves and gloves; remote manipulator follows operator's arm, hand, and finger movements and feeds back position and force information so operator has sense of manipulating object held by telerobot. Developed for use in outer space. Suited for such terrestrial uses as handling materials and maintaining equipment in hazardous environments where mechanical dexterity and nearly instantaneous feedback of sensory information needed.

  20. Effects of an Academic Expectancy and Gender on Students' Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAninch, Cecile B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the effects of manipulating on expectancy in same-sex, same-age dyads of unacquainted 7- to 12-year olds. Students completed questionnaires about themselves and their partners, with one partner having received an expectancy about the other's ability. Expectancy had a significant effect on both partners. Gender had negligible…

  1. Update: Biochemistry of Genetic Manipulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    Various topics on the biochemistry of genetic manipulation are discussed. These include genetic transformation and DNA; genetic expression; DNA replication, repair, and mutation; technology of genetic manipulation; and applications of genetic manipulation. Other techniques employed are also considered. (JN)

  2. Update: Biochemistry of Genetic Manipulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    Various topics on the biochemistry of genetic manipulation are discussed. These include genetic transformation and DNA; genetic expression; DNA replication, repair, and mutation; technology of genetic manipulation; and applications of genetic manipulation. Other techniques employed are also considered. (JN)

  3. Dielectrophoresis for Bioparticle Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Cheng; Huang, Haibo; Chen, Liguo; Li, Xiangpeng; Ge, Zunbiao; Chen, Tao; Yang, Zhan; Sun, Lining

    2014-01-01

    As an ideal method to manipulate biological particles, the dielectrophoresis (DEP) technique has been widely used in clinical diagnosis, disease treatment, drug development, immunoassays, cell sorting, etc. This review summarizes the research in the field of bioparticle manipulation based on DEP techniques. Firstly, the basic principle of DEP and its classical theories are introduced in brief; Secondly, a detailed introduction on the DEP technique used for bioparticle manipulation is presented, in which the applications are classified into five fields: capturing bioparticles to specific regions, focusing bioparticles in the sample, characterizing biomolecular interaction and detecting microorganism, pairing cells for electrofusion and separating different kinds of bioparticles; Thirdly, the effect of DEP on bioparticle viability is analyzed; Finally, the DEP techniques are summarized and future trends in bioparticle manipulation are suggested. PMID:25310652

  4. Japanese remote manipulator system

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, technicians work on the Japanese remote manipulator system. It is scheduled to fly on a 2008 mission along with the Kibo Japanese Experiment Module Pressurized Module (JEM-PM).

  5. 14 CFR 125.313 - Manipulation of controls when carrying passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manipulation of controls when carrying passengers. 125.313 Section 125.313 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 125.313 Manipulation of controls when carrying passengers. No pilot in command may allow any person to...

  6. 14 CFR 125.313 - Manipulation of controls when carrying passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manipulation of controls when carrying passengers. 125.313 Section 125.313 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 125.313 Manipulation of controls when carrying passengers. No pilot in command may allow any person to...

  7. 14 CFR 125.313 - Manipulation of controls when carrying passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manipulation of controls when carrying passengers. 125.313 Section 125.313 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 125.313 Manipulation of controls when carrying passengers. No pilot in command may allow any person to...

  8. 14 CFR 125.313 - Manipulation of controls when carrying passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations... manipulate the controls of an airplane while carrying passengers during flight, nor may any person manipulate the controls while carrying passengers during flight, unless that person is a qualified pilot of...

  9. 14 CFR 125.313 - Manipulation of controls when carrying passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations... manipulate the controls of an airplane while carrying passengers during flight, nor may any person manipulate the controls while carrying passengers during flight, unless that person is a qualified pilot of...

  10. Remote manipulator dynamic simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wild, E. C.; Donges, P. K.; Garand, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    A simulator to generate the real time visual scenes required to perform man in the loop investigations of remote manipulator application and design concepts for the space shuttle is described. The simulated remote manipulator consists of a computed display system that uses a digital computer, the electronic scene generator, an operator's station, and associated interface hardware. A description of the capabilities of the implemented simulation is presented. The mathematical models and programs developed for the simulation are included.

  11. Intelligent modular manipulation for mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culbertson, John

    2008-04-01

    As mobile robots continue to gain acceptance across a variety of applications within the defense and civilian markets, the number of tasks that these robot platforms are expected to accomplish are expanding. Robot operators are asked to do more with the same platforms - from EOD missions to reconnaissance and inspection operations. Due to the fact that a majority of missions are dangerous in nature, it is critical that users are able to make remote adjustments to the systems to ensure that they are kept out of harm's way. An efficient way to expand the capabilities of existing robot platforms, improve the efficiency of robot missions, and to ultimately improve the operator's safety is to integrate JAUS-enabled Intelligent Modular Manipulation payloads. Intelligent Modular Manipulation payloads include both simple and dexterous manipulator arms with plug-and-play end-effector tools that can be changed based on the specific mission. End-effectors that can be swapped down-range provide an added benefit of decreased time-on-target. The intelligence in these systems comes from semi-autonomous mobile manipulation actions that enable the robot operator to perform manipulation task with the touch of a button on the OCU. RE2 is supporting Unmanned Systems Interoperability by utilizing the JAUS standard as the messaging protocol for all of its manipulation systems. Therefore, they can be easily adapted and integrated onto existing JAUS-enabled robot platforms.

  12. Clermont Ferrand uterine manipulator.

    PubMed

    Nassif, Joseph; Wattiez, Arnaud

    2010-10-01

    Laparoscopy was considered marginal to surgical specialties before 1990. Rare innovations in instruments were done. With the realization of the first laparoscopic hysterectomy, this surgical route gained wide acceptance during the 1990s. Technical advances were made by instrument companies offering a wide variety of instruments to surgeons and by surgeons themselves to cope with problems during laparoscopic procedures. Manipulators are among the first instruments that surgeons suggested to ameliorate laparoscopic performance. Instruments that have multiple functions (i.e., grasping, cutting, coagulating) are more and more appreciated because surgeons can avoid changing instruments during surgery. Manipulators offer multifunctional assistance during gynecologic surgical procedures. They are useful for exposure purposes and also for reproductive surgery (and hysterectomy). This article explains the benefits and help that a manipulator can provide, especially in total laparoscopic hysterectomy. In the latter intervention, the manipulator will help to expose the pelvis by moving the uterus in any direction, to identify structures and find anatomical landmarks such as the vaginal fornices for culdotomy, and to avoid complications by pulling the ureter away from the operative field. Also, it is useful to avoid carbon dioxide leakage at the vaginal opening and to retrieve the surgical specimen. Each step is shown in a photograph with the specific hand movements corresponding to the manipulator's handling. We think that the use of manipulators during laparoscopic surgery is very useful and helps to reduce operative time.

  13. Micro manipulator motion control to counteract macro manipulator structural vibrations

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, J.Y.; Trudnowski, D.J.; Evans, M.S.; Bennett, D.W.

    1995-02-01

    Inertial force damping control by micro manipulator modulation is proposed to suppress the vibrations of a micro/macro manipulator system. The proposed controller, developed using classical control theory, is added to the existing control system. The proposed controller uses real-time measurements of macro manipulator flexibility to adjust the motion of the micro manipulator to counteract structural vibrations. Experimental studies using an existing micro/macro flexible link manipulator testbed demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach to suppression of vibrations in the macro/micro manipulator system using micro-manipulator-based inertial active damping control.

  14. Manipulator comparative testing program

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.; Handel, S.J.; Sundstrom, E.; Herndon, J.N.; Fujita, Y.; Maida, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Manipulator Comparative Testing Program compared performance of selected manipulator systems under typical remote handling conditions. The site of testing was the Remote Operations and Maintenance Demonstration Facility operated by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Three experiment examined differences among manipulator systems from the US and Japan. The manipulator systems included the Meidensha BILARM 83A, Central Research Laboratories' (CRL's) Model M-2, and GCA PaR systems Model 6000. Six manipulator and control mode combinations were evaluated: (a) the BILARM in master-slave mode without force reflection; (b) the BILARM in master-slave mode with force reflection; (c) the Model M-2 in master-slave mode without force reflection; (d) the Model M-2 in master-slave mode with force reflection; (e) the BILARM with switchbox controls; and (f) the PaR 6000 with switchbox controls. The experiments also examined differences between master-slave systems with and without force reflections, and differences between master-slave systems and switchbox-controlled systems.

  15. Covariance Manipulation for Conjunction Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hejduk, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    The manipulation of space object covariances to try to provide additional or improved information to conjunction risk assessment is not an uncommon practice. Types of manipulation include fabricating a covariance when it is missing or unreliable to force the probability of collision (Pc) to a maximum value ('PcMax'), scaling a covariance to try to improve its realism or see the effect of covariance volatility on the calculated Pc, and constructing the equivalent of an epoch covariance at a convenient future point in the event ('covariance forecasting'). In bringing these methods to bear for Conjunction Assessment (CA) operations, however, some do not remain fully consistent with best practices for conducting risk management, some seem to be of relatively low utility, and some require additional information before they can contribute fully to risk analysis. This study describes some basic principles of modern risk management (following the Kaplan construct) and then examines the PcMax and covariance forecasting paradigms for alignment with these principles; it then further examines the expected utility of these methods in the modern CA framework. Both paradigms are found to be not without utility, but only in situations that are somewhat carefully circumscribed.

  16. Stainless steel decontamination manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Three, large-volume coverage manipulator systems were designed and built for the Defense Water Processing Facility at the Savannah River Laboratory. These stainless steel systems will be used for high-pressure spray decontamination of waste containers and large process equipment modules. Each system has a manipulator arm, folding boom, and vertical drive and guide structure. Handling capacity is 45 kg, horizontal reach is 4.6 m with a 180-deg swing motion, and the vertical travel is 6 m. The system is remotely removable and replaceable in modules using an overhead crane and an impact wrench. The manipulator arm has seven motions: Shoulder rotation and pivot, elbow pivot, wrist pivot and rotation, and grip open-close. All motions are variable speed and are slip-clutch protected to prevent overloading from external forces (collisions).

  17. Simulation of robot manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.; Babcock, S.M.; Bills, K.C.; Kwon, D.S.; Schoenwald, D.A.

    1995-03-01

    This paper describes Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s development of an environment for the simulation of robotic manipulators. Simulation includes the modeling of kinematics, dynamics, sensors, actuators, control systems, operators, and environments. Models will be used for manipulator design, proposal evaluation, control system design and analysis, graphical preview of proposed motions, safety system development, and training. Of particular interest is the development of models for robotic manipulators having at least one flexible link. As a first application, models have been developed for the Pacific Northwest Laboratories` Flexible Beam Testbed which is a one-Degree-Of-Freedom, flexible arm with a hydraulic base actuator. Initial results show good agreement between model and experiment.

  18. Model based manipulator control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrosky, Lyman J.; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of using model based control (MBC) for robotic manipulators was investigated. A double inverted pendulum system was constructed as the experimental system for a general study of dynamically stable manipulation. The original interest in dynamically stable systems was driven by the objective of high vertical reach (balancing), and the planning of inertially favorable trajectories for force and payload demands. The model-based control approach is described and the results of experimental tests are summarized. Results directly demonstrate that MBC can provide stable control at all speeds of operation and support operations requiring dynamic stability such as balancing. The application of MBC to systems with flexible links is also discussed.

  19. ELECTRONIC MASTER SLAVE MANIPULATOR

    DOEpatents

    Goertz, R.C.; Thompson, Wm.M.; Olsen, R.A.

    1958-08-01

    A remote control manipulator is described in which the master and slave arms are electrically connected to produce the desired motions. A response signal is provided in the master unit in order that the operator may sense a feel of the object and may not thereby exert such pressures that would ordinarily damage delicate objects. This apparatus will permit the manipulation of objects at a great distance, that may be viewed over a closed TV circuit, thereby permitting a remote operator to carry out operations in an extremely dangerous area with complete safety.

  20. Manipulating Combinatorial Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labelle, Gilbert

    This set of transparencies shows how the manipulation of combinatorial structures in the context of modern combinatorics can easily lead to interesting teaching and learning activities at every level of education from elementary school to university. The transparencies describe: (1) the importance and relations of combinatorics to science and…

  1. Robot Manipulator Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-07

    This report presents a synthetic approach for calculating the control of robot manipulators. The initial control problem is broken down into linear ... control and modelling problems. The approach allows derivation of numerous schemes (adaptive or not) of control proposed in the literature and suggests

  2. Manipulating the Gradient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaze, Eric C.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a cooperative learning, group lab for a Calculus III course to facilitate comprehension of the gradient vector and directional derivative concepts. The lab is a hands-on experience allowing students to manipulate a tangent plane and empirically measure the effect of partial derivatives on the direction of optimal ascent. (Contains 7…

  3. Computer Algebra versus Manipulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zand, Hossein; Crowe, David

    2004-01-01

    In the UK there is increasing concern about the lack of skill in algebraic manipulation that is evident in students entering mathematics courses at university level. In this note we discuss how the computer can be used to ameliorate some of the problems. We take as an example the calculations needed in three dimensional vector analysis in polar…

  4. Kinematically redundant robot manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baillieul, J.; Hollerbach, J.; Brockett, R.; Martin, D.; Percy, R.; Thomas, R.

    1987-01-01

    Research on control, design and programming of kinematically redundant robot manipulators (KRRM) is discussed. These are devices in which there are more joint space degrees of freedom than are required to achieve every position and orientation of the end-effector necessary for a given task in a given workspace. The technological developments described here deal with: kinematic programming techniques for automatically generating joint-space trajectories to execute prescribed tasks; control of redundant manipulators to optimize dynamic criteria (e.g., applications of forces and moments at the end-effector that optimally distribute the loading of actuators); and design of KRRMs to optimize functionality in congested work environments or to achieve other goals unattainable with non-redundant manipulators. Kinematic programming techniques are discussed, which show that some pseudo-inverse techniques that have been proposed for redundant manipulator control fail to achieve the goals of avoiding kinematic singularities and also generating closed joint-space paths corresponding to close paths of the end effector in the workspace. The extended Jacobian is proposed as an alternative to pseudo-inverse techniques.

  5. Computer Algebra versus Manipulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zand, Hossein; Crowe, David

    2004-01-01

    In the UK there is increasing concern about the lack of skill in algebraic manipulation that is evident in students entering mathematics courses at university level. In this note we discuss how the computer can be used to ameliorate some of the problems. We take as an example the calculations needed in three dimensional vector analysis in polar…

  6. Psychological aspects of pilot spatial orientation.

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, P A

    1991-03-01

    Researchers examined the psychological aspects of pilot spatial orientation to aircraft attitude. Study participants completed questionnaires and made drawings of view-from-the-ground and aircraft front window and of attitude indicators, then made flights in a simulator or aircraft with unknown pitch attitude. Analysis of data indicates that pilots favored a view-from-the-ground indicator. The main drawback to the view-from-the-aircraft indicator was mobility of image. The study also examined spatial-orientation techniques pilots use in different flight phases and identified seven factors in effective spatial-orientation techniques. Other components of the study included a comparison of the manipulative capability of pilots and nonprofessional participants and pilot recall of a set of images from long-term and operational memory.

  7. Door breaching robotic manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenfeld, Erik; Parrington, Lawrence; von Muehlen, Stephan

    2008-04-01

    As unmanned systems become more commonplace in military, police, and other security forces, they are tasked to perform missions that the original hardware was not designed for. Current military robots are built for rough outdoor conditions and have strong inflexible manipulators designed to handle a wide range of operations. However, these manipulators are not well suited for some essential indoor tasks, including opening doors. This is a complicated kinematic task that places prohibitively difficult control challenges on the robot and the operator. Honeybee and iRobot have designed a modular door-breaching manipulator that mechanically simplifies the demands upon operator and robot. The manipulator connects to the existing robotic arm of the iRobot PackBot EOD. The gripper is optimized for grasping a variety of door knobs, levers, and car-door handles. It works in conjunction with a compliant wrist and magnetic lock-out mechanism that allows the wrist to remain rigid until the gripper has a firm grasp of the handle and then bend with its rotation and the swing of the door. Once the door is unlatched, the operator simply drives the robot through the doorway while the wrist compensates for the complex, multiple degree-of-freedom motion of the door. Once in the doorway the operator releases the handle, the wrist pops back into place, and the robot is ready for the next door. The new manipulator dramatically improves a robot's ability to non-destructively breach doors and perform an inspection of a room's content, a capability that was previously out of reach of unmanned systems.

  8. The Spartacus telethesis: manipulator control studies.

    PubMed

    Guittet, J; Kwee, H H; Quetin, N; Yclon, J

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes a method and an experimental system permitting a severely handicapped operator, such as a quadriplegic, to control a telemanipulator. These developments form the first phase in the design of the Spartacus "telethesis". This is a manipulator system specifically developed for a quadriplegic person. Manipulator control experiments which are discussed concern four quadriplegics who have used the experimental system for significant periods of time. The present system is a laboratory simulation of a telethesis, consisting of an industrial manipulator controlled by a mini-computer. A flexible semi-sequential control and a variety of transducers permit the system to be adapted to the individual user. Thus far, the experiments performed have shown the feasibility for the four quadriplegics to effectively control a telemanipulator, using head movements and some remaining arm movements in various modes of end-point control. In particular, a position control and a "piloting" type of velocity control, both with the addition of some force limitation, have given promising results.

  9. The Malleability of Possible Selves and Expectations regarding Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardach, Shoshana H.; Gayer, Christopher C.; Clinkinbeard, Tiffanie; Zanjani, Faika; Watkins, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Many people are apprehensive about old age and their future years. This pilot study sought to improve participants' sense of possibility in, and expectations for, old age. Students and middle-aged volunteers completed a survey including the Expectations Regarding Aging 38-item questionnaire (ERA-38) and a possible-selves questionnaire before and…

  10. The Malleability of Possible Selves and Expectations regarding Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardach, Shoshana H.; Gayer, Christopher C.; Clinkinbeard, Tiffanie; Zanjani, Faika; Watkins, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Many people are apprehensive about old age and their future years. This pilot study sought to improve participants' sense of possibility in, and expectations for, old age. Students and middle-aged volunteers completed a survey including the Expectations Regarding Aging 38-item questionnaire (ERA-38) and a possible-selves questionnaire before and…

  11. Pilot performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholls, Jennifer

    1988-01-01

    For many years, the emphasis has been placed on the performance of the aircraft, rather than on those who fly the aircraft. This is largely due to the relative safety of flying. Just in the last few years there have been several major accidents that have shown that flying is not quite as safe as it was thought to be. Sixty-five percent of these accidents are a result of pilot performance decrements, and so it is obvious that there is a need to reduce that figure. A study has been mandated to evaluate the performance of pilots. This includes workload, circadium rhythms, jet lag, and any other factors which might affect a pilot's performance in the cockpit. The purpose of this study is to find out when and why the decrement in a pilot's performance occur and how to remedy the situation.

  12. Expecting the Best

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPaula, John

    2010-01-01

    Educational expectations are psychological constructs that change over time and can be altered or influenced by various factors. The concept of educational expectations refers to how much schooling students realistically believe that they will complete. These expectations are eventually raised or lowered as students see others like themselves…

  13. The Power of Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Neal

    2008-01-01

    Principals want teachers to do more than profess high expectations for their students. Principals want teachers to have the knowledge and skills to realize their expectations for students by using strategies that increase students' attention to their achievement and responsibilities for learning. Current expectancy literature states that teachers…

  14. Expectation of having consumed caffeine can improve performance and mood.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, Lynne; Shahzad, Fatima-Zahra; Ahmed, Suada S; Edmonds, Caroline J

    2011-12-01

    We explored whether caffeine, and expectation of having consumed caffeine, affects attention, reward responsivity and mood using double-blinded methodology. 88 participants were randomly allocated to 'drink-type' (caffeinated/decaffeinated coffee) and 'expectancy' (told caffeinated/told decaffeinated coffee) manipulations. Both caffeine and expectation of having consumed caffeine improved attention and psychomotor speed. Expectation enhanced self-reported vigour and reward responsivity. Self-reported depression increased at post-drink for all participants, but less in those receiving or expecting caffeine. These results suggest caffeine expectation can affect mood and performance but do not support a synergistic effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Manipulating the Plasmodium genome.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Teresa Gil; Ménard, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Genome manipulation, the primary tool for assigning function to sequence, will be essential for understanding Plasmodium biology and malaria pathogenesis in molecular terms. The first success in transfecting Plasmodium was reported almost ten years ago. Gene-targeting studies have since flourished, as Plasmodium is haploid and integrates DNA only by homologous recombination. These studies have shed new light on the function of many proteins, including vaccine candidates and drug resistance factors. However, many essential proteins, including those involved in parasite invasion of erythrocytes, cannot be characterized in the absence of conditional mutagenesis. Proteins also cannot be identified on a functional basis as random DNA integration has not been achieved. We overview here the ways in which the Plasmodium genome can be manipulated. We also point to the tools that should be established if our goal is to address parasite infectivity in a systematic way and to conduct refined structure-function analysis of selected products.

  16. REMOTELY OPERATED MANIPULATOR

    DOEpatents

    Hutto, E.L.

    1961-08-15

    A manipulator is described for performing, within an entirely enclosed cell containling radioactive materials, various mechanical operations. A rod with flexible fingers is encompassed by a tubular sleeve shorter than the rod. Relative movement between the rod and sleeve causes the fingers to open and close. This relative movement is effected by relative movement of permanent magnets in magnetic coupling relation to magnetic followers affixed to the ends of the rod and sleeve. The rod and its sleeve may be moved as a unit axially or may be rotated by means of the magnetic couplings. The manipulator is enclosed within a tubular member which is flexibly sealed to an opening in the cell. (AEC)

  17. Kinematics of robot manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The theory and methodology of design of general-purpose machines that may be controlled by a computer to perform all the tasks of a set of special-purpose machines is the focus of modern machine design research. These seventeen contributions chronicle recent activity in the analysis and design of robot manipulators that are the prototype of these general-purpose machines. They focus particularly on kinematics, the geometry of rigid-body motion, which is an integral part of machine design theory. The challenges to kinematics researchers presented by general-purpose machines such as the manipulator are leading to new perspectives in the design and control of simpler machines with two, three, and more degrees of freedom. Researchers are rethinking the uses of gear trains, planar mechanisms, adjustable mechanisms, and computer controlled actuators in the design of modern machines.

  18. Manipulation of quantum evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabera, David Jose Fernandez; Mielnik, Bogdan

    1994-01-01

    The free evolution of a non-relativistic charged particle is manipulated using time-dependent magnetic fields. It is shown that the application of a programmed sequence of magnetic pulses can invert the free evolution process, forcing an arbitrary wave packet to 'go back in time' to recover its past shape. The possibility of more general operations upon the Schrodinger wave packet is discussed.

  19. Microradiographic microsphere manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Singleton, R.M.

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for radiographic characterization of small hollow spherical members (microspheres), constructed of either optically transparent or opaque materials. The apparatus involves a microsphere manipulator which holds a batch of microspheres between two parallel thin plastic films for contact microradiographic characterization or projection microradiography thereof. One plastic film is translated relative to and parallel to the other to roll the microspheres through any desired angle to allow different views of the microspheres.

  20. MANIPULATOR FOR SLAVE ROBOT

    DOEpatents

    Goertz, R.C.; Grimson, J.H.; Kohut, F.A.

    1961-04-01

    A remote-control manipulator comprising two stationary master units, two slave units on a movable vehicle, and electrical connections between the master and slave units is reported. The slave units are side by side with a minimum over-all width, which is made feasible by an arrangement of transducers producing most movements of each slave unit to one side of the support of said slave unit.

  1. Microradiographic microsphere manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Singleton, Russell M.

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus for radiographic characterization of small hollow spherical members (microspheres), constructed of either optically transparent or opaque materials. The apparatus involves a microsphere manipulator which holds a batch of microspheres between two parallel thin plastic films for contact microradiographic characterization or projection microradiography thereof. One plastic film is translated to relative to and parallel to the other to roll the microspheres through any desired angle to allow different views of the microspheres.

  2. Orbitofrontal Cortex, Associative Learning, and Expectancies

    PubMed Central

    Schoenbaum, Geoffrey; Roesch, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Orbitofrontal cortex is characterized by its unique pattern of connections with subcortical areas, such as basolateral amygdala. Here we distinguish between the critical role of these areas in associative learning and the pivotal contribution of OFC to the manipulation of this information to control behavior. This contribution reflects the ability of OFC to signal the desirability of expected outcomes, which requires the integration of associative information with information concerning internal states and goals in representational memory. PMID:16129393

  3. Endocavity Ultrasound Probe Manipulators.

    PubMed

    Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Schäfer, Felix; Huang, Chien-Ming; Zuo, Yihe; Petrisor, Doru; Han, Misop

    2013-06-01

    We developed two similar structure manipulators for medical endocavity ultrasound probes with 3 and 4 degrees of freedom (DoF). These robots allow scanning with ultrasound for 3-D imaging and enable robot-assisted image-guided procedures. Both robots use remote center of motion kinematics, characteristic of medical robots. The 4-DoF robot provides unrestricted manipulation of the endocavity probe. With the 3-DoF robot the insertion motion of the probe must be adjusted manually, but the device is simpler and may also be used to manipulate external-body probes. The robots enabled a novel surgical approach of using intraoperative image-based navigation during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), performed with concurrent use of two robotic systems (Tandem, T-RALP). Thus far, a clinical trial for evaluation of safety and feasibility has been performed successfully on 46 patients. This paper describes the architecture and design of the robots, the two prototypes, control features related to safety, preclinical experiments, and the T-RALP procedure.

  4. Endocavity Ultrasound Probe Manipulators

    PubMed Central

    Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Schäfer, Felix; Huang, Chien-Ming; Zuo, Yihe; Petrisor, Doru; Han, Misop

    2014-01-01

    We developed two similar structure manipulators for medical endocavity ultrasound probes with 3 and 4 degrees of freedom (DoF). These robots allow scanning with ultrasound for 3-D imaging and enable robot-assisted image-guided procedures. Both robots use remote center of motion kinematics, characteristic of medical robots. The 4-DoF robot provides unrestricted manipulation of the endocavity probe. With the 3-DoF robot the insertion motion of the probe must be adjusted manually, but the device is simpler and may also be used to manipulate external-body probes. The robots enabled a novel surgical approach of using intraoperative image-based navigation during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), performed with concurrent use of two robotic systems (Tandem, T-RALP). Thus far, a clinical trial for evaluation of safety and feasibility has been performed successfully on 46 patients. This paper describes the architecture and design of the robots, the two prototypes, control features related to safety, preclinical experiments, and the T-RALP procedure. PMID:24795525

  5. Welding nozzle position manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L. (Inventor); Gutow, David A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a welding nozzle position manipulator. The manipulator consists of an angle support to which the remaining components of the device are attached either directly or indirectly. A pair of pivotal connections attach a weld nozzle holding link to the angle support and provide a two axis freedom of movement of the holding link with respect to the support angle. The manipulator is actuated by a pair of adjusting screws angularly mounted to the angle support. These screws contact a pair of tapered friction surfaces formed on the upper portion of the welding nozzle holding link. A spring positioned between the upper portions of the support angle and the holding link provides a constant bias engagement between the friction surfaces of the holding link and the adjustment screws, so as to firmly hold the link in position and to eliminate any free play in the adjustment mechanism. The angular relationships between the adjustment screws, the angle support and the tapered friction surfaces of the weld nozzle holding link provide a geometric arrangement which permits precision adjustment of the holding link with respect to the angle support and also provides a solid holding link mount which is resistant to movement from outside forces.

  6. Welding nozzle position manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Gutow, David A.

    1994-11-01

    The present invention is directed to a welding nozzle position manipulator. The manipulator consists of an angle support to which the remaining components of the device are attached either directly or indirectly. A pair of pivotal connections attach a weld nozzle holding link to the angle support and provide a two axis freedom of movement of the holding link with respect to the support angle. The manipulator is actuated by a pair of adjusting screws angularly mounted to the angle support. These screws contact a pair of tapered friction surfaces formed on the upper portion of the welding nozzle holding link. A spring positioned between the upper portions of the support angle and the holding link provides a constant bias engagement between the friction surfaces of the holding link and the adjustment screws, so as to firmly hold the link in position and to eliminate any free play in the adjustment mechanism. The angular relationships between the adjustment screws, the angle support and the tapered friction surfaces of the weld nozzle holding link provide a geometric arrangement which permits precision adjustment of the holding link with respect to the angle support and also provides a solid holding link mount which is resistant to movement from outside forces.

  7. Welding nozzle position manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Gutow, David A.

    1993-08-01

    The present invention is directed to a welding nozzle position manipulator. The manipulator consists of an angle support to which the remaining components of the device are attached either directly or indirectly. A pair of pivotal connections attach a weld nozzle holding link to the angle support and provide a two axis freedom of movement of the holding link with respect to the support angle. The manipulator is actuated by a pair of adjusting screws angularly mounted to the angle support. These screws contact a pair of tapered friction surfaces formed on the upper portion of the welding nozzle holding link. A spring positioned between the upper portions of the support angle and the holding link provides a constant bias engagement between the friction surfaces of the holding link and the adjustment screws, so as to firmly hold the link in position and to eliminate any free play in the adjustment mechanism. The angular relationships between the adjustment screws, the angle support and the tapered friction surfaces of the weld nozzle holding link provide a geometric arrangement which permits precision adjustment of the holding link with respect to the angle support and also provides a solid holding link mount which is resistant to movement from outside forces.

  8. Expectancy, Attention, and Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Ralph; Jones, Mari Riess

    2000-01-01

    Examined the influence of contextual timing manipulations on prospective time judgments through 7 experiments involving a total of 199 college students. Discusses results in terms of various stimulus-based models of prospective time judgments, including those that appeal to attentional periodicities and entrainment. (SLD)

  9. Manipulation of individual viruses: friction and mechanical properties.

    PubMed Central

    Falvo, M R; Washburn, S; Superfine, R; Finch, M; Brooks, F P; Chi, V; Taylor, R M

    1997-01-01

    We present our results on the manipulation of individual viruses using an advanced interface for atomic force microscopes (AFMs). We show that the viruses can be dissected, rotated, and translated with great facility. We interpret the behavior of tobacco mosaic virus with a mechanical model that makes explicit the competition between sample-substrate lateral friction and the flexural rigidity of the manipulated object. The manipulation behavior of tobacco mosaic virus on graphite is shown to be consistent with values of lateral friction observed on similar interfaces and the flexural rigidity expected for macromolecular assemblies. The ability to manipulate individual samples broadens the scope of possible studies by providing a means for positioning samples at specific binding sites or predefined measuring devices. The mechanical model provides a framework for interpreting quantitative measurements of virus binding and mechanical properties and for understanding the constraints on the successful, nondestructive AFM manipulation of delicate samples. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 5 PMID:9138585

  10. The Effects on College General Education Mathematics Students of Learning Mathematics Through the Active Manipulation of Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gerald John

    This study involved the development, pilot testing, and evaluation of units for a college mathematics course for general education. The units emphasized a concrete approach to instruction and the manipulation of objects, images, and symbols. Three classes, all taught by the researcher, were involved in the study: a control group, a pilot test…

  11. Nano Robotic Manipulation inside Electron Microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Toshio; Nakajima, Masahiro; Liu, Pou

    We report nanomanipulation and nanoassembly through nanorobotic manipulation inside electron microscopes. A hybrid nanorobotic manipulation system, which is integrated with a nanorobotic manipulator inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and nanorobotic manipulators inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM), is used. The elasticity of a multi-walled CNT (MWNT) is measured inside a TEM. The telescoping MWNT is fabricated by peeling off outer layers through destructive fabrication process. The electrostatic actuation of telescoping MWNT is directly observed by a TEM. A cutting technique for CNTs assisted by the presence of oxygen gas is also presented. The cutting procedure was conducted in less than 1 minute using a low-energy electron beam inside a scanning electron microscope. A bending technique of a CNT assisted by the presence of oxygen gas is also applied for the 3-D fabrication of nanosturucture. We expect that these techniques will be applied for the rapid prototyping nanoassembly of various CNT nanodevices. For the nano-biological applications, environmental-SEM (E-SEM) nanomanipulation system is also presented with the direct observation of the hydroscopic samples with non-drying treatment.

  12. Capture and manipulation of hybrid DNAs by carbon nanotube bundles.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenhai; Yang, Wei

    2010-05-14

    When approached from both sides, a piece of single-duplex-single DNA may be drawn into the inlets of two bundles of carbon nanotubes. This provides opportunities to manipulate the DNA by two bundles of nanotubes. The capture and manipulation processes envisaged above are simulated by molecular dynamics in this work. The radius of the carbon nanotube and the ambient temperature show the effects on the spontaneous insertion of DNA strands. This procedure, if successful, could be used for capturing expectant sdsDNAs, with subsequent manipulation to pull or to unzip the captured DNA.

  13. Humans expect generosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brañas-Garza, Pablo; Rodríguez-Lara, Ismael; Sánchez, Angel

    2017-02-01

    Mechanisms supporting human ultra-cooperativeness are very much subject to debate. One psychological feature likely to be relevant is the formation of expectations, particularly about receiving cooperative or generous behavior from others. Without such expectations, social life will be seriously impeded and, in turn, expectations leading to satisfactory interactions can become norms and institutionalize cooperation. In this paper, we assess people’s expectations of generosity in a series of controlled experiments using the dictator game. Despite differences in respective roles, involvement in the game, degree of social distance or variation of stakes, the results are conclusive: subjects seldom predict that dictators will behave selfishly (by choosing the Nash equilibrium action, namely giving nothing). The majority of subjects expect that dictators will choose the equal split. This implies that generous behavior is not only observed in the lab, but also expected by subjects. In addition, expectations are accurate, matching closely the donations observed and showing that as a society we have a good grasp of how we interact. Finally, correlation between expectations and actual behavior suggests that expectations can be an important ingredient of generous or cooperative behavior.

  14. Humans expect generosity.

    PubMed

    Brañas-Garza, Pablo; Rodríguez-Lara, Ismael; Sánchez, Angel

    2017-02-14

    Mechanisms supporting human ultra-cooperativeness are very much subject to debate. One psychological feature likely to be relevant is the formation of expectations, particularly about receiving cooperative or generous behavior from others. Without such expectations, social life will be seriously impeded and, in turn, expectations leading to satisfactory interactions can become norms and institutionalize cooperation. In this paper, we assess people's expectations of generosity in a series of controlled experiments using the dictator game. Despite differences in respective roles, involvement in the game, degree of social distance or variation of stakes, the results are conclusive: subjects seldom predict that dictators will behave selfishly (by choosing the Nash equilibrium action, namely giving nothing). The majority of subjects expect that dictators will choose the equal split. This implies that generous behavior is not only observed in the lab, but also expected by subjects. In addition, expectations are accurate, matching closely the donations observed and showing that as a society we have a good grasp of how we interact. Finally, correlation between expectations and actual behavior suggests that expectations can be an important ingredient of generous or cooperative behavior.

  15. Humans expect generosity

    PubMed Central

    Brañas-Garza, Pablo; Rodríguez-Lara, Ismael; Sánchez, Angel

    2017-01-01

    Mechanisms supporting human ultra-cooperativeness are very much subject to debate. One psychological feature likely to be relevant is the formation of expectations, particularly about receiving cooperative or generous behavior from others. Without such expectations, social life will be seriously impeded and, in turn, expectations leading to satisfactory interactions can become norms and institutionalize cooperation. In this paper, we assess people’s expectations of generosity in a series of controlled experiments using the dictator game. Despite differences in respective roles, involvement in the game, degree of social distance or variation of stakes, the results are conclusive: subjects seldom predict that dictators will behave selfishly (by choosing the Nash equilibrium action, namely giving nothing). The majority of subjects expect that dictators will choose the equal split. This implies that generous behavior is not only observed in the lab, but also expected by subjects. In addition, expectations are accurate, matching closely the donations observed and showing that as a society we have a good grasp of how we interact. Finally, correlation between expectations and actual behavior suggests that expectations can be an important ingredient of generous or cooperative behavior. PMID:28195218

  16. Turning the Question Around: Do Colleges Fail to Meet Students' Expectations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, James E.; Becker, Kelly Iwanaga; Cepa, Kennan A.; Zapata-Gietl, Claudia E.

    2016-01-01

    Research often focuses on how students fail to meet college expectations, but it rarely asks how colleges fail to meet students' expectations. This study examines students' expectations of college and their institutional confidence--their level of certainty that college will meet their expectations. Drawing on 65 pilot interviews and a survey of…

  17. Turning the Question Around: Do Colleges Fail to Meet Students' Expectations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, James E.; Becker, Kelly Iwanaga; Cepa, Kennan A.; Zapata-Gietl, Claudia E.

    2016-01-01

    Research often focuses on how students fail to meet college expectations, but it rarely asks how colleges fail to meet students' expectations. This study examines students' expectations of college and their institutional confidence--their level of certainty that college will meet their expectations. Drawing on 65 pilot interviews and a survey of…

  18. A review of expectancy theory and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Jones, B T; Corbin, W; Fromme, K

    2001-01-01

    Research is reviewed on the association between alcohol outcome expectancies and consumption which has led many to argue that manipulating expectancies might be a route to manipulating consumption for problem prevention and treatment. Studies indirectly and directly evaluating this latter position are reviewed. Expectancies predicting treatment outcome: two studies have shown that the more positive expectancies held at treatment, the poorer is treatment outcome, but five other studies have failed to find this. Three related studies have shown that the more negative expectancies held at treatment, the better the treatment outcome. This evaluation provides evidence inconsistent with the main position for positive expectancy and limited support for negative. Expectancy manipulations and ad libitum consumption: three studies in the laboratory have shown that increasing positive expectancies through word priming increases subsequent consumption and two studies have shown that increasing negative expectancies decreases it. A single study in the field showed a similar relationship. This evaluation provides evidence consistent with the main position but is limited by measuring consumption changes over only 1-2 hours. Prevention programmes with expectancy components: seven projects are reviewed in which positive expectancies were targeted, but only two report an expectancy change analysis and in both cases the expectancy change did not relate to subsequent consumption. This evaluation provides evidence inconsistent with the main position. Expectancy challenge: two related studies are reviewed in which positive expectancy challenges reduce subsequent consumption but changes in expectancy were not evaluated as predictors of consumption change. Two studies are reviewed which found a reduction in positive expectancy following expectancy challenge but no reduction in consumption. One study is reviewed in which when negative expectancy was increased in treatment there was a

  19. Performance measurement of mobile manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostelman, Roger; Hong, Tsai; Marvel, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes a concept for measuring the reproducible performance of mobile manipulators to be used for assembly or other similar tasks. An automatic guided vehicle with an onboard robot arm was programmed to repeatedly move to and stop at a novel, reconfigurable mobile manipulator artifact (RMMA), sense the RMMA, and detect targets on the RMMA. The manipulator moved a laser retroreflective sensor to detect small reflectors that can be reconfigured to measure various manipulator positions and orientations (poses). This paper describes calibration of a multi-camera, motion capture system using a 6 degree-of-freedom metrology bar and then using the camera system as a ground truth measurement device for validation of the reproducible mobile manipulator's experiments and test method. Static performance measurement of a mobile manipulator using the RMMA has proved useful for relatively high tolerance pose estimation and other metrics that support standard test method development for indexed and dynamic mobile manipulator applications.

  20. Parasites and supernormal manipulation.

    PubMed Central

    Holen, Ø. H.; Saetre, G. P.; Slagsvold, T.; Stenseth, N. C.

    2001-01-01

    Social parasites may exploit their hosts by mimicking other organisms that the hosts normally benefit from investing in or responding to in some other way. Some parasites exaggerate key characters of the organisms they mimic, possibly in order to increase the response from the hosts. The huge gape and extreme begging intensity of the parasitic common cuckoo chick (Cuculus canorus) may be an example. In this paper, the evolutionary stability of manipulating hosts through exaggerated signals is analysed using game theory. Our model indicates that a parasite's signal intensity must be below a certain threshold in order to ensure acceptance and that this threshold depends directly on the rate of parasitism. The only evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) combination is when hosts accept all signallers and parasites signal at their optimal signal intensity, which must be below the threshold. Supernormal manipulation by parasites is only evolutionarily stable under sufficiently low rates of parasitism. If the conditions for the ESS combination are not satisfied, rejector hosts can invade using signal intensity as a cue for identifying parasites. These qualitative predictions are discussed with respect to empirical evidence from parasitic mimicry systems that have been suggested to involve supernormal signalling, including evicting avian brood parasites and insect-mimicking Ophrys orchids. PMID:11749709

  1. An Unexpected Expected Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartzman, Steven

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the surprising result that the expected number of marbles of one color drawn from a set of marbles of two colors after two draws without replacement is the same as the expected number of that color marble after two draws with replacement. Presents mathematical models to help explain this phenomenon. (MDH)

  2. A Superintendent's High Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascopella, Angela

    2009-01-01

    This article profiles Wanda Bamberg, superintendent of the Aldine (Texas) Independent School District. Bamberg is used to high expectations regardless of the circumstances. She is a firecracker of sorts who talks much and expects much from her staff members, teachers, and students, who are mostly at-risk, Black and Hispanic, and economically…

  3. Outside the Expected.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dienstfrey, Harris

    1968-01-01

    In examining the findings of "Pygmalion in the Classroom," an experimental study of the positive effects of favorable teacher expectations on the intellectual development of disadvantaged elementary school students, this review speculates about why the experimental students, whom the teachers expected to improve, and the control…

  4. Reflections on Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santini, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a teachers reflections on the matter of student expectations. Santini begins with a common understanding of the "Pygmalion effect" from research projects conducted in earlier years that intimated "people's expectations could influence other people in the world around them." In the world of deaf…

  5. A Superintendent's High Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascopella, Angela

    2009-01-01

    This article profiles Wanda Bamberg, superintendent of the Aldine (Texas) Independent School District. Bamberg is used to high expectations regardless of the circumstances. She is a firecracker of sorts who talks much and expects much from her staff members, teachers, and students, who are mostly at-risk, Black and Hispanic, and economically…

  6. An Unexpected Expected Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartzman, Steven

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the surprising result that the expected number of marbles of one color drawn from a set of marbles of two colors after two draws without replacement is the same as the expected number of that color marble after two draws with replacement. Presents mathematical models to help explain this phenomenon. (MDH)

  7. Bone manipulation procedures in dental implants

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Yuvika; Jindal, Govind; Garg, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    The use of dental implants for the rehabilitation of missing teeth has broadened the treatment options for patients and clinicians equally. As a result of advances in research in implant design, materials, and techniques, the use of dental implants has increased dramatically in the past two decades and is expected to expand further in the future. Success of dental implants depends largely on the quality and quantity of the available bone in the recipient site. This however may be compromised or unavailable due to tumor, trauma, periodontal disease, etc., which in turn necessitates the need for additional bone manipulation. This review outlines the various bone manipulation techniques that are used to achieve a predictable long-term success of dental implants. PMID:27433052

  8. The role of manipulator characteristics in selecting the ideal effective vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    A structural model of the human pilot is introduced and discussed. The model is used to provide a rationale for certain nonlinear pilot control behavior such as stick pulsing and serves as a framework for studying aspects of motor skill development. In light of the theoretical background provided by the model, some past empirical pilot response phenomena are analyzed and shown to be attributable to manipulator or control stick characteristics. In particular, some recent problems associated with pilot/vehicle performance in glideslope tracking in short takeoff and landing (STOL) aircraft are analyzed. The apparent contribution of the cockpit manipulator (throttle) characteristics to these problems are outlined and a solution proposed and evaluated in both simulation and flight test.

  9. Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Love, L.J.

    1997-03-01

    Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL`s flexible/prismatic test stand.

  10. Managing patient expectations.

    PubMed

    Gladfelter, Joanne P

    2006-01-01

    Nurses and physicians are the leading advocates of patient education and patient safety. They believe that the more knowledge and understanding patients have about the procedures they are about to undertake, the better their expectations and recovery will be. Even though efforts are taken to ensure that patients have been adequately informed about risks, complications, and expectations, evaluation of patient comprehension and understanding remains difficult. Verbal information re-enforced by repetition, written text, and a signed consent do not ensure an accurate or adequate means of truly evaluating patient knowledge, understanding, or expectations.

  11. Vacuum tool manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, William T.

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm.

  12. Advanced servo manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Holt, W.E.; Kuban, D.P.; Martin, H.L.

    1988-10-25

    An advanced servo manipulator has modular parts. Modular motor members drive individual input gears to control shoulder roll, shoulder pitch, elbow pitch, wrist yaw, wrist pitch, wrist roll, and tong spacing. The modules include a support member, a shoulder module for controlling shoulder roll, and a sleeve module attached to the shoulder module in fixed relation thereto. The shoulder roll sleeve module has an inner cylindrical member rotatable relative to the outer cylindrical member, and upon which a gear pod assembly is mounted. A plurality of shafts are driven by the gears, which are in turn driven by individual motor modules to transmit rotary power to control elbow pitch as well as to provide four different rotary shafts across the bendable elbow joint to supply rotary motive power to a wrist member and tong member. 41 figs.

  13. Advanced servo manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Holt, William E.; Kuban, Daniel P.; Martin, H. Lee

    1988-01-01

    An advanced servo manipulator has modular parts. Modular motor members drive individual input gears to control shoulder roll, shoulder pitch, elbow pitch, wrist yaw, wrist pitch, wrist roll, and tong spacing. The modules include a support member, a shoulder module for controlling shoulder roll, and a sleeve module attached to the shoulder module in fixed relation thereto. The shoulder roll sleeve module has an inner cylindrical member rotatable relative to the outer cylindrical member, and upon which a gear pod assembly is mounted. A plurality of shafts are driven by the gears, which are in turn driven by individual motor modules to transmit rotary power to control elbow pitch as well as to provide four different rotary shafts across the bendable elbow joint to supply rotary motive power to a wrist member and tong member.

  14. Ion manipulation device

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Gordon A; Smith, Richard D; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Baker, Erin M

    2014-09-16

    An ion manipulation method and device is disclosed. The device includes a pair of substantially parallel surfaces. An array of inner electrodes is contained within, and extends substantially along the length of, each parallel surface. The device includes a first outer array of electrodes and a second outer array of electrodes. Each outer array of electrodes is positioned on either side of the inner electrodes, and is contained within and extends substantially along the length of each parallel surface. A DC voltage is applied to the first and second outer array of electrodes. A RF voltage, with a superimposed electric field, is applied to the inner electrodes by applying the DC voltages to each electrode. Ions either move between the parallel surfaces within an ion confinement area or along paths in the direction of the electric field, or can be trapped in the ion confinement area.

  15. REMOTE CONTROL MANIPULATOR

    DOEpatents

    Coffman, R.T.

    1962-11-27

    The patent covers a remote-control manipulator in which a tool is carried on a tube at an end thereof angularly related to the main portion of the tube and joined thereto by a curved section. The main portion of the tube is mounted for rotation and axial shifting in a wall separating safe and dangerous areas. The tool is actuated to grasp and release an object in the dangerous area by means of a compound shaft extending through the tube, the shaft having a flexible section extending through the curved section of the tube. The tool is moved about in the dangerous area by rotation and axial movement of the main portion of the tube. Additional movement of the tool is obtained through axial shifting of the shaft with respect to the tube through which it extends. (AEC)

  16. Interactive protein manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    SNCrivelli@lbl.gov

    2003-07-01

    We describe an interactive visualization and modeling program for the creation of protein structures ''from scratch''. The input to our program is an amino acid sequence -decoded from a gene- and a sequence of predicted secondary structure types for each amino acid-provided by external structure prediction programs. Our program can be used in the set-up phase of a protein structure prediction process; the structures created with it serve as input for a subsequent global internal energy minimization, or another method of protein structure prediction. Our program supports basic visualization methods for protein structures, interactive manipulation based on inverse kinematics, and visualization guides to aid a user in creating ''good'' initial structures.

  17. [Language Manipulation, Surrogacy, Altruism].

    PubMed

    Serrano Ruiz-Calderón, José Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The Newspeak propitiates a change of the sense of the words and next to the double thinking forms the picture of totalitarianism described by Orwell in 1984. The purpose of the Newspeak is to make all other forms of thought impossible. In bioethics the Newspeak is applied, not because Bioethics is a new science but by the manipulative intention. The twentieth-century political language has, according to Orwell, the intention to remove the ″mental image ″ of what really happens. This is clear in the terms ″surrogacy ″. On the one hand, the mother is deprived of her child. On the other, there is no legal subrogation. As has been said the technique reduces a woman to the condition of a vessel. The excuse of gratuity does not change the exploitative relationship, since gratuitousness in the provision of women is not the altruism of all those involved in surrogacy.

  18. Liquid Propellant Manipulated Acoustically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Chato, David J.; Mann, Adin, III

    2003-01-01

    Fluids are difficult to manage in the space environment. Without gravity, the liquid and gas do not always remain separated as they do in the 1g environment of Earth. Instead the liquid and gas volumes mix and migrate under the influence of surface tension, thermodynamic forces, and external disturbances. As a result, liquid propellants may not be in a useable location or may even form a chaotic mix of liquid and gas bubbles. In the past, mechanical pumps, baffles, and a variety of specialized passive devices have been used to control the liquid and gas volumes. These methods need to be carefully tuned to a specific configuration to be effective. With increasing emphasis on long-term human activity in space there is a trend toward liquid systems that are more flexible and provide greater control. We are exploring new methods of manipulating liquids by using the nonlinear acoustic effects achieved by using beams of highly directed high-intensity acoustic waves.

  19. Vacuum tool manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of an apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprising a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm.

  20. Vacuum tool manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1993-11-23

    Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm. 6 figures.

  1. Repeatability in redundant manipulator systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Ranjan

    1994-02-01

    Terrestrial manipulators with more DOF than the dimension of the workspace and space manipulators with as many manipulator DOF as the dimension of the workspace are both redundant systems. An interesting problem of such redundant systems has been the repeatability problem due to the presence of nonholonomic constraints. We show, contrary to the existing belief, that integrability of the nonholonomic constraints is not a necessary condition for the repeatability of the configuration variables. There exist certain trajectories in the independent configuration variable space that are like 'holonomic loops' along which the redundant manipulators exhibit repeatable motion. We present a simple method based on optimization techniques for designing repeatable trajectories for free-flying space manipulators and terrestrial manipulators under pseudoinverse control.

  2. A History of Manipulative Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pettman, Erland

    2007-01-01

    Manipulative therapy has known a parallel development throughout many parts of the world. The earliest historical reference to the practice of manipulative therapy in Europe dates back to 400 BCE. Over the centuries, manipulative interventions have fallen in and out of favor with the medical profession. Manipulative therapy also was initially the mainstay of the two leading alternative health care systems, osteopathy and chiropractic, both founded in the latter part of the 19th century in response to shortcomings in allopathic medicine. With medical and osteopathic physicians initially instrumental in introducing manipulative therapy to the profession of physical therapy, physical therapists have since then provided strong contributions to the field, thereby solidifying the profession's claim to have manipulative therapy within in its legally regulated scope of practice. PMID:19066664

  3. Health expectancy indicators.

    PubMed Central

    Robine, J. M.; Romieu, I.; Cambois, E.

    1999-01-01

    An outline is presented of progress in the development of health expectancy indicators, which are growing in importance as a means of assessing the health status of populations and determining public health priorities. PMID:10083720

  4. Reward expectations in honeybees

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The study of expectations of reward helps to understand rules controlling goal-directed behavior as well as decision making and planning. I shall review a series of recent studies focusing on how the food gathering behavior of honeybees depends upon reward expectations. These studies document that free-flying honeybees develop long-term expectations of reward and use them to regulate their investment of energy/time during foraging. Also, they present a laboratory procedure suitable for analysis of neural substrates of reward expectations in the honeybee brain. I discuss these findings in the context of individual and collective foraging, on the one hand, and neurobiology of learning and memory of reward. PMID:20585498

  5. Reward expectations in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Gil, Mariana

    2010-03-01

    The study of expectations of reward helps to understand rules controlling goal-directed behavior as well as decision making and planning. I shall review a series of recent studies focusing on how the food gathering behavior of honeybees depends upon reward expectations. These studies document that free-flying honeybees develop long-term expectations of reward and use them to regulate their investment of energy/time during foraging. Also, they present a laboratory procedure suitable for analysis of neural substrates of reward expectations in the honeybee brain. I discuss these findings in the context of individual and collective foraging, on the one hand, and neurobiology of learning and memory of reward.

  6. Symbolic modeling of flexible manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cetinkunt, Sabri; Book, Wayne J.

    1987-01-01

    An algorithm is presented to symbolically derive the full nonlinear dynamic equations of motion of multilink flexible manipulators. Lagrange's assumed modes method is the basis of new algorithm and adapted in a way suitable for symbolic manipulation by digital computers. It is applied to model a two-link flexible arm by means of a commercially available symbolic manipulation program. The advantages of the algorithm and simulation results are discussed.

  7. Digital Control For Remote Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, Antal K.; Dotson, Ronald S.

    1987-01-01

    Multiple microprocessors enable large separations between controllers and manipulators. Controller for remote manipulator requires no direct mechanical connection between slave arm and master arm moved by human operator. Employs two-way digital data transmission rather than mechanical linkage between master and slave. Manipulator a considerable distance from operator. Software for controller distributed between master and slave locations. Organized into modules. Hardware and software for system demonstrated in laboratory model.

  8. Dynamics with expectations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glance, Natalie S.; Huberman, Bernardo A.

    1992-06-01

    We present a dynamical model of interacting agents that make decisions based on expectations about the future, along with imperfect knowledge about the present and the past. We show in particular how a diversity of expectations among the agents, coupled to reward mechanisms, can generate overall dynamics characterized by cycles of almost stable behavior interrupted by sudden crashes. This process is accompanied by an ever-changing diversity in the composition of the system.

  9. Torque-Limiting Manipulation Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moetteli, John B. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A device for manipulating a workpiece in space includes a fixture, a stanchion assembly, a manipulation mechanism, an actuation mechanism, and a reaction mechanism. The fixture has an end onto which the workpiece affixes. The stanchion assembly has an upper and a lower end. The manipulation mechanism connects the fixture and the upper end of the stanchion assembly. The lower end of the stanchion assembly mounts, via probe and a socket, to a structure. The actuation mechanism operably connects to the manipulation mechanism, and moves the fixture in space. The reaction mechanism provides a point through which force inputs into the actuation mechanism may react.

  10. Non-manipulation quantitative designs.

    PubMed

    Rumrill, Phillip D

    2004-01-01

    The article describes non-manipulation quantitative designs of two types, correlational and causal comparative studies. Both of these designs are characterized by the absence of random assignment of research participants to conditions or groups and non-manipulation of the independent variable. Without random selection or manipulation of the independent variable, no attempt is made to draw causal inferences regarding relationships between independent and dependent variables. Nonetheless, non-manipulation studies play an important role in rehabilitation research, as described in this article. Examples from the contemporary rehabilitation literature are included. Copyright 2004 IOS Press

  11. Sound beam manipulation based on temperature gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Feng; Quan, Li; Liu, Xiaozhou Gong, Xiufen

    2015-10-28

    Previous research with temperature gradients has shown the feasibility of controlling airborne sound propagation. Here, we present a temperature gradients based airborne sound manipulation schemes: a cylindrical acoustic omnidirectional absorber (AOA). The proposed AOA has high absorption performance which can almost completely absorb the incident wave. Geometric acoustics is used to obtain the refractive index distributions with different radii, which is then utilized to deduce the desired temperature gradients. Since resonant units are not applied in the scheme, its working bandwidth is expected to be broadband. The scheme is temperature-tuned and easy to realize, which is of potential interest to fields such as noise control or acoustic cloaking.

  12. X-15 pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    X-15 Pilots, Left to Right: Air Force pilot William J. 'Pete' Knight, Air Force Major Robert A. Rushworth, Air Force Captain Joseph H. Engle, NASA pilot Milton O. Thompson, NASA pilot Bill Dana, and NASA pilot John B. 'Jack' McKay.

  13. X-15 pilots

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-02

    X-15 Pilots, Left to Right: Air Force pilot William J. "Pete" Knight, Air Force Major Robert A. Rushworth, Air Force Captain Joseph H. Engle, NASA pilot Milton O. Thompson, NASA pilot Bill Dana, and NASA pilot John B. "Jack" McKay.

  14. Expectation and attention in hierarchical auditory prediction.

    PubMed

    Chennu, Srivas; Noreika, Valdas; Gueorguiev, David; Blenkmann, Alejandro; Kochen, Silvia; Ibáñez, Agustín; Owen, Adrian M; Bekinschtein, Tristan A

    2013-07-03

    Hierarchical predictive coding suggests that attention in humans emerges from increased precision in probabilistic inference, whereas expectation biases attention in favor of contextually anticipated stimuli. We test these notions within auditory perception by independently manipulating top-down expectation and attentional precision alongside bottom-up stimulus predictability. Our findings support an integrative interpretation of commonly observed electrophysiological signatures of neurodynamics, namely mismatch negativity (MMN), P300, and contingent negative variation (CNV), as manifestations along successive levels of predictive complexity. Early first-level processing indexed by the MMN was sensitive to stimulus predictability: here, attentional precision enhanced early responses, but explicit top-down expectation diminished it. This pattern was in contrast to later, second-level processing indexed by the P300: although sensitive to the degree of predictability, responses at this level were contingent on attentional engagement and in fact sharpened by top-down expectation. At the highest level, the drift of the CNV was a fine-grained marker of top-down expectation itself. Source reconstruction of high-density EEG, supported by intracranial recordings, implicated temporal and frontal regions differentially active at early and late levels. The cortical generators of the CNV suggested that it might be involved in facilitating the consolidation of context-salient stimuli into conscious perception. These results provide convergent empirical support to promising recent accounts of attention and expectation in predictive coding.

  15. Manipulating and Visualizing Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Horst D.

    2003-12-05

    ProteinShop Gives Researchers a Hands-On Tool for Manipulating, Visualizing Protein Structures. The Human Genome Project and other biological research efforts are creating an avalanche of new data about the chemical makeup and genetic codes of living organisms. But in order to make sense of this raw data, researchers need software tools which let them explore and model data in a more intuitive fashion. With this in mind, researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California, Davis, have developed ProteinShop, a visualization and modeling program which allows researchers to manipulate protein structures with pinpoint control, guided in large part by their own biological and experimental instincts. Biologists have spent the last half century trying to unravel the ''protein folding problem,'' which refers to the way chains of amino acids physically fold themselves into three-dimensional proteins. This final shape, which resembles a crumpled ribbon or piece of origami, is what determines how the protein functions and translates genetic information. Understanding and modeling this geometrically complex formation is no easy matter. ProteinShop takes a given sequence of amino acids and uses visualization guides to help generate predictions about the secondary structures, identifying alpha helices and flat beta strands, and the coil regions that bind them. Once secondary structures are in place, researchers can twist and turn these pre-configurations until they come up with a number of possible tertiary structure conformations. In turn, these are fed into a computationally intensive optimization procedure that tries to find the final, three-dimensional protein structure. Most importantly, ProteinShop allows users to add human knowledge and intuition to the protein structure prediction process, thus bypassing bad configurations that would otherwise be fruitless for optimization. This saves compute cycles and accelerates the entire process, so

  16. Sex and life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Seifarth, Joshua E; McGowan, Cheri L; Milne, Kevin J

    2012-12-01

    A sexual dimorphism in human life expectancy has existed in almost every country for as long as records have been kept. Although human life expectancy has increased each year, females still live longer, on average, than males. Undoubtedly, the reasons for the sex gap in life expectancy are multifaceted, and it has been discussed from both sociological and biological perspectives. However, even if biological factors make up only a small percentage of the determinants of the sex difference in this phenomenon, parity in average life expectancy should not be anticipated. The aim of this review is to highlight biological mechanisms that may underlie the sexual dimorphism in life expectancy. Using PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar, as well as cited and citing reference histories of articles through August 2012, English-language articles were identified, read, and synthesized into categories that could account for biological sex differences in human life expectancy. The examination of biological mechanisms accounting for the female-based advantage in human life expectancy has been an active area of inquiry; however, it is still difficult to prove the relative importance of any 1 factor. Nonetheless, biological differences between the sexes do exist and include differences in genetic and physiological factors such as progressive skewing of X chromosome inactivation, telomere attrition, mitochondrial inheritance, hormonal and cellular responses to stress, immune function, and metabolic substrate handling among others. These factors may account for at least a part of the female advantage in human life expectancy. Despite noted gaps in sex equality, higher body fat percentages and lower physical activity levels globally at all ages, a sex-based gap in life expectancy exists in nearly every country for which data exist. There are several biological mechanisms that may contribute to explaining why females live longer than men on average, but the complexity of the

  17. Bilateral and multiple cavitation sounds during upper cervical thrust manipulation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    thrust manipulation. Most subjects produced 3–4 pops during a single rotatory HVLA thrust manipulation targeting the right or left C1-2 articulation; therefore, practitioners of spinal manipulative therapy should expect multiple popping sounds when performing upper cervical thrust manipulation to the atlanto-axial joint. Furthermore, the traditional manual therapy approach of targeting a single ipsilateral or contralateral facet joint in the upper cervical spine may not be realistic. PMID:23320608

  18. Efficient inverse kinematics for general 6R manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Manocha, D. . Dept. of Computer Science); Canny, J. . Computer Science Division)

    1994-10-01

    The inverse kinematics of serial manipulators is a central problem in the automatic control of robot manipulators. The main interest has been in inverse kinematics of a six revolute (6R) jointed manipulator with arbitrary geometry. It has been recently shown that the joints of a general 6R manipulator can orient themselves in 16 different configurations (at most), for a given pose of the end-effector. However, there are no good practical solutions available that give a level of performance expected of industrial manipulators. In this paper, the authors present an algorithm and implementation for efficient inverse kinematic for a general 6R manipulator. When state mathematically, the problem reduces to solving a system of multivariate equations. The authors make use of the algebraic properties of the system and the symbolic formulation used for reducing the problem to solving a univariate polynomial. However, the polynomial is expressed as a matrix determinant and its roots are computed by reducing to an eigenvalue probe. The other roots of the multivariate system are obtained by computing eigenvectors and substitution. The algorithm involves symbolic preprocessing, matrix computations and a variety of other numerical techniques. The average running time of the algorithm, for most cases, is 11 milliseconds on an IBM RS/6000 workstation. This approach is applicable to inverse kinematics of all serial manipulators.

  19. Image Manipulation: Then and Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Ronald E.

    The images of photography have been manipulated almost from the moment of their discovery. The blending together in the studio and darkroom of images not found in actual scenes from life has been a regular feature of modern photography in both art and advertising. Techniques of photograph manipulation include retouching; blocking out figures or…

  20. Modeling Manipulation in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Jason I.

    2010-01-01

    As residents and medical students progress through their medical training, they are presented with multiple instances in which they feel they must manipulate the healthcare system and deceive others in order to efficiently treat their patients. This, however, creates a culture of manipulation resulting in untoward effects on trainees' ethical and…

  1. Elementary School Teachers' Manipulative Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uribe-Florez, Lida J.; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from 503 inservice elementary teachers, this study investigated the relationship between teachers' background characteristics, teachers' beliefs about manipulatives, and the frequency with which teachers use manipulatives as part of their mathematics instruction. Findings from the study show that teachers' grade level and beliefs about…

  2. Modeling Manipulation in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Jason I.

    2010-01-01

    As residents and medical students progress through their medical training, they are presented with multiple instances in which they feel they must manipulate the healthcare system and deceive others in order to efficiently treat their patients. This, however, creates a culture of manipulation resulting in untoward effects on trainees' ethical and…

  3. Thermoelectrical manipulation of nanomagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadigrobov, A. M.; Andersson, S.; Radić, D.; Shekhter, R. I.; Jonson, M.; Korenivski, V.

    2010-06-01

    We investigate the interplay between the thermodynamic properties and spin-dependent transport in a mesoscopic device based on a magnetic multilayer (F/f/F), in which two strongly ferromagnetic layers (F) are exchange-coupled through a weakly ferromagnetic spacer (f) with the Curie temperature in the vicinity of room temperature. We show theoretically that the Joule heating produced by the spin-dependent current allows a spin-thermoelectronic control of the ferromagnetic-to-paramagnetic (f/N) transition in the spacer and, thereby, of the relative orientation of the outer F-layers in the device (spin-thermoelectric manipulation of nanomagnets). Supporting experimental evidence of such thermally-controlled switching from parallel to antiparallel magnetization orientations in F/f(N)/F sandwiches is presented. Furthermore, we show theoretically that local Joule heating due to a high concentration of current in a magnetic point contact or a nanopillar can be used to reversibly drive the weakly ferromagnetic spacer through its Curie point and thereby exchange couple and decouple the two strongly ferromagnetic F-layers. For the devices designed to have an antiparallel ground state above the Curie point of the spacer, the associated spin-thermionic parallel to antiparallel switching causes magnetoresistance oscillations whose frequency can be controlled by proper biasing from essentially dc to GHz. We discuss in detail an experimental realization of a device that can operate as a thermomagnetoresistive switch or oscillator.

  4. Genetic Manipulations in Dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Alshahni, Mohamed Mahdi; Yamada, Tsuyoshi

    2017-02-01

    Dermatophytes are a group of closely related fungi that nourish on keratinized materials for their survival. They infect stratum corneum, nails, and hair of human and animals, accounting the largest portion of fungi causing superficial mycoses. Huge populations are suffering from dermatophytoses, though the biology of these fungi is largely unknown yet. Reasons are partially attributed to the poor amenability of dermatophytes to genetic manipulation. However, advancements in this field over the last decade made it possible to conduct genetic studies to satisfying extents. These included genetic transformation methods, indispensable molecular tools, i.e., dominant selectable markers, inducible promoter, and marker recycling system, along with improving homologous recombination frequency and gene silencing. Furthermore, annotated genome sequences of several dermatophytic species have recently been available, ensuring an optimal recruitment of the molecular tools to expand our knowledge on these fungi. In conclusion, the establishment of basic molecular tools and the availability of genomic data will open a new era that might change our understanding on the biology and pathogenicity of this fungal group.

  5. Stereoscopically Observing Manipulative Actions

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, S.; Pauwels, K.; Rizzolatti, G.; Orban, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereopsis to the processing of observed manipulative actions. To this end, we first combined the factors “stimulus type” (action, static control, and dynamic control), “stereopsis” (present, absent) and “viewpoint” (frontal, lateral) into a single design. Four sites in premotor, retro-insular (2) and parietal cortex operated specifically when actions were viewed stereoscopically and frontally. A second experiment clarified that the stereo-action-specific regions were driven by actions moving out of the frontoparallel plane, an effect amplified by frontal viewing in premotor cortex. Analysis of single voxels and their discriminatory power showed that the representation of action in the stereo-action-specific areas was more accurate when stereopsis was active. Further analyses showed that the 4 stereo-action-specific sites form a closed network converging onto the premotor node, which connects to parietal and occipitotemporal regions outside the network. Several of the specific sites are known to process vestibular signals, suggesting that the network combines observed actions in peripersonal space with gravitational signals. These findings have wider implications for the function of premotor cortex and the role of stereopsis in human behavior. PMID:27252350

  6. Addicted to Expectations? Conference!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliland, Mary

    Whether teaching incoming students or training faculty in other disciplines, writing instructors often form unrealistic expectations about goals and skills of students and colleagues, which (like chemical addictions) predictably recur each semester as though they had never occurred before. For effective instruction, it is important that…

  7. Behavior, Expectations and Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Jr, Murray; Rashotte, Lisa Slattery

    2010-01-01

    We predict effects of behavior patterns and status on performance expectations and group inequality using an integrated theory developed by Fisek, Berger and Norman (1991). We next test those predictions using new experimental techniques we developed to control behavior patterns as independent variables. In a 10-condition experiment, predictions…

  8. Behavior, Expectations and Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Jr, Murray; Rashotte, Lisa Slattery

    2010-01-01

    We predict effects of behavior patterns and status on performance expectations and group inequality using an integrated theory developed by Fisek, Berger and Norman (1991). We next test those predictions using new experimental techniques we developed to control behavior patterns as independent variables. In a 10-condition experiment, predictions…

  9. Maintaining High Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Roger; Williams, Sherry

    2014-01-01

    Author and husband, Roger Williams, is hearing and signs fluently, and author and wife, Sherry Williams, is deaf and uses both speech and signs, although she is most comfortable signing. As parents of six children--deaf and hearing--they are determined to encourage their children to do their best, and they always set their expectations high. They…

  10. Parenting with High Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timperlake, Benna Hull; Sanders, Genelle Timperlake

    2014-01-01

    In some ways raising deaf or hard of hearing children is no different than raising hearing children; expectations must be established and periodically tweaked. Benna Hull Timperlake, who with husband Roger, raised two hearing children in addition to their deaf daughter, Genelle Timperlake Sanders, and Genelle, now a deaf professional, share their…

  11. Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Kelley

    Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…

  12. Manipulability, force, and compliance analysis for planar continuum manipulators.

    PubMed

    Gravagne, Ian A; Walker, Ian D

    2002-06-01

    Continuum manipulators, inspired by the natural capabilities of elephant trunks and octopus tentacles, may find niche applications in areas like human-robot interaction, multiarm manipulation, and unknown environment exploration. However, their true capabilities will remain largely inaccessible without proper analytical tools to evaluate their unique properties. Ellipsoids have long served as one of the foremost analytical tools available to the robotics researcher, and the purpose of this paper is to first formulate, and then to examine, three types of ellipsoids for continuum robots: manipulability, force, and compliance.

  13. Manipulability, force, and compliance analysis for planar continuum manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gravagne, Ian A.; Walker, Ian D.

    2002-01-01

    Continuum manipulators, inspired by the natural capabilities of elephant trunks and octopus tentacles, may find niche applications in areas like human-robot interaction, multiarm manipulation, and unknown environment exploration. However, their true capabilities will remain largely inaccessible without proper analytical tools to evaluate their unique properties. Ellipsoids have long served as one of the foremost analytical tools available to the robotics researcher, and the purpose of this paper is to first formulate, and then to examine, three types of ellipsoids for continuum robots: manipulability, force, and compliance.

  14. Manipulability, force, and compliance analysis for planar continuum manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gravagne, Ian A.; Walker, Ian D.

    2002-01-01

    Continuum manipulators, inspired by the natural capabilities of elephant trunks and octopus tentacles, may find niche applications in areas like human-robot interaction, multiarm manipulation, and unknown environment exploration. However, their true capabilities will remain largely inaccessible without proper analytical tools to evaluate their unique properties. Ellipsoids have long served as one of the foremost analytical tools available to the robotics researcher, and the purpose of this paper is to first formulate, and then to examine, three types of ellipsoids for continuum robots: manipulability, force, and compliance.

  15. Dexterous Manipulation: Making Remote Manipulators Easy to Use

    SciTech Connect

    HARRIGAN, RAYMOND W.; BENNETT, PHIL C.

    2001-11-01

    Perhaps the most basic barrier to the widespread deployment of remote manipulators is that they are very difficult to use. Remote manual operations are fatiguing and tedious, while fully autonomous systems are seldom able to function in changing and unstructured environments. An alternative approach to these extremes is to exploit computer control while leaving the operator in the loop to take advantage of the operator's perceptual and decision-making capabilities. This report describes research that is enabling gradual introduction of computer control and decision making into operator-supervised robotic manipulation systems, and its integration on a commercially available, manually controlled mobile manipulator.

  16. Direct Manipulation in Virtual Reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve

    2003-01-01

    Virtual Reality interfaces offer several advantages for scientific visualization such as the ability to perceive three-dimensional data structures in a natural way. The focus of this chapter is direct manipulation, the ability for a user in virtual reality to control objects in the virtual environment in a direct and natural way, much as objects are manipulated in the real world. Direct manipulation provides many advantages for the exploration of complex, multi-dimensional data sets, by allowing the investigator the ability to intuitively explore the data environment. Because direct manipulation is essentially a control interface, it is better suited for the exploration and analysis of a data set than for the publishing or communication of features found in that data set. Thus direct manipulation is most relevant to the analysis of complex data that fills a volume of three-dimensional space, such as a fluid flow data set. Direct manipulation allows the intuitive exploration of that data, which facilitates the discovery of data features that would be difficult to find using more conventional visualization methods. Using a direct manipulation interface in virtual reality, an investigator can, for example, move a data probe about in space, watching the results and getting a sense of how the data varies within its spatial volume.

  17. Autonomous Object Manipulation Using a Soft Planar Grasping Manipulator

    PubMed Central

    Katzschmann, Robert K.; Marchese, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This article presents the development of an autonomous motion planning algorithm for a soft planar grasping manipulator capable of grasp-and-place operations by encapsulation with uncertainty in the position and shape of the object. The end effector of the soft manipulator is fabricated in one piece without weakening seams using lost-wax casting instead of the commonly used multilayer lamination process. The soft manipulation system can grasp randomly positioned objects within its reachable envelope and move them to a desired location without human intervention. The autonomous planning system leverages the compliance and continuum bending of the soft grasping manipulator to achieve repeatable grasps in the presence of uncertainty. A suite of experiments is presented that demonstrates the system's capabilities. PMID:27625916

  18. Autonomous Object Manipulation Using a Soft Planar Grasping Manipulator.

    PubMed

    Katzschmann, Robert K; Marchese, Andrew D; Rus, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the development of an autonomous motion planning algorithm for a soft planar grasping manipulator capable of grasp-and-place operations by encapsulation with uncertainty in the position and shape of the object. The end effector of the soft manipulator is fabricated in one piece without weakening seams using lost-wax casting instead of the commonly used multilayer lamination process. The soft manipulation system can grasp randomly positioned objects within its reachable envelope and move them to a desired location without human intervention. The autonomous planning system leverages the compliance and continuum bending of the soft grasping manipulator to achieve repeatable grasps in the presence of uncertainty. A suite of experiments is presented that demonstrates the system's capabilities.

  19. Wildland Collection, Population Development, and Genetic Manipulation of Native Rangeland Grasses in the Intermountain West USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the Intermountain West USA, a high demand for native plant materials exists, but customer expectations for native plant materials may be contradictory (Jones, 2003). Some customers spurn genetically manipulated or non-local plant materials, while others accept manipulation or non-local origin wh...

  20. Kinematic sensitivity of robot manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vuskovic, Marko I.

    1989-01-01

    Kinematic sensitivity vectors and matrices for open-loop, n degrees-of-freedom manipulators are derived. First-order sensitivity vectors are defined as partial derivatives of the manipulator's position and orientation with respect to its geometrical parameters. The four-parameter kinematic model is considered, as well as the five-parameter model in case of nominally parallel joint axes. Sensitivity vectors are expressed in terms of coordinate axes of manipulator frames. Second-order sensitivity vectors, the partial derivatives of first-order sensitivity vectors, are also considered. It is shown that second-order sensitivity vectors can be expressed as vector products of the first-order sensitivity vectors.

  1. Manipulator control by exact linearization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruetz, K.

    1987-01-01

    Comments on the application to rigid link manipulators of geometric control theory, resolved acceleration control, operational space control, and nonlinear decoupling theory are given, and the essential unity of these techniques for externally linearizing and decoupling end effector dynamics is discussed. Exploiting the fact that the mass matrix of a rigid link manipulator is positive definite, a consequence of rigid link manipulators belonging to the class of natural physical systems, it is shown that a necessary and sufficient condition for a locally externally linearizing and output decoupling feedback law to exist is that the end effector Jacobian matrix be nonsingular. Furthermore, this linearizing feedback is easy to produce.

  2. Genetic enhancements and expectations.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, K

    2009-07-01

    Some argue that genetic enhancements and environmental enhancements are not importantly different: environmental enhancements such as private schools and chess lessons are simply the old-school way to have a designer baby. I argue that there is an important distinction between the two practices--a distinction that makes state restrictions on genetic enhancements more justifiable than state restrictions on environmental enhancements. The difference is that parents have no settled expectations about genetic enhancements.

  3. New criteria expected from East Flat project

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, J.P.

    1980-04-01

    The East Flat in-situ combustion project began in June 1979 in the isolated East Flat area of the North Ward-Estes field and is expected to provide Gulf with a new set of criteria for in-situ fireflooding. The East Flat area is a small, separate and isolated Queen sand reservoir. Conditions in East Flat are expected to give more control to the combustion process, primarily because of the size and homogeneity of the reservoir. The East Flat project was initiated in an old caustic pilot, which was started in 1973 to determine the effect of a caustic slug injected early in the life of a waterflood. The caustic pilot consisted of 4 injection wells drilled around a single producer to form a 5-arce regular 5-spot pattern. In the combustion project, the in-situ fire was started in the center producing well after its being converted to air injection. As the burn approaches the observation wells, small amounts of water will be injected into them to project the casing from the corrosive gases caused by high temperatures.

  4. Expectancy and treatment interactions: A dissociation between acupuncture analgesia and expectancy evoked placebo analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Jian; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Polich, Ginger; Kirsch, Irving; Vangel, Mark; Zyloney, Carolyn; Rosen, Bruce; Gollub, Randy

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in placebo research have demonstrated the mind’s power to alter physiology. In this study, we combined an expectancy manipulation model with both verum and sham acupuncture treatments to address: 1) how and to what extent treatment and expectancy effects --including both subjective pain intensity levels (pain sensory ratings) and objective physiological activations (fMRI) -- interact; and 2) if the underlying mechanism of expectancy remains the same whether placebo treatment is given alone or in conjunction with active treatment. The results indicate that although verum acupuncture + high expectation and sham acupuncture + high expectation induced subjective reports of analgesia of equal magnitude, fMRI analysis showed that verum acupuncture produced greater fMRI signal decrease in pain related brain regions during application of calibrated heat pain stimuli on the right arm. We believe our study provides brain imaging evidence for the existence of different mechanisms underlying acupuncture analgesia and expectancy evoked placebo analgesia. Our results also suggest that the brain network involved in expectancy may vary under different treatment situations (verum and sham acupuncture treatment). PMID:19159691

  5. Audio-Visual Situational Awareness for General Aviation Pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Lodha, Suresh K.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Weather is one of the major causes of general aviation accidents. Researchers are addressing this problem from various perspectives including improving meteorological forecasting techniques, collecting additional weather data automatically via on-board sensors and "flight" modems, and improving weather data dissemination and presentation. We approach the problem from the improved presentation perspective and propose weather visualization and interaction methods tailored for general aviation pilots. Our system, Aviation Weather Data Visualization Environment (AWE), utilizes information visualization techniques, a direct manipulation graphical interface, and a speech-based interface to improve a pilot's situational awareness of relevant weather data. The system design is based on a user study and feedback from pilots.

  6. Building Fractal Models with Manipulatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coes, Loring

    1993-01-01

    Uses manipulative materials to build and examine geometric models that simulate the self-similarity properties of fractals. Examples are discussed in two dimensions, three dimensions, and the fractal dimension. Discusses how models can be misleading. (Contains 10 references.) (MDH)

  7. Machine intelligence for autonomous manipulation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.

    1973-01-01

    Survey of the present technological development status of machine intelligence for autonomous manipulation in the U.S., Japan, USSR, and England. The extent of task-performance autonomy is examined that machine intelligence gives the manipulator by eliminating the need for a human operator to close continuously the control loop, or to rewrite control programs for each different task. Surveyed research projects show that the development of some advanced automation systems for manipulator control are within the state of the art. Yet, many more realistic breadboard systems and experimental work are needed before further progress can be made in the design of advanced automation systems for manipulator control suitable for new major practical applications. Specific research areas of promise are pointed out.

  8. Building Fractal Models with Manipulatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coes, Loring

    1993-01-01

    Uses manipulative materials to build and examine geometric models that simulate the self-similarity properties of fractals. Examples are discussed in two dimensions, three dimensions, and the fractal dimension. Discusses how models can be misleading. (Contains 10 references.) (MDH)

  9. Dynamic Scaling of Manipulator Trajectories.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    Manipulators Robotics Trajectory Planning Manipulator Dynamics 20. ABSTRACT (Conftnue wn reverse side ID neceeOor Oine Identlfy b? block nuemNer) A...receives a c factor for each b(i). ’lhus both terms change equally with differing movement speeds. This contradicts the normal assumption in the robotics ...as well since they share the same significance as the velocity terms, yet this is not done. In any case, future generations of robots will contain

  10. Electrostatic Transport and Manipulation of Lunar Soil and Dust

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamoto, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-21

    Transport and manipulation technologies of lunar soil and dust are under development utilizing the electrostatic force. Transport of particles is realized by an electrostatic conveyer consisting of parallel electrodes. Four-phase traveling electrostatic wave was applied to the electrodes to transport particles upon the conveyer and it was demonstrated that particles were efficiently transported under conditions of low frequency, high voltage, and the application of rectangular wave. Not only linear but also curved and closed transport was demonstrated. Numerical investigation was carried out with a three-dimensional hard-sphere model of the Distinct Element Method to clarify the mechanism of the transport and to predict performances in the lunar environment. This technology is expected to be utilized not only for the transport of bulk soil but also for the cleaning of a solar panel and an optical lens. Another technology is an electrostatic manipulation system to manipulate single particle. A manipulator consisted of two parallel pin electrodes. When voltage was applied between the electrodes, electrophoresis force generated in non-uniform electrostatic field was applied to the particle near the tip of the electrode. The particle was captured by the application of the voltage and released from the manipulator by turning off the voltage. It was possible to manipulate not only insulative but also conductive particles. Three-dimensional electrostatic field calculation was conducted to calculate the electrophoresis force and the Coulomb force.

  11. STS-61 crewmembers training with the Remote Manipulator System

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-06-07

    The Remote Manipulator System (RMS) eases a mannequin representing an astronaut into position for an STS-61 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing task in the Space Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory at JSC (35699, 35703); Wide-angle view of the RMS easing a mannequin into position for work on the HST mock-up in bldg 9N (35700-1); Swiss scientist Claude Nicollier, mission specialist, works the control of the RMS during a training session in the manipulator development facility (MDF) in JSC's Shuttle mock-up and integration laboratory. Astronaut Kenneth D. Bowersox (left), pilot, is among the other crewmembers in training for the STS-61 HST servicing mission (35702).

  12. STS-61 crewmembers training with the Remote Manipulator System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Remote Manipulator System (RMS) eases a mannequin representing an astronaut into position for an STS-61 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing task in the Space Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory at JSC (35699, 35703); Wide-angle view of the RMS easing a mannequin into position for work on the HST mock-up in bldg 9N (35700-1); Swiss scientist Claude Nicollier, mission specialist, works the control of the RMS during a training session in the manipulator development facility (MDF) in JSC's Shuttle mock-up and integration laboratory. Astronaut Kenneth D. Bowersox (left), pilot, is among the other crewmembers in training for the STS-61 HST servicing mission (35702).

  13. STS-61 crewmembers training with the Remote Manipulator System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Remote Manipulator System (RMS) eases a mannequin representing an astronaut into position for an STS-61 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing task in the Space Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory at JSC (35699, 35703); Wide-angle view of the RMS easing a mannequin into position for work on the HST mock-up in bldg 9N (35700-1); Swiss scientist Claude Nicollier, mission specialist, works the control of the RMS during a training session in the manipulator development facility (MDF) in JSC's Shuttle mock-up and integration laboratory. Astronaut Kenneth D. Bowersox (left), pilot, is among the other crewmembers in training for the STS-61 HST servicing mission (35702).

  14. Review of orthopaedic manipulator arms.

    PubMed

    Hurst, K S; Phillips, R; Viant, W J; Mohsen, A M; Sherman, K P; Bielby, M

    1998-01-01

    Trajectory planning and implementation forms a substantial part of current and future orthopaedic practice. This type of surgery is governed by a basic orthopaedic principle [1] which involves the placement of a surgical tool at a specific site within a region, via a trajectory which is planned from X-ray based 2D images and governed by 3D anatomical constraints. The accuracy and safety of procedures utilising the basic orthopaedic principle depends on the surgeon's judgement, experience, ability to integrate images, utilisation of intra-operative X-ray, knowledge of anatomical-biomechanical constraints and eye hand dexterity. The surgeon must remain as the responsible medical expert in charge of the overall system. At the same time the surgeon covets the accuracy offered by Computer Assisted Surgery including a manipulator. A summary of current inadequacies of manipulators indicates that the main drivers for future work are that accuracy is critical in close contact with the environment, safety concerns dictate manipulator geometry and technological limitations are many. In any effort to develop an optimal manipulator to guide surgical instruments and tools it is an obvious first step to review and categorise current manipulators. The aim of this paper is to review all aspects of manipulator design against the five main criteria of ergonomics; safety; accuracy; sterility and measurable benefits such as reduced operative time, reduced surgical trauma and improved clinical results.

  15. Manipulation: description, identification and ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Bowers, L

    2003-06-01

    The word manipulation is frequently applied to some of the difficult-to-manage behaviours of the personality-disordered patient. However, the term is rarely defined, and a review of both the clinical and research literature shows that little has been written about its definition and identification, let alone its clinical management in both in- and outpatient settings. Recent empirical work conducted with nurses in forensic settings has demonstrated the range of behaviours that professionals refer to as 'manipulative', thus clarifying the use of the term and allowing the provision of a more precise definition. The scope of manipulation in everyday life, management practice and politics is perhaps relatively small, although manipulation can occur in all areas of human activity. Social behaviour is doubly ambiguous with respect to judgements of manipulation, as such judgements involve a moral evaluation combined with the identification of deception on the basis of little or partial evidence. The implications of this social ambiguity for clinical psychiatric practice are that professionals need to guard themselves from two polar faults: seeing manipulation everywhere; or being blind to its presence. In order to achieve a cautious moderation, staff need to hold both alternatives in mind at all times.

  16. Classical subjective expected utility

    PubMed Central

    Cerreia-Vioglio, Simone; Maccheroni, Fabio; Marinacci, Massimo; Montrucchio, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    We consider decision makers who know that payoff-relevant observations are generated by a process that belongs to a given class M, as postulated in Wald [Wald A (1950) Statistical Decision Functions (Wiley, New York)]. We incorporate this Waldean piece of objective information within an otherwise subjective setting à la Savage [Savage LJ (1954) The Foundations of Statistics (Wiley, New York)] and show that this leads to a two-stage subjective expected utility model that accounts for both state and model uncertainty. PMID:23559375

  17. How prior expectations shape multisensory perception.

    PubMed

    Gau, Remi; Noppeney, Uta

    2016-01-01

    The brain generates a representation of our environment by integrating signals from a common source, but segregating signals from different sources. This fMRI study investigated how the brain arbitrates between perceptual integration and segregation based on top-down congruency expectations and bottom-up stimulus-bound congruency cues. Participants were presented audiovisual movies of phonologically congruent, incongruent or McGurk syllables that can be integrated into an illusory percept (e.g. "ti" percept for visual «ki» with auditory /pi/). They reported the syllable they perceived. Critically, we manipulated participants' top-down congruency expectations by presenting McGurk stimuli embedded in blocks of congruent or incongruent syllables. Behaviorally, participants were more likely to fuse audiovisual signals into an illusory McGurk percept in congruent than incongruent contexts. At the neural level, the left inferior frontal sulcus (lIFS) showed increased activations for bottom-up incongruent relative to congruent inputs. Moreover, lIFS activations were increased for physically identical McGurk stimuli, when participants segregated the audiovisual signals and reported their auditory percept. Critically, this activation increase for perceptual segregation was amplified when participants expected audiovisually incongruent signals based on prior sensory experience. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the lIFS combines top-down prior (in)congruency expectations with bottom-up (in)congruency cues to arbitrate between multisensory integration and segregation.

  18. Personality profiles of pilots.

    PubMed

    Ashman, A; Telfer, R

    1983-10-01

    Samples of Air Force fighter pilots, trainee commercial pilots, and males drawn from the general community completed the Edwards Personality Preference Schedule (EPPS). Four significant effects were found for individual sub-scales; three (Achievement, Affiliation, and Nurturance) identifying air force fighter pilots. Commercial pilot trainees scored significantly less than the community sample on Succorance and Nurturance. The data suggest that the EPPS consists of several related personality dimensions. One of these, "sociability," discriminated fighter pilots from the general community.

  19. Alcohol, aggression and assertiveness in men: dosage and expectancy effects.

    PubMed

    Kreutzer, J S; Schneider, H G; Myatt, C R

    1984-05-01

    The effect of alcohol on aggression and assertiveness was examined in 54 men college students. A 2 (high vs low dosage expectancy) x 3 (0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 ml of 95% alcohol per kg of body weight) design was used. There was an increase in self-reported aggression at the moderate dosage but an increase only in profanity at the high dosage. The expectancy manipulation also produced an increase in self-reported aggression. Actual dosage and dosage expectancy did not influence assertiveness.

  20. A comparative study of expectant parents ' childbirth expectations.

    PubMed

    Kao, Bi-Chin; Gau, Meei-Ling; Wu, Shian-Feng; Kuo, Bih-Jaw; Lee, Tsorng-Yeh

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand childbirth expectations and differences in childbirth expectations among expectant parents. For convenience sampling, 200 couples willing to participate in this study were chosen from two hospitals in central Taiwan. Inclusion criteria were at least 36 weeks of gestation, aged 18 and above, no prenatal complications, and willing to consent to participate in this study. Instruments used to collect data included basic demographic data and the Childbirth Expectations Questionnaire. Findings of the study revealed that (1) five factors were identified by expectant parents regarding childbirth expectations including the caregiving environment, expectation of labor pain, spousal support, control and participation, and medical and nursing support; (2) no general differences were identified in the childbirth expectations between expectant fathers and expectant mothers; and (3) expectant fathers with a higher socioeconomic status and who had received prenatal (childbirth) education had higher childbirth expectations, whereas mothers displayed no differences in demographic characteristics. The study results may help clinical healthcare providers better understand differences in expectations during labor and birth and childbirth expectations by expectant parents in order to improve the medical and nursing system and promote positive childbirth experiences and satisfaction for expectant parents.

  1. Beyond my wildest expectations.

    PubMed

    Nester, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    With support from my parents, I fulfilled their and my expectations of graduating from college and becoming a scientist. My scientific career has focused on two organisms, Bacillus subtilis and Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and two experimental systems, aromatic amino acid synthesis and DNA transfer in bacteria and plants. Studies on B. subtilis emphasized the genetics and biochemistry of aromatic amino acid synthesis and the characterization of competence in DNA transformation. I carried out both as a postdoc at Stanford with Josh Lederberg. At the University of Washington, I continued these studies and then investigated how Agrobacterium transforms plant cells. In collaboration, Milt Gordon, Mary-Dell Chilton, and I found that this bacterium could transfer a piece of its plasmid into plant cells and thereby modify their properties. This discovery opened up a host of intriguing questions that we have tried to answer over the last 35 years.

  2. The effects of physicians' affect-oriented communication style and raising expectations on analogue patients' anxiety, affect and expectancies.

    PubMed

    Verheul, William; Sanders, Ariëtte; Bensing, Jozien

    2010-09-01

    Patients' affect and expectancies can set off placebo effects and thus impact patients' health. We assessed the relative effects of physicians' affect-oriented communication style and raising expectations on patients' affective state and outcome expectancies. Thirty healthy women presented severe menstrual pain in a scripted consultation with a general practitioner (GP). In a 2x2 randomized controlled trial, the GP communicated in a warm, empathic or cold, formal way and raised positive or uncertain expectations. Effects on subjects' state anxiety, affective state and outcome expectancies were assessed. Only warm, empathic communication combined with positive expectations led to a significant and relevant decrease in state anxiety. Subjects' positive and negative affects were influenced by GPs affect-oriented communication style. Negative affect and outcome expectancies are influenced by GP suggestions about outcomes. Manipulations in physicians' affect-oriented and expectancy-related communication can have a large impact on patients' affective state and outcome expectations. A combination of a warm, empathic communication style and raising positive expectations resulted in optimal subject outcomes. Physicians should take into account that communicating in warm, empathic way combined with raising positive expectations seems to lead to the most favorable effects on patients' state anxiety and outcome expectancies. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Selective Manipulation of Neural Circuits.

    PubMed

    Park, Hong Geun; Carmel, Jason B

    2016-04-01

    Unraveling the complex network of neural circuits that form the nervous system demands tools that can manipulate specific circuits. The recent evolution of genetic tools to target neural circuits allows an unprecedented precision in elucidating their function. Here we describe two general approaches for achieving circuit specificity. The first uses the genetic identity of a cell, such as a transcription factor unique to a circuit, to drive expression of a molecule that can manipulate cell function. The second uses the spatial connectivity of a circuit to achieve specificity: one genetic element is introduced at the origin of a circuit and the other at its termination. When the two genetic elements combine within a neuron, they can alter its function. These two general approaches can be combined to allow manipulation of neurons with a specific genetic identity by introducing a regulatory gene into the origin or termination of the circuit. We consider the advantages and disadvantages of both these general approaches with regard to specificity and efficacy of the manipulations. We also review the genetic techniques that allow gain- and loss-of-function within specific neural circuits. These approaches introduce light-sensitive channels (optogenetic) or drug sensitive channels (chemogenetic) into neurons that form specific circuits. We compare these tools with others developed for circuit-specific manipulation and describe the advantages of each. Finally, we discuss how these tools might be applied for identification of the neural circuits that mediate behavior and for repair of neural connections.

  4. Mobile camera-space manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seelinger, Michael J. (Inventor); Yoder, John-David S. (Inventor); Skaar, Steven B. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The invention is a method of using computer vision to control systems consisting of a combination of holonomic and nonholonomic degrees of freedom such as a wheeled rover equipped with a robotic arm, a forklift, and earth-moving equipment such as a backhoe or a front-loader. Using vision sensors mounted on the mobile system and the manipulator, the system establishes a relationship between the internal joint configuration of the holonomic degrees of freedom of the manipulator and the appearance of features on the manipulator in the reference frames of the vision sensors. Then, the system, perhaps with the assistance of an operator, identifies the locations of the target object in the reference frames of the vision sensors. Using this target information, along with the relationship described above, the system determines a suitable trajectory for the nonholonomic degrees of freedom of the base to follow towards the target object. The system also determines a suitable pose or series of poses for the holonomic degrees of freedom of the manipulator. With additional visual samples, the system automatically updates the trajectory and final pose of the manipulator so as to allow for greater precision in the overall final position of the system.

  5. High precision redundant robotic manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Young, Kar-Keung David

    1998-01-01

    A high precision redundant robotic manipulator for overcoming contents imposed by obstacles or imposed by a highly congested work space. One embodiment of the manipulator has four degrees of freedom and another embodiment has seven degreed of freedom. Each of the embodiments utilize a first selective compliant assembly robot arm (SCARA) configuration to provide high stiffness in the vertical plane, a second SCARA configuration to provide high stiffness in the horizontal plane. The seven degree of freedom embodiment also utilizes kinematic redundancy to provide the capability of avoiding obstacles that lie between the base of the manipulator and the end effector or link of the manipulator. These additional three degrees of freedom are added at the wrist link of the manipulator to provide pitch, yaw and roll. The seven degrees of freedom embodiment uses one revolute point per degree of freedom. For each of the revolute joints, a harmonic gear coupled to an electric motor is introduced, and together with properly designed based servo controllers provide an end point repeatability of less than 10 microns.

  6. High precision redundant robotic manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Young, K.K.D.

    1998-09-22

    A high precision redundant robotic manipulator for overcoming contents imposed by obstacles or imposed by a highly congested work space is disclosed. One embodiment of the manipulator has four degrees of freedom and another embodiment has seven degrees of freedom. Each of the embodiments utilize a first selective compliant assembly robot arm (SCARA) configuration to provide high stiffness in the vertical plane, a second SCARA configuration to provide high stiffness in the horizontal plane. The seven degree of freedom embodiment also utilizes kinematic redundancy to provide the capability of avoiding obstacles that lie between the base of the manipulator and the end effector or link of the manipulator. These additional three degrees of freedom are added at the wrist link of the manipulator to provide pitch, yaw and roll. The seven degrees of freedom embodiment uses one revolute point per degree of freedom. For each of the revolute joints, a harmonic gear coupled to an electric motor is introduced, and together with properly designed based servo controllers provide an end point repeatability of less than 10 microns. 3 figs.

  7. The effectiveness of airline pilot training for abnormal events.

    PubMed

    Casner, Stephen M; Geven, Richard W; Williams, Kent T

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of airline pilot training for abnormal in-flight events. Numerous accident reports describe situations in which pilots responded to abnormal events in ways that were different from what they had practiced many times before. One explanation for these missteps is that training and testing for these skills have become a highly predictable routine for pilots who arrive to the training environment well aware of what to expect. Under these circumstances, pilots get plentiful practice in responding to abnormal events but may get little practice in recognizing them and deciding which responses to offer. We presented 18 airline pilots with three abnormal events that are required during periodic training and testing. Pilots were presented with each event under the familiar circumstances used during training and also under less predictable circumstances as they might occur during flight. When presented in the routine ways seen during training, pilots gave appropriate responses and showed little variability. However, when the abnormal events were presented unexpectedly, pilots' responses were less appropriate and showed great variability from pilot to pilot. The results suggest that the training and testing practices used in airline training may result in rote-memorized skills that are specific to the training situation and that offer modest generalizability to other situations. We recommend a more complete treatment of abnormal events that allows pilots to practice recognizing the event and choosing and recalling the appropriate response. The results will aid the improvement of existing airline training practices.

  8. The Role and Interpretation of Pilot Studies in Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Andrew C.; Davis, Lori L.; Kraemer, Helena C.

    2010-01-01

    Pilot studies represent a fundamental phase of the research process. The purpose of conducting a pilot study is to examine the feasibility of an approach that is intended to be used in a larger scale study. The roles and limitations of pilot studies are described here using a clinical trial as an example. A pilot study can be used to evaluate the feasibility of recruitment, randomization, retention, assessment procedures, new methods, and implementation of the novel intervention. A pilot study is not a hypothesis testing study. Safety, efficacy and effectiveness are not evaluated in a pilot. Contrary to tradition, a pilot study does not provide a meaningful effect size estimate for planning subsequent studies due to the imprecision inherent in data from small samples. Feasibility results do not necessarily generalize beyond the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the pilot design. A pilot study is a requisite initial step in exploring a novel intervention or an innovative application of an intervention. Pilot results can inform feasibility and identify modifications needed in the design of a larger, ensuing hypothesis testing study. Investigators should be forthright in stating these objectives of a pilot study. Grant reviewers and other stakeholders should expect no more. PMID:21035130

  9. Thermophoretic manipulation of DNA translocation through nanopores.

    PubMed

    He, Yuhui; Tsutsui, Makusu; Scheicher, Ralph H; Bai, Fan; Taniguchi, Masateru; Kawai, Tomoji

    2013-01-22

    Manipulating DNA translocation through nanopore is one crucial requirement for new ultrafast sequencing methods in the sense that the polymers have to be denatured, unraveled, and then propelled through the pore with very low speed. Here we propose and theoretically explore a novel design to fulfill the demands by utilizing cross-pore thermal gradient. The high temperature in the cis reservoir is expected to transform double-stranded DNA into single strands and that temperature would also prevent those single strands from intrastrand base-pairing, thus, achieving favorable polymer conformation for the subsequent translocation and sequencing. Then, the substantial temperature drop across the pore caused by the thermal-insulating membrane separating cis and trans chambers would stimulate thermophoresis of the molecules through nanopores. Our theoretical evaluation shows that the DNA translocation speeds will be orders smaller than the electrophoretic counterpart, while high capture rate of DNA into nanopore is maintained, both of which would greatly benefit the sequencing.

  10. Learning Area and Perimeter with Virtual Manipulatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouck, Emily; Flanagan, Sara; Bouck, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Manipulatives are considered a best practice for educating students with disabilities, but little research exists which examines virtual manipulatives as tool for supporting students in mathematics. This project investigated the use of a virtual manipulative through the National Library of Virtual Manipulatives--polynominoes (i.e., tiles)--as a…

  11. Learning Area and Perimeter with Virtual Manipulatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouck, Emily; Flanagan, Sara; Bouck, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Manipulatives are considered a best practice for educating students with disabilities, but little research exists which examines virtual manipulatives as tool for supporting students in mathematics. This project investigated the use of a virtual manipulative through the National Library of Virtual Manipulatives--polynominoes (i.e., tiles)--as a…

  12. Manipulation strategies for massive space payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Book, Wayne J.

    1991-01-01

    Motion planning and control for the joints of flexible manipulators are discussed. Specific topics covered include control of a flexible braced manipulator, control of a small working robot on a large flexible manipulator to suppress vibrations, control strategies for ensuring cooperation among disparate manipulators, and motion planning for robots in free-fall.

  13. Mapping and manipulating facial expression.

    PubMed

    Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R; Brick, Timothy R; Cohn, Jeffrey F; Boker, Steven M

    2009-01-01

    Nonverbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this article we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and nonverbal facial gestures in video sequences of people engaged in conversation. We are developing a system for use in psychological experiments, where the effects of manipulating individual components of nonverbal visual behavior during live face-to-face conversation can be studied. In particular, the techniques we describe operate in real-time at video frame-rate and the manipulation can be applied so both participants in a conversation are kept blind to the experimental conditions.

  14. Mapping and Manipulating Facial Expression

    PubMed Central

    Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Brick, Timothy R.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Boker, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Non-verbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this paper we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and non-verbal facial gestures in video sequences of people engaged in conversation. We are developing a system for use in psychological experiments, where the effects of manipulating individual components of non-verbal visual behaviour during live face-to-face conversation can be studied. In particular, the techniques we describe operate in real-time at video frame-rate and the manipulation can be applied so both participants in a conversation are kept blind to the experimental conditions. PMID:19624037

  15. Manipulating complex light with metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jinwei; Wang, Xi; Sun, Jingbo; Pandey, Apra; Cartwright, Alexander N; Litchinitser, Natalia M

    2013-10-02

    Recent developments in the field of metamaterials have revealed unparalleled opportunities for "engineering" space for light propagation; opening a new paradigm in spin- and quantum-related phenomena in optical physics. Here we show that unique optical properties of metamaterials (MMs) open unlimited prospects to "engineer" light itself. We propose and demonstrate for the first time a novel way of complex light manipulation in few-mode optical fibers using optical MMs. Most importantly, these studies highlight how unique properties of MMs, namely the ability to manipulate both electric and magnetic field components of electromagnetic (EM) waves, open new degrees of freedom in engineering complex polarization states of light at will, while preserving its orbital angular momentum (OAM) state. These results lay the first steps in manipulating complex light in optical fibers, likely providing new opportunities for high capacity communication systems, quantum information, and on-chip signal processing.

  16. The biomechanics of spinal manipulation.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Walter

    2010-07-01

    Biomechanics is the science that deals with the external and internal forces acting on biological systems and the effects produced by these forces. Here, we describe the forces exerted by chiropractors on patients during high-speed, low-amplitude manipulations of the spine and the physiological responses produced by the treatments. The external forces were found to vary greatly among clinicians and locations of treatment on the spine. Spinal manipulative treatments produced reflex responses far from the treatment site, caused movements of vertebral bodies in the "para-physiological" zone, and were associated with cavitation of facet joints. Stresses and strains on the vertebral artery during chiropractic spinal manipulation of the neck were always much smaller than those produced during passive range of motion testing and diagnostic procedures.

  17. Manipulating Complex Light with Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jinwei; Wang, Xi; Sun, Jingbo; Pandey, Apra; Cartwright, Alexander N.; Litchinitser, Natalia M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of metamaterials have revealed unparalleled opportunities for “engineering” space for light propagation; opening a new paradigm in spin- and quantum-related phenomena in optical physics. Here we show that unique optical properties of metamaterials (MMs) open unlimited prospects to “engineer” light itself. We propose and demonstrate for the first time a novel way of complex light manipulation in few-mode optical fibers using optical MMs. Most importantly, these studies highlight how unique properties of MMs, namely the ability to manipulate both electric and magnetic field components of electromagnetic (EM) waves, open new degrees of freedom in engineering complex polarization states of light at will, while preserving its orbital angular momentum (OAM) state. These results lay the first steps in manipulating complex light in optical fibers, likely providing new opportunities for high capacity communication systems, quantum information, and on-chip signal processing. PMID:24084836

  18. A novel manipulator technology for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Donald; Khosia, Pradeep; Kanade, Takeo

    1988-01-01

    Modular manipulator designs have long been considered for use as research tools, and as the basis for easily modified industrial manipulators. In these manipulators the links and joints are discrete and modular components that can be assembled into a desired manipulator configuration. As hardware advances have made actual modular manipulators practical, various capabilities of such manipulators have gained interest. Particularly desirable is the ability to rapidly reconfigure such a manipulator, in order to custom tailor it to specific tasks. The reconfiguration greatly enhances the capability of a given amount of manipulator hardware. The development of a prototype modular manipulator is discussed as well as the implementation of a configuration independent manipulator kinematics algorithm used for path planning in the prototype.

  19. Understanding pharmaceutical research manipulation in the context of accounting manipulation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    The problem of the manipulation of data that arises when there is both opportunity and incentive to mislead is better accepted and studied - though by no means solved - in financial accounting than in medicine. This article analyzes pharmaceutical company manipulation of medical research as part of a broader problem of corporate manipulation of data in the creation of accounting profits. The article explores how our understanding of accounting fraud and misinformation helps us understand the risk of similar information manipulation in the medical sciences. This understanding provides a framework for considering how best to improve the quality of medical research and analysis in light of the current system of medical information production. I offer three possible responses: (1) use of the Dodd-Frank whistleblower provisions to encourage reporting of medical research fraud; (2) a two-step academic journal review process for clinical trials; and (3) publicly subsidized trial-failure insurance. These would improve the release of negative information about drugs, thereby increasing the reliability of positive information. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  20. Sociology of Low Expectations

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Gabrielle; Williams, Clare

    2015-01-01

    Social scientists have drawn attention to the role of hype and optimistic visions of the future in providing momentum to biomedical innovation projects by encouraging innovation alliances. In this article, we show how less optimistic, uncertain, and modest visions of the future can also provide innovation projects with momentum. Scholars have highlighted the need for clinicians to carefully manage the expectations of their prospective patients. Using the example of a pioneering clinical team providing deep brain stimulation to children and young people with movement disorders, we show how clinicians confront this requirement by drawing on their professional knowledge and clinical expertise to construct visions of the future with their prospective patients; visions which are personalized, modest, and tainted with uncertainty. We refer to this vision-constructing work as recalibration, and we argue that recalibration enables clinicians to manage the tension between the highly optimistic and hyped visions of the future that surround novel biomedical interventions, and the exigencies of delivering those interventions in a clinical setting. Drawing on work from science and technology studies, we suggest that recalibration enrolls patients in an innovation alliance by creating a shared understanding of how the “effectiveness” of an innovation shall be judged. PMID:26527846

  1. Expectations and speech intelligibility.

    PubMed

    Babel, Molly; Russell, Jamie

    2015-05-01

    Socio-indexical cues and paralinguistic information are often beneficial to speech processing as this information assists listeners in parsing the speech stream. Associations that particular populations speak in a certain speech style can, however, make it such that socio-indexical cues have a cost. In this study, native speakers of Canadian English who identify as Chinese Canadian and White Canadian read sentences that were presented to listeners in noise. Half of the sentences were presented with a visual-prime in the form of a photo of the speaker and half were presented in control trials with fixation crosses. Sentences produced by Chinese Canadians showed an intelligibility cost in the face-prime condition, whereas sentences produced by White Canadians did not. In an accentedness rating task, listeners rated White Canadians as less accented in the face-prime trials, but Chinese Canadians showed no such change in perceived accentedness. These results suggest a misalignment between an expected and an observed speech signal for the face-prime trials, which indicates that social information about a speaker can trigger linguistic associations that come with processing benefits and costs.

  2. Glioblastoma: changing expectations?

    PubMed

    Arribas Alpuente, Leoncio; Menéndez López, Antonio; Yayá Tur, Ricardo

    2011-04-01

    Glioblastoma (GB) represents the most aggressive glioma in the adult population. Despite recent research efforts, the prognosis of patients with GB has remained dismal. Lately, the knowledge of genetic information about gliomagenesis has increased; we even have a classification of the genetic expression of the tumour. The main problem is that at the moment we do not have any therapeutical resources to help us better treat these tumours, as we can do, with others tumours like breast, lung and colorectal cancer. We have also improved on diagnostic imaging, especially with the new MRI sequences; we can now better define the characteristics of the tumour area and the surrounding brain structures, allowing us to adjust resections. Thanks to the most advanced surgery techniques, such as neuronavigation, intraoperative control of the nervous function and the tumour volume, the neurosurgeon is able to complete tumour exeresis with less morbidity. These imaging techniques allow the radiation oncologist to better contour the irradiation target volume, the structures and the organs at risk, to diminish the irradiation of apparently healthy tissue. Nowadays, knowledge of brain stem cells provides new expectations for future treatments. Novel targeted agents such as bevacizumab, imatinib, erlotinib, temsirolimus, immunotherapy, cilengitide, talampanel, etc. are helping classical chemotherapeutic agents, like temozolomide, to achieve an increase in overall survival. The main objective is to improve median overall survival, which is currently between 9 and 12 months, with a good quality of life, measured by the ability to carry out daily life activities.

  3. New standard exceeds expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, M.J. )

    1993-08-01

    The new ASTM environmental due diligence standard is delivering far more than expected when it was conceived in 1990. Its use goes well beyond the relatively narrow legal liability protection that was the primary goal in its development. The real estate industry, spearheaded by the lending community, was preoccupied with environmental risk and liability. Lenders throughout the concept's evolution have been at the forefront in defining environmental due diligence. The lender liability rule is intended to protect property owners from CERCLA liability for property they own or companies they manage (for example, as a result of foreclosure). The new site assessment standard increasingly is considered a benchmark for prudent environmental due diligence in the interest of risk management, not legal liability. The focus on risk management, including collateral devaluation and corporate credit risk, are becoming dominant areas of policy focus in the lending industry. Lenders now are revising their policies to incorporate transactions beyond issues of real estate, in which a company's economic viability and ability to service debt could be impacted by an environmental problem unrelated to property transfers.

  4. Precision Manipulation with Cooperative Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroupe, Ashley; Huntsberger, Terry; Okon, Avi; Aghzarian, Hrand

    2005-01-01

    This work addresses several challenges of cooperative transportThis work addresses several challenges of cooperative transport and precision manipulation. Precision manipulation requires a rigid grasp, which places a hard constraint on the relative rover formation that must be accommodated, even though the rovers cannot directly observe their relative poses. Additionally, rovers must jointly select appropriate actions based on all available sensor information. Lastly, rovers cannot act on independent sensor information, but must fuse information to move jointly; the methods for fusing information must be determined.

  5. Precision Manipulation with Cooperative Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroupe, Ashley; Huntsberger, Terry; Okon, Avi; Aghzarian, Hrand

    2005-01-01

    This work addresses several challenges of cooperative transportThis work addresses several challenges of cooperative transport and precision manipulation. Precision manipulation requires a rigid grasp, which places a hard constraint on the relative rover formation that must be accommodated, even though the rovers cannot directly observe their relative poses. Additionally, rovers must jointly select appropriate actions based on all available sensor information. Lastly, rovers cannot act on independent sensor information, but must fuse information to move jointly; the methods for fusing information must be determined.

  6. Beyond Control Panels: Direct Manipulation for Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Endert, Alexander; Bradel, Lauren; North, Chris

    2013-07-19

    Information Visualization strives to provide visual representations through which users can think about and gain insight into information. By leveraging the visual and cognitive systems of humans, complex relationships and phenomena occurring within datasets can be uncovered by exploring information visually. Interaction metaphors for such visualizations are designed to enable users direct control over the filters, queries, and other parameters controlling how the data is visually represented. Through the evolution of information visualization, more complex mathematical and data analytic models are being used to visualize relationships and patterns in data – creating the field of Visual Analytics. However, the expectations for how users interact with these visualizations has remained largely unchanged – focused primarily on the direct manipulation of parameters of the underlying mathematical models. In this article we present an opportunity to evolve the methodology for user interaction from the direct manipulation of parameters through visual control panels, to interactions designed specifically for visual analytic systems. Instead of focusing on traditional direct manipulation of mathematical parameters, the evolution of the field can be realized through direct manipulation within the visual representation – where users can not only gain insight, but also interact. This article describes future directions and research challenges that fundamentally change the meaning of direct manipulation with regards to visual analytics, advancing the Science of Interaction.

  7. Direct model reference adaptive control of a flexible robotic manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meldrum, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Quick, precise control of a flexible manipulator in a space environment is essential for future Space Station repair and satellite servicing. Numerous control algorithms have proven successful in controlling rigid manipulators wih colocated sensors and actuators; however, few have been tested on a flexible manipulator with noncolocated sensors and actuators. In this thesis, a model reference adaptive control (MRAC) scheme based on command generator tracker theory is designed for a flexible manipulator. Quicker, more precise tracking results are expected over nonadaptive control laws for this MRAC approach. Equations of motion in modal coordinates are derived for a single-link, flexible manipulator with an actuator at the pinned-end and a sensor at the free end. An MRAC is designed with the objective of controlling the torquing actuator so that the tip position follows a trajectory that is prescribed by the reference model. An appealing feature of this direct MRAC law is that it allows the reference model to have fewer states than the plant itself. Direct adaptive control also adjusts the controller parameters directly with knowledge of only the plant output and input signals.

  8. Expectancy models of alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Stacy, A W; Widaman, K F; Marlatt, G A

    1990-05-01

    The primary goal of the present article is to compare expectancy models with competing attitude models of alcohol use. First, several methodological issues in expectancy research were addressed, to more adequately compare the theoretical models. Study 1 examined the effect of possible self-report biases on associations among expectancy constructs and alcohol use. In Studies 2 and 3, the basic distinction between general factors of positive and negative alcohol expectancies was investigated in both cross-sectional and prospective models. Alternative predictions that were based on competing expectancy and attitude theories were evaluated primarily in Study 3. Results from these studies supported the validity of the expectancy constructs and the proposed distinctions among expectancy and attitude constructs-in terms of strong discriminant validity, absence of self-report bias, and differential prediction of alcohol use. Furthermore, the findings favored certain expectancy models over alternative attitude models of alcohol use, reaffirming the usefulness of the expectancy framework.

  9. The pilot climate data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reph, M. G.; Treinish, L. A.; Smith, P. H.

    1984-01-01

    The Pilot Climate Data System (PCDS) is an interactive scientific information management system for locating, obtaining, manipulating, and displaying climate-research data. The PCDS was developed to manage a large collection of data of interest to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) research community and currently provides such support for approximately twenty data sets. In order to provide the PCDS capabilities, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC) has integrated the capabilities of several general-purpose software packages with specialized software for reading and reformatting the supported data sets. These capabilities were integrated in a manner which allows the PCDS to be easily expanded, either to provide support for additional data sets or to provide additional functional capabilities. This also allows the PCDS to take advantage of new technology as it becomes available, since parts of the system can be replaced with more powerful components without significantly affecting the user interface.

  10. Ants: the supreme soil manipulators

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This review focuses on the semiochemical interactions between ants and their soil environment. Ants occupy virtually every ecological niche and have evolved mechanisms to not just cope with, but also manipulate soil organisms. The metapleural gland, specific to ants was thought to be the major sourc...

  11. Mapping and Manipulating Facial Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Brick, Timothy R.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Boker, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Nonverbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this article we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and nonverbal facial…

  12. Manipulations to regenerate aspen ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Wayne D. Shepperd

    2001-01-01

    Vegetative regeneration of aspen can be initiated through manipulations that provide hormonal stimulation, proper growth environment, and sucker protection - the three elements of the aspen regeneration triangle. The correct course of action depends upon a careful evaluation of the size, vigor, age, and successional status of the existing clone. Soils and site...

  13. Teaching Integration Applications Using Manipulatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Kavita; Premadasa, Kirthi; Martin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Calculus students' difficulties in understanding integration have been extensively studied. Research shows that the difficulty lies with students understanding of the definition of the definite integral as a limit of a Riemann sum and with the idea of accumulation inherent in integration. We have created a set of manipulatives and activities…

  14. Manipulating Genetic Material in Bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Lisa Crawford, a graduate research assistant from the University of Toledo, works with Laurel Karr of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in the molecular biology laboratory. They are donducting genetic manipulation of bacteria and yeast for the production of large amount of desired protein. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  15. Data manipulation in heterogeneous databases

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, A.; Segev, A.

    1991-10-01

    Many important information systems applications require access to data stored in multiple heterogeneous databases. This paper examines a problem in inter-database data manipulation within a heterogeneous environment, where conventional techniques are no longer useful. To solve the problem, a broader definition for join operator is proposed. Also, a method to probabilistically estimate the accuracy of the join is discussed.

  16. Manipulating Genetic Material in Bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Lisa Crawford, a graduate research assistant from the University of Toledo, works with Laurel Karr of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in the molecular biology laboratory. They are donducting genetic manipulation of bacteria and yeast for the production of large amount of desired protein. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  17. Optical manipulation of valley pseudospin

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Ziliang; Sun, Dezheng; Heinz, Tony F.

    2016-09-19

    The coherent manipulation of spin and pseudospin underlies existing and emerging quantum technologies, including quantum communication and quantum computation. Valley polarization, associated with the occupancy of degenerate, but quantum mechanically distinct valleys in momentum space, closely resembles spin polarization and has been proposed as a pseudospin carrier for the future quantum electronics. Valley exciton polarization has been created in the transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers using excitation by circularly polarized light and has been detected both optically and electrically. In addition, the existence of coherence in the valley pseudospin has been identified experimentally. The manipulation of such valley coherence has, however, remained out of reach. In this paper, we demonstrate all-optical control of the valley coherence by means of the pseudomagnetic field associated with the optical Stark effect. Using below-bandgap circularly polarized light, we rotate the valley exciton pseudospin in monolayer WSe2 on the femtosecond timescale. Both the direction and speed of the rotation can be manipulated optically by tuning the dynamic phase of excitons in opposite valleys. Finally, this study unveils the possibility of generation, manipulation, and detection of the valley pseudospin by coupling to photons.

  18. Master/slave manipulator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vykukal, H. C.; King, R. F.; Vallotton, W. C.

    1973-01-01

    System capabilities are equivalent to mobility, dexterity, and strength of human arm. Arrangement of torque motor, harmonic drive, and potentiometer combination allows all power and control leads to pass through center of slave with position-transducer arrangement of master, and "stovepipe joint" is incorporated for manipulator applications.

  19. Mapping and Manipulating Facial Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Brick, Timothy R.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Boker, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Nonverbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this article we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and nonverbal facial…

  20. Optical manipulation of valley pseudospin

    DOE PAGES

    Ye, Ziliang; Sun, Dezheng; Heinz, Tony F.

    2016-09-19

    The coherent manipulation of spin and pseudospin underlies existing and emerging quantum technologies, including quantum communication and quantum computation. Valley polarization, associated with the occupancy of degenerate, but quantum mechanically distinct valleys in momentum space, closely resembles spin polarization and has been proposed as a pseudospin carrier for the future quantum electronics. Valley exciton polarization has been created in the transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers using excitation by circularly polarized light and has been detected both optically and electrically. In addition, the existence of coherence in the valley pseudospin has been identified experimentally. The manipulation of such valley coherence has, however,more » remained out of reach. In this paper, we demonstrate all-optical control of the valley coherence by means of the pseudomagnetic field associated with the optical Stark effect. Using below-bandgap circularly polarized light, we rotate the valley exciton pseudospin in monolayer WSe2 on the femtosecond timescale. Both the direction and speed of the rotation can be manipulated optically by tuning the dynamic phase of excitons in opposite valleys. Finally, this study unveils the possibility of generation, manipulation, and detection of the valley pseudospin by coupling to photons.« less

  1. Optical manipulation of valley pseudospin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Ziliang; Sun, Dezheng; Heinz, Tony F.

    2017-01-01

    The coherent manipulation of spin and pseudospin underlies existing and emerging quantum technologies, including quantum communication and quantum computation. Valley polarization, associated with the occupancy of degenerate, but quantum mechanically distinct valleys in momentum space, closely resembles spin polarization and has been proposed as a pseudospin carrier for the future quantum electronics. Valley exciton polarization has been created in the transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers using excitation by circularly polarized light and has been detected both optically and electrically. In addition, the existence of coherence in the valley pseudospin has been identified experimentally. The manipulation of such valley coherence has, however, remained out of reach. Here we demonstrate all-optical control of the valley coherence by means of the pseudomagnetic field associated with the optical Stark effect. Using below-bandgap circularly polarized light, we rotate the valley exciton pseudospin in monolayer WSe2 on the femtosecond timescale. Both the direction and speed of the rotation can be manipulated optically by tuning the dynamic phase of excitons in opposite valleys. This study unveils the possibility of generation, manipulation, and detection of the valley pseudospin by coupling to photons.

  2. Adaptive Control Of Remote Manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun

    1989-01-01

    Robotic control system causes remote manipulator to follow closely reference trajectory in Cartesian reference frame in work space, without resort to computationally intensive mathematical model of robot dynamics and without knowledge of robot and load parameters. System, derived from linear multivariable theory, uses relatively simple feedforward and feedback controllers with model-reference adaptive control.

  3. COGNITION, ACTION, AND OBJECT MANIPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Weigelt, Matthias; Weiss, Daniel J.; van der Wel, Robrecht

    2012-01-01

    Although psychology is the science of mental life and behavior, it has paid little attention to the means by which mental life is translated into behavior. One domain where links between cognition and action have been explored is the manipulation of objects. This article reviews psychological research on this topic, with special emphasis on the tendency to grasp objects differently depending on what one plans to do with the objects. Such differential grasping has been demonstrated in a wide range of object manipulation tasks, including grasping an object in a way that reveals anticipation of the object's future orientation, height, and required placement precision. Differential grasping has also been demonstrated in a wide range of behaviors, including one-hand grasps, two-hand grasps, walking, and transferring objects from place to place as well as from person to person. The populations in whom the tendency has been shown are also diverse, including nonhuman primates as well as human adults, children, and babies. Meanwhile, the tendency is compromised in a variety of clinical populations and in children of a surprisingly advanced age. Verbal working memory is compromised as well if words are memorized while object manipulation tasks are performed; the recency portion of the serial position curve is reduced in this circumstance. In general, the research reviewed here points to rich connections between cognition and action as revealed through the study of object manipulation. Other implications concern affordances, Donders' Law, and naturalistic observation and the teaching of psychology. PMID:22448912

  4. Teaching Integration Applications Using Manipulatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Kavita; Premadasa, Kirthi; Martin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Calculus students' difficulties in understanding integration have been extensively studied. Research shows that the difficulty lies with students understanding of the definition of the definite integral as a limit of a Riemann sum and with the idea of accumulation inherent in integration. We have created a set of manipulatives and activities…

  5. Placebo expectations and the detection of somatic information

    PubMed Central

    Wellman, Justin A.; Fowler, Stephanie L.; Rasinski, Heather M.; Helfer, Suzanne G.

    2011-01-01

    In a laboratory study we examined the hypothesis that placebo expectations enhance the initial identification of placebo-relevant sensations over placebo-irrelevant sensations. Participants (N = 102) were randomly assigned to one of three expectation groups. In the first group, participants ingested a placebo capsule and were told it was caffeine (deceptive expectation). In a second group, participants ingested a placebo capsule and were told it may be caffeine or it may be a placebo (double-blind expectation). Participants in the third group were given no expectation. All participants then tallied the placebo-relevant and placebo-irrelevant sensations they experienced during a 7-min period. Participants in the deceptive expectation group identified more placebo-relevant sensations than placebo-irrelevant sensations. No-expectation participants identified more placebo-irrelevant sensations than placebo-relevant sensations. Participants given the double-blind expectation identified an equal amount of placebo-relevant and irrelevant sensations. The amount of both placebo-relevant and placebo-irrelevant sensations detected mediated the relationship between the expectation manipulation and subsequent symptom reports. These data support the position that expectations cause placebo responding, in part, by altering how one identifies bodily sensations. PMID:21046445

  6. MODULAR MANIPULATOR FOR ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph W. Geisinger, Ph.D.

    2001-07-31

    ARM Automation, Inc. is developing a framework of modular actuators that can address the DOE's wide range of robotics needs. The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology by constructing a manipulator from these actuators within a glovebox for Automated Plutonium Processing (APP). At the end of the project, the system of actuators was used to construct several different manipulator configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as repackaging. The modular nature and quickconnects of this system simplify installation into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. This work focused on the development of self-contained robotic actuator modules including the embedded electronic controls for the purpose of building a manipulator system. Both of the actuators developed under this project contain the control electronics, sensors, motor, gear train, wiring, system communications and mechanical interfaces of a complete robotics servo device. Test actuators and accompanying DISC{trademark}s underwent validation testing at The University of Texas at Austin and ARM Automation, Inc. following final design and fabrication. The system also included custom links, an umbilical cord, an open architecture PC-based system controller, and operational software that permitted integration into a completely functional robotic manipulator system. The open architecture on which this system is based avoids proprietary interfaces and communication protocols which only serve to limit the capabilities and flexibility of automation equipment. The system was integrated and tested in the contractor's facility for intended performance and operations. The manipulator was tested using the full-scale equipment and process mock-ups. The project produced a practical and operational system including a quantitative evaluation of its performance and cost.

  7. Diversity and evolution of bodyguard manipulation.

    PubMed

    Maure, Fanny; Daoust, Simon Payette; Brodeur, Jacques; Mitta, Guillaume; Thomas, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Among the different strategies used by parasites to usurp the behaviour of their host, one of the most fascinating is bodyguard manipulation. While all classic examples of bodyguard manipulation involve insect parasitoids, induced protective behaviours have also evolved in other parasite-host systems, typically as specific dimensions of the total manipulation. For instance, parasites may manipulate the host to reduce host mortality during their development or to avoid predation by non-host predators. This type of host manipulation behaviour is rarely described, probably due to the fact that studies have mainly focused on predation enhancement rather than studying all the dimensions of the manipulation. Here, in addition to the classic cases of bodyguard manipulation, we also review these 'bodyguard dimensions' and propose extending the current definition of bodyguard manipulation to include the latter. We also discuss different evolutionary scenarios under which such manipulations could have evolved.

  8. Computer simulation of a pilot in V/STOL aircraft control loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, William G.; Mickle, Marlin H.; Zipf, Mark E.; Kucuk, Senol

    1989-01-01

    The objective was to develop a computerized adaptive pilot model for the computer model of the research aircraft, the Harrier II AV-8B V/STOL with special emphasis on propulsion control. In fact, two versions of the adaptive pilot are given. The first, simply called the Adaptive Control Model (ACM) of a pilot includes a parameter estimation algorithm for the parameters of the aircraft and an adaption scheme based on the root locus of the poles of the pilot controlled aircraft. The second, called the Optimal Control Model of the pilot (OCM), includes an adaption algorithm and an optimal control algorithm. These computer simulations were developed as a part of the ongoing research program in pilot model simulation supported by NASA Lewis from April 1, 1985 to August 30, 1986 under NASA Grant NAG 3-606 and from September 1, 1986 through November 30, 1988 under NASA Grant NAG 3-729. Once installed, these pilot models permitted the computer simulation of the pilot model to close all of the control loops normally closed by a pilot actually manipulating the control variables. The current version of this has permitted a baseline comparison of various qualitative and quantitative performance indices for propulsion control, the control loops and the work load on the pilot. Actual data for an aircraft flown by a human pilot furnished by NASA was compared to the outputs furnished by the computerized pilot and found to be favorable.

  9. A theoretical basis for maintenance spinal manipulative therapy for the chiropractic profession

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, David N.

    2011-01-01

    Object The purpose of this article is to discuss a theoretical basis for wellness chiropractic manipulative care and to develop a hypothesis for further investigation. Methods A search of PubMed and of the Manual, Alternative, and Natural Therapy Index System was performed with a combination of key words: chiropractic, maintenance and wellness care, maintenance manipulative care, preventive spinal manipulation, hypomobility, immobility, adhesions, joint degeneration, and neuronal degeneration. Articles were collected, and trends were identified. Results The search revealed surveys of doctors and patients, an initial clinical pilot study, randomized control trials, and laboratory studies that provided correlative information to provide a framework for development of a hypothesis for the basis of maintenance spinal manipulative therapy. Maintenance care optimizes the levels of function and provides a process of achieving the best possible health. It is proposed that this may be accomplished by including chiropractic manipulative therapy in addition to exercise therapy, diet and nutritional counseling, and lifestyle coaching. Conclusions It is hypothesized that because spinal manipulative therapy brings a joint to the end of the paraphysiological joint space to encourage normal range of motion, routine manipulation of asymptomatic patients may retard the progression of joint degeneration, neuronal changes, changes in muscular strength, and recruitment patterns, which may result in improved function, decreased episodes of injuries, and improved sense of well-being. PMID:22693482

  10. A theoretical basis for maintenance spinal manipulative therapy for the chiropractic profession.

    PubMed

    Taylor, David N

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss a theoretical basis for wellness chiropractic manipulative care and to develop a hypothesis for further investigation. A SEARCH OF PUBMED AND OF THE MANUAL, ALTERNATIVE, AND NATURAL THERAPY INDEX SYSTEM WAS PERFORMED WITH A COMBINATION OF KEY WORDS: chiropractic, maintenance and wellness care, maintenance manipulative care, preventive spinal manipulation, hypomobility, immobility, adhesions, joint degeneration, and neuronal degeneration. Articles were collected, and trends were identified. The search revealed surveys of doctors and patients, an initial clinical pilot study, randomized control trials, and laboratory studies that provided correlative information to provide a framework for development of a hypothesis for the basis of maintenance spinal manipulative therapy. Maintenance care optimizes the levels of function and provides a process of achieving the best possible health. It is proposed that this may be accomplished by including chiropractic manipulative therapy in addition to exercise therapy, diet and nutritional counseling, and lifestyle coaching. It is hypothesized that because spinal manipulative therapy brings a joint to the end of the paraphysiological joint space to encourage normal range of motion, routine manipulation of asymptomatic patients may retard the progression of joint degeneration, neuronal changes, changes in muscular strength, and recruitment patterns, which may result in improved function, decreased episodes of injuries, and improved sense of well-being.

  11. Graded Expectations: Predictive Processing and the Adjustment of Expectations during Spoken Language Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Boudewyn, Megan A.; Long, Debra L.; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the use of local and global context to incoming words during listening comprehension. Local context was manipulated by presenting a target noun (e.g., cake, veggies) that was preceded by a word that described a prototypical or atypical feature of the noun (e.g., sweet, healthy). Global context was manipulated by presenting the noun in a scenario that was consistent or inconsistent with the critical noun (e.g., a birthday party). ERPs were examined at the feature word and at the critical noun. An N400 effect was found at the feature word reflecting the effect of compatibility with the global context. Global predictability and local feature-word consistency interacted at the critical noun: a larger N200 was found to nouns that mismatched predictions when the context was maximally constraining, relative to nouns in the other conditions. A graded N400 response was observed at the critical noun, modulated by global predictability and feature consistency. Finally, PNP effects of context-updating were observed to nouns supported by one contextual cue (global/local), but unsupported by the other. These results indicate (1) incoming words that are compatible with context-based expectations receive a processing benefit; (2) when the context is sufficiently constraining, specific lexical items may be activated; and (3) listeners dynamically adjust their expectations when input is inconsistent with their predictions, provided that the inconsistency has some level of support from either global or local context. PMID:25673006

  12. Position control of robot manipulators manipulating a flexible payload

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, D.; Mills, J.K.; Liu, Y.

    1999-03-01

    Robotic manipulation of a flexible payload is a complex and challenging control problem. This paper demonstrates from both theoretical and experimental perspectives that through proper design of the control gains, the simple scheme of PD plus gravity compensation can control a flexible payload manipulated by multiple robots to a desired position/orientation while damping the vibrations of the payload at each contact. The suppression of the vibration at each contact is helpful to suppress all vibrations of the flexible body. If the payload has a large stiffness or small mass, the proposed scheme can regulate the deformations at the contacts to zero, and also, the offsets of all static deformations of the payload with reference to the original positions decay to zero. A clamped-free model is used to decompose the dynamics of the payload into two distinct dynamic subsystems. This allows them to treat these dynamic subsystems separately and prove that desired motion trajectories can be achieved with the proposed scheme. As an example, the experiment of manipulating a flexible sheet using two CRS A460 robots is further described.

  13. Measuring Alcohol Expectancies in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Karen A.; Gerend, Mary A.; Miller, Brenda A.

    2006-01-01

    Beliefs about the consequences of using alcohol, alcohol expectancies, are powerful predictors of underage drinking. The Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire-Adolescent form (AEQ-A) has been widely used to measure expectancies in youth. Despite its broad use, the factor structure of the AEQ-A has not been firmly established. It is also not known…

  14. Measuring Alcohol Expectancies in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Karen A.; Gerend, Mary A.; Miller, Brenda A.

    2006-01-01

    Beliefs about the consequences of using alcohol, alcohol expectancies, are powerful predictors of underage drinking. The Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire-Adolescent form (AEQ-A) has been widely used to measure expectancies in youth. Despite its broad use, the factor structure of the AEQ-A has not been firmly established. It is also not known…

  15. Investigating expectation effects using multiple physiological measures.

    PubMed

    Siller, Alexander; Ambach, Wolfgang; Vaitl, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed at experimentally investigating whether the human body can anticipate future events under improved methodological conditions. Previous studies have reported contradictory results for the phenomenon typically called presentiment. If the positive findings are accurate, they call into doubt our views about human perception, and if they are inaccurate, a plausible conventional explanation might be based on the experimental design of the previous studies, in which expectation due to item sequences was misinterpreted as presentiment. To address these points, we opted to collect several physiological variables, to test different randomization types and to manipulate subjective significance individually. For the latter, we combined a mock crime scenario, in which participants had to steal specific items, with a concealed information test (CIT), in which the participants had to conceal their knowledge when interrogated about items they had stolen or not stolen. We measured electrodermal activity, respiration, finger pulse, heart rate (HR), and reaction times. The participants (n = 154) were assigned randomly to four different groups. Items presented in the CIT were either drawn with replacement (full) or without replacement (pseudo) and were either presented category-wise (cat) or regardless of categories (nocat). To understand how these item sequences influence expectation and modulate physiological reactions, we compared the groups with respect to effect sizes for stolen vs. not stolen items. Group pseudo_cat yielded the highest effect sizes, and pseudo_nocat yielded the lowest. We could not find any evidence of presentiment but did find evidence of physiological correlates of expectation. Due to the design differing fundamentally from previous studies, these findings do not allow for conclusions on the question whether the expectation bias is being confounded with presentiment.

  16. Investigating expectation effects using multiple physiological measures

    PubMed Central

    Siller, Alexander; Ambach, Wolfgang; Vaitl, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed at experimentally investigating whether the human body can anticipate future events under improved methodological conditions. Previous studies have reported contradictory results for the phenomenon typically called presentiment. If the positive findings are accurate, they call into doubt our views about human perception, and if they are inaccurate, a plausible conventional explanation might be based on the experimental design of the previous studies, in which expectation due to item sequences was misinterpreted as presentiment. To address these points, we opted to collect several physiological variables, to test different randomization types and to manipulate subjective significance individually. For the latter, we combined a mock crime scenario, in which participants had to steal specific items, with a concealed information test (CIT), in which the participants had to conceal their knowledge when interrogated about items they had stolen or not stolen. We measured electrodermal activity, respiration, finger pulse, heart rate (HR), and reaction times. The participants (n = 154) were assigned randomly to four different groups. Items presented in the CIT were either drawn with replacement (full) or without replacement (pseudo) and were either presented category-wise (cat) or regardless of categories (nocat). To understand how these item sequences influence expectation and modulate physiological reactions, we compared the groups with respect to effect sizes for stolen vs. not stolen items. Group pseudo_cat yielded the highest effect sizes, and pseudo_nocat yielded the lowest. We could not find any evidence of presentiment but did find evidence of physiological correlates of expectation. Due to the design differing fundamentally from previous studies, these findings do not allow for conclusions on the question whether the expectation bias is being confounded with presentiment. PMID:26500600

  17. Intensifying drought eliminates the expected benefits of elevated [CO2] for soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stimulation of C3 crop yield by rising [CO2] is widely expected to counteract crop losses to greater drought this century. But these expectations come from sparse field trials that have been biased towards mesic growth conditions. This eight-year study used precipitation manipulations and year-to-ye...

  18. α oscillations related to anticipatory attention follow temporal expectations.

    PubMed

    Rohenkohl, Gustavo; Nobre, Anna C

    2011-10-05

    Temporal expectations have been shown to enhance visual analysis of task-relevant events, especially when these are coupled with spatial expectations. Oscillatory brain activity, particularly in the alpha band, has been implicated in regulating excitability in visual areas as a function of anticipatory spatial attention. Here we asked whether temporal expectations derived from regular, rhythmic events can modulate ongoing oscillatory alpha-band activity, so that the changes in cortical excitability are focused over the time intervals at which target events are expected. The task we used involved making a perceptual discrimination about a small target stimulus that reappeared from "behind" a peripheral occluding band. Temporal expectations were manipulated by the regular, rhythmic versus irregular, arrhythmic approach of the stimulus toward the occluding band. Alpha-band activity was measured during the occlusion period, in which no stimulus was presented, but target reappearance was anticipated in conditions of high versus low temporal expectation. Time-frequency analysis showed that the amplitude of alpha-desynchronization followed the time course of temporal expectations. Alpha desynchronization increased rhythmically, peaking just before the expected reappearance of target times. Analysis of the event-related potentials evoked by the subsequent target stimuli showed enhancement of processing at both visual and motor stages. Our findings support a role for oscillations in regulating cortical excitability and suggest a plausible mechanism for biasing perception and action by temporal expectations.

  19. Alpha oscillations related to anticipatory attention follow temporal expectations

    PubMed Central

    Rohenkohl, Gustavo; Nobre, Anna C.

    2014-01-01

    Temporal expectations have been shown to enhance visual analysis of task-relevant events, especially when these are coupled with spatial expectations. Oscillatory brain activity, particularly in the alpha band, has been implicated in regulating excitability in visual areas as a function of anticipatory spatial attention. Here we asked whether temporal expectations derived from regular, rhythmic events can modulate ongoing oscillatory alpha-band activity, so that the changes in cortical excitability are focused over the time intervals at which target events are expected. The task we used involved making a perceptual discrimination about a small target stimulus that reappeared from ‘behind’ a peripheral occluding band. Temporal expectations were manipulated by the regular, rhythmic versus irregular, arrhythmic approach of the stimulus toward the occluding band. Alpha-band activity was measured during the occlusion period, in which no stimulus was presented, but target reappearance was anticipated in conditions of high versus low temporal expectation. Time-frequency analysis showed that the amplitude of alpha-desynchronisation followed the time course of temporal expectations. Alpha desynchronisation increased rhythmically, peaking just before the expected reappearance of target times. Analysis of the event-related potentials evoked by the subsequent target stimuli showed enhancement of processing at both visual and motor stages. Our findings support a role for oscillations in regulating cortical excitability and suggest a plausible mechanism for biasing perception and action by temporal expectations. PMID:21976492

  20. Why They Fly: An Expectancy-Based Analysis of the Factors that Motivate Commissioned Army Aviators to Gain Flying Experience

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-15

    applicable to understanding future behaviors" (Boyce et. al, 2005). Expectancy theory ( Vroom , 1964) proposes that workers will work in ways geared... Expectancy Theory , Self-Development, Army Aviator, Flying Experience, Pilot-in-Command 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT...19 Expectancy Theory of Motivation

  1. Adaptive hybrid control of manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, H.

    1987-01-01

    Simple methods for the design of adaptive force and position controllers for robot manipulators within the hybrid control architecuture is presented. The force controller is composed of an adaptive PID feedback controller, an auxiliary signal and a force feedforward term, and it achieves tracking of desired force setpoints in the constraint directions. The position controller consists of adaptive feedback and feedforward controllers and an auxiliary signal, and it accomplishes tracking of desired position trajectories in the free directions. The controllers are capable of compensating for dynamic cross-couplings that exist between the position and force control loops in the hybrid control architecture. The adaptive controllers do not require knowledge of the complex dynamic model or parameter values of the manipulator or the environment. The proposed control schemes are computationally fast and suitable for implementation in on-line control with high sampling rates.

  2. Accurate manipulation using laser technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoving, Willem

    1997-08-01

    In the industrial production of electrical, optical, and micro-mechanical components, progress in miniaturization requires improved adjusting techniques. Sub-micrometer accuracy adjustment must be obtained within seconds, and the accuracy should be stable over many years. All methods that are presently applied for manipulation in sub-micron dimensions are cumbersome, time-consuming, and tedious, and require expensive equipment. A novel method, laser adjustment, is being explored in which permanent deformation of thin metal sheets are obtained by using thermo-mechanical stresses that occur when the sheets are locally heated using short, intense laser pulses. Manipulation along several degrees of freedom can be realized by both out-of-plane and in-plane laser adjustment or a combination thereof. Within the Brite-Euram project AMULET this new automated micro- manufacturing technology for mass production is developed in order to assemble components where tolerance conditions and accessibility are beyond human capability.

  3. Nanoparticle manipulation by thermal gradient

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A method was proposed to manipulate nanoparticles through a thermal gradient. The motion of a fullerene molecule enclosed inside a (10, 10) carbon nanotube with a thermal gradient was studied by molecular dynamics simulations. We created a one-dimensional potential valley by imposing a symmetrical thermal gradient inside the nanotube. When the temperature gradient was large enough, the fullerene sank into the valley and became trapped. The escaping velocities of the fullerene were evaluated based on the relationship between thermal gradient and thermophoretic force. We then introduced a new way to manipulate the position of nanoparticles by translating the position of thermostats with desirable thermal gradients. Compared to nanomanipulation using a scanning tunneling microscope or an atomic force microscope, our method for nanomanipulation has a great advantage by not requiring a direct contact between the probe and the object. PMID:22364240

  4. The laboratory telerobotic manipulator program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herndon, J. N.; Babcock, S. M.; Butler, P. L.; Costello, H. M.; Glassell, R. L.; Kress, R. L.; Kuban, D. P.; Rowe, J. C.; Williams, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    New opportunities for the application of telerobotic systems to enhance human intelligence and dexterity in the hazardous environment of space are presented by the NASA Space Station Program. Because of the need for significant increases in extravehicular activity and the potential increase in hazards associated with space programs, emphasis is being heightened on telerobotic systems research and development. The Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator (LTM) program is performed to develop and demonstrate ground-based telerobotic manipulator system hardware for research and demonstrations aimed at future NASA applications. The LTM incorporates traction drives, modularity, redundant kinematics, and state-of-the-art hierarchical control techniques to form a basis for merging the diverse technological domains of robust, high-dexterity teleoperations and autonomous robotic operation into common hardware to further NASA's research.

  5. Robotic Manipulator Control Performance Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    compensation of a PUMA was addressed and Backes, Leininger and Chung [5], and Zhang and Paul 11111 model friction in an identical fashion. Also at that...1237- 42, June 6-8, 1984. 5. Backes, P. G., Leininger , G. G. and Chung, C., "Real- Time Cartesian Coordinate Hybrid Control of a PUMA 560...Manipulators," Report RSD- TR-10-82, University of Michigan College of Engineering at Ann Arbor, August 1982. 15. Chung, C. H. and Leininger , G., "Adaptive

  6. Towards Manipulation-Driven Vision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    perience through experimental manipulation, using The human ability to segment objects is not general - tight correlations between arm motion and...required for action, rule) generates informative percepts. while the ventral is important for more cognitive tasks such as maintaining an object’s...identity and Neurons in area F4 are thought to provide a body constancy. Although the dorsal/ventral segregation map useful for generating arm, head, and

  7. Dietary manipulation of mouse metabolism.

    PubMed

    Feige, Jérôme N; Lagouge, Marie; Auwerx, Johan

    2008-10-01

    The maintenance of metabolic homeostasis relies on the balanced intake of nutrients from food. Consequently, diet composition strongly impacts whole-body physiology. Dietary formulations with strong nutrient imbalances can lead to metabolic disorders, with lipids and simple sugars playing a prominent role. This unit describes how diet formulation can be modified to generate mouse models of human metabolic pathologies, and it details methodological procedures linked to dietary manipulations, including caloric restriction and introduction of a test compound.

  8. Microbiorobots for Manipulation and Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-19

    bacteria to move in a self-propelled manner and to detect and process sensory information represent enormous potential that can be harnessed and...integrated into microscale robotics and biosensor systems. The objective of the proposed program is to develop a platform that integrates bacteria with...Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Microbiorobots, Bacteria , Manipulation, Sensing REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S

  9. Patient (customer) expectations in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Bostan, Sedat; Acuner, Taner; Yilmaz, Gökhan

    2007-06-01

    The expectations of patient are one of the determining factors of healthcare service. The purpose of this study is to measure the Patients' Expectations, based on Patient's Rights. This study was done with Likert-Survey in Trabzon population. The analyses showed that the level of the expectations of the patient was high on the factor of receiving information and at an acceptable level on the other factors. Statistical meaningfulness was determined between age, sex, education, health insurance, and the income of the family and the expectations of the patients (p<0.05). According to this study, the current legal regulations have higher standards than the expectations of the patients. The reason that the satisfaction of the patients high level is interpreted due to the fact that the level of the expectation is low. It is suggested that the educational and public awareness studies on the patients' rights must be done in order to increase the expectations of the patients.

  10. Model reduction of flexible manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Xu, Yangsheng; Chen, C. S.

    1992-06-01

    Flexible manipulators can be characterized by a dynamic model with a large number of vibration modes, and the use of the model in the model-based control schemes requires reduction of model order. Balanced truncation is an effective method for model reduction of asymptotically stable systems by transforming the states to a coordinate system in which the controllability and observability Gramians are equal and diagonal, and eliminating the states which contribute weakly to the input-output map. An elastic flexible manipulator, however, is a marginally stable system and thus the balanced truncation method can not be directly applied. Herein, a method is presented of reducing the order of a marginally stable system based on the fact that translation transformations in the frequency domain preserve input-output properties of the system. The successful application is addressed of the method to model reduction of flexible manipulators with infinite-dimensional for finite-dimensional model. The method is also applicable for any other marginally stable model, such as elastic space trusswork and multi-dimensional space vehicle structure.

  11. Fluid Manipulation Utilizing Electrowetting Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Laura; Pyrak-Nolte, Laura

    2014-03-01

    The fraction of the pore space in rock occupied by a given fluid is called saturation. The relationship between saturation and capillary pressure for porous media is hysteretic between imbibition and drainage cycles. If the wetting phase saturation increases, the capillary pressure follows an imbibition curve, and, if the wetting phase saturation decreases, the capillary pressure follows the drainage curve. Due to this hysteresis, researchers have suggested that there is a third variable that should be considered called interfacial area per volume that removes the ambiguity in the capillary pressure - saturation relationship. Before the relationship can be explored in more detail, we first must be able to manipulate the saturation internally rather than externally. We used electrowetting techniques to manipulate the contact angle of a salt water drop. This technique affects the interfacial energy and, therefore, enables manipulation of the contact angles and saturation. Once mastered, the technique could be used to explore the effect of interfacial area per volume on micromodel systems. NSF REU

  12. What is 'manipulation'? A reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Evans, David W; Lucas, Nicholas

    2010-06-01

    Due primarily to its colloquial function, 'manipulation' is a poor term for distinguishing one healthcare intervention from another. With reports continuing to associate serious adverse events with manipulation, particularly relating to its use in the cervical spine, it is essential that the term be used appropriately and in accordance with a valid definition. The purpose of this paper is to identify empirically-derived features that we propose to be necessary and collectively sufficient for the formation of a valid definition for manipulation. A final definition is not offered. However, arguments for and against the inclusion of features are presented. Importantly, these features are explicitly divided into two categories: the 'action' (that which the practitioner does to the recipient) and the 'mechanical response' (that which occurs within the recipient). The proposed features are: 1) A force is applied to the recipient; 2) The line of action of this force is perpendicular to the articular surface of the affected joint; 3) The applied force creates motion at a joint; 4) This joint motion includes articular surface separation; 5) Cavitation occurs within the affected joint.

  13. Manipulation of Biofilm Microbial Ecology

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.C.; Palmer, R.J., Jr.; Zinn, M.; Smith, C.A.; Burkhalter, R.; Macnaughton, S.J.; Whitaker, K.W.; Kirkegaard, R.D.

    1998-08-15

    The biofilm mode of growth provides such significant advantages to the members of the consortium that most organisms in important habitats are found in biofilms. The study of factors that allow manipulation of biofilm microbes in the biofilm growth state requires that reproducible biofilms be generated. The most effective monitoring of biofilm formation, succession and desaturation is with on-line monitoring of microbial biofilms with flowcell for direct observation. The biofilm growth state incorporates a second important factor, the heterogeneity in distribution in time and space of the component members of the biofilm consortium. This heterogeneity is reflected not only in the cellular distribution but in the metabolic activity within a population of cells. Activity and cellular distribution can be mapped in four dimensions with confocal microscopy, and function can be ascertained by genetically manipulated reporter functions for specific genes or by vital stains. The methodology for understanding the microbial ecology of biofilms is now much more readily available and the capacity to manipulate biofilms is becoming an important feature of biotechnology.

  14. Spinal Manipulation for Low-Back Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... manipulation is one of several options—including exercise, massage , and physical therapy—that can provide mild-to- ... manipulation is one of several options—including exercise, massage, and physical therapy—that can provide mild-to- ...

  15. Visualizing Motion Patterns in Acupuncture Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ye-Seul; Jung, Won-Mo; Lee, In-Seon; Lee, Hyangsook; Park, Hi-Joon; Chae, Younbyoung

    2016-07-16

    Acupuncture manipulation varies widely among practitioners in clinical settings, and it is difficult to teach novice students how to perform acupuncture manipulation techniques skillfully. The Acupuncture Manipulation Education System (AMES) is an open source software system designed to enhance acupuncture manipulation skills using visual feedback. Using a phantom acupoint and motion sensor, our method for acupuncture manipulation training provides visual feedback regarding the actual movement of the student's acupuncture manipulation in addition to the optimal or intended movement, regardless of whether the manipulation skill is lifting, thrusting, or rotating. Our results show that students could enhance their manipulation skills by training using this method. This video shows the process of manufacturing phantom acupoints and discusses several issues that may require the attention of individuals interested in creating phantom acupoints or operating this system.

  16. Design considerations of manipulator and feel system characteristics in roll tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Donald E.; Aponso, Bimal L.

    1988-01-01

    A fixed-base simulation was performed to identify and quantify interactions between the pilot's hand/arm neuromuscular subsystem and such control system features of typical modern fighter aircraft roll rate command mechanizations as: (1) force versus displacement sensing side-stick type manipulator, (2) feel force/displacement gradient, (3) feel system versus command prefilter dynamic lag, and (4) flight control system effective time delay. The experiment encompassed some 48 manipulator/filter/aircraft configurations. Displacement side-stick experiment results are given and compared with the previous force sidestick experiment results. Attention is focused on control bandwidth, excitement (peaking) of the neuromuscular mode, feel force/displacement gradient effects, time delay effects, etc. Section 5 is devoted to experiments with a center-stick in which force versus displacement sensing, feel system lag, and command prefilter lag influences on tracking performance and pilot preference are investigated.

  17. Processing expectancy violations during music performance and perception: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Maidhof, Clemens; Vavatzanidis, Niki; Prinz, Wolfgang; Rieger, Martina; Koelsch, Stefan

    2010-10-01

    Musicians are highly trained motor experts with pronounced associations between musical actions and the corresponding auditory effects. However, the importance of auditory feedback for music performance is controversial, and it is unknown how feedback during music performance is processed. The present study investigated the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of auditory feedback manipulations in pianists. To disentangle effects of action-based and perception-based expectations, we compared feedback manipulations during performance to the mere perception of the same stimulus material. In two experiments, pianists performed bimanually sequences on a piano, while at random positions, the auditory feedback of single notes was manipulated, thereby creating a mismatch between an expected and actually perceived action effect (action condition). In addition, pianists listened to tone sequences containing the same manipulations (perception condition). The manipulations in the perception condition were either task-relevant (Experiment 1) or task-irrelevant (Experiment 2). In action and perception conditions, event-related potentials elicited by manipulated tones showed an early fronto-central negativity around 200 msec, presumably reflecting a feedback ERN/N200, followed by a positive deflection (P3a). The early negativity was more pronounced during the action compared to the perception condition. This shows that during performance, the intention to produce specific auditory effects leads to stronger expectancies than the expectancies built up during music perception.

  18. Passage of Time Judgments Is Relative to Temporal Expectation

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Ryosuke; Yotsumoto, Yuko

    2017-01-01

    Time seems to pass quickly sometimes or slowly at other times. While this belief is prevalent, the psychological bases of such judgments on speed of time have remained unclear. In this study, we tested following two hypotheses: (1) the passage of time judgment (POTJ) is a function of the discrepancy between felt duration and temporal expectation of events and (2) POTJ is based on two distinct components: post hoc comparison of expected and felt durations and online anticipation of the end of an event. In four experiments, participants engaged in N-back tasks for several minutes and rated their POTJ during the tasks. Their temporal expectations were manipulated by providing them with false instructions on task durations. The results consistently supported the hypotheses and confirmed the idea that temporal expectation plays an important role in POTJ. In addition, the current findings might explain our daily temporal experiences such as “time flies when you are having fun.” PMID:28261128

  19. Passage of Time Judgments Is Relative to Temporal Expectation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ryosuke; Yotsumoto, Yuko

    2017-01-01

    Time seems to pass quickly sometimes or slowly at other times. While this belief is prevalent, the psychological bases of such judgments on speed of time have remained unclear. In this study, we tested following two hypotheses: (1) the passage of time judgment (POTJ) is a function of the discrepancy between felt duration and temporal expectation of events and (2) POTJ is based on two distinct components: post hoc comparison of expected and felt durations and online anticipation of the end of an event. In four experiments, participants engaged in N-back tasks for several minutes and rated their POTJ during the tasks. Their temporal expectations were manipulated by providing them with false instructions on task durations. The results consistently supported the hypotheses and confirmed the idea that temporal expectation plays an important role in POTJ. In addition, the current findings might explain our daily temporal experiences such as "time flies when you are having fun."

  20. Expectation and expectoration: Information manipulation alters spitting volume, a common proxy for salivary flow.

    PubMed

    Running, Cordelia A; Hayes, John E

    2016-12-01

    Saliva is becoming an increasingly useful research material across multiple fields of inquiry, including biomedical, dental, psychological, nutritional, and food choice research. However, both the flow rate and protein composition of stimulated saliva differ as a function of the collection method. We hypothesized that the context in which a stimulus is presented to participants may alter salivation via top down cognitive effects and/or behavioral changes (i.e., spitting efficiency). We presented participants with one stimulus (commercially available green tea) in two distinct contexts, once where the tea was described as a food item ("tea") and once where it was described as a disgusting non-food item ("rabbit hair extract"). Saliva and the expectorated stimulus were collected following 15s of oral exposure in a crossover design with the identical stimulus presented in both contexts; saliva was also collected for 5min after stimulation while chewing a piece of wax. Participants also completed validated personality instruments to measure food involvement, sensation seeking, sensitivity to reward, and sensitivity to punishment. Our data suggest participants spat out more sample when told they received the 'non-food' stimulus compared to the 'food' stimulus, particularly when they were given the non-food stimulus first. Further, individuals who were higher in sensation seeking spat out more sample during the 'food' condition compared to individuals with lower sensation seeking scores, but this difference was absent in the 'non-food' condition. While consistent with a top down cognitive effect on salivary flow, we believe a greater motivation to spit out the 'non-food' stimulus is a more likely explanation. In either case, it is clear the context in which a stimulus is presented alters how much sample/saliva is expectorated, suggesting context needs to be carefully considered in future work on salivary flow.

  1. Manipulating Public Expectations; Pre- and Postprimary Statements in the '76 Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freshley, Dwight L.

    Predicting the outcome of a primary election gives a candidate more exposure to the press, gives him or her a chance to predict modestly and then look better than the prediction, and helps create interest in the election and thereby increase voter turnout. During the 1976 Presidential primaries, most candidates adhered to the classic rule to make…

  2. Manipulating Public Expectations; Pre- and Postprimary Statements in the '76 Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freshley, Dwight L.

    Predicting the outcome of a primary election gives a candidate more exposure to the press, gives him or her a chance to predict modestly and then look better than the prediction, and helps create interest in the election and thereby increase voter turnout. During the 1976 Presidential primaries, most candidates adhered to the classic rule to make…

  3. Active damping in a flexible manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pham, Trung T.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on active damping in a flexible manipulator are presented. Topics covered include: Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS); flexible structures; vibration; modeling of a flexible manipulator dynamical structure; designing control law criterion that minimizes vibration; and candidate application of fuzzy logic control law to the problem.

  4. TV requirements for manipulation in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, L. A.; Crooks, W. H.; Coan, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    A video system for remote manipulation in space was studied. Analysis of basic manipulation tasks and visual requirements; simulation testing to determine the effects of task, scene parameter, and type of video system on manipulation performance; and video system selection and specification are described.

  5. The Pilot Training Study: Personnel Flow and the PILOT Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooz, W. E.

    The results of the Rand study of pilot flows and the computer-operated decision model, called the PILOT model, are described. The flows of pilots within the Air Force are caused by policies that require the career-development rotation of pilots from cockpit jobs to desk jobs, the maintenance of a supplement of pilots in excess of cockpit-related…

  6. Can intention override the "automatic pilot"?

    PubMed

    Striemer, Christopher L; Yukovsky, Julia; Goodale, Melvyn A

    2010-05-01

    Previous research has suggested that the visuomotor system possesses an "automatic pilot" which allows people to make rapid online movement corrections in response to sudden changes in target position. Importantly, the automatic pilot has been shown to operate in the absence of visual awareness, and even under circumstances in which people are explicitly asked not to correct their ongoing movement. In the current study, we investigated the extent to which the automatic pilot could be "disengaged" by explicitly instructing participants to ignore the target jump (i.e., "NO-GO"), by manipulating the order in which the two tasks were completed (i.e., either "GO" or NO-GO first), and by manipulating the proportion of trials in which the target jumped. The results indicated that participants made fewer corrections in response to the target jump when they were asked not to correct their movement (i.e., NO-GO), and when they completed the NO-GO task prior to the task in which they were asked to correct their movement when the target jumped (i.e., the GO task). However, increasing the proportion of jumping targets had only a minimal influence on performance. Critically, participants still made a significant number of unintended corrections (i.e., errors) in the NO-GO tasks, even under explicit instructions not to correct their movement if the target jumped. Overall these data suggest that, while the automatic pilot can be influenced to some degree by top-down strategies and previous experience, the pre-potent response to correct an ongoing movement cannot be completely disengaged.

  7. Opposing Effects of Expectancy and Somatic Focus on Pain

    PubMed Central

    Wager, Tor D.

    2012-01-01

    High-pain expectancy increases pain and pain-related brain activity, creating a cycle of psychologically maintained pain. Though these effects are robust, little is known about how expectancy works and what psychological processes either support or mitigate its effects. To address this, we independently manipulated pain expectancy and “top-down” attention to the body, and examined their effects on both a performance-based measure of body-focus and heat-induced pain. Multi-level mediation analyses showed that high-pain expectancy substantially increased pain, replicating previous work. However, attention to the body reduced pain, partially suppressing the effects of expectancy. Furthermore, increased body-focus had larger pain-reducing effects when pain expectancy was high, suggesting that attempts to focus on external distractors are counterproductive in this situation. Overall, the results show that attention to the body cannot explain pain-enhancing expectancy effects, and that focusing on sensory/discriminative aspects of pain might be a useful pain-regulation strategy when severe pain is expected. PMID:22723896

  8. Pregnancy intentions among expectant adolescent couples.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Amy; Mitchell, Stephanie J; Hodgkinson, Stacy; Gilmore, Jasmine; Beers, Lee S

    2014-06-01

    To examine the self-reported pregnancy intentions of the male partners of expectant adolescent mothers, the accuracy of adolescent mothers' perceptions of their partner's pregnancy intentions, and the concordance between young mothers' and fathers' pregnancy intentions. This cross-sectional pilot study collected interview data from expectant adolescent mothers and their male partners. Data were collected in participants' homes. 35 expectant couples were interviewed separately. Most participants were African American (89% of mothers, 74% of fathers). 69% of mothers were 17-18 years old, and half of the fathers were ≥19. Parents responded to survey questions adapted from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System Questionnaire. 44% of fathers reported wanting their partner to get pregnant. Another 15% were ambivalent. A kappa statistic of 0.12 (P = .33) indicated very little "accuracy" of mothers' perceptions of their partners' pregnancy intentions. Further, there was low concordance between the pregnancy intentions of mothers and fathers. Young fathers who wanted or were ambivalent about pregnancy were significantly more likely to use no contraception or withdrawal. For a notable number of minority couples, adolescent mothers do not have an accurate perception of their partners' pregnancy intentions and use contraceptive methods that are not within their control. These findings indicate that teen pregnancy prevention interventions must target young males in addition to females and sexually active adolescents should be encouraged to discuss pregnancy intentions with each other. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Expecting the best for students: teacher expectations and academic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rubie-Davies, Christine; Hattie, John; Hamilton, Richard

    2006-09-01

    Research into teacher expectations has shown that these have an effect on student achievement. Some researchers have explored the impact of various student characteristics on teachers' expectations. One attribute of interest is ethnicity. This study aimed to explore differences in teachers' expectations and judgments of student reading performance for Maori, Pacific Island, Asian and New Zealand European students. A further objective was to compare teacher expectations and judgments with actual student achievement. The participants were 540 students of 21 primary teachers in Auckland schools. Of these students, 261 were New Zealand European, 88 were Maori, 97 were Pacific Island and 94 were Asian. At the beginning of the year, the teachers completed a survey related to their expectations for their students' achievement in reading and, at the end of the year, they judged the reading levels their students had actually achieved. The survey data were compared with running record data. Teachers' expectations for students in reading were significantly higher than actual achievement for all ethnic groups other than Maori. Maori students' achievement was similar to that of the other groups at the beginning of the year but, by the end of the year, they had made the least gains of all groups. Sustaining expectation effects are one explanation for Maori students' limited progress. For Pacific Island, Asian and New Zealand European students, positive self-fulfilling prophecies may be operating. Future research could investigate the learning opportunities provided to these ethnic groups and the relationship of these to teachers' expectations.

  10. Expectancy bias in anxious samples

    PubMed Central

    Cabeleira, Cindy M.; Steinman, Shari A.; Burgess, Melissa M.; Bucks, Romola S.; MacLeod, Colin; Melo, Wilson; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2014-01-01

    While it is well documented that anxious individuals have negative expectations about the future, it is unclear what cognitive processes give rise to this expectancy bias. Two studies are reported that use the Expectancy Task, which is designed to assess expectancy bias and illuminate its basis. This task presents individuals with valenced scenarios (Positive Valence, Negative Valence, or Conflicting Valence), and then evaluates their tendency to expect subsequent future positive relative to negative events. The Expectancy Task was used with low and high trait anxious (Study 1: N = 32) and anxiety sensitive (Study 2: N = 138) individuals. Results suggest that in the context of physical concerns, both high anxious samples display a less positive expectancy bias. In the context of social concerns, high trait anxious individuals display a negative expectancy bias only when negatively valenced information was previously presented. Overall, this suggests that anxious individuals display a less positive expectancy bias, and that the processes that give rise to this bias may vary by type of situation (e.g., social or physical) or anxiety difficulty. PMID:24798678

  11. Optical manipulation for optogenetics: otoliths manipulation in zebrafish (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favre-Bulle, Itia A.; Scott, Ethan; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina

    2016-03-01

    Otoliths play an important role in Zebrafish in terms of hearing and sense of balance. Many studies have been conducted to understand its structure and function, however the encoding of its movement in the brain remains unknown. Here we developed a noninvasive system capable of manipulating the otolith using optical trapping while we image its behavioral response and brain activity. We'll also present our tools for behavioral response detection and brain activity mapping. Acceleration is sensed through movements of the otoliths in the inner ear. Because experimental manipulations involve movements, electrophysiology and fluorescence microscopy are difficult. As a result, the neural codes underlying acceleration sensation are poorly understood. We have developed a technique for optically trapping otoliths, allowing us to simulate acceleration in stationary larval zebrafish. By applying forces to the otoliths, we can elicit behavioral responses consistent with compensation for perceived acceleration. Since the animal is stationary, we can use calcium imaging in these animals' brains to identify the functional circuits responsible for mediating responses to acceleration in natural settings.

  12. Models of remote manipulation in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannaford, Blake

    1991-01-01

    Robots involved in high value manipulation must be effectively coupled to a human operator either at the work-site or remotely connected via communication links. In order to make use of experimental performance evaluation data, models must be developed. Powerful models of remote manipulation by humans can be used to predict manipulation performance in future systems based on today's laboratory systems. In this paradigm, the models are developed from experimental data, and then used to predict performance in slightly different situations. Second, accurate telemanipulation will allow design of manipulation systems which extend manipulation capability beyond its current bounds.

  13. Failure tolerant operation of kinematically redundant manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Christopher L.; Maciejewski, Anthony A.

    1994-01-01

    Redundant manipulators may compensate for failed joints with their additional degrees of freedom. In this paper such a manipulator is considered fault tolerant if it can guarantee completion of a task after any one of its joints has failed. This fault tolerance of kinematically redundant manipulators is insured here. Methods to analyze the manipulator's work space find regions inherently suitable for critical tasks because of their high level of failure tolerance. Constraints are then placed on the manipulator's range of motion to guarantee completion of a task.

  14. Earth orbital teleoperator manipulator system evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brye, R. G.; Frederick, P. N.; Kirkpatrick, M., III; Shields, N. L., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The operator's ability to perform five manipulator tip movements while using monoptic and stereoptic video systems was assessed. Test data obtained were compared with previous results to determine the impact of camera placement and stereoptic viewing on manipulator system performance. The tests were performed using the NASA MSFC extendible stiff arm Manipulator and an analog joystick controller. Two basic manipulator tasks were utilized. The minimum position change test required the operator to move the manipulator arm to touch a target contract. The dexterity test required removal and replacement of pegs.

  15. Distribution of control decisions in remote manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.

    1975-01-01

    The particular characteristics of the problem of distributing control decisions between man and computer in remotely controlled manipulation are discussed. State of the art is reviewed from two viewpoints: (1) specifications of both control commands and control context of sensor signals the operator inputs to the manipulator control computer; (2) operations the manipulator control computer performs on operator commands and realtime sensor signals to control the manipulator for a specified task. JPL breadboard systems, system components, and control experiments are described related to the development and evaluation of manipulator control systems with capabilities of distributing control decisions between man and computer.

  16. Spin-manipulating polarized deuterons

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, V S; Krisch, A D; Leonova, M A; Raymond, R S; Sivers, D W; Wong, V K; Hinterberger, F; Kondratenko, A M; Stephenson, E J

    2011-03-01

    Spin dynamics of polarized deuteron beams near depolarization resonances, including a new polarization preservation concept based on specially-designed multiple resonance crossings, has been tested in a series of experiments in the COSY synchrotron. Intricate spin dynamics with sophisticated pre-programmed patterns as well as effects of multiple crossings of a resonance were studied both theoretically and experimentally with excellent agreement. Possible applications of these results to preserve, manipulate and spin-flip polarized beams in synchrotrons and storage rings are discussed.

  17. Covariance Manipulation for Conjunction Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hejduk, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Use of probability of collision (Pc) has brought sophistication to CA. Made possible by JSpOC precision catalogue because provides covariance. Has essentially replaced miss distance as basic CA parameter. Embrace of Pc has elevated methods to 'manipulate' covariance to enable/improve CA calculations. Two such methods to be examined here; compensation for absent or unreliable covariances through 'Maximum Pc' calculation constructs, projection (not propagation) of epoch covariances forward in time to try to enable better risk assessments. Two questions to be answered about each; situations to which such approaches are properly applicable, amount of utility that such methods offer.

  18. From Micro- to Nanoparticle Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baechi, D.; Buser, R.; Dual, J.

    2000-12-01

    The precise manipulation of small particles is not a trivial task. In a first effort, a nanorobot system was built based on a robot with vision feedback and a micromachined gripper. It was suitable for handling particles down to 100 μ with submicron accuracy in a normal environment. For smaller particles stiction effects prohibit the release of the particles in a controlled way. Stiction effects are avoided in a fluid environment. As an example, a system of channels is described in detail that is able to feed micron sized particles in a fluid environment to the desired places.

  19. Increasing Expectations for Student Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Karen Maitland; Schilling, Karl L.

    1999-01-01

    States that few higher education institutions have publicly articulated clear expectations of the knowledge and skills students are to attain. Describes gap between student and faculty expectations for academic effort. Reports that what is required in students' first semester appears to play a strong role in shaping the time investments made in…

  20. Expectancy Climate and School Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miskel, Cecil; Bloom, Susan

    Two questionnaire surveys of 89 Kansas public elementary and secondary schools examined, first, the relationship between school expectancy climate--teachers' expectations that their efforts would lead to positive student results--and school effectiveness, and, second, the change in that relationship through the school year. School effectiveness…

  1. Institutional Differences: Expectations and Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Harold

    1982-01-01

    The history of higher education has paid scant attention to the attitudes and expectations of its customers, students, and employers of graduates. Recent research on student and employer attitudes toward higher education sectors has not taken into account these expectations in the context of recent higher education history. (Author/MSE)

  2. Making Your High Expectations Stick

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Every teacher starts the school year with great expectations for an orderly classroom. An experienced educator has probably tried various approaches to maintain order and create a classroom environment where every student feels comfortable contributing. To let the students know how much is really expected of them, teachers should not simply state…

  3. Increasing Expectations for Student Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Karen Maitland; Schilling, Karl L.

    1999-01-01

    States that few higher education institutions have publicly articulated clear expectations of the knowledge and skills students are to attain. Describes gap between student and faculty expectations for academic effort. Reports that what is required in students' first semester appears to play a strong role in shaping the time investments made in…

  4. High Hopes and High Expectations!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilford, Sara

    2006-01-01

    The start of each new school year is an especially hopeful time, and this author has found that clearly communicating expectations for teachers and families can set the stage for a wonderful new school year. This article discusses the expectations of teachers, directors, and families as a new school year begins.

  5. High Hopes and High Expectations!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilford, Sara

    2006-01-01

    The start of each new school year is an especially hopeful time, and this author has found that clearly communicating expectations for teachers and families can set the stage for a wonderful new school year. This article discusses the expectations of teachers, directors, and families as a new school year begins.

  6. Name Stereotypes and Teachers' Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harari, Herbert; McDavid, John W.

    1973-01-01

    The studies described here were executed to explore and verify the conjecture that teachers' expectations are likely to be systematically associated with implicit stereotyped perceptions of names, and these stereotypical expectations may in turn be reflected in teachers' subjective evaluation of student products and performance. (Author/RK)

  7. Sibling Status Effects: Adult Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskett, Linda Musun

    1985-01-01

    This study attempted to determine what expectations or beliefs adults might hold about a child based on his or her sibling status alone. Ratings on 50 adjective pairs for each of three sibling status types, only, oldest, and youngest child, were assessed in relation to adult expectations, birth order, and parental status of rater. (Author/DST)

  8. Sibling Status Effects: Adult Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskett, Linda Musun

    1985-01-01

    This study attempted to determine what expectations or beliefs adults might hold about a child based on his or her sibling status alone. Ratings on 50 adjective pairs for each of three sibling status types, only, oldest, and youngest child, were assessed in relation to adult expectations, birth order, and parental status of rater. (Author/DST)

  9. Primary care mental health workers: role expectations, conflict and ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Bower, Peter; Jerrim, Sophie; Gask, Linda

    2004-07-01

    A number of professionals are involved in mental health in primary care. The NHS Plan proposed the introduction of a new professional, the primary care mental health worker (PCMHW), to improve care in this setting. The present study was conducted to examine pilot PCMHW-type roles currently in existence, to explore staff expectations concerning the new PCMHW role and to consider the issues relating to roles in primary care mental health that are raised by this new worker. The study used a case study design, and involved qualitative interviews with 46 managers and clinicians from primary care and specialist mental health services, including pilot PCMHW-type roles. The key findings were as follows: The pilot PCMHW-type roles were almost exclusively related to client work, whereas respondents had far wider role expectations of the new PCMHWs, relating to perceived gaps in current service provision. This highlights the potential for role conflict. Secondly, there was disagreement and ambiguity among some respondents as to the nature of the new PCMHW's role in client work, and its relationship with the work undertaken by other mental health professionals such as counsellors, psychologists and nurses. Given that multiple professionals are involved in mental health care in primary care, issues relating to roles are likely to be crucial in the effective implementation of the new PCMHWs.

  10. Piloted rover technology study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thrasher, D. L.

    1990-01-01

    This is the May 25, 1990 summary report for Space Transfer Concepts and Analyses (STCA) Study, special study task 9.1, Piloted Rovers Technology Study. Piloted rover concepts, mission scenarios, and the requirements necessary for completion of these missions resulting in the establishment of a lunar base. These tasks were intended to lead to a logical conclusion concerning which piloted rovers technologies are needed to accomplish the various missions, along with a recommended schedule for the development of these technologies.

  11. Collision detection and untangling for surgical robotic manipulators.

    PubMed

    Morvan, Tangui; Martinsen, Magnar; Reimers, Martin; Samset, Eigil; Elle, Ole Jakob

    2009-09-01

    Robotic-assisted minimally invasive surgery provides several advantages over traditional surgery; however, it also has several drawbacks, such as possible collisions between the robotic arms and a limited field of view. A generic method for tracking the configuration of a surgical manipulator in real time is presented. It is coupled with a collision detection and dynamic simulation algorithm, allowing the operator to detect collisions between robotic arms before they happen and presenting the best possible untangling direction to get out of collisions. Our algorithm successfully tracks the configuration of the Zeus surgical system and accurately detects possible collisions in real time. A pilot study on our system proved its efficiency in reducing the duration and severity of collisions, at the price of longer completion times. Our system helps alleviate the collision problem by reducing the time in collision.

  12. Manual Manipulation of Engine Throttles for Emergency Flight Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Fullerton, C. Gordon; Maine, Trindel A.

    2004-01-01

    If normal aircraft flight controls are lost, emergency flight control may be attempted using only engines thrust. Collective thrust is used to control flightpath, and differential thrust is used to control bank angle. Flight test and simulation results on many airplanes have shown that pilot manipulation of throttles is usually adequate to maintain up-and-away flight, but is most often not capable of providing safe landings. There are techniques that will improve control and increase the chances of a survivable landing. This paper reviews the principles of throttles-only control (TOC), a history of accidents or incidents in which some or all flight controls were lost, manual TOC results for a wide range of airplanes from simulation and flight, and suggested techniques for flying with throttles only and making a survivable landing.

  13. Mobile remote manipulator vehicle system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Harold G. (Inventor); Mikulas, Martin M., Jr. (Inventor); Wallsom, Richard E. (Inventor); Jensen, J. Kermit (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A mobile remote manipulator system is disclosed for assembly, repair and logistics transport on, around and about a space station square bay truss structure. The vehicle is supported by a square track arrangement supported by guide pins integral with the space station truss structure and located at each truss node. Propulsion is provided by a central push-pull drive mechanism that extends out from the vehicle one full structural bay over the truss and locks drive rods into the guide pins. The draw bar is now retracted and the mobile remote manipulator system is pulled onto the next adjacent structural bay. Thus, translation of the vehicle is inchworm style. The drive bar can be locked onto two guide pins while the extendable draw bar is within the vehicle and then push the vehicle away one bay providing bidirectional push-pull drive. The track switches allow the vehicle to travel in two orthogonal directions over the truss structure which coupled with the bidirectional drive, allow movement in four directions on one plane. The top layer of this trilayered vehicle is a logistics platform. This platform is capable of 369 degees of rotation and will have two astronaut foot restraint platforms and a space crane integral.

  14. Semantics of directly manipulating spatializations.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xinran; Bradel, Lauren; Maiti, Dipayan; House, Leanna; North, Chris; Leman, Scotland

    2013-12-01

    When high-dimensional data is visualized in a 2D plane by using parametric projection algorithms, users may wish to manipulate the layout of the data points to better reflect their domain knowledge or to explore alternative structures. However, few users are well-versed in the algorithms behind the visualizations, making parameter tweaking more of a guessing game than a series of decisive interactions. Translating user interactions into algorithmic input is a key component of Visual to Parametric Interaction (V2PI) [13]. Instead of adjusting parameters, users directly move data points on the screen, which then updates the underlying statistical model. However, we have found that some data points that are not moved by the user are just as important in the interactions as the data points that are moved. Users frequently move some data points with respect to some other 'unmoved' data points that they consider as spatially contextual. However, in current V2PI interactions, these points are not explicitly identified when directly manipulating the moved points. We design a richer set of interactions that makes this context more explicit, and a new algorithm and sophisticated weighting scheme that incorporates the importance of these unmoved data points into V2PI.

  15. Actuators for a space manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chun, W.; Brunson, P.

    1987-01-01

    The robotic manipulator can be decomposed into distinct subsytems. One particular area of interest of mechanical subsystems is electromechanical actuators (or drives). A drive is defined as a motor with an appropriate transmission. An overview is given of existing, as well as state-of-the-art drive systems. The scope is limited to space applications. A design philosophy and adequate requirements are the initial steps in designing a space-qualified actuator. The focus is on the d-c motor in conjunction with several types of transmissions (harmonic, tendon, traction, and gear systems). The various transmissions will be evaluated and key performance parameters will be addressed in detail. Included in the assessment is a shuttle RMS joint and a MSFC drive of the Prototype Manipulator Arm. Compound joints are also investigated. Space imposes a set of requirements for designing a high-performance drive assembly. Its inaccessibility and cryogenic conditions warrant special considerations. Some guidelines concerning these conditions are present. The goal is to gain a better understanding in designing a space actuator.

  16. Dietary sodium manipulation and asthma.

    PubMed

    Pogson, Zara; McKeever, Tricia

    2011-03-16

    There is a wide geographical variation in the prevalence of asthma and observational studies have suggested that dietary sodium may play a role. To assess the effect of dietary sodium manipulation on asthma control. We carried out a search using the Cochrane Airways Group asthma register. We searched the bibliographies of included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for additional studies. We carried out the most recent search in November 2010. We considered only RCTs that involved dietary sodium reduction or increased sodium intake in patients with asthma. Both review authors assessed study and extracted data. We conducted data analyses in RevMan 5 using mean differences and random effects. We identified a total of nine studies in relation to sodium manipulation and asthma, of which five were in people with asthma (318 participants), and four in people with exercise-induced asthma (63 participants). There were no significant benefits of salt restriction on the control of asthma. There was some evidence from the exercise-induced asthma studies that a low sodium diet may improve lung function after exercise and possibly baseline lung function, but this is based on findings from a very small numbers of participants. This review did not find any evidence that dietary sodium reduction significantly improves asthma control. Although dietary sodium reduction may result in improvements in lung function in exercise-induced asthma, the clinical significance of this effect is unclear.

  17. Precise control of flexible manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, R. H., Jr.; Bindford, T. O.; Schmitz, E.

    1984-01-01

    The design and experimental testing of end point position controllers for a very flexible one link lightweight manipulator are summarized. The latest upgraded version of the experimental set up, and the basic differences between conventional joint angle feedback and end point position feedback are described. A general procedure for application of modern control methods to the problem is outlined. The relationship between weighting parameters and the bandwidth and control stiffness of the resulting end point position closed loop system is shown. It is found that joint rate angle feedback in addition to the primary end point position sensor is essential for adequate disturbance rejection capability of the closed loop system. The use of a low order multivariable compensator design computer code; called Sandy is documented. A solution to the problem of control mode switching between position sensor sets is outlined. The proof of concept for endpoint position feedback for a one link flexible manipulator was demonstrated. The bandwidth obtained with the experimental end point position controller is about twice as fast as the beam's first natural cantilevered frequency, and comes within a factor of four of the absolute physical speed limit imposed by the wave propagation time of the beam.

  18. Manipulating expression of tonoplast transporters.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhigang; Zhou, Man; Hu, Qian; Reighard, Shane; Yuan, Shuangrong; Yuan, Ning; San, Bekir; Li, Dayong; Jia, Haiyan; Luo, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Plant vacuoles have multifaceted roles including turgor maintenance, cytosolic pH and ionic homeostasis, plant protection against environmental stress, detoxification, pigmentation, and cellular signaling. These roles are achieved through the coordinated activities of many proteins in the tonoplast (vacuolar membrane), of which the proton pumps and ion transporters have been modified for improved abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic plants. Here we describe a method to manipulate vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase in turfgrass and evaluate the impact of the modified tonoplast on the phenotype, biochemistry, and physiology of the transgenics. Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) plants overexpressing an Arabidopsis vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase AVP1 exhibited improved growth and enhanced salt tolerance, likely associated with increased photosynthesis, relative water content, proline production, and Na(+) uptake. These transgenic plants also had decreased solute leakage in the leaf tissues and increased concentrations of Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), and total phosphorus in the root tissues. Similar strategies can be employed to manipulate other tonoplast transporters and in other plant species to produce transgenic plants with improved performance under various abiotic stresses.

  19. Self mobile space manipulator project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, H. Ben; Friedman, Mark; Xu, Yangsheng; Kanade, Takeo

    1992-01-01

    A relatively simple, modular, low mass, low cost robot is being developed for space EVA that is large enough to be independently mobile on a space station or platform exterior, yet versatile enough to accomplish many vital tasks. The robot comprises two long flexible links connected by a rotary joint, with 2-DOF 'wrist' joints and grippers at each end. It walks by gripping pre-positioned attachment points, such as trusswork nodes, and alternately shifting its base of support from one foot (gripper) to the other. The robot can perform useful tasks such as visual inspection, material transport, and light assembly by manipulating objects with one gripper, while stabilizing itself with the other. At SOAR '90, we reported development of 1/3 scale robot hardware, modular trusswork to serve as a locomotion substrate, and a gravity compensation system to allow laboratory tests of locomotion strategies on the horizontal face of the trusswork. In this paper, we report on project progress including the development of: (1) adaptive control for automatic adjustment to loads; (2) enhanced manipulation capabilities; (3) machine vision, including the use of neural nets, to guide autonomous locomotion; (4) locomotion between orthogonal trusswork faces; and (5) improved facilities for gravity compensation and telerobotic control.

  20. Positive expectations encourage generalization from a positive intergroup interaction to outgroup attitudes.

    PubMed

    Deegan, Matthew P; Hehman, Eric; Gaertner, Samuel L; Dovidio, John F

    2015-01-01

    The current research reveals that while positive expectations about an anticipated intergroup interaction encourage generalization of positive contact to outgroup attitudes, negative expectations restrict the effects of contact on outgroup attitudes. In Study 1, when Blacks and Whites interacted with positive expectations, interaction quality predicted outgroup attitudes to a greater degree than when groups interacted with negative expectations. When expectations (Studies 2 and 3) and the actual interaction quality (Study 4) were manipulated orthogonally, negative expectations about the interaction predicted negative outgroup attitudes, regardless of actual interaction quality. By contrast, participants holding positive expectations who experienced a positive interaction expressed positive outgroup attitudes, whereas when they experienced a negative interaction, they expressed outgroup attitudes as negative as those with negative expectations. Across all four studies, positive expectations encouraged developing outgroup attitudes consistent with interaction quality.

  1. Remote manipulator experience in target train maintenance at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Butala, S.W.

    1984-10-11

    When Fermilab was designed in the late 1960's and early 1970's, it was anticipated that Neutrino target train servicing could be costly in terms of personnel radiation exposure. This was based in part on the expectation that target intensities of at least 1E13 protons/pulse would be required to produce several neutrino interactions in a large bubble chamber detector. This was indeed later proven to be the case and historically the Neutrino beamline has been targeted with about one half of the protons available from the Main Ring. It was believed that much of the occupational radiation dose from the Neutrino Area could be spared by utilization of a remote manipulator system, which was eventually installed. It is the purpose of this report to examine the use of the Fermilab remote manipulator system and evaluate its cost effectiveness and success as an ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) tool. 16 references, 11 figures.

  2. Design and experimental evaluation of flexible manipulator control algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, D.S.; Hwang, D.H.; Babcock, S.M.; Kress, R.L.; Lew, J.Y.; Evans, M.S.

    1995-04-01

    Within the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program of the US Department of Energy, the remediation of single-shell radioactive waste storage tanks is one of the areas that challenge state-of-the-art equipment and methods. The use of long-reach manipulators is being seriously considered for this task. Because of high payload capacity and high length-to-cross-section ratio requirements, these long-reach manipulator systems are expected to use hydraulic actuators and to exhibit significant structural flexibility. The controller has been designed to compensate for the hydraulic actuator dynamics by using a load-compensated velocity feedforward loop and to increase the bandwidth by using an inner pressure feedback loop. Shaping filter techniques have been applied as feedforward controllers to avoid structural vibrations during operation. Various types of shaping filter methods have been investigated. Among them, a new approach, referred to as a ``feedforward simulation filter`` that uses embedded simulation, has been presented.

  3. Tracking control of the hydraulically actuated flexible manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, D.S.; Babcock, S.M.; Burks, B.L.; Kress, R.L.

    1995-03-01

    The remediation of single-shell radioactive waste storage tanks is one of the urgent tasks of the Department of Energy that challenge state-of-the-art equipment and methods. The use of long-reach manipulators is being seriously considered for this remediation task. Because high payload capacity and high length-to-cross-section ratio requirements, these long-reach manipulator systems are expected to use hydraulic actuators and to exhibit significant structural flexibility. The controller has been designed to compensate for the hydraulic actuator dynamics by using a load-compensated velocity feedforward loop and to increase the bandwidth by using a pressure feed backloop. Shaping filter techniques have been applied as a feedforward controller to avoid structural vibrations during operation. Among various types of shaping filter methods investigated an approach, referred to as a ``feedforward simulation filter`` that uses embedded simulation, has been presented.

  4. Well Clear: General Aviation and Commercial Pilots' Perceptioin of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This research explored how different pilots perceived the concept of the Well Clear Boundary (WCB) and observed if that boundary changed when dealing with manned versus unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), and the effects of other variables. Pilots' WCB perceptions were collected objectively through simulator recordings and subjectively through questionnaires. Objectively, significant differences were found in WCB perception between two pilot types (general aviation [GA], and Airline Transport Pilots [ATPs]), and significant WCB differences were evident when comparing two intruder types (manned versus unmanned aircraft). Differences were dependent on other manipulated variables (intruder approach angle, ownship speed, and background traffic levels). Subjectively, there were differences in WCB perception across pilot types; GA pilots trusted UAS aircraft higher than the more experienced ATPs. Conclusions indicate pilots' WCB mental models are more easily perceived as time-based boundaries in front of ownship, and more easily perceived as distance-based boundaries to the rear of ownship.

  5. Unmanned Aircraft: A Pilot's Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pestana, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the challenges of "piloting" a unmanned aircraft. The topic include the pilot-vehicle interact design, the concept of pilot/operator, and role of NASA's Ikhana UAS in the western states fire mission.

  6. Autonomous manipulation on a robot: Summary of manipulator software functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    A six degree-of-freedom computer-controlled manipulator is examined, and the relationships between the arm's joint variables and 3-space are derived. Arm trajectories using sequences of third-degree polynomials to describe the time history of each joint variable are presented and two approaches to the avoidance of obstacles are given. The equations of motion for the arm are derived and then decomposed into time-dependent factors and time-independent coefficients. Several new and simplifying relationships among the coefficients are proven. Two sample trajectories are analyzed in detail for purposes of determining the most important contributions to total force in order that relatively simple approximations to the equations of motion can be used.

  7. Dissociable influences of opiates and expectations on pain

    PubMed Central

    Atlas, Lauren Y.; Whittington, Robert A.; Lindquist, Martin A.; Wielgosz, Joe; Sonty, Nomita; Wager, Tor D.

    2012-01-01

    Placebo treatments and opiate drugs are thought to have common effects on the opioid system and pain-related brain processes. This has created excitement about the potential for expectations to modulate drug effects themselves. If drug effects differ as a function of belief, this would challenge the assumptions underlying the standard clinical trial. We conducted two studies to directly examine the relationship between expectations and opioid analgesia. We administered the opioid agonist remifentanil to human subjects during experimental thermal pain and manipulated participants’ knowledge of drug delivery using an open-hidden design. This allowed us to test drug effects, expectancy (knowledge) effects, and their interactions on pain reports and pain-related responses in the brain. Remifentanil and expectancy both reduced pain, but drug effects on pain reports and fMRI activity did not interact with expectancy. Regions associated with pain processing showed drug-induced modulation during both Open and Hidden conditions, with no differences in drug effects as a function of expectation. Instead, expectancy modulated activity in frontal cortex, with a separable time course from drug effects. These findings reveal that opiates and placebo treatments both influence clinically relevant outcomes and operate without mutual interference. PMID:22674280

  8. The mechanical master-slave manipulator: an instrument improving the performance in standardized tasks for endoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Diks, J; Jaspers, J E N; Wisselink, W; de Mol, B A M J; Grimbergen, C A

    2007-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a mechanical minimally invasive manipulator for endoscopic surgery. In contrast to currently available motorized master-slave manipulators, this mechanical manipulator consists of two purely mechanical, hand-controlled endoscopic arms with joints that allow seven degrees of freedom (DOF). For the study, 30 medical students performed four different tasks in a pelvic trainer box using either two conventional endoscopic needleholders or a set of mechanical manipulators. The exercise consisted of four different tasks: repositioning of coins, rope passing, passing of a suture through rings, and tying of a surgical knot. All experiments were recorded on videotape (S-VHS), and the data were analyzed afterwards by an independent observer using a quantitative time-action analysis. A significant difference in the number of total actions (including failures) favoring the mechanical manipulator group was shown in most exercises. A significant difference in failures per task was shown in favor of the mechanical manipulator group as well. There was no significant difference shown in the total time per exercise. The tasks clearly demonstrated the efficacy of the mechanical manipulator, although some technical flaws emerged during the experiments. Considering the fact that a first prototype of the mechanical manipulator was tested, modifications are to be expected in a next model. These experiments show the potential of the mechanical manipulator, and it is expected to be a competitive and economical instrument for endoscopic surgery in the near future.

  9. Controlling multiple manipulators using RIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yulun; Jordan, Steve; Mangaser, Amante; Butner, Steve

    1989-01-01

    A prototype of the RIPS architecture (Robotic Instruction Processing System) was developed. A two arm robot control experiment is underway to characterize the architecture as well as research multi-arm control. This experiment uses two manipulators to cooperatively position an object. The location of the object is specified by the host computer's mouse. Consequently, real time kinematics and dynamics are necessary. The RIPS architecture is specialized so that it can satisfy these real time constraints. The two arm experimental set-up is discussed. A major part of this work is the continued development of a good programming environment for RIPS. The C++ language is employed and favorable results exist in the targeting of this language to the RIPS hardware.

  10. Sperm cells manipulation employing dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Rosales-Cruzaley, E; Cota-Elizondo, P A; Sánchez, D; Lapizco-Encinas, Blanca H

    2013-10-01

    Infertility studies are an important growing field, where new methods for the manipulation, enrichment and selection of sperm cells are required. Microfluidic techniques offer attractive advantages such as requirement of low sample volume and short processing times in the range of second or minutes. Presented here is the application of insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) for the enrichment and separation of mature and spermatogenic cells by employing a microchannel with cylindrical insulating structures with DC electric potentials in the range of 200-1500 V. The results demonstrated that iDEP has the potential to concentrate sperm cells and distinguish between mature and spermatogenic cells by exploiting the differences in shape which lead to differences in electric polarization. Viability assessments revealed that a significant percentage of the cells are viable after the dielectrophoretic treatment, opening the possibility for iDEP to be developed as a tool in infertility studies.

  11. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Cancer.gov

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  12. On kinematic design of serial link manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Paredis, C.J.J.; Khosla, P.K.

    1991-01-01

    The Reconfigurable Modular Manipulator System (RMMS) consists of modular links and joints which can be assembled into many manipulator configurations. This capability allows the RMMS to be rapidly reconfigured in order to custom tailor it to specific tasks. A important issue, related to the RMMS, is the determination of the optimal manipulator configuration for a specific task. In this paper, we address the problem of mapping kinematic task specifications into a kinematic manipulator configuration. For the design of 2 degrees-of-freedom planar manipulators, an analytical solution is derived. Since, for problems with more than 2 design parameters, analytical solutions become impractical, we have also developed a numerical approach for the design of 6 degrees-of-freedom manipulators. 29 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Research on a Reconfigurable Modular Manipulator System

    SciTech Connect

    Khosla, P.K.; Kanade, T.

    1992-01-01

    Research has been conducted on developing the theoretical basis and the technology for a Reconfigurable Modular Manipulation System (RMMS). Unlike a conventional manipulator which has a fixed configuration, the RMMS consists of a set of interchangeable modules that can be rapidly assembled into a system of manipulators with appropriate configurations depending on the specific task requirement. For effective development and use of such a versatile and flexible system a program of theoretical and experimental research has been pursued aimed at developing the basis for next generation of autonomous manipulator systems. The RMMS concept extends the idea of autonomy from sensor-based to configuration based autonomy. One of the important components is the development of design methodologies for mapping tasks into manipulator configurations and for automatic generation of manipulator specific algorithms (e.g., kinematics and dynamics) in order to make the hardware transparent to the user.(JDB)

  14. Microbiota manipulation for weight change.

    PubMed

    Dror, Tal; Dickstein, Yaakov; Dubourg, Grégory; Paul, Mical

    2016-01-12

    Manipulation of the intestinal microbiota has been linked to weight changes and obesity. To explore the influence of specific agents that alter the intestinal flora on weight in different patient groups we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting on the effects of probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, and antibiotics on weight. We searched the Pubmed and Cochrane Library databases for trials on adults, children, and infants evaluating the effects of these substances on weight. Our primary outcome was weight change from baseline. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. We identified and included 13 adult, 17 children, and 23 infant RCTs. Effects were opposite among adults and children, showing weight loss among adults (SMD -0.54 [-0.83, -0.25)) and minor weight gains among children (SMD 0.20 [0.04, 0.36]) and infants (SMD 0.30 [-0.01, 0.62]) taking mainly Lactobacillus probiotic supplements. Heterogeneity was substantial in the adult and infant analyses and could not be explained by intervention or patient characteristics. Azithromycin administration in children with pulmonary disease was associated with weight gain (SMD 0.39 [0.24, 0.54]), without heterogeneity. A high risk of selective reporting and attrition bias was detected across the studies, making it difficult to draw firm conclusions. Overall, our meta-analysis suggests that there may be a role for probiotics in promoting weight loss in adults and weight gain in children, however additional studies are needed. Though we cannot recommend antibiotic administration for weight manipulation, its use provides advantageous weight gain in children with cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis.

  15. Virus manipulation of cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, R; Costa, H; Parkhouse, R M E

    2012-07-01

    Viruses depend on host cell resources for replication and access to those resources may be limited to a particular phase of the cell cycle. Thus manipulation of cell cycle is a commonly employed strategy of viruses for achieving a favorable cellular environment. For example, viruses capable of infecting nondividing cells induce S phase in order to activate the host DNA replication machinery and provide the nucleotide triphosphates necessary for viral DNA replication (Flemington in J Virol 75:4475-4481, 2001; Sullivan and Pipas in Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 66:179-202, 2002). Viruses have developed several strategies to subvert the cell cycle by association with cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinase complexes and molecules that regulate their activity. Viruses tend to act on cellular proteins involved in a network of interactions in a way that minimal protein-protein interactions lead to a major effect. The complex and interactive nature of intracellular signaling pathways controlling cell division affords many opportunities for virus manipulation strategies. Taking the maxim "Set a thief to catch a thief" as a counter strategy, however, provides us with the very same virus evasion strategies as "ready-made tools" for the development of novel antivirus therapeutics. The most obvious are attenuated virus vaccines with critical evasion genes deleted. Similarly, vaccines against viruses causing cancer are now being successfully developed. Finally, as viruses have been playing chess with our cell biology and immune responses for millions of years, the study of their evasion strategies will also undoubtedly reveal new control mechanisms and their corresponding cellular intracellular signaling pathways.

  16. Pneumatic artificial muscle actuators for compliant robotic manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Ryan Michael

    adaptive neural network control. Results demonstrated the benefits of an accurate model in model-based control, and the advantages of adaptive neural network control when a model is unavailable or variations in payload are expected. Lastly, a variable recruitment strategy was applied to a group of parallel muscles actuating a common joint. Increased manipulator efficiency was observed when fewer PAMs were activated, justifying the use of variable recruitment strategies. Overall, this research demonstrates the benefits of pneumatic artificial muscles as actuators in robotics applications. It demonstrates that PAM-based manipulators can be well-modeled and can achieve high tracking accuracy over a wide range of payloads and inputs while maintaining natural compliance.

  17. Medical Handbook for Pilots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This handbook provides information on an airline pilot's physical and mental status and related medical factors which may affect his/her performance. Contents include information on the physical examination for pilots, the flyer's environment, hypoxia, hyperventilation, gas in the body, the ears, alcohol, drugs and flying, carbon monoxide, vision,…

  18. SuperPILOT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissmann, Stephen M.

    1983-01-01

    SuperPILOT is Apple Computer's new computer assisted instruction authoring language. Provided is a review of SuperPILOT, indicated to be ideally suited for the development of interactive tutorials for the classroom. Includes comments on the language's strengths/weaknesses as well as comments on system requirements and special program features. (JN)

  19. Preparing Pilots for Takeoff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravage, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Why would schools consider partnering with a vendor to operate a pilot? Why not just wait until the final product is released? For starters, pilots provide schools with a golden opportunity to get an early look at the software, take it for a test flight, and ask for changes tailored to their operating environment and business needs. In some cases,…

  20. Preparing Pilots for Takeoff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravage, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Why would schools consider partnering with a vendor to operate a pilot? Why not just wait until the final product is released? For starters, pilots provide schools with a golden opportunity to get an early look at the software, take it for a test flight, and ask for changes tailored to their operating environment and business needs. In some cases,…

  1. Combined expectancies: electrophysiological evidence for the adjustment of expectancy effects

    PubMed Central

    Mattler, Uwe; van der Lugt, Arie; Münte, Thomas F

    2006-01-01

    Background When subjects use cues to prepare for a likely stimulus or a likely response, reaction times are facilitated by valid cues but prolonged by invalid cues. In studies on combined expectancy effects, two cues can independently give information regarding two dimensions of the forthcoming task. In certain situations, cueing effects on one dimension are reduced when the cue on the other dimension is invalid. According to the Adjusted Expectancy Model, cues affect different processing levels and a mechanism is presumed which is sensitive to the validity of early level cues and leads to online adjustment of expectancy effects at later levels. To examine the predictions of this model cueing of stimulus modality was combined with response cueing. Results Behavioral measures showed the interaction of cueing effects. Electrophysiological measures of the lateralized readiness potential (LRP) and the N200 amplitude confirmed the predictions of the model. The LRP showed larger effects of response cues on response activation when modality cues were valid rather than invalid. N200 amplitude was largest with valid modality cues and invalid response cues, medium with invalid modality cues, and smallest with two valid cues. Conclusion Findings support the view that the validity of early level expectancies modulates the effects of late level expectancies, which included response activation and response conflict in the present study. PMID:16674805

  2. Spatial-Operator Algebra For Robotic Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo; Kreutz, Kenneth K.; Milman, Mark H.

    1991-01-01

    Report discusses spatial-operator algebra developed in recent studies of mathematical modeling, control, and design of trajectories of robotic manipulators. Provides succinct representation of mathematically complicated interactions among multiple joints and links of manipulator, thereby relieving analyst of most of tedium of detailed algebraic manipulations. Presents analytical formulation of spatial-operator algebra, describes some specific applications, summarizes current research, and discusses implementation of spatial-operator algebra in the Ada programming language.

  3. Optical manipulation by nonlinear response of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Hajime; Nakai, Tatsuya; Hoshina, Masayuki; Kudo, Tetsuhiro

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the optical manipulation of nanoparticles with the resonant nonlinear optical response. Efficient trapping of nanoparticles observed in experiments under the resonance condition is elucidated by considering optical nonlinearity. Also, we propose the flexible optical manipulations of nanoparticles that have gain by optical pumping. The pulling force and the rotational switching are demonstrated, where the stimulated emission from nanoparticles with inverted population is considered. These results show that utilizing nonlinear optical effect will greatly enhance the degrees of freedom to manipulate nanoparticles.

  4. Bracing micro/macro manipulators control

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, J.Y.; Book, W.J.

    1994-05-01

    This paper proposes a bracing strategy for micro/macro manipulators. The bracing micro/macro manipulator can provide advantages in accurate positioning, large work-space, and contact-task capability however, in exchange for improvement in performance one must accept the complex control problem along wit the complex dynamics. This research develops a control scheme for a bracing manipulator which makes multiple contacts with the environment. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed ideas for real world applications.

  5. Modeling Pilot State in Next Generation Aircraft Alert Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlin, Alan S.; Alexander, Amy L.; Schurr, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    The Next Generation Air Transportation System will introduce new, advanced sensor technologies into the cockpit that must convey a large number of potentially complex alerts. Our work focuses on the challenges associated with prioritizing aircraft sensor alerts in a quick and efficient manner, essentially determining when and how to alert the pilot This "alert decision" becomes very difficult in NextGen due to the following challenges: 1) the increasing number of potential hazards, 2) the uncertainty associated with the state of potential hazards as well as pilot slate , and 3) the limited time to make safely-critical decisions. In this paper, we focus on pilot state and present a model for anticipating duration and quality of pilot behavior, for use in a larger system which issues aircraft alerts. We estimate pilot workload, which we model as being dependent on factors including mental effort, task demands. and task performance. We perform a mathematically rigorous analysis of the model and resulting alerting plans. We simulate the model in software and present simulated results with respect to manipulation of the pilot measures.

  6. Culture and Manipulation of Embryonic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Lois G.; Goldstein, Bob

    2012-01-01

    The direct manipulation of embryonic cells is an important tool for addressing key questions in cell and developmental biology. C. elegans is relatively unique among genetic model systems in being amenable to manipulation of embryonic cells. Embryonic cell manipulation has allowed the identification of cell interactions by direct means, and it has been an important technique for dissecting mechanisms by which cell fates are specified, cell divisions are oriented, and morphogenesis is accomplished. Here, we present detailed methods for isolating, manipulating and culturing embryonic cells of C. elegans. PMID:22226523

  7. Earth orbital teleoperator manipulator system evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, M., III; Shields, N. L., Jr.; Frederick, P. N.; Brye, R.; Malone, T. B.

    1975-01-01

    The performance of an orbital teleoperator system which includes small dextrous servicing manipulators to be used in satellite servicing was examined. System/operator performance testing was implemented and the results of a fine positioning control test using two different manipulator systems varying widely in manipulator configuration and control systems are presented. Fine position control is viewed as representing a fundamental requirement placed on manipulator control. The relationship of position control to more complex tasks which directly represent on-orbit servicing operations are also presented.

  8. Compliant Gripper for a Robotic Manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cipra, Raymond; Das, Hari

    2003-01-01

    A figure depicts a prototype of a robotic-manipulator gripping device that includes two passive compliant fingers, suitable for picking up and manipulating objects that have irregular shapes and/or that are, themselves, compliant. The main advantage offered by this device over other robotic-manipulator gripping devices is simplicity: Because of the compliance of the fingers, force-feedback control of the fingers is not necessary for gripping objects of a variety of sizes, shapes, textures, and degrees of compliance. Examples of objects that can be manipulated include small stones, articles of clothing, and parts of plants.

  9. Color snakes for dynamic lighting conditions on mobile manipulation platforms.

    SciTech Connect

    Schaub, Hanspeter; Smith, Christopher Elmer (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-03-01

    Statistical active contour models (aka statistical pressure snakes) have attractive properties for use in mobile manipulation platforms as both a method for use in visual servoing and as a natural component of a human-computer interface. Unfortunately, the constantly changing illumination expected in outdoor environments presents problems for statistical pressure snakes and for their image gradient-based predecessors. This paper introduces a new color-based variant of statistical pressure snakes that gives superior performance under dynamic lighting conditions and improves upon the previously published results of attempts to incorporate color imagery into active deformable models.

  10. Free-Swinging Failure Tolerance for Robotic Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, James

    1997-01-01

    Under this GSRP fellowship, software-based failure-tolerance techniques were developed for robotic manipulators. The focus was on failures characterized by the loss of actuator torque at a joint, called free-swinging failures. The research results spanned many aspects of the free-swinging failure-tolerance problem, from preparing for an expected failure to discovery of postfailure capabilities to establishing efficient methods to realize those capabilities. Developed algorithms were verified using computer-based dynamic simulations, and these were further verified using hardware experiments at Johnson Space Center.

  11. Predictors of outcome after manipulation under anaesthesia in patients with a stiff total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Vanlommel, L; Luyckx, T; Vercruysse, G; Bellemans, J; Vandenneucker, H

    2016-12-29

    Flexion in a stiff total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can be improved by manipulation under anaesthesia (MUA). Although this intervention usually results in an improvement in range of motion, the expected result is not always achieved. The purpose of this study is to determine which factors affect range of motion after manipulation in patients with a stiff total knee. After exclusion (n = 22), the data of 158 patients (138 knees) with a stiff knee after TKA who received a manipulation under anaesthesia between 2004 and 2014 were retrospectively analysed. Pre-, peri- and post-operative variables were identified and examined for their influence on flexion after the manipulation using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests and Spearman correlations. After MUA, a mean improvement in flexion of 30.3° was observed at the final follow-up. Preoperative TKA flexion, design of TKA and interval between TKA procedure and MUA were positive associated with an increase in flexion after MUA. MUA performed 12 weeks or more after TKA procedure deteriorated the outcome. Three factors, pre-TKA flexion type of prosthesis and interval between TKA procedure and manipulation under anaesthesia, were found to have impact on flexion after TKA and MUA were identified. Results are expected to be inferior in patients with low flexion before TKA procedure or with a long interval (>12 weeks) between the TKA procedure and the manipulation under anaesthesia. IV.

  12. Interactive effects of contextual cues and acute alcohol intoxication on the associations between alcohol expectancy activation and urge to drink.

    PubMed

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the joint effects of contextual cues and alcohol intoxication on the associations between activation of positive and negative alcohol expectancies in memory and self-reported urges to drink alcohol after a laboratory alcohol administration. Young adult heavy drinkers were randomly assigned to drink a moderate dose of alcohol or a placebo (alcohol manipulation), and then listened to positive or negative drinking scenarios (cue manipulation). Before and after these manipulations, participants completed an alcohol expectancy Stroop task assessing positive and negative expectancy activation, as well as self-report measures of urges to drink. Regression analyses revealed that the alcohol and cue manipulations had a joint, moderating impact on the associations between expectancy activation and postcue changes in urge to drink. Specifically, both increased activation of negative expectancies and decreased activation of positive expectancies predicted decreases in urges to drink, but only for intoxicated participants in the negative cue condition. There were no associations between expectancy activation and urges to drink for those in the positive cue condition regardless of beverage condition. Results suggest that whether memory activation of alcohol expectancies has an impact on urge to drink after alcohol is on board may depend on the relevance of the activated expectancies to the current drinking context. This process appears to be influenced by a complex interaction between contextual cues in the environment and the pharmacological effects of alcohol.

  13. Kinematics and Control of Robot Manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paden, Bradley Evan

    This dissertation focuses on the kinematics and control of robot manipulators. The contribution to kinematics is a fundamental theorem on the design of manipulators with six revolute joints. The theorem states, roughly speaking, that manipulators which have six revolute joints and are modeled after the human arm are optimal and essentially unique. In developing the mathematical framework to prove this theorem, we define precisely the notions of length of a manipulator, well-connected-workspace, and work-volume. We contribute to control a set of analysis techniques for the design of variable structure (sliding mode) controllers for manipulators. The organization of the dissertation is the following. After introductory remarks in chapter one, the group of proper rigid motions, G, is introduced in chapter two. The tangent bundle of G is introduced and it is shown that the velocity of a rigid body can be represented by an element in the Lie algebra of G (commonly called a twist). Further, rigid motions which are exponentials of twists are used to describe four commonly occurring subproblems in robot kinematics. In chapter three, the exponentials of twists are used to write the forward kinematic map of robot manipulators and the subproblems of chapter two are used to solve the Stanford manipulator and an elbow manipulator. Chapter four focuses on manipulator singularities. Twist coordinates are used to find critical points of the forward kinematic map. The contribution to kinematics is contained in chapter five where a mathematical framework for studying the relationship between the design of 6R manipulators and their performance is developed. Chapter seven contains the contribution to control. The work of A. F. Filippov on differential equations with discontinuous right-hand-side and the work of F. H. Clarke on generalized gradients are combined to obtain a calculus for analyzing nonsmooth gradient systems. The techniques developed are applied to design a simple

  14. 14 CFR 61.94 - Student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a recreational pilot certificate: Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Student pilot seeking a sport pilot... Student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a recreational pilot certificate: Operations at... operational control tower in other airspace. (a) A student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a...

  15. 14 CFR 61.94 - Student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a recreational pilot certificate: Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Student pilot seeking a sport pilot... Student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a recreational pilot certificate: Operations at... operational control tower in other airspace. (a) A student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a...

  16. 14 CFR 61.94 - Student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a recreational pilot certificate: Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Student pilot seeking a sport pilot... Student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a recreational pilot certificate: Operations at... operational control tower in other airspace. (a) A student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or...

  17. 14 CFR 61.94 - Student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a recreational pilot certificate: Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Student pilot seeking a sport pilot... Student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a recreational pilot certificate: Operations at... operational control tower in other airspace. (a) A student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or...

  18. 14 CFR 61.94 - Student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a recreational pilot certificate: Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Student pilot seeking a sport pilot... Student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a recreational pilot certificate: Operations at... operational control tower in other airspace. (a) A student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or...

  19. Pilot Searfoss in experiment measuring effects space flight & pilot ability

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-10-18

    STS058-14-006 (18 Oct- 1 Nov 1993) --- Astronaut Richard A. Searfoss, pilot, participates in an experiment that measures the effects of space flight on pilot proficiency. Astronauts Searfoss (seen here at the pilot's station) and John E. Blaha, mission commander, are conducting the first tests of the Portable Inflight Landing Operations Trainer (PILOT). STS-58 is the first of six scheduled test flights of PILOT designed to determine its effectiveness as a training tool.

  20. Test expectancy affects metacomprehension accuracy.

    PubMed

    Thiede, Keith W; Wiley, Jennifer; Griffin, Thomas D

    2011-06-01

    Theory suggests that the accuracy of metacognitive monitoring is affected by the cues used to judge learning. Researchers have improved monitoring accuracy by directing attention to more appropriate cues; however, this is the first study to more directly point students to more appropriate cues using instructions regarding tests and practice tests. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the accuracy metacognitive monitoring was affected by the nature of the test expected. Students (N= 59) were randomly assigned to one of two test expectancy groups (memory vs. inference). Then after reading texts, judging learning, completed both memory and inference tests. Test performance and monitoring accuracy were superior when students received the kind of test they had been led to expect rather than the unexpected test. Tests influence students' perceptions of what constitutes learning. Our findings suggest that this could affect how students prepare for tests and how they monitoring their own learning. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  1. A technique with manipulator-assisted endoscope guidance for functional endoscopic sinus surgery: proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Milos; Gröbner, Christina; Dietz, Andreas; Krinninger, Maximillian; Lüth, Tim C; Strauss, Gero

    2011-11-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the theoretical feasibility of a new manipulator system for endoscope guidance in functional endoscopic sinus surgery. The accuracy of endoscope positioning and time of endoscope movement with an endoscope manipulator system were determined with an artificial sinus model. A laboratory trial was performed. The time for 60 repetitions of manual compared to manipulator-assisted endoscope movements directed at 3 different target positions was evaluated. In addition, the alignment of the position vector for each endoscope movement was examined. A zero-degree Hopkins II telescope with a camera was used to head for the target positions. First, the endoscope movements were done manually, and afterward the endoscope manipulator system was used for endoscope guidance. The alignment of the position vector of the endoscope was measured with a portable measuring arm. There was no statistical difference between the time for manual and manipulator-assisted endoscope movements for all target positions. The alignment of the position vector of the endoscope was statistically different at 2 target positions: anterior ethmoid left side and ostium of maxillary sinus left side. There was no statistical difference at all other positions. The endoscope manipulator system has the potential to be integrated into the operating workflow without extending the time for endoscope guidance. The surgeon will be able to use both hands for the manipulation of the instruments. Less frequent endoscope movements and instrument changes may be expected after technical modification.

  2. Cervical epidural hematoma after chiropractic spinal manipulation.

    PubMed

    Heiner, Jason D

    2009-10-01

    Spinal epidural hematoma is a rare but potentially devastating complication of spinal manipulation therapy. This is a case report of a healthy pregnant female who presented to the emergency department with a cervical epidural hematoma resulting from chiropractic spinal manipulation therapy that responded to conservative treatment rather than the more common route of surgical management.

  3. Teachers' Beliefs and Teaching Mathematics with Manipulatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golafshani, Nahid

    2013-01-01

    To promote the implementation of manipulatives into mathematics instruction, this research project examined how the instructional practices of four Grade 9 applied mathematics teachers related to their beliefs about the use of manipulatives in teaching mathematics, its effects on students' learning, and enabling and disabling factors. Teacher…

  4. Count on It: Congruent Manipulative Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, Joe; Samelson, Vicki M.

    2015-01-01

    Representations that create informative visual displays are powerful tools for communicating mathematical concepts. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics encourages the use of manipulatives (NCTM 2000). Manipulative materials are often used to present initial representations of basic numerical principles to young children, and it is…

  5. Manipulating Language: A Strategy for Teaching Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Prudence P.

    Literary artists manipulate language. If educators could develop in their students the same sense that language is manipulable, they could help them to better appreciate literature. Emily Dickinson's poem "I Like to See It Lap the Miles" could be approached by changing it on several levels--graphics, phonics, syntax, and semantics--and…

  6. Count on It: Congruent Manipulative Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, Joe; Samelson, Vicki M.

    2015-01-01

    Representations that create informative visual displays are powerful tools for communicating mathematical concepts. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics encourages the use of manipulatives (NCTM 2000). Manipulative materials are often used to present initial representations of basic numerical principles to young children, and it is…

  7. Spinal manipulative therapy in sports medicine.

    PubMed

    Haldeman, S

    1986-04-01

    Spinal manipulation or manual therapy is becoming an increasingly popular method of treating athletes with spinal problems. The primary theoretic basis for the claimed beneficial results of manipulation is the restoration of motion with subsequent effect on ligamentous adhesions, muscle spasm, disk nutrition, and central nervous system endorphin systems. The concept of joint barriers has been developed to differentiate among exercise therapy, mobilization, and manipulation. Research trials suggest that spinal manipulation is beneficial in relieving or reducing the duration of acute low back pain and acute neck pain but has much less effect on chronic low back pain and neck pain. There is evidence that manipulation increases certain parameters of motion of the spine but this evidence is not yet conclusive. There are a wide variety of manipulative procedures that are utilized to manipulate the spine to increase range of motion, and the selection of the procedures is based on manual diagnostic skills. Manipulation, however, is not a benign procedure and has been implicated in the aggravation of disk herniation or bony fractures as well as the precipitation of vertebrobasilar artery occlusion.

  8. Manipulating Language: A Strategy for Teaching Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Prudence P.

    Literary artists manipulate language. If educators could develop in their students the same sense that language is manipulable, they could help them to better appreciate literature. Emily Dickinson's poem "I Like to See It Lap the Miles" could be approached by changing it on several levels--graphics, phonics, syntax, and semantics--and…

  9. Welding torch and wire feed manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. T.

    1967-01-01

    Welding torch and wire feed manipulator increase capability for performing automatic welding operations. The manipulator rotates on its horizontal axis to avoid obstacles as they approach the torch. The initial individual attitudes of the torch and wire guide are set with respect to the general configuration of the part.

  10. Light Manipulation in Organic Photovoltaics

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Qing‐Dong

    2016-01-01

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) hold great promise for next‐generation photovoltaics in renewable energy because of the potential to realize low‐cost mass production via large‐area roll‐to‐roll printing technologies on flexible substrates. To achieve high‐efficiency OPVs, one key issue is to overcome the insufficient photon absorption in organic photoactive layers, since their low carrier mobility limits the film thickness for minimized charge recombination loss. To solve the inherent trade‐off between photon absorption and charge transport in OPVs, the optical manipulation of light with novel micro/nano‐structures has become an increasingly popular strategy to boost the light harvesting efficiency. In this Review, we make an attempt to capture the recent advances in this area. A survey of light trapping schemes implemented to various functional components and interfaces in OPVs is given and discussed from the viewpoint of plasmonic and photonic resonances, addressing the external antireflection coatings, substrate geometry‐induced trapping, the role of electrode design in optical enhancement, as well as optically modifying charge extraction and photoactive layers. PMID:27840805

  11. Interactive digital image manipulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henze, J.; Dezur, R.

    1975-01-01

    The system is designed for manipulation, analysis, interpretation, and processing of a wide variety of image data. LANDSAT (ERTS) and other data in digital form can be input directly into the system. Photographic prints and transparencies are first converted to digital form with an on-line high-resolution microdensitometer. The system is implemented on a Hewlett-Packard 3000 computer with 128 K bytes of core memory and a 47.5 megabyte disk. It includes a true color display monitor, with processing memories, graphics overlays, and a movable cursor. Image data formats are flexible so that there is no restriction to a given set of remote sensors. Conversion between data types is available to provide a basis for comparison of the various data. Multispectral data is fully supported, and there is no restriction on the number of dimensions. In this way multispectral data collected at more than one point in time may simply be treated as a data collected with twice (three times, etc.) the number of sensors. There are various libraries of functions available to the user: processing functions, display functions, system functions, and earth resources applications functions.

  12. Light Manipulation in Organic Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Ou, Qing-Dong; Li, Yan-Qing; Tang, Jian-Xin

    2016-07-01

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) hold great promise for next-generation photovoltaics in renewable energy because of the potential to realize low-cost mass production via large-area roll-to-roll printing technologies on flexible substrates. To achieve high-efficiency OPVs, one key issue is to overcome the insufficient photon absorption in organic photoactive layers, since their low carrier mobility limits the film thickness for minimized charge recombination loss. To solve the inherent trade-off between photon absorption and charge transport in OPVs, the optical manipulation of light with novel micro/nano-structures has become an increasingly popular strategy to boost the light harvesting efficiency. In this Review, we make an attempt to capture the recent advances in this area. A survey of light trapping schemes implemented to various functional components and interfaces in OPVs is given and discussed from the viewpoint of plasmonic and photonic resonances, addressing the external antireflection coatings, substrate geometry-induced trapping, the role of electrode design in optical enhancement, as well as optically modifying charge extraction and photoactive layers.

  13. Dielectric nanoresonators for light manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhong-Jian; Jiang, Ruibin; Zhuo, Xiaolu; Xie, Ya-Ming; Wang, Jianfang; Lin, Hai-Qing

    2017-07-01

    Nanostructures made of dielectric materials with high or moderate refractive indexes can support strong electric and magnetic resonances in the optical region. They can therefore function as nanoresonators. In addition to plasmonic metal nanostructures that have been widely investigated, dielectric nanoresonators provide a new type of building blocks for realizing powerful and versatile nanoscale light manipulation. In contrast to plasmonic metal nanostructures, nanoresonators made of appropriate dielectric materials are low-cost, earth-abundant and have very small or even negligible light energy losses. As a result, they will find potential applications in a number of photonic devices, especially those that require low energy losses. In this review, we describe the recent progress on the experimental and theoretical studies of dielectric nanoresonators. We start from the basic theory of the electromagnetic responses of dielectric nanoresonators and their fabrication methods. The optical properties of individual dielectric nanoresonators are then elaborated, followed by the coupling behaviors between dielectric nanoresonators, between dielectric nanoresonators and substrates, and between dielectric nanoresonators and plasmonic metal nanostructures. The applications of dielectric nanoresonators are further described. Finally, the challenges and opportunities in this field are discussed.

  14. Interactive digital image manipulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henze, J.; Dezur, R.

    1975-01-01

    The system is designed for manipulation, analysis, interpretation, and processing of a wide variety of image data. LANDSAT (ERTS) and other data in digital form can be input directly into the system. Photographic prints and transparencies are first converted to digital form with an on-line high-resolution microdensitometer. The system is implemented on a Hewlett-Packard 3000 computer with 128 K bytes of core memory and a 47.5 megabyte disk. It includes a true color display monitor, with processing memories, graphics overlays, and a movable cursor. Image data formats are flexible so that there is no restriction to a given set of remote sensors. Conversion between data types is available to provide a basis for comparison of the various data. Multispectral data is fully supported, and there is no restriction on the number of dimensions. In this way multispectral data collected at more than one point in time may simply be treated as a data collected with twice (three times, etc.) the number of sensors. There are various libraries of functions available to the user: processing functions, display functions, system functions, and earth resources applications functions.

  15. Genetic manipulation of Coxiella burnetii.

    PubMed

    Beare, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    Until very recently, Coxiella burnetii was viewed and studied as an obligate intracellular bacterium that relied exclusively on a eucaryotic host cell for growth. Other medically relevant obligate intracellular bacteria reside in the genera Anaplasma, Chlamydia, Ehrlichia, Orientia, and Rickettsia. An obligate intracellular lifestyle presents a significant obstacle to genetic transformation. Procedures that are straightforward with free-living bacteria, such as antibiotic selection and cloning, can be very difficult when growth of transformants is restricted to a host cell. Long-term passage in host cells to expand small transformant populations can further complicate the procedure. Despite these and other obstacles, at least rudimentary systems are currently available for genetic transformation of most obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens. Dramatically aiding the development of new genetic methods for C. burnetii is the recent discovery of a medium that supports host cell-free growth of the organism in liquid, and importantly, on solid media as clonal colonies. The expanded C. burnetii genetics toolbox now includes transposon systems for random mutagenesis and single-copy, site-specific chromosomal gene knock-ins, as well as a shuttle vector for heterologous gene expression and in trans complementation. A reliable method of targeted gene inactivation remains a challenge. Advances in C. burnetii genetic manipulation will allow identification of genes essential for intracellular parasitism and disease pathogenesis, and undoubtedly fuel new interest in this minimally studied bacterial pathogen.

  16. Coanda-assisted Spray Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabey, Katie; Smith, Barton; Archibald, Reid; West, Brian

    2009-11-01

    An overview of research on a flow control technique called Coanda-assisted Spray Manipulation (CSM) is presented. CSM uses a high-momentum control jet under the influence of the Coanda effect to vector a high volume-flow jet or spray. Actuators provide the capability of moving the location of applied control flow making rotary or arbitrary motion of the vectored flow possible. The presented work includes a fundamental isothermal study on the effects of rotation speed and Reynolds number on a vectored jet using a belt-driven CSM actuator. Three-component velocity data were acquired for three Reynolds numbers and three rotation speeds using timed resolved high-speed stereo Particle Image Velocimetry. A second CSM system with 16 pneumatically-driven control ports has been retrofitted to a flame spray gun. This combination provides the capability to rapidly alter the direction of applied metal powders. High speed video of this process will also be presented. Finally, a fundamental study on the pneumatic system's response to minor losses and connection lines of varying lengths is presented.

  17. Genetic manipulation of Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Davis-Hayman, Sara R; Nash, Theodore E

    2002-06-01

    Giardia lamblia is a flagellated protozoan that infects several species including humans and is a major agent of waterborne outbreaks of diarrhea. G. lamblia is also important in the study of basic eukaryotic molecular biology and evolution; however, it has been difficult to employ standard genetic methods in the study of Giardia. Over the past 6 years, two transfection systems were developed and used for the genetic manipulation of G. lamblia. Both systems allow transient or stable transfection of Giardia and/or foreign genes. The DNA-based transfection system allows electroporation of circular or linear plasmid DNA into trophozoites. The RNA virus-based transfection system requires electroporation of in vitro transcribed RNA into GLV-infected trophozoites. Because G. lamblia is one of the most rudimentary eukaryotes, its processes of transcription, translation and protein transport, as well as its metabolic and biochemical pathways, are of interest. Study of these areas will continue to be advanced using transfection in combination with cellular and molecular tools. Several groups have combined these technologies with other techniques to study protein transport and the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of Giardia genes, including encystation-specific and variant surface protein genes. In addition, coupling antisense techniques with transfection has permitted functional knockout of Giardia metabolic genes, allowing Giardia metabolic pathways to be studied. In the near future, both transfection systems will be potent tools in our investigations of the perplexing questions in Giardia biology.

  18. Manipulating Semicrystalline Polymers in Confinement.

    PubMed

    Shingne, Nitin; Geuss, Markus; Thurn-Albrecht, Thomas; Schmidt, Hans-Werner; Mijangos, Carmen; Steinhart, Martin; Martín, Jaime

    2017-08-17

    Because final properties of nanoscale polymeric structures are largely determined by the solid-state microstructure of the confined polymer, it is imperative not only to understand how the microstructure of polymers develops under nanoscale confinement but also to establish means to manipulate it. Here we present a series of processing strategies, adapted from methods used in bulk polymer processing, that allow us to control the solidification of polymer nanostructures. First, we show that supramolecular nucleating agents can be readily used to modify the crystallization kinetics of confined poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF). In addition, we demonstrate that microstructural features that are not traditionally affected by nucleating agents, such as the orientation of crystals, can be tuned with the crystallization temperature applied. Interestingly, we also show that high crystallization temperatures and long annealing periods induce the formation of the γ modification of PVDF, hence enabling the simple production of ferro/piezoelectric nanostructures. We anticipate that the approaches presented here can open up a plethora of new possibilities for the processing of polymer-based nanostructures with tailored properties and functionalities.

  19. Microcrystal manipulation with laser tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Armin Duman, Ramona; Stevens, Bob; Ward, Andy

    2013-07-01

    Optical trapping has successfully been applied to select and mount microcrystals for subsequent X-ray diffraction experiments. X-ray crystallography is the method of choice to deduce atomic resolution structural information from macromolecules. In recent years, significant investments in structural genomics initiatives have been undertaken to automate all steps in X-ray crystallography from protein expression to structure solution. Robotic systems are widely used to prepare crystallization screens and change samples on synchrotron beamlines for macromolecular crystallography. The only remaining manual handling step is the transfer of the crystal from the mother liquor onto the crystal holder. Manual mounting is relatively straightforward for crystals with dimensions of >25 µm; however, this step is nontrivial for smaller crystals. The mounting of microcrystals is becoming increasingly important as advances in microfocus synchrotron beamlines now allow data collection from crystals with dimensions of only a few micrometres. To make optimal usage of these beamlines, new approaches have to be taken to facilitate and automate this last manual handling step. Optical tweezers, which are routinely used for the manipulation of micrometre-sized objects, have successfully been applied to sort and mount macromolecular crystals on newly designed crystal holders. Diffraction data from CPV type 1 polyhedrin microcrystals mounted with laser tweezers are presented.

  20. Pilot weather advisor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, W. A.; Seth, S.; Crabill, N. L.; Shipley, S. T.; Graffman, I.; Oneill, J.

    1992-01-01

    The results of the work performed by ViGYAN, Inc., to demonstrate the Pilot Weather Advisor cockpit weather data system using a broadcast satellite communication system are presented. The Pilot Weather Advisor demonstrated that the technical problems involved with transmitting significant amount of weather data to an aircraft in-flight or on-the-ground via satellite are solvable with today's technology. The Pilot Weather Advisor appears to be a viable solution for providing accurate and timely weather information for general aviation aircraft.

  1. Pilot Weather Advisor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindamood, Glenn; Martzaklis, Konstantinos Gus; Hoffler, Keith; Hill, Damon; Mehrotra, Sudhir C.; White, E. Richard; Fisher, Bruce D.; Crabill, Norman L.; Tucholski, Allen D.

    2006-01-01

    The Pilot Weather Advisor (PWA) system is an automated satellite radio-broadcasting system that provides nearly real-time weather data to pilots of aircraft in flight anywhere in the continental United States. The system was designed to enhance safety in two distinct ways: First, the automated receipt of information would relieve the pilot of the time-consuming and distracting task of obtaining weather information via voice communication with ground stations. Second, the presentation of the information would be centered around a map format, thereby making the spatial and temporal relationships in the surrounding weather situation much easier to understand

  2. Use of commercial manipulator to handle a nuclear weapon component

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, C.P.

    1994-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has developed a manipulator workcell to load and unload nuclear weapon pit assemblies from a cart. To develop this workcell, PNL procured a commercially available manipulator, equipped it with force-sensing and vision equipment, and developed manipulator control software. Manipulator workcell development demonstrated that commercially available manipulator systems can successfully perform this task if the appropriate manipulator is selected and the manipulator workcell tooling and software are carefully designed.

  3. Mathematical Modeling For Control Of A Flexible Manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Anren

    1996-01-01

    Improved method of mathematical modeling of dynamics of flexible robotic manipulators developed for use in controlling motions of manipulators. Involves accounting for effect, upon modes of vibration of manipulator, of changes in configuration of manipulator and manipulated payload(s). Flexible manipulator has one or more long, slender articulated link(s), like those used in outer space, method also applicable to terrestrial industrial robotic manipulators with relatively short, stiff links, or to such terrestrial machines as construction cranes.

  4. On stiffening cables of a long reach manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.L.; Santiago, P.

    1996-02-01

    A long reach manipulator will be used for waste remediation in large underground storage tanks. The manipulator`s slenderness makes it flexible and difficult to control. A low-cost and effective method to enhance the manipulator`s stiffness is proposed in this research by using suspension cables. These cables can also be used to accurately measure the position of the manipulator`s wrist.

  5. Development of a nano manipulator based on an atomic force microscope coupled with a haptic device: a novel manipulation tool for scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Futoshi; Kawanishi, Shinsuke; Aoyama, Hisayuki; Ushiki, Tatsuo

    2009-01-01

    We developed a novel nano manipulator based on an atomic force microscope (AFM) that can be operated inside the sample chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). This AFM manipulator is also coupled with a haptic device, and the nanometer-scale movement of the AFM cantilever can be scaled up to the millimeter-scale movement of the pen handle of the haptic device. Using this AFM manipulation system, we were able to observe the AFM cantilever and samples under the SEM and obtain topographical images of the AFM under the SEM. These AFM images contained quantitative height information of the sample that is difficult to obtain from SEM images. Our system was also useful for positioning the cantilever for accurate AFM manipulation because the manipulation scene could be directly observed in real time by SEM. Coupling of the AFM manipulator with the haptic device was also useful for manipulation in the SEM since the operator can move the AFM probe freely at any position on the sample surface while feeling the interaction force between the probe and the sample surface. We tested two types of cutting methods: simple cutting and vibration cutting. Our results showed that vibration cutting with probe oscillation is very useful for the dissection of biological samples which were dried for SEM observation. Thus, cultivated HeLa cells were successfully micro-dissected by vibration cutting, and the dissection process could be observed in real time in the SEM. This AFM manipulation system is expected to serve as a powerful tool for dissecting various biological samples at the micro and nanometer-scale under SEM observation.

  6. Observation of Metal Nanoparticles for Acoustic Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mian; Cai, Feiyan; Wang, Chen; Wang, Zhiyong; Meng, Long; Li, Fei; Zhang, Pengfei; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Hairong

    2017-05-01

    Use of acoustic trapping for the manipulation of objects is invaluable to many applications from cellular subdivision to biological assays. Despite remarkable progress in a wide size range, the precise acoustic manipulation of 0D nanoparticles where all the structural dimensions are much smaller than the acoustic wavelength is still present challenges. This study reports on the observation of metal nanoparticles with different nanostructures for acoustic manipulation. Results for the first time exhibit that the hollow nanostructures play more important factor than size in the nanoscale acoustic manipulation. The acoustic levitation and swarm aggregations of the metal nanoparticles can be easily realized at low energy and clinically acceptable acoustic frequency by hollowing their nanostructures. In addition, the behaviors of swarm aggregations can be flexibly regulated by the applied voltage and frequency. This study anticipates that the strategy based on the unique properties of the metal hollow nanostructures and the manipulation method will be highly desirable for many applications.

  7. Observation of Metal Nanoparticles for Acoustic Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mian; Cai, Feiyan; Wang, Chen; Wang, Zhiyong; Meng, Long; Li, Fei; Zhang, Pengfei; Liu, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Use of acoustic trapping for the manipulation of objects is invaluable to many applications from cellular subdivision to biological assays. Despite remarkable progress in a wide size range, the precise acoustic manipulation of 0D nanoparticles where all the structural dimensions are much smaller than the acoustic wavelength is still present challenges. This study reports on the observation of metal nanoparticles with different nanostructures for acoustic manipulation. Results for the first time exhibit that the hollow nanostructures play more important factor than size in the nanoscale acoustic manipulation. The acoustic levitation and swarm aggregations of the metal nanoparticles can be easily realized at low energy and clinically acceptable acoustic frequency by hollowing their nanostructures. In addition, the behaviors of swarm aggregations can be flexibly regulated by the applied voltage and frequency. This study anticipates that the strategy based on the unique properties of the metal hollow nanostructures and the manipulation method will be highly desirable for many applications. PMID:28546912

  8. Simulation and analysis of flexibly jointed manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Steve H.; Wen, John T.; Saridis, George M.

    1990-01-01

    Modeling, simulation, and analysis of robot manipulators with non-negligible joint flexibility are studied. A recursive Newton-Euler model of the flexibly jointed manipulator is developed with many advantages over the traditional Lagrange-Euler methods. The Newton-Euler approach leads to a method for the simulation of a flexibly jointed manipulator in which the number of computations grows linearly with the number of links. Additionally, any function for the flexibility between the motor and link may be used permitting the simulation of nonlinear effects, such as backlash, in a uniform manner for all joints. An analysis of the control problems for flexibly jointed manipulators is presented by converting the Newton-Euler model to a Lagrange-Euler form. The detailed structure available in the model is used to examine linearizing controllers and shows the dependency of the control on the choice of flexible model and structure of the manipulator.

  9. Evaluation of Behavioral Expectation Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zedeck, Sheldon; Baker, Henry T.

    Behavioral Expectation Scales developed by Smith and Kendall were evaluated. Results indicated slight interrater reliability between Head Nurses and Supervisors, moderate dependence among five performance dimensions, and correlation between two scales and tenure. Results are discussed in terms of procedural problems, critical incident problems,…

  10. Reasonable Expectation of Adult Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todaro, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Discusses staff behavioral problems that prove difficult for successful library management. Suggests that reasonable expectations for behavior need to be established in such areas as common courtesies, environmental issues such as temperature and noise levels, work relationships and values, diverse work styles and ways of communicating, and…

  11. Great Expectations and New Beginnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Frances A.

    2009-01-01

    Great Expectation and New Beginnings is a prenatal family support program run by the Family, Infant, and Preschool Program (FIPP) in North Carolina. FIPP has developed an evidence-based integrated framework of early childhood intervention and family support that includes three primary components: providing intervention in everyday family…

  12. Expectation Effects in Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Albert S.

    1974-01-01

    The experiment reported here was conducted during a 12-month period at four plants owned by the same company. Managers were given artificial reports about previous findings obtained in implementing job enlargement and job rotation programs. Led to expect higher productivity as a result of these organizational innovations, the managers increased…

  13. Primary expectations of secondary metabolites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    My program examines the plant secondary metabolites (i.e. phenolics) important for human health, and which impart the organoleptic properties that are quality indicators for fresh and processed foods. Consumer expectations such as appearance, taste, or texture influence their purchasing decisions; a...

  14. Education: Expectation and the Unexpected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulford, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers concepts of expectation and responsibility, and how these drive dialogic interactions between tutor and student in an age of marketised Higher Education. In thinking about such interactions in terms of different forms of exchange, the paper considers the philosophy of Martin Buber and Emmanuel Levinas on dialogic…

  15. Teachers' Expectations and Pupil Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendels, Glen E.; Flanders, James P.

    1973-01-01

    Purpose of the study was to provide an adequate test of the original Rosenthal and Jacobson teacher expectancy hypothesis by using: (a) equivalent control and experimental groups based on pretest data, and (b) a more suitable test of intelligence. (Authors/CB)

  16. Metaphors As Storehouses of Expectation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavis, Allan K.; Thomas, A. Ross

    1996-01-01

    Explores how metaphors are used to identify and store some expectations that structure schools' interactions and communications. Outlines a systems-theoretical view of schools derived from Niklas Luhmann's social theories. Illustrates how the metaphors identified in an earlier study provide material contexts for identifying and storing structures…

  17. Primary expectations of secondary metabolites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant secondary metabolites (e.g., phenolics) are important for human health, in addition to the organoleptic properties they impart to fresh and processed foods. Consumer expectations such as appearance, taste, or texture influence their purchasing decisions. Thorough identification of phenolic com...

  18. Privacy Expectations in Online Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pure, Rebekah Abigail

    2013-01-01

    Advances in digital networked communication technology over the last two decades have brought the issue of personal privacy into sharper focus within contemporary public discourse. In this dissertation, I explain the Fourth Amendment and the role that privacy expectations play in the constitutional protection of personal privacy generally, and…

  19. The Confusing Expectations for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, Robin H.

    Frequently, the expectations placed on education can lead to confusion over its mission. How one college president, at career end, views the purpose of education is presented in this address. The paper details how educators have tried to meet myriad demands in the face of eroding social support systems, claiming that educators must limit their…

  20. Labor Market Experiences and Expectancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurin, Patricia

    This paper reports on a study which measured labor market experience and its possible effects on workers' psychological expectancies. Past efforts that employed black and white men and women had made to improve their market situations are described, as well as attributions they gave for their experiences. Work or educational changes attempted by…

  1. Metaphors As Storehouses of Expectation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavis, Allan K.; Thomas, A. Ross

    1996-01-01

    Explores how metaphors are used to identify and store some expectations that structure schools' interactions and communications. Outlines a systems-theoretical view of schools derived from Niklas Luhmann's social theories. Illustrates how the metaphors identified in an earlier study provide material contexts for identifying and storing structures…

  2. Expectation Effects in Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Albert S.

    1974-01-01

    The experiment reported here was conducted during a 12-month period at four plants owned by the same company. Managers were given artificial reports about previous findings obtained in implementing job enlargement and job rotation programs. Led to expect higher productivity as a result of these organizational innovations, the managers increased…

  3. Differentiated Staffing: Expectations and Pitfalls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbee, Don

    Once a differentiated staffing pattern has been adopted--with the understanding that it is not a panacea--staff members have an obligation to minimize distinctions of rank and prevent organizational rigidity by contributing in role areas other than their own and sharing in decisionmaking. Teacher aides are not expected to be substitutes for…

  4. Career Expectations of Accounting Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elam, Dennis; Mendez, Francis

    2010-01-01

    The demographic make-up of accounting students is dramatically changing. This study sets out to measure how well the profession is ready to accommodate what may be very different needs and expectations of this new generation of students. Non-traditional students are becoming more and more of a tradition in the current college classroom.…

  5. Life Expectancy of Kibbutz Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leviatan, Uri; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Data are presented demonstrating that the life expectancy of kibbutz members--both men and women--is higher than that of the overall Jewish population in Israel. These data add to and support other research findings illustrating the more positive mental health and well-being found among kibbutz members than among other comparative populations.…

  6. Life Expectancy of Kibbutz Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leviatan, Uri; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Data are presented demonstrating that the life expectancy of kibbutz members--both men and women--is higher than that of the overall Jewish population in Israel. These data add to and support other research findings illustrating the more positive mental health and well-being found among kibbutz members than among other comparative populations.…

  7. Privacy Expectations in Online Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pure, Rebekah Abigail

    2013-01-01

    Advances in digital networked communication technology over the last two decades have brought the issue of personal privacy into sharper focus within contemporary public discourse. In this dissertation, I explain the Fourth Amendment and the role that privacy expectations play in the constitutional protection of personal privacy generally, and…

  8. Undergraduates' Perceptions of Employer Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPre, Carrie; Williams, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Research conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) indicates that employers across industries seek similar skills in job applicants; yet employers often report finding these desired skills lacking in new hires. This study closes the gap in understanding between employer expectations and student perceptions regarding…

  9. Education: Expectation and the Unexpected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulford, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers concepts of expectation and responsibility, and how these drive dialogic interactions between tutor and student in an age of marketised Higher Education. In thinking about such interactions in terms of different forms of exchange, the paper considers the philosophy of Martin Buber and Emmanuel Levinas on dialogic…

  10. Evaluation of Behavioral Expectation Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zedeck, Sheldon; Baker, Henry T.

    Behavioral Expectation Scales developed by Smith and Kendall were evaluated. Results indicated slight interrater reliability between Head Nurses and Supervisors, moderate dependence among five performance dimensions, and correlation between two scales and tenure. Results are discussed in terms of procedural problems, critical incident problems,…

  11. Investigation of interactions between limb-manipulator dynamics and effective vehicle roll control characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, D. E.; Mcruer, D. T.

    1986-01-01

    A fixed-base simulation was performed to identify and quantify interactions between the pilot's hand/arm neuromuscular subsystem and such features of typical modern fighter aircraft roll rate command control system mechanization as: (1) force sensing side-stick type manipulator; (2) vehicle effective role time constant; and (3) flight control system effective time delay. The simulation results provide insight to high frequency pilot induced oscillations (PIO) (roll ratchet), low frequency PIO, and roll-to-right control and handling problems previously observed in experimental and production fly-by-wire control systems. The simulation configurations encompass and/or duplicate actual flight situations, reproduce control problems observed in flight, and validate the concept that the high frequency nuisance mode known as roll ratchet derives primarily from the pilot's neuromuscular subsystem. The simulations show that force-sensing side-stick manipulator force/displacement/command gradients, command prefilters, and flight control system time delays need to be carefully adjusted to minimize neuromuscular mode amplitude peaking (roll ratchet tendency) without restricting roll control bandwidth (with resulting sluggish or PIO prone control).

  12. Middle School Teachers' Expectations of Organizational Behaviors of Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, Rebecca C.; Shippen, Margaret E.; Dangel, Harry L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the specific classroom organizational behaviors that middle school inclusive teachers report as expectations for students with learning disabilities. Practicing middle school science and social studies teachers (n = 12) responded to a survey about organization behaviors of students with learning…

  13. Pilot programs offer valuable insight into competitive future

    SciTech Connect

    Warkentin, D.

    1997-03-01

    Retail wheeling pilot programs have quickly become the touchstone upon which utilities and other power suppliers can attempt to determine how their customers, as well as their competitors` customers, are going to react once full-scale customer choice becomes a reality. So important is the gauging of customer reaction to the whole notion of choice that there is little wonder why so many states have already initiated pilots or have passed retail wheeling pilot legislation. An intriguing question, then, revolves around the answer to the question, do pilot programs really mimic reality? This seems important because if pilots actually do help gauge a true retail wheeling scenario, then why don`t all states take part? It seems as though the investment would be well worth the effort. John Belgiovine, Plum Street Energy Marketing regional sales manager, agrees. Belgiovine said there is little doubt that pilots are a great idea and that while nothing but the true thing can actually be reality, he does feel pilot programs offer the closest thing to reality that utilities have right now - and that should be reason enough to invest in them. Utilities as well as marketers and other power suppliers participating in retail wheeling pilots - that is, being on a list of power suppliers that customers can choose from - are proving invaluable, he said. `We`re participating, as are others, to learn what customers want and then to answer some of their questions.` For energy marketers, Belgiovine said, there are particularly valuable learning lessons attached to pilots. The kinds of questions customers ask in regard to switching from a utility supplier to an alternative supplier (such as an energy marketer) and also learning what customers will expect in the competitive future would otherwise be a missing link were it not for pilots.

  14. Damping control of a large flexible manipulator through inertial forces of a small manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Trudnowski, D.J.; Baker, C.P.; Evans, M.S.

    1993-06-01

    Damping control is applied to a detailed computer model of a long- reach flexible manipulator test bed. The test bed consists of a long slender link with a dexterous manipulator mounted at its tip. The movement of the dexterous manipulator is controlled to create inertial damping forces on the long link. Parameter identification and sequential loop-closure are used to design a controller that feeds back relative tip position and velocity of the long link to control the azimuth angle of the dexterous manipulator. The controller is designed to be robust to varying manipulator loading conditions and reliable under sensor failures.

  15. 14 CFR 61.57 - Recent flight experience: Pilot in command.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... represent the period beginning 1 hour after sunset and ending 1 hour before sunrise. (f) Night vision goggle operating experience. (1) A person may act as pilot in command in a night vision goggle operation with... and logs the following tasks as the sole manipulator of the controls on a flight during a night...

  16. Pilot workload prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepitone, David D.; Shively, Robert J.; Bortolussi, Michael R.

    1988-01-01

    A predicting model of pilot workload is developed using a time-based algorithm, work-load values from previous research, and experimental data obtained by a group of experienced pilots on a Singer-Link Gat-1 instrument trainer with three degrees of motion (roll, pitch, and yaw). Each pilot performed three experimental flights presented in a counterbalanced order; each flight consisted of short, medium, or long cruise and initial approach segments. Results strongly suggest that pilots were more sensitive to the rate at which work was done than to the total amount of work accomplished. The result of predictions obtained with the model showed that the time-weighted average of the component work-load ratings were able to predict the obtained work-load ratings accurately.

  17. Dynamics and Manipulation of Nanomagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Liufei

    This thesis presents my work on the spin dynamics of nanomagnets and investigates the possibility of manipulating nanomagnets by various means. Most of the work has been published. Some has been submitted for publication. The structure of this thesis is as follows. In Chapter 1, I present the theory of manipulation of a nanomagnet by rotating ac fields whose frequency is time dependent. Theory has been developed that maps the problem onto Landau-Zener problem. For the linear frequency sweep the switching phase diagrams are obtained on the amplitude of the ac field and the frequency sweep rate. Switching conditions have been obtained numerically and analytically. For the nonlinear frequency sweep, the optimal time dependence of the frequency is obtained analytically with account of damping that gives the fastest controllable switching of the magnetization. In Chapter 2, interaction between a nanomagnet and a Josephson junction has been studied. The I-V curve of the Josephson junction in the proximity of a nanomagnet shows Shapiro-like steps due to the ac field generated by the precessing magnetic moment. Possibility of switching of the magnetic moment by a time-linear voltage in the Josephson junction is demonstrated. Realization of the optimal switching is suggested that employs two perpendicular Josephson junctions with time-dependent voltage signals. The result is shown to be robust against voltage noises. Quantum-mechanical coupling between the nanomagnet considered as a two-level system and a Josephson junction has been studied and quantum oscillations of the populations of the spin states have been computed. In Chapter 3, the switching dynamics of a nanomagnet embedded in a torsional oscillator that serves as a conducting wire for a spin current has been investigated. Generalized Slonczewski's equation is derived. The coupling of the nanomagnet, the torsional oscillator and the spin current generates a number of interesting phenomena. The mechanically

  18. Expectations affect psychological and neurophysiological benefits even after a single bout of exercise.

    PubMed

    Mothes, Hendrik; Leukel, Christian; Jo, Han-Gue; Seelig, Harald; Schmidt, Stefan; Fuchs, Reinhard

    2017-04-01

    The study investigated whether typical psychological, physiological, and neurophysiological changes from a single exercise are affected by one's beliefs and expectations. Seventy-six participants were randomly assigned to four groups and saw different multimedia presentations suggesting that the subsequent exercise (moderate 30 min cycling) would result in more or less health benefits (induced expectations). Additionally, we assessed habitual expectations reflecting previous experience and beliefs regarding exercise benefits. Participants with more positive habitual expectations consistently demonstrated both greater psychological benefits (more enjoyment, mood increase, and anxiety reduction) and greater increase of alpha-2 power, assessed with electroencephalography. Manipulating participants' expectations also resulted in largely greater increases of alpha-2 power, but not in more psychological exercise benefits. On the physiological level, participants decreased their blood pressure after exercising, but this was independent of their expectations. These results indicate that habitual expectations in particular affect exercise-induced psychological and neurophysiological changes in a self-fulfilling manner.

  19. Towards MRI guided surgical manipulator.

    PubMed

    Chinzei, K; Miller, K

    2001-01-01

    The advantages of surgical robots and manipulators are well recognized in the clinical and technical community. Precision, accuracy and the potential for telesurgery are the prime motivations in applying advanced robot technology in surgery. In this paper critical interactions between Magnetic Resonance Imaging equipment and mechatronic devices are discussed and a novel Magnetic Resonance compatible surgical robot is described. Experimental results of the effects from several passive (metallic materials) and active (ultrasound motors) mechanical elements are demonstrated. The design principles for Magnetic Resonance compatible robots are established and the compatibility of the proposed robot is assessed by comparing images taken with and without the robot's presence within Signa SP/I GE Medical Systems scanner. The results showed that, in principle, it is possible to construct precision mechatronic devices intended to operate inside MR scanner. Use of such a device will not cause image shift or significant degradation of signal-to-noise-ratio. An MR compatible surgical assist robot was designed and constructed. The robot is not affected by the presence of strong magnetic fields and is able to manoeuvre during imaging without compromising the quality of images. A novel image-guided robot control scheme was proposed. As a part of the control scheme, biomechanics-based organ deformation model was constructed and validated by in-vivo experiment. It has been recognised that for robust control of an image guided surgical robot the precise knowledge of the mechanical properties of soft organs operated on must be known. As an illustration, results in mathematical modelling and computer simulation of brain deformation are given. The novel MR compatible robot was designed to position and direct an axisymmetric tool, such as a laser pointer or a biopsy catheter. New Robot control system based on the prediction of soft organ deformation was proposed.

  20. Caffeine expectancies influence the subjective and behavioral effects of caffeine.

    PubMed

    Harrell, Paul T; Juliano, Laura M

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the independent and interactive effects of caffeine pharmacology and expected effects of caffeine on performance and subjective outcomes. Abstinent coffee drinkers (n = 60) consumed decaffeinated coffee with either 280 mg or 0 mg added caffeine. Caffeine dose was crossed with varying instructions that the coffee would either enhance or impair performance in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Performance, mood, caffeine withdrawal, and negative somatic effects were assessed. Relative to placebo, caffeine improved reaction time and accuracy on the rapid visual information processing task, a measure of vigilance. However, there was a significant dose by expectancy interaction that revealed that among participants given placebo coffee, "impair" instructions produced better performance than "enhance" instructions. Caffeine also improved psychomotor performance as indicated by a finger tapping task with no main effects of expectancy or interactions. Impair instructions produced greater reports of negative somatic effects than enhance instructions, but only when caffeine was administered. Manipulating the expected effects of caffeine altered the behavioral and subjective effects of caffeine. A significant dose by expectancy interaction revealed a somewhat paradoxical outcome in the placebo conditions whereby those told "impair" performed better than those told "enhance." This may reflect compensatory responding as has been observed in similar studies using alcohol (Fillmore et al. Psychopharmacology 115:383-388, 1994). Impair instructions led to greater negative somatic effects only when caffeine was administered supporting the active placebo hypothesis.

  1. Automated Pilot Advisory System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, J. L., Jr.; Haidt, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    An Automated Pilot Advisory System (APAS) was developed and operationally tested to demonstrate the concept that low cost automated systems can provide air traffic and aviation weather advisory information at high density uncontrolled airports. The system was designed to enhance the see and be seen rule of flight, and pilots who used the system preferred it over the self announcement system presently used at uncontrolled airports.

  2. Telescience testbed pilot program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiner, Barry M.

    1988-01-01

    The Universities Space Research Association (USRA), under sponsorship from the NASA Office of Space Science and Applications, is conducting a Telescience Testbed Pilot Program. Fifteen universities, under subcontract to USRA, are conducting a variety of scientific experiments using advanced technology to determine the requirements and evaluate the tradeoffs for the information system of the Space Station era. An interim set of recommendations based on the experiences of the first six months of the pilot program is presented.

  3. Fuzzy logic control of telerobot manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franke, Ernest A.; Nedungadi, Ashok

    1992-01-01

    Telerobot systems for advanced applications will require manipulators with redundant 'degrees of freedom' (DOF) that are capable of adapting manipulator configurations to avoid obstacles while achieving the user specified goal. Conventional methods for control of manipulators (based on solution of the inverse kinematics) cannot be easily extended to these situations. Fuzzy logic control offers a possible solution to these needs. A current research program at SRI developed a fuzzy logic controller for a redundant, 4 DOF, planar manipulator. The manipulator end point trajectory can be specified by either a computer program (robot mode) or by manual input (teleoperator). The approach used expresses end-point error and the location of manipulator joints as fuzzy variables. Joint motions are determined by a fuzzy rule set without requiring solution of the inverse kinematics. Additional rules for sensor data, obstacle avoidance and preferred manipulator configuration, e.g., 'righty' or 'lefty', are easily accommodated. The procedure used to generate the fuzzy rules can be extended to higher DOF systems.

  4. Dynamic control of kinematically redundant manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhengcheng

    1993-03-01

    A robot manipulator is said to be kinematically redundant when it has more degrees of freedom than are necessary to accomplish a particular task. Useful control strategies are designed for kinematically redundant manipulators in order to enhance their performance. Following the impedance control approach, the problem of minimizing redundant manipulator collision impacts is addressed. The configuration control approach is used to reduce impulsive forces, while a simplified impedance control scheme is formulated to minimize rebound effects. A new Cartesian control strategy for redundant flexible-joint manipulators is proposed. The main idea in this hybrid scheme is to control not only the manipulator's end-effector but also its links, so as to achieve specified positions and velocities for the end-effector and the links. Finally, a new application of kinematically redundant manipulators is proposed: using redundancy resolution to compensate for joint flexibility. This redundancy resolution scheme is incorporated in a control strategy for redundant flexible-joint manipulators. The problem of possible algorithmic singularities is considered, and a scheme is suggested which makes the controller robust with respect to such singularities.

  5. Task based synthesis of serial manipulators

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sarosh; Sobh, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    Computing the optimal geometric structure of manipulators is one of the most intricate problems in contemporary robot kinematics. Robotic manipulators are designed and built to perform certain predetermined tasks. There is a very close relationship between the structure of the manipulator and its kinematic performance. It is therefore important to incorporate such task requirements during the design and synthesis of the robotic manipulators. Such task requirements and performance constraints can be specified in terms of the required end-effector positions, orientations and velocities along the task trajectory. In this work, we present a comprehensive method to develop the optimal geometric structure (DH parameters) of a non-redundant six degree of freedom serial manipulator from task descriptions. In this work we define, develop and test a methodology to design optimal manipulator configurations based on task descriptions. This methodology is devised to investigate all possible manipulator configurations that can satisfy the task performance requirements under imposed joint constraints. Out of all the possible structures, the structures that can reach all the task points with the required orientations are selected. Next, these candidate structures are tested to see whether they can attain end-effector velocities in arbitrary directions within the user defined joint constraints, so that they can deliver the best kinematic performance. Additionally least power consuming configurations are also identified. PMID:26257946

  6. Head position of helicopter pilots during slalom maneuvers.

    PubMed

    Temme, Leonard A; Still, David L

    2007-01-01

    Pilots typically tilt their heads when executing coordinated banking turns, a phenomenon commonly attributed to the putative opto-kinetic cervical reflex (OKCR). The OKCR is usually described as a reflex, primarily driven by stimuli in the visual periphery, and is important to a pilot's spatial orientation by providing a relatively stabilized horizontal frame of reference. The present paper presents an alternative hypothesis for the observed head tilting seen in pilots. An archived data set, originally collected for other purposes, contained the head turn, pitch, and tilt of 4 helicopter pilots recorded at 10 Hz as the pilots executed 42 slalom maneuvers in an AH Mk 7 Lynx helicopter under visual flight conditions. The analytic method was a correlational analysis of head turn, pitch, and tilt. As expected, pilots routinely tilted their heads during the slaloms in a fashion typically attributed to the OKCR. Correlations among head turn, tilt, and pitch showed that when the helicopter turned left, the head, presumably to look into the turn, turned left and also pitched up and tilted right. Similarly, when the helicopter turned right, the head, presumably to look into the turn, turned right, pitched up, and tilted left. The head tilting usually attributed to a neuromuscular reflex driven by visual stimuli may be a biomechanical consequence of the head posture pilots assume when they simply look where they are going, eliminating the need to postulate the existence of a novel neuromuscular reflex.

  7. Life expectancy of kibbutz members.

    PubMed

    Leviatan, U; Cohen, J; Jaffe-Katz, A

    1986-01-01

    Data are presented demonstrating that the life expectancy (LE) of kibbutz members--both men and women--is higher than that of the overall Jewish population in Israel. Closer inspection of the death rates at various ages reveals that, from age thirty, those of kibbutz women are lower than those of the Jewish population. Although those of kibbutz men are actually higher until age forty-nine, nevertheless the LE of kibbutz members (based on death rates) surpasses that of Jews in Israel. These data add to and support other research findings illustrating the more positive mental health and well-being found among kibbutz members than among other comparative populations. Similarly, the factors contributing to kibbutz members' life expectancy evolve from this quality of life, especially as this quality of life affects old age.

  8. Attention Set for Number: Expectation and Perceptual Load in Inattentional Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rebekah C.; Davies, Anne Aimola

    2008-01-01

    Inattentional blindness is the failure to detect unexpected events when attention is otherwise engaged. Previous research indicates that inattentional blindness increases as perceptual demands intensify. The authors present 6 cuing experiments that manipulated both the perceptual demands of a primary letter-naming task and the expectations of the…

  9. Parental Socialization of Sadness Regulation in Middle Childhood: The Role of Expectations and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassano, Michael C.; Zeman, Janice L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors of this study investigated mothers' and fathers' socialization of their children's sadness. The particular focus was an examination of how socialization practices changed when parents' expectancies concerning their child's sadness management abilities were violated. Methods included an experimental manipulation and direct observation…

  10. Attention Set for Number: Expectation and Perceptual Load in Inattentional Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rebekah C.; Davies, Anne Aimola

    2008-01-01

    Inattentional blindness is the failure to detect unexpected events when attention is otherwise engaged. Previous research indicates that inattentional blindness increases as perceptual demands intensify. The authors present 6 cuing experiments that manipulated both the perceptual demands of a primary letter-naming task and the expectations of the…

  11. Parental Socialization of Sadness Regulation in Middle Childhood: The Role of Expectations and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassano, Michael C.; Zeman, Janice L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors of this study investigated mothers' and fathers' socialization of their children's sadness. The particular focus was an examination of how socialization practices changed when parents' expectancies concerning their child's sadness management abilities were violated. Methods included an experimental manipulation and direct observation…

  12. Expectant fathers and labor epidurals.

    PubMed

    Chapman, L L

    2000-01-01

    A qualitative research study was conducted to describe and explain expectant father's experiences during labor when their partners receive labor epidurals. Grounded theory. Seventeen couples were interviewed using a semi-structured interview format. Two major concepts were identified: "Losing Her" and "She's Back." The men reported that these were the two critical points at which the epidural affected their experience. The theory, "Cruising through Labor," explained the fathers' experiences. Childbirth preparation classes that describe and explain women's responses to the increasing pain of labor contractions, the exhaustion of labor, and the effect of epidural analgesia could possibly assist men in preparing for the changes they will witness in their partners during the labor experience. Knowing that these changes are normal responses to the effects of labor might reduce men's levels of anxiety, frustration, and sense of helplessness. The labor nurse is a major support to the expectant fathers. Labor nurses who remain in the room during this phase, explain what is happening, and include the expectant father in their nursing care provide the best support.

  13. W-026, acceptance test report manipulator system

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, T.L.

    1997-04-15

    The purpose of the WRAP Manipulator System Acceptance Test Plan (ATP) is to verify that the 4 glovebox sets of WRAP manipulator components, including rail/carriage, slave arm, master controller and auxiliary equipment, meets the requirements of the functional segments of 14590 specification. The demonstration of performance elements of the ATP are performed as a part of the Assembly specifications. Manipulator integration is integrated in the performance testing of the gloveboxes. Each requirement of the Assembly specification will be carried out in conjunction with glovebox performance tests.

  14. Large planar maneuvers for articulated flexible manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Jen-Kuang; Yang, Li-Farn

    1988-01-01

    An articulated flexible manipulator carried on a translational cart is maneuvered by an active controller to perform certain position control tasks. The nonlinear dynamics of the articulated flexible manipulator are derived and a transformation matrix is formulated to localize the nonlinearities within the inertia matrix. Then a feedback linearization scheme is introduced to linearize the dynamic equations for controller design. Through a pole placement technique, a robust controller design is obtained by properly assigning a set of closed-loop desired eigenvalues to meet performance requirements. Numerical simulations for the articulated flexible manipulators are given to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed position control algorithms.

  15. Large planar maneuvers for articulated flexible manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Jen-Kuang; Yang, Li-Farn; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1988-01-01

    An articulated flexible manipulator carried on a translational cart is maneuvered by an active controller to perform certain position control tasks. The nonlinear dynamics of the articulated flexible manipulator are derived and a transformation matrix is formulated to localize the nonlinearities in the inertia matrix. Then a feeback linearization scheme is introduced to linearize the dynamic equations for controller design. Through a pole placement technique, a robust controller design is obtained by properly assigning a set of closed-loop desired eigenvalues to meet performance requirements. Numerical simulations for the articulated flexible manipulators are given to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed position control algorithms.

  16. Osteopathic manipulative medicine for carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Siu, Gilbert; Jaffe, J Douglas; Rafique, Maryum; Weinik, Michael M

    2012-03-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is 1 of the most common peripheral nerve entrapment disorders. Osteopathic manipulative medicine can be invaluable in diagnosing and managing CTS. Combined with a patient's history and a standard physical examination, an osteopathic structural examination can facilitate localizing the nerve entrapment, diagnosing CTS, and monitoring the disease process. Osteopathic manipulative treatment is noninvasive and can be used to supplement traditional CTS treatment methods. The authors also review the relevant anatomy involving CTS and the clinical efficacy of osteopathic manipulative medicine in the management of this disorder.

  17. Large planar maneuvers for articulated flexible manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Jen-Kuang; Yang, Li-Farn; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1988-01-01

    An articulated flexible manipulator carried on a translational cart is maneuvered by an active controller to perform certain position control tasks. The nonlinear dynamics of the articulated flexible manipulator are derived and a transformation matrix is formulated to localize the nonlinearities in the inertia matrix. Then a feeback linearization scheme is introduced to linearize the dynamic equations for controller design. Through a pole placement technique, a robust controller design is obtained by properly assigning a set of closed-loop desired eigenvalues to meet performance requirements. Numerical simulations for the articulated flexible manipulators are given to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed position control algorithms.

  18. Dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for mobile manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratajczak, Joanna; Tchoń, Krzysztof

    2016-06-01

    By analogy to the definition of the dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for robotic manipulators, we have designed a dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for mobile manipulators built of a non-holonomic mobile platform and a holonomic on-board manipulator. The endogenous configuration space approach has been exploited as a source of conceptual guidelines. The new inverse guarantees a decoupling of the motion in the operational space from the forces exerted in the endogenous configuration space and annihilated by the dual Jacobian inverse. A performance study of the new Jacobian inverse as a tool for motion planning is presented.

  19. Mobile manipulation: a challenge in integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Cressel; Axelrod, Ben; Case, J. Philip; Choi, Jaeil; Engel, Martin; Gupta, Gaurav; Hecht, Florian; Hutchinson, John; Krishnamurthi, Niyant; Lee, Jinhan; Nguyen, Hai Dai; Roberts, Richard; Rogers, John G.; Trevor, Alexander J. B.; Christensen, Henrik I.; Kemp, Charles

    2008-04-01

    Mobile manipulation in many respects represents the next generation of robot applications. An important part of design of such systems is the integration of techniques for navigation, recognition, control, and planning to achieve a robust solution. To study this problem three different approaches to mobile manipulation have been designed and implemented. A prototypical application that requires navigation and manipulation has been chosen as a target for the systems. In this paper we present the basic design of the three systems and draw some general lessons on design and implementation.

  20. Hydraulic Robotic Surgical Tool Changing Manipulator.

    PubMed

    Pourghodrat, Abolfazl; Nelson, Carl A; Oleynikov, Dmitry

    2017-03-01

    Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is a surgical technique to perform "scarless" abdominal operations. Robotic technology has been exploited to improve NOTES and circumvent its limitations. Lack of a multitasking platform is a major limitation. Manual tool exchange can be time consuming and may lead to complications such as bleeding. Previous multifunctional manipulator designs use electric motors. These designs are bulky, slow, and expensive. This paper presents design, prototyping, and testing of a hydraulic robotic tool changing manipulator. The manipulator is small, fast, low-cost, and capable of carrying four different types of laparoscopic instruments.

  1. Early use of thrust manipulation versus non-thrust manipulation: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Cook, Chad; Learman, Kenneth; Showalter, Chris; Kabbaz, Vincent; O'Halloran, Bryan

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the comparative effectiveness of early use of thrust (TM) and non-thrust manipulation (NTM) in sample of patients with mechanical low back pain (LBP). The randomized controlled trial included patients with mechanically reproducible LBP, ≥ age 18-years who were randomized into two treatment groups. The main outcome measures were the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and a Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS), with secondary measures of Rate of Recovery, total visits and days in care, and the work subscale of the Fears Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire work subscale (FABQ-w). A two-way mixed model MANCOVA was used to compare ODI and pain, at baseline, after visit 2, and at discharge and total visits, days in care, and rate of recovery (while controlling for patient expectations and clinical equipoise). A total of 149 subjects completed the trial and received care over an average of 35 days. There were no significant differences between TM and NTM at the second visit follow-up or at discharge with any of the outcomes categories. Personal equipoise was significantly associated with ODI and pain. The findings suggest that there is no difference between early use of TM or NTM, and secondarily, that personal equipoise affects study outcome. Within-groups changes were significant for both groups.

  2. When theory and biology differ: The relationship between reward prediction errors and expectancy.

    PubMed

    Williams, Chad C; Hassall, Cameron D; Trska, Robert; Holroyd, Clay B; Krigolson, Olave E

    2017-09-18

    Comparisons between expectations and outcomes are critical for learning. Termed prediction errors, the violations of expectancy that occur when outcomes differ from expectations are used to modify value and shape behaviour. In the present study, we examined how a wide range of expectancy violations impacted neural signals associated with feedback processing. Participants performed a time estimation task in which they had to guess the duration of one second while their electroencephalogram was recorded. In a key manipulation, we varied task difficulty across the experiment to create a range of different feedback expectancies - reward feedback was either very expected, expected, 50/50, unexpected, or very unexpected. As predicted, the amplitude of the reward positivity, a component of the human event-related brain potential associated with feedback processing, scaled inversely with expectancy (e.g., unexpected feedback yielded a larger reward positivity than expected feedback). Interestingly, the scaling of the reward positivity to outcome expectancy was not linear as would be predicted by some theoretical models. Specifically, we found that the amplitude of the reward positivity was about equivalent for very expected and expected feedback, and for very unexpected and unexpected feedback. As such, our results demonstrate a sigmoidal relationship between reward expectancy and the amplitude of the reward positivity, with interesting implications for theories of reinforcement learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Paradoxical Effects of Alcohol Information on Alcohol Outcome Expectancies

    PubMed Central

    Krank, Marvin D.; Ames, Susan L.; Grenard, Jerry L.; Schoenfeld, Tara; Stacy, Alan W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cognitive associations with alcohol predict both current and future use in youth and young adults. Much cognitive and social cognitive research suggests that exposure to information may have unconscious influences on thinking and behavior. The present study assessed the impact of information statements on the accessibility of alcohol outcome expectancies. Methods The 2 studies reported here investigated the effects of exposure to alcohol statements typical of informational approaches to prevention on the accessibility of alcohol outcome expectancies. High school and university students were presented with information statements about the effects of alcohol and other commercial products. The alcohol statements were taken from expectancy questionnaires. Some of these statements were presented as facts and others as myths. The retention of detailed information about these statements was manipulated by (i) divided attention versus focused attention or (ii) immediate versus delayed testing. Accessibility of personal alcohol outcome expectancies was subsequently measured using an open-ended question about the expected effects of alcohol. Results Participants reported more alcohol outcomes seen during the information task as personal expectations about the effects of alcohol use than similar unseen items. Paradoxically, myth statements were also more likely to be reported as expectancies than unseen items in all conditions. Additionally, myth statements were generated less often than fact statements only under the condition of immediate testing with strong content processing instructions. Conclusions These observations are consistent with findings from cognitive research where familiarity in the absence of explicit memory can have an unconscious influence on performance. In particular, the exposure to these items in an informational format increases accessibility of the seen items even when the participants were told that they were myths. The findings have

  4. Pilot-optimal augmentation synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, D. K.

    1978-01-01

    An augmentation synthesis method usable in the absence of quantitative handling qualities specifications, and yet explicitly including design objectives based on pilot-rating concepts, is presented. The algorithm involves the unique approach of simultaneously solving for the stability augmentation system (SAS) gains, pilot equalization and pilot rating prediction via optimal control techniques. Simultaneous solution is required in this case since the pilot model (gains, etc.) depends upon the augmented plant dynamics, and the augmentation is obviously not a priori known. Another special feature is the use of the pilot's objective function (from which the pilot model evolves) to design the SAS.

  5. Rule-based image interpretation with models of expected structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemlon, Stephen; Dunn, Stanley M.

    1990-07-01

    Consider the problem of localizing and identifying cell organelle in a transmission electron micrograph. Opera. . tions on regions constitute the key tasks in segmenting such images. The construction of meaningful entities from an initial fine partitioning of such an image poses problems that are generally linked to the type of objects to be identified. Restraining region manipulation algorithms to a particular class of images may simplify the process. However the loss of retargetability for the segmentation process is a serious handicap of such a solution. Segmentation must be based on a formal mechanism for reasoning about scenes (cells) their images (trans. . mission electron micrographs) objects in the scene (organelle) and their representation (image regions) if the system is to be suitable for a wide variety of domains. Mathematical morphology offers such a mechanism but the drawbacks of point set topology limit its success to low-level vision tasks. A modification based on expected morphological properties of point sets and not their fixed structure is useful for intermediate vision. This modification makes it possible to develop a theory for region manipulation. The main goal of growing and shrinking is to obtain regions with a given expected structure. The operations involve a search in the region space for candidates satisfying specified conditions and capable of producing final regions that fit the desired goal subject to given constraints. In this paper we describe

  6. Embryo transfer in competition horses: Managing mares and expectations

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, M L H

    2014-01-01

    Embryo transfer (ET) is an accepted and successful technique for obtaining foals from mares without interrupting their competition careers. Recent research, however, suggests that the potential of factors including heat, exercise, repeated embryo flushing and repeated manipulation of the reproductive cycle using exogenous hormones to have a negative impact on fertility may have been underestimated. This paper reviews the evidence base for involvement of these factors in repeated failures to recover embryos from nongeriatric competition mares without obvious clinical or pathological indications of reproductive abnormalities. It concludes that, for some mares at least, a cessation of exercise for the periovulatory period and the period between ovulation and embryo flushing, combined with careful management of flushing-induced endometritis, and minimal hormonal manipulation of the reproductive cycle, may be necessary to optimise embryo recovery rates. Mare owners may have been encouraged to request ET for their mares following high-profile examples in the media of elite mares that have produced foals by ET whilst competing. The veterinarian should educate mare owners about the multiple factors that may affect the chances of recovering an embryo from their mares, and should manage the expectations of mare owners so that they do not approach ET programmes in the expectation that there will be no disruption to their training and competition plans. PMID:25977596

  7. Private Pilot Airplane Written Test Guide. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    This guide is intended to assist persons preparing to take the written test for the private airplane pilot rating. Guidance is offered on what to expect on the FAA-administered test. Recommendations for study material are presented. Samples of test forms are included and 119 pages of sample questions are provided. (RE)

  8. Optoelectronic tweezers for microparticle and cell manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Ming Chiang (Inventor); Chiou, Pei Yu (Inventor); Ohta, Aaron T. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An optical image-driven light induced dielectrophoresis (DEP) apparatus and method are described which provide for the manipulation of particles or cells with a diameter on the order of 100 .mu.m or less. The apparatus is referred to as optoelectric tweezers (OET) and provides a number of advantages over conventional optical tweezers, in particular the ability to perform operations in parallel and over a large area without damage to living cells. The OET device generally comprises a planar liquid-filled structure having one or more portions which are photoconductive to convert incoming light to a change in the electric field pattern. The light patterns are dynamically generated to provide a number of manipulation structures that can manipulate single particles and cells or groups of particles/cells. The OET preferably includes a microscopic imaging means to provide feedback for the optical manipulation, such as detecting position and characteristics wherein the light patterns are modulated accordingly.

  9. What is morally new in genetic manipulation?

    PubMed

    Keenan, J F

    1990-01-01

    The investigation into the specific moral issues of genetic manipulation requires us to determine exactly the new moral issues of genetic manipulation. But even that determination requires us to consider whether the context in which we live and the method of moral reflection which we use is adequate enough to address genetic manipulation. Given the liberalist context in which we live, this paper argues that an act-oriented ethics is inadequate and that only a virtue-oriented ethics enables us to recognize and resolve the new problems ahead of us in genetic manipulation. Moreover, those problems have a common root, that is, that through genetics we will be in danger of objectifying the human subject.

  10. The Frankfurt School's Theory of Manipulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petryszak, Nicholas

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the critical sociology of communication of the Frankfurt School suggesting that theorists such as Lowenthal, Adorno, and Habermas have outlined both the political economics of manipulation and the social psychological interaction between the audience and the media. (MH)

  11. Optoelectronic Tweezers for Microparticle and Cell Manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Ming Chiang (Inventor); Chiou, Pei-Yu (Inventor); Ohta, Aaron T. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An optical image-driven light induced dielectrophoresis (DEP) apparatus and method are described which provide for the manipulation of particles or cells with a diameter on the order of 100 micromillimeters or less. The apparatus is referred to as optoelectric tweezers (OET) and provides a number of advantages over conventional optical tweezers, in particular the ability to perform operations in parallel and over a large area without damage to living cells. The OET device generally comprises a planar liquid-filled structure having one or more portions which are photoconductive to convert incoming light to a change in the electric field pattern. The light patterns are dynamically generated to provide a number of manipulation structures that can manipulate single particles and cells or group of particles/cells. The OET preferably includes a microscopic imaging means to provide feedback for the optical manipulation, such as detecting position and characteristics wherein the light patterns are modulated accordingly.

  12. Brachioradial pruritus and cervical spine manipulation.

    PubMed

    Tait, C P; Grigg, E; Quirk, C J

    1998-08-01

    Brachioradial pruritus (BRP) causes significant morbidity in the majority of patients for whom no effective treatment is found. Chronic ultraviolet radiation exposure has usually been cited as the cause, but nerve damage from cervical spine disease has also been implicated. We report on a small retrospective exploratory study, conducted by questionnaire, of a group of patients who were treated with a specific cervical spine manipulation. Ten of 14 patients reported resolution of symptoms following manipulative treatment. All six patients who had had previous cervical spine disease responded to manipulation, as did half the remaining eight patients who had no previous history of neck symptoms. Although patients with BRP, by definition, share similar symptoms, the aetiology is almost certainly multifactorial. Prospective studies looking for cervical spine disease, as well as assessment of this particular method of cervical spine manipulation as a treatment modality for BRP, should be considered.

  13. Which Colles' fractures should be manipulated?

    PubMed

    Dixon, Sean; Allen, Patricia; Bannister, Gordon

    2005-01-01

    Ninety-two patients with displaced Colles' fractures were followed prospectively after manipulation under regional anaesthesia. Radiographs were taken before and after manipulation and after 3 months when a functional assessment was also made. A correlation was sought between outcome and radiological measurements. Final radial shortening of 3mm or more was associated with a significantly worse functional outcome after 3 months (P < 0.001). Where the initial radial shortening was 3 mm or more, the probability of malunion was 65% whereas with less than 3mm, the probability of malunion was 28% (P < 0.001). With 5 mm or more of radial shortening at presentation, the probability of malunion was 73% (P < 0.01). The decision to manipulate remains a matter of judgement but a high failure rate renders simple manipulation and plaster cast fixation a poor treatment option in fractures with 5mm or more of radial shortening at presentation.

  14. Manipulatives Make Math Meaningful for Middle Schoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheer, Janet K.

    1985-01-01

    Narrates an account of teaching mathematical concepts to junior high school students using manipulative materials and small and large group games. The following concepts are explained through game descriptions using numeration or Dienes blocks: regrouping decimals, and place value. (DST)

  15. Tension Stiffened and Tendon Actuated Manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, William R. (Inventor); Dorsey, John T. (Inventor); Ganoe, George G. (Inventor); King, Bruce D. (Inventor); Jones, Thomas C. (Inventor); Mercer, Charles D. (Inventor); Corbin, Cole K. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A tension stiffened and tendon actuated manipulator is provided performing robotic-like movements when acquiring a payload. The manipulator design can be adapted for use in-space, lunar or other planetary installations as it is readily configurable for acquiring and precisely manipulating a payload in both a zero-g environment and in an environment with a gravity field. The manipulator includes a plurality of link arms, a hinge connecting adjacent link arms together to allow the adjacent link arms to rotate relative to each other and a cable actuation and tensioning system provided between adjacent link arms. The cable actuation and tensioning system includes a spreader arm and a plurality of driven and non-driven elements attached to the link arms and the spreader arm. At least one cable is routed around the driven and non-driven elements for actuating the hinge.

  16. Reconfigurable mobile manipulation for accident response

    SciTech Connect

    ANDERSON,ROBERT J.; MORSE,WILLIAM D.; SHIREY,DAVID L.; CDEBACA,DANIEL M.; HOFFMAN JR.,JOHN P.; LUCY,WILLIAM E.

    2000-06-06

    The need for a telerobotic vehicle with hazard sensing and integral manipulation capabilities has been identified for use in transportation accidents where nuclear weapons are involved. The Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System (ARMMS) platform has been developed to provide remote dexterous manipulation and hazard sensing for the Accident Response Group (ARG) at Sandia National Laboratories. The ARMMS' mobility platform is a military HMMWV [High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle] that is teleoperated over RF or Fiber Optic communication channels. ARMMS is equipped with two high strength Schilling Titan II manipulators and a suite of hazardous gas and radiation sensors. Recently, a modular telerobotic control architecture call SMART (Sandia Modular Architecture for Robotic and Teleoperation) has been applied to ARMMS. SMART enables input devices and many system behaviors to be rapidly configured in the field for specific mission needs. This paper summarizes current SMART developments applied to ARMMS.

  17. The Frankfurt School's Theory of Manipulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petryszak, Nicholas

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the critical sociology of communication of the Frankfurt School suggesting that theorists such as Lowenthal, Adorno, and Habermas have outlined both the political economics of manipulation and the social psychological interaction between the audience and the media. (MH)

  18. Conservative Management of Mechanical Neck Pain in a Helicopter Pilot.

    PubMed

    Alagha, Babak

    2015-10-01

    Acute and chronic spinal symptoms such as neck pain may limit flying performance significantly and disqualify the pilot from flight duty. Mechanical neck pain is very common among pilots because of their exposure to vibration, +GZ forces, helmet weight, poor neck posture during air combat maneuvers, previous neck injuries, and poor treatment plans for such injuries. Successful treatment of such injuries requires appropriate therapeutic procedures as well as an aeromedical assessment. The aim of this case study was to demonstrate the benefits of conservative procedures such as spinal manipulation and mobilization therapy (SMMT) and exercise therapy (ET) in treating chronic mechanical neck pain in an Iranian commercial helicopter pilot. A 36-yr-old male patient presented to the clinic with moderate, intermittent nonradicular chronic neck pain and limited range of motion over a 2-yr period. The patient was treated with cervical and upper thoracic SMMT followed by home ET for 5 wk. After this period, the patient reported significant recovery and improvement in range of motion in his neck. Mechanical neck pain is very common among helicopter pilots. Although Air Force and Navy waiver guides recommend nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications as well as SMMT and ET, there are currently very few published studies that examine the benefits of manual and exercise therapy for treating mechanical neck pain in commercial and military pilots. Based on the results of this study, it seems that SMMT and ET may be a safe and effective in treatment of uncomplicated mechanical neck pain in helicopter pilots. Alagha B. Conservative management of mechanical neck pain in a helicopter pilot.

  19. 76 FR 63183 - Pilot in Command Proficiency Check and Other Changes to the Pilot and Pilot School Certification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ...-AJ18 Pilot in Command Proficiency Check and Other Changes to the Pilot and Pilot School Certification... rule, the FAA amended its regulations to revise the pilot, flight instructor, and pilot school certification requirements. In particular, the FAA expanded the obligation for a pilot-in-command (PIC...

  20. 76 FR 54095 - Pilot in Command Proficiency Check and Other Changes to the Pilot and Pilot School Certification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... Changes to the Pilot and Pilot School Certification Rules AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA..., flight instructor, and pilot school certification. This rule will require pilot-in-command (PIC... apply concurrently for a private pilot certificate and an instrument rating and permits pilot schools...