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Sample records for expedition investigates climate

  1. EarthLabs Climate Detectives: Using the Science, Data, and Technology of IODP Expedition 341 to Investigate the Earth's Past Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mote, A. S.; Lockwood, J.; Ellins, K. K.; Haddad, N.; Ledley, T. S.; Lynds, S. E.; McNeal, K.; Libarkin, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    EarthLabs, an exemplary series of lab-based climate science learning modules, is a model for high school Earth Science lab courses. Each module includes a variety of learning activities that allow students to explore the Earth's complex and dynamic climate history. The most recent module, Climate Detectives, uses data from IODP Expedition 341, which traveled to the Gulf of Alaska during the summer of 2013 to study past climate, sedimentation, and tectonics along the continental margin. At the onset of Climate Detectives, students are presented with a challenge engaging them to investigate how the Earth's climate has changed since the Miocene in southern Alaska. To complete this challenge, students join Exp. 341 to collect and examine sediments collected from beneath the seafloor. The two-week module consists of six labs that provide students with the content and skills needed to solve this climate mystery. Students discover how an international team collaborates to examine a scientific problem with the IODP, compete in an engineering design challenge to learn about scientific ocean drilling, and learn about how different types of proxy data are used to detect changes in Earth's climate. The NGSS Science and Engineering Practices are woven into the culminating activity, giving students the opportunity to think and act like scientists as they investigate the following questions: 1) How have environmental conditions in in the Gulf of Alaska changed during the time when the sediments in core U1417 were deposited? (2) What does the occurrence of different types of diatoms and their abundance reveal about the timing of the cycles of glacial advance and retreat? (3) What timeline is represented by the section of core? (4) How do results from the Gulf of Alaska compare with the global record of glaciations during this period based on oxygen isotopes proxies? Developed by educators in collaboration with Expedition 341 scientists, Climate Detectives is a strong example of

  2. An Investigation of the Outward Bound Final Expedition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobilya, Andrew J.; Kalisch, Ken; Daniel, Brad

    2011-01-01

    Research of wilderness programs indicates a clear need for additional investigation of specific program components and their influence on participant outcomes. This study examines one component of the Outward Bound wilderness program--the Final Expedition. The Final Expedition is a student-led wilderness expedition and is also referred to as an…

  3. Expedition Earth and Beyond: Student Scientist Guidebook. Model Research Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, Paige Valderrama

    2009-01-01

    The Expedition Earth and Beyond Student Scientist Guidebook is designed to help student researchers model the process of science and conduct a research investigation. The Table of Contents listed outlines the steps included in this guidebook

  4. Expedited site characterization for remedial investigations at federal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, J.C.

    1994-04-01

    Argonne National Laboratory`s Expedited Side Characterization (ESC) methodology gives federal agencies a process for producing high-quality CERCLA and RCRA site characterizations and remedial investigations in a cost- and time-efficient manner. The ESC process has been successfully tested and applied at numerous federal facilities. Examples include expanded site investigations for the Department of Interior`s Bureau of Land Management and remedial investigations for the Commodity Credit Corporation/US Dept. of Agriculture (CCC/USDA). In particular, the CCC/USDA has been the major sponsor in the development of the ESC process at Argonne. The technical successes and the cost and time savings of the ESC process for these programs have been detailed in previous papers. The Argonne ESC is currently being implemented at a Department of Energy facility (Pantex) and is schedules for implementation in the Department of Defense base closure program in order to meet accelerated schedules for remedial actions by these agencies.

  5. The Majority of Expedited Investigational New Drug Safety Reports Are Uninformative.

    PubMed

    Jarow, Jonathan P; Casak, Sandra; Chuk, Meredith; Ehrlich, Lori A; Khozin, Sean

    2016-05-01

    Sponsors of human drug and biologic products subject to an investigational new drug (IND) application are required to distribute expedited safety reports of serious and unexpected suspected adverse reactions to participating investigators and the FDA to assure the protection of human subjects participating in clinical trials. On September 29, 2010, the FDA issued a final rule amending its regulations governing expedited IND safety reporting requirements that revised the definitions used for reporting and clarified when to submit relevant and useful information to reduce the number of uninformative reports distributed by sponsors. From January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2014, the FDA's Office of Hematology and Oncology Products received an average of 17,686 expedited safety reports per year. An analysis of FDA submissions by commercial sponsors covering this time period suggested a slight increase in the number of expedited safety reports per IND per year after publication of the final rule. An audit of 160 randomly selected expedited safety reports submitted to the FDA's Office of Hematology and Oncology Products in 2015 revealed that only 22 (14%) were informative. The submission of uninformative expedited safety reports by commercial sponsors of INDs continues to be a significant problem that can compromise detection of valid safety signals. Clin Cancer Res; 22(9); 2111-3. ©2016 AACR.

  6. Vegetation and climate development on the Atlantic Coastal Plain during the late Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (IODP Expedition 313)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prader, Sabine; Kotthoff, Ulrich; McCarthy, Francine; Greenwood, David

    2015-04-01

    The major aims of IODP Expedition 313 are estimating amplitudes, rates and mechanisms of sea-level change and the evaluation of sequence stratigraphic facies models that predict depositional environments, sediment compositions, and stratal geometries in response to sea-level change. Cores from three Sites (313-M0027, M0028, and M0029) from the New Jersey shallow shelf (water depth approximately 35 m) were retrieved during May to July 2009, using an ECORD "mission-specific" jack-up platform. We have investigated the palynology of sediment cores from Site M0027, 45 km off the present-day coast of New Jersey. For this study, we have focused on pollen studies for the second half of the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO) and the subsequent transition to cooler conditions (ca. 15 to 13 million years before present). Transport-caused bias of the pollen assemblages was identified via the analysis of the terrestrial/marine palynomorph ratio and these results were considered when interpreting palaeo-vegetation from the pollen data. Pollen preservation in the interval analyzed herein was generally very good. Pollen grains were analyzed via both light and scanning electron microscopy. For most samples, the pollen assemblages were not highly diverse. The most abundant taxa through all samples were Quercus (oak) and Carya (hickory). Typical wetland elements like Cyperaceae, Taxodium (cypress), Nyssa (tupelo tree) and taxa today growing in the tropics and subtropics like Sapotaceae, Symplocaceae, Arecaceae (palm trees) and Alangium, which indicate particularly warm climate conditions, were only sporadically found, but indicate warmer phases during the second half of the MMCO. Herbal pollen was generally rare, but members of the Asteraceae, Apiaceae, and Ericaceae families, together with infrequent occurences of Poaceae pollen indicate the presence of areas with open vegetation. The Mid-Miocene pollen assemblages reflect a vegetation in the hinterland of the New Jersey shelf

  7. Climate-Ice Sheet Interactions through the Pliocene-Pleistocene: Preliminary Results from IODP Expedition 341 (Gulf of Alaska)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, J.; McClymont, E.; Sanchez Montes, M. L.; Moy, C. M.; Romero, O. E.; Lloyd, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Since the Pliocene, global climate history is distinguished by the transition into a colder world, dominated by the onset and intensification of major Northern Hemisphere glaciations which have also changed in their duration and intensity. Potential drivers for these events include falling atmospheric CO2, progressive sub-glacial erosion, tectonic uplift, and associated feedbacks. At present, isolating climate as the driver of evolving continental ice volume since the Pliocene is hindered by the limited long term data sets which directly link climate changes to evidence for ice-sheet advance/retreat, erosion, and tectonic evolution over million year timescales. IODP Expedition 341 drilled a cross-margin transect in the Gulf of Alaska from ice-proximal sites on the continental shelf to distal sites in the deep Pacific. This study focuses on the distal site (Site U1417, c.4190 m water depth) which contains variable biogenic and terrigenous contributions, and evidence for deposition through pelagic, mass movement and glacial processes. Our aim is to investigate links between north-east Pacific paleoceanography and the history of the north-west Cordilleran ice sheet, neither of which are fully understood given limited data pre-dating the Last Glacial Maximum. We reconstruct SSTs during the mid-Pliocene, Plio-Pleistocene Transition (PPT) and mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT) using the UK37' index. We consider the interaction between SSTs and primary production by examining the absolute and relative abundances of plankton biomarkers (e.g. for haptophytes, diatoms and dinoflagellates), carbon/nitrogen ratios, stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N) and diatom assemblages. Links between these climatic events and the north-west Cordilleran ice-sheet advance/retreat history are initially made using shipboard stratigraphy; emerging data sets on ice-rafting from members of the Expedition 341 Scientific Party will refine these relationships.

  8. Oligocene and Miocene Vegetation and climate development on the Atlantic Coastal Plain (IODP Expedition 313)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotthoff, Ulrich; McCarthy, Francine; Greenwood, David; Hesselbo, Stephen

    2013-04-01

    The major aims of IODP Expedition 313 are estimating amplitudes, rates and mechanisms of sea-level change and the evaluation of sequence stratigraphic facies models that predict depositional environments, sediment compositions, and stratal geometries in response to sea-level change. Cores from three Sites (313-M0027, M0028, and M0029; 45 to 67 km off the coast of New Jersey) from the New Jersey shallow shelf (water depth approximately 35 m) were retrieved during May to July 2009, using an ECORD "mission-specific" jack-up platform. The recovery rate for the three sites exceeded 80%; in total, more than 1300 m core length were achieved. The oldest sediments were recovered from Hole M0027A, and dated as late Eocene/early Oligocene according to biostratigraphy, sequence-stratigraphy, and Sr-isotopy-based age estimates. We have investigated the palynology of sediment cores from Sites M0027 and M0029. The cores examined span ca. 33 to 13 million years before present together with additional samples from younger sediments. The palynological results were complemented with pollen-based quantitative climate reconstructions using bioclimatic analysis, a mutual climate range NLR approach. Until the Pleistocene, the hinterland vegetation of the New Jersey shelf was characterized by oak-hickory forests in the lowlands and conifers in the highlands. The Oligocene witnessed several downward expansions of conifer forest, which were probably related to cooling events. The pollen-based climate data show a temperature increase during the Rupelian and at the Chattian-Aquitanian transition, with mean annual temperatures surpassing 15 °C. For the Miocene, mean annual temperatures varied around ~13.5 °C. Generally, the Miocene ecosystem and climate conditions were similar to those of the Oligocene in the hinterland of the New Jersey shelf. We conjecture that the Miocene uplift of the Appalachian Mountains led to the proliferation of mountainous taxa and thus to an increase of related

  9. Climate-ice sheet interactions through the Pliocene-Pleistocene: Preliminary results from Expedition 341 (Gulf of Alaska)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClymont, Erin; Sanchez Montes, Maria Luisa; Mueller, Juliane; Henry, Matthew; Lloyd, Jerry; 341 Science Party, Expedition

    2014-05-01

    (SSTs), sea ice, and marine primary productivity through the Pliocene and Pleistocene. Here we present initial findings from sites U1417 (the most distal site, 4190 m water depth) and U1418 (at 3667 m water depth). We reconstruct SSTs using the alkenone biomarker proxy, the UK37' index, and compare our results with evidence for evolving ice-sheet history as determined through the shipboard-generated lithostratigraphy of the two sites. We consider the interaction between SSTs and primary production by examining the absolute abundance and relative distribution of biomarkers specific to plankton groups (e.g. for haptophytes, diatoms and dinoflagellates). Further investigation of the relationship between these climatic events and the northwest Cordilleran ice sheet advance/retreat history will continue through comparison to emerging data sets on ice-rafting and associated changes to sediment provenance, generated by members of the Expedition 341 Scientific Party.

  10. IODP Expedition 325: Great Barrier Reefs Reveals Past Sea-Level, Climate and Environmental Changes Since the Last Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Y.; Webster, J. M.; Cotterill, C.; Braga, J. C.; Jovane, L.; Mills, H.; Morgan, S.; Suzuki, A.; IODP Expedition 325 Scientists, the

    2011-09-01

    The timing and courses of deglaciations are key components in understanding the global climate system. Cyclic changes in global climate have occurred, with growth and decay of high latitude ice sheets, for the last two million years. It is believed that these fluctuations are mainly controlled by periodic changes to incoming solar radiation due to the changes in Earth's orbit around the sun. However, not all climate variations can be explained by this process, and there is the growing awareness of the important role of internal climate feedback mechanisms. Understanding the nature of these feedbacks with regard to the timing of abrupt global sea-level and climate changes is of prime importance. The tropical ocean is one of the major components of the feedback system, and hence reconstructions of temporal variations in sea-surface conditions will greatly improve our understanding of the climate system. The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 325 drilled 34 holes across 17 sites in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia to recover fossil coral reef deposits. The main aim of the expedition was to understand the environmental changes that occurred during the last ice age and subsequent deglaciation, and more specifically (1) establish the course of sea-level change, (2) reconstruct the oceanographic conditions, and (3) determine the response of the reef to these changes. We recovered coral reef deposits from water depths down to 126 m that ranged in age from 9,000 years to older than 30,000 years ago. Given that the interval of the dated materials covers several paleoclimatologically important events, including the Last Glacial Maximum, we expect that ongoing scientific analyses will fulfill the objectives of the expedition. doi:10.2204/iodp.sd.12.04.2011

  11. Investigating Future Climate Scenarios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Chris; Bodzin, Alec; Anastasio, David; Sahagian, Dork; Cirucci, Lori

    2012-01-01

    One of the most alarming impacts of projected climate change is a significant rise in sea level. Sea level has varied by hundreds of meters over geologic time, yet these changes have generally been slow paced, allowing ecosystems to adjust to changing land surface and marine habitats. Since the Industrial Revolution, anthropogenic emissions have…

  12. 43 CFR 404.28 - Is it possible to expedite the completion of an appraisal investigation or feasibility study?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of an appraisal investigation or feasibility study? 404.28 Section 404.28 Public Lands: Interior... or feasibility study? Yes. If Reclamation determines that a community or groups of communities to be..., to the maximum extent practicable, expedite appraisal investigations and reports and...

  13. Late Eocene to middle Miocene (33 to 13 million years ago) vegetation and climate development on the North American Atlantic Coastal Plain (IODP Expedition 313, Site M0027)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotthoff, U.; Greenwood, D. R.; McCarthy, F. M. G.; Müller-Navarra, K.; Prader, S.; Hesselbo, S. P.

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the palynology of sediment cores from Site M0027 of IODP (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program) Expedition 313 on the New Jersey shallow shelf to examine vegetation and climate dynamics on the east coast of North America between 33 and 13 million years ago and to assess the impact of over-regional climate events on the region. Palynological results are complemented with pollen-based quantitative climate reconstructions. Our results indicate that the hinterland vegetation of the New Jersey shelf was characterized by oak-hickory forests in the lowlands and conifer-dominated vegetation in the highlands from the early Oligocene to the middle Miocene. The Oligocene witnessed several expansions of conifer forest, probably related to cooling events. The pollen-based climate data imply an increase in annual temperatures from ∼11.5 °C to more than 16 °C during the Oligocene. The Mi-1 cooling event at the onset of the Miocene is reflected by an expansion of conifers and mean annual temperature decrease of ∼4 °C, from ∼16 °C to ∼12 °C around 23 million years before present. Relatively low annual temperatures are also recorded for several samples during an interval around ∼20 million years before present, which may reflect the Mi-1a and the Mi-1aa cooling events. Generally, the Miocene ecosystem and climate conditions were very similar to those of the Oligocene. Miocene grasslands, as known from other areas in the USA during that time period, are not evident for the hinterland of the New Jersey shelf, possibly reflecting moisture from the proto-Gulf Stream. The palaeovegetation data reveal stable conditions during the mid-Miocene climatic optimum at ∼15 million years before present, with only a minor increase in deciduous-evergreen mixed forest taxa and a decrease in swamp forest taxa. Pollen-based annual temperature reconstructions show average annual temperatures of ∼14 °C during the mid-Miocene climatic optimum, ∼2

  14. Ecosystem reconstructions for the hinterland of the Atlantic Coastal Plain during the late Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (IODP Expedition 313)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prader, Sabine; Kotthoff, Ulrich; McCarthy, Francine; Greenwood, David

    2016-04-01

    During IODP Expedition 313, cores from three Sites (313-M0027, M0028, and M0029) from the New Jersey shallow shelf (water depth approximately 35 m) were retrieved in 2009. We have investigated the palynology of sediment cores from Site M0027, 45 km off the present-day coast of New Jersey in order to reconstruct environmental and climate change in the region during the second half of the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO) and the subsequent transition to cooler conditions (ca. 15 to 13 million years before present). Transport-caused bias of the pollen assemblages was identified via the analysis of the terrestrial/marine palynomorph ratio and these results were considered when interpreting palaeo-vegetation from the pollen data. Pollen preservation in the interval analyzed herein was generally very good. Pollen grains were analyzed via both light and scanning electron microscopy. In the analyzed samples, angiosperm tree pollen grains were most abundant and probably formed the main vegetation zone in the lowland during the MMCO. The pollen-based results point to the presence of a deciduous-evergreen mixed forest that was characterised by e.g. Quercus, Carya, Liquidambar, Juglans, Pterocarya, Tilia, Engelhardia. Frequent conifer pollen grains indicate that highland forests with e.g. Pinus, Cathaya, and Picea were present the hinterland of the New Jersey shelf. Typical wetland elements like Nyssa and Taxodium as well as herbal taxa like Polygonum and Polygala were generally rare. The pollen-based climate reconstructions for the hinterland oft the New Jersey shallow shelf document a warm temperate climate without winterfrost and relatively high precipitation through the year during this time. Our results imply that the vegetation and regional climate in the hinterland of the New Jersey shelf did not react as sensitively to the cooling phase following the MMCO as other regions in North America or Europe.

  15. Vegetation and climate development on the North American Atlantic Coastal Plain from 33 to 13 million years ago (IODP Expedition 313)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotthoff, U.; Greenwood, D. R.; McCarthy, F. M. G.; Müller-Navarra, K.; Hesselbo, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    We have investigated the palynology of sediment cores from Sites M0027 and M0029 of IODP Expedition 313 on the New Jersey shallow shelf, east coast of North America, spanning an age range of 33 to 13 million years before present. Additionally, a pollen assemblage from the Pleistocene was examined. The palynological results were statistically analyzed and complemented with pollen-based quantitative climate reconstructions. Transport-related bias of the pollen assemblages was identified via analysis of the ratio of terrestrial to marine palynomorphs, and considered when interpreting palaeovegetation and palaeoclimate from the pollen data. Results indicate that from the early Oligocene to the middle Miocene, the hinterland vegetation of the New Jersey shelf was characterized by oak-hickory forests in the lowlands and conifer-dominated vegetation in the highlands. The Oligocene witnessed several expansions of conifer forest, probably related to cooling events. The pollen-based climate data imply an increase in annual temperatures from ~12 °C to more than 15 °C during the Oligocene. The Mi-1 cooling event at the onset of the Miocene is reflected by an expansion of conifers and an annual temperature decrease by almost 3 °C, from 15 °C to 12.5 °C around 23 million years before present. Particularly low annual temperatures are also recorded for an interval around ~20 million years before present, which probably reflects the Mi-1aa cooling event. Generally, the Miocene ecosystem and climate conditions were very similar to those of the Oligocene in the hinterland of the New Jersey shelf. Miocene grasslands, as known from other areas in the USA during that time period, are not evident for the hinterland of the New Jersey shelf. Surprisingly, the palaeovegetation data for the hinterland of the New Jersey shelf do not show extraordinary changes during the Mid-Miocene climatic optimum at ~15 million years before present, except for a minor increase in deciduous

  16. Climate-Ice Sheet Interactions through the Plio-Pleistocene: Preliminary Results from IODP 341 Expedition (Gulf of Alaska).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Montes, M. L.; McClymont, E.; Romero, O. E.; Cowan, E. A.; Müller, J.; Lloyd, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Since the Pliocene, global climate history is distinguished by the transition into a colder world, dominated by the onset and intensification of major Northern Hemisphere glaciations which have changed in their duration and intensity. It has been argued that cooling in the surface ocean has been driven by or been conducive to continental ice-sheet growth or influenced by progressive sub-glacial erosion and feedbacks to explain changing ice-sheet extent and dynamics, which may occur independently of climate change and/or the potential regional climate impacts of tectonic uplift. At present, isolating climate as the driver of evolving continental ice volume since the Pliocene is hindered by the limited long term data sets which directly link climate changes to evidence for ice-sheet advance/retreat, erosion, and tectonic evolution over million year timescales. IODP Expedition 341 (May-July 2013) drilled a cross-margin transect from ice-proximal sites on the continental shelf to distal sites in the deep Pacific. This study focuses on the most distal drilled site, (Site U1417, c. 4190 m water depth) which extends through the Pleistocene, Pliocene and Miocene and was targeted due to its rich recorded history of climate change, glaciation and tectonics and which will allow for a more detailed understanding of the interaction between north-east Pacific paleoceanography and the history of the north-west Cordilleran ice sheet, neither of which are fully understood given limited data which pre-dates the Last Glacial Maximum. The focus of this research is to target the evidence for past climate change as recorded in evidence for evolving sea surface conditions including sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and ice rafted debris (IRD) through the Pliocene and Pleistocene. We have reconstructed SSTs during the mid-Pliocene and Plio-Pleistocene Transition (PPT) using the alkenone biomarker proxy, the UK37' index, the relative abundance of C37:4 alkenone and IRD counts and compare our

  17. What Can Expeditions Do for Students … and for Science? An Investigation into the Impact of University of Glasgow Exploration Society Expeditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Lynsey R.; Downie, J. Roger; Muir, Martin; White, Stewart A.

    2017-01-01

    The benefits of field courses for biological science students are well established, but field courses also have limitations: they are generally too brief to allow significant research and they are staff-designed and led, limiting the development of student autonomy. In contrast, the value of student-organised field expeditions has been little…

  18. Cenozoic Climate-Tectonic Interactions in the Western Himalaya Recorded in the Indus Submarine Fan from IODP Expedition 355

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clift, P. D.; Pandey, D.; Kulhanek, D. K.; Andò, S.; Science Party, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Indus Submarine Fan is the largest repository of clastic sediment eroded from the Western Himalayas since the start of India-Eurasia collision likely around 50 Ma. This sedimentary archiveis central to understanding how the climate and the tectonic evolution of the mountains have evolved together. A number of models now propose linkages between surface processes, controlled by climatic influences, and the tectonics of the solid Earth. In particular, exhumation of deeply-buried high-grade metamorphic rocks in the Greater Himalaya and the development of large-scale duplexes within the Lesser Himalaya are likely triggered by changes in the rate and location of erosion. Although some of these issues can be addressed by studies onshore, erosion has removed much of the older record from the crystalline basement itself. As a result the sediment record must be used to understand how fast erosion was occurring and whether that was linked to changes in tectonics and climate. A major unconformity in the foreland basin means that this work cannot be done fully using terrestrial records but rather the more complete records in the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. Drilling by International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 355 in the Eastern Arabian Sea has recovered two sections spanning the last ~11 Ma, which should allow us to reconstruct how the Western Himalaya have responded to climate change since the late Miocene, spanning the time when the Lesser Himalaya began to exhume. Autocyclic processes within the fan and a major mass transport deposit mean that the record is not continuous, but should nonetheless allow us to examine the impact of the important climatic transition at 7-8 Ma noted on the Oman margin and in the foreland basin. Initial results indicate that the Indus Fan was receiving material from Himalayan high-grade metamorphic rocks since at least ca. 14-17 Ma and that there was a direct connection with the suture, likely close to the western syntaxis, dating

  19. [Expedition medicine].

    PubMed

    Donlagić, Lana

    2009-01-01

    Expedition and wildeness medicine is a term that combines rescue medicine, sport medicine as well as more specific branches as polar or high altitude medicine. It is being intensively studied both at the reaserch institutes and on expeditions. Ophtalmologists are concentrated on the reaserch of HARH (High Altitude Retinal Hemorrhage), neurologists on HACE reaserch (High Altitude Cerebral Edema), psychologists are developing tests to decsribe cognitive functions and many physicians are being trained to work in extreme enviroment. The result of all this effort are numerous new findings in pathophysiology and therapy of altitude illness, increased security on expedition and further development of expeditionism.

  20. NASA Climate Adaptation Science Investigators (CASI) Workgroup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, C.; Horton, R.

    2011-12-01

    The Climate Adaptation Science Investigators (CASI) Workgroup is comprised of NASA Earth scientists, applications researchers and institutional stewards, tasked with assisting the development of Climate Change Adaptation strategies for NASA as a whole as well as at individual Centers. In an Executive Order dated October 5, 2009, titled "Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance" the President mandates that all agencies "evaluate agency climate-change risks and vulnerabilities to manage the effects of climate change on the agency's operations and mission in both the short and long-term." To further these goals, the CASI Workgroup contributes to the scientific advancement of relevant climate and impacts studies at the Center-scale, contributes to a body of knowledge on how to apply Earth science in decision-making and ensures that NASA institutional stewards' decision-making process benefits from the best available scientific information. Climate variability and climate change pose a range of hazards to the NASA Centers located throughout the country. These changing climate hazards may challenge key NASA missions by threatening operations and damaging critical infrastructure. Studying and understanding these hazards are essential to ensuring effective risk management for the centers. By developing climate change adaptation strategies tailored to the specific impacts that are anticipated, NASA decision makers will be able to minimize negative effects of climate and climate change, while leveraging positive outcomes. The NASA CASI Workgroup will perform a variety of tasks including development of climate projections for each Center, inventory of climate and climate impact data and project activities within NASA, assessment of adaption approaches and Center-level planning strategies, recommendations for future research initiatives, and leading of thematic and region-specific workshops.

  1. Argonne`s Expedited Site Characterization: An integrated approach to cost- and time-effective remedial investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, J.C.; Walker, J.L.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Meyer, W.T.

    1995-07-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a methodology for remedial site investigation that has proven to be both technically superior to and more cost- and time-effective than traditional methods. This methodology is referred to as the Argonne Expedited Site Characterization (ESC). Quality is the driving force within the process. The Argonne ESC process is abbreviated only in time and cost and never in terms of quality. More usable data are produced with the Argonne ESC process than with traditional site characterization methods that are based on statistical-grid sampling and multiple monitoring wells. This paper given an overview of the Argonne ESC process and compares it with traditional methods for site characterization. Two examples of implementation of the Argonne ESC process are discussed to illustrate the effectiveness of the process in CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) and RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) programs.

  2. Space weather effects on lower ionosphere: First investigation from Bharati station during 34th Indian scientific expedition to Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, Anirban; Saha, Kumarjit; De, Barin Kumar; Subrahmanyam, Kandula Venkata; Shreedevi, P. R.

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the solar flare effects on the D-region of the ionosphere with the help of VLF (Very Low Frequency) radio waves using a portable E-field system from Antarctica during the summer period of 34th Indian scientific expedition. Two GPS time synchronized VLF receivers, one located at Bharati, Antarctica (geographical latitude 69.40°S, longitude 76.18°E) and another located at Tripura, India (geographical latitude 23.84°N, longitude 91.28°E) were operated simultaneously to infer common mode changes in the lower ionosphere for a number of solar flares events. The two systems constantly monitored the carrier amplitude and phase of the MSK (Minimum Shift Keying) modulated navy transmitter located in Australia (Callsign: NWC, 19.8 kHz, geographical latitude 21.88°S, longitude 114.13°E), around 5.6 Mm great circle distance from the two receivers. The results are interpreted in terms of Earth-ionosphere wave-guide characteristics. A Long Wave Propagation Capability (LWPC) model study is also performed to infer the changes in the daytime electron density in polar D-region ionosphere during the solar flares. The exponential fit of the modeled electron density change with average X-ray flux change shows an excellent correlation (R2 value 0.95). The exponential fit is utilized to infer the daytime electron density change in the polar ionosphere during solar flare events. The analyses indicate that small solar flares of class 'C' can be very effectively detected with the portable antenna system even if the receiver is located in polar coastal region compared to equatorial region. The expedition results also demonstrate the feasibility of using portable VLF receivers from the coastal stations for monitoring the polar lower ionosphere from Antarctica and open up new opportunities for long term exploration.

  3. Using Tree-Ring Data, Research, and Expeditions as an Accessible, Hands-on "Bridge" into Climate Studies for Diverse Audiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davi, N. K.; Wattenberg, F.; Pringle, P. T.; Tanenbaum, J.; O'Brien, A.; Greidanus, I.; Perry, M.

    2012-12-01

    Tree-ring research provides an engaging, intuitive, and relevant entryway into understanding both climate-change and environmental research, as well as the process of science from inspiration, to fieldwork, to analysis, to publishing and communicating. The basic premise of dendrochronology is that annual rings reflect environmental conditions year-by-year and that by studying long-lived trees we can learn about past environments and climates for hundreds-to-thousands of years in the past. Conceptually, this makes tree-ring studies accessible to students and faculty for a number of reasons. First, in order to collect their data, dendrochronologists often launch expeditions to stunningly picturesque and remote places in search of long-lived, climate sensitive trees. Scientist exciting stories and images from the field can be leveraged to connect students to the study and the data. Second, tree-rings can be more easily explained as a proxy for climate than other methods (ice cores, carbon-isotope ratios, etc.), and most people have prior-knowledge about trees and annual growth rings. It is even possible, for example, for non-expert audiences to see climate variability through time with the naked eye by looking at climate sensitive tree cores. Third, tree-rings are interdisciplinary and illustrate the interplay between the mathematical sciences, the biological sciences, and the geosciences—that is, they show that the biosphere is a fundamental component of the Earth system. Here, we will present several projects have been initiated for a range of audiences, including; elementary school, where 5th graders visited a local forest to collect samples and apply their samples and what they learned to math and science classes. 5th grade students also leaned how to use Climate Explorer (KNMI), an online tool that allows scientist and students the opportunity to access and visualize global climate data within a few clicks. Geared to 2 and 4 year colleges, we are also

  4. Guide for Planning a Learning Expedition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Meg, Ed.; Liebowitz, Martin, Ed.; Mednick, Amy, Ed.; Rugen, Leah, Ed.

    This guide aims to help teachers plan, reflect on, and revise learning expeditions. Growing out of the metaphor of an Outward Bound wilderness expedition, learning expeditions are long-term, in-depth investigations of a topic that engage students in the world through authentic projects, fieldwork, and service. The work centers on critical…

  5. Investigation delayed is justice denied: proposals for expediting forensic examinations of digital evidence.

    PubMed

    Casey, Eoghan; Ferraro, Monique; Nguyen, Lam

    2009-11-01

    There is an urgent need to reduce the growing backlog of forensic examinations in Digital Forensics Laboratories (DFLs). Currently, DFLs routinely create forensic duplicates and perform in-depth forensic examinations of all submitted media. This approach is rapidly becoming untenable as more cases involve increasing quantities of digital evidence. A more efficient and effective three-tiered strategy for performing forensic examinations will enable DFLs to produce useful results in a timely manner at different phases of an investigation, and will reduce unnecessary expenditure of resources on less serious matters. The three levels of forensic examination are described along with practical examples and suitable tools. Realizing that this is not simply a technical problem, we address the need to update training and establish thresholds in DFLs. Threshold considerations include the likelihood of missing exculpatory evidence and seriousness of the offense. We conclude with the implications of scaling forensic examinations to the investigation.

  6. Cenozoic Climate-Tectonic Interactions in the Western Himalaya Recorded in the Indus Submarine Fan: Initial Results from IODP Expedition 355

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clift, Peter; Pandey, Dhananjai; Kulhanek, Denise; Andò, Sergio; Zhou, Peng; 355 Scientists Expedition

    2016-04-01

    The Indus Submarine Fan is the largest repository of clastic sediment eroded from the Western Himalayas since the start of India-Eurasia collision, likely around 50 Ma. Interpreting this sedimentary archive is central to understanding how the Asian monsoon and Himalaya have evolved together. Models indicate linkages between surface processes, controlled by climatic influences, and the tectonics of the solid Earth. The development of large-scale duplexes within the Lesser Himalaya starting in the Late Miocene may be linked to changes in erosion intensity and location, especially spanning the 7-8 Ma climatic transition previously identified in the foreland basin and offshore Oman. Although some of these issues can be addressed by studies onshore, erosion has removed much of the older record from the crystalline basement itself and the Siwalik Group foreland sediment tend to image limited stretches of the Himalayan front rather than supplying a basin-wide record. The sediment record of the Arabian Sea must be used to understand how the Indus catchment responds to changes in monsoon strength. Drilling by International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 355 in the Eastern Arabian Sea has recovered two submarine fan sections spanning the last ca. 11 Ma, predated by a mass transport deposit. These should allow us to reconstruct how the Western Himalaya have responded to climate change since the late Miocene. Autocyclic processes within the fan and a major mass transport deposit mean that the record is not continuous, but is largely complete. Initial results indicate that the Indus Submarine Fan was receiving materials from Himalayan high-grade metamorphic rocks since at least ca. 14-17 Ma and that there was a direct connection with the suture, likely close to the western syntaxis, dating from the late Miocene. However, initial postcruise results now indicate that there has been significant flux directly from the Indian Peninsular, especially since 3 Ma that disrupts the

  7. First results from IODP Expedition 325 to the Great Barrier Reef: unlocking climate and sea level secrets since the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, J. M.; Yokoyama, Y.; Cotterill, C.; Expedition 325 Scientists

    2010-12-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Exp. 325 (GBREC: Great Barrier Reef Environmental Change) that investigated fossil reefs on the shelf edge of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), was the fourth IODP expedition to use a mission-specific platform, and was conducted by the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) Science Operator (ESO). The scientific objectives are to establish the course of sea level change, define sea-surface temperature variations, and to analyze the impact of these environmental changes on reef growth and geometry over the period of 20-10 ka. Exp.325 complements and extends the findings of the 2005 Exp. 310 (Tahiti Sea Level) that recovered Postglacial coral reef cores from the flanks of Tahiti from 41.6-117.5 meters below sea level and spanned ~16 to ~8 ka. Preliminary data confirms that Exp. 325 recovered truly unique and valuable fossil coral reef material from key periods in Earth's sea level and climate history from 30 to 9 ka. On Exp. 325 a succession of fossil reef structures preserved on the shelf edge seaward of the modern barrier reef were cored at three geographic locations (Hydrographers Passage, Noggin Pass and Ribbon Reef) from a dynamically positioned vessel in February-April 2010. A total of 34 boreholes were cored from 17 sites in four transects at depths ranging from 42.2 to 167.2 meters below sea level. Borehole logging of four boreholes provided continuous geophysical information about the drilled strata. The cores were split and described during the Onshore Science Party at the IODP Bremen Core Repository (Germany) in July 2010, where minimum and some standard measurements were made. Initial lithologic and biologic observations identified high-quality fossil coralgal frameworks, consistent with shallow, high energy reef settings - crucial for precise reconstructions of sea level and paleoclimate change. Preliminary C14-AMS and U-Th age interpretations from 60 core catcher samples confirmed that the cores span

  8. A lunar polar expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Tomas

    1992-01-01

    Advanced exploration and development in harsh environments require mastery of basic human survival skill. Expeditions into the lethal climates of Earth's polar regions offer useful lessons for tommorrow's lunar pioneers. In Arctic and Antarctic exploration, 'wintering over' was a crucial milestone. The ability to establish a supply base and survive months of polar cold and darkness made extensive travel and exploration possible. Because of the possibility of near-constant solar illumination, the lunar polar regions, unlike Earth's may offer the most hospitable site for habitation. The World Space Foundation is examining a scenario for establishing a five-person expeditionary team on the lunar north pole for one year. This paper is a status report on a point design addressing site selection, transportation, power, and life support requirements.

  9. A Cooperative Classroom Investigation of Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constible, Juanita; Sandro, Luke; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Scientists have a particularly difficult time explaining warming trends in Antarctica--a region with a relatively short history of scientific observation and a highly variable climate (Clarke et al. 2007). Regardless of the mechanism of warming, however, climate change is having a dramatic impact on Antarctic ecosystems. In this article, the…

  10. Investigating Forearc Strength by Triaxial Testing of Marine Sediments from the Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project (IODP Expeditions 334 and 344)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stipp, M.; Kurzawski, R. M.; Doose, R.; Schulte-Kortnack, D.

    2015-12-01

    Forearc stability and inherent tectonic failure processes at active continental margins very much depend on the strength of the composing sediments. Forearc sediments can either be prone to fracturing and more localized deformation or alternatively to creep and distributed deformation. Strength and deformation behavior can vary significantly depending on small differences in composition and fabric of the sediments as has been shown in a similar study on samples from the Nankai trench and forearc (Stipp et al., 2013). Cylindrical core samples with diameters of 30 and 50 mm recovered during IODP Expeditions 334 and 344 from a depth range of 7-788 m below sea floor were experimentally deformed in two different triaxial deformation apparatus under consolidated and undrained conditions at confining pressures of 0.4-20 MPa, room temperature, variable axial displacement rates of ~0.01-0.5 mm/min, and up to axial compressive strains of ~50%. Experimental results show great differences in the consolidation state and the related mechanical behavior of upper plate and incoming plate sediments. Similar to previous findings from the Nankai trench and forearc, structurally weak and structurally strong samples can be distinguished. One sample from shallow depth in the incoming plate shows a transition from structurally strong to structurally weak behavior with increasing confining pressure that has not been observed for Nankai samples. The differences in mechanical behavior may be the key for strain localization, faulting and surface breakage at active erosive as well as accretionary continental margins. Reference: Stipp, M., Rolfs, M., Kitamura, Y., Behrmann, J.H., Schumann, K., Schulte-Kortnack, D. and Feeser, V. (2013). - Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 14/11, doi: 10.1002/ggge.20290.

  11. Expedition Seven Crew Members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This crew portrait of Expedition Seven, Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven mission commander (left), and Astronaut Edward T. Lu, Expedition Seven NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer (right) was taken while in training at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. Destined for the International Space Station (ISS), the two-man crew launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on April 26, 2003. aboard a Soyez TMA-1 spacecraft.

  12. Expedition 28 Launch

    NASA Video Gallery

    Three new Expedition 28 flight engineers -- NASA astronaut Mike Fossum, Russian cosmonaut Sergei Volkov and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Satoshi Furukawa -- launch from the Baikonur...

  13. Biomarker based reconstruction of Pleistocene climate and environmental conditions in the Gulf of Alaska: Preliminary results obtained from IODP Expedition 341 sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Juliane; Sanchez Montes, Maria Luisa; McClymont, Erin; Stein, Ruediger; Fahl, Kirsten; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Wilkes, Heinz; 341 Scientists, Expedition

    2014-05-01

    A remarkable sedimentary record that extends from the Miocene to the late Pleistocene/Holocene has been drilled during IODP Expedition 341 (May - July 2013) in the Gulf of Alaska. The recovery and examination of sediments along a transect of five drill sites (U1417 - U1421) from the deep ocean towards the continental slope and shelf offshore the St. Elias Mountains enables the reconstruction of the palaeoceanographic and environmental development in the NE Pacific during a period of significant global cooling and directly addresses the overall research objectives of the IODP programme. The knowledge about palaeo sea surface conditions and their relation to climate changes in the subpolar NE Pacific is relatively scarce and mainly confined to the past 17 ka BP (Barron et al., 2009; Davies et al., 2011; Addison et al., 2012). Biomarker based reconstructions of the sea surface conditions (i.e. sea surface temperature (SST), sea ice coverage, marine primary productivity) that characterised the subpolar NE Pacific during critical time intervals of Plio- and Pleistocene climate change may provide new information on oceanic and atmospheric feedback mechanisms and further enable the identification of teleconnections between the palaeoceanographic evolution in the North Pacific and the North Atlantic. Here we present preliminary biomarker data obtained from sediments from the distal deepwater site U1417 and the proximal site U1419 located at the Gulf of Alaska continental slope. Variability in the distribution and abundance of short- and long-chain n-alkanes, sterols, and C25-highly branched isoprenoids (HBIs) is interpreted to reflect changes in the environmental setting. These data provide insight in marine primary productivity changes (in response to cooling and warming intervals) and the variable input of terrigenous organic matter via meltwater and/or iceberg discharge events. The C25-HBI diene/triene ratio - hitherto used as a sea ice proxy in the Southern Ocean

  14. Paleomagnetic contributions to IODP Wilkes Land Expedition (318) science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauxe, L.; Sugisaki, S.; Bijl, P.; Brinkhuis, H.; Escutia, C.; Flores, J.; González, J. J.; Iwai, M.; Klaus, A.; Passchier, S.; Roehl, U.; Sakai, T.; Williams, T.; Scientific Team of IODP Expedition 318

    2011-12-01

    Paleo- and rock magnetic investigations of sediments recovered from the Antarctic Margin off Wilkes Land during IODP Expedition 318 contributed significantly in a variety of ways toward achieving expedition goals. Magnetostratigraphy, combined with biostratigraphic constraints serves as the backbone for a well constrained chronostratigraphic framework. Sediments recovered include the early Eocene, nearly the entire Oligocene including the Oligo/Miocene boundary, the middle and late Miocene, the entire Pliocene and the Pleistocene from below the Jaramillo. The chronostratigraphic framework provides tight bounds on the duration and placement of several key hiati seen across the Antarctic Margin. A complete Pliocene record will also allow a major revision in the calibration of the diatom biostratigraphic time scale. In addition to magnetostratigarphy, rock magnetic data inform discussions of climatic change on the Wilkes Land Margin.

  15. ASTER Expedited Data Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duda, K. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on the Terra spacecraft offers near real-time data delivery through an expedited system used to support emergency responders and science field campaigns. Data acquired and processed in this manner can be available for download within six hours of collection, as compared with a lag time of many days before standard products become available at two distribution sites. The orbit revisit frequency is 16 days for nadir views, but this can be reduced substantially through off-nadir pointing, at high latitudes, and by night observations. Scheduling confirmation takes place two to four days prior to imaging. ASTER is a joint mission involving the U.S. and Japan. ASTER expedited data are generated at the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), where standard products are also archived after receipt from affiliates at the Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC) in Tokyo. The ASTER instrument operates through scheduled observations, and is very successfully completing a global mapping mission. With three visible and near-infrared (VNIR) bands at 15 m ground resolution, six shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands at 30 m resolution, and five thermal infrared (TIR) bands at 90 m resolution, the 1.7-million scene archive of ASTER data acquired during the last decade provides utility in a wide range of investigations. A back-looking band is also present that enables the generation of digital elevation models (DEM). ASTER expedited data have been requested by national and international emergency response organizations to provide current views of many types of disaster situations, including volcanoes, hurricanes, wildfires, floods, tsunamis, landslides and other events. ASTER data have been provided in response to activations of the International Charter, Space and Major Disasters. Examples of data acquired for a variety of disaster situations will be provided. Recent events supported

  16. Focus on Quality: Investigating Residents’ Learning Climate Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Silkens, Milou E. W. M.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background A department’s learning climate is known to contribute to the quality of postgraduate medical education and, as such, to the quality of patient care provided by residents. However, it is unclear how the learning climate is perceived over time. Objectives This study investigated whether the learning climate perceptions of residents changed over time. Methods The context for this study was residency training in the Netherlands. Between January 2012 and December 2014, residents from 223 training programs in 39 hospitals filled out the web-based Dutch Residency Educational Climate Test (D-RECT) to evaluate their clinical department’s learning climate. Residents had to fill out 35 validated questions using a five point Likert-scale. We analyzed data using generalized linear mixed (growth) models. Results Overall, 3982 D-RECT evaluations were available to investigate our aim. The overall mean D-RECT score was 3.9 (SD = 0.3). The growth model showed an increase in D-RECT scores over time (b = 0.03; 95% CI: 0.01–0.06; p < 0.05). Conclusions The observed increase in D-RECT scores implied that residents perceived an improvement in the learning climate over time. Future research could focus on factors that facilitate or hinder learning climate improvement, and investigate the roles that hospital governing committees play in safeguarding and improving the learning climate. PMID:26765742

  17. Chlorofluorocarbon measurements in the southwestern pacific during the CGC-90 expedition. Data report

    SciTech Connect

    Wisegarver, D.P.; Bullister, J.L.; Van Woy, F.A.; Menzia, F.A.; Weiss, R.F.

    1995-09-01

    This report presents chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydgrographic data collected in the Southwest Pacific Ocean during the 1990 NOAA Climate and Global Change (CGC-90) expedition on NOAA Research Ship Malcolm Baldrige. On this expedition, full water column CTD/hydrocast stations were made on a section extending along 170 deg W from 5 deg N to 60 deg S, on a short section crossing the Southwest Pacific Basin to the southeast of New Zealand, and on a short section along 32 deg 30`S east of the kermadec Ridge. Measurements of dissolved and atmospheric dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) and trichlorofluromethane (CFC-11) made by the SIO and NOAA/PMEL groups are compared in this report. Also included in the report are hydrographic data (measurements of salinity, temperature, pressure and depth) collected by NOAA/PMEL investigators during this expedition.

  18. Expedition 27 Says Goodbye

    NASA Video Gallery

    At 2:45 p.m. EDT on May 23, 2011, hatches were closed between the International Space Station and Soyuz TMA-20 spacecraft. Expedition 27 crew members Dmitry Kondratyev, NASA Flight Engineer Cady Co...

  19. Expedition 34 Thanksgiving Message

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford shares a Thanksgiving message from the International Space Station. Ford demonstrates how the crew will spend the holiday on orbit and describes the menu he and h...

  20. CALIPSO Expedited Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-07-10

    ... Langley Research Center in collaboration with the CALIPSO mission announces the release of the following expedited data products:   ... now available to support near real-time weather forecasting operations and measurement field campaigns. These daily products have a ...

  1. Expedition 29 Crew Profile

    NASA Video Gallery

    The six members of Expedition 29 are profiled and interviewed. NASA astronauts Mike Fossum and Dan Burbank; JAXA astronaut Satoshi Furukawa; and cosmonauts Anton Shkaplerov and Anatoly Ivanishin di...

  2. Expedition 34 Final Training

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Expedition 34 crew members conduct final training at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center before their Dec. 19 launch to the International Space Station. Flight Engineers Chris Hadfield, Roman...

  3. Investigation of the climate change within Moscow metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varentsov, Mikhail; Trusilova, Kristina; Konstantinov, Pavel; Samsonov, Timofey

    2014-05-01

    As the urbanization continues worldwide more than half of the Earth's population live in the cities (U.N., 2010). Therefore the vulnerability of the urban environment - the living space for millions of people - to the climate change has to be investigated. It is well known that urban features strongly influence the atmospheric boundary layer and determine the microclimatic features of the local environment, such as urban heat island (UHI). Available temperature observations in cities are, however, influenced by the natural climate variations, human-induced climate warming (IPCC, 2007) and in the same time by the growth and structural modification of the urban areas. The relationship between these three factors and their roles in climate changes in the cities are very important for the climatic forecast and requires better understanding. In this study, we made analysis of the air temperature change and urban heat island evolution within Moscow urban area during decades 1970-2010, while this urban area had undergone intensive growth and building modification allowing the population of Moscow to increase from 7 to 12 million people. Analysis was based on the data from several meteorological stations in Moscow region and Moscow city, including meteorological observatory of Lomonosov Moscow State University. Differences in climate change between urban and rural stations, changes of the power and shape of urban heat island and their relationships with changes of building height and density were investigated. Collected data and obtained results are currently to be used for the validation of the regional climate model COSMO-CLM with the purpose to use this model for further more detailed climate research and forecasts for Moscow metropolitan area. References: 1. U.N. (2010), World Urbanization Prospects. The 2009 Revision.Rep., 1-47 pp, United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division., New York. 2. IPCC (2007), IPCC Fourth Assessment Report

  4. Investigation of carbon dioxide in the South Atlantic and northern Weddell Sea areas (WOCE Sections A-12 and A-21) during the METEOR expedition 11/5, January--March 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Chipman, D.W.; Takahashi, Taro; Breger, D.; Sutherland, S.C.

    1991-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of investigation the oceanographic expedition aboard the F/S METEOR in South Atlantic Ocean including the Drake Passage, the northern Weddell Sea and the eastern South Atlantic during the austral summer of January through March 1990. The total CO{sub 2} concentration in about 1300 seawater samples and CO{sub 2} partial pressure (pCO{sub 2}) in about 870 seawater samples collected at 77 stations were determined aboard the ship using a coulometer and equilibrator/gas chromatograph system. The temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and nutrient salt data presented in this report were determined by other participants of the expedition including the members of the Oceanographic Data Facility of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Argentine Hydrographic Office and German institutions.

  5. Investigation of carbon dioxide in the South Atlantic and northern Weddell Sea areas (WOCE Sections A-12 and A-21) during the METEOR expedition 11/5, January--March 1990. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Chipman, D.W.; Takahashi, Taro; Breger, D.; Sutherland, S.C.

    1991-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of investigation the oceanographic expedition aboard the F/S METEOR in South Atlantic Ocean including the Drake Passage, the northern Weddell Sea and the eastern South Atlantic during the austral summer of January through March 1990. The total CO{sub 2} concentration in about 1300 seawater samples and CO{sub 2} partial pressure (pCO{sub 2}) in about 870 seawater samples collected at 77 stations were determined aboard the ship using a coulometer and equilibrator/gas chromatograph system. The temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and nutrient salt data presented in this report were determined by other participants of the expedition including the members of the Oceanographic Data Facility of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Argentine Hydrographic Office and German institutions.

  6. Using R for Hydrologic Investigations of Climate Change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obeysekera, J.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change hydrologic investigations involve assembling, organizing, and analyzing large data sets from archived observations and complex model outputs. R is a free open-source software system consisting of nearly 4,800 packages running on Windows, Unix-like, and Mac families of operating systems. It is becoming a popular option for statisticians, scientists and engineers for investigations associated with climate change. The rapid growth and use of R is facilitated by the relative ease of assembling the user's scripts into a customized 'package' that can be submitted to the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN) for others to use. This presentation includes several examples of climate change investigations where R was used for trend analysis in historical time series; reading and analyzing downscaled; large climate data sets; extreme value modeling of hydrologic time series and presentation of analysis results. An R package called nsextremes was created for modeling non-stationary hydrologic time series using a recently developed methodology for computing risk and return periods in changing environments. The presentation describes the theory, details of the scripts, and the process that was used to create the nsextremes package.

  7. Mortality disparities among groups participating in an East Africa surveying expedition: the Herbert Henry Austin expedition of 1900-1901.

    PubMed

    Imperato, Pascal James; Imperato, Gavin H; Imperato, Austin C

    2013-10-01

    In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a number of European expeditions traveled to the region of Lake Rudolf, now largely in northern Kenya. Although diverse in intent, many of these were undertaken in the interests of furthering colonial territorial claims. In 1900-1901, Major Herbert Henry Austin led a British expedition down to the lake from Khartoum in the north. Of the 62 African, Arab, and European members of this expedition, only 18 (29 %) arrived at its final destination at Lake Baringo in Kenya. Because of a confluence of adverse climatic, social, and political conditions, the expedition ran short of food supplies when it arrived at the northern end of the lake in April 1901. For the next 4 months, the members of the expedition struggled down the west side of the lake and beyond. The greatest mortality (91 %) occurred among the 32 African transport drivers who were the most marginally nourished at the outset of the trip. The lowest mortality among the Africans on the expedition (15 %) occurred among the members of the Tenth Sudanese Rifles Battalion, who had an excellent nutritional status at the start of the expedition. Major Austin himself suffered from severe scurvy with retinal hemorrhages which left him partially blind in his right eye. An analysis of the mortality rates among the groups that participated in this expedition was undertaken. This revealed that poor nutritional status at the start of the trip was predictive of death from starvation.

  8. Investigations of the Climate System Response to Climate Engineering in a Hierarchy of Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCusker, Kelly E.

    Global warming due to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases is causing negative impacts on diverse ecological and human systems around the globe, and these impacts are projected to worsen as climate continues to warm. In the absence of meaningful greenhouse gas emissions reductions, new strategies have been proposed to engineer the climate, with the aim of preventing further warming and avoiding associated climate impacts. We investigate one such strategy here, falling under the umbrella of `solar radiation management', in which sulfate aerosols are injected into the stratosphere. We use a global climate model with a coupled mixed-layer depth ocean and with a fully-coupled ocean general circulation model to simulate the stabilization of climate by balancing increasing carbon dioxide with increasing stratospheric sulfate concentrations. We evaluate whether or not severe climate impacts, such as melting Arctic sea ice, tropical crop failure, or destabilization of the West Antarctic ice sheet, could be avoided. We find that while tropical climate emergencies might be avoided by use of stratospheric aerosol injections, avoiding polar emergencies cannot be guaranteed due to large residual climate changes in those regions, which are in part due to residual atmospheric circulation anomalies. We also find that the inclusion of a fully-coupled ocean is important for determining the regional climate response because of its dynamical feedbacks. The efficacy of stratospheric sulfate aerosol injections, and solar radiation management more generally, depends on its ability to be maintained indefinitely, without interruption from a variety of possible sources, such as technological failure, a breakdown in global cooperation, lack of funding, or negative unintended consequences. We next consider the scenario in which stratospheric sulfate injections are abruptly terminated after a multi- decadal period of implementation while greenhouse gas emissions have continued unabated

  9. Expedition invites research opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A Long Lines Expedition for Hydrographic stations will be made along the Greenwich meridian from 7°N to 35°S, with a port stop at Capetown, South Africa, then southward to Antarctica and westward through the Scotia Sea, ending at Punta Arenas, Chile. The work will begin in the fall of 1983 and finish early in 1984. Surface to bottom measurements of temperature, salinity, oxygen, and nutrients will be made at approximately 110 km intervals. The purpose of the expedition is to collect data to study the general circulation of the eastern South Atlantic Ocean, the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, the eastern extension of the Weddell Gyre, the flow of deep water from the Weddell Sea that extends northward east of the South Sandwich Ridge, and the regional oceanography of the Scotia Sea.

  10. International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 349 and Multidisciplinary Research in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Li, C. F.; Wang, P.; Koppers, A. A. P.; Dadd, K. A.; Kulhanek, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is one of the largest low-latitude marginal seas in the world, serving as a natural laboratory for studying the linkages between complex tectonic, volcanic, and oceanic processes. The last several years have witnessed significant progress in investigation of the SCS through comprehensive research programs using multidisciplinary approaches and enhanced international collaboration. In January-March 2014, International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 349 drilled and cored five sites in the SCS, with three sites located near the relict spreading center in the East and Southwest Subbasins and two sites near the transition zone between the oceanic and continental crust (Expedition 349 Scientists, 2014). The expedition successfully obtained the first basaltic rock samples of the SCS relict spreading center, discovered large and frequent deep-sea turbidity events, and sampled multiple seamount volcaniclastic layers. The Expedition 349 shipboard and shorebased research involves the participation and strong collaboration of scientists from the international community including scientists from countries and regions surrounding the SCS. Meanwhile, major progress in studying the SCS processes has also been made through comprehensive multidisciplinary programs, for example, the "South China Sea Deep" initiative (Wang, 2012). This presentation will highlight the recent multidisciplinary research initiatives in investigation of the SCS and the important role of international collaboration. Expedition 349 Scientists, 2014. South China Sea tectonics: Opening of the South China Sea and its implications for southeast Asian tectonics, climates, and deep mantle processes since the late Mesozoic. International Ocean Discovery Program Preliminary Report, 349. http://dx.doi.org/10.14379/iodp.pr.349.2014. Wang, P., 2012. Tracing the life history of a marginal sea—on "The South China Sea Deep" research program. Chinese Science Bulletin, 57(24), 3093

  11. Expedition 32 Departs for Baikonur

    NASA Video Gallery

    A new trio of Expedition 32 flight engineers, NASA astronaut Suni Williams, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Aki Hoshide and Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko, departs the Gagarin Cosm...

  12. Doctor on a mountaineering expedition.

    PubMed Central

    A'Court, C. H.; Stables, R. H.; Travis, S.

    1995-01-01

    Doctors are welcome members on mountaineering expeditions to remote areas, but practical advice on how to prepare and what kit to take can be difficult to find. This article is a ragbag of useful advice on diverse topics. It explains the necessary preparation, provides tips for a healthy expedition, and summarises the common disorders encountered at high altitude. The comprehensive drug and equipment lists and first aid kit for climbers were used for the 1992 Everest in winter expedition. They are there to be sacrificed to personal preference and the experience and size of individual expeditions. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:7767198

  13. Raman spectroscopic investigations on natural samples from the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 311: indications for heterogeneous compositions in hydrate crystals.

    PubMed

    Schicks, J M; Ziemann, M A; Lu, H; Ripmeester, J A

    2010-12-01

    Natural gas hydrates usually are found in the form of structure I, encasing predominantly methane in the hydrate lattices as guest molecules, sometimes also minor amount of higher hydrocarbons, CO2 or H2S. Raman spectroscopy is an approved tool to determine the composition of the hydrate phase. Thus, in this study Raman spectroscopic analyses have been applied to hydrate samples obtained from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 311 in two different approaches: studying the samples randomly taken from the hydrate core, and--as a new application--mapping small areas on the surface of clear hydrate crystals. The results obtained imply that the gas composition of hydrate, in terms of relative concentrations of CH4 and H2S, is not homogeneous over a core or even within a crystal. The mapping method yielded results with very high lateral resolution, indicating the coexistence of different phases with the same structure but different compositions within a hydrate crystal.

  14. Investigating drought using extreme climatic indices over Idaho, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrabi, M.; Ryu, J.

    2011-12-01

    To investigate consequences of climate variability and change, twenty-seven climatic indices of temperature and precipitation for Idaho, USA were computed, especially focusing on growing seasons (May through August). Mean temperature and average of maximum of maximum temperature, yearly minimum value of Self Calibrated Palmer Index (sc-PDSI) and Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) for 1, 3, 6 and 12 month time scales were also used to identify spatial and temporal distributions of climatic variability to be utilized in water management decisions. The analyses were conducted for 57 meteorological stations, during the period from 1962 to 2007, characterized by a long-term and high-quality dataset. Preliminary results indicate that global warming likely occurs over Idaho in the sense that declining trends in precipitation amount and frequency have been presented over most of the stations. Increasing trends in minimum of minimum temperature have been seen at the 56 stations and statistical significance of the trends were shown at the 33 stations out of them. Similarly, increasing trends in maximum of maximum temperature at the 48 stations have been found, and 25 stations out of them have significant trends. Consequently, frost and ice days dwindle as growing season length, tropical nights and summer days increase. Annual precipitation shows decreasing trends in 39 stations which 33 percent of them are significant. Generally, precipitation amount and frequency considerably dwindle in southern Idaho, while these indices increase in northern Idaho. Growing season precipitation also declines considerably, particularly in Snake River basin. Results of monthly and annual average of both SPI and sc-PDSI reveal considerable number of negative trends (approaching dry condition). SPI 12 month time scale and sc-PDSI indicate similar pattern. Furthermore, their results are consistent with drought reports published by Idaho Department of Water Resources. Minimum sc-PDSI has negative

  15. John Murray / MABAHISS expedition versus the International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE) in retrospect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleem, A. A.; Morcos, S. A.

    In addition to its scientific achievements, the John Murray/Mabahiss Expedition was a unique experiment in technology transfer and it pioneered bilateral relations in the field of oceanography, at a time when the Law of the Sea was not even an embryonic concept. The Expedition will be remembered for its profound influence on the development of oceanography in Egypt, and subsequently in several Arab and African countries, as well as for its socio-economic impact in Egypt. The International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE) was an elaborate exercise involving both the most sophisticated developments in oceanography of the day and the full complexity of international relations which necessitated the scientific, coordinating and supporting mechanisms of SCOR, IOC and Unesco combined. Each exercise separated by 25 years represented a significant event in the development of oceanography. Each was a natural product of the prevailing state of the art and the international climate. Oceanography had made a quantum jump in technology in the intervening quarter of a century, which had put the cost of deep sea oceanography quite beyond the financial capabilities of many developing countries, an important factor to bear in mind when comparing the impact of the John Murray/Mabahiss Expedition on Egypt with that of the IIOE, on the Indian Ocean countries.

  16. Lewis & Clark: An Interdisciplinary Expedition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brugar, Kristy

    2004-01-01

    On January 18, 1803 President Thomas Jefferson asked Congress to fund an expedition to the source of the Missouri River. This expedition would become known as the Corps of Discovery, which would spend twenty-eight months exploring, studying, and documenting the wonders of the western frontier. Led by Captains Meriwether Lewis and William Clark,…

  17. Investigation into regional climate variability using tree-ring reconstruction, climate diagnostics and prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barandiaran, Daniel A.

    This document is a summary of research conducted to develop and apply climate analysis tools toward a better understanding of the past and future of hydroclimate variability in the state of Utah. Two pilot studies developed data management and climate analysis tools subsequently applied to our region of interest. The first investigated the role of natural atmospheric forcing in the inter-annual variability of precipitation of the Sahel region in Africa, and found a previously undocumented link with the East Atlantic mode, which explains 29% of variance in regional precipitation. An analysis of output from an operational seasonal climate forecast model revealed a failure in the model to reproduce this linkage, thus highlighting a shortcoming in model performance. The second pilot study studied long-term trends in the strength of the Great Plains low-level jet, an driver of storm development in the region's wet spring season. Our analysis showed that since 1979 the low-level jet has strengthened as shifted the timing of peak activity, resulting in shifts both in time and location for peak precipitation, possibly the result of anthropogenic forcing. Our third study used a unique tree-ring dataset to create a reconstruction of April 1 snow water equivalent, an important measure of water supply in the Intermountain West, for the state of Utah to 1850. Analysis of the reconstruction shows the majority of snowpack variability occurs monotonically over the whole state at decadal to multidecadal frequencies. The final study evaluated decadal prediction performance of climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5. We found that the analyzed models exhibit modest skill in prediction of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and better skill in prediction of global temperature trends post 1960.

  18. Martian polar expeditions: problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    Cockell, C S

    2001-12-01

    The Martian polar ice caps are regions of substantial scientific interest, being the most dynamic regions of Mars. They are volatile sinks and thus closely linked to Martian climatic conditions. Because of their scale and the precedent set by the past history of polar exploration on Earth, it is likely that an age of polar exploration will emerge on the surface of Mars after the establishment of a capable support structure at lower latitudes. Expeditions might be launched either from a lower latitude base camp or from a human-tended polar base. Based on previously presented expeditionary routes to the Martian poles, in this paper a "spiral in-spiral out" unsupported transpolar assault on the Martian north geographical pole is used as a Reference expedition to propose new types of equipment for the human polar exploration of Mars. Martian polar "ball" tents and "hover" modifications to the Nansen sledge for sledging on CO2-containing water ice substrates under low atmospheric pressures are suggested as elements for the success of these endeavours. Other challenges faced by these expeditions are quantitatively and qualitatively addressed.

  19. Stochastic investigation of temperature process for climatic variability identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerias, Eleutherios; Kalamioti, Anna; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Markonis, Yannis; Iliopoulou, Theano; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2016-04-01

    The temperature process is considered as the most characteristic hydrometeorological process and has been thoroughly examined in the climate-change framework. We use a dataset comprising hourly temperature and dew point records to identify statistical variability with emphasis on the last period. Specifically, we investigate the occurrence of mean, maximum and minimum values and we estimate statistical properties such as marginal probability distribution function and the type of decay of the climacogram (i.e., mean process variance vs. scale) for various time periods. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.

  20. Stochastic investigation of wind process for climatic variability identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deligiannis, Ilias; Tyrogiannis, Vassilis; Daskalou, Olympia; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Markonis, Yannis; Iliopoulou, Theano; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2016-04-01

    The wind process is considered one of the hydrometeorological processes that generates and drives the climate dynamics. We use a dataset comprising hourly wind records to identify statistical variability with emphasis on the last period. Specifically, we investigate the occurrence of mean, maximum and minimum values and we estimate statistical properties such as marginal probability distribution function and the type of decay of the climacogram (i.e., mean process variance vs. scale) for various time periods. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.

  1. An Environmental Expedition Course in Search of the Maya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loret, John

    1978-01-01

    Sponsoring an interdisciplinary program (over 30 lecture hours of geology, ecology, anthropology, ethnology, and agriculture of the Yucatan and Meso-America), Queens College and the University of Connecticut provide expeditions to Mexico and study of local geomorphology, stratigraphy, climate, topography, soils, archeological sites, flora, and…

  2. IODP Expedition 334: An Investigation of the Sedimentary Record, Fluid Flow and State of Stress on Top of the Seismogenic Zone of an Erosive Subduction Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannucchi, P.; Ujiie, K.; Stroncik, N.; IODP Exp. 334 Scientific Party, the

    2013-03-01

    The Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project (CRISP) is an experiment to understand the processes that control nucleation and seismic rupture of large earthquakes at erosional subduction zones. Integrated Ocean Drililng Program (IODP) Expedition 334 by R/V JOIDES Resolution is the first step toward deep drilling through the aseismic and seismic plate boundary at the Costa Rica subduction zone offshore the Osa Peninsula where the Cocos Ridge is subducting beneath the Caribbean plate. Drilling operations included logging while drilling (LWD) at two slope sites (Sites U1378 and U1379) and coring at three slope sites (Sites U1378-1380) and at one site on the Cocos plate (Site U1381). For the first time the lithology, stratigraphy, and age of the slope and incoming sediments as well as the petrology of the subducting Cocos Ridge have been characterized at this margin. The slope sites recorded a high sediment accumulation rate of 160-1035m m y-1 possibly caused by on-land uplift triggered by the subduction of the Cocos Ridge. The geochemical data as well as the in situ temperature data obtained at the slope sites suggest that fluids are transported from greater depths. The geochemical profiles at Site U1381 reflect diffusional communication of a fluid with seawater-like chemistry and the igneous basement of the Cocos plate (Solomon et al., 2011; Vannucchi et al., 2012a). The present-day in situ stress orientation determined by borehole breakouts at Site U1378 in the middle slope and Site U1379 in the upper slope shows a marked change in stress state within ~12 km along the CRISP transect; that may correspond to a change from compression (middle slope) to extension (upper slope). doi:10.2204/iodp.sd.15.03.2013

  3. Expedition 28 Crew Lands Safely

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 28 Commander Andrey Borisenko and Flight Engineers Alexander Samokutyaev and Ron Garan land their Soyuz TMA-21 spacecraft in Kazakhstan. Russian recovery teams were on hand to help the c...

  4. Preliminary Cruise Report - Iguana Expedition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A preliminary cruise report of Expedition Iguana , 31 March 1972-11 May 1972, gives some preliminary results, list of equipment and, personnel, stations and data gathered, and track and topographic plots. (Author)

  5. Mt. Kilimanjaro expedition in earth science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrow, Elena; Yoshikawa, Kenji; Narita, Kenji; Brettenny, Mark; Yule, Sheila; O'Toole, Michael; Brettenny, Rogeline

    2010-05-01

    Mt. Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest mountain is 5,895 meters above sea level and is located 330 km south of the equator in Tanzania. In 1976 glaciers covered most of Mt. Kilimanjaro's summit; however in 2000, an estimated eighty percent of the ice cap has disappeared since the last thorough survey done in 1912. There is increased scientific interest in Mt. Kilimanjaro with the increase in global and African average temperatures. A team of college and pre-college school students from Tanzania, South Africa and Kenya, teachers from South Africa and the United States, and scientists from the University of Alaska Fairbanks in the United States and Akita University in Japan, climbed to the summit of Mt Kilimanjaro in October 2009. They were accompanied by guides, porters, two expedition guests, and a videographer. This expedition was part of the GLOBE Seasons and Biomes Earth System Science Project and the GLOBE Africa science education initiative, exploring and contributing to climate change studies. Students learned about earth science experientially by observing their physical and biological surroundings, making soil and air temperature measurements, participating in discussions, journaling their experience, and posing research questions. The international trekkers noted the change in the biomes as the altitude, temperature and conditions changed, from cultivated lands, to rain forest, heath zone, moorland, alpine desert, and summit. They also discovered permafrost, but not at the summit as expected. Rather, it was where the mountain was not covered by a glacier and thus more exposed to low extreme temperatures. This was the first report of permafrost on Mt. Kilimanjaro. Classrooms from all over the world participated in the expedition virtually. They followed the trek through the expedition website (http://www.xpeditiononline.com/) where pictures and journals were posted, and posed their own questions which were answered by the expedition and base camp team members

  6. Investigating Hilbert frequency dynamics and synchronisation in climate data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappalà, Dario; Masoller, Cristina; Tirabassi, Giulio

    2016-04-01

    In this work we investigate climate dynamics and interactions from the point of view of synchronisation. We analyse daily Surface Air Temperature (SAT) time series in 10512 grid points over the Earth's surface. [1] From each SAT time series we calculate the anomalies time series and also, by using the Hilbert transform, we calculate the frequency time series. By plotting the map of the average frequency in every grid point, we extract relevant information about the SAT dynamics in different regions of the world. Then, we calculate frequency and anomalies autocorrelations. The autocorrelation maps also allow uncovering geographical regions with different memory properties. In a second step, to detect Hilbert-frequency synchronisation in different regions, we compute the zero-lag cross correlation (CC). By thresholding the CC matrices (both, of SAT anomalies and of Hilbert frequencies), we build two undirected networks. A comparison between these networks allows to test the recent demonstration of optimal network inference when the similarity analysis is performed over Hilbert frequency time series. [2] In a third step, we consider non uniform thresholds and keep in each geographical location only the links with the highest CC values. In this way, we build directed networks that allow identifying in each geographical region the most relevant inward teleconnections. [1] ERA-Interim analysis daily data, from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. [2] G. Tirabassi, R. Sevilla-Escoboza, J. M. Buldú and C. Masoller, Inferring the connectivity of coupled oscillators from time-series statistical similarity analysis, Sci. Rep. 5 10829 (2015).

  7. Investigating the Climatic Transition Zone in Guyana, South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovolo, C.; Pereira, R.; Parkin, G.; Kilsby, C. G.; Wagner, T.

    2010-12-01

    The climate of Guyana is influenced by the seasonal oscillation of the rain-bearing Inter-Tropical-Convergence Zone over the northern part of South America, producing two wet seasons on the coast and one wet season inland. The transition zone between the two climate regimes also corresponds to a distinct vegetation transition between intact and highly biodiverse rainforests in northern and central Guyana, and open, savannah type vegetation in the southwest. Coastal Guyana has been shown to be highly susceptible to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, with El-Niño conditions most likely to result in drought; however a brief analysis of available observations suggests that an opposite effect may exist inland. Geographically sparse meteorological records of variable quality (especially inland) have so far precluded detailed climatic studies of the Guianas. It is important therefore, to establish the climate regime of the area and to analyse the influence of ENSO on the region in order to derive baselines against which the impacts of any future landuse change or climate change can be measured. The impacts of climatic variations on the ecosystem services of the area can then also begin to be determined. This study compares the ECMWF ERA40 reanalysis dataset for the period 1957-2002 at a ~125 km2 (1.125 degree) resolution against available areally averaged meteorological observations in the Guyanas to determine if reanalysis data can be used to supplement observations in data-poor areas. Mean differences (biases) and correlations are examined comparing the seasonal cycles and the yearly, monthly and monthly anomaly time series. Results show that maps of average annual reanalysis precipitation for the region compare favourably against observations, although the model underestimates precipitation in some zones of higher elevation. ERA40 also appears slightly positively biased on the coast and negatively biased inland. Correlations between observed and modelled

  8. Investigating the case of human nose shape and climate adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Arslan A.; Claes, Peter; McEcoy, Brian; Shriver, Mark D.

    2017-01-01

    The evolutionary reasons for variation in nose shape across human populations have been subject to continuing debate. An import function of the nose and nasal cavity is to condition inspired air before it reaches the lower respiratory tract. For this reason, it is thought the observed differences in nose shape among populations are not simply the result of genetic drift, but may be adaptations to climate. To address the question of whether local adaptation to climate is responsible for nose shape divergence across populations, we use Qst–Fst comparisons to show that nares width and alar base width are more differentiated across populations than expected under genetic drift alone. To test whether this differentiation is due to climate adaptation, we compared the spatial distribution of these variables with the global distribution of temperature, absolute humidity, and relative humidity. We find that width of the nares is correlated with temperature and absolute humidity, but not with relative humidity. We conclude that some aspects of nose shape may indeed have been driven by local adaptation to climate. However, we think that this is a simplified explanation of a very complex evolutionary history, which possibly also involved other non-neutral forces such as sexual selection. PMID:28301464

  9. Investigating Climate Change and Reproduction: Experimental Tools from Evolutionary Biology

    PubMed Central

    Grazer, Vera M.; Martin, Oliver Y.

    2012-01-01

    It is now generally acknowledged that climate change has wide-ranging biological consequences, potentially leading to impacts on biodiversity. Environmental factors can have diverse and often strong effects on reproduction, with obvious ramifications for population fitness. Nevertheless, reproductive traits are often neglected in conservation considerations. Focusing on animals, recent progress in sexual selection and sexual conflict research suggests that reproductive costs may pose an underestimated hurdle during rapid climate change, potentially lowering adaptive potential and increasing extinction risk of certain populations. Nevertheless, regime shifts may have both negative and positive effects on reproduction, so it is important to acquire detailed experimental data. We hence present an overview of the literature reporting short-term reproductive consequences of exposure to different environmental factors. From the enormous diversity of findings, we conclude that climate change research could benefit greatly from more coordinated efforts incorporating evolutionary approaches in order to obtain cross-comparable data on how individual and population reproductive fitness respond in the long term. Therefore, we propose ideas and methods concerning future efforts dealing with reproductive consequences of climate change, in particular by highlighting the advantages of multi-generational experimental evolution experiments. PMID:24832232

  10. Investigating the case of human nose shape and climate adaptation.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Arslan A; Mattern, Brooke C; Claes, Peter; McEcoy, Brian; Hughes, Cris; Shriver, Mark D

    2017-03-01

    The evolutionary reasons for variation in nose shape across human populations have been subject to continuing debate. An import function of the nose and nasal cavity is to condition inspired air before it reaches the lower respiratory tract. For this reason, it is thought the observed differences in nose shape among populations are not simply the result of genetic drift, but may be adaptations to climate. To address the question of whether local adaptation to climate is responsible for nose shape divergence across populations, we use Qst-Fst comparisons to show that nares width and alar base width are more differentiated across populations than expected under genetic drift alone. To test whether this differentiation is due to climate adaptation, we compared the spatial distribution of these variables with the global distribution of temperature, absolute humidity, and relative humidity. We find that width of the nares is correlated with temperature and absolute humidity, but not with relative humidity. We conclude that some aspects of nose shape may indeed have been driven by local adaptation to climate. However, we think that this is a simplified explanation of a very complex evolutionary history, which possibly also involved other non-neutral forces such as sexual selection.

  11. Expedition-8 Crew Members Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This is a portrait of the Expedition-8 two man crew. Pictured left is Cosmonaut Alexander Y, Kaleri, Soyuz Commander and flight engineer; and Michael C. Foale (right), Expedition-8 Mission Commander and NASA ISS Science Officer. The crew posed for this portrait while training at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. The two were launched for the International Space Station (ISS) aboard a Soyuz TMA-3 spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan, along with European Space Agency (ESA) Astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain, on October 18, 2003.

  12. Investigating Climate at an Inland Sea During Snowball Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, A. J.; Bitz, C. M.; Warren, S. G.; Waddington, E. D.

    2013-12-01

    During the Neoproterozoic, the Earth's oceans may have been completely covered with thick ice, during periods commonly called Snowball Earth events. The Snowball Earth environment would seemingly have prohibited the survival of photosynthetic eukaryotic algae; however, these organisms were alive immediately prior to and immediate subsequent to these periods. Where on a Snowball Earth, or a Snowball-like exoplanet, could photosynthetic eukaryotic algae survive? Recent research, in attempt to reconcile this paradox, has demonstrated that narrow channels connected the ocean, called inland seas, could have provided refugia for photosynthetic eukaryotic algae during Snowball Earth events. Narrow channels could have restricted the flow of ocean-derived ice, called sea glaciers, diminishing sea-glacier penetration into these channels. Provided certain climate conditions and channel geometries, this diminished sea-glacier penetration would have allowed for either open water or thin sea ice, at the far end of these channels. A channel with open water or thin sea ice would provide the conditions needed for survival of photosynthetic eukaryotic algae. Here we test whether the climate needed to prevent sea-glacier penetration, could have existed in the special inland sea environment. Previous climate modeling of Snowball Earth has shown that tropical regions would have likely been warmer than the global average and would have experienced net sublimation at the surface. An inland sea located in the tropics would be surrounded by land that is bare and free from snow, while the inland sea itself would be either ice-covered or open water. With these conditions the inland sea would likely have a high albedo, while the surrounding bare land, would have a lower albedo. This albedo contrast could cause the climate over an inland sea to be warmer than the climate over the ice-covered ocean at the same latitude. We calculate the surface temperature and sublimation rate at an inland sea

  13. Mars Climate Orbiter's Investigation of the Atmosphere and Polar Caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleese, D. J.; Moroz, V.; Schofield, T.; Taylor, F.; Zurek, R.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Climate Orbiter (MCO) is now on its way to Mars. It carries an atmospheric sounder whose observations will provide a continuous, global data set on weather and climate for a full Martian year. This paper describes the observation strategy and anticipated results from the Pressure Modulator Infrared Radiometer (PMIRR). PMIRR will measure vertical profiles of atmospheric infrared radiance in the 7 to 50 micron wavelength region extending from the surface of Mars to 80-km altitude. The observations have a vertical resolution of 5 km, or one-half the atmospheric scale height. From these radiance profiles we will retrieve profiles of atmospheric temperature, pressure, and the amounts of dust, condensates and water vapor. In addition, PMIRR will measure the radiative balance of the polar regions of Mars in an effort to better understand the short-term climate variability of the planet. The information obtained with PMIRR on MCO will be complementary to data obtained by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and Radio Science (RS) experiments on the Mars Global Surveyor. A major emphasis of our research will be the assimilation of PMIRR data into numerical models of the Martian atmosphere. Assimilation schemes, of which several are currently in development, will permit the extension of measurements to spatial and temporal scales and to phenomena (e.g. winds) not observed directly by PMIRR.

  14. Investigating Climate Change Issues With Web-Based Geospatial Inquiry Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempsey, C.; Bodzin, A. M.; Sahagian, D. L.; Anastasio, D. J.; Peffer, T.; Cirucci, L.

    2011-12-01

    In the Environmental Literacy and Inquiry middle school Climate Change curriculum we focus on essential climate literacy principles with an emphasis on weather and climate, Earth system energy balance, greenhouse gases, paleoclimatology, and how human activities influence climate change (http://www.ei.lehigh.edu/eli/cc/). It incorporates a related set of a framework and design principles to provide guidance for the development of the geospatial technology-integrated Earth and environmental science curriculum materials. Students use virtual globes, Web-based tools including an interactive carbon calculator and geologic timeline, and inquiry-based lab activities to investigate climate change topics. The curriculum includes educative curriculum materials that are designed to promote and support teachers' learning of important climate change content and issues, geospatial pedagogical content knowledge, and geographic spatial thinking. The curriculum includes baseline instructional guidance for teachers and provides implementation and adaptation guidance for teaching with diverse learners including low-level readers, English language learners and students with disabilities. In the curriculum, students use geospatial technology tools including Google Earth with embedded spatial data to investigate global temperature changes, areas affected by climate change, evidence of climate change, and the effects of sea level rise on the existing landscape. We conducted a designed-based research implementation study with urban middle school students. Findings showed that the use of the Climate Change curriculum showed significant improvement in urban middle school students' understanding of climate change concepts.

  15. Expedition Seven Launched Aboard Soyez Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Destined for the International Space Station (ISS), a Soyez TMA-1 spacecraft launches from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on April 26, 2003. Aboard are Expedition Seven crew members, cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven mission commander, and Astronaut Edward T. Lu, Expedition Seven NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer. Expedition Six crew members returned to Earth aboard the Russian spacecraft after a 5 and 1/2 month stay aboard the ISS. Photo credit: NASA/Scott Andrews

  16. Expedition 34 Welcomes New Trio

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Soyuz TMA-07M carrying new Expedition 34 crew members Chris Hadfield, Roman ROmanenko and Tom Marshburn docked to the International Space Station’s Rassvet module at 9:09 a.m. EST on Friday. ...

  17. 21 CFR 1401.6 - Expedited process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Expedited process. 1401.6 Section 1401.6 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.6 Expedited process. (a) Requests and appeals will be given expedited treatment whenever ONDCP determines either:...

  18. 21 CFR 1401.6 - Expedited process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Expedited process. 1401.6 Section 1401.6 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.6 Expedited process. (a) Requests and appeals will be given expedited treatment whenever ONDCP determines either:...

  19. 21 CFR 1401.6 - Expedited process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Expedited process. 1401.6 Section 1401.6 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.6 Expedited process. (a) Requests and appeals will be given expedited treatment whenever ONDCP determines either:...

  20. 21 CFR 1401.6 - Expedited process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Expedited process. 1401.6 Section 1401.6 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.6 Expedited process. (a) Requests and appeals will be given expedited treatment whenever ONDCP determines either:...

  1. 7 CFR 1.9 - Expedited processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expedited processing. 1.9 Section 1.9 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.9 Expedited processing. (a) A requester may apply for expedited processing at the time of the initial request for...

  2. 7 CFR 1.9 - Expedited processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Expedited processing. 1.9 Section 1.9 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.9 Expedited processing. (a) A requester may apply for expedited processing at the time of the initial request for...

  3. 21 CFR 1401.6 - Expedited process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expedited process. 1401.6 Section 1401.6 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.6 Expedited process. (a) Requests and appeals will be given expedited treatment whenever ONDCP determines either:...

  4. Controls on the Archean climate system investigated with a global climate model.

    PubMed

    Wolf, E T; Toon, O B

    2014-03-01

    The most obvious means of resolving the faint young Sun paradox is to invoke large quantities of greenhouse gases, namely, CO2 and CH4. However, numerous changes to the Archean climate system have been suggested that may have yielded additional warming, thus easing the required greenhouse gas burden. Here, we use a three-dimensional climate model to examine some of the factors that controlled Archean climate. We examine changes to Earth's rotation rate, surface albedo, cloud properties, and total atmospheric pressure following proposals from the recent literature. While the effects of increased planetary rotation rate on surface temperature are insignificant, plausible changes to the surface albedo, cloud droplet number concentrations, and atmospheric nitrogen inventory may each impart global mean warming of 3-7 K. While none of these changes present a singular solution to the faint young Sun paradox, a combination can have a large impact on climate. Global mean surface temperatures at or above 288 K could easily have been maintained throughout the entirety of the Archean if plausible changes to clouds, surface albedo, and nitrogen content occurred.

  5. Effect of a Prolonged Altitude Expedition on Glucose Tolerance and Abdominal Fatness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Mu-Tsung; Lee, Wen-Chih; Chen, Shih-Chang; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Chen, Chung-Yu; Lee, Shin-Da; Jensen, Jorgen; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of a long-term mountain expedition on glucose tolerance and insulin action. Twelve registered mountaineers ages 31 years (SD = 1.1) participated in a 25-day expedition at a 2,200-3,800-m altitude with an average duration of 8 hr per day. Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO[subscript 2]) was…

  6. Investigating Satellite Microwave observations of Precipitation in Different Climate Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, N.; Ferraro, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    Microwave satellite remote sensing of precipitation over land is a challenging problem due to the highly variable land surface emissivity, which, if not properly accounted for, can be much greater than the precipitation signal itself, especially in light rain/snow conditions. Additionally, surfaces such as arid land, deserts and snow cover have brightness temperature characteristics similar to precipitation Ongoing work by GPM microwave radiometer team is constructing databases through a variety of means, however, there is much uncertainty as to what is the optimal information needed for the wide array of sensors in the GPM constellation, including examination of regional conditions. The original data sets will focus on stratification by emissivity class, surface temperature and total perceptible water. We'll perform sensitivity studies to determine the potential role of ancillary data (e.g., land surface temperature, snow cover/water equivalent, etc.) to improve precipitation estimation over land in different climate regimes, including rain and snow. In other words, what information outside of the radiances can help describe the background and subsequent departures from it that are active precipitating regions? It is likely that this information will be a function of the various precipitation regimes. Statistical methods such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) will be utilized in this task. Databases from a variety of sources are being constructed. They include existing satellite microwave measurements of precipitating and non-precipitating conditions, ground radar precipitation rate estimates, surface emissivity climatology from satellites, surface temperature and TPW from NWP reanalysis. Results from the analysis of these databases with respect to the microwave precipitation sensitivity to the variety of environmental conditions in different climate regimes will be discussed.

  7. Psychological effects of polar expeditions.

    PubMed

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Suedfeld, Peter

    2008-01-12

    Polar expeditions include treks and stays at summer camps or year-round research stations. People on such expeditions generally undergo psychological changes resulting from exposure to long periods of isolation and confinement, and the extreme physical environment. Symptoms include disturbed sleep, impaired cognitive ability, negative affect, and interpersonal tension and conflict. Seasonal occurrence of these symptoms suggests the existence of three overlapping syndromes: the winter-over syndrome, the polar T3 syndrome, and subsyndromal seasonal affective disorder. About 5% of people on expeditions meet DSM-IV or ICD criteria for psychiatric disorders. However, they also experience positive or so-called salutogenic outcomes resulting from successfully coping with stress and enhanced self-sufficiency, improved health, and personal growth. Prevention of pathogenic psychological outcomes is best accomplished by psychological and psychiatric screening procedures to select out unsuitable candidates, and by providing access to psychological support, including telephone counselling. Promotion of salutogenic experiences is best accomplished by screening for suitable personality traits, and training participants in individual coping strategies, group interaction, and team leadership.

  8. Retrospective on the National Ozone Expeditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, S.

    2002-05-01

    In 1985, the British Antarctic Survey discovered the Antarctic ozone hole. In March of l986, a small group of American scientists began planning an emergency mission to Antarctica to try to gain insights as to its cause. On August 22, l986, they arrived in Antarctica and began a series of ground-based and balloon-borne measurements that ultimately helped show that the ozone hole is caused primarily by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Multiple instruments measured ozone's rapid disappearance in September, documenting the rate of its destruction and helping to substantiate the validity of the remarkable ozone trend. Others measured chemical compounds such as HCl, nitrogen dioxide, and HF. A second expedition occurred in 1987, and some of the investigators continued a series of measurements for multiple years. Key measurements were those of de Zafra and coworkers, which focussed on observations of chlorine monoxide using ground-based microwave emission techniques. The contributions of these National Ozone Expeditions to the evolution of understanding of the Antarctic ozone hole will be reviewed in this lecture.

  9. Changes in Aspects of Students' Self-Reported Personal, Social and Technical Skills during a Six-Week Wilderness Expedition in Arctic Greenland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stott, Tim; Hall, Neil

    2003-01-01

    This investigation focuses on students' self-reported changes in personal, social and technical skills that took place during a six-week long expedition to East Greenland. A 105-item pre-and post-expedition questionnaire was completed by 60 young expeditioners aged 16 to 20. Before the expedition participants generally felt that they had high…

  10. Investigating the Paleoproterozoic glaciations with 3-D climate modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teitler, Yoram; Le Hir, Guillaume; Fluteau, Frédéric; Philippot, Pascal; Donnadieu, Yannick

    2014-06-01

    It is generally assumed that the Earth's surface was warm during most of its early history but that significant cooling occurred between 2.45 and 2.22 Ga leading to the first global and cyclical glacial epoch. This onset of snowball Earth conditions was coeval with a large pulse of oxygenation that permanently oxygenated the atmosphere and shallow oceans (Great Oxygenation Event, GOE), though it is not known whether one influenced the other or if they were independent events. Hereafter we used a General Circulation climate Model (GCM) to estimate the partial pressures of atmospheric CO2 (pCO2) and CH4 (pCH4) required to account for the onset of snowball Earth conditions during the Paleoproterozoic. We show that Earth's surface can be maintained in an ice-free state under atmospheric CO2 concentrations lower than 2.6×10-2 bar without invoking the need of high CH4 concentrations. Assuming that the cooling of the Earth's surface is related to the collapse of atmospheric greenhouse gases, we tested the relevance of different scenarios including (i) the collapse of pCH4 in response to the GOE and (ii) the drawdown of pCO2 due to both a decrease in volcanic outgassing rate and an increase in global weathering efficiency. We show that the cyclical character of Paleoproterozoic glaciations is best explained by a long-lasted decrease of pCO2. To support this scenario, we examine how the long-term carbon cycle and the equilibrium pCO2 respond to the emplacement of large subaerial basaltic provinces (LIPs) and to a temporary shutdown of volcanism as supported by geologic data. We show that the sink of pCO2 through silicate weathering is limited by the absence of terrestrial higher plants. In such conditions, the equilibrium pCO2 remains high enough to preclude the onset of snowball conditions regardless the intensity of the pCH4 collapse. The combination of an increase in weathering efficiency and a decrease in volcanic outgassing rate can significantly reduce the

  11. Stochastic investigation of precipitation process for climatic variability identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotiriadou, Alexia; Petsiou, Amalia; Feloni, Elisavet; Kastis, Paris; Iliopoulou, Theano; Markonis, Yannis; Tyralis, Hristos; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2016-04-01

    The precipitation process is important not only to hydrometeorology but also to renewable energy resources management. We use a dataset consisting of daily and hourly records around the globe to identify statistical variability with emphasis on the last period. Specifically, we investigate the occurrence of mean, maximum and minimum values and we estimate statistical properties such as marginal probability distribution function and the type of decay of the climacogram (i.e., mean process variance vs. scale). Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.

  12. Expedition 30 Departs for Launch Site

    NASA Video Gallery

    Three Expedition 30 flight engineers -- NASA astronaut Don Pettit, Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kononenko and European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers -- departed Star City, Russia on Thursday for t...

  13. Expedition 31 Qualification Training Simulation Runs

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 31 Flight Engineers Gennady Padalka, Sergei Revin and Joe Acaba, along with backup crew members Kevin Ford, Oleg Novitskiy and Evgeny Tarelkin, complete qualification training simulation...

  14. New Titan Saltation Threshold Experiments: Investigating Current and Past Climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, N.; Burr, D. M.; Marshall, J.; Smith, J. K.; Emery, J. P.; Horst, S. M.; Nield, E.; Yu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Titan exhibits aeolian sand dunes that cover ~20% of its surface, attesting to significant sediment transport by the wind. Recent experiments in the Titan Wind Tunnel (TWT) at NASA Ames Research Center [1,2] found that the threshold friction speed needed to detach Titanian "sand" is about 50% higher than previous estimates based on theory alone [3], a result that might be explained by the low ratio of particle to fluid density on the body [1]. Following the successful completion of the initial Titan threshold tests, we are conducting new experiments that expand the pressure range above and below current Titan values. The basic experimental techniques are described in [1], with minor updates to the instrumentation as described in [2]. To reproduce the kinematic viscosity and particle friction Reynolds number equivalent to that expected for Titan's nitrogen atmosphere at 1.4 bars and 94 K requires that TWT be pressurized to 12.5 bars for air at 293K. In addition to running experiments at this pressure to reproduce previous results [1] and investigate low density (high density ratio) materials, TWT pressures of 3 and 8 bars are in the experimental matrix to understand threshold under past Titan conditions when the atmospheric pressure may have been lower [4]. Higher pressures, at 15 and 20 bars in TWT, are also being run to understand the putative effects of low density ratio conditions. Our experimental matrix for this follow-on work uses some of the same materials as previously used, including walnut shells, basalt, quartz, glass spheres, and various low density materials to better simulate the gravity-equivalent weight of Titan sand. For these experiments, the TWT is now equipped with a new high pressure Tavis transducer with sufficient sensitivity to measure freestream speeds of less than 0.5 m s-1 at 12.5 bars. New techniques include video documentation of the experiments. We are also investigating methods of measuring humidity of the wind tunnel environment and

  15. Investigating the Association of Mental-Social Climate and Social Anxiety With Students’ Self-Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Fallah, Farideh; Nadi Ghara, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    Background: The tendency and motivation to progress and achieve the ideal position have always encouraged people towards acquiring the required education. Objectives: The present research aimed to investigate the association of mental-social climate and social anxiety with self-efficiency and also predict the academic self-efficiency of first grade high school students based on social anxiety and the mental-social climate of the classroom. Materials and Methods: A total of 350 subjects (172 girls and 178 boys) have been chosen by a random clustering sampling form the first grade high school students of Qaemshahr, Iran. The academic self-efficiency questionnaire, the social anxiety scale for teenagers and the classroom mental climate scale were used to collect the required data. For data analysis, the statistical method of correlation analysis, independent t test, and multivariate regression have been used. Results: The research findings showed that there was a significant negative relationship between mental-social climate of the classroom and students’ self-efficiency. In addition, social anxiety has been a significant negative relationship with self-efficiency. Furthermore, a significant positive relationship exists between mental-social climate and social anxiety. Conclusions: In order to develop students’ self-efficacy, there should be appropriate psychosocial climate. Therefore, teachers and administrators of education must provide all necessary arrangements to improve psychosocial climate classes. PMID:26576172

  16. Investigation of carbon dioxide in the central South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P-16C and P-17C) during the TUNES/2 expedition of the R/V Thomas Washington, July--August, 1991. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, T.; Goddard, J.G.; Rubin, S.; Chipman, D.W.; Sutherland, S.C.

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of carbon dioxide and associated hydrographic measurements made during the oceanographic expedition, TUNES/2, aboard the R/V Thomas Washington in the central South Pacific Ocean. During the 40 day expedition, the total carbon dioxide concentration in 1000 seawater samples were determined using a coulometer system and the pCO(sub 2) in 940 seawater samples were determined using an equilibrator/gas chromatograph system. The alkalinity values in 900 water samples were computed using these measurements. In addition, 156 coulometric measurements were made for the Certified Reference Solutions (Batch No. 6) and yielded a mean value of 2303.2 +or- 1.5umol/kg. The chemical characteristics for the major water masses have been determined.

  17. AstroTrek: Astronomical Learning Expeditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel-Storr, Jacob

    2007-05-01

    It is critical to the future success of the scientific workforce that we understand, investigate and implement new strategies to engage a more diverse range of youth in STEM activities and the excitement of science through a variety of less traditional avenues. Here we present the underlying design principles and outcomes of a series of front-end tests of the AstroTrek: Astronomical Learning Expeditions program. This program is designed to broaden the range of teenagers who choose to take part in science learning outside of school, and diversify the gateways through which they can be engaged in and excited by science; develop contexts and strategies where we can bring youth from where they are to where we (the scientific community) are; and find strategies to include authentic scientific experiences in expeditionary learning taking the experiences beyond ‘science tourism’.

  18. Raman Spectroscopy: an essential tool for future IODP expeditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andò, Sergio; Garzanti, Eduardo; Kulhanek, Denise K.

    2016-04-01

    The scientific drilling of oceanic sedimentary sequences plays a fundamental part in provenance studies, paleoclimate recostructions, and source-to-sink investigations (e.g., France-Lanord et al., 2015; Pandey et al., 2015). When studying oceanic deposits, Raman spectroscopy can and does represent an essential flexible tool for the multidisciplinary approach necessary to integrate the insight provided by different disciplines. This new user-friendly technique opens up an innovative avenue to study in real time the composition of detrital mineral grains of any origin, complementing traditional methods of provenance analysis (e.g., sedimentary petrography, heavy minerals; Andò and Garzanti, 2014). Raman spectra can readily reveal the chemistry of foraminiferal tests, nannofossils and other biogenic debris for the study of ecosystem evolution and paleoclimate, or the Ca/Mg ratio in biogenic or terrigenous carbonates for geological or marine biological applications and oil exploration (Borromeo et al., 2015). For the study of pelagic or turbiditic muds, which represent the bulk of the deep-marine sedimentary record, Raman spectroscopy allows us to identify silt-sized grains down to the size of a few microns with the same precision level required in quantitative provenance analysis of sand-sized sediments (Andò et al., 2011). Silt and siltstone also represent a very conspicuous part of the stratigraphic record onshore and usually preserve original mineralogical assemblages better than more permeable interbedded sand and sandstone (Blatt, 1985). Raman spectra can be obtained on sample volumes of only a few cubic microns by a confocal micro-Raman coupled with a standard polarizing light microscope using a 50× objective. The size of this apparatus can be easily placed onboard an IODP vessel to provide crucial information and quickly solve identification problems for the benefit of a wide range of scientists during future expeditions. Cited references Andò, S., Vignola

  19. 5 CFR 9800.11 - Expedited processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Expedited processing. 9800.11 Section 9800.11 Administrative Personnel COUNCIL OF THE INSPECTORS GENERAL ON INTEGRITY AND EFFICIENCY FREEDOM... expedited processing must include a written statement that the requester has certified to be true...

  20. 28 CFR 802.8 - Expedited processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS Freedom of Information Act § 802.8 Expedited processing. (a) Requests and appeals will... basis. (b) If you seek expedited processing, you must submit a statement, certified to be true and.... 1746, “I declare under penalty of perjury that the foregoing is true and correct to the best of...

  1. 31 CFR 10.82 - Expedited suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited suspension. 10.82 Section... INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.82 Expedited suspension. (a... suspension. A suspension under this section will commence on the date that written notice of the...

  2. 42 CFR 405.1204 - Expedited reconsiderations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expedited reconsiderations. 405.1204 Section 405.1204 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Expedited Determinations...

  3. 40 CFR 154.34 - Expedited procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Expedited procedures. 154.34 Section 154.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS SPECIAL REVIEW PROCEDURES Procedures § 154.34 Expedited procedures. (a) The Agency may elect to issue...

  4. 21 CFR 20.44 - Expedited processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expedited processing. 20.44 Section 20.44 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Procedures and Fees § 20.44 Expedited processing. (a) The Food and Drug Administration will provide...

  5. 28 CFR 51.34 - Expedited consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... consideration. (a) When a submitting authority is required under State law or local ordinance or otherwise finds... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited consideration. 51.34 Section 51... the submission be given expedited consideration. The submission should explain why such...

  6. 40 CFR 154.34 - Expedited procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited procedures. 154.34 Section 154.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS SPECIAL REVIEW PROCEDURES Procedures § 154.34 Expedited procedures. (a) The Agency may elect to issue...

  7. 40 CFR 791.31 - Expedited procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Expedited procedures. 791.31 Section 791.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Hearing Procedures § 791.31 Expedited procedures. Unless...

  8. Exploring Links Between Global Climate and Explosive Arc Volcanism in Tephra-Rich Quaternary Sediments: A Pilot Study from IODP Expedition 350 Site 1437B, Izu Bonin Rear-Arc Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corry-Saavedra, K.; Straub, S. M.; Bolge, L.; Schindlbeck, J. C.; Kutterolf, S.; Woodhead, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Fallout tephra in marine sediment provide an excellent archive of explosive arc volcanism that can be directly related to the other parameters of climate change, such as ice volume data, IRD (ice-rafted debris) input, etc. Current studies are based on 'discrete' tephra beds, which are produced by major eruptions and visible with the naked eye. Yet the more common, but less explosive arc eruptions that are more continuous through time produce 'disperse' tephra, which is concealed by the non-volcanic host sediment and invisible to the eye. The proportion of disperse tephra in marine sediments is known to be significant and may be critical in elucidating potential synchronicity between arc volcanism and glacial cycles. We conducted a pilot study in young sediments of IODP Hole 1437B drilled at 31°47.3911'N and 139°01.5788'E at the rear-arc of the Izu Bonin volcanic arc. By means of δ18O (Vautravers, in revision), eleven climatic cycles are recorded in uppermost 120 meter of carbonate mud that is interspersed by cm-thick tephra fallout layers. We selected six tephra layers, ranging from 0.2 to 1.16 million years in age, and sampled those vertically, starting from carbonate mud below the basal contact throughout the typical gradational top into the carbonate mud above. From each tephra bed, volcanic particles (>125 micrometer) were handpicked. All other samples were powdered and leached in buffered acetic acid and hydroxylamine hydrochloride to remove the carbonate and authigenous fraction, respectively. Major and trace element abundances (except for SiO2) from all samples were determined by ICP-MS and ICP-OES methods. Strong binary mixing trends are revealed between the pure tephra end member, and detrital sediment component. The tephra is derived from the Izu Bonin volcanic front and rear-arc, while the sediment component is presumably transported by ocean surface currents from the East China Sea. Our data show that mixing proportions change systematically with

  9. Virtual special issue on IODP Expedition 339: The Mediterranean outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodell, D. A.; Hernández-Molina, F. Javier; Stow, Dorrik A. V.; Alvarez-Zarikian, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    IODP Expedition 339 had two inter-related objectives to recover continuous sedimentary sequences for: (i) studying the Contourite Depositional System formed by the MOW; and (ii) reconstructing North Atlantic climate variability on orbital and suborbital time scales. This Elsevier Virtual Special Issue (VSI) ;Mediterranean Outflow; is comprised of two volumes that are roughly divided along these lines with Marine Geology devoted to (i) and Global and Planetary Change to (ii), although some papers overlap the two themes. The Marine Geology volume contains 9 contributions addressing specific aspects of IODP Expedition 339 related to contourite deposits including sedimentology, seismic interpretation, stratigraphy, physical properties, downhole logging and ichnofacies (Hernández-Molina et al., 2015; Lofi et al., 2015; Ducassou et al., 2015; Alonso et al., 2015; Takashimizu et al., 2016; Nishida, 2015; Dorador and Rodríguez-Tovar, 2015a, 2015b; Kaboth et al., 2015). The Global and Planetary Change volume consists of 18 papers described below, highlighting paleoclimatic results from sites drilled on the SW Iberian Margin and in the Gulf of Cadiz. The two volumes provide a sample of emerging results of Expedition 339 and foretell of the promising research yet to come.

  10. Expedition 5 Crew Interviews: Valery Korzun, Commander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Expedition 5 Commander Valery Kozun is seen during a prelaunch interview. He gives details on the mission's goals and significance, his role in the mission and what his responsibilities will be as commander, what the crew exchange will be like (the Expedition 5 crew will replace the Expedition 4 crew on the International Space Station (ISS)), the daily life on an extended stay mission, the loading operations that will take place, the experiments he will be conducting on board, and the planned extravehicular activities (EVAs) scheduled for the mission. Kozun discusses the EVAs in greater detail and explains the significance of the Mobile Base System and the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart for the ISS. He also explains at some length the science experiments which will be conducted on board by the Expedition 5 crew members. Korzun also touches on how his previous space experience on Mir (including dealing with a very serious fire) will benefit the Expedition 5 mission.

  11. Improved Upper Ocean/Sea Ice Modeling in the GISS GCM for Investigating Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This project built on our previous results in which we highlighted the importance of sea ice in overall climate sensitivity by determining that for both warming and cooling climates, when sea ice was not allowed to change, climate sensitivity was reduced by 35-40%. We also modified the GISS 8 deg x lO deg atmospheric GCM to include an upper-ocean/sea-ice model involving the Semtner three-layer ice/snow thermodynamic model, the Price et al. (1986) ocean mixed layer model and a general upper ocean vertical advection/diffusion scheme for maintaining and fluxing properties across the pycnocline. This effort, in addition to improving the sea ice representation in the AGCM, revealed a number of sensitive components of the sea ice/ocean system. For example, the ability to flux heat through the ice/snow properly is critical in order to resolve the surface temperature properly, since small errors in this lead to unrestrained climate drift. The present project, summarized in this report, had as its objectives: (1) introducing a series of sea ice and ocean improvements aimed at overcoming remaining weaknesses in the GCM sea ice/ocean representation, and (2) performing a series of sensitivity experiments designed to evaluate the climate sensitivity of the revised model to both Antarctic and Arctic sea ice, determine the sensitivity of the climate response to initial ice distribution, and investigate the transient response to doubling CO2.

  12. Improved Upper Ocean/Sea Ice Modeling in the GISS GCM for Investigating Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This project built on our previous results in which we highlighted the importance of sea ice in overall climate sensitivity by determining that for both warming and cooling climates, when sea ice was not allowed to change, climate sensitivity was reduced by 35-40%. We also modified the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) 8 deg x lO deg atmospheric General Circulation Model (GCM) to include an upper-ocean/sea-ice model involving the Semtner three-layer ice/snow thermodynamic model, the Price et al. (1986) ocean mixed layer model and a general upper ocean vertical advection/diffusion scheme for maintaining and fluxing properties across the pycnocline. This effort, in addition to improving the sea ice representation in the AGCM, revealed a number of sensitive components of the sea ice/ocean system. For example, the ability to flux heat through the ice/snow properly is critical in order to resolve the surface temperature properly, since small errors in this lead to unrestrained climate drift. The present project, summarized in this report, had as its objectives: (1) introducing a series of sea ice and ocean improvements aimed at overcoming remaining weaknesses in the GCM sea ice/ocean representation, and (2) performing a series of sensitivity experiments designed to evaluate the climate sensitivity of the revised model to both Antarctic and Arctic sea ice, determine the sensitivity of the climate response to initial ice distribution, and investigate the transient response to doubling CO2.

  13. Investigating the biogeophysical impacts of land cover change on future climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, X.; Mao, J.; Thornton, P. E.; Di Vittorio, A. V.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Truesdale, J. E.; Chini, L. P.; Thomson, A. M.; Collins, W.; Edmonds, J.; Hurtt, G. C.

    2014-12-01

    Land use plays an important role in determining terrestrial-atmosphere mass and energy exchange, which in turn influences local to global climate. The CMIP5 project used "land use harmonization" to provide land use input for Earth System Model (ESM) simulations, but did not address numerous climate and carbon-cycle inconsistencies between Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) and ESMs. Our new approach to reducing such inconsistencies is to integrate an IAM (Global Change Assessment Model) and an ESM (Community Earth System Model) into the first fully coupled model that directly simulates human-environment feedbacks. The resulting Integrated Earth System Model (iESM) is used to investigate the biogeophysical impacts of land cover change (LCC) at regional and global scales under RCP4.5 scenario. Regions with significant LCC differences between the coupled (predicted LCC with climate feedback) and control (prescribed LUC without climate feedback, CMIP5 style) runs include large portions of Europe, United States, eastern China, India, Indonesia and Brail at the end of 21st century. The model results suggest that the LCCs have little impact on globally averaged climatic variables (e.g., 2m temperature is -0.004 K cooler in the coupled simulation compared to control simulation with prescribed LCC). Within some of the regions with significant LCCs, there are relatively large changes o f selected climatic variables, but most are not statistically significant in the local annual mean (e.g., the reduction of precipitation is large as -0.115 mm/day over Southeast China, but not significant). Conversely, within some regions with small LCCs, there are relatively large and significant model changes (e.g., significant changes for precipitation, ET, LH, and net radiation appear over Tigris Euphrates). On the basis of our model experiments, it is important to consider the two-way feedbacks between the climate and LCC for projecting future climate, particularly at regional scales.

  14. Multidisciplinary Investigations of Climate Change in Mexico: Reports from a Collaborative Academic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endfield, G. H.

    2007-05-01

    Unusually severe or prolonged drought ranks among the most devastating of climate changes in Mexico, and has contributed to wildfires, crop failure, livestock death and famine across the country throughout its history and pre- history (Liverman, 1999; Florescano, 1980). Some of these droughts are thought to be associated with the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) - the most prominent signal in inter-annual climate variability in Mexico and the subject of increasing interest following the effects of the severe El Niño of 1997-98 (Magaña et al., 2003). Obtaining detailed records of droughts and gaining a better understanding of how rainfall variability has affected Mexico's populations in the past, and is affecting society today, are essential steps toward designing appropriate drought preparedness, mitigation and relief programmes both in Mexico and other vulnerable regions of the world (ISDR, 2002). This paper reports on the development of Collaborative Academic Network entitled "Multi-disciplinary investigations of climate change in Mexico". The network represents an important research initiative, funded by the Leverhulme Trust, involving individuals from Mexico, the United Kingdom and the United States with established reputations for research in complementary methodological approaches to understanding climate change and drought in Mexico. The aim of the network is to draw on internationally recognised expertise in dendroclimatology, palaeolimnology, climate history and modern climatology, with the following objectives: - to improve understanding of the climatic mechanisms that cause drought across Mexico and how these vary spatially; - to identify past, present and future impacts of, and responses to, drought in Mexico; - to develop a more comprehensive understanding of climate change and its impacts across Mexico on a range of time scales. Here I report on the progress of the network so far in its aims to facilitate the integration and development of

  15. 20 CFR 416.999 - What is expedited reinstatement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.999 What is expedited reinstatement? The expedited reinstatement provision provides...

  16. 20 CFR 416.999 - What is expedited reinstatement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.999 What is expedited reinstatement? The expedited reinstatement provision provides...

  17. 20 CFR 416.999 - What is expedited reinstatement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.999 What is expedited reinstatement? The expedited reinstatement provision provides...

  18. 20 CFR 416.999 - What is expedited reinstatement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.999 What is expedited reinstatement? The expedited reinstatement provision provides...

  19. 20 CFR 416.999 - What is expedited reinstatement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.999 What is expedited reinstatement? The expedited reinstatement provision provides...

  20. Investigating Climate Science Misconceptions Using a Teacher Professional Development Workshop Registration Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynds, S. E.; Gold, A. U.; McNeal, K.; Libarkin, J. C.; Buhr Sullivan, S. M.; Ledley, T. S.; Haddad, N.; Ellins, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    The EarthLabs Climate project, an NSF-Discovery Research K12 program, has developed a suite of three online classroom-ready modules: Climate and the Cryosphere; Climate and the Carbon Cycle; and Climate and the Biosphere. The EarthLabs Climate project included week-long professional development workshops during June of 2012 and 2013 in Texas and Mississippi. Evaluation of the 2012 and 2013 workshops included participant self-reported learning levels in many areas of climate science. Teachers' answers indicated they had increased their understanding of the topics addressed in the workshops. However, the project team was interested in refining the evaluation process to determine exactly those areas of climate science in which participants increased content knowledge and ameliorated misconceptions. Therefore, to enhance the investigation into what teachers got out of the workshop, a pre-test/post-test design was implemented for 2013. In particular, the evaluation team was interested in discovering the degree to which participants held misconceptions and whether those beliefs were modified by attendance at the workshops. For the 2013 workshops, a registration survey was implemented that included the Climate Concept Inventory (a climate content knowledge quiz developed by the education research team for the project). The multiple-choice questions are also part of the pre/post student quiz used in classrooms in which the EarthLabs Climate curriculum was implemented. Many of the questions in this instrument assess common misconceptions by using them as distractors in the multiple choice options. The registration survey also asked respondents to indicate their confidence in their answer to each question, because, in addition to knowledge limitations, lack of confidence also can be a barrier to effective teaching. Data from the registration survey informed workshop managers of the topic content knowledge of participants, allowing fine-tuning of the professional development

  1. Haughton-Mars Project Expedition 2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deWeck, Olivier; Simchi-Levi, David

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 expedition to the Haughton-Mars Project (HMP) research station on Devon Island was part of a NASA-funded project on Space Logistics. A team of nine r&searchers from MIT went to the Canadian Arctic to participate in the annual I-IMP field campaign from July 8 to August 12, 2005. We investigated the applicability of the HMP research station as an analogue for planetary macro- and micro-logistics to the Moon and Mars, and began collecting data for modeling purposes. We also tested new technologies and procedures to enhance the ability of humans and robots to jointly explore remote environments. The expedition had four main objectives. We briefly summarize our key findings in each of these areas. 1. Classes of Supply: First, we wanted to understand what supply items existed at the HMP research station in support of planetary science and exploration research at and around the Haughton Crater. We also wanted to quantify the total amount of imported mass at HMP and compare this with predictions from existing parametric lunar base demand models. 2. Macro-Logistics Transportation Network: Our second objective was to understand the nodes, transportation routes, vehicles, capacities and crew and cargo mass flow rates required to support the HMP logistics network. 3. Agent and Asset Tracking: Since the current inventory management system on ISS relies heavily on barcodes and manual tracking, we wanted to test new automated technologies and procedures such as radio frequency identification RFID) to support exploration logistics. 4. Micro-Logistics (EVA): Finally, we wanted to understand the micro-logistical requirements of conducting both short (<1 day) and long traverses in the Mars-analog terrain on Devon Island. Micro-logistics involves the movement of surface vehicles, people and supplies from base to various exploration sites over short distances (<100 km).

  2. A Study of Teacher Candidates' Experiences Investigating Global Climate Change within an Elementary Science Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hestness, Emily; McGinnis, J. Randy; Riedinger, Kelly; Marbach-Ad, Gili

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the inclusion of a curricular module on global climate change in an Elementary Science Methods course. Using complementary research methods, we analyzed findings from 63 teacher candidates' drawings, questionnaires, and journal entries collected throughout their participation in the module. We highlighted three focal cases to…

  3. An Investigation of Science Educators' View of Roles and Responsibilities for Climate Change Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinnis, J. Randy; McDonald, Chris; Hestness, Emily; Breslyn, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates what science educators from differing groups (outside of higher education--informal and formal (K-12) and inside of higher education--content and pedagogy experts) believe are the roles and responsibilities (and what actions these might involve) in climate change education for: 1) their group of educators, and…

  4. Expedition 7 Crew Training Clip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This video shows the Expedition 7 crew of the International Space Station (ISS) during various training activities prior to launch. The crew consisted of Commander Yuri Malenchenko and Flight Engineer Ed Lu. At the virtual reality lab, the two astronauts work at a control panel, with Lu operating a joystick and speaking on earphones. Another section of the video shows Lu and Malenchenko inputting data into laptop computers, Lu testing an intercom and a video camera, and Lu using a machine to analyze blood samples from the crew. At the neutral buoyancy lab, the astronauts are helped in suit-up. The attachment of their gloves is shown. The video ends with Lu and Malenchenko lowered into a pool on a platform.

  5. Iranian speleothems: Investigating Quaternary climate variability in semi-arid Western Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carolin, Stacy; Morgan, Jacob; Peckover, Emily; Walker, Richard; Henderson, Gideon; Rowe, Peter; Andrews, Julian; Ersek, Vasile; Sloan, Alastair; Talebian, Morteza; Fattahi, Morteza; Nezamdoust, Javad

    2016-04-01

    Rapid population growth and limited water supply has highlighted the need for vigorous water resource management practices in the semi-arid regions of Western Asia. One significant unknown in this discussion is the future change in rainfall amount due to the consequential effects of today's greenhouse gas forcing on the regional climate system. Currently, there is little paleoclimate proxy data in Western Asia to extend climate records beyond the limits of the instrumental period, leaving scant evidence to investigate the system's response to various climate forcings on different timescales. Here we present a synthesis of speleothem climate records across northern Iran, from the wetter climate of the Alborz and Zagros mountain ranges to the dry northeast, in order to investigate the magnitude of past climate variability and the forcings responsible. The stalagmites collected from the west and north-central mountain ranges, areas with ~200-400mm mean annual precipitation mostly falling within the fall-winter-spring months, all demonstrate growth limited to the interglacial periods of the Quaternary. We present overlapping Holocene stable isotope records with a complementary trace element record to assist in interpreting the isotopic variability. One of the records is sampled at <4yr resolution and spans 3.7-5.3 kyBP, a contested period of catastrophic droughts that allegedly eradicated civilizations in areas of the near East. Imposed upon decadal-scale variability, the record reveals a 1,000-yr gradual trend toward enriched stable oxygen isotope values, interpreted as a trend toward drier conditions, which ends with an abrupt 300-yr cessation in growth beginning at 4.3 kyBP, coincident with the so-called 4.2 kyBP drought event. From the northeast Iranian plateau, we present a new stalagmite record that spans the penultimate deglaciation and Stages 5e-5a. This region presently receives limited rain annually (~100-300mm/yr, regularly falling between November and May

  6. Information-computational platform for collaborative multidisciplinary investigations of regional climatic changes and their impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordov, Evgeny; Lykosov, Vasily; Krupchatnikov, Vladimir; Okladnikov, Igor; Titov, Alexander; Shulgina, Tamara

    2013-04-01

    Analysis of growing volume of related to climate change data from sensors and model outputs requires collaborative multidisciplinary efforts of researchers. To do it timely and in reliable way one needs in modern information-computational infrastructure supporting integrated studies in the field of environmental sciences. Recently developed experimental software and hardware platform Climate (http://climate.scert.ru/) provides required environment for regional climate change related investigations. The platform combines modern web 2.0 approach, GIS-functionality and capabilities to run climate and meteorological models, process large geophysical datasets and support relevant analysis. It also supports joint software development by distributed research groups, and organization of thematic education for students and post-graduate students. In particular, platform software developed includes dedicated modules for numerical processing of regional and global modeling results for consequent analysis and visualization. Also run of integrated into the platform WRF and «Planet Simulator» models, modeling results data preprocessing and visualization is provided. All functions of the platform are accessible by a user through a web-portal using common graphical web-browser in the form of an interactive graphical user interface which provides, particularly, capabilities of selection of geographical region of interest (pan and zoom), data layers manipulation (order, enable/disable, features extraction) and visualization of results. Platform developed provides users with capabilities of heterogeneous geophysical data analysis, including high-resolution data, and discovering of tendencies in climatic and ecosystem changes in the framework of different multidisciplinary researches. Using it even unskilled user without specific knowledge can perform reliable computational processing and visualization of large meteorological, climatic and satellite monitoring datasets through

  7. Multi-Model Framework for Investigating Potential Climate Change Impacts on Interdependent Critical Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvester, L.; Allen, M. R.; Wilbanks, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    Built infrastructure consists of a series of interconnected networks with many coupled interdependencies. Traditionally, risk and vulnerability assessments are conducted one infrastructure at a time, considering only direct impacts on built and planned assets. However, extreme events caused by climate change affect local communities in different respects and stress vital interconnected infrastructures in complex ways that cannot be captured with traditional risk assessment methodologies. We employ a combination of high-performance computing, geographical information science, and imaging methods to examine the impacts of climate change on infrastructure for cities in two different climate regions: Chicago, Illinois in the Midwest and Portland, Maine (and Casco Bay area) in the Northeast. In Illinois, we evaluate effects of changes in regional temperature and precipitation, informed by an extreme climate change projection, population growth and migration, water supply, and technological development, on electricity generation and consumption. In Maine, we determine the aggregate effects of sea level rise, changing precipitation patterns, and population shifts on the depth of the freshwater-saltwater interface in coastal aquifers and the implications of these changes for water supply in general. The purpose of these efforts is to develop a multi-model framework for investigating potential climate change impacts on interdependent critical infrastructure assessing both vulnerabilities and alternative adaptive measures.

  8. Expedition 4 Crew Interviews: Yury I. Onufrienko

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Expedition 4 Commander Yury Onufrienko is seen during a prelaunch interview. He gives details on the mission's goals and significance, his role in the mission, what his responsibilities will be, what the crew exchange will be like (transferring the Expedition 4 crew in place of the Expedition 3 crew on the International Space Station (ISS)), the day-to-day life on an extended stay mission, the experiments he will be conducting on board, and what the S0 truss will mean to ISS. Onufrienko ends with his thoughts on the short-term and long-term future of the International Space Station.

  9. Expedition 4 Crew Interviews: Carl Walz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Expedition 4 Flight Engineer Carl Walz is seen during a prelaunch interview. He gives details on the mission's goals and significance, his role in the mission, what his responsibilities will be, what the crew exchange will be like (transferring the Expedition 4 crew in place of the Expedition 3 crew on the International Space Station (ISS)), the day-to-day life on an extended stay mission, the experiments he will be conducting on board, and what the S0 truss will mean to ISS. Walz ends with his thoughts on the short-term and long-term future of the International Space Station.

  10. Expedition 4 Crew Interviews: Dan Bursch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Expedition 4 Flight Engineer Dan Bursch is seen during a prelaunch interview. He gives details on the mission's goals and significance, his role in the mission, what his responsibilities will be, what the crew exchange will be like (transferring the Expedition 4 crew in place of the Expedition 3 crew on the International Space Station (ISS)), the day-to-day life on an extended stay mission, the experiments he will be conducting on board, and what the S0 truss will mean to ISS. Bursch ends with his thoughts on the short-term and long-term future of the International Space Station.

  11. Servant leadership, procedural justice climate, service climate, employee attitudes, and organizational citizenship behavior: a cross-level investigation.

    PubMed

    Walumbwa, Fred O; Hartnell, Chad A; Oke, Adegoke

    2010-05-01

    This study tests the influence of servant leadership on 2 group climates, employee attitudes, and organizational citizenship behavior. Results from a sample of 815 employees and 123 immediate supervisors revealed that commitment to the supervisor, self-efficacy, procedural justice climate, and service climate partially mediated the relationship between servant leadership and organizational citizenship behavior. Cross-level interaction results revealed that procedural justice climate and positive service climate amplified the influence of commitment to the supervisor on organizational citizenship behavior. Implications of these results for theory and practice and directions for future research are discussed.

  12. 29 CFR 1404.18 - Procedures for requesting expedited panels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for requesting expedited panels. 1404.18 Section... ARBITRATION SERVICES Expedited Arbitration § 1404.18 Procedures for requesting expedited panels. (a) With the... Panel (Form R-43) indicating that both parties desire expedited services, the OAS will refer a panel...

  13. Expedition 34/35 Mission Overview

    NASA Video Gallery

    Commander Kevin Ford leads Expedition 34 as the six-member crew conducts science and research that cannot be performed on Earth. Ford and the other five crew members Flight Engineers Oleg Novitskiy...

  14. Expedition 35/36 Final Exams

    NASA Video Gallery

    Three Expedition 35/36 crew members prepare for their final exams in their Sokol launch and entry suits at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. NASA astronaut Chris Cassidy a...

  15. Expedition 36 Final Exams and Training

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Expedition 36 crew members conduct final training at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center before their May 28 launch to the International Space Station. Flight Engineers Karen Nyberg, Fyodor Y...

  16. Expedition 31 Crew Trains for Launch

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Expedition 31 crew - astronaut Joe Acaba and cosmonauts Gennady Padalka and Sergei Revin -- trains at Star City, Russia, for its upcoming launch to the International Space Station. Their backup...

  17. Expedition 30 Farewell, Hatch Closure, Undocking

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 30 Commander Dan Burbank and Flight Engineers Anatoly Ivanishin and Anton Shkaplerov say goodbye to their crewmates and leave the International Space Station aboard their Soyuz TMA-22 sp...

  18. Students Speak With Expedition 30 Crew

    NASA Video Gallery

    The International Space Station's Expedition 30 crew participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at O. Henry Middle School in Austin, Texas. The DLN connects students and t...

  19. Expedition 33/34 Mission Overview

    NASA Video Gallery

    The work now under way on board the International Space Station is designed to support deep space exploration in the future and provide benefits on earth today. The Expedition 33 crew members are w...

  20. Expedition 33/34 Change of Command

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams ceremonially handed over command of the International Space Station on Saturday to fellow NASA astronaut Kevin Ford on the eve of her departure from the comple...

  1. New Expedition 32 Trio Arrives at Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 32 Flight Engineers Suni Williams, Yuri Malenchenko and Aki Hoshide have arrived at the International Space Station after two days in orbit. The new trio docked its Soyuz TMA-05M spacecr...

  2. Expedition 34 Says Goodbye and Undocks

    NASA Video Gallery

    Three Expedition 34 crew members said goodbye to three of their International Space Station crewmates Friday afternoon March 15, 2013. Commander Kevin Ford and Flight Engineers Oleg Novitskiy and E...

  3. Expedition 6 Crew Interviews: Ken Bowersox CDR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox is seen during a prelaunch interview. He gives details on the mission's goals and significance, his role in the mission, what his responsibilities will be as commander, what the crew exchange will be like (transferring the Expedition 6 crew in place of the Expedition 5 crew on the International Space Station (ISS)) and what day-to-day life on an extended stay mission is like. Bowersox also discusses in some detail the planned extravehicular activities (EVAs), the anticipated use of the robot arms in installing the P1 truss and the on-going science experiments which will be conducted by the Expedition 6 crew. He touches on challenges posed by a late change in the crew roster. Bowersox ends with his thoughts on the value on the ISS in fostering international cooperation.

  4. Expedition 25 Crew Lands Safely in Kazakhstan

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 25 Soyuz Commander Fyodor Yurchikhin, NASA International Space Station Commander Doug Wheelock and NASA Flight Engineer Shannon Walker landed safely on the steppe of Kazakhstan on Nov. 2...

  5. Expedition 33/34 Crew Prelaunch Activities

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33/34 crew members Kevin Ford, Oleg Novitskiy and Evgeny Tarelkin participate in a variety of prelaunch activities at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. They are set to launch aboard...

  6. Expedition 33 Post-Landing Activities

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams and Flight Engineers Aki Hoshide and Yuri Malenchenko are greeted by local and space officials at an airport in Kostanay, Kazakhstan, after completing their mi...

  7. Expedition 28 Crew Undocks from Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 28 Commander Andrey Borisenko and Flight Engineers Alexander Samokutyaev and Ron Garan undock from the International Space Station in the Soyuz TMA-21 spacecraft, wrapping up 162 days ab...

  8. Expedition 32 Final Soyuz Qualification Exams

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 32 Flight Engineers Suni Williams, Yuri Malenchenko and Aki Hoshide take their final Soyuz systems qualification exams at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. The ...

  9. The Expedition 34 Crew Lands in Kazakhstan

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford and Flight Engineers Evgeny Tarelkin and Oleg Novitskiy landed their Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft in the steppe of Kazakhstan, northeast of the remote town of Arkalyk...

  10. Expedition 31 Welcomes Three New Crewmates

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 31 crew members Gennady Padalka, Joe Acaba and Sergei Revin were welcomed aboard the International Space Station after the hatches opened Thursday at 4:10 a.m. EDT. They docked to the Po...

  11. [POLISH EXPEDITION TO SPITSBERGEN IN 1934].

    PubMed

    Köhler, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Polish expedition to Spitsbergen in 1934 was already the second Polish polar expedition to the Arctic. It was scientific-mountaineering in character. 7 persons took part in it: Witold Biernawski (1898-1957)--film-maker and radiotelegraph operator, Stefan Bernadzikiewicz (1907-1939)--expedition leader, Henryk Mogilnicki (1906-1999)--photographer and radiotelegraph operator, Stefan Zbigniew Różycki (1906-1988)--geologist, Stanisław Siedlecki (1912-2002)--meteorological observer, Sylweriusz Bohdan Zagrajski (1892-1940)--triangulator, Antoni Rogal-Zawadzki (1896-1974)--topographer and photogrammetrist. The purpose of this expedition was to collect data in geology and cartography, and to a lesser degree--in glaciology, botany, zoology and meteorology. It lasted from May 20 to September 16, 1934. The time between June 20 - August 28 the group spent on Spitsbergen's Torell Land. The outcome: an area of app. 300 square kilometres of previously undiscovered land was marked by triangular system, covered by photogrammetric photos and surveyed. Geological research covered the land of app. 500 square kilometres and the group collected geological specimens of app. 800 kg in weight. On the basis of their research, two maps (at a scale of 1:50 000 and 1:200 000) were published. The participants collected also botanical and zoological material. Meteorological observations were carried out at the base over Van Keulen fjord throughout the whole expedition. Different objects on Torell Land were named by the expedition, their names referring largely to Poland (Annex I). Approximately 200 photographs and a film were shot by the expedition. Apart from scientific research, the participants published also diaries of the expedition.

  12. Riverland expedited response action proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) recommended that the US Department of Energy (DOE) prepare an expedited response action (ERA) for the Riverland Railroad Car Wash Pit and the 600 Area Army Munitions Burial Site. A non-time-critical ERA proposal includes preparation of an engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) section. The EE/CA is a rapid, focused evaluation of available technologies using specific screening factors to assess feasibility, appropriateness, and cost. The ERA proposal will undergo reviews by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), DOE, EPA, Ecology, and the public. Ecology and EPA will issue an Action Agreement Memorandum after resolution of all review comments. The, memorandum will authorize remediation activities. The ERA goal is to reduce the potential for any contaminant migration to the soil column, groundwater, and Columbia River. The ERA may be the final remediation of the 100-IU-1 Operable Unit. A No Action Record of Decision may be issued after cleanup completion.

  13. Expediting technology transfer with multimedia

    SciTech Connect

    Cambel, A.B.; Mock, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    Sociopolitical realities and changes in the economic structure demand that new products and processes by brought to the market place that will create new demands and hence generate well-paying jobs. Fortunately it is not necessary to rely entirely on new research and development (R&D) because a wide variety of prototypes have been developed in our National Laboratories. Thus, the latter could be spawning grounds for a wide variety of commercialization initiatives. Unfortunately, this is not occurring with sufficient alacrity because the existing technology transfer apparatus suffers from communications lethargy. As a corollary our National Laboratories are in jeopardy of atrophying because their defense functions are being reduced. They were built at great costs, sophisticated facilities were created and cadres of renowned researchers were nurtured. They should be preserved for a variety of reasons. In this article we describe how recent information technologies commonly called multimedia and virtual reality could be applied to expedite the technology transfer from the National Laboratories to the commercial sector. We first review major characteristics of technology transfer. Then we comment on why traditional approaches are unlikely to be successful. Finally, we propose a technological approach that can be put in place with minimum cost and effort because the basic components and techniques already exist. 15 refs.

  14. An investigation of climate patterns on Earth-like planets using the NASA GISS global climate model II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elowitz, Robert Mark

    To determine the capability of NASA's GISS GCM-II global climate model, the user-friendly EdGCM interface to the 3-D climate model code was evaluated by simulating global climate patterns that Earth-like planets may experience. The simulation scenarios involved different greenhouse gas emissions trends, planetary orbital parameters, and solar irradiance variations. It is found that the EdGCM interface to the GCM-II 3-D climate model is capable of studying climate patterns on hypothetical Earth-like planets, with some limitations involved. Studying extreme climate patterns on Earth-like planets as a function of planetary obliquity, orbital eccentricity, atmospheric composition, solar irradiance variations, and location with the host star's habitable zone is needed to determine whether such planets are habitable for life as we know it. Studying the behavior of climate on hypothetical Earth-like planet also provides insight into the future climate of our own planet. A database of climate models based on hypothetical Earth-like worlds will provide a valuable resource to the astrobiology community in support of future detections of exoplanets with masses, sizes, and composition similar to Earth. At present, most studies involved the use of 1-D, or 2-D climate models to explore planetary climate on Earth-like planets. This is due to the difficulty of using very complex 3-D climate model codes that typically have poor user interfaces or interfaces that are very difficult to use. EdGCM provides scientists with a user-friendly interface to a full 3-D climate model capable of simulating the climate on Earth-like planets. However, EdGCM is extremely limited in studying global climate on exo-Earth planets outside our solar system. The user is able to change the simulation initial conditions, including different greenhouse gas concentrations and their associated trends, solar irradiance and its trend over time, planetary obliquity and orbit eccentricity, and heliocentric

  15. Investigating vegetation-climate interactions during glacial times using the IPSL GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woillez, Marie-Noelle; Kageyama, Masa; Krinner, Gerhard

    2010-05-01

    Vegetation plays an important role in the climate system, through its impact on albedo, rugosity and water fluxes. Only few GCM studies have investigated the climatic impact of vegetation changes in glacial times, some using a fixed glacial vegetation based on pollinic reconstructions (e.g. Crowley & Baum 1997; Wyputta & McAvaney 2001) and some others using vegetation models ( Kubatzki & Claussen 1998; Levis & Foley 1999; Crucifix & Hewitt 2005), but seldom with a full atmosphere-vegetation coupling. Moreover, most of these simulations have been run with fixed sea surface temperatures, thus inhibiting potential oceanic retroactions. Here we force two different vegetation models, ORCHIDEE and BIOME4, with outputs from the IPSL_CM4 Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model (AOGCM). Two different glacial climates are used: with and without collapsed Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC).The state with a collapsed AMOC results from an imposed additional freshwater flux in the North Atlantic ocean. Then, the different resulting vegetations are used to force the AOGCM. The new climatic states are compared with data and with results from other simulations performed in the PMIP2 project. If time allows we will also show the results from a fully coupled glacial simulation IPSL_CM4-ORCHIDEE and compare the results to those obtained in forced mode.

  16. Investigation of the 2013 Alberta flood from weather and climate perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teufel, Bernardo; Diro, G. T.; Whan, K.; Milrad, S. M.; Jeong, D. I.; Ganji, A.; Huziy, O.; Winger, K.; Gyakum, J. R.; de Elia, R.; Zwiers, F. W.; Sushama, L.

    2016-06-01

    During 19-21 June 2013 a heavy precipitation event affected southern Alberta and adjoining regions, leading to severe flood damage in numerous communities and resulting in the costliest natural disaster in Canadian history. This flood was caused by a combination of meteorological and hydrological factors, which are investigated from weather and climate perspectives with the fifth generation Canadian Regional Climate Model. Results show that the contribution of orographic ascent to precipitation was important, exceeding 30 % over the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. Another contributing factor was evapotranspiration from the land surface, which is found to have acted as an important moisture source and was likely enhanced by antecedent rainfall that increased soil moisture over the northern Great Plains. Event attribution analysis suggests that human induced greenhouse gas increases may also have contributed by causing evapotranspiration rates to be higher than they would have been under pre-industrial conditions. Frozen and snow-covered soils at high elevations are likely to have played an important role in generating record streamflows. Results point to a doubling of surface runoff due to the frozen conditions, while 25 % of the modelled runoff originated from snowmelt. The estimated return time of the 3-day precipitation event exceeds 50 years over a large region, and an increase in the occurrence of similar extreme precipitation events is projected by the end of the 21st century. Event attribution analysis suggests that greenhouse gas increases may have increased 1-day and 3-day return levels of May-June precipitation with respect to pre-industrial climate conditions. However, no anthropogenic influence can be detected for 1-day and 3-day surface runoff, as increases in extreme precipitation in the present-day climate are offset by decreased snow cover and lower frozen water content in soils during the May-June transition months, compared to pre

  17. What Is That Thing Called Climate Change? an Investigation into the Understanding of Climate Change by Seventh-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özdem, Yasemin; Dal, Burçkin; Öztürk, Nilay; Sönmez, Duygu; Alper, Umut

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from research on students' general environmental concerns, experiences, beliefs, attitudes, worldviews, values, and actions relating to climate change. Data was gathered from a sample of 646 seventh-grade students. The findings indicate that students identify climate change as a consequence of modern life. They…

  18. An empirical investigation of the influence of safety climate on organizational citizenship behavior in Taiwan's facilities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzai-Zang; Wu, Chien-Hsing; Hong, Chih-Wei

    2007-01-01

    Although the social exchange relationships between employers and employees are increasingly important to the performance of safety management systems, the psychological effects of work attitudes on this relationship have been less studied. Using a sample of first-line operators and their supervisors from 188 facilities in Taiwan which had Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series 18000 (OHSAS 18000) certification, the current research conducted an empirical investigation of the influence of safety climate on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Work attitude was used to disclose the psychological effect. Research results indicated that (a) safety climate was a significant predicator of OCB, (b) the psychological effect significantly influenced social exchange relationships, and (c) job satisfaction showed a stronger mediating influence than organizational commitment due to the frequent top management turnover. Discussions and implications are also addressed.

  19. N Springs expedited response action proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Since signing the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) in 1989, the parties to the agreement have recognized the need to modify the approach to conducting investigations, studies, and cleanup actions at Hanford. To implement this approach, the parties have jointly developed the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy. The strategy defines a non-time-critical expedited response action (ERA) as a response action ``needed to abate a threat to human health or welfare or the environment where sufficient time exists for formal planning prior to initiation of response. In accordance with the past-practice strategy, DOE proposes to conduct an ERA at the N Springs, located in the Hanford 100 N Area, to substantially reduce the strontium-90 transport into the river through the groundwater pathway. The purpose of this ERA proposal is to provide sufficient information to select a preferred alternative at N Springs. The nature of an ERA requires that alternatives developed for the ERA be field ready; therefore, all the technologies proposed for the ERA should be capable of addressing the circumstances at N Springs. A comparison of these alternatives is made based on protectiveness, cost, technical feasibility, and institutional considerations to arrive at a preferred alternative. Following the selection of an alternative, a design phase will be conducted; the design phase will include a detailed look at design parameters, performance specifications, and costs of the selected alternative. Testing will be conducted as required to generate design data.

  20. Recent microfauna and -flora in the Gulf of Cádiz and W off Portugal: a key to the history of the Mediterranean Outflow Water (IOPD Expedition 339)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunert, Patrick; Balestra, Barbara; Hodell, David; Flores, José-Abel; Alvarez-Zarikian, Carlos; Hernández-Molina, Javier; Stow, Dorrik

    2013-04-01

    IODP Expedition 339 recently drilled 5 sites in the Gulf of Cádiz and 2 west off Portugal, and recovered 5.5 km of core. The Gulf of Cádiz was targeted for drilling 1) to investigate the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) and its influence on global circulation and climate, and 2) to understand the effects of tectonic activity and eustatic changes on evolution of the Gibraltar Gateway and margin sedimentation. During the expedition samples from surface-waters and the seafloor were collected to evaluate recent communities of foraminifers, ostracods and calcareous nannoplankton. The results will serve as an important reference for future paleoceanographic work based on the actualistic approach in the Upper Miocene-Pleistocene deposits drilled during IODP Expedition 339. Over 400 foraminiferal taxa have been identified in size fractions >125µm at six sites of IODP Expedition 339. The preliminary results show that living specimens are rare (1-5% of the assemblages), which is most likely related to deep-sea patchiness; loss during the drilling process cannot be excluded for some samples. The composition of live and dead assemblages strongly depends on water depth and position along the pathway of MOW. Statistical analysis indicates the distinction of three groups of foraminiferal assemblages that reflect the influence of the upper and lower cores of MOW, and North Atlantic Deep Water. Combined with ostracod and nannoplankton assemblages the results will provide insights into the effect of spatial and vertical fluctuation of North Atlantic Deep Water, Antarctic Intermediate Water and MOW circulation on the microfauna and -flora. Moreover, δ13C, δ18O, Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca of foraminifers, ostracods and coccoliths will be determined and compared to seawater geochemistry to evaluate "vital effects".

  1. Detailed glaciochemical investigations in southern Victoria Land - a proxy climatic record

    SciTech Connect

    Mayewski, P.A.

    1987-09-01

    Local accumulation-basins in the Transantarctic Mountains possess sites suitable for recovering ice-core records that are valuable for studying climate change. These sites are also unique, because they are close to the sites of other ice-core studies and to areas with established terrestrial records. The objective is to study a snowpit in detail and collect ice cores in southern Victoria Land; this work will be similar to the investigations that the authors has conducted in south Greenland and in the Dominion Range near the Beardmore Glacier. The proposed sites are in Convoy, Asgard, and Royal Society ranges. The authors will select one site at which he will recover two ice cores, each approximately 200 to 300 meters in depth. Samples will be analyzed for major anions (chloride, sulfate, nitrate, fluoride) and cations (sodium, potassium, magnesium, ammonium, silicate), total acidity, conductivity, density, and core stratigraphy with dating provided by cross-calibration of all of the preceding plus total beta-activity, lead-210, oxygen isotopes, and microparticles. This investigation will yield a detailed record of several thousand years of glacial history, climate change, and volcanic activity for southern Victoria Land. This record will be compared to existing terrestrial records to add necessary detail and to other global ice-core records to assess global climatic change. It will also help to document volcanic activity for Mount Erebus as well as other volcanos in the Southern Hemisphere and possibly some in the Northern Hemisphere. With this record, the author will be able to evaluate the influence of volcanic and solar activity on climate as well as add greatly to the understanding of the chemistry of the global atmosphere.

  2. Investigation of rotated PCA from the perspective of network communities applied to climate data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, David; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Vejmelka, Martin; Palus, Milan

    2013-04-01

    Applications of the rotated principal component analysis (RPCA) have a long history in climatology usually due to efforts of finding specific circulation patterns (Barnston and Livezey 1987). Using this approach several well known patterns like the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) or the Pacific/North American Pattern (PNA) can be identified (Barnston and Livezey 1987; Feldstein 2000). Applied to the whole globe this method gives several weakly related components that can be suspected of being important modes of climate variability. On the other hand, a relatively new topic in climate research is that of community detection and analysis (Tsonis et al. 2011), although the detection of communities in complex networks is a well established scientific field itself (Fortunato 2010; Girvan and Newman 2002). To analyze community structure one has to consider the climate system as a complex network (Tsonis and Swanson 2012), i.e. as a set of nodes represented by a climate-related variable on specific globe positions and a set of edges mutually connecting these nodes according to chosen measure of coherence (Hlinka et al. preprint). Determination of optimal community structure is well known to be a hard problem and there are several methods excelling in specific situations (Fortunato 2010) and several ways of measuring quality of resulting community structure such as modularity (Newman and Girvan 2004). Following the fact that RPCA gives us a set of components that can be represented as a community structure we investigate the potential of RPCA in community-detection context. For this purpose we use data from global National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP-NCAR) reanalysis (Kistler et al. 2001), more specifically surface air temperature (SAT) and surface pressure level (SPL). Acknowledgement: This study is supported by the Czech Science Foundation, Project No. P103/11/J068. Barnston, AG; Livezey RE (1987) Classification

  3. IODP Expedition 359: Maldives Monsoon and Sea Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betzler, Christian; Eberli, Gregor; Zarikian, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Drilling the carbonate platforms and drifts in the Maldives aimed to recover the marine tropical record of the Neogene sea-level changes and the onset of the monsoon related current system in the Indian Ocean. To reach this goal, eight sites were drilled along two transects in the Kardiva Channel in the Inner Sea of the Maldives during IODP Expedition 359. The recovered cores and log data retrieved the material to achieve all the objectives set for the expedition. The most arresting accomplishment is the documentation of how the sea level controlled the carbonate platform system that was thriving during the Miocene Climate Optimum abruptly transitioned into a current-dominated system in the late Middle Miocene. This transition is linked to the onset of an early intensification of the Indian monsoon and the coeval demise of some of the Maldivian platforms. Cores and downhole logs allowed producing a solid record and reconstructing the Neogene environmental changes in the central Indian Ocean. Preliminary shipboard analyses allow a precise dating of this major paleoclimatological and paleoceanographical changes, as it also applies for the extension of the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) into this part of the Indian Ocean. Coring produced a solid framework to foster the post-cruise research of these distinct topics. In addition, complete spliced sections and logging at key sites during Expedition 359 provide the potential to assemble a cycle-based astrochronology for the Neogene section in the Maldives. This high-resolution chronology will allow: 1) independent ages to be assigned to key biostratigraphic events in the Maldives for comparison with those from other tropical regions; 2) more precise ages for the major sequence boundaries and unconformities; and 3) evaluation of higher-resolution sedimentation rate variations.

  4. Medical planning for extended remote expeditions.

    PubMed

    Iserson, Kenneth V

    2013-12-01

    Remote extended expeditions often support scientific research and commercial resource exploration or extraction in hostile environments. Medical support for these expeditions is inherently complex and requires in-depth planning. To be successful, this planning must include substantial input from clinicians with experience in remote, emergency, and prehospital medicine and from personnel familiar with the proposed working environment. Using the guidelines discussed in this paper will help ensure that planners consider all necessary, medically relevant elements before launching an extended remote expedition. The 10 key elements of a workable remote healthcare system are to: 1. Optimize workers’ fitness. 2. Anticipate treatable problems. 3. Stock appropriate medications. 4. Provide appropriate equipment. 5. Provide adequate logistical support. 6. Provide adequate medical communications. 7. Know the environmental limitations on patient access and evacuation. 8. Use qualified providers. 9. Arrange for knowledgeable and timely consultations. 10. Establish and distribute rational administrative rules. Planners using these guidelines may better be able to generate a strategy that optimizes the participants' health benefits, the expedition's productivity, and the expedition sponsor's cost savings.

  5. The Role of Ethnographic Interviewing in Climate Change Evaluation Research: Investigating Intended and Unintended program effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloro-Bidart, T.

    2012-12-01

    Ethnographic interviewing is an under-utilized tool in climate change evaluation research, even though it has the potential to serve as a powerful method of data collection. The utility of the ethnographic interview lies in its ability to elicit responses from program participants describing what a program is in practice, shedding light on both intended and unintended program impacts. Drawing on evaluation work involving a federally-funded climate change grant at the University of California, Riverside, I will discuss how to design an ethnographic interview protocol in an effort to share "best practices" with other climate change evaluators. Particular attention will be given to applying ethnographic approaches to various program types, even those differing from the one discussed. I will share some of the concrete findings from my work on this grant, to serve as examples of the kinds of data evaluators can collect when employing an ethnographic approach to interviewing. UC Riverside's climate change grant is multi-faceted, however the component studied ethnographically was a science fair mentoring program. About twenty K-12 students from high poverty, ethnically diverse schools who expressed an interest in participating in science fair were paired up with graduate student mentors to simultaneously research climate change and design authentic science fair projects to compete at various levels. Since one of the stated goals of the grant is to "stimulate…students to consider climate science as a career track through experiential education activities" I was particularly interested in how student experiences with the project might differ from school science which has historically "pushed out" ethnically diverse students like those in many of Riverside's schools. (In the program students are able to interact one-on-one with a mentor and in school settings there is typically one teacher for more than thirty students). I also sought to understand student perceptions of

  6. INVESTIGATION OF EXISTING POLICIES CONTRIBUTION TO PROMOTING CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION -A CASE STUDY IN TOKYO-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijioka, Yasuaki; Oka, Kazutaka; Takano, Saneyuki; Yoshikawa, Minoru; Ichihashi, Arata

    The impacts of global warming are already appearing in various regions of the world. Therefore, in addition to strongly promoting mitigation policies, it is an urgent need to study and implement adaptation policies from a long-term perspective in preparation for some possible negative impacts. The Japanese Government has long promoted various countermeasures for disaster prevention, environmental management, food production and protection of the nation's health. These counterm easures are considered to have potential effects asclimate change adaptation. This study investigated to what extent the existing policies for Tokyo can contribute to its climate change adaptation on the basis of comprehensively organizing targeted fields an dindicators in which adaptation policies should be taken. Research results indicated that the existing policies could be useful as climate change adaptation in many fields and indicators. Furthermore, the present problems were clarified accompanied with implementation of climate change adaptation at the municipalities' level, and solutions were proposed on how to use scientific knowledge to solve the problems.

  7. Investigating the impact of climate change on crop phenological events in Europe with a phenology model.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shaoxiu; Churkina, Galina; Trusilova, Kristina

    2012-07-01

    Predicting regional and global carbon and water dynamics requires a realistic representation of vegetation phenology. Vegetation models including cropland models exist (e.g. LPJmL, Daycent, SIBcrop, ORCHIDEE-STICS, PIXGRO) but they have various limitations in predicting cropland phenological events and their responses to climate change. Here, we investigate how leaf onset and offset days of major European croplands responded to changes in climate from 1971 to 2000 using a newly developed phenological model, which solely relies on climate data. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) data measured with eddy covariance technique at seven sites in Europe were used to adjust model parameters for wheat, barley, and rapeseed. Observational data from the International Phenology Gardens were used to corroborate modeled phenological responses to changes in climate. Enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and a crop calendar were explored as alternative predictors of leaf onset and harvest days, respectively, over a large spatial scale. In each spatial model simulation, we assumed that all European croplands were covered by only one crop type. Given this assumption, the model estimated that the leaf onset days for wheat, barley, and rapeseed in Germany advanced by 1.6, 3.4, and 3.4 days per decade, respectively, during 1961-2000. The majority of European croplands (71.4%) had an advanced mean leaf onset day for wheat, barley, and rapeseed (7.0% significant), whereas 28.6% of European croplands had a delayed leaf onset day (0.9% significant) during 1971-2000. The trend of advanced onset days estimated by the model is similar to observations from the International Phenology Gardens in Europe. The developed phenological model can be integrated into a large-scale ecosystem model to simulate the dynamics of phenological events at different temporal and spatial scales. Crop calendars and enhanced vegetation index have substantial uncertainties in predicting phenological events of croplands. Caution

  8. Bistability of the climate around the habitable zone: A thermodynamic investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschi, Robert; Lucarini, Valerio; Pascale, Salvatore

    2013-11-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore the potential multistability of the climate for a planet around the habitable zone. We apply our methodology to the Earth system, but our investigation has more general relevance. A thorough investigation of the thermodynamics of the climate system is performed for very diverse conditions of energy input and infrared atmosphere opacity. Using PlaSim, an Earth-like general circulation model, the solar constant S∗ is modulated between 1160 and 1510 W m-2 and the CO2 concentration, [CO2], between 90 and 2880 ppm. It is observed that in such a parameter range the climate is bistable, i.e. there are two coexisting attractors, one characterised by warm, moist climates (W) and one by completely frozen sea surface (Snowball Earth, SB). The tipping points of both the transitions (W → SB and SB →W) are located along straight lines in the (S∗, log[CO2]) space. The dynamical and thermodynamical properties - energy fluxes, Lorenz energy cycle, Carnot efficiency, material entropy production - of the W and SB states are very different: W states are dominated by the hydrological cycle and latent heat is prominent in the material entropy production; the SB states are eminently dry climates where heat transport is realised through sensible heat fluxes and entropy mostly generated by dissipation of kinetic energy. We also show that the Carnot efficiency regularly increases towards each transition between W and SB, with a large discontinuous decrease at the point of each transition. Finally, we propose well-defined empirical functions allowing for expressing the global non-equilibrium thermodynamical properties of the system in terms of either the mean surface temperature or the mean planetary emission temperature. While the specific results presented in this paper depend on some characteristics of the Earth system (e.g. rotation rate, position of the continents), this paves the way for the possibility of proposing efficient

  9. The Silver Hut expedition, 1960-1961.

    PubMed

    Milledge, James S

    2010-01-01

    The 1960-1961 Himalayan Scientific and Mountaineering Expedition, commonly known as the Silver Hut Expedition, was a unique project to study the physiology of acclimatization in human lowlander subjects at extreme altitude over a prolonged period and also to make an attempt on Makalu, an 8470-m peak. The leader was Sir Edmund Hillary, and Dr. Griffith Pugh was the scientific leader. Studies were conducted at a Base Camp in the Everest region of Nepal at 4500 m and at the Silver Hut at 5800 m on the Mingbo Glacier. Simpler physiology was continued on Makalu, in camps at 6300 and 7400 m. The expedition left Kathmandu at the end of the monsoon in 1960 and spent the autumn setting up the Base Camp and the Silver Hut. Some members also spent time making a study of the evidence for the existence of the Yeti. The winter was spent on physiological studies at Base Camp and in the Silver Hut, and the nearby peak of Ama Dablam was climbed. In the spring the expedition moved over to Makalu and made an unsuccessful attempt to climb it without supplementary oxygen. The 9-month expedition ended at the start of the 1961 monsoon. An ambitious program of studies was successfully completed. It was a very happy and, scientifically, a successful expedition. Many of the findings were not repeated for many years, and none has been refuted. On the mountaineering side, we were unsuccessful on Makalu owing to a combination of weather and illness, but the ascent of Ama Dablam was considerable compensation.

  10. Investigating the Feedbacks between Land Surface Cover and North Atlantic Climate Variability in the HadCM3 Coupled Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, E.; Valdes, P.; House, J.; Singarayer, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The North Atlantic displays a number of major modes of decadal variability, namely the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). On decadal to multi-decadal timescales, this unforced climate variability is expected to be more influential on the overall pattern of climate than anthropogenic forcing. Greater understanding of this decadal-scale variability is essential to improve its predictability, which in turn is vital to constrain uncertainty in decadal to centennial climate change predictions. Numerous studies have investigated how oceanic and atmospheric forcing modulates climate variability. However the feedbacks between the land surface and decadal variability have not been examined to the same degree. The land surface influences climate via biogeophysical and biogeochemical processes which interact and vary across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Increasing concentrations of CO2 are expected to drive a change in the distribution and physiology (i.e. stomatal conductance and leaf area index) of vegetation, which can alter land surface structure and influence biogeophysical processes. It is important to more accurately constrain if/how land surface cover influences decadal variability and the associated feedback mechanisms and how these may change in a warming climate. This sensitivity study will use the HadCM3 climate model to investigate the impact of a range of vegetation distributions on the strength and variability of the AMOC/NAO at increasing CO2 concentrations. We aim to elucidate feedbacks between the land surface, ocean and atmosphere in a coupled climate model and potential implications for decadal modelling studies.

  11. Expedition 8 Crew Interview: Pedro Duque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Pedro Duque is interviewed in preparation for his flight to and eight day stay on the International Space Station (ISS) as part of the Cervantes mission. Duque arrived on the ISS with the Expedition 8 crew onboard a Soyuz TMA-3, the seventh Soyuz flight to the station. He departed from the ISS on a Soyuz TMA-2 with the Expedition 7 crew of the ISS. In the video, Duque answers questions on: the goals of his flight; his life and career path; the Columbus Module, which ESA will contribute to the ISS, the ride onboard a Soyuz, and the importance of the ISS.

  12. Expedition 3 Crew Interview: Frank Culbertson, Jr.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Expedition 3 Commander Frank Culbertson is seen being interviewed before leaving to become part of the third resident crew on the International Space Station (ISS). He answers questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. He discusses his expectations for life on the ISS and the experiments he will be performing while on board. Culbertson gives details on the spacewalks that will take place during the STS-105 mission (the mission carrying the Expedition 3 crew up to the ISS) and the unloading operations for the Multipurpose Logistics Module.

  13. Expedition 3 Crew Interview: Vladimir Dezhurov

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Expedition 3 Pilot Vladimir Dezhurov is seen being interviewed before leaving to become part of the third resident crew on the International Space Station (ISS). He answers questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. He discusses his expectations for life on the ISS and the experiments he will be performing while on board. Dezhurov gives details on the spacewalks that will take place during the STS-105 mission (the mission carrying the Expedition 3 crew up to the ISS) and the unloading operations for the Multipurpose Logistics Module.

  14. Expedition 3 Crew Interview: Mikhail Turin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Expedition 3 Flight Engineer Mikhail Turin is seen being interviewed before leaving to become part of the third resident crew on the International Space Station (ISS). He answers questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. He discusses his expectations for life on the ISS and the experiments he will be performing while on board. Turin gives details on the spacewalks that will take place during the STS-105 mission (the mission carrying the Expedition 3 crew up to the ISS) and the unloading operations for the Multipurpose Logistics Module.

  15. Expedition 2 Crew Interview: Susan Helms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Expedition 2 (the second resident crew of the International Space Station) Flight Engineer Susan Helms is seen being interviewed. She answers questions about her inspiration to become an astronaut and her career path. She gives details on the Space Shuttle mission and goals, including information on the spacewalks and transfer of Expedition crews, and discusses her upcoming stay on the International Space Station (ISS). Helms gives her thoughts on the international cooperation needed to successfully construct the ISS and some of the scientific experiments that will take place on the station.

  16. Expedition Three Crew Onboard Photograph of Sunset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The setting sun and the thin blue airglow line at Earth's horizon was captured by the International Space Station's (ISS) Expedition Three crewmembers with a digital camera. Some of the Station's components are silhouetted in the foreground. The crew was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery STS-105 mission, on August 10, 2001, replacing the Expedition Two crew. After marning the orbiting ISS for 128 consecutive days, the three returned to Earth on December 17, 2001, aboard the STS-108 mission Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour.

  17. Investigation of the effect of sealed surfaces on local climate in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihs, Philipp; Hasel, Stefan; Mursch-Radlgruber, Erich; Gützer, Christian; Krispel, Stefan; Peyerl, Martin; Trimmel, Heidi

    2015-04-01

    Local climate is driven by the interaction between energy balance and energy transported by advected air. Short-wave and long-wave radiation are major components in this interaction. Some few studies (e.g. Santamouris et al.) showed that adjusting the grade of reflection of surfaces is an efficient way to influence temperature. The present study investigates the influence of high albedo concrete surfaces on local climate. The first step of the study consisted of experimental investigations: routine measurements of the short and longwave radiation balance, of the ground and of the air temperature and humidity at different heights above 6 different types of sealed surfaces were performed. During this measurement campaign the above mentioned components were measured over a duration of 4 months above two conventional asphalt surfaces, one conventional concrete and three newly developed concrete surfaces with increased reflectances. Measured albedo values amounted to 0.12±0.02 for the asphalt surfaces and to maximum values of 0.56 for high albedo concrete. The maximum difference in surface temperature between the asphalt surfaces and the high albedo concrete surfaces amounted to 15°C. In addition the emission constants of the different sealed surfaces were also determined and were compared to values from literature.. In a second step the urban energy balance model Envi_Met was used to simulate the surface temperature of the six surfaces. The simulated surface temperatures were compared to the measured surface temperatures and statements as to uncertainties of the model simulations were made In a third step, Envi_Met was used to simulate the local climate of an urban district in Vienna. The surface and air temperature and the SW, LW fluxes were calculated for different types of sealed surfaces. By performing calculations of thermal stress indices (UTCI, PMV), statements as to the influence of the type of sealed surface on thermal stress on humans was made.

  18. Greenland Expeditions by Alfred Wegener - A photographic window to past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, M.; Tschürtz, S.; Kirchengast, G.; Kranzelbinder, H.; Prügger, B.; Krause, R. A.; Kalliokoski, M.; Thórhallsdóttir, E.

    2012-04-01

    On several expeditions to Greenland, Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) took pictures on glass plates from landscapes and glaciers, the expedition equipment, the people and animals taking part on the expeditions as well as physical phenomena as dust storm, clouds or spherical light phenomena. Chronologically the plates show the Danmark Expedition 1906-1908, the crossing of Greenland expedition with stop in Iceland 1912-1913, and the German Greenland Expedition 1929-1930. Until the tragic end of the expedition in 1930, Wegener was professor at the University of Graz, and such a stock of about 300 glass plates stayed there. The aim of our work is to digitize all plates for further studies. We present a first selection of Wegener's Greenland expedition pictures. For those made at Iceland in 1912 we will present a comparison of the past with pictures from the same viewing point made in 2011.

  19. Expedition 33/34 Change of Command Ceremony

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams hands over station command to Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford in a ceremony that took place Saturday Nov. 17, 2012. Williams returned to Earth with two crew...

  20. 45 CFR 303.101 - Expedited processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... required by State law; and (5) Ordering genetic tests in contested paternity cases in accordance with § 303... intrastate cases, expedited processes as specified under this section to establish paternity and to establish... order establishment, regardless of whether paternity has been established, action to establish...

  1. 45 CFR 303.101 - Expedited processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... required by State law; and (5) Ordering genetic tests in contested paternity cases in accordance with § 303... intrastate cases, expedited processes as specified under this section to establish paternity and to establish... order establishment, regardless of whether paternity has been established, action to establish...

  2. 45 CFR 303.101 - Expedited processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... required by State law; and (5) Ordering genetic tests in contested paternity cases in accordance with § 303... intrastate cases, expedited processes as specified under this section to establish paternity and to establish... order establishment, regardless of whether paternity has been established, action to establish...

  3. 45 CFR 303.101 - Expedited processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... required by State law; and (5) Ordering genetic tests in contested paternity cases in accordance with § 303... intrastate cases, expedited processes as specified under this section to establish paternity and to establish... order establishment, regardless of whether paternity has been established, action to establish...

  4. 49 CFR 385.105 - Expedited action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Safety Monitoring System for Mexico-Domiciled Carriers § 385.105 Expedited action. (a) A Mexico-domiciled..., due to carrier act or omission, a hazardous materials incident within the United States involving: (i) A highway route controlled quantity of a Class 7 (radioactive) material as defined in § 173.403...

  5. 49 CFR 385.705 - Expedited action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Safety Monitoring System for Non-North American Carriers § 385.705 Expedited action. (a) A non-North... involved in, through action or omission, a hazardous materials reportable incident, as described under 49... certain radioactive materials (Class 7). (ii) Any quantity of certain explosives (Class 1, Division 1.1,...

  6. Cowboys with Cameras: An Interactive Expedition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Kenny; Lenz, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Utilizing the same technologies pioneered by the embedded journalists in Iraq, the University of Central Florida (UCF) teamed up with TracStar, Inc to create a small-scale, satellite-based expedition transmission package to accompany a university film and digital media professor into parts of Utah and the Moab Desert that had a historical…

  7. 40 CFR 1515.7 - Expedited processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Expedited processing. 1515.7 Section 1515.7 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROCEDURES..., certified to be true and correct to the best of that person's knowledge and belief, explaining in detail...

  8. 40 CFR 1515.7 - Expedited processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Expedited processing. 1515.7 Section 1515.7 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROCEDURES..., certified to be true and correct to the best of that person's knowledge and belief, explaining in detail...

  9. Trip Leaders Guide. Outdoor Expeditions and Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leister, Bob

    Written to help teachers or leaders plan and lead field trips, excursions, or expeditions which stimulate a motivation to positive action, this pamphlet provides assistance in conducting learning experiences outside the classroom. Topics and subtopics discussed include: (1) Campsites: selection; firebuilding; knives, axes, saws; neat campsites;…

  10. Students on Ice: International Polar Year Expeditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, G.

    2006-12-01

    The Students on Ice program has been introducing and connecting the next generation of Polar researchers and scientists to the Arctic and Antarctic Regions since 1999. To date, approximately 600 international high school and university students have participated on these powerful and award-winning educational expeditions. Traveling through the Antarctic and Arctic on ice-class vessels, the students connect with an international educational team, consisting of Polar scientists, educators, researchers and lecturers, and gain valuable first hand information through a variety of different educational formats. Students participate in lectures, seminars, group discussions, `hands-on' science experiments, and experience once-in-a-lifetime opportunities to view rare wildlife, and to visit remote locations of historic, cultural, and scientific significance. In celebration of the upcoming International Polar Years (IPY), Students on Ice is launching nine unique IPY youth expeditions between 2007 and 2009. Intended for high school students, university students, and interested educators, these expeditions are officially endorsed by the International Polar Year Joint Committee. The goals of the SOI-IPY youth expeditions, include raising awareness and understanding about Polar and environmental issues, development of Polar curriculum and resources, inspiring the next generation of scientists and researchers, and promoting the IPY to millions of youth around through outreach, media and partnership activities.

  11. Expedition: Yellowstone! A Cooperative School Outreach Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Golia, Jack; And Others

    Designed to help upper elementary school teachers prepare for a class expedition to Yellowstone National Park, this workbook presents environmental learning activities that are also useful in schools too distant for an actual visit. Either way, the workbook aims to develop student appreciation of Yellowstone, the life in it, and the park's value…

  12. 45 CFR 303.101 - Expedited processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... orders must be completed from the date of service of process to the time of disposition within the... presiding officers under expedited processes must include at minimum: (1) Taking testimony and establishing... accordance with the provisions of § 302.70(d) of this chapter. (Approved by the Office of Management...

  13. 40 CFR 164.121 - Expedited hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Expedited hearing. 164.121 Section 164.121 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE ACT, ARISING...

  14. 40 CFR 164.121 - Expedited hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Expedited hearing. 164.121 Section 164.121 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE ACT, ARISING...

  15. 40 CFR 164.121 - Expedited hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Expedited hearing. 164.121 Section 164.121 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE ACT, ARISING...

  16. 40 CFR 164.121 - Expedited hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Expedited hearing. 164.121 Section 164.121 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE ACT, ARISING...

  17. 40 CFR 164.121 - Expedited hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited hearing. 164.121 Section 164.121 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE ACT, ARISING...

  18. New Trio Launches to Join Expedition 33

    NASA Video Gallery

    Three new crew members are on their way to join their Expedition 33 crewmates onboard the International Space Station. They launched aboard the Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft at 6:51 a.m. EDT (5:51 p.m. ...

  19. Using the Expedition Leader Style Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Maurice L.; Phipps, Cynthia A.

    The Expedition Leader Style Analysis (ELSA) is an inventory designed to measure leadership style adaptability and effectiveness in terms of the situational leadership model. Situational leadership arose from the Experiential Leadership Education model, which is used in business and management, by replacing management jargon and phrases with…

  20. The Second International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE-2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, Greg; Hood, Raleigh

    2015-04-01

    The International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE) was one of the greatest international, interdisciplinary oceanographic research efforts of all time. Planning for the IIOE began in 1959 and the project officially continued through 1965, with forty-six research vessels participating under fourteen different flags. The IIOE motivated an unprecedented number of hydrographic surveys (and repeat surveys) over the course of the expedition covering the entire Indian Ocean basin. And it was an interdisciplinary endeavor that embraced physical oceanography, chemical oceanography, meteorology, marine biology, marine geology and geophysics. The end of 2015 will mark the 50th Anniversary of the completion of the IIOE. SCOR and the IOC are working to stimulate a new phase of coordinated international research focused on the Indian Ocean for a 5-year period beginning in late 2015 and continuing through 2020. The goal is to help to organize ongoing research and stimulate new initiatives in the 2015-2020 time frame as part of a larger expedition. Several International programs that have research ongoing or planned in the Indian Ocean during this time period and many countries are planning cruises in this time frame as well. These programs and national cruises will serve as a core for the new Indian Ocean research focus, which has been dubbed "IIOE-2." The overarching goal of the IIOE-2 is to advance our understanding of interactions between geological, oceanic and atmospheric processes that give rise to the complex physical dynamics of the Indian Ocean region, and to determine how those dynamics affect climate, extreme events, marine biogeochemical cycles, ecosystems and human populations. This understanding is required to predict the impacts of climate change, pollution, and increased fish harvesting on the Indian Ocean and its nations, as well as the influence of the Indian Ocean on other components of the Earth System. New understanding is also fundamental to policy makers for

  1. Investigation of factors affecting intra-annual variability of evapotranspiration and streamflow under different climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dan; Liu, Xiaomang; Zhang, Qi; Liang, Kang; Liu, Changming

    2016-12-01

    Investigating the factors that affect intra-annual evapotranspiration (ET) and streamflow variability is important to regional hydrological cycles and energy balance research. In this study, ET and streamflow variability (defined as their standard deviations) are attributed to precipitation, potential evapotranspiration (ET0) and total water storage change (TWSC) based on a Budyko-based approach at 282 catchments in China. The results show that the Budyko-based approach satisfactorily simulates the intra-annual ET and streamflow variability (R2 of 0.63-0.84). The dominant contributor to ET variability is ET0 under energy-limited condition (aridity index ⩽ 0.76), whereas the dominant contributor is precipitation under equitant (0.76 < aridity index ⩽ 1.35) and water-limited conditions (aridity index ⩾ 1.35). The contribution of ET0 to ET variability decreases with the aridity index, whereas the contribution of precipitation to ET variability increases with the aridity index. However, the dominant contributor to streamflow variability is precipitation under all the three climate conditions, which is unaffected by the aridity index. TWSC enhances ET variability under energy-limited condition and inhibits ET variability under water-limited and equitant conditions. However, TWSC inhibits streamflow variability under all the three climate conditions. In addition, geography and vegetation also influence the contributors to ET and streamflow variability. The effects of geography on the contributors to streamflow variability are larger than that to ET variability. In contrast, the impacts of vegetation on the contributors to ET variability are larger than that to streamflow variability. This study demonstrates that the mechanism of ET variability under different climate conditions is much more complex than that of streamflow variability, suggesting that more attention should be given to ET for water-energy modeling, hydrological predictions and local water management.

  2. 20 CFR 405.701 - Expedited appeals process-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADJUDICATING INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Expedited Appeals Process for Constitutional Issues § 405.701 Expedited... findings of fact and our application and interpretation of the controlling law, but you believe that a part of that law is unconstitutional. By using the expedited appeals process you may go directly to...

  3. 37 CFR 1.155 - Expedited examination of design applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... design applications. 1.155 Section 1.155 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... Provisions Design Patents § 1.155 Expedited examination of design applications. (a) The applicant may request that the Office expedite the examination of a design application. To qualify for expedited...

  4. Investigating the climate impacts of urbanization and the potential for cool roofs to counter future climate change in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahmani, P.; Sun, F.; Hall, A.; Ban-Weiss, G.

    2016-12-01

    The climate warming effects of accelerated urbanization along with projected global climate change raise an urgent need for sustainable mitigation and adaptation strategies to cool urban climates. Our modeling results show that historical urbanization in the Los Angeles and San Diego metropolitan areas has increased daytime urban air temperature by 1.3 °C, in part due to a weakening of the onshore sea breeze circulation. We find that metropolis-wide adoption of cool roofs can meaningfully offset this daytime warming, reducing temperatures by 0.9 °C relative to a case without cool roofs. Residential cool roofs were responsible for 67% of the cooling. Nocturnal temperature increases of 3.1 °C from urbanization were larger than daytime warming, while nocturnal temperature reductions from cool roofs of 0.5 °C were weaker than corresponding daytime reductions. We further show that cool roof deployment could partially counter the local impacts of global climate change in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Assuming a scenario in which there are dramatic decreases in greenhouse gas emissions in the 21st century (RCP2.6), mid- and end-of-century temperature increases from global change relative to current climate are similarly reduced by cool roofs from 1.4 °C to 0.6 °C. Assuming a scenario with continued emissions increases throughout the century (RCP8.5), mid-century warming is significantly reduced by cool roofs from 2.0 °C to 1.0 °C. The end-century warming, however, is significantly offset only in small localized areas containing mostly industrial/commercial buildings where cool roofs with the highest albedo are adopted. We conclude that metropolis-wide adoption of cool roofs can play an important role in mitigating the urban heat island effect, and offsetting near-term local warming from global climate change. Global-scale reductions in greenhouse gas emissions are the only way of avoiding long-term warming, however. We further suggest that both climate

  5. The South Residual CO 2 Cap on Mars: Investigations with a Mars Global Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahre, Melinda A.; Dequaire, Julie; Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Haberle, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The CO2 cycle is one of the three controlling climate cycles on Mars. One aspect of the CO2 cycle that is not yet fully understood is the existence of a residual CO2 ice cap that is offset from the south pole. Previous investigations suggest that the atmosphere could control the placement of the south residual cap (e.g., Colaprete et al., 2005). These investigations show that topographically forced stationary eddies in the south during southern hemisphere winter produce colder atmospheric temperatures and increased CO2 snowfall over the hemisphere where the residual cap resides. Since precipitated CO2 ice produces higher surface albedos than directly deposited CO2 ice, it is plausible that CO2 snowfall resulting from the zonally asymmetric atmospheric circulation produces surface ice albedos high enough to maintain a residual cap only in one hemisphere. Our current work builds on these initial investigations with a version of the NASA Ames Mars Global Climate Model (GCM) that includes a sophisticated CO2 cloud microphysical scheme. Processes of cloud nucleation, growth, sedimentation, and radiative effects are accounted for. Simulated results thus far agree well with the Colaprete et al. study—the zonally asymmetric nature of the atmospheric circulation produces enhanced snowfall over the residual cap hemisphere throughout much of the winter season. However, the predicted snowfall patterns vary significantly with season throughout the cap growth and recession phases. We will present a detailed analysis of the seasonal evolution of the predicted atmospheric circulation and snowfall patterns to more fully evaluate the hypothesis that the atmosphere controls the placement of the south residual cap.

  6. 29 CFR 101.25 - Appeal from the dismissal of a petition, or from the refusal to process it under the expedited...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... refusal to process it under the expedited procedure. 101.25 Section 101.25 Labor Regulations Relating to... from the refusal to process it under the expedited procedure. If it is determined after investigation... Director, absent withdrawal of the petition, dismisses it, stating the grounds therefor. If it...

  7. Investigating Mars South Residual CO2 Cap with a Global Climate Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahre, M. A.; Dequaire, J.; Hollingsworth, J. L.; Haberle, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    The CO2 cycle is one of the three controlling climate cycles on Mars. One aspect of the CO2 cycle that is not yet fully understood is the existence of a residual CO2 ice cap that is offset from the south pole. Previous investigations suggest that the atmosphere may control the placement of the south residual cap (e.g., Colaprete et al., 2005). These investigations show that topographically forced stationary eddies in the south during southern hemisphere winter produce colder atmospheric temperatures and increased CO2 snowfall over the hemisphere where the residual cap resides. Since precipitated CO2 ice produces higher surface albedos than directly deposited CO2 ice, it is plausible that CO2 snowfall resulting from the zonally asymmetric atmospheric circulation produces surface ice albedos high enough to maintain a residual cap only in one hemisphere. The goal of the current work is to further evaluate Colaprete et al.'s hypothesis by investigating model-predicted seasonally varying snowfall patterns in the southern polar region and the atmospheric circulation components that control them.

  8. An Investigation of Climate Change Impact on Snow/Ice Melts Runoff in Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvan, M. T.; Ahmad, S. S.

    2005-12-01

    Glacial density varies across Himalayas, maximum in the Sutlej and Tista basin and moderate in Jhelum and Bhagirathi basin, while least density is in Arunachal Pradesh basin. Most of the glaciers are simple type, but some glaciers are bigger in size and composite in nature. The impact of global warming is perhaps already upon the Himalayas. They are located so near the tropic of cancer that they receive more heat than it commonly reaches Temperate and Arctic glaciers. In all these areas the orographic snowline is often a little higher than regional snowline. In the Himalayas the main source of moisture which feeds the glaciers comes from three sources as Southern monsoon, Northwestern disturbances and Local convection currents. The snowline is also lower on the northern slopes than on the southern slopes. According to the climatologists, alpine glaciers, such as those in the Himalaya are particularly sensitive indicators of climate change and the trend is expected to continue this century. Present study made by the availability of GIS, Image Processing and Digital Data Sets have made the task of runoff modeling easier on the regional and local scenario. For mapping the snow-cover on local level with high resolution remote sensing data (ASTER, LANDSAT and IRS) been used, for regional level, EOS and MODIS used, which provides good images with sufficient temporal scale. Investigation shows that spatial distributions of survival index based on relief area gradient and elongation index has least climate sensitivity of the glaciers situated in the Bhagirathi basin in Ganga headwater. In a high mountain environment the influence of certain topographic variables varying greatly. Elevation is one of the variables that have been identified as having a positive effect on snow depth and other factors those influence snow accumulation and the snowpack also computed for relational study. The variations in snow cover have a major influence on regional and continental weather

  9. Expedition 7 Crew Interview: Yuri Malenchenko

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko of Expedition Seven is seen during a pre-launch interview. He begins by telling why he wanted to become a cosmonaut. Malenchenko expresses his reaction about the news of the Space Shuttle Columbia accident, and how this mission will be different from other missions. He also expresses the challenges that face Malenchenko and Ed Lu such as the crew reduction from three to two, less supplies and no space shuttle flights. Malenchenko says that he will have to work on a compressed schedule, which will make the mission even more challenging. A description of the handover of Expedition Six is given. Malenchenko and Ed Lu will be cramped in a confined space on the Soyuz Spacecraft for two days before docking, and he talks about this experience. Lastly, Malenchenko gives his thoughts on how it will be to work with Ed Lu in space, and tells of Lu's trustworthiness and reliability as a fellow crew member.

  10. Expedition 7 Crew Interview: Ed Lu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Ed Lu of Expedition Seven is seen during a pre-launch interview. He explains why he became interested in space flight. He states that this is a different type of mission and gives his reaction to the Columbia Space Shuttle tragedy. The handover of Expedition six is explained by Ed Lu. The challenges of this mission are also described by Lu. These challenges include working with a crew member reduction from three to two, and the conservation of clothing and consumables. Ed Lu talks about what it is like to work with commander Yuri Malenchenko in space. Finally, Ed Lu states that he will continue scientific experiments in space on calcium loss in bones.

  11. Investigating the impact of the shortwave water vapor continuum upon climate simulations using GFDL global models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paynter, D.; Ramaswamy, V.

    2014-09-01

    We have added the BPS-MTCKD 2.0 parameterization for the shortwave water vapor continuum to the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) global model. We find that inclusion of the shortwave continuum in the fixed sea surface temperature case (AM3) results in a similar increase in shortwave absorption and heating rates to that seen for the "benchmark" line-by-line radiative transfer calculations. The surface energy budget adjusts to the inclusion of the shortwave continuum predominantly through a decrease in both surface latent and sensible heat. This leads to a decrease in tropical convection and a subsequent 1% reduction in tropical rainfall. The inclusion of the shortwave continuum in the fully coupled atmosphere-ocean model (CM3) yields similar results, but a smaller overall reduction of 0.5% in tropical rainfall due to global warming of ~0.1 K linked to enhanced near-infrared absorption. We also investigated the impact of adding a stronger version of BPS-MTCKD (version 1.1) to the global climate model (GCM). In most cases we found that the GCM responds in a similar manner to both continua but that the strength of the response scales with the level of absorbed shortwave radiation. Global warming experiments were run in both AM3 and CM3. The shortwave continuum was found to cause a 7 to 15% increase in clear-sky global dimming depending upon whether the stronger or weaker continuum version was used. Neither version resulted in a significant change to the climate sensitivity.

  12. NASA satellite to track North Pole expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The proposed expedition of a lone explorer and the use of Nimbus 6 (NASA meteorological research satellite) to track his journey is reported. The journey is scheduled to start March 4, 1978, and will cover a distance of 6.000 Km (3,728 miles) from northern Canada to the North Pole and return, traveling the length of Greenland's isolated interior. The mode of transportation for the explorer will be by dog sled. Instrumentation and tracking techniques are discussed.

  13. Psychosocial issues during an expedition to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanas, Nick

    2014-10-01

    Much is known about psychological and interpersonal issues affecting astronauts participating in manned space missions near the Earth. But in a future long-distance, long-duration expedition to Mars, additional stressors will occur that will result in psychological, psychiatric, and interpersonal effects on the crew, both negative and positive. This paper will review what is known about important psychosocial issues in space and will extrapolate them to the scenario of a future manned space mission to Mars.

  14. Orbitally-resolved SST Changes during the EOT: Results from IODP 342 Expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; He, Y.; Wilson, P. A.; Pagani, M.

    2014-12-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) changes during the Eocene-Oligocene climate transition were characterized by substantial cooling at high latitudes and less cooling in low latitudes, with little information from mid-latitudes so far. Taking advantage of the newly retrieved drift sediments from the IODP 342 Expedition, we aim to reconstruct SST changes at the mid-latitude Newfoundland region, at an unprecedented orbital resolution from Site U1411. During the period investigated, 32-36 Ma, the alkenone UK'37 values range from 0.65 to 0.95, with values all greater than 0.80 before the transition and lower values (<0.80) occurring approximately at the eccentricity minimum nodes after the transition. No immediate cooling associated with Oi-1 glaciation was observed. During the Oligocene, SSTs during warm epochs (corresponding to eccentricity maxima) were not significantly cooler than before. Overall, SST fluctuations appear to be modulated by orbital changes throughout the record, although more apparent due to larger amplitude of SST variability after the transition. We thus hypothesize that the mid-latitude Newfoundland region was largely bathed by low-latitude warm waters during the transition and that polar waters (fronts) reached to the region occasionally at periods of eccentricity minimum nodes during the Oligocene.

  15. An investigation of safety climate in OHSAS 18001-certified and non-certified organizations.

    PubMed

    Ghahramani, Abolfazl

    2016-09-01

    Many organizations worldwide have implemented Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series (OHSAS) 18001 in their premises because of the assumed positive effects of this standard on safety. Few studies have analyzed the effect of the safety climate in OHSAS 18001-certified organizations. This case-control study used a new safety climate questionnaire to evaluate three OHSAS 18001-certified and three non-certified manufacturing companies in Iran. Hierarchical regression indicated that the safety climate was influenced by OHSAS implementation and by safety training. Employees who received safety training had better perceptions of the safety climate and its dimensions than other respondents within the certified companies. This study found that the implementation of OHSAS 18001 does not guarantee improvement of the safety climate. This study also emphasizes the need for high-quality safety training for employees of the certified companies to improve the safety climate.

  16. Investigating Cenozoic climate change in tectonically active regions with a high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model (ECHAM5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutz, Sebastian; Ehlers, Todd; Li, Jingmin; Werner, Martin; Stepanek, Christian; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2016-04-01

    Studies of Cenozoic palaeo-climates contribute to our understanding of contemporary climate change by providing insight into analogues such as the Pliocene (PLIO), and by evaluation of GCM (General Circulation Models) performance using the Mid-Holocene (MH) and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Furthermore, climate is a factor to be considered in the evolution of ecology, landscapes and mountains, and in the reconstruction of erosion histories. In this study, we use high-resolution (T159) ECHAM5 simulations to investigate pre-industrial (PI) and the the above mentioned palaeo-climates for four tectonically active regions: Alaska (St. Elias Range), the US Northwest Pacific (Cascade Range), western South America (Andes) and parts of Asia (Himalaya-Tibet). The PI climate simulation is an AMIP (Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project) style ECHAM5 experiment, whereas MH and LGM simulation are based on simulations conducted at the Alfred Wegner Institute, Bremerhaven. Sea surface boundary conditions for MH were taken from coupled atmosphere-ocean model simulations (Wei and Lohmann, 2012; Zhang et al, 2013) and sea surface temperatures and sea ice concentration for the LGM are based on GLAMAP project reconstructions (Schäfer-Neth and Paul, 2003). Boundary conditions for the PLIO simulation are taken from the PRISM (Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping) project and the employed PLIO vegetation boundary condition is created by means of the transfer procedure for the PRISM vegetation reconstruction to the JSBACH plant functional types as described by Stepanek and Lohmann (2012). For each of the investigated areas and time slices, the regional simulated climates are described by means of cluster analyses based on the variability of precipitation, 2m air temperature and the intra-annual amplitude of the values. Results indicate the largest differences to a PI climate are observed for LGM and PLIO climates in the form of widespread cooling and warming

  17. Coupled Aerosol-Chemistry-Climate Twentieth-Century Transient Model Investigation: Trends in Short-Lived Species and Climate Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Dorothy; Bauer, Susanne E.; Del Genio, Anthony; Faluvegi, Greg; McConnell, Joseph R.; Menon, Surabi; Miller, Ronald L.; Rind, David; Ruedy, Reto; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Shindell, Drew

    2011-01-01

    The authors simulate transient twentieth-century climate in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM, with aerosol and ozone chemistry fully coupled to one another and to climate including a full dynamic ocean. Aerosols include sulfate, black carbon (BC), organic carbon, nitrate, sea salt, and dust. Direct and BC snow-albedo radiative effects are included. Model BC and sulfur trends agree fairly well with records from Greenland and European ice cores and with sulfur deposition in North America; however, the model underestimates the sulfur decline at the end of the century in Greenland. Global BC effects peak early in the century (1940s); afterward the BC effects decrease at high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere but continue to increase at lower latitudes. The largest increase in aerosol optical depth occurs in the middle of the century (1940s-80s) when sulfate forcing peaks and causes global dimming. After this, aerosols decrease in eastern North America and northern Eurasia leading to regional positive forcing changes and brightening. These surface forcing changes have the correct trend but are too weak. Over the century, the net aerosol direct effect is -0.41 Watts per square meter, the BC-albedo effect is -0.02 Watts per square meter, and the net ozone forcing is +0.24 Watts per square meter. The model polar stratospheric ozone depletion develops, beginning in the 1970s. Concurrently, the sea salt load and negative radiative flux increase over the oceans around Antarctica. Net warming over the century is modeled fairly well; however, the model fails to capture the dynamics of the observedmidcentury cooling followed by the late century warming.Over the century, 20% of Arctic warming and snow ice cover loss is attributed to the BC albedo effect. However, the decrease in this effect at the end of the century contributes to Arctic cooling. To test the climate responses to sulfate and BC pollution, two experiments were branched from 1970 that removed

  18. MITAS-2009 Expedition, U.S. Beaufort Shelf and Slope—Lithostratigraphy Data Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K.; Johnson, J.E.; Phillips, S.C.; Smith, J.; Reed, A.; Disenhof, C.; Presley, J.

    2012-09-17

    The volume of methane released through the Arctic Ocean to the atmosphere and its potential role in the global climate cycle have increasingly become the focus of studies seeking to understand the source and origin of this methane. In 2009, an international, multi-disciplinary science party aboard the U.S. Coast Guard icebreaker Polar Sea successfully completed a trans-U.S. Beaufort Shelf expedition aimed at understanding the sources and volumes of methane across this region. Following more than a year of preliminary cruise planning and a thorough site evaluation, the Methane in the Arctic Shelf/Slope (MITAS) expedition departed from the waters off the coast of Barrow, Alaska in September 2009. The expedition was organized with an international shipboard science team consisting of 33 scientists with the breadth of expertise necessary to meet the expedition goals. NETL researchers led the expedition’s initial core processing and lithostratigraphic evaluations, which are the focus of this report. This data report is focused on the lithostratigraphic datasets from the recovered vibra cores and piston cores. Operational information about the piston and vibra cores such as date acquired, core name, total length, water depth, and geographic location is provided. Once recovered, gas samples were immediately collected from cores. In addition, each core was run through the Geotek multi-sensor core logger for magnetic susceptibility, P-wave velocity, resistivity, and gamma-density measurements (Rose et al., 2010). After the samples and measurements were completed, the cores were split into working and archive halves. Visual core descriptions of the archive half was completed for each core. Samples for shipboard smear slides, coarse fractions, and XRD analyses were collected, as well as corresponding samples for post-cruise grain size analysis from the working half of each core. Line scan images of the split core surfaces were collected post-expedition. The methods used to

  19. Quality Climate Change Professional Development Translates into Quality Climate Change Education (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Perhaps one of the reasons we have so many climate change deniers in the United States is that to them climate change is not occurring. This is a valid claim about climate change deniers considering that the effects of climate change in the mid-latitudes are quite subtle as compared to those found in low-latitude and high-latitude regions. A mid-latitude classroom teacher is saddled with the challenge of enlightening students about our changing climate and empowering students to assist in making necessary lifestyle changes, all the while the students don't understand the urgency in doing so. Quality climate change data and resources from the Polar Regions and low latitudes, as well as connections to researchers from these regions help to bridge the understanding of our changing climate from the extreme latitudes to the mid-latitudes. Connecting science teachers with data, resources, and researchers is one way of ensuring our mid-latitude students understand the urgency in taking appropriate actions to adapt, mitigate, and show resilience. This presentation will highlight a few of the many impacts of an authentic research experience for teachers that not only provides teachers with data, resources, and researchers, but changes the way a science teacher teaches where the methods they use mirror the methods used by scientists. National projects like PolarTREC connect educators with the science of climate change as well as the reality of impacts of climate change. For example, research expeditions in the Arctic and in Antarctica connect teachers with the content and practices of climate change science preparing them to replicate their experiences with their students. A PolarTREC experience does not end with the close of the expedition. Teachers continue their connections with the program through their educator network, the integration of PolarTREC resources into their curriculums, and communications with their principal investigators either virtually or with school

  20. Journey to the end of the dinosaur era: A society expedition to Belize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ocampo, Adriana

    1995-01-01

    The impact of the extraterrestrial object that formed the Chicxulub crater in the northwestern Yucatan peninsula of Mexico is the leading suspect for the extinction of the dinosaurs. This article reports on a Planetary Society expedition to Albion Island in the Rio Hondo region of Belize to investigate evidence supporting the impact theory.

  1. Journey to the end of the dinosaur era: A society expedition to Belize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocampo, Adriana

    1995-08-01

    The impact of the extraterrestrial object that formed the Chicxulub crater in the northwestern Yucatan peninsula of Mexico is the leading suspect for the extinction of the dinosaurs. This article reports on a Planetary Society expedition to Albion Island in the Rio Hondo region of Belize to investigate evidence supporting the impact theory.

  2. Investigation of Aerosol Indirect Effects using a Cumulus Microphysics Parameterization in a Regional Climate Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Kyo-Sun; Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Ma, Po-Lun; Singh, Balwinder; Zhao, Chun; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Guang; Song, Xiaoliang

    2014-01-29

    A new Zhang and McFarlane (ZM) cumulus scheme includes a two-moment cloud microphysics parameterization for convective clouds. This allows aerosol effects to be investigated more comprehensively by linking aerosols with microphysical processes in both stratiform clouds that are explicitly resolved and convective clouds that are parameterized in climate models. This new scheme is implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, which is coupled with the physics and aerosol packages from the Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5). A test case of July 2008 during the East Asian summer monsoon is selected to evaluate the performance of the new ZM scheme and to investigate aerosol effects on monsoon precipitation. The precipitation and radiative fluxes simulated by the new ZM scheme show a better agreement with observations compared to simulations with the original ZM scheme that does not include convective cloud microphysics and aerosol convective cloud interactions. Detailed analysis suggests that an increase in detrained cloud water and ice mass by the new ZM scheme is responsible for this improvement. To investigate precipitation response to increased anthropogenic aerosols, a sensitivity experiment is performed that mimics a clean environment by reducing the primary aerosols and anthropogenic emissions to 30% of that used in the control simulation of a polluted environment. The simulated surface precipitation is reduced by 9.8% from clean to polluted environment and the reduction is less significant when microphysics processes are excluded from the cumulus clouds. Ensemble experiments with ten members under each condition (i.e., clean and polluted) indicate similar response of the monsoon precipitation to increasing aerosols.

  3. Science at the ends of the Earth: astrobiology field expeditions as outreach tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billings, Linda

    paper will report on and evaluate communication, education, and outreach initiatives conducted in conjunction with ASTEP field campaigns, addressing the costs and benefits of linking students, teachers, and other interested citizens with researchers in the field. This paper will highlight success stories, lessons learned, and promising practices regarding educational programs in scientific research environments. SUMMARY The Astrobiology Program in NASA's Science Mission Directorate studies the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe. Astrobiology research addresses three fundamental questions: How does life begin and evolve? Is there life beyond Earth and how can we detect it? What is the future of life on Earth and in the universe? Goals of the Astrobiology Program range from determining the nature and distribution of habitable environments in the Solar System and beyond to understanding the emergence of life from cosmic and planetary precursors, the interaction of past life on Earth with its changing environment, the formation and evolution of planets, links between planetary and biological evolution, the effects of climate and geology on habitability, and life's precursors and habitats in the outer solar system. Research dedicated to fulfilling these goals is conducted on Earth and in space, with a growing number of astrobiology investigations flying on planetary exploration missions. The field of astrobiology is an endeavor that brings together researchers in a broad range of disciplines including Earth and planetary science, astrophysics, heliophysics, microbiology and evolutionary biology, and cosmochemistry. Since 1995, the field of astrobiology has grown rapidly, and the pace of discovery has been brisk. The possibility of extraterrestrial life is now a serious scientific question. Research findings over the past decade that are relevant to this question include the controversial 1996 claim of fossil evidence for microbial life in a

  4. The physiology of extremes: Ancel Keys and the International High Altitude Expedition of 1935.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Sarah W

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the International High Altitude Expedition of 1935 and its significance in the life and science of Ancel Keys. Both the expedition and Keys's story afford excellent opportunities to explore the growing reach of interwar physiology into extreme climates-whether built or natural. As IHAE scientists assessed human performance and adaptation to hypoxia, low barometric pressure, and cold, they not only illuminated the physiological and psychological processes of high altitude acclimatization, but they also drew borderlines between the normal and the pathological, paved the way for the neocolonial exploitation of natural and human resources in Latin America, and pioneered field methods in physiology that were adapted and adopted by the Allied Forces during the Second World War. This case study in the physiology of place reveals the power and persistence of environmental determinism within biomedicine well into the twentieth century.

  5. Investigating the Effects of "Cool" Solar Reflective Pavements on California Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohegh, M.; Ban-Weiss, G. A.; Levinson, R.; Rosado, P.

    2015-12-01

    Implementing "Cool pavement" is a local mitigation strategy that can reduce urban heat islands. We investigated the climate impacts of widespread deployment of cool pavements by increasing the albedo of the pavements from 0.1 to 0.5 to understand the efficiency of cool pavements in reducing the temperature in California's urban areas. A validated parameterization of WRF model coupled with Single Layer Urban Canopy Model (SLUCM) is employed to simulate the effects of pavements at the bottom of canopy on urban heat islands. The results show local surface air temperature reductions, peaking at late morning and late evening which coincides with the lowest boundary layer height in the day time. Summer time temperature reductions up to 0.62 K in the evening (20:00 local) and 0.32 K in afternoon (14:00) in California are predicted. The cooling effects of 15 cities in California are sampled and analyzed. The average temperature reductions for the cities in California show 0.32 K temperature reduction per 0.1 total albedo reduction in the afternoon (14:00) which is consistent with the previous works. The linear relation between temperature reductions and the albedo increase is used to estimate the effect of cool pavements in "No Canopy" state, which can be used as an upper bound of the effects of cool pavements.

  6. An investigation of thermal comfort inside a bus during heating period within a climatic chamber.

    PubMed

    Pala, Uzeyir; Oz, H Ridvan

    2015-05-01

    By this study, it was aimed to define a testing and calculation model for thermal comfort assessment of a bus HVAC design and to compare effects of changing parameters on passenger's thermal comfort. For this purpose, a combined theoretical and experimental work during heating period inside a coach was carried out. The bus was left under 20 °C for more than 7 h within a climatic chamber and all heat sources were started at the beginning of a standard test. To investigate effects of fast transient conditions on passengers' physiology and thermal comfort, temperatures, air humidity and air velocities were measured. Human body was considered as one complete piece composed of core and skin compartments and the Transient Energy Balance Model developed by Gagge et al. in 1971 was used to calculate changes in thermal parameters between passenger bodies and bus interior environment. Depending on the given initial and environmental conditions, the graphs of passengers Thermal Sensation and Thermal Discomfort Level were found. At the end, a general mathematical model supported with a related experimental procedure was developed for the use of automotive HVAC engineers and scientists working on thermal comfort as a human dimension.

  7. Arctic Expedition of the Frozen Five: an Alternative way of Education and Outreach During the International Polar Year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senger, K.; Björkman, M.; Garny, H.; Girard, L.; Lichteneger, J.

    2006-12-01

    In March 2007, a group of international students of the geosciences will embark on a two month expedition across the wilderness of Svalbard. The journey will involve traversing up to 1000 km of high Arctic glaciers between 76° an 80°N, reaching both the southernmost and northernmost capes of Spitsbergen, Svalbard's largest island. We expect to be frequently camping at -30°C, as well as having a high probability of encountering polar bears, crevasses and arctic storms during the expedition. Through this expedition, we wish to promote the multi-disciplinary approach required in successful Arctic science. Our team, young and energetic, has already demonstrated a strong research interest in the Arctic and is ready to share their passion with the general public. Presentations by the various team members focus on the enhanced climate change and related processes witnessed at high latitudes. The concept of alternative energy, including solar power and kites used while en route, is given a high priority throughout. Here we present the education and outreach framework of the project, as well as introducing the research background of the team. We highlight current progress on the integration of this expedition in high schools around the world. The Frozen Five expedition runs in close collaboration with New Zealand's Youth Steering Committee, a major IPY project, aiming to network young polar researchers and promote the study of the polar regions to potential scientists.

  8. An Investigation of the Relationship between the Components of School Climate and Leadership Behaviors on Student Achievement: Urban School Districts in the Mid-Atlantic Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Karmen J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to investigate the relationship between the components of school climate and leadership behaviors on student achievement in an urban school district in the mid-atlantic region. School climate and leadership behaviors for the participating school districts was determined by the School Climate Survey (Corner…

  9. Investigating the potential of SST assimilation for ocean state estimation and climate prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenlyside, Noel; Counillon, Francois; Bethke, Ingo; Wang, Yiguo; Billeau, Sebastien; Shen, Mao-Lin; Bentsen, Mats

    2016-04-01

    The Norwegian Climate Prediction Model (NorCPM) assimilates the stochastic HadISST2 product with the ensemble Kalman Filter data assimilation method into the ocean part the Norwegian Earth System model. We document a pilot stochastic reanalysis for the period 1950-2010 and use it to perform seasonal-to-decadal (s2d) predictions. The accuracy, reliability and drift is investigated using both assimilated and independent observations. NorCPM is found slightly over-dispersive against assimilated observations but shows stable performance through the analysis period (˜0.4K). It demonstrates skill against independent measurements: SSH, heat and salt content, in particular in the ENSO, the North Pacific, the North Atlantic subpolar gyre (SPG) regions and the Nordic Seas. Furthermore, NorCPM provides a reliable monitoring of the SPG index and represents the variability of the temperature vertical structure there in good agreement with observations. The monitoring of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation is also encouraging. The benefit of using flow dependent assimilation method and constructing the covariance in isopycnal coordinate are investigated in the SPG region. Isopycnal coordinate discretisation is found to better captures the vertical structure than standard depth-coordinate discretisation, which can deepen the influence of assimilation when assimilating surface observations. The vertical covariance shows a pronounced seasonal and decadal variability, which highlights the benefit of flow dependent data assimilation method. This study demonstrates the potential of NorCPM for providing a long reanalysis for the 19-20 century when SST observations are available. The results of s2d predictions carried out will be presented, and the potential to use this method to assess decadal predictability over the historical period will be discussed.

  10. Expedition 35/36 Crew Departs Star City

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 35 Flight Enginners Chris Cassidy, Pavel Vinogradov and Alexander Misurkin participated in traditional ceremonies at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia outside Mo...

  11. Expedition 33/34 Crew Departs for Kazakh Launch Site

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33/34 Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy, NASA Flight Engineer Kevin Ford and Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin participated in traditional ceremonies at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training...

  12. IODP Expedition 352 (Bonin Forearc): First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, J. A.; Reagan, M. K.; Stern, R. J.; Petronotis, K. E.

    2014-12-01

    IODP Expedition #352 (Testing Subduction Initiation and Ophiolite Models by Drilling the Outer Izu-Bonin-Mariana Forearc: July 30-Sept. 29, 2014) is just underway at the time of writing. It is testing the Stern-Bloomer hypothesis that subduction initiation (SI) was followed by a strongly extensional period of slab sinking and trench roll-back and then by a transitional period leading to the establishment of significant slab-parallel plate motion and hence normal subduction. The Expedition aims to carry out offset drilling at two sites near 28°30'N in the Bonin forearc. Ideally, these together will give the vertical volcanic stratigraphy needed to trace the geodynamic and petrogenetic processes associated with SI, and provide the complete reference section required for comparison with volcanic sequences of possible SI origin found on land in ophiolite complexes and elsewhere. We predict, but need to confirm, a c. 1.0-1.5km sequence with basal, MORB-like forearc basalts (known as FAB) marking the initial period of extension, boninites characterizing the transitional period, and tholeiitic and calc-alkaline lavas marking the establishment of normal arc volcanism. Study of such a sequence will enable us to understand the chemical gradients within and across these volcanic units, to reconstruct mantle flow and melting processes during the course of SI, and to test the hypothesis that fore-arc lithosphere created during SI is the birthplace of most supra-subduction zone ophiolites. Here, we present the first Expedition results, including (a) the volcanic stratigraphic record and subdivision into lava units, (b) the classifications and interpretations made possible by shipboard (portable XRF and ICP) analyses and down-hole measurements, and (c) the biostratigraphic, magnetic, mineralogical, sedimentary and structural constraints on the geological history of the SI section and the interactions between magmatic, hydrothermal and tectonic activity during its evolution.

  13. IODP Expedition 354: A Bengal fan record of Himalayan erosion, weathering and organic carbon burial during the Neogene.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France-Lanord, C.; Spiess, V.; Klaus, A.; Galy, A.; Galy, V.

    2015-12-01

    The development of the Himalayan orogen induced a major change in continental distribution, topography and climate that impacted the global biogeochemical cycles. The development of the highest mountain range coupled to the intense monsoonal precipitation regime generated an intense erosional flux that enhanced both organic carbon burial and silicate weathering. The largest part of the sediment flux was exported to the Bengal Fan, accumulating a long-term archive of this erosion. These sediments record the nature of eroded formations in the Himalaya and allow the documentation of weathering as well as organic carbon fluxes. In February-March 2015, IODP Expedition 354 drilled an E-W transect in the middle fan at 8°N to investigate interactions between the growth of the Himalaya, the development of the Indian monsoon, and processes affecting the carbon cycle. This expedition obtained a comprehensive record of turbiditic deposition since the Late Oligocene. Shipboard results reveal that the chemical and mineralogical compositions of turbiditic sediments cored across the transect are relatively stable throughout the Neogene. They reveal a weak regime of chemical weathering with no significant variation through time. This differs from the distal fan record (Leg 116) where from ~7 to 1 Ma, weathered and smectite rich sediments dominated. This difference implies that the distal fan record is not related to a direct evolution of the erosion regime but rather is controlled by a change in sediment transport within the fan. Shipboard estimates of organic carbon loading and behavior resemble observations made in the modern Ganga-Brahmaputra river sediments, suggesting efficient terrestrial organic carbon burial in the Bengal Fan [1]. Preliminary observations support the idea that Himalayan erosion has consumed atmospheric CO2 through the burial of organic carbon, more than by silicate weathering. [1] http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature06273

  14. Aircraft deployment, and airborne arctic stratospheric expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, Estelle; Tuck, Adrian; Hipskind, Steve; Toon, Brian; Wegener, Steve

    1990-01-01

    The Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition had two primary objectives: to study the production and loss mechanisms of ozone in the north polar stratosphere and to study the effect on ozone distribution of the Arctic Polar Vortex and of the cold temperatures associated with the formation of Polar Stratospheric Clouds. Two specially instrumented NASA aircraft were flown over the Arctic region. Each aircraft flew to acquire data on the meteorological, chemical and cloud physical phenomena that occur in the polar stratosphere during winter. The chemical processes which occur in the polar stratosphere during winter were also observed and studied. The data acquired are being analyzed.

  15. Bringing "Scientific Expeditions" Into the Schools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Val; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Two new technologies, the FASTexpedition and Remote FAST, have been developed that provide remote, 3D, high resolution, dynamic, interactive viewing of scientific data (such as simulations or measurements of fluid dynamics). The FASTexpedition permits one to access scientific data from the World Wide Web, take guided expeditions through the data, and continue with self controlled expeditions through the data. Remote FAST permits collaborators at remote sites to simultaneously view an analysis of scientific data being controlled by one of the collaborators. Control can be transferred between sites. These technologies are now being used for remote collaboration in joint university, industry, and NASA projects in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and wind tunnel testing. Also, NASA Ames Research Center has initiated a project to make scientific data and guided expeditions through the data available as FASTexpeditions on the World Wide Web for educational purposes. Previously, remote visualiZation of dynamic data was done using video format (transmitting pixel information) such as video conferencing or MPEG movies on the Internet. The concept for this new technology is to send the raw data (e.g., grids, vectors, and scalars) along with viewing scripts over the Internet and have the pixels generated by a visualization tool running on the viewer's local workstation. The visualization tool that is currently used is FAST (Flow Analysis Software Toolkit). The advantages of this new technology over using video format are: 1. The visual is much higher in resolution (1280xl024 pixels with 24 bits of color) than typical video format transmitted over the network. 2. The form of the visualization can be controlled interactively (because the viewer is interactively controlling the visualization tool running on his workstation). 3. A rich variety of guided expeditions through the data can be included easily. 4. A capability is provided for other sites to see a visual analysis of

  16. Interactive Virtual Expeditions as a Learning Tool: The School of Rock Expedition Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemitz, Matthew; Slough, Scott; Peart, Leslie; Klaus, Ann.; Leckie, R. Mark; St. John, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    The use of interactive virtual expeditions in classroom learning environments is an effective means to engage learners in understanding science as an inquiry process, infusing current research and relevant science into the classroom, and positively affecting learner attitudes towards science as a process and a career. A comparative analysis of the…

  17. The Use of Sage Water Vapor Data for Investigating Climate Change Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, D.

    2003-01-01

    SAGE water vapor data has proven valuable for addressing several of the important issues in climate change research. It has been used to investigate how the upper troposphere water vapor responds to warming and convection, a key question in understanding the water vapor feedback to anthropogenic global warming. In the case of summer versus winter differences, SAGE results showed that the upper tropospheric relative humidity remained approximately constant; this result was in general agreement with how a GCM handled the seasonal difference, and gave credence to the argument that the GCM was not overestimating the water vapor feedback associated with convection. In addition, the convection-water vapor relationship was investigated further using SAGE water vapor and ISCCP cloud data. The results showed that upper tropospheric drying did appear to occur simultaneously with deep convective events in the tropics, only to be replaced by moistening a few hours later, associated (most likely) with the reevaporation of moisture from anvil clouds. The total effect was, again, a moistening of the upper troposphere associated with convection. Calculation of the actual trends in upper tropospheric moisture is a potential goal for SAGE data usage; trends calculated with radiosonde data, or instruments calibrated with radiosonde data have the problem of the effect of changing radiosonde instruments. SAGE data have in effect been used to compare different radiosondes through comparisons, and could continue to do so. SAGE 3 should also help clarify the absolute accuracy of SAGE retrievals in the troposphere. and its consequences. Model results show that water vapor increases can help explain the observations of stratospheric cooling, along with increasing C02 and ozone reduction. SAGE has been shown to provide trends similar to those of some other satellite and in situ retrievals, with increasing water vapor over time. However, SAGE is impacted by aerosol contamination which must be

  18. The devil is in the details: An investigation of the relationships between conflict, food price and climate across Africa.

    PubMed

    Raleigh, Clionadh; Choi, Hyun Jin; Kniveton, Dominic

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates the relationship between violent conflict, food price, and climate variability at the subnational level. Using disaggregated data on 113 African markets from January 1997 to April 2010, interrelationships between the three variables are analyzed in simultaneous equation models. We find that: (i) a positive feedback exists between food price and violence - higher food prices increase conflict rates within markets and conflict increases food prices; (ii) anomalously dry conditions are associated with increased frequencies of conflict; and (iii) decreased rainfall exerts an indirect effect on conflict through its impact on food prices. These findings suggest that the negative effects of climate variability on conflict can be mitigated by interventions and effective price management in local markets. Creating environments in which food prices are stable and reliable, and markets are accessible and safe, can lower the impacts of both climate change and conflict feedbacks.

  19. Regional climate simulations with moisture tracers to investigate the terrestrial water cycle over the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miguez-Macho, G.; Rios-Entenza, A.; Dominguez, F.

    2012-12-01

    In the semiarid interior of the Iberian Peninsula, the topographic insulation from the surrounding seas promotes the role of internal sources of moisture and water recycling in the rainfall regime. Inland Iberia, the annual cycle of precipitation often has a distinctive peak in the springtime, when evapotranspiration is the highest, in contrast to the coastal areas, where it follows more external moisture availability and synoptic forcing, with a maximum in winter-autumn and a pronounced minimum in the summer. We present here regional climate simulations using the WRF model, with the new added capability of moisture tracers as a tool to explicitly investigate the sources and pathways of humidity in the terrestrial water cycle over the Iberian Peninsula. Six new prognostic variables were added in the WRF model corresponding to tracers for water vapor and other moisture species (cloud water, ice, snow, rain and graupel) originating from moisture evapotranspired in the selected region (the land mass of the Iberian Peninsula). The new moisture variables are advected, diffused and convectively and turbulently mixed identically to the full moisture species including all humidity sources (terrestrial, maritime and lateral boundaries). In addition, the microphysics scheme (WSM6) is modified to account for generation and depletion of the different tracer species, assuming that within one model layer in a grid cell moisture of all origins is well mixed. With these modifications we are able to explicitly track the cycle of water of terrestrial origin and exactly measure its contribution to rainfall with high resolution within our region of interest. We contrast our results with diagnostic estimates of the recycling ratio following the method of Brubaker and of Eltahir and Bras.

  20. Investigation of Climate Change Impact on Water Resources for an Alpine Basin in Northern Italy: Implications for Evapotranspiration Modeling Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Ravazzani, Giovanni; Ghilardi, Matteo; Mendlik, Thomas; Gobiet, Andreas; Corbari, Chiara; Mancini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the future effects of climate change on water availability requires an understanding of how precipitation and evapotranspiration rates will respond to changes in atmospheric forcing. Use of simplified hydrological models is required beacause of lack of meteorological forcings with the high space and time resolutions required to model hydrological processes in mountains river basins, and the necessity of reducing the computational costs. The main objective of this study was to quantify the differences between a simplified hydrological model, which uses only precipitation and temperature to compute the hydrological balance when simulating the impact of climate change, and an enhanced version of the model, which solves the energy balance to compute the actual evapotranspiration. For the meteorological forcing of future scenario, at-site bias-corrected time series based on two regional climate models were used. A quantile-based error-correction approach was used to downscale the regional climate model simulations to a point scale and to reduce its error characteristics. The study shows that a simple temperature-based approach for computing the evapotranspiration is sufficiently accurate for performing hydrological impact investigations of climate change for the Alpine river basin which was studied. PMID:25285917

  1. Investigation of climate change impact on water resources for an Alpine basin in northern Italy: implications for evapotranspiration modeling complexity.

    PubMed

    Ravazzani, Giovanni; Ghilardi, Matteo; Mendlik, Thomas; Gobiet, Andreas; Corbari, Chiara; Mancini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the future effects of climate change on water availability requires an understanding of how precipitation and evapotranspiration rates will respond to changes in atmospheric forcing. Use of simplified hydrological models is required because of lack of meteorological forcings with the high space and time resolutions required to model hydrological processes in mountains river basins, and the necessity of reducing the computational costs. The main objective of this study was to quantify the differences between a simplified hydrological model, which uses only precipitation and temperature to compute the hydrological balance when simulating the impact of climate change, and an enhanced version of the model, which solves the energy balance to compute the actual evapotranspiration. For the meteorological forcing of future scenario, at-site bias-corrected time series based on two regional climate models were used. A quantile-based error-correction approach was used to downscale the regional climate model simulations to a point scale and to reduce its error characteristics. The study shows that a simple temperature-based approach for computing the evapotranspiration is sufficiently accurate for performing hydrological impact investigations of climate change for the Alpine river basin which was studied.

  2. Investigating uncertainty of climate change effect on entering runoff to Urmia Lake Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razmara, P.; Massah Bavani, A. R.; Motiee, H.; Torabi, S.; Lotfi, S.

    2013-02-01

    The largest lake in Iran, Urmia Lake, has been faced with a sharp decline in water surface in recent years. This decline is putting the survival of Urmia Lake at risk. Due to the fact that the water surface of lakes is affected directly by the entering runoff, herein we study the effect of climate change on the runoff entering Urmia Lake. Ten climate models among AOGCM-AR4 models in the future time period 2013-2040 will be used, under the emission scenarios A2 and B1. The downscaling method used in this research is the change factor-LARS method, while for simulating the runoff, the artificial neural network was applied. First, both the 30-yr and monthly scenarios of climate change, temperature, and precipitation of the region were generated and weighted by the Beta function (β). Then, the cumulative density function (cdf) for each month was computed. Calculating the scenarios of climate change and precipitation at levels of 25, 50, and 75% of cdf functions, and introducing them into LARS-wg model, the time series of temperature and precipitation in the region in the future time period were computed considering the uncertainty of climate variability. Then, introducing the time series of temperature and precipitation at different risk levels into the artificial neural network, the future runoff was generated. The findings illustrate a decrease of streamflow into Urmia Lake in scenario A2 at the three risk levels 25, 50, and 75% by, respectively, -21, -13, and -0.3%, and an increase by, respectively, 4.7, 13.8, and 18.9% in scenario B1. Also, scenario A2 with its prediction of a warm and dry climate suggests more critical conditions for the future compared to scenario B1 and its cool, humid climate.

  3. A process-based investigation into the impact of the Congo basin deforestation on surface climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Jean P.; Tompkins, Adrian M.; Bouka-Biona, Clobite; Sanda, I. Seidou

    2015-06-01

    The sensitivity of climate to the loss of the Congo basin rainforest through changes in land cover properties is examined using a regional climate model. The complete removal of the Congo basin rainforest results in a dipole rainfall anomaly pattern, characterized by a decrease (˜-42%) in rainfall over the western Congo and an increase (˜10%) in the basin's eastern part. Three further experiments systematically examine the individual response to the changes in albedo, surface roughness, and evapotranspiration efficiency that accompany deforestation. The increased albedo (˜) caused by the Congo basin rainforest clearance results in cooler and drier climate conditions over the entire basin. The drying is accompanied with a reduction in available surface energy. Reducing evapotranspiration efficiency or roughness length produces similar positive air temperature anomaly patterns. The decreased evapotranspiration efficiency leads to a dipole response in rainfall, similar to that resulting from a reduced surface roughness following Congo basin rainforest clearance. This precipitation anomaly pattern is strongly linked to the change in low-level water vapor transport, the influence of the Rift valley highlands, and the spatial pattern of water recycling activity. The climate responds linearly to the separate albedo, surface roughness, and evapotranspiration efficiency changes, which can be summed to produce a close approximation to the impact of the full deforestation experiment. It is suggested that the widely contrasting climate responses to deforestation in the literature could be partly due to the relative magnitude of change of the radiative and nonradiative parameterizations in their respective land surface schemes.

  4. A Pilot Investigation of the Relationship between Climate Variability and Milk Compounds under the Bootstrap Technique.

    PubMed

    Milani, Mohammad Reza Marami; Hense, Andreas; Rahmani, Elham; Ploeger, Angelika

    2015-09-11

    This study analyzes the linear relationship between climate variables and milk components in Iran by applying bootstrapping to include and assess the uncertainty. The climate parameters, Temperature Humidity Index (THI) and Equivalent Temperature Index (ETI) are computed from the NASA-Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (NASA-MERRA) reanalysis (2002-2010). Milk data for fat, protein (measured on fresh matter bases), and milk yield are taken from 936,227 milk records for the same period, using cows fed by natural pasture from April to September. Confidence intervals for the regression model are calculated using the bootstrap technique. This method is applied to the original times series, generating statistically equivalent surrogate samples. As a result, despite the short time data and the related uncertainties, an interesting behavior of the relationships between milk compound and the climate parameters is visible. During spring only, a weak dependency of milk yield and climate variations is obvious, while fat and protein concentrations show reasonable correlations. In summer, milk yield shows a similar level of relationship with ETI, but not with temperature and THI. We suggest this methodology for studies in the field of the impacts of climate change and agriculture, also environment and food with short-term data.

  5. A Pilot Investigation of the Relationship between Climate Variability and Milk Compounds under the Bootstrap Technique

    PubMed Central

    Marami Milani, Mohammad Reza; Hense, Andreas; Rahmani, Elham; Ploeger, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the linear relationship between climate variables and milk components in Iran by applying bootstrapping to include and assess the uncertainty. The climate parameters, Temperature Humidity Index (THI) and Equivalent Temperature Index (ETI) are computed from the NASA-Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (NASA-MERRA) reanalysis (2002–2010). Milk data for fat, protein (measured on fresh matter bases), and milk yield are taken from 936,227 milk records for the same period, using cows fed by natural pasture from April to September. Confidence intervals for the regression model are calculated using the bootstrap technique. This method is applied to the original times series, generating statistically equivalent surrogate samples. As a result, despite the short time data and the related uncertainties, an interesting behavior of the relationships between milk compound and the climate parameters is visible. During spring only, a weak dependency of milk yield and climate variations is obvious, while fat and protein concentrations show reasonable correlations. In summer, milk yield shows a similar level of relationship with ETI, but not with temperature and THI. We suggest this methodology for studies in the field of the impacts of climate change and agriculture, also environment and food with short-term data. PMID:28231215

  6. Radiation measured during ISS-Expedition 13 with different dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Dazhuang; Semones, Edward; Gaza, Ramona; Johnson, Steve; Zapp, Neal; Lee, Kerry; George, Tamra

    Radiation measured during ISS-Expedition 13 with different dosimeters D. Zhou1,2,*, E. Semones1, R. Gaza1,2, S. Johnson1, N. Zapp1, K. Lee1, T. George1 1Johnson Space Center - NASA, 2101 Nasa Parkway, Houston 77058, USA 2Universities Space Research Association, 3600 Bay Area Blvd, Houston 77058, USA *Corresponding author. E-mail address: dazhuang.zhou-1@nasa.gov (D. Zhou). Abstract Radiation in low Earth orbit (LEO) is mainly composed of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR), solar energetic particles and particles in SAA (South Atlantic Anomaly). The biological impact of space radiation to astronauts depends strongly on the particles' linear energy transfer (LET) and is dominated by high LET radiation. It is important to measure the LET spectrum for the space radiation field and to investigate the influence of radiation on astronauts. At present, the preferred active dosimeters sensitive to all LET are the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and silicon detectors in various configurations; the preferred passive dosimeters are thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) and optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) sensitive to low LET as well as CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) sensitive to high LET. The TEPC, CR-39 PNTDs, TLDs and OSLDs were used to investigate the radiation exposure for the ISS mission Expedition 13 (ISS-12S) in LEO. LET spectra and radiation quantities (fluence, absorbed dose, dose equivalent and quality factor) were measured for the space mission with different dosimeters. This paper introduces the operational principles for the dosimeters, describes the method to combine the results measured by TLDs/OSLDs and CR-39 PNTDs, and presents the LET spectra and the radiation quantities measured. Keywords: space radiation; cosmic rays; active and passive dosimeters; LET spectra

  7. Impact of climate change on fish population dynamics in the Baltic sea: a dynamical downscaling investigation.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Brian R; Meier, H E Markus; Lindegren, Martin; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Eero, Margit; Blenckner, Thorsten; Tomczak, Maciej T; Niiranen, Susa

    2012-09-01

    Understanding how climate change, exploitation and eutrophication will affect populations and ecosystems of the Baltic Sea can be facilitated with models which realistically combine these forcings into common frameworks. Here, we evaluate sensitivity of fish recruitment and population dynamics to past and future environmental forcings provided by three ocean-biogeochemical models of the Baltic Sea. Modeled temperature explained nearly as much variability in reproductive success of sprat (Sprattus sprattus; Clupeidae) as measured temperatures during 1973-2005, and both the spawner biomass and the temperature have influenced recruitment for at least 50 years. The three Baltic Sea models estimate relatively similar developments (increases) in biomass and fishery yield during twenty-first century climate change (ca. 28 % range among models). However, this uncertainty is exceeded by the one associated with the fish population model, and by the source of global climate data used by regional models. Knowledge of processes and biases could reduce these uncertainties.

  8. 17 CFR 201.500 - Expedited consideration of proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expedited consideration of proceedings. 201.500 Section 201.500 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... Expedited consideration of proceedings. Consistent with the Commission's or the hearing officer's...

  9. Balancing More than Backpacks: Communitarian Ideas Applied to Educational Expeditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaak, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the viability of using a communitarian framework within outdoor education practice, specifically in order to address the tension between individual rights and social responsibility that is frequently found on overnight (or multi-day) educational expeditions. The setting of educational expeditions offers rich potential for…

  10. 12 CFR 1070.17 - Requests for expedited processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act § 1070.17 Requests for expedited processing. (a) In general. The CFPB... statement that purports to demonstrate a compelling need for expedited processing to be true and correct to... 28 U.S.C. 1746: “I declare under penalty of perjury that the foregoing is true and correct to...

  11. 12 CFR 5.32 - Expedited procedures for certain reorganizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Expedited procedures for certain reorganizations. 5.32 Section 5.32 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES, POLICIES, AND PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE ACTIVITIES Expansion of Activities § 5.32 Expedited procedures...

  12. 12 CFR 5.32 - Expedited procedures for certain reorganizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expedited procedures for certain reorganizations. 5.32 Section 5.32 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES, POLICIES, AND PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE ACTIVITIES Expansion of Activities § 5.32 Expedited procedures...

  13. 12 CFR 5.32 - Expedited procedures for certain reorganizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Expedited procedures for certain reorganizations. 5.32 Section 5.32 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES, POLICIES, AND PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE ACTIVITIES Expansion of Activities § 5.32 Expedited procedures...

  14. 12 CFR 5.32 - Expedited procedures for certain reorganizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Expedited procedures for certain reorganizations. 5.32 Section 5.32 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES, POLICIES, AND PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE ACTIVITIES Expansion of Activities § 5.32 Expedited procedures...

  15. 12 CFR 5.32 - Expedited procedures for certain reorganizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Expedited procedures for certain reorganizations. 5.32 Section 5.32 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES, POLICIES, AND PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE ACTIVITIES Expansion of Activities § 5.32 Expedited procedures...

  16. 42 CFR 405.1202 - Expedited determination procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expedited determination procedures. 405.1202 Section 405.1202 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Expedited Determinations...

  17. 42 CFR 405.1208 - Hospital requests expedited QIO review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hospital requests expedited QIO review. 405.1208 Section 405.1208 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Expedited Determinations...

  18. 12 CFR 229.54 - Expedited recredit for consumers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Expedited recredit for consumers. 229.54... Expedited recredit for consumers. (a) Circumstances giving rise to a claim. A consumer may make a claim under this section for a recredit with respect to a substitute check if the consumer asserts in...

  19. Human Dimensions of Expeditions: Deeply Rooted, Branching Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Tom G.

    This paper explores some aspects of building and fostering strong group dynamics to enhance expedition behavior and ultimately, successful wilderness group experiences. It attempts to reflect the needs of both large-scale expeditions and educational and camp groups traveling through wilderness, and includes various activities to allow for direct…

  20. 8 CFR 235.3 - Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal. 235.3 Section 235.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.3 Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal. (a)...

  1. 8 CFR 235.3 - Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal. 235.3 Section 235.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.3 Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal. (a)...

  2. Leadership Status Congruency and Cohesion in Outdoor Expedition Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eys, Mark A.; Ritchie, Stephen; Little, Jim; Slade, Heather; Oddson, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between status congruency and group cohesion in outdoor expedition groups in an educational setting. Specifically, three aspects of status congruency were assessed in relation to group cohesion in four adventure canoe groups. The groups participated in 2-week expeditions in the…

  3. 12 CFR 229.54 - Expedited recredit for consumers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expedited recredit for consumers. 229.54... Expedited recredit for consumers. (a) Circumstances giving rise to a claim. A consumer may make a claim under this section for a recredit with respect to a substitute check if the consumer asserts in...

  4. Expedition 4 crew member Daniel W. Bursch arrives at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Expedition 4 crew member Daniel W. Bursch arrives at KSC KSC-01PD-1705 KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - Expedition 4 crew member Daniel W. Bursch arrives at KSC in a T-38 jet trainer. He and other crew members Commander Yuri Onufrienko and astronaut Carl E. Walz will be traveling on Space Shuttle Endeavour - mission STS-108 - to replace the Expedition 3 crew. Top priorities for the STS-108 (UF-1) mission of Endeavour are rotation of the International Space Station Expedition Three and Expedition Four crews, bringing water, equipment and supplies to the station in the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, and completion of spacewalk and robotics tasks. The mission crew comprises Commander Dominic L. Gorie, Pilot Mark E. Kelly and Mission Specialists Linda A. Godwin and Daniel M. Tani. Liftoff is scheduled for 7:41 p.m. EST..

  5. Climate Change and Costs: Investigating Students' Reasoning on Nature and Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternang, Li; Lundholm, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    The tensions between environmental protection and economic growth are critical to future well-being, and it is therefore important to understand how young people conceptualize these tensions. The aim of the present study is to explore students' solutions to the dilemma of economic development and mitigating climate change, with regard to societal…

  6. Asian Americans and Campus Climate: Investigating Group Differences around a Racial Incident

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Marc P.; Yeung, Fanny P. F

    2014-01-01

    Racially biased incidents pervade college campuses warranting further attention to their influence on campus climate. This study examines one such incident that targeted Asian American students, who are the largest racial group at the compositionally diverse institution. Using the Diverse Learning Environments survey and the "naturally…

  7. Investigation of the Drought Probabilities over Turkey in a Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turp, M. Tufan; Akbas, Abdullah; Saygili, Sibel; Ozturk, Tugba; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2016-04-01

    As a consequence of the negative impacts of climate change, Turkey is under risk of an increased drought conditions. In this study, we aim to detect the possible changes in the intensity and frequency of drought conditions and to identify the spatial and temporal distributions of these changes throughout the country. Therefore, firstly the outputs of the MPI-ESM-MR global climate model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology were downscaled to 50 km for Turkey via Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.4) of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP). RCP8.5, which is the worst case emission pathway, is used to make future projection for the period of 2071 - 2100 with respect to the reference period of 1971 - 2000 over Turkey. Thereafter, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) values, which are computed by using monthly precipitation totals data of the model, are obtained and classified for three timescales (i.e. 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month). Lastly, the spatial distribution maps, which determine the changes in drought probabilities over Turkey, are created in order to characterize better the impact of climate change on Turkey's drought patterns. This research has been supported by Boǧaziçi University Research Fund Grant Number 10421.

  8. Air-climate-energy investigations with a state-level Integrated Assessment Model: GCAM-USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) is a global integrated assessment model used for exploring future scenarios and examining strategies that address air pollution, climate change, and energy goals.  GCAM includes technology-rich representations of the energy, transportatio...

  9. Investigating the influence of stratospheric ozone trends on Southern Hemisphere hydrological climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purich, Ariaan

    Changes in stratospheric ozone have previously been linked to Southern Hemisphere (SH) circulation changes. This study examines output from coupled climate models participating in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project 3 (CMIP3) for trends in precipitation and evaporation in the 20th and 21st centuries to assess whether stratospheric ozone influences the hydrological cycle and extreme precipitation in the SH extratropics, particularly during austral summer. Nineteen models are used, of which 10 incorporated ozone depletion (recovery) in the 20th (21st) century, whilst nine simply prescribed climatological ozone in both past and future climates. Trends in seasonal-mean precipitation are found to dominate overall changes in precipitation minus evaporation. For the 20th century, models with ozone depletion show a significant increase (decrease) in summer precipitation in high latitudes (mid-latitudes) compared to models without ozone depletion. In contrast, for the 21st century, models without ozone recovery show significantly larger changes in summer precipitation in these regions compared to models with ozone recovery. No significant differences, however, are found in the two sets of models during austral winter when stratospheric ozone is inactive. These results suggest that Antarctic ozone depletion and recovery significantly modulates hydrological climate change in the SH extratropics, in agreement with findings of previous studies. It is further found that stratospheric ozone primarily affects the frequency of light precipitation events (1--10 mm day--1 ), indicating that an increase in mean precipitation over the Southern Ocean corresponds to an increase in the number of light precipitation days rather than extreme events. Implications of this finding to the SH surface climate and Southern Ocean circulation changes are discussed.

  10. Data-Driven Synthesis for Investigating Food Systems Resilience to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magliocca, N. R.; Hart, D.; Hondula, K. L.; Munoz, I.; Shelley, M.; Smorul, M.

    2014-12-01

    The production, supply, and distribution of our food involves a complex set of interactions between farmers, rural communities, governments, and global commodity markets that link important issues such as environmental quality, agricultural science and technology, health and nutrition, rural livelihoods, and social institutions and equality - all of which will be affected by climate change. The production of actionable science is thus urgently needed to inform and prepare the public for the consequences of climate change for local and global food systems. Access to data that spans multiple sectors/domains and spatial and temporal scales is key to beginning to tackle such complex issues. As part of the White House's Climate Data Initiative, the USDA and the National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center (SESYNC) are launching a new collaboration to catalyze data-driven research to enhance food systems resilience to climate change. To support this collaboration, SESYNC is developing a new "Data to Motivate Synthesis" program designed to engage early career scholars in a highly interactive and dynamic process of real-time data discovery, analysis, and visualization to catalyze new research questions and analyses that would not have otherwise been possible and/or apparent. This program will be supported by an integrated, spatially-enabled cyberinfrastructure that enables the management, intersection, and analysis of large heterogeneous datasets relevant to food systems resilience to climate change. Our approach is to create a series of geospatial abstraction data structures and visualization services that can be used to accelerate analysis and visualization across various socio-economic and environmental datasets (e.g., reconcile census data with remote sensing raster datasets). We describe the application of this approach with a pilot workshop of socio-environmental scholars that will lay the groundwork for the larger SESYNC-USDA collaboration. We discuss the

  11. The Australasian Antarctic Expedition 2013-2014: Practicing 'Citizen-Science' in a Changing World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogwill, C. J.; Turney, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    Government funding is the cornerstone of modern science. But with declining investment in science across most of the Western World, a major challenge for society is where best to place what little resource we have. Which research questions should have the greatest priority? Nowhere are these issues more pressing than in the Antarctic, where bases have and continue to play host to 'big-science', multi-year programmes of research, locking up logistical support and costs. But in a warming world, the areas with the greatest effects of climate change aren't always near government research stations. With this in mind, in 2012 a plan was formed to visit Commonwealth Bay, a remote area off the East Antarctic Ice Sheet, where in 2010, an iceberg the size of Rhode Island, known as B09B, dramatically knocked a 60-mile long tongue of ice off the Mertz Glacier into the Southern Ocean, setting off a cascade of change. Inspired by the expeditions of the past, we advertised berths for sale to take citizen scientists south with us, harnessing their interest, experience and investment. People responded far and wide. We were oversubscribed, and the Australasian Antarctic Expedition 2013-2014 was born. With the Russian-owned MV Akademik Shokalskiy as the expedition vessel, we set out south from the New Zealand port of Bluff in late November 2013. During our journey south and on the ice we undertook a number of scientific firsts for the region actively engaging the volunteer scientists on board in projects ranging from oceanography, biology, ecology, geology and glaciaology. The expedition demostrated how private funding could support targeted programmes of research and communicate it to the wider world. Small-science research can capture the public's imagination and also reap real scientific outputs. Although it is a funding model developed in the Antarctic a hundred years ago, the beauty is it can applied anywhere in the world.

  12. Using the Job Demands-Resources model to investigate risk perception, safety climate and job satisfaction in safety critical organizations.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Mearns, Kathryn; Matthiesen, Stig Berge; Eid, Jarle

    2011-10-01

    Using the Job Demands-Resources model (JD-R) as a theoretical framework, this study investigated the relationship between risk perception as a job demand and psychological safety climate as a job resource with regard to job satisfaction in safety critical organizations. In line with the JD-R model, it was hypothesized that high levels of risk perception is related to low job satisfaction and that a positive perception of safety climate is related to high job satisfaction. In addition, it was hypothesized that safety climate moderates the relationship between risk perception and job satisfaction. Using a sample of Norwegian offshore workers (N = 986), all three hypotheses were supported. In summary, workers who perceived high levels of risk reported lower levels of job satisfaction, whereas this effect diminished when workers perceived their safety climate as positive. Follow-up analyses revealed that this interaction was dependent on the type of risks in question. The results of this study supports the JD-R model, and provides further evidence for relationships between safety-related concepts and work-related outcomes indicating that organizations should not only develop and implement sound safety procedures to reduce the effects of risks and hazards on workers, but can also enhance other areas of organizational life through a focus on safety.

  13. The Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition - Prologue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turco, Richard; Plumb, Alan; Condon, Estelle

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an introduction to the initial scientific results of the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE), as well as data from other atmospheric experiments and analyses carried out during the Arctic polar winter of 1989. Mission objectives of the AASE were to study the mechanisms of ozone depletion and redistribution in the northern polar stratosphere, including the influences of Arctic meteorology, and polar stratospheric clouds formed at low temperatures. Some major aspects of the AASE are described including: logistics and operations, meteorology, polar stratospheric clouds, trace composition and chemistry, and ozone depletion. It is concluded that the Arctic-89 experiments have provided the scientific community with a wealth of new information that will contribute to a better understanding of the polar winter stratosphere and the critical problem of global ozone depletion.

  14. Expedition 5 Crew Interviews: Peggy Whitson

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Expedition 5 Flight Engineer Peggy Whitson is seen during a prelaunch interview. She gives details on the mission's goals and significance, her role in the mission, what her responsibilities will be, what the crew activities will be like (docking and undocking of two Progress unpiloted supply vehicles, normal space station maintenance tasks, conducting science experiments, installing the CETA (Crew and Equipment Translation) cart, and supporting the installation of the International Truss Structure S1 segment), the day-to-day life on an extended stay mission, the experiments she will be conducting on board, and what the S1 truss will mean to the International Space Station (ISS). Whitson ends with her thoughts on the short-term and long-term future of the ISS.

  15. Mathematics in narratives of Geodetic expeditions.

    PubMed

    Terrall, Mary

    2006-12-01

    In eighteenth-century France, geodesy (the measure of the earth's shape) became an arena where mathematics and narrative intersected productively. Mathematics played a crucial role not only in the measurements and analysis necessary to geodesy but also in the narrative accounts that presented the results of elaborate and expensive expeditions to the reading public. When they returned to France to write these accounts after their travels, mathematician-observers developed a variety of ways to display numbers and mathematical arguments and techniques. The numbers, equations, and diagrams they produced could not be separated from the story of their acquisition. Reading these accounts for the interplay of these two aspects--the mathematical and the narrative--shows how travelers articulated the intellectual and physical difficulties of their work to enhance the value of their results for specialist and lay readers alike.

  16. Expedition to Siberia: A Firsthand Account

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranson, Jon; Kharuk, Slava; Howl, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    Nowhere on Earth is warming faster than the Arctic. In northern Siberia, average temperatures have risen 3-5 deg F over the past 30 years, whereas the worldwide average increase in that time is 1 deg F. Betweeen July 28 and August 12, 2007, a small international team of remote sensing and forest ecosystem scientists from NASA and Russia's Academy of Science set off on a three-week scientific expedition through the heart of the remote, wild forests of Siberia. They traveled southward down the Kochechum River observing the gradual transition from tundra to taiga, taking inventory of plant species along the way, and making ground-truth measurements to validate data being collected by several NASA satellites flying 700 kilometers overhead.

  17. Discoveries From the Cross-Disciplinary, Multi-Institutional South Seas Expedition from Hawaii to New Zealand and Back

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malahoff, A.; Wiltshire, J. C.; Smith, J. R.

    2005-12-01

    The Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory organised an international research team to explore the chemistry, geology, biology, hydrothermal venting processes, mineral deposition, and biodiversity of seamounts extending south from Hawaii to New Zealand, including the submarine volcanoes of the Tonga-Kermadec Island Arc. Research team members came from a Consortium comprising of principal investigators from the NOAA Pacific Marine Environment Lab and VENTS program, the Inst of Geological and Nuclear Sciences and the National Inst of Water and Atmospheric Research both of New Zealand, the Univ of Kiel in Germany, the Univ of Mississippi, Univ of Hawaii, the NOAA Marine Fisheries Service, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Univ of Oregon, Oregon State Univ, Stanford Univ, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Funding came from the member organizations of the Consortium and the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and National Undersea Research Program. The expedition left Hawaii on 18 March 2005 and returned on 05 August, aboard the R/V Ka`imikai-o-Kanaloa with the submersibles Pisces IV and Pisces V and the ROV RCV-150. Sixty-one science dives were executed during the eight legs of the expedition. Twelve active volcanoes in the Samoa to New Zealand legs, one in the Samoan hot spot chain and the flanks of five islands and atolls on the legs between Samoa and Hawaii were investigated. Hundreds of specimens of new and unusual marine life, corals and other benthic organisms, extremophile micro- and macro-organisms, water samples for chemical analysis, polymetallic sulfides and rock samples were collected during the expedition. Unusual processes were observed at the Kermadec submarine volcanoes, including the oozing of liquid sulphur onto the seafloor and profuse carbon dioxide venting into seawater. Extensive submarine hydrothermal venting, black smoker activity and extraordinary chimney formations were studied in the caldera of Brothers Volcano. In addition, extensive

  18. Preliminary results of the ``Tunguska99 Expedition"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, G.; Tunguska99 Expedition Team

    1999-12-01

    In July 14-30, 1999 an Italian scientific expedition was carried out in Tunguska (Siberia), the region of the 1908 explosion of a cosmic body. The main tasks of the expedition were: 1) to study the structure and sediments of Cheko, a small lake located near the epicenter of the Tunguska event; 2) to carry out an aerial photosurvey of the explosion site; 3) to collect wood, peat and rock samples; 4) to monitor gamma rays during the flight Italy - Siberia - Italy and in Tunguska. 1) Our bathymetric mapping of lake Cheko and ultrasound and radar subbottom surveys of stratigraphy suggest that the lake is older than the Tunguska event. 28 cores up to 2 m long have been extracted from the lake bottom (at depths up to 50 m). They show a clear stratigraphy and the analyses at the CNR Institute of Marine Geology in Bologna will hopefully throw light on the nature of the exploded body. 2) The aerial multispectral photosurvey (performed from visual to thermal infrared wave lenghts) together with our GPS coordinate measurements on the ground of some reference points, will be used to re-examine some details of the explosion. 3) The petrology and geochemistry of the Mesozoic igneous rocks outcropping in the Tunguska region is being studied and the collected wood, peat and rock samples will be analyzed in different laboratories to find traces of the cosmic body. 4) The data on gamma rays are being processed in the Bologna University to find their dependence on altitude, longitude, latitude and atmospheric conditions.

  19. An investigation of the thermal comfort adaptive model in a tropical upland climate

    SciTech Connect

    Malama, A.; Jitkhajornwanich, K.; Sharples, S.; Pitts, A.C.

    1998-10-01

    The results of two thermal comfort surveys performed in Zambia, which has a tropical upland climate, are presented and analyzed with special reference to the adaptive model. The main forms of adaptation and adjustment analyzed are: clothing, skin moisture, activity level, and environmental controls. Results show that in the cool season the main methods of adaptation used by the subjects were clothing and environmental controls, while in the warm season only environmental controls were used. It proved difficult to establish the impact of the various levels of adaptivity on thermal comfort standards. It would be useful if the adaptive model could be factored into thermal comfort to produce adaptive thermal comfort standards that would allow for differences in culture and climate across the globe.

  20. Investigating climatic and anthropogenic disturbance in continental peat archives of C Europe and W Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Gałka, Mariusz; Marcisz, Katarzyna; Słowiński, Michał; Kołaczek, Piotr; Kajukało, Katarzyna; Jassey, Vinent E. J.

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution multi-proxy studies became a standard approach to reconstruct paleoenvironmental changes. Here we present the results from three peatlands located in Poland, Switzerland and Russia, respectively. Most of those archives cover the last 1000 years, however several reach also 4k. Using TA, charcoal, plant macros, we reconstructed past fire events and peatland hydrology over long time scales. We found that hydrological variability in these peatlands was connected with the internal feedbacks, and land-use change, although we should be very careful in terms of climatic interpretation. Recent research shows that stable wet bogs can be dated to ca AD 1350, which correspond to the beginning of considerable hydrological disturbances during the Little Ice Age (LIA). In case of several Baltic bogs, we recorded the wet phase of LIA between AD 1500 and AD 1800. However, this climatic event might have been partly blurred by land-use change connected with deforestation. After AD 1200, increasing human impact and climatic instability was inferred, also during the LIA. Furthermore, Polish and Siberian sites revealed a wet Medieval Warm Period, then Little Ice Age was hydrologically unstable. Our results provided information related to the time of existence, location and characteristics of the natural/pristine state of the bogs. Palaeoecological studies on peatlands should possess a good ecological background to appropriately interpret past events. We made several steps towards such an interdisciplinary approach trying to compile palaeoecology, monitoring and experiment in e.g. CLIMPEAT (www.climpeat.pl) and WETMAN (www.wetman.pl) projects that are expected to support our future quantitative inferences. We acknowledge support from grant PSPB-013/2010 from Switzerland through the Swiss Contribution to the enlarged European Union. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution (ICLEA) of the Helmholtz Association.

  1. FACE-IT: Framework to Advance Climate, Economics, and Impact Investigations with Information Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, I.; Elliott, J. W.; Jones, J.; Montella, R.

    2013-12-01

    Issues relating to climate change and food security require an understanding of the interaction between the natural world and human society over long time scales. Understanding climate change, its impacts on the natural world and society, and the tradeoffs inherent in societal responses demands an unprecedented degree of cooperation across academic fields. New data sources on expected future climate, soil characteristics, economic activity, historical weather, population, and land cover, provide a potential basis for this cooperation. New methods are needed for sharing within and across communities not only data but the software used to generate, synthesize, and analyze it. Progress on these research challenges is hindered by the extreme difficulties that researchers, collaborators, and the community experiences when they collaborate around data. Multiplicity of data formats; inadequate computational tools; difficulty in sharing data and programs, lack of incentives for pro-social behavior and large data volumes are among the technology barriers. The FACE-IT project at the University of Chicago, NASA, and University of Florida employs an integrated approach to cyberinfrastructure to advance the characterization of vulnerabilities, impacts, mitigation, and adaptation to climate change in human and environmental systems. Leveraging existing research cyberinfrastructure the project is creating a full-featured FACE-IT Platform prototype with new capabilities for ingesting, organizing, managing, analyzing and using large quantities of diverse data. The project team collaborates with two distinct interdisciplinary communities to create community specific FACE-IT Instances to both advance their research and enable at-scale evaluation of the utility of the FACE-IT approach. In this talk I will introduce the FACE-IT system and discuss early applications.

  2. Investigating drought over the Central Highland, Vietnam, using regional climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Minh Tue; Raghavan, Srivatsan V.; Pham, Duc Minh; Liong, Shie-Yui

    2015-07-01

    The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) has been computed based on the monthly precipitation for different observed and modelled datasets over the Central Highland, Vietnam during the period 1990-2005. Station data from a total of 13 stations were collected from the study region and used for benchmarking to compare gridded observation data and two regional climate models (RCMs). Various characteristics of drought across the study region were analyzed using spatial and temporal distributions, number of drought events, their frequency and their deficit. The RCMs were able to capture the SPI temporal distributions of station data fairly well. The analysis from RCMs showed close estimation for the number of drought events to station data and gridded observations. In terms of Drought Deficit and frequency, the RCMs matched the station data better than gridded observations. The drought trend was carried out using a Modified Mann-Kendall trend test which yielded no clear trends that suggested the need for longer records of data. The results also highlight uncertainties in gridded data and the need for robust station data quality and record lengths. The regional climate models proved to be appropriate tools in assessing drought over the study area as they can serve as good proxies over data sparse regions, especially in developing countries, for studying detailed climate features at sub regional and local scales.

  3. Investigation of air pollution and regional climate change due to anthropogenic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Makiko; Sano, Itaru; Mukai, Sonoyo

    2016-10-01

    Increased emissions of anthropogenic aerosols associated with economic growth can lead to increased concentrations of hazardous air pollutants. In particular, large cities in East Asia have experienced numerous heavy haze episodes. Atmospheric aerosol distributions in East Asia are complex, being influenced by both natural phenomena and human activity, with urban areas in particular being dominated by fine anthropogenic aerosols released from diesel-powered vehicles and industrial activity. In Japan, air pollution levels have been reduced; nevertheless, in recent years, there is increasing concern regarding air pollution caused by fine particulate matter. The origins of air pollution were examined, focusing on the comparison between aerosol properties observed from satellites and that on the ground. Because of their short life spans, concentrations of anthropogenic aerosols are highest over the source regions, and as a result, the climatic impacts of anthropogenic aerosols are also found to be most pronounced in these regions. In this study, aerosol impacts on climate are assessed by numerical model simulations. The direct effects of aerosols include reduced solar radiation, and hence a decrease in surface temperatures. In addition to these changes in the radiation budget, aerosols have a significant potential to change cloud and precipitation fields. These climatic responses to aerosols can manifest far from their source regions with high industrial activities.

  4. Investigating the Human Dimension of Unprecedented Global Climate Change in northeastern Siberia, Russia: Understandings, Perceptions and Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crate, S.

    2009-12-01

    An urgent challenge of the 21st century is to investigate understandings, perceptions and responses of populations confronting the local effects of global climate change. This paper describes the most recent results of one such project working with rural native Viliui Sakha communities, Turkic-speaking horse & cattle breeders in northeastern Siberia, Russia. The research questions are: 1) What local effects of global climate change are Viliui Sakha communities observing, how are Viliui Sakha perceiving these changes and how are the changes affecting both their subsistence survival and their cultural orientations? 2) What local knowledge exists about past climate perturbations and how does that knowledge influence contemporary adaptation to global climate change? 3) How can anecdotal (local) knowledge and regional scientific knowledge about the local effects of global climate change be integrated to enhance both local adaptive responses and policy efforts? The four-village, three-year study is a collaborative effort involving the active participation of the targeted communities, field assistants, native specialists, an in-country research team and an international collaborator. The project is founded on the PI’s 20 years of ongoing research and work with rural Viliui Sakha communities and on her fluency in both the Sakha and Russian languages. A central focus of this project is the integration of local and scientific knowledges. We are documenting local knowledge on the community, elder and archival levels. We are collaborating with scientists in Yakutsk for regional scientific data. Our project team has just returned from the second summer of field work and this presentation will cover the project results to date. Hayfields are inundated with water.

  5. 76 FR 64107 - Uranium From Russia; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Suspended...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... COMMISSION Uranium From Russia; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Suspended Investigation on Uranium From Russia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice... of the suspended investigation on uranium from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation...

  6. Investigation of methanogenic community structures in rural biogas digesters from different climatic regions in Yunnan, southwest China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Minghua; Wu, Yan; Li, Qiumin; Tian, Guangliang; Yang, Bin; Li, Yingjuan; Zhang, Lijuan; Wang, Yongxia; Xiao, Wei; Yin, Fang; Zhao, Xingling; Zhang, Wudi; Cui, Xiaolong

    2015-05-01

    Understanding of the microbial community structures of the biogas digesters in different climatic regions can help improve the methane production in the fermentation process. The methanogenic archaeal diversity in four rural biogas digesters (BNA, JSA, LJA, and XGA) was investigated by a culture-independent rRNA approach in different climatic regions in Yunnan. Community structure composed of 711 clones in the all libraries. A total of 33 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected, and major groups of methanogens were the orders Methanosarcinales and Methanomicrobiales. 63.2 % of all archaeal OTUs belong to the order Methanosarcinales which mostly contain acetotrophic methanogens. Methanomicrobiales (19.5 % in all OTUs) were detected in considerable number. Additionally, there were minor rates of uncultured archaea. The principal component analysis indicated that the genus Methanosaeta was mainly affected by the fermentation temperatures.

  7. Investigation on semi-direct and indirect climate effects of fossil fuel black carbon aerosol over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Bingliang; Liu, Qian; Wang, Tijian; Yin, Changqin; Li, Shu; Xie, Min; Jiang, Fei; Mao, Huiting

    2013-11-01

    A Regional Climate Chemistry Modeling System that employed empirical parameterizations of aerosol-cloud microphysics was applied to investigate the spatial distribution, radiative forcing (RF), and climate effects of black carbon (BC) over China. Results showed high levels of BC in Southwest, Central, and East China, with maximum surface concentrations, column burden, and optical depth (AOD) up to 14 μg m-3, 8 mg m-2, and 0.11, respectively. Black carbon was found to result in a positive RF at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) due to its direct effect while a negative RF due to its indirect effect. The regional-averaged direct and indirect RF of BC in China was about +0.81 and -0.95 W m-2, respectively, leading to a net RF of -0.15 W m-2 at the TOA. The BC indirect RF was larger than its direct RF in South China. Due to BC absorption of solar radiation, cloudiness was decreased by 1.33 %, further resulting in an increase of solar radiation and subsequently a surface warming over most parts of China, which was opposite to BC's indirect effect. Further, the net effect of BC might cause a decrease of precipitation of -7.39 % over China. Investigations also suggested large uncertainties and non-linearity in BC's indirect effect on regional climate. Results suggested that: (a) changes in cloud cover might be more affected by BC's direct effect, while changes in surface air temperature and precipitation might be influenced by BC's indirect effect; and (b) BC second indirect effect might have more influence on cloud cover and water content compared to first indirect effect. This study highlighted a substantial role of BC on regional climate changes.

  8. Biomedical Results of ISS Expeditions 1-12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogarty, Jennifer; Sams, Clarence F.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on biomedical data from International Space Station (ISS) Expeditions 1-12 is shown. The topics include: 1) ISS Expeditions 1-12; 2) Biomedical Data; 3) Physiological Assessments; 4) Bone Mineral Density; 5) Bone Mineral Density Recovery; 6) Orthostatic Tolerance; 7) Postural Stability Set of Sensory Organ Test 6; 8) Performance Assessment; 9) Aerobic Capacity of the Astronaut Corps; 10) Pre-flight Aerobic Fitness of ISS Astronauts; 11) In-flight and Post-flight Aerobic Capacity of the Astronaut Corps; and 12) ISS Functional Fitness Expeditions 1-12.

  9. Expedition 6 crew practice emergency egress from LC39-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The Expedition 6 crew practice emergency egress from the 195-foot level of the Fixed Service Structure on Launch Pad 39A. In the slidewire basket are (from left) cosmonaut Nikolai Budarin, astronaut Donald Pettit and Commander Ken Bowersox. The crew, travelers on Mission STS-113, will be replacing Expedition 5 on the International Space Station. Along with Expedition 6, STS-113 will carry the Port 1 (P1) truss aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour. Mission STS-113 is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, 2002.

  10. How will shallow coastal lagoons respond to climate change? A modelling investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, Ana C.; Newton, Alice; Tett, Paul; Fernandes, Teresa F.

    2012-10-01

    Coastal shallow lagoons are important ecosystems in terms of their high ecological relevance. They act as buffers of the land-sea interface, providing valuable ecosystem services such as nutrient recycling, decomposition of organic matter and removal of pollutants. Lagoons are regions of restricted exchange, subject to anthropogenic pressures that result in problems such as eutrophication. Because they are shallow, submerged primary producers play a prominent role in lagoon system metabolism. Furthermore, coastal lagoons are particularly vulnerable to global climate change and may act as 'sentinel systems'. Sea level rise already threatens to overwhelm some lagoons, such as Venice and Moroccan lagoons. Recent observations and studies have shown that a global climate change, especially the warming of the climate system and the sea level rise is unequivocal (IPCC, 2007). Therefore, the dCSTT-MPB model, which deals with nitrogen and chlorophyll concentrations in the water column and within the sediments, was used to explore a range of scenarios that aimed at representing these changes. The tendency of the light limitation due to the sea level rise is the potential degradation of the microphytobenthos community. This reduction would lead to stronger nitrogen fluxes from pore water to the water column, increasing significantly the nitrogen concentrations. No increase in the phytoplankton community was found because it is mainly influenced by the resuspension of microphytobenthos. High nitrogen concentration may be the first indication of an eutrophication event. Nonetheless, nitrogen may be exported to the sea and cause problems in the adjacent coastal waters. The increase in temperature did not lead to significant differences.

  11. Polar boundary layer processes: Important factors for investigating biogeochemistry and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunke, Elizabeth; Meier, Walt

    2012-10-01

    Ice at the Interface: Atmosphere-Ice-Ocean Boundary Layer Processes and Their Role in Polar Change; Boulder, Colorado, 25-27 June 2012 The atmosphere-ocean boundary layer in which sea ice resides includes many complex physical processes requiring a more realistic treatment in climate models, particularly as models incorporate biogeochemical feedback mechanisms such as aerosol effects on clouds. The primary purpose of a workshop recently held at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's David Skaggs Research Center was to define and discuss such coupled processes. Several scientific themes crucial for biogeochemical cycling emerged from the workshop, such as the importance of episodic events, precipitation, stratification, and the marginal ice zone.

  12. Investigation of IPCC AR4 coupled climate model North Atlantic mode water formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carman, Jessie C.; McClean, Julie L.

    The formation of mode waters in the North Atlantic was examined in the suite of ocean models that comprise the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3). We constructed model climatologies for 1980-1999 from the 20th century simulations, and compared their mode water properties (temperature, salinity, formation rate, volume, turnover time, heat content) with data. In these models, we found biases in both the properties of the mode waters and their formation rates. For Subpolar Mode Water (SPMW), property biases principally involved salinity errors; additionally, some models form SPMW in an anomalous region west of the British Isles, shifting the source location of waters entering the overturning cell and altering the Nordic Seas' involvement in the Meridional Overturning Circulation. For Subtropical Mode Water (STMW), property biases involved both salinity and temperature errors, while positioning of heat and water fluxes relative to the Gulf Stream and northwest Sargasso Sea influenced STMW formation rate. Deficiencies in STMW formation rate and volume produced a turnover time of 1-2 years, approximately half of that observed; these variations in mode water bulk properties imply variation in ocean heat storage and advection, and hence deficiencies in all the models' abilities to adequately respond to changes in climatic forcing.

  13. Mechanisms of shrub encroachment into Northern Chihuahuan Desert grasslands and impacts of climate change investigated using a cellular automata model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracciolo, Domenico; Istanbulluoglu, Erkan; Noto, Leonardo Valerio; Collins, Scott L.

    2016-05-01

    Arid and semiarid grasslands of southwestern North America have changed dramatically over the last 150 years as a result of woody plant encroachment. Overgrazing, reduced fire frequency, and climate change are known drivers of woody plant encroachment into grasslands. In this study, relatively simple algorithms for encroachment factors (i.e., grazing, grassland fires, and seed dispersal by grazers) are proposed and implemented in the ecohydrological Cellular-Automata Tree Grass Shrub Simulator (CATGraSS). CATGraSS is used in a 7.3 km2 rectangular domain located in central New Mexico along a zone of grassland to shrubland transition, where shrub encroachment is currently active. CATGraSS is calibrated and used to investigate the relative contributions of grazing, fire frequency, seed dispersal by herbivores and climate change on shrub abundance over a 150-year period of historical shrub encroachment. The impact of future climate change is examined using a model output that realistically represents current vegetation cover as initial condition, in a series of stochastic CATGraSS future climate simulations. Model simulations are found to be highly sensitive to the initial distribution of shrub cover. Encroachment factors more actively lead to shrub propagation within the domain when the model starts with randomly distributed individual shrubs. However, when shrubs are naturally evolved into clusters, the model response to encroachment factors is muted unless the effect of seed dispersal by herbivores is amplified. The relative contribution of different drivers on modeled shrub encroachment varied based on the initial shrub cover condition used in the model. When historical weather data is used, CATGraSS predicted loss of shrub and grass cover during the 1950 s drought. While future climate change is found to amplify shrub encroachment (∼13% more shrub cover by 2100), grazing remains the dominant factor promoting shrub encroachment. When we modeled future climate

  14. Does what you know matter? Investigating the relationship between mental models of climate change and pro-environmental behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, R.

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the conjecture that environmentally sustainable decisions and behaviors are related to individuals' conceptions of the natural world, in this case climate change; individuals' attitudes towards climate change; and the situations in which these decisions are made. The nature of mental models is an ongoing subject of disagreement. Some argue that mental models are coherent theories, much like scientific theories, that individuals employ systematically when reasoning about the world (Gopnik & Meltzoff, 1998). Others maintain that mental models are cobbled together from fragmented collections of ideas that are only loosely connected and context dependent (Disessa, 1988; Minstrell, 2000). It is likely that individuals sometimes reason about complex phenomena using systematic mental models and at other times reason using knowledge that is organized in fragmented pieces (Steedle & Shavelson, 2009). Thus, in measuring mental models of complex environmental systems, such as climate change, the assumption of systematicity may not be justified. Individuals may apply certain chains of reasoning in some contexts but not in others. The current study hypothesizes that an accurate mental model of climate change enables an individual to make effective evaluative judgments of environmental behavior options. The more an individual's mental model resembles that of an expert, the more consistent, accurate and automatic these judgments become. However, an accurate mental model is not sufficient to change environmental behavior. Real decisions and behaviors are products of a person-situation interaction: an interplay between psychosocial factors (such as knowledge and attitudes) and the situation in which the decision is made. This study investigates the relationship between both psychosocial and situational factors for climate change decisions. Data was collected from 436 adult participants through an online survey. The survey was comprised of

  15. ISS Update: Expedition 34 Flight Director Describes Station Science Operations

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Josh Byerly interviews Chris Edelen, Expedition 34 Lead Flight Director, at Johnson Space Center’s Mission Control Center. Edelen has overseen the research and utiliza...

  16. Expedition 33/34 Crew Conducts Final Qualification Training

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33/34 Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin of the Russian Federal Space Agency and NASA Flight Engineer Kevin Ford conducted qualification training at the G...

  17. The Importance of the Expedition in Adventure Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, Bill; Wattchow, Brian

    1990-01-01

    Identifies expedition types reflecting different educational values including classic quests, pursuits of wealth, scientific explorations, wilderness existentialism, and military missions. Examines conceptualization, preparation, action, and reflection/reporting as "critical" phases of adventure education experience. Discusses…

  18. ISS Expedition 1 Pre-Launch Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Expedition 1 crewmembers William Shepherd, Yuri Gidzenko, and Sergei Krikalev are introduced in this prelaunch press conference. Each crewmember gives a brief statement about his expectations for the upcoming mission and they answer questions from the press.

  19. Field Science Ethnography: Methods For Systematic Observation on an Expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Haughton-Mars expedition is a multidisciplinary project, exploring an impact crater in an extreme environment to determine how people might live and work on Mars. The expedition seeks to understand and field test Mars facilities, crew roles, operations, and computer tools. I combine an ethnographic approach to establish a baseline understanding of how scientists prefer to live and work when relatively unemcumbered, with a participatory design approach of experimenting with procedures and tools in the context of use. This paper focuses on field methods for systematically recording and analyzing the expedition's activities. Systematic photography and time-lapse video are combined with concept mapping to organize and present information. This hybrid approach is generally applicable to the study of modern field expeditions having a dozen or more multidisciplinary participants, spread over a large terrain during multiple field seasons.

  20. Jean-Baptiste Charcot, the French Antarctic expedition and scurvy.

    PubMed

    Teive, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni; Germiniani, Francisco Manoel Branco; Munhoz, Renato Puppi

    2014-07-01

    During the second expedition to the South Pole, Commander Jean-Baptiste Charcot and some members of the crew of "Pourquoi Pas?" developed symptoms suggestive of scurvy. The clinical picture was totally reversed after dietary changes.

  1. 20 CFR 405.715 - Agreement in expedited appeals process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR ADJUDICATING INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Expedited Appeals Process for Constitutional Issues § 405... unconstitutional, you agree with our interpretation of the law; (d) If the provision of the Act that you believe...

  2. New Expedition 30 Crew Members Launch to Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 30 Flight Engineers Don Pettit, Oleg Kononenko and Andre Kuipers launched at 8:16 a.m. EST on Wednesday (7:16 p.m. local time) from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The three new I...

  3. Expedition 31 Crew Meets Media, Conducts Traditional Ceremonies

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 31 Flight Engineers Gennady Padalka, Sergei Revin and Joe Acaba field questions from the media in Star City, Russia, and later participate in traditional ceremonies in advance of their l...

  4. 15 CFR 4.6 - Time limits and expedited processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... GOVERNMENT INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act § 4.6 Time limits and expedited processing. (a) In general... true and correct to the best of that person's knowledge and belief, explaining in detail the basis...

  5. STS-108 and Expedition 4 crews during media interview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- The STS-108 crew and Expedition 4 crew answer questions from the media during an interview session. With the microphone is Expedition 4 Commander Yuri Onufrienko. From left are STS-108 Pilot Mark E. Kelly, Mission Specialists Daniel M. Tani and Linda A. Godwin, and Commander Dominic L. Gorie; Onufrienko and Expedition 4 members Carl E. Walz and Daniel W. Bursch. The crews are at KSC for Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities that include emergency exit training from the orbiter and launch pad and a simulated launch countdown. STS-108 is a Utilization Flight that will carry the replacement Expedition 4 crew to the International Space Station, as well as the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, filled with supplies and equipment. The l1-day mission is scheduled for launch Nov. 29 on Space Shuttle Endeavour.

  6. Expedition 33 Says Goodbye and Closes The Hatches

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams and Flight Engineers Aki Hoshide and Yuri Malenchenko entered their Soyuz TMA-05M spacecraft to end their mission aboard the International Space Station on Sun...

  7. STS-110 and Expedition Four Crews Pose for Onboard Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Posed inside the Destiny Laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are the STS-110 and Expedition Four crews for a traditional onboard portrait From the left, bottom row, are astronauts Ellen Ochoa, STS mission specialist, Michael J. Bloomfield, STS mission commander, and Yury I Onufrienko, Expedition Four mission commander. From the left, middle row, are astronauts Daniel W. Bursch, Expedition Four flight engineer, Rex J. Walheim, STS mission specialist, and Carl E. Walz, Expedition Four flight engineer. From the left, top row, are astronauts Stephen N. Frick, STS pilot; Jerry L. Ross, Lee M.E. Morin, and Steven L. Smith, all mission specialists. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis on April 8, 2002, the STS-110 mission crew prepared the ISS for future space walks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long Starboard side S0 truss and preparing the Mobile Transporter. The mission served as the 8th ISS assembly flight.

  8. Expedition Three crew poses for photo on Fixed Service structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- The Expedition Three crew poses on the Fixed Service Structure at Launch Pad 39A. From left are cosmonaut Mikhail Tyurin, commander Frank Culbertson and cosmonaut Vladimir Nikolaevich Dezhurov. The STS-105 and Expedition Three crews are at Kennedy Space Center participating in a Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test, a dress rehearsal for launch. The activities include emergency egress training, a simulated launch countdown and familiarization with the payload. Mission STS-105 will be transporting the Expedition Three crew, several payloads and scientific experiments to the International Space Station aboard Space Shuttle Discovery. The Expedition Two crew members currently on the Station will return to Earth on Discovery. The mission is scheduled to launch no earlier than Aug. 9, 2001.

  9. Expedition 33 Lands in the Snowy Steppe of Kazakhstan

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams and Flight Engineers Aki Hoshide and Yuri Malenchenko undocked from the International Space Station in their Soyuz TMA-05M spacecraft at 5:26 p.m. EST Sunday N...

  10. Expedition 4 crew member Daniel W. Bursch suit checkout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Expedition 4 crew member Daniel W. Bursch suit checkout KSC-01PD-1718 KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Expedition 4 crew member Daniel W. Bursch gets help with his launch and entry suit as he undergoes suit check before launch on mission STS-108 Nov. 29. Top priorities for the STS-108 (UF-1) mission of Endeavour are rotation of the International Space Station Expedition Three and Expedition Four crews; bringing water, equipment and supplies to the station in the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello; and completion of robotics tasks and a spacewalk to install thermal blankets over two pieces of equipment at the bases of the Space Station's solar wings. Liftoff is scheduled for 7:41 p.m. EST.

  11. Expedition 36 Crew Launches on Fast Track to Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Soyuz TMA-09M spacecraft carrying Soyuz Commander Fyodor Yurchikhin and Flight Engineers Karen Nyberg and Luca Parmitano launches from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan to begin an expedite...

  12. Expedition 33/34 Crew Ceremonies in Moscow

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33/34 Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin of the Russian Federal Space Agency and NASA Flight Engineer Kevin Ford participate in a variety of crew ceremoni...

  13. From observations to experiments in phenology research: investigating climate change impacts on trees and shrubs using dormant twigs

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Richard B.; Laube, Julia; Gallinat, Amanda S.; Menzel, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Climate change is advancing the leaf-out times of many plant species and mostly extending the growing season in temperate ecosystems. Laboratory experiments using twig cuttings from woody plant species present an affordable, easily replicated approach to investigate the relative importance of factors such as winter chilling, photoperiod, spring warming and frost tolerance on the leafing-out times of plant communities. This Viewpoint article demonstrates how the results of these experiments deepen our understanding beyond what is possible via analyses of remote sensing and field observation data, and can be used to improve climate change forecasts of shifts in phenology, ecosystem processes and ecological interactions. Scope The twig method involves cutting dormant twigs from trees, shrubs and vines on a single date or at intervals over the course of the winter and early spring, placing them in containers of water in controlled environments, and regularly recording leaf-out, flowering or other phenomena. Prior to or following leaf-out or flowering, twigs may be assigned to treatment groups for experiments involving temperature, photoperiod, frost, humidity and more. Recent studies using these methods have shown that winter chilling requirements and spring warming strongly affect leaf-out and flowering times of temperate trees and shrubs, whereas photoperiod requirements are less important than previously thought for most species. Invasive plant species have weaker winter chilling requirements than native species in temperate ecosystems, and species that leaf-out early in the season have greater frost tolerance than later leafing species. Conclusions This methodology could be extended to investigate additional drivers of leaf-out phenology, leaf senescence in the autumn, and other phenomena, and could be a useful tool for education and outreach. Additional ecosystems, such as boreal, southern hemisphere and sub-tropical forests, could also be

  14. Stratigraphic correlation for the IODP Expedition 347 - toward an integrated Baltic Sea Basin stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotilainen, Aarno; Hyttinen, Outi; Andrén, Thomas; Cotterill, Carol; Hale, Walter; IODP Expedition 347 Science Party, the

    2014-05-01

    The IODP Expedition 347 - "Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment" completed in September - November 2013 (offshore phase) was the 5th and the final mission-specific platform (MSP) expedition of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program. The expedition used a geotechnical drillship, the Greatship Manisha equipped with a Geoquip Marine coring rig, to core and wireline-log several sub-basins within the Baltic Sea, aiming to produce new information on the history of the Baltic Sea and climate change during the last glacial cycle. During the IODP Expedition 347 altogether over 1900 meters were successfully drilled at 8 Sites (M0059 - M0067) in the Lille Belt, Kattegat, Ångermanälven Estuary, Landsort Deep, Hanö Basin and Bornholm Basin with core recovery of approximately 1600 m (expansion adjusted core recovery of 91.46%). In this presentation, we show the preliminary results of regional stratigraphic correlation and splice results for the Expedition. That information provides a solid base for stratigraphic and high-resolution paleoenvironmental studies. Stratigraphic correlation consisted of the following: (1) ensuring the maximum core recovery on site, (2) seismic-core (sedimentary facies) correlation and (3) generating composite depth scales and splice records to each site. To obtain a complete sedimentary record, multiple adjacent holes were cored with an offset in depth of 0.5-1.5 m between cores from different holes. The continuity of recovery was assessed by generating composite sections that align prominent features in physical property data from adjacent holes. With the information gained by Fast Track Multi-Sensor Core Logger (MSCL) data, it was possible to adjust coring plan before the new hole, to ensure that intervals missing in previous cores could be recovered from an adjacent hole. Correlation between seismic profiles and cores used a simple estimation sound velocity vs. sediment type. Acquired depth was tested by comparison with major core surfaces, downhole logs

  15. An investigation into linearity with cumulative emissions of the climate and carbon cycle response in HadCM3LC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, S. K.; Booth, B. B. B.; Joshi, M. M.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the extent to which global mean temperature, precipitation, and the carbon cycle are constrained by cumulative carbon emissions throughout four experiments with a fully coupled climate-carbon cycle model. The paired experiments adopt contrasting, idealised approaches to climate change mitigation at different action points this century, with total emissions rising to more than two trillion tonnes of carbon (TtC). For each pair, the contrasting mitigation approaches—capping emissions early versus reducing them to zero a few decades later—cause their cumulative emissions trajectories to diverge initially, then converge, cross, and diverge again. We find that global mean temperature is linear with cumulative emissions across all experiments, although differences of up to 1.5 K exist regionally when the trajectories of total carbon emitted during the course of the two scenarios coincide, for both pairs of experiments. Interestingly, although the oceanic precipitation response scales with cumulative emissions, the global precipitation response does not, due to a decrease in precipitation over land above emissions of around one TtC. Most carbon fluxes are less well constrained by cumulative emissions as they reach two trillion tonnes. The opposing mitigation approaches have different consequences for the Amazon rainforest, which affects the linearity with which the carbon cycle responds to cumulative emissions. The average Transient Climate Response to cumulative carbon Emissions (TCRE) is 1.95 K TtC-1, at the upper end of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s range of 0.8-2.5 K TtC-1.

  16. Investigating links between climate and orography in the central Andes: Coupling erosion and precipitation using a physical-statistical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowman, Lauren E. L.; Barros, Ana P.

    2014-06-01

    Prior studies evaluated the interplay between climate and orography by investigating the sensitivity of relief to precipitation using the stream power erosion law (SPEL) for specified erosion rates. Here we address the inverse problem, inferring realistic spatial distributions of erosion rates for present-day topography and contemporaneous climate forcing. In the central Andes, similarities in the altitudinal distribution and density of first-order stream outlets and precipitation suggest a direct link between climate and fluvial erosion. Erosion rates are estimated with a Bayesian physical-statistical model based on the SPEL applied at spatial scales that capture joint hydrogeomorphic and hydrometeorological patterns within five river basins and one intermontane basin in Peru and Bolivia. Topographic slope and area data were generated from a high-resolution (˜90 m) digital elevation map, and mean annual precipitation was derived from 14 years of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission 3B42v.7 product and adjusted with rain gauge data. Estimated decadal-scale erosion rates vary between 0.68 and 11.59 mm/yr, with basin averages of 2.1-8.5 mm/yr. Even accounting for uncertainty in precipitation and simplifying assumptions, these values are 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than most millennial and million year timescale estimates in the central Andes, using various geological dating techniques (e.g., thermochronology and cosmogenic nuclides), but they are consistent with other decadal-scale estimates using landslide mapping and sediment flux observations. The results also reveal a pattern of spatially dependent erosion consistent with basin hypsometry. The modeling framework provides a means of remotely estimating erosion rates and associated uncertainties under current climate conditions over large regions. 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  17. The "RA" Expeditions: The Archaeological and Anthropological Background. The "RA" Expeditions: The Coriolis Effect. The "RA" Expeditions: The Papyrus Reed. Learning Experiences for Coastal and Oceanic Awareness Studies, Nos. 211, 212, 213. [Project COAST].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Coll. of Education.

    Included are three units related to coastal and oceanic awareness. These are: (1) The "RA" Expeditions: The Archaeological and Anthropological Background; (2) The "RA" Expeditions: The Coriolis Effect; and (3) The "RA" Expeditions: The Papyrus Reed. Each of the three units are designed for students in grades 6-12.…

  18. Communicating polar sciences to school children through a scientific expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacarra, Maite; Lamarque, Gaelle; Koenig, Zoé; Bourgain, Pascaline; Mathilde Thierry, Anne

    2015-04-01

    APECS-France, the French national committee of the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS), was created in 2013 to improve the dissemination of polar sciences towards the general public and school children in particular, through activities developed in French for French schools. During the autumn of 2014, a young polar oceanographer from the University Pierre and Marie Curie, Zoé Koenig, participated in an expedition on board a sailing vessel in the Southern Ocean. APECS-France set up a new education and outreach project called "Zoé en Expé". Using different media, about 800 children, aged 6 to 12, and from 40 schools, were actively involved in the project. Interactions between Zoé and the students occurred before, during, and after the expedition, through a newsletter, a blog updated in real-time during the expedition, webinars (interactive video-conferences), and visits in classrooms when possible. Teachers were given a list of websites dedicated to polar and oceanographic science outreach and activities adapted to the age and level of the students were offered. Different activities were developed around the expedition, depending on teachers' objectives and children affinities. In particular, students were able to relate to the expedition by imagining a day in the life of Chippy, the mascot of the expedition. They were then asked to draw and/or write Chippy's adventures. APECS-France is now planning to edit a children's book using students' drawings as well as photographs taken during the expedition. Older students were also able to follow in real-time sensors released in the Southern Ocean by Zoé, measuring salinity and temperature. Throughout this 3-month project, children were able to study a wide range of topics (oceanography, biology, history, geography…). The expedition and the educational project allowed raising the awareness of children about the fragile and badly known Antarctic environment.

  19. Indian National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01 report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.; Riedel, M.; Boswell, R.; Presley, J.; Kumar, P.; Sathe, A.; Sethi, A.; Lall, M.; ,

    2015-01-01

    The Indian National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01 was designed to study the gas-hydrate occurrences off the Indian Peninsula and along the Andaman convergent margin with special emphasis on understanding the geologic and geochemical controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate in these two diverse settings. During Indian National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01, dedicated gas-hydrate coring, drilling, and downhole logging operations were conducted from 28 April 2006 to 19 August 2006.

  20. Expedition 16 Flight Engineer Tani Performs EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Astronaut Daniel Tani (top center), Expedition 16 flight engineer, participates in the second of five scheduled sessions of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction continues on the International Space Station (ISS). During the 6-hour and 33-minute space walk, Tani and STS-120 mission specialist Scott Parazynski (out of frame), worked in tandem to disconnect cables from the P6 truss, allowing it to be removed from the Z1 truss. Tani also visually inspected the station's starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) and gathered samples of 'shavings' he found under the joint's multilayer insulation covers. The space walkers also outfitted the Harmony module, mated the power and data grapple fixture and reconfigured connectors on the starboard 1 (S1) truss that will allow the radiator on S1 to be deployed from the ground later. The moon is visible at lower center. The STS-120 mission launched from Kennedy Space Center's launch pad 39A at 11:38:19 a.m. (EDT) on October 23, 2007.

  1. Sodium dichromate expedited response action assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) recommended that the US Department of Energy (DOE) perform an expedited response action (ERA) for the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill. The ERA lead regulatory agency is Ecology and EPA is the support agency. The ERA was categorized as non-time-critical, which required preparation of an engineering evaluation and cost analysis (EE/CA). The EE/CA was included in the ERA proposal. The EE/CA is a rapid, focused evaluation of available technologies using specific screening factors to assess feasibility, appropriateness, and cost. The ERA goal is to reduce the potential for any contaminant migration from the landfill to the soil column, groundwater, and Columbia River. Since the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill is the only waste site within the operable unit, the removal action may be the final remediation of the 100-IU-4 Operable Unit. This ERA process started in March 1992. The ERA proposal went through a parallel review process with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), DOE Richland Operations (RL), EPA, Ecology, and a 30-day public comment period. Ecology and EPA issued an Action Agreement Memorandum in March 1993 (Appendix A). The memorandum directed excavation of all anomalies and disposal of the collected materials at the Hanford Site Central Landfill. Primary field activities were completed by the end of April 1993. Final waste disposal of a minor quantity of hazardous waste was completed in July 1993.

  2. The PICARD Mission: an investigation based on measurements dedicated to solar and climate modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuillier, Gerard; Schmutz, Werner; Dewitte, Steven

    PICARD mission is dedicated to the study of the solar activity origin using several key solar measurements. The project also includes development of the solar convective zone and climate models to evaluate the consequences for the Earth'climate of the solar activity. The measure-ments are the total and spectral solar irradiance, solar diameter, limb shape, solar asphericity, and helioseismic waves, which are key inputs for solar physics modeling. The measurements will be carried out by two absolute radiometers, sunphotometers, and a metrological imag-ing telescope onboard a microsatellite built by the French Space Agency CNES, with launch scheduled for March 2010. The radiometers are similar to the ones flown on board SOHO. The imaging telescope contains an angular reference allowing a permanent control of the instrument geometric scale, which is referred to angular stars distances. Optical distortion and flatfield of the imaging telescope are foreseen to be regularly measured. The measurements in space will have correlative measurements from ground using an identical imaging telescope, associated to the measurement of the local turbulence and aerosols localization and concentration. The op-portunity of diameter measurements by solar eclipse method will be used and finally the Solar Disk Sextant instrument will be regularly flown as an external measurement validation. An after launch activities is scheduled for three months, which consists in several instrument checks and recording of some scientific data. Given the launch date, these preliminary measurements will be shown. Images in UV, CaII line and solar photospheric continuum will be presented with some analysis of their contains. Furthermore, preliminary information concerning the radiometric and spectrometric measurements will be given.

  3. Relationship of psychological and physiological parameters during an Arctic ski expedition.

    PubMed

    Bishop, S L; Grobler, L C; Schjoll, O

    2001-01-01

    Considerable data (primarily physiological) have been collected during expeditions in extreme environments over the last century. Physiological measurements have only recently been examined in association with the emotional or behavioral state of the subject. Establishing this psychophysiological relationship is essential to understanding fully the adaptation of humans to the stresses of extreme environments. This pilot study investigated the simultaneous collection of physiological, psychological and behavioral data from a two-man Greenland expedition in order to model how specific relationships between physiological and psychological adaptation to a polar environment may be identified. The data collected describes changes in adrenal and other hormonal activity and psychological functioning. Levels of cortisol and testosterone were calculated. Factors influencing the plasma profiles of the aforementioned included 24-hour sunlight, high calorific intake of more than 28 000 kJ/day and extreme physical exercise. There was a difference between individual psychological profiles as well as self-report stress and physiological stress.

  4. Relationship of psychological and physiological parameters during an arctic ski expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Sheryl L.; Grobler, Lukas C.; SchjØll, Olaf

    2001-08-01

    Considerable data (primarily physiological) have been collected during expeditions in extreme environments over the last century. Physiological measurements have only recently been examined in association with the emotional or behavioral state of the subject. Establishing this psychophysiological relationship is essential to understanding fully the adaptation of humans to the stresses of extreme environments. This pilot study investigated the simultaneous collection of physiological, psychological and behavioral data from a two-man Greenland expedition in order to model how specific relationships between physiological and psychological adaptation to a polar environment may be identified. The data collected describes changes in adrenal and other hormonal activity and psychological functioning. Levels of cortisol and testosterone were calculated. Factors influencing the plasma profiles of the aforementioned included 24-hour sunlight, high calorific intake of more than 28 000 kJ/day and extreme physical exercise. There was a difference between individual psychological profiles as well as self-report stress and physiological stress.

  5. Haughton-Mars Project Expedition 2005: Interplanetary Supply Chain Management & Logistics Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deWeck, Olivier; Simchi-Levi, David

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 expedition to the Haughton-Mars Project (HMP) research station on Devon Island was part of a NASA-funded project on Space Logistics. A team of nine researchers from MIT went to the Canadian Arctic to participate in the annual HMP field campaign from July 8 to August 12, 2005. We investigated the applicability of the HMP research station as an analogue for planetary macro- and micro-logistics to the Moon and Mars, and began collecting data for modeling purposes. We also tested new technologies and procedures to enhance the ability of humans and robots to jointly explore remote environments. The expedition had four main objectives. We briefly summarize our key findings in each of these areas.

  6. Radiation measured for ISS-Expedition 12 with different dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, D.; Semones, E.; Gaza, R.; Johnson, S.; Zapp, N.; Weyland, M.

    2007-10-01

    Radiation in low Earth orbit (LEO) is mainly from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR), solar energetic particles and particles in South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). These particles' radiation impact to astronauts depends strongly on the particles' linear energy transfer (LET) and is dominated by high LET radiation. It is important to investigate the LET spectrum for the radiation field and the influence of radiation on astronauts. At present, the best active dosimeters used for all LET are the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and silicon detectors; the best passive dosimeters are thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) or optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) for low LET and CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) for high LET. TEPC, CR-39 PNTDs, TLDs and OSLDs were used to investigate the radiation for space mission Expedition 12 (ISS-11S) in LEO. LET spectra and radiation quantities (fluence, absorbed dose, dose equivalent and quality factor) were measured for the mission with these different dosimeters. This paper introduces the operation principles for these dosimeters, describes the method to combine the results measured by CR-39 PNTDs and TLDs/OSLDs, presents the experimental LET spectra and the radiation quantities.

  7. Correlation of borehole and seismic data in the Gulf of Alaska through synthetic seismograms: Preliminary results from IODP Expedition 341

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slagle, A. L.; Worthington, L. L.; Drab, L.; Gulick, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    During IODP Expedition 341, a transect of sites was drilled in the Gulf of Alaska across the shelf and slope, continuing as far as the distal Surveyor Fan, in order to investigate the sedimentary record from a period of changing climate during the Pliocene-Pleistocene that led to the glaciation of the southern Alaskan margin. A major objective of this expedition was to drill through a series of seismically-resolved sedimentary sequences and use the resulting record to study provenance, paleoclimate and glacimarine indicators, and ultimately to link the record to the tectonic and climatic history of the region. Wireline logging data are important for making borehole to seismic correlations, by providing a time-depth relationship for each logged site and geophysical characterization of the drilled sequences. Four sites were logged during the expedition, measuring natural gamma ray, bulk density, magnetic susceptibility, electrical resistivity, and sonic velocity. These data provide information on physical properties of the drilled sediments at an intermediate resolution, between the centimeter scale of core data and the meter to kilometer scale of seismic data. Velocity data are critical for correlating features measured in the depth domain (e.g., cores and logs) to features measured in the time domain (e.g., seismic reflections). Using P-wave velocity and bulk density data to construct a synthetic seismogram, a time-depth relationship can be determined for each site. Data from cores are limited by core recovery and can fail to capture properties at the seismic scale, while data from logging are limited to the logged interval (typically below ~100 mbsf) and can require post-cruise processing to recover the best quality logs. Composite velocity and density records can be constructed using both core and log data, and reflection coefficients can then be calculated and convolved with a seafloor wavelet to generate a site-specific synthetic seismogram. The synthetic

  8. A Preliminary Exploration of the Influence of Short-Term Adventure-Based Expeditions on Levels of Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Alan; Yoshino, Aiko

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of participation in a three-week adventure-based expedition on levels and types of resiliency. Defined as an individual constellation of characteristics and capacities that mitigate the impact of biological, psychological and social factors that threaten an individual's health (Kaplan, 1999;…

  9. 76 FR 54789 - Artists' Canvas From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... COMMISSION Artists' Canvas From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order Investigation on Artists' Canvas From China AGENCY: United States International Trade... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on artists' canvas from China would be likely...

  10. Investigation of mineral aerosols radiative effects over High Mountain Asia in 1990-2009 using a regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Zhenming; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Qianggong; Cong, Zhiyuan; Chen, Pengfei; Sillanpää, Mika

    2016-09-01

    Mineral aerosols scatter and absorb incident solar radiation in the atmosphere, and play an important role in the regional climate of High Mountain Asia (the domain includes the Himalayas, Tibetan Plateau, Pamir, Hindu-kush, Karakorum and Tienshan Mountains). Dust deposition on snow/ice can also change the surface albedo, resulting in perturbations in the surface radiation balance. However, most studies that have made quantitative assessments of the climatic effect of mineral aerosols over the High Mountain Asia region did not consider the impact of dust on snow/ice at the surface. In this study, a regional climate model coupled with an aerosol-snow/ice feedback module was used to investigate the emission, distribution, and deposition of dust and the climatic effects of aerosols over High Mountain Asia. Two sets of simulations driven by a reanalysis boundary condition were performed, i.e., with and without dust-climate feedback. Results indicated that the model captured the spatial and temporal features of the climatology and aerosol optical depth (AOD). High dust emission fluxes were simulated in the interior of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and the Yarlung Tsangpo Valley in March-April-May (MAM), with a decreasing trend during 1990-2009. Dry deposition was controlled by the topography, and its spatial and seasonal features agreed well with the dust emission fluxes. The maximum wet deposition occurred in the western (southern and central) TP in MAM (JJA). A positive surface radiative forcing was induced by dust, including aerosol-snow/ice feedback, resulting in 2-m temperature increases of 0.1-0.5 °C over the western TP and Kunlun Mountains in MAM. Mineral dust also caused a decrease of 5-25 mm in the snow water equivalent (SWE) over the western TP, Himalayas, and Pamir Mountains in DJF and MAM. The long-term regional mean radiative forcing via dust deposition on snow showed an rising trend during 1990-2009, which suggested the contribution of aerosols surface

  11. Radiation and dynamics in Titan's atmosphere: Investigations of Titan's present and past climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lora, Juan Manuel

    This dissertation explores the coupling between radiative and three-dimensional dynamical processes in the atmosphere of Titan, and their impact on the seasonal climate and recent paleoclimate. First, a simple calculation is used to demonstrate the atmospheric attenuation on the distribution of insolation. The maximum diurnal-mean surface insolation does not reach the polar regions in summertime, and this impacts both surface temperatures and their destabilizing effect on the atmosphere. Second, a detailed two-stream, fully non-gray radiative transfer model, written specifically for Titan but with high flexibility, is used to calculate radiative fluxes and the associated heating rates. This model reproduces Titan's temperature structure from the surface through the stratopause, over nearly six decades of pressure. Additionally, a physics parameterizations package is developed for Titan, in part based on similar methods from Earth atmospheric models, for use in a Titan general circulation model (GCM). Simulations with this model, including Titan's methane cycle, reproduce two important observational constraints---Titan's temperature profile and atmospheric superrotation---that have proven difficult to satisfy simultaneously for previous models. Simulations with the observed distribution of seas are used to examine the resulting distribution of cloud activity, atmospheric humidity, and temperatures, and show that these are consistent with dry mid- and low-latitudes, while the observed polar temperatures are reproduced as a consequence of evaporative cooling. Analysis of the surface energy budget shows that turbulent fluxes react to the surface insolation, confirming the importance of its distribution. Finally, the GCM is used to simulate Titan's climate during snapshots over the past 42 kyr that capture the amplitude range of variations in eccentricity and longitude of perihelion. The results show that the atmosphere is largely insensitive to orbital forcing, and

  12. Rescuing biogeographic legacy data: The "Thor" Expedition, a historical oceanographic expedition to the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Mavraki, Dimitra; Fanini, Lucia; Tsompanou, Marilena; Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Nikolopoulou, Stamatina; Chatzinikolaou, Eva; Plaitis, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background This article describes the digitization of a series of historical datasets based οn the reports of the 1908–1910 Danish Oceanographical Expeditions to the Mediterranean and adjacent seas. All station and sampling metadata as well as biodiversity data regarding calcareous rhodophytes, pelagic polychaetes, and fish (families Engraulidae and Clupeidae) obtained during these expeditions were digitized within the activities of the LifeWatchGreece Research Ιnfrastructure project and presented in the present paper. The aim was to safeguard public data availability by using an open access infrastructure, and to prevent potential loss of valuable historical data on the Mediterranean marine biodiversity. New information The datasets digitized here cover 2,043 samples taken at 567 stations during a time period from 1904 to 1930 in the Mediterranean and adjacent seas. The samples resulted in 1,588 occurrence records of pelagic polychaetes, fish (Clupeiformes) and calcareous algae (Rhodophyta). In addition, basic environmental data (e.g. sea surface temperature, salinity) as well as meterological conditions are included for most sampling events. In addition to the description of the digitized datasets, a detailed description of the problems encountered during the digitization of this historical dataset and a discussion on the value of such data are provided. PMID:28174510

  13. Investigating yellow dung fly body size evolution in the field: Response to climate change?

    PubMed

    Blanckenhorn, Wolf U

    2015-08-01

    Uncovering genetic responses to selection in wild populations typically requires tracking individuals over generations and use of animal models. Our group monitored the body size of one Swiss Yellow Dung Fly (Scathophaga stercoraria; Diptera: Scathophagidae) field population over 15 years, including intermittent common-garden rearing in the laboratory to assess body size with minimized environmental and maximized genetic variation. Contrary to expectations based on repeated heritability and phenotypic selection assessments over the years (reported elsewhere), field body sizes declined by >10% and common-garden laboratory sizes by >5% from 1993 to 2009. Our results confirm the temperature-size rule (smaller when warmer) and, albeit entirely correlational, could be mediated by climate change, as over this period mean temperature at the site increased by 0.5°C, although alternative systematic environmental changes cannot be entirely excluded. Monitoring genetic responses to selection in wild invertebrate populations is thus possible, though indirect, and wild populations may evolve in directions not consistent with strongly positive directional selection favoring large body size.

  14. A Linked Science Investigation: Enhancing Climate Change Data Discovery with Semantic Technologies.

    PubMed

    Pouchard, Line C; Branstetter, Marcia L; Cook, Robert B; Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Green, Jim; Palanisamy, Giri; Alexander, Paul; Noy, Natalya F

    2013-09-01

    Linked Science is the practice of inter-connecting scientific assets by publishing, sharing and linking scientific data and processes in end-to-end loosely coupled workflows that allow the sharing and re-use of scientific data. Much of this data does not live in the cloud or on the Web, but rather in multi-institutional data centers that provide tools and add value through quality assurance, validation, curation, dissemination, and analysis of the data. In this paper, we make the case for the use of scientific scenarios in Linked Science. We propose a scenario in river-channel transport that requires biogeochemical experimental data and global climate-simulation model data from many sources. We focus on the use of ontologies-formal machine-readable descriptions of the domain-to facilitate search and discovery of this data. Mercury, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is a tool for distributed metadata harvesting, search and retrieval. Mercury currently provides uniform access to more than 100,000 metadata records; 30,000 scientists use it each month. We augmented search in Mercury with ontologies, such as the ontologies in the Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) collection by prototyping a component that provides access to the ontology terms from Mercury. We evaluate the coverage of SWEET for the ORNL Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC).

  15. Microbial extremophiles from the 2008 Schirmacher Oasis Expedition: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Pikuta, Elena V.; Townsend, Alisa; Anthony, Joshua; Guisler, Melissa; McDaniel, Jasmine; Bej, Asim; Storrie-Lombardi, Michael

    2008-08-01

    Among the most interesting targets for Astrobiology research are the polar ice caps and the permafrost of Mars and the ice and liquid water bodies that may lie beneath the frozen crusts of comets, the icy moons of Jupiter (Europa, Io and Ganymede) and Saturn (Titan and Enceladus). The permanently ice-covered lakes of Antarctica, such as Lake Vostok and Lake Untersee, provide some of the best terrestrial analogues for these targets. The 2008 International Tawani Schirmacher Oasis/Lake Untersee Expeditions have been organized to conduct studies of novel microbial extremophiles and investigate the biodiversity of the glaciers and ice-covered lakes of Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica. This paper describes the preliminary analysis of the anaerobic microbial extremophiles isolated from samples collected during the 2008 International Schirmacher Oasis Antarctica Reconnaissance Expedition. These samples showed great diversity of psychrophlic and psychrotolerant bacteria. Six new anaerobic strains have been isolated in pure cultures and partially characterized. Two of them (strains ARHSd-7G and ARHSd-9G) were isolated from a small tidal pool near the colony of African Penguins Spheniscus demersus. Strain ARHSd-7G was isolated on mineral anaerobic medium with 3 % NaCl, pH 7 and D-glucose, it has motile, vibrion shape cells, and is Gram variable. Strain ARHSd-9G grew on anaerobic, alkaline medium with pH 9 and 1 % NaCl at 3°C. The substrate was D-glucose supplemented with yeast extract (0.05 %). Cells of strain ARHSd-9G had morphology of straight or slightly curved elongated rods and demonstrated unusual optical effects under dark-field visible light microscopy. The cells were spore-forming and Gram positive. From the mat sample collected near Lake Zub, the new strain LZ-3 was isolated in pure culture at 3°C. Strain LZ-3 was anaerobic and grew on 0.5 % NaCl mineral medium with Dglucose as a substrate. The gram positive cells were spore-forming. They exhibited a

  16. Expedition Earthscope: A Television Film and DVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prose, D.; Lamacchia, D.

    2005-12-01

    Independent filmmakers are producing a public television documentary that explores the goals and aspirations of the Earthscope project in the context of what is known and not known about the geology of North America. The unfolding story captures the excitement of the early stages of an historic expedition undertaken by a diverse group of scientists, students, and volunteers, employing the most advanced earth exploration techniques to answer persistent geologic questions about the North American continent. The film documents the efforts of Earthscope scientists as participants in one of the largest coordinated geologic experiments ever, one that promises to deepen our knowledge of the processes, including seismic and volcanic, that have formed the continent and its spectacular landforms. Interspersed with scenes of scientists beginning new Earthscope experiments is archival footage of past experiments, as well as dramatic scenes of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landscapes, and cultural activities filmed throughout the US. The film's liberal use of 3D animations helps explain the geologic story and the techniques employed by Earthscope scientists. The purpose of the documentary is to introduce Earthscope and basic earth science concepts to a nationwide audience via PBS broadcasts and distribution to schools, libraries, science centers, and museums. For Earthscope staff, scientists, and educators, the film will be a tool to help educate the public about Earthscope and recruit a diverse mix of young people to take part in the effort. To enhance the usefulness of the film, a companion DVD is also being produced that will include printable ancillary educational resources for use in classrooms and materials that explain the Earthscope project in detail. Pre-release clips from the film will be shown and distribution plans discussed.

  17. The 2012 Total Eclipse Expeditions in Queensland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Babcock, B. A.; Lu, M.; Dantowitz, R.; Lucas, R.; Seiradakis, J. H.; Voulgaris, A.; Gaintatzis, P.; Steele, A.; Sterling, A. C.; Rusin, V.; Saniga, M.

    2013-07-01

    A total eclipse swept across Queensland and other sites in northeastern Australia on the early morning of 14 November 2012, local time. We mounted equipment to observe coronal images and spectra during the approximately 2 minutes of totality, the former for comparison with spacecraft images and to fill in the doughnut of imaging not well covered with space coronagraphs. Matching weather statistics, viewing was spotty, and our best observations were from a last-minute inland site on the Tablelands, with some observations from a helicopter at 9000 feet altitude over our original viewing site at Miallo. Only glimpses of the corona were visible at our Port Douglas and Trinity Beach, Cairns, locations, with totality obscured from our sites at Newell and Miallo, though some holes in the clouds provided coronal views from Palm Cove and elsewhere along the coast. Preliminary analysis of the spectra again shows Fe XIV stronger than Fe X, as in 2010 but not earlier, a sign of solar maximum, as was the coronal shape. An intriguing CME is discernible in the SE. Acknowledgments: We thank Terry Cuttle, Aram Friedman, Michael Kentrianakis, and Nicholas Weber for assistance and collaboration in Australia and Wendy Carlos for image processing. Our expedition was supported in part by NSF grant AGS-1047726 from Solar Terrestrial Research of the Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division, and by the Rob Spring Fund and Science Center funds at Williams College. ML was also supported in part by a Grant-In-Aid of Research from the National Academy of Sciences, administered by Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society (Grant ID: G20120315159311). VR and MS acknowledge support from projects VEGA 2/0003/13 and NGS-3139-12 of the National Geographic Society. We are grateful to K. Shiota (Japan) for kindly providing us with some of his 2012 eclipse coronal images.

  18. Investigations of BVOC-SOA-cloud-climate feedbacks via interactive biogenic emissions using NorESM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alterskjær, Kari; Egill Kristjansson, Jon; Grini, Alf; Iversen, Trond; Kirkevåg, Alf; Olivié, Dirk; Schulz, Michael; Seland, Øyvind

    2016-04-01

    Climate feedbacks represent a large source of uncertainty in future climate projections. One such feedback involves a change in emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) under global warming and a subsequent change in cloud radiative effects. Parts of the atmospheric BVOCs will oxidize in the atmosphere, which may reduce their volatility enough to form secondary organic aerosols (SOA). A changed SOA load will affect cloud radiative properties through aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) and therefore act to reduce or enhance the temperature change resulting from greenhouse gases alone. In order to study this effect, a development version of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM) has been extended to include explicit atmospheric particle nucleation and a treatment of SOA based on work by Risto Makkonen and collaborators. Biogenic sources of monoterpene and isoprene are interactively calculated by the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), version 2.1, incorporated into the Community Land Model, version 4.5. Monoterpene and isoprene are oxidized by O3, OH and NO3 to form SOA with a yield of 15 % and 5 % respectively. It is assumed that 50 % of the product from monoterpene ozonolysis is of low enough volatility to nucleate new particles. The remaining oxidized BVOCs condensate onto preexisting particles. The model improvements include three new tracers to account for both SOA and the BVOCs. This allows for transport of both SOA and precursor gases, making it possible for SOA to form above the surface layer of the model. The new SOA treatment also changes the size distribution of most model aerosols due to condensation. Preliminary results from 6-year simulations with prescribed sea surface temperatures show that the present day emissions of both isoprene (435.9 Tg/yr) and monoterpenes (121.4 Tg/yr) are within the range found in other studies. The resulting SOA production is on the order of 77 Tg/yr, also within the range found by

  19. Investigation of the snow-monsoon relationship in a warming atmosphere using Hadley Centre climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, S. K.; Dash, S. K.; Bhaskaran, B.; Pattnayak, K. C.

    2016-12-01

    Several studies based on observed data and models show that there is an inverse relationship between the strength of the Indian summer monsoon and the extent/depth of Eurasian snow in the preceding season. Perturbed Physics Ensemble (PPE) simulations of Hadley Centre Coupled Model version 3 (HadCM3) have been used in this study to re-examine the snow-monsoon relationship in the longer time scale. The PPE monthly precipitation values during June, July, August and September (JJAS) have been compared with the corresponding values of Climatic Research Unit (CRU) of the University of East Anglia (UEA), UK for the period 1961-1990. The PPEs which simulated the Indian summer monsoon reasonably well have been used for examining snow-monsoon relationship. Atmospheric fields such as wind, geopotential height, velocity potential and stream function from the PPE simulations have been examined in detail. Results show that because of the west Eurasian snow depth anomalies, the mid-latitude circulation undergoes significant changes, which in turn lead to weak/strong monsoon circulation during deficient/excess Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) respectively. The first Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF1) of winter snow depth for the period 1961-1990 over the whole of Eurasia explains 13% variability. Thus the significant correlation patterns are consistent with the most dominant EOF of snow depth, in which the first mode describes a dipole type structure as observed. The study confirms that snow depth in the western part of Eurasia (20°E-65°E and 45°N-65°N) has negative correlation with the ISMR.

  20. Correlation Between Soil Moisture and Dust Emissions: An Investigation for Global Climate Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrickson, Carley; Tan, Qian

    2017-01-01

    This work is using the newly available NASA SMAP soil moisture measurement data to evaluate its impact on the atmospheric dust emissions. Dust is an important component of atmospheric aerosols, which affects both climate and air quality. In this work, we focused on semi-desert regions, where dust emissions show seasonal variations due to soil moisture changes, i.e. in Sahel of Africa. We first identified three Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites in the Sahel (IER_Cinzana, Banizoumbou, and Zinder_Airport). We then utilized measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD), fine mode fraction, size distribution, and single-scattering albedo and its wave-length dependence to select dust plumes from the available measurements We matched the latitude and longitude of the AERONET station to the corresponding SMAP data cell in the years 2015 and 2016, and calculated their correlation coefficient. Additionally, we looked at the correlation coefficient with a three-day and a five-day shift to check the impact of soil moisture on dust plumes with some time delay. Due to the arid nature of Banizoumbou and Zinder_Airport, no correlation was found to exist between local soil moisture and dust aerosol load. While IER_Cinzana had soil moisture levels above the satellite threshold of 0.02cm3/cm3, R-value approaching zero indicated no presence of a correlation. On the other hand, Ilorin demonstrated a significant negative correlation between aerosol optical depth and soil moisture. When isolating the analysis to Ilorin's dry season, a negative correlation of -0.593 was the largest dust-isolated R-value recorded, suggesting that soil moisture is driven the dust emission in this semi-desert region during transitional season.

  1. Making Antarctic Atmospheric Electricity Data Available to Living with a Star and Climate Change Investigators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bering, Edgar

    2004-01-01

    This proposal requests support for making the nearly three decades of Antarctic atmospheric electricity data available to more workers. Measurements of the vertical electric field and air-earth current density made at the Earth's surface in Antarctica have recently been shown to be of considerable interest to scientists interested in monitoring short-term Sun-Earth connections and long term climate change. Such measurements have been made off and on for more than three decades, primarily at Vostok and South Pole stations. There is no single place where all of these data can be obtained via the Internet in a contemporary format. The work proposed here will attempt to remedy this deficiency as much as possible. Data we know to be presently available include data from South Pole, 1982-86 and 1991-1993, and Vostok station, 1997-present. Data were taken at South Pole and Vostok in the 60's and O'S, but these may prove difficult to obtain in digital form. At present, only the University of Houston's 1991-1993 data are available on the Web. Unfortunately, they are stored on a server slated for retirement. Also, they are written VAX binary floating point, using the UCLA/Stanford/Michigan flatfile format (FLATDBMS), which is obscure to some users. We propose to combine and reformat the three available data sets plus any others we can obtain onto a newer server. We will use a more common and comprehensible format. Archival copies will be burned onto CD and/or DVD-ROM media. Finally we will register these data with the appropriate NASA data systems.

  2. Investigation of the climatic extremes influence on the humane adaptive capacity by mass spectrometric analysis of exhaled breath condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabokon, Anna; Larina, Irina; Kononikhin, Alexey; Starodubtceva, Nataliia; Popov, Igor; Nikolaev, Eugene; Varfolomeev, Sergey

    Global climate change, which causes abnormal fluctuations in temperature and rainfall, has adverse effects on human health. Particularly people suffer with cardiovascular and respiratory system disease. Our research was concentrated on the changes in the regulation and adaptation systems of human organism related to hyperthermia and polluted air influence. Healthy individuals with the age from 22 to 45 years were isolated during 30 days in the ground based experimental facility located at Institute of medico-biological problems RAS (Moscow, Russia). In the ground based facility artificially climatic conditions of August, 2010 in Moscow were created. Exhaled breath condensate was collected before and after isolation by R-Tube collector, freeze dried, treated by trypsin and analyzed by nanoflow LC-MS/MS with a 7-Tesla LTQ-FT Ultra mass spectrometer (Thermo Electron, Bremen, Germany). Database search was performed using Mascot Server 2.2 software (Matrix Science, London, UK). Investigation of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collected from participants of the 30 days isolation with hyper thermic and polluted air climate conditions was performed. After isolation reduction of the protein number was observed. Loss endothelial C receptor precursor - the main physiological anticoagulant - correlate with the clinical data of physicians to increase the propensity to thrombosis. Also COP9 signalosome protein, positive regulator of ubiquitin was identified in all EBC samples before isolation and was not detected for more than a half of donors after isolation. This phenomena may be due to violation of ubiquitin protection system of the cells from harmful proteins. During isolation the air was cleared from microdisperse particles.

  3. Investigating the impact of Lake Agassiz drainage routes on the 8.2 ka cold event with climate modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.-X.; Renssen, H.; Wiersma, A. P.; Törnqvist, T. E.

    2009-03-01

    The 8.2 ka event is the most prominent abrupt climate change in the Holocene and is widely believed to result from catastrophic drainage of proglacial lakes Agassiz and Ojibway (LAO) that routed through the Hudson Bay and the Labrador Sea into the North Atlantic Ocean, and perturbed Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC). One key assumption of this triggering mechanism is that the LAO freshwater drainage was spread over the Labrador Sea. Recent data, however, show no evidence of lowered δ18O values from the open Labrador Sea around 8.2 ka. Instead, negative δ18O anomalies are found close to the east coast of North America, extending as far south as Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, suggesting that the freshwater drainage was probably confined to a long stretch of continental shelf before fully mixing with North Atlantic Ocean water. Here we conduct a sensitivity study that examines the effects of this southerly drainage route on the 8.2 ka event with the ECBilt-CLIO-VECODE model. Hosing experiments of four different routing scenarios, where freshwater was introduced to the Labrador Sea in the northerly route (R1) and to three different locations (Grand Banks - R2, George Bank - R3, and Cape Hatteras - R4) on the southerly route, were performed with 0.45 m sea-level equivalent (SLE), 0.90 m SLE, and 1.35 m SLE of freshwater introduced over 5 years to investigate the routing effects on model responses. The modelling results show that a southerly drainage route is plausible but generally yields reduced climatic consequences in comparison to those of a northerly route. This finding implies that more freshwater would be required for a southerly route than for a northerly route to produce the same climate anomaly.

  4. Investigating the impact of Lake Agassiz drainage routes on the 8.2 ka cold event with a climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.-X.; Renssen, H.; Wiersma, A. P.; Törnqvist, T. E.

    2009-08-01

    The 8.2 ka event is the most prominent abrupt climate change in the Holocene and is often believed to result from catastrophic drainage of proglacial lakes Agassiz and Ojibway (LAO) that routed through the Hudson Bay and the Labrador Sea into the North Atlantic Ocean, and perturbed Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC). One key assumption of this triggering mechanism is that the LAO freshwater drainage was dispersed over the Labrador Sea. Recent data, however, show no evidence of lowered δ18O values, indicative of low salinity, from the open Labrador Sea around 8.2 ka. Instead, negative δ18O anomalies are found close to the east coast of North America, extending as far south as Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, suggesting that the freshwater drainage may have been confined to a long stretch of continental shelf before fully mixing with North Atlantic Ocean water. Here we conduct a sensitivity study that examines the effects of a southerly drainage route on the 8.2 ka event with the ECBilt-CLIO-VECODE model. Hosing experiments of four routing scenarios, where freshwater was introduced to the Labrador Sea in the northerly route and to three different locations along the southerly route, were performed to investigate the routing effects on model responses. The modeling results show that a southerly drainage route is possible but generally yields reduced climatic consequences in comparison to those of a northerly route. This finding implies that more freshwater would be required for a southerly route than for a northerly route to produce the same climate anomaly. The implicated large amount of LAO drainage for a southerly routing scenario is in line with a recent geophysical modelling study of gravitational effects on sea-level change associated with the 8.2 ka event, which suggests that the volume of drainage might be larger than previously estimated.

  5. Students on Ice Arctic Youth Expedition 2008: outcomes, student perspectives and expected impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bales, E. H.; Codog, A.; Green, D.; Green, G.; Galbraith, E.; Conklin, M. H.

    2008-12-01

    How do we give a voice to youth to express their views on the importance of remote ecosystems and their response to global climate change? STUDENTS ON ICE is an International Polar Year-endorsed program bringing students from around the world together to learn about the world's polar regions. Students are budding environmental leaders and scientists in training. Besides traveling to incredibly beautiful areas and seeing polar animals in their natural habitat, students attend lectures, learn through hands-on activities and peer-teaching seminars. The expedition is chronicled by diary entries by the participants (see below). One premise of Students on Ice's Arctic program is that when youths are shown how Inuit adapted to the harsh living conditions and students are exposed to ways they could reduce their ecological footprint, they would become ambassadors of change. In this poster we present, from a student perspective, what was learned on a 2-week expedition to Baffin Island in August, 2008 and our follow-up activities. We have contacted our fellow students to see if the expedition has resulted in them reducing their carbon footprint. We have divided the responses into three categories: changing our lifestyle, becoming an ambassador for sustainability and considering a career in Earth or polar sciences. Preliminary responses are that it is difficult to change our lifestyles by ourselves but we think more carefully before we consume and most of us will probably not become polar scientists. Our overwhelming sentiment is that this is an awesome program and should be continued, and that we are trying to become ambassadors for the polar regions and sustainable lifestyles.

  6. Freshmen Impressions: How Investigating the Campus Climate for LGBT Students Affected Four Freshmen Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Nancy J.; Herriott, Todd K.

    2004-01-01

    The participation of four first-year students as investigators in an ethnographic study of the environment for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender students influenced their perceptions, self-awareness, and behavior, supporting and extending theories of sexual identity development, attitude change, and social justice ally development. We offer…

  7. The Effect of Lake Erie on Climate, Student Guide and Teacher Guide. OEAGLS Investigation 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meinke, James D.; Kennedy, Beth A.

    This guidebook for teachers is accompanied by a student workbook. The investigations are intended to offer students an opportunity to study the effects of air temperature on air density and movement, the circulation of air and how it changes the amount of precipitation in the area around the Great Lakes, and the implications of the "lake…

  8. Investigation of passive cooling for hot-humid climates. Progress report No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Akridge, J M

    1980-04-29

    Work on getting the Brookhaven National Laboratories computer program for modeling ground coil performance operational is described. Arrangements made to sink two 40 ft vertical wells for soil temperature measurements are described. Methods for evaluating the effect of pipe diameter, length, spacing, and material were investigated. Calculation results are shown. (MHR)

  9. Investigation of PM2.5 mass concentration over India using a regional climate model.

    PubMed

    Bran, Sherin Hassan; Srivastava, Rohit

    2017-02-22

    Seasonal variation of PM2.5 (Particulate Matter <2.5 μm) mass concentration simulated from WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting coupled with Chemistry) over Indian sub-continent are studied. The simulated PM2.5 are also compared with the observations during winter, pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons of 2008. Higher value of simulated PM2.5 is observed during winter followed by post-monsoon, while lower values are found during monsoon. Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB) exhibits high amount of PM2.5 (60- 200 μg m(-3)) throughout the year. The percentage differences between model simulated and observed PM2.5 are found higher (40- 60%) during winter, while lower (< 30%) during pre-monsoon and monsoon over most of the study locations. The weighted correlation coefficient between model simulated and observed PM2.5 is 0.81 at the significance of 98%. Associated RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) is 0.91 μg m(-3). Large variability in vertically distributed PM2.5 are also found during pre-monsoon and monsoon. The study reveals that, model is able to capture the variabilities in spatial, seasonal and vertical distributions of PM2.5 over Indian region, however significant bias is observed in the model. PM2.5 mass concentrations are highest over West Bengal (82± 33 μg m(-3)) and the lowest in Jammu & Kashmir (14± 11 μg m(-3)). Annual mean of simulated PM2.5 mass over the Indian region is found to be 35± 9 μg m(-3). Higher values of PM2.5 are found over the states, where the reported respiratory disorders are high. WRF-Chem simulated PM2.5 mass concentration gives a clear perspective of seasonal and spatial distribution of fine aerosols over the Indian region. The outcomes of the study have significant impacts on environment, human health and climate.

  10. The recovery of ancient DNA from Dasypus bellus provides new possibilities for investigating late Pleistocene mammal response to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letts, Brandon; Shapiro, Beth

    2010-05-01

    Dasypus bellus, the 'beautiful armadillo,' is well known as a casualty of the Pleistocene megafaunal mass extinction event. Appearing in the fossil record about 2.5 Mya, D. bellus was widespread throughout the mid to southern United States and Mexico until it went extinct by about 10 kya. It was replaced by D. novemcinctus, the nine-banded armadillo, which is morphologically identical but smaller. The exact taxonomic status of D. bellus and its phylogenetic relationship with D. novemcinctus has been a subject of debate. In particular, it remains unresolved whether D. bellus was more closely related to North American than South American D. novemcinctus. To address this, we extracted and sequenced fragments of ancient mitochondrial DNA from surprisingly well-preserved remains of D. bellus recovered from Mefford Cave in Florida. Our results reveal a surprisingly close relationship between the extinct D. bellus and North American D. novemcinctus. Although southern climates have been considered inhospitable for the preservation of ancient DNA, thousands of bones per individual and the propensity of the armadillo to seek out shelter in caves makes preservation more likely than for other organisms. The armadillo may therefore make an excellent proxy organism for investigating the influence of climate change on animal populations south of the cold permafrost regions.

  11. Expedition 5 Commander Korzun before STS-111 launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Wearing a cap with the New York Fire Department logo, Expedition 5 Commander Valeri Korzun suits up for the second launch attempt aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-111 to the International Space Station. This is Korzun's first Shuttle flight. Expedition 5 will replace Expedition 4 on board the Station. Expedition 4 crew members will return to Earth with the STS-111 crew on Endeavour. This mission marks the 14th Shuttle flight to the International Space Station and the third Shuttle mission this year. Mission STS-111 is the 18th flight of Endeavour and the 110th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle program. On mission STS-111, astronauts will deliver the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, the Mobile Base System (MBS), and the Expedition Five crew to the Space Station. During the seven days Endeavour will be docked to the Station, three spacewalks will be performed dedicated to installing MBS and the replacement wrist-roll joint on the Station's Canadarm2 robotic arm. Liftoff is scheduled for 5:22 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  12. Validation and applications of an expedited tablet friability method.

    PubMed

    Osei-Yeboah, Frederick; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2015-04-30

    The harmonized monograph on tablet friability test in United States Pharmacopeia (USP), European Pharmacopeia (Pharm. Eur.), and Japanese Pharmacopeia (JP) is designed to assess adequacy of mechanical strength of a batch of tablets. Currently, its potential applications in formulation development have been limited due to the batch requirement that is both labor and material intensive. To this end, we have developed an expedited tablet friability test method, using the existing USP test apparatus. The validity of the expedited friability method is established by showing that the friability data from the expedited method is not statistically different from those from the standard pharmacopeia method using materials of very different mechanical properties, i.e., microcrystalline cellulose and dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate. Using the expedited friability method, we have shown that the relationship between tablet friability and tablet mechanical strength follows a power law expression. Furthermore, potential applications of this expedited friability test in facilitating systematic and efficient tablet formulation and tooling design are demonstrated with examples.

  13. Investigating the Greenland ice sheet evolution under changing climate using a three-dimensional full-Stokes model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seddik, H.; Greve, R.; Zwinger, T.; Gillet-Chaulet, F.; Gagliardini, O.

    2010-12-01

    available data, the geothermal heat flux at the bedrock is prescribed as spatially constant and the lateral sides are open boundaries. A non-linear Weertman law is used for the basal sliding. The project goal is to better assess the effects of dynamical changes of the Greenland ice sheet on sea level rise under global-warming conditions. Hence, the simulations have been conducted in order to investigate the ice sheet evolution using the climate forcing experiments defined in the SeaRISE project. For that purpose, four different experiments have been conducted, (i) constant climate control run beginning at present (epoch 2004-1-1 0:0:0) and running up to 500 years holding the climate constant to its present state, (ii) constant climate forcing with increased basal lubrication, (iii) AR4 climate run forced by anomalies derived from results given in the IPCC 4th Assessment Report (AR4) for the A1B emission scenario, (iv) AR4 climate run with increased basal lubrication.

  14. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox during TCDT suit fit check

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox adjusts his launch and entry suit during fit check, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. He and the rest of the crew are preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10. The TCDT includes emergency egress training and a launch countdown. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  15. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox during TCDT suit fit check

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox adjusts his gloves during fit check of his launch and entry suit, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. He and the rest of the crew are preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10. The TCDT includes emergency egress training and a launch countdown. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  16. Arctic coring expedition: how to beat the system and win

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, J. W.; Moran, K.; Backman, J.

    2007-12-01

    The genesis of the Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX) was, appropriately enough, centered on the bold and seminal scientific goal of recovering the first Cenozoic geological record from the Arctic Ocean. The expedition, however, would not have occurred, let alone succeeded, without concomitant efforts to create a new programmatic framework (the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program), to determine, and convince others of the feasibility of the novel, 3-ship program, to plan and budget the logistical and operational aspects, to identify key entities and personnel, to secure financial backing on the order of 13 million dollars, and to manage the expedition in real time. To embolden others, the authors will share their trials and tribulations as well as choice personal anecdotes.

  17. ARctic expedition to study ice loads on vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    Several questions surrounding the design of icebreakers are expected to be answered this year during the second arctic expedition of the German-flag research vessel Polarstern. The ice technology expedition to the Canadian Arctic is expected to get underway late in May. The expedition will be similar to one conducted last May. During the research voyage, the classification agency will study: loads on the hull for different ice conditions, stresses in the nozzle from ice loads, stresses in the superstructure taking account of material temperatures, behavior of the propulsion plant under stationary and unstationary conditions in ice, icebreaking capabilities and maneuverability in ice, frictional resistance at the outer shell from ice, influence of air bubble jets on the frictional resistance, and geophysical properties of ice.

  18. STS-108 and Expedition 4 crews during media interview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- The STS-108 crew and Expedition 4 crew answer questions from the media during an interview session. With the microphone is Commander Dominic L. Gorie. From left are STS-108 Pilot Mark E. Kelly, Mission Specialists Daniel M. Tani and Linda A. Godwin, and Gorie; Expedition 4 Commander Yuri Onufrienko, Carl E. Walz and Daniel W. Bursch. The crews are at KSC for Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities that include emergency exit training from the orbiter and launch pad and a simulated launch countdown. STS-108 is a Utilization Flight that will carry the replacement Expedition 4 crew to the International Space Station, as well as the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, filled with supplies and equipment. The l1-day mission is scheduled for launch Nov. 29 on Space Shuttle Endeavour.

  19. Lessons from Previous Expeditions for the Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuster, J.

    Anecdotal comparisons frequently are made between expeditions of the past and future space missions. From an engineering perspective, the differences between future and past expeditions are considerable. Spacecraft are far more complex than sailing ships, and one of the factors that drives the complexity is the requirement to support the crew in the hostile environment of space. The technological differences are significant, but from a behavioral perspective, are the differences really that great between confinement in a small wooden ship locked in the polar ice cap and confinement in a small high-technology ship hurtling through interplanetary space? The psychological differences probably are few. This paper discusses some of the most salient behavioral and technical lessons from previous expeditions that can be applied to facilitate the human explora- tion of Mars.

  20. Utilizing the NASA Data-enhanced Investigations for Climate Change Education Resource for Elementary Pre-service Teachers in a Technology Integration Education Course.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, E. M.; Moore, T.; Hale, S. R.; Hayden, L. B.; Johnson, D.

    2014-12-01

    The preservice teachers enrolled in the EDUC 203 Introduction to Computer Instructional Technology course, primarily for elementary-level had created climate change educational lessons based upon their use of the NASA Data-enhanced Investigations for Climate Change Education (DICCE). NASA climate education datasets and tools were introduced to faculty of Minority Serving Institutions through a grant from the NASA Innovations in Climate Education program. These lessons were developed to study various ocean processes involving phytoplankton's chlorophyll production over time for specific geographic areas using the Giovanni NASA software tool. The pre-service teachers had designed the climate change content that will assist K-4 learners to identify and predict phytoplankton sources attributed to sea surface temperatures, nutrient levels, sunlight, and atmospheric carbon dioxide associated with annual chlorophyll production. From the EDUC 203 course content, the preservice teachers applied the three phases of the technology integration planning (TIP) model in developing their lessons. The Zunal website (http://www.zunal.com) served as a hypermedia tool for online instructional delivery in presenting the climate change content, the NASA climate datasets, and the visualization tools used for the production of elementary learning units. A rubric was developed to assess students' development of their webquests to meet the overall learning objectives and specific climate education objectives. Accompanying each webquest is a rubric with a defined table of criteria, for a teacher to assess students completing each of the required tasks for each lesson. Two primary challenges of technology integration for elementary pre-service teachers were 1) motivating pre-service teachers to be interested in climate education and 2) aligning elementary learning objectives with the Next Generation science standards of climate education that are non-existent in the Common Core State

  1. Access to the Sea: A Roadmap for Expedition Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeSilva, A. M.; Girguis, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    The planning process for expeditionary oceanography often spans many years and involves multiple steps, starting from the initial proposal, to logistics planning, cruise execution, post-cruise and scientific reporting. Each year the University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS) Fleet supports a broad spectrum of research operations and their associated logistics support requirements. Operations can vary from single Principle Investigator (PI) cruises to multi-investigators field programs with multi-disciplinary research objectives in locations all over the world. Over the past decade, the process for access to the sea has evolved and continues to be refined through the critical feedback of scientists, marine technicians, and ship operators. Under UNOLS guidance, key guidelines have been identified for all phases of cruise planning; from pre-award to post-expedition to help ensure that the research objectives of programs can be met and that optimal use of our Nation's oceanographic facilities is maintained. An expeditionary roadmap has been created that captures the major milestones essential to executing a research cruise. The roadmap has been introduced during early career scientist workshops and also during the Chief Scientist Training Cruise programs of recent years. It is a useful planning tool not only for early career scientists and new ship users, but also for experienced sea-going scientists. The roadmap will soon be available as a resource tool on the new UNOLS website. This poster will feature the roadmap for expeditionary planning and offer key information about requirements and tips for a successful, safe, research cruise experience. In addition, existing and new requirements associated with custom clearances, export licensing requirements and additional planning considerations also needed when the research requires special facilities such as aircraft or deep submergence vehicles will be discussed.

  2. Perspectives on expedited partner therapy for chlamydia: a survey of health care providers.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, E A; Marx, J; Terry, M A; Stall, R; Flatt, J; Borrero, S; Miller, E

    2016-11-01

    There is a lack of research on health care providers' use of and perspectives on expedited partner therapy in a state where expedited partner therapy is not prohibited or explicitly allowed. The aim of our study was to understand if and how health care providers use expedited partner therapy, if specific demographic factors and knowledge contribute to increased use of expedited partner therapy, and to describe barriers and facilitators to the use of expedited partner therapy in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. A convenience sample of 112 health care providers from diverse disciplines who treat young women at risk for chlamydia completed an online survey. About 11% of health care providers used expedited partner therapy consistently. Those who self-reported that they were knowledgeable about expedited partner therapy were more likely to use expedited partner therapy (73% vs. 49%, p = .009) as were those who said no or were unsure about their institution's guidelines for expedited partner therapy (35% vs. 22%, p = 0.01) (62% vs. 57%, p = 0.01). The most commonly reported facilitator of expedited partner therapy was having clear legal guidelines (86%). This study finds that in a setting where expedited partner therapy is not expressly permitted, health care providers still use the practice but also experience barriers that limit uptake. Legislation expressly endorsing expedited partner therapy in the state and in medical institutions is needed to increase expedited partner therapy use.

  3. Expedition 4 crew practice emergency exit on PAD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- The Expedition 4 crew practice emergency exit from Space Shuttle Endeavour on the 195-foot level of the Fixed Service Structure. Leading the way is astronaut Carl E. Walz, followed by Commander Yuri Onufrienko and astronaut Daniel W. Bursch. Expedition 4, which is the replacement resident crew for the International Space Station, is traveling to the Space Station as part of mission STS-108. The training is part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities that also include a simulated launch countdown.. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-108 is scheduled for Nov. 29 at 7:44 p.m. EST.

  4. Venus Express and Venus Climate Orbiter: An Opportunity for mutual occultations to investigate the Venus Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, S.

    2003-04-01

    The Venus Express orbiter mission planned for launch in 2005 and the Japanese Planet C Orbiter Mission to Venus planned for launch in 2008 together provide an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the thermal structure of the atmosphere of Venus using the radio occultation technique. As currently planned, the Venus Ex-press will go into a polar orbit (˜18-24 hour period) and Planet C into a near equato-rial orbit (172^o inclination, ˜30 hour period). These orbits will provide many mu-tual occultations between the two satellites, and periodically, occultations with re-spect to the earth. The advantage of the mutual occultations is that the locations and the time-of-day for the occultation zone is not aliased by the celestial Venus-Earth geometry that results in a very biased sampling of latitudes and local times. A simi-lar approach is being considered for investigation of the Martian atmosphere through Mars Scout opportunity (Kursinski et al., 2003). Unfortunately, due to lack of coor-dination and foresight, the opportunity to use the Mars Global Surveyor and the Mars Odyssey orbiters for mutual occultations has been lost. The realization of this invaluable opportunity requires that the communication in-struments on the two orbiters be mutually compatible and capable of receiving and measuring the Doppler shift of the signal between the two orbiters. Further, it is likely that Venus Express will have completed its nominal mission by the time Planet C arrives at Venus, hence the transmitter on Venus Express will need to be left turned so that the atmospheric signature of the Doppler shift in its signal as received on Planet C orbiter can be analyzed to determine the thermal structure, with perhaps 100 m vertical resolution. Such a high vertical resolution has been demon-strated through mutual occultations between the GPS constellation and METSAT on earth (Kursinski et al., 1997). With the looming prospect of a third orbiter around Venus through NASA's Discovery

  5. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrén, T.; Barker Jørgensen, B.; Cotterill, C.; Green, S.; IODP expedition 347 scientific party, the

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 347 cored sediments from different settings of the Baltic Sea covering the last glacial-interglacial cycle. The main aim was to study the geological development of the Baltic Sea in relation to the extreme climate variability of the region with changing ice cover and major shifts in temperature, salinity, and biological communities. Using the Greatship Manisha as a European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) mission-specific platform, we recovered 1.6 km of core from nine sites of which four were additionally cored for microbiology. The sites covered the gateway to the North Sea and Atlantic Ocean, several sub-basins in the southern Baltic Sea, a deep basin in the central Baltic Sea, and a river estuary in the north. The waxing and waning of the Scandinavian ice sheet has profoundly affected the Baltic Sea sediments. During the Weichselian, progressing glaciers reshaped the submarine landscape and displaced sedimentary deposits from earlier Quaternary time. As the glaciers retreated they left a complex pattern of till, sand, and lacustrine clay, which in the basins has since been covered by a thick deposit of Holocene, organic-rich clay. Due to the stratified water column of the brackish Baltic Sea and the recurrent and widespread anoxia, the deeper basins harbor laminated sediments that provide a unique opportunity for high-resolution chronological studies. The Baltic Sea is a eutrophic intra-continental sea that is strongly impacted by terrestrial runoff and nutrient fluxes. The Holocene deposits are recorded today to be up to 50 m deep and geochemically affected by diagenetic alterations driven by organic matter degradation. Many of the cored sequences were highly supersaturated with respect to methane, which caused strong degassing upon core recovery. The depth distributions of conservative sea water ions still reflected the transition at the end of the last glaciation from fresh-water clays to

  6. Investigating Atmospheric Effects on Impact Ejecta Morphology: Possible Tool for Determining Past Climate Conditions on Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, John F.; Barnouin-Jha, Oliver S.; Cheng, Andrew F.

    1999-01-01

    The combined use of impact crater morphology and mechanics provides important information on the physical conditions of both planetary atmospheres and planetary and asteroid surfaces present during crater formation, while an understanding of the rate of crater production on the surface of asteroids provides information of their surface and spin rate evolution. The research performed with support from this project improves our understanding of (1) the mechanics of impact cratering in order to gain insights on the evolution of these physical surface conditions on planets with atmospheres and asteroids, and (2) how impact flux across an asteroid surface may vary due to anisotropic distribution of impactors in the solar system. As part of this project, we have undertaken three studies. In the first study, we investigate atmospheric effects on the morphology of ejecta excavated during a cratering event in order to determine the atmospheric and target conditions from observed crater morphologies. In the second study, we use the physical and morphological consequences of oblique impacts on an asteroid to understand how the asteroid Mathilde (recently imaged by the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous - NEAR- spacecraft) could have survived the formation of five giant craters. In a third study, we use a Monte Carlo method to calculate the impact flux on an asteroid given a distribution of impactors on elliptical orbits. In the following section, we present the result obtained from all three studies.

  7. Water quality and quantity investigation of green roofs in a dry climate.

    PubMed

    Beecham, S; Razzaghmanesh, M

    2015-03-01

    Low-energy pollutant removal strategies are now being sought for water sensitive urban design. This paper describes investigations into the water quality and quantity of sixteen, low-maintenance and unfertilized intensive and extensive green roof beds. The factors of Slope (1° and 25°), Depth (100 mm and 300 mm), Growing media (type A, type B and type C) and Species (P1, P2 and P3) were randomized according to a split-split plot design. This consisted of twelve vegetated green roof beds and four non-vegetated beds as controls. Stormwater runoff was collected from drainage points that were installed in each area. Samples of run-off were collected for five rainfall events and analysed for water retention capacity and the water quality parameters of NO₂, NO₃, NH₄, PO₄, pH, EC, TDS, Turbidity, Na, Ca, Mg and K. The results indicated significant differences in terms of stormwater water quality and quantity between the outflows of vegetated and non-vegetated systems. The water retention was between 51% and 96% and this range was attributed to the green roof configurations in the experiment. Comparing the quality of rainfall as inflow, and the quality of runoff from the systems showed that green roofs generally acted as a source of pollutants in this study. In the vegetated beds, the intensive green roofs performed better than the extensive beds with regard to outflow quality while in the non-vegetated beds, the extensive beds performed better than intensive systems. This highlights the importance of vegetation in improving water retention capacity as well as the role of vegetation in enhancing pollutant removal in green roof systems. In addition growing media with less organic matter had better water quality performance. Comparison of these results with national and international standards for water reuse confirmed that the green roof outflow was suitable for non-potable uses such as landscape irrigation and toilet flushing.

  8. Investigation of peak load reduction strategies in residential buildings in cooling dominated climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atallah, Fady

    This investigation of peak load reduction strategies in residential buildings contributes to the global international efforts in reducing energy consumption and is related directly to energy efficiency in residential and commercial buildings. Work reported here involves computer aided building energy simulation of energy efficient and non-energy efficient residential homes coupled with empirical energy consumption data gathered from monitoring an array of energy efficient residential homes. The latter have been implemented for peak load reduction strategies. In addition non-energy efficient residential homes have been monitored to compare performance to the energy efficient homes. This study demonstrates the crucial importance of energy efficiency and peak load reduction strategies in sustaining the energy needs of the southwest US region using Las Vegas for the actual setting. It provides the largest energy consumption data set examined, specifically peak consumption, from energy efficient and non-energy efficient homes at this location. The study demonstrates the peak load reduction benefits of a variety of strategies, namely roof-integrated PV panels, energy efficient building envelope, and substation battery storage. The study focuses on the month of August 2011 and shows how the load reduction can reach 75% at peak times during that month using the computer aided energy simulation. Moreover, the study compares the recorded electrical consumption data from the collection of energy efficient and non-energy efficient residential homes and proves the simulation results in reaching the 75% reduction in electrical consumption at peak times. The study also tries to marry the gathered electrical consumption data of the energy efficient and non-energy efficient homes with the computer simulation model. This is done to reach an actual representative model which behaves similarly to the average of the group of energy and non-energy efficient homes. The benefit of the

  9. Investigation of the impact of climate change on river water temperature: possible mitigation measures using riparian vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihs, Philipp; Trimmel, Heidelinde; Formayer, Herbert; Kalny, Gerda; Rauch, Hans Peter; Leidinger, David

    2016-04-01

    Water stream temperature is a relevant factor for water quality since it is an important driver of water oxygen content and in turn also reduces or increases stress on the aquatic fauna. The water temperature of streams is determined by the source and inflow water temperature, by the energy balance at the stream surface and by the hydrological regime of the stream. Main factors driving the energy balance of streams are radiation balance and air temperature which influence the sensitive and latent heat flux. The present study investigates the influence of climate change on water temperature of streams and the potential of riparian vegetation to mitigate its effects. Within the scope of the project BIO_CLIC routine measurements of water temperature at 33 locations alongside the rivers Pinka and Lafnitz were performed from spring 2012 until autumn 2014. In addition meteorological measurements of global shortwave and longwave radiation, air temperature, wind and air humidity were carried out during this time. For the same time period, data of discharge and water levels of both rivers were provided by the public hydrological office. This time period also includes the heat episode of summer 2013 during which the highest air temperature ever recorded in Austria was reported on 8 August at 40.5°C. In the lower reaches of the river Pinka, at the station Burg the monthly mean water temperature of August 2013 was with more than 22°C, 1°C higher than the mean water temperature of the same period of the previous years. At the same station, the maximum water temperature of 27.1°C was recorded on 29 July, 9 days prior to the air temperature record. Analysis shows that at the downstream stations the main driving parameter is solar radiation whereas at the upstream stations a better correlation between air temperature and water temperature is obtained. The influence of riparian vegetation on water temperature, leading to lower water temperature by shading, is also detectable

  10. Investigating Downscaling Methods and Evaluating Climate Models for Use in Estimating Regional Water Resources in Mountainous Regions under Changing Climatic Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frei, Allan; Nolin, Anne W.; Serreze, Mark C.; Armstrong, Richard L.; McGinnis, David L.; Robinson, David A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this three-year study is to develop and evaluate techniques to estimate the range of potential hydrological impacts of climate change in mountainous areas. Three main objectives are set out in the proposal. (1) To develop and evaluate transfer functions to link tropospheric circulation to regional snowfall. (2) To evaluate a suite of General Circulation Models (GCMs) for use in estimating synoptic scale circulation and the resultant regional snowfall. And (3) to estimate the range of potential hydrological impacts of changing climate in the two case study areas: the Upper Colorado River basin, and the Catskill Mountains of southeastern New York State. Both regions provide water to large populations.

  11. The 800-meter Long Road to Jaramillo and Other Paleomagnetic Observations from IODP Expedition 341(Southern Alaska Margin) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoner, J. S.; Ge, S.; St-Onge, G.; Jaeger, J. M.; Gulick, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Although little prior data exists, the Gulf of Alaska is a location where paleomagnetic observables are likely to be sensitive to important geomagnetic concepts such as high-latitude flux lobes and the Pacific dipole window. With a glaciated, tectonically active margin that ensures an almost continuous supply of fine-grained lithogenic material deposited at exceptionally high rates, quality paleomagnetic records that can provide much-needed stratigraphic and paleo-geomagnetic information are likely to exist. Three Sites (U1417, U1418, U1419) drilled during the recently completed IODP Expedition 341(Southern Alaska Margin Tectonics, Climate and Sedimentation) provide for the first time the quality of material required to explore such paleomagnetic concepts. Shipboard measurements of natural remanent magnetization from half core sections constrained by, and enriched from, the determination of physical, chemical, biological and lithostratigraphic properties highlight the paleomagnetic potential of this Expedition. Here we present paleomagnetic records of polarity transitions, normalized remanence and secular variation highlighting: 1) the high paleomagnetic fidelity of the recovered material, 2) the importance of paleomagnetism to the Expedition's objectives, and 3) the paleo-geomagnetic insights that these sediments will provide.

  12. Connecting process to high resolution paleorecords: long term investigations of linked Arctic climate-hydrology-lacustrine sedimentary processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamoureux, S. F.; Normandeau, A.

    2015-12-01

    High resolution lacustrine sedimentary sequences hold substantial potential for paleoenvironmental analyses, particularly in regions where few alternatives are available. Increased attention to quantifying processes that generate sedimentary facies has yielded increasingly detailed environmental interpretations but these efforts have been limited by available field data. The Cape Bounty Arctic Watershed Observatory (CBAWO) was initiated in 2003 to develop a long term site to evaluate the controls over sediment transport and the formation of clastic sedimentary records. This program in the Canadian Arctic has supported 13 years of research in paired watersheds and lakes, both of which contain clastic varves. Results from 2003-14 demonstrate how multiple climatic factors delivery sediment in a complex manner. This comparatively simple hydroclimatic system is dominated by runoff and sediment transport from spring snowmelt, with clear associations between catchment snow water equivalence (or total runoff) and sediment yield, with discharge limited by snow exhaustion as the season progresses. Major rainfall can constitute a dominant contribution to seasonal sediment yield, but antecedent conditions can significantly reduce runoff markedly. Hence, these results indicate two primary competing hydroclimatic factors that control catchment sediment yield, both with independent climatic and hydrological factors. Additionally, the impact of landscape disturbance on downstream sediment yield has been evaluated following a major episode of permafrost thaw in 2007. Results show that localized slope disturbances resulted in enhanced erosion but downstream fluvial storage reduced the magnitude of transport. Sediment from disturbances will be gradually released and may generate decadal-scale sediment delivery changes in the downstream record. Collectively, this research indicates multiple controls over the formation of clastic varves. Advances in high resolution sedimentary

  13. Onset, evolution and effects of the Mediterranean Outflow: Preliminary Results of IODP Expedition 339 in the Gulf of Cadiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Molina, J.; Stow, D.; Alvarez-Zarikian, C.

    2012-04-01

    IODP Expedition 339 drilled 5 sites in the Gulf of Cadiz and 2 off the west Iberian margin (November 2011 to January 2012), and recovered 5.5 km of core with an average recovery of 86.4%. The Gulf of Cadiz was targeted for drilling as a key location for the investigation of Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) through the Gibraltar Gateway and its influence on global circulation and climate. It is also a prime area for understanding the effects of tectonic activity on evolution of the Gibraltar Gateway and on margin sedimentation. We penetrated into the Miocene at two different sites and established a strong signal of MOW in the sedimentary record of the Gulf of Cadiz following opening of the Gibraltar Gateway. Preliminary results show contourite deposition from 4.2-4.5 Ma, although subsequent research will establish whether this dates from the first onset of MOW. The Pliocene succession, penetrated at four sites, shows low bottom current activity linked with a weak MOW. Significant widespread unconformities, present in all sites but with hiatuses of variable duration, are interpreted as a signal of intensified MOW, coupled with flow confinement. The Quaternary succession shows a much more pronounced phase of contourite drift development, with two periods of MOW intensification separated by a widespread unconformity. Following this, the final phase of drift evolution established the CDS architecture we see today. There is a significant climate control on this evolution of MOW and bottom-current activity. However, from the closure of the Atlantic-Mediterranean gateways in Spain and Morocco just over 6 Ma and the opening of the Gibraltar Gateway at 5.3 Ma, there has been an even stronger tectonic control on margin development, downslope sediment transport and contourite drift evolution. Based on the timing of events recorded in the sedimentary record, we propose a tectonic pulsing in the region, linked with asthenosphere activity. The Gulf of Cadiz is the world

  14. EDITORIAL: Siberia Integrated Regional Study: multidisciplinary investigations of the dynamic relationship between the Siberian environment and global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordov, E. P.; Vaganov, E. A.

    2010-03-01

    This is an editorial overview of the Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS), which is a large-scale investigation of ongoing and future environmental change in Siberia and its relationship to global processes, approaches, existing challenges and future direction. Introduction The SIRS is a mega-project within the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), which coordinates interdisciplinary, national and international activities in Northern Eurasia that follow the Earth System Science Program (ESSP) approach. Under the direction of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP), SIRS is one of the Integrated Regional Studies (IRS) that aims to investigate environmental change in Siberia under the current environment of global change, and the potential impact on Earth system dynamics [1]. The regions of interest are those that may function as 'choke or switch points' for the global Earth system, where changes in regional biophysical, biogeochemical and anthropogenic components may have significant consequences for the Earth system at the global scale. Siberia is a large and significant region that may compel change [2]. Regional consequences of global warming (e.g. anomalous increases in cold season temperatures) have already been documented for Siberia [3]. This result is also supported by climate modeling results for the 20th-22nd centuries [4]. Future climatic change threatens Siberia with the shift of permafrost boundaries northward, dramatic changes in land cover (redistribution among boreal forest, wetlands, tundra, and steppe zones often precipitated by fire regime change) and the entire hydrological regime of the territory [5-8]. These processes feed back to and influence climate dynamics through the exchange of energy, water, greenhouse gases and aerosols [9]. Even though there have been a handful of national and international projects focused on the Siberian environment, scientists have minimal knowledge about the processes

  15. Using Remotely Sensed Data for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation: A Collaborative Effort Between the Climate Change Adaptation Science Investigators Workgroup (CASI), NASA Johnson Space Center, and Jacobs Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagge, Amy

    2016-01-01

    With ever changing landscapes and environmental conditions due to human induced climate change, adaptability is imperative for the long-term success of facilities and Federal agency missions. To mitigate the effects of climate change, indicators such as above-ground biomass change must be identified to establish a comprehensive monitoring effort. Researching the varying effects of climate change on ecosystems can provide a scientific framework that will help produce informative, strategic and tactical policies for environmental adaptation. As a proactive approach to climate change mitigation, NASA tasked the Climate Change Adaptation Science Investigators Workgroup (CASI) to provide climate change expertise and data to Center facility managers and planners in order to ensure sustainability based on predictive models and current research. Generation of historical datasets that will be used in an agency-wide effort to establish strategies for climate change mitigation and adaptation at NASA facilities is part of the CASI strategy. Using time series of historical remotely sensed data is well-established means of measuring change over time. CASI investigators have acquired multispectral and hyperspectral optical and LiDAR remotely sensed datasets from NASA Earth Observation Satellites (including the International Space Station), airborne sensors, and astronaut photography using hand held digital cameras to create a historical dataset for the Johnson Space Center, as well as the Houston and Galveston area. The raster imagery within each dataset has been georectified, and the multispectral and hyperspectral imagery has been atmospherically corrected. Using ArcGIS for Server, the CASI-Regional Remote Sensing data has been published as an image service, and can be visualized through a basic web mapping application. Future work will include a customized web mapping application created using a JavaScript Application Programming Interface (API), and inclusion of the CASI data

  16. From Greenhouse to Icehouse at the Wilkes Land Antarctic Margin: IODP Expedition 318

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escutia, C.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2014-12-01

    IODP Expedition 318 drilled an inshore to offshore transect of sites across the Antarctic Wilkes Land margin to provide a long-term record of Cenozoic Antarctic glaciation and its relationships with global climatic and oceanographic changes. The expedition recovered ~2000 m of high-quality middle Eocene-Holocene sediments from water depths between 400 and 4000 m at seven sites on the Wilkes Land rise and shelf. Sediment cores provide an insight into ~54 million years of Antarctic history starting with an ice-free subtropical east Antarctica during the late Eocene, and the first cooling during the middle Eocene, coeval with the first incursion of cold westward flowing waters across the southern Tasman Gateway. The cores also reveal the erosional consequences of the onset of the continent-wide glaciation during the Eocene-Oligocene transition, and its effect in rising sea level around the Antarctic coastlines. Starting in the earliest Oligocene (Oi-1 event), the icehouse sediments provide records of the subsequent waxing and waning of the ice sheets, sea ice, and ecosystems. These include times of past elevated temperatures and CO2 concentrations (i.e., the early Pliocene) and unprecedented seasonal to annual resolution records of the last deglaciation that began ~10,000 y ago. Wilkes Land records should be complimentary to those from Prydz Bay (ODP Legs 119 and 188) and the Ross Sea (ANDRILL, CRP), allowing for variations between different east Antarctic ice sheet sectors to be assessed, which will provide a better understanding of East Antarctica's role in the past, present, and future global climate system.

  17. Expeditions and the Social Construction of the Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beames, Simon

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores how 14 British youth were influenced by a 10-week expedition to Ghana with Raleigh International. It employs a theoretical framework based on the symbolic interactionist writing of Blumer (1969), Mead (1934), and Cooley (1962, 1964). The framework helps to understand how the meanings that participants held for different…

  18. ISS Potable Water Quality for Expeditions 26 through 30

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straub, John E., II; Plumlee, Debrah K.; Schultz, John R.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2012-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) Expeditions 26-30 spanned a 16-month period beginning in November of 2010 wherein the final 3 flights of the Space Shuttle program finished ISS construction and delivered supplies to support the post-shuttle era of station operations. Expedition crews relied on several sources of potable water during this period, including water recovered from urine distillate and humidity condensate by the U.S. water processor, water regenerated from humidity condensate by the Russian water recovery system, and Russian ground-supplied potable water. Potable water samples collected during Expeditions 26-30 were returned on Shuttle flights STS-133 (ULF5), STS-134 (ULF6), and STS-135 (ULF7), as well as Soyuz flights 24-27. The chemical quality of the ISS potable water supplies continued to be verified by the Johnson Space Center s Water and Food Analytical Laboratory (WAFAL) via analyses of returned water samples. This paper presents the chemical analysis results for water samples returned from Expeditions 26-30 and discusses their compliance with ISS potable water standards. The presence or absence of dimethylsilanediol (DMSD) is specifically addressed, since DMSD was identified as the primary cause of the temporary rise and fall in total organic carbon of the U.S. product water that occurred in the summer of 2010.

  19. ESO Ultra HD Expedition: New clarity for astronomy outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laird, R. J. M.; Christensen, L. L.

    2014-12-01

    In the spring of 2014 a team of ESO Photo Ambassadors embarked on a pioneering expedition to the European Southern Observatory's observing sites in Chile. Their mission was to capture time-lapses, stills, videos and panoramas in crisp Ultra High Definition from some of the darkest night skies on Earth.

  20. 32 CFR 1800.34 - Requests for expedited processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requests for expedited processing. 1800.34 Section 1800.34 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC ACCESS TO NACIC RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA)...

  1. 32 CFR 1800.34 - Requests for expedited processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requests for expedited processing. 1800.34 Section 1800.34 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC ACCESS TO NACIC RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA)...

  2. 32 CFR 1801.32 - Requests for expedited processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requests for expedited processing. 1801.32 Section 1801.32 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Additional Administrative Matters §...

  3. 32 CFR 1801.32 - Requests for expedited processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requests for expedited processing. 1801.32 Section 1801.32 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Additional Administrative Matters §...

  4. 32 CFR 1801.32 - Requests for expedited processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requests for expedited processing. 1801.32 Section 1801.32 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Additional Administrative Matters §...

  5. 32 CFR 1800.34 - Requests for expedited processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requests for expedited processing. 1800.34 Section 1800.34 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC ACCESS TO NACIC RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA)...

  6. 32 CFR 1801.32 - Requests for expedited processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requests for expedited processing. 1801.32 Section 1801.32 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Additional Administrative Matters §...

  7. 32 CFR 1800.34 - Requests for expedited processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requests for expedited processing. 1800.34 Section 1800.34 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC ACCESS TO NACIC RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA)...

  8. 32 CFR 1800.34 - Requests for expedited processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requests for expedited processing. 1800.34 Section 1800.34 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC ACCESS TO NACIC RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA)...

  9. 32 CFR 1801.32 - Requests for expedited processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requests for expedited processing. 1801.32 Section 1801.32 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Additional Administrative Matters §...

  10. 20 CFR 404.926 - Agreement in expedited appeals process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agreement in expedited appeals process. 404.926 Section 404.926 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determinations, Administrative Review Process, and Reopening of...

  11. 20 CFR 404.923 - Expedited appeals process-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expedited appeals process-general. 404.923 Section 404.923 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determinations, Administrative Review Process, and Reopening of...

  12. 8 CFR 235.3 - Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Claim of asylum or fear of persecution or torture. If an alien subject to the expedited removal provisions indicates an intention to apply for asylum, or expresses a fear of persecution or torture, or a fear of return to his or her country, the inspecting officer shall not proceed further with removal...

  13. 8 CFR 235.3 - Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Claim of asylum or fear of persecution or torture. If an alien subject to the expedited removal provisions indicates an intention to apply for asylum, or expresses a fear of persecution or torture, or a fear of return to his or her country, the inspecting officer shall not proceed further with removal...

  14. Expedition Medicine--Recommendations from Experience in Guatemala.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malison, Michael D.

    1980-01-01

    Eight guidelines to assist health professionals in the preparation of a team field expedition are: (1) assess the activities; (2) consider the environment; (3) know orientation and preventive measures; (4) take food and water precautions; (5) know the team members; (6) prepare the pharmacy; (7) carry out the field operation; and (8) follow up…

  15. 12 CFR 229.55 - Expedited recredit for banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expedited recredit for banks. 229.55 Section 229.55 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS AND COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Substitute Checks §...

  16. 7 CFR 1703.112 - Expedited telecommunications loans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Expedited telecommunications loans 1703.112 Section 1703.112 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Loan and Grant...

  17. 7 CFR 1703.112 - Expedited telecommunications loans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Expedited telecommunications loans 1703.112 Section 1703.112 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Loan and Grant...

  18. 7 CFR 1703.112 - Expedited telecommunications loans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Expedited telecommunications loans 1703.112 Section 1703.112 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Loan and Grant...

  19. 7 CFR 1703.112 - Expedited telecommunications loans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Expedited telecommunications loans 1703.112 Section 1703.112 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Loan and Grant...

  20. Extending the Expedition Season. Duke of Edinburgh's Award Scheme News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Richard

    2001-01-01

    The Duke of Edinburgh's Award adopted flexible and creative strategies for delivering the expeditions section since the UK countryside was severely restricted during the foot-and-mouth crisis. This includes the option of undertaking ventures during winter. Because of greater risks during winter, advice and requirements are given concerning…

  1. 8 CFR 1235.3 - Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal. 1235.3 Section 1235.3 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 1235.3 Inadmissible...

  2. 8 CFR 1235.3 - Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal. 1235.3 Section 1235.3 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 1235.3 Inadmissible...

  3. 32 CFR 1901.32 - Requests for expedited processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requests for expedited processing. 1901.32 Section 1901.32 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Additional Administrative Matters § 1901.32...

  4. 32 CFR 1900.34 - Requests for expedited processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requests for expedited processing. 1900.34 Section 1900.34 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC ACCESS TO CIA RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) Additional...

  5. 32 CFR 1901.32 - Requests for expedited processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requests for expedited processing. 1901.32 Section 1901.32 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Additional Administrative Matters § 1901.32...

  6. 32 CFR 1900.34 - Requests for expedited processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requests for expedited processing. 1900.34 Section 1900.34 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC ACCESS TO CIA RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) Additional...

  7. 42 CFR 438.410 - Expedited resolution of appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expedited resolution of appeals. 438.410 Section 438.410 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Grievance System § 438.410...

  8. Cache Note from Peary's North Greenland Expedition of 1892.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haverkamp, Beth; Schamel, Wynell

    1995-01-01

    Presents instructional materials and suggestions for using primary source documents regarding Admiral Peary's search for the North Pole. Cache notes were brief dispatches left for the press in ice hutches along with provisions and maps. Includes a photocopy of a cache note from Peary's expedition with suggested research topics and activities. (MJP)

  9. Sustainable Seas Expeditions Teacher Resource Book, Units 1 [and] 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Pam, Ed.

    This publication describes the Sustainable Seas Expeditions which is a five-year project of ocean exploration and conservation focusing on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) national marine sanctuaries. This resource book is the first in a two part series. This first teacher resource contains an introduction to the…

  10. 45 CFR 16.12 - The expedited process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GRANT APPEALS BOARD § 16.12 The expedited process. (a) Applicability. Where the amount in dispute is $25... Board member will arrange a telephone conference call to receive the parties' oral comments in response to each other's submissions. After notice to the parties, the Board will record the call. The...

  11. 46 CFR 535.605 - Requests for expedited review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requests for expedited review. 535.605 Section 535.605 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF 1984 Action on...

  12. Exploring Values and Personal and Social Development: Learning through Expeditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Peter; Von Wald, Kris

    2010-01-01

    Travel and overseas experiences, particularly those involving some form of outdoor education, are regarded by many young people, parents, university admissions and employers as somehow beneficial to a young person's development. Often, expedition experiences are happening at crucial times in life (the teen years) when metaphysical (rather than…

  13. 75 FR 63215 - International Product Change-Inbound Expedited Services 4

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... Product Change--Inbound Expedited Services 4 AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... Expedited Services 4 to the Competitive Product List pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3642. DATES: October 14, 2010... September 30, 2010, a request to add Inbound Expedited Services 4 to the Competitive Product List. The...

  14. Duke of Edinburgh Award Expeditions: "Fings Ain't Wot They Used To Be!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogilvie, Ken

    2000-01-01

    Outlines environmental, equipment, and social changes related to the Duke of Edinburgh's Award Expedition since 1956, and debates the need to restore the expedition's physical challenge or to emphasize the developmental inner journey of the mind and spirit. Considers whether the purpose of the expedition is a physical challenge or a developmental…

  15. Investigating the Sensitivity of Streamflow and Water Quality to Climate Change and Urbanization in 20 U.S. Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, T. E.; Weaver, C. P.; Butcher, J.; Parker, A.

    2011-12-01

    Watershed modeling was conducted in 20 large (15,000-60,000 km2), U.S. watersheds to address gaps in our knowledge of the sensitivity of U.S. streamflow, nutrient (N and P) and sediment loading to potential future climate change, and methodological challenges associated with integrating existing tools (e.g., climate models, watershed models) and datasets to address these questions. Climate change scenarios are based on dynamically downscaled (50x50 km2) output from four of the GCMs used in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 4th Assessment Report for the period 2041-2070 archived by the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). To explore the potential interaction of climate change and urbanization, model simulations also include urban and residential development scenarios for each of the 20 study watersheds. Urban and residential development scenarios were acquired from EPA's national-scale Integrated Climate and Land Use Scenarios (ICLUS) project. Watershed modeling was conducted using the Hydrologic Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) and Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) models. Here we present a summary of results for 5 of the study watersheds; the Minnesota River, the Susquehanna River, the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint, the Salt/Verde/San Pedro, and the Willamette River Basins. This set of results provide an overview of the response to climate change in different regions of the U.S., the different sensitivities of different streamflow and water quality endpoints, and illustrate a number of methodological issues including the sensitivities and uncertainties associated with use of different watershed models, approaches for downscaling climate change projections, and interaction between climate change and other forcing factors, specifically urbanization and changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration.

  16. Using non-systematic surveys to investigate effects of regional climate variability on Australasian gannets in the Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Mridula; Dassis, Mariela; Benn, Emily; Stockin, Karen A.; Martinez, Emmanuelle; Machovsky-Capuska, Gabriel E.

    2015-05-01

    Few studies have investigated regional and natural climate variability on seabird populations using ocean reanalysis datasets (e.g. Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA)) that integrate atmospheric information to supplement ocean observations and provide improved estimates of ocean conditions. Herein we use a non-systematic dataset on Australasian gannets (Morus serrator) from 2001 to 2009 to identify potential connections between Gannet Sightings Per Unit Effort (GSPUE) and climate and oceanographic variability in a region of known importance for breeding seabirds, the Hauraki Gulf (HG), New Zealand. While no statistically significant relationships between GSPUE and global climate indices were determined, there was a significant correlation between GSPUE and regional SST anomaly for HG. Also, there appears to be a strong link between global climate indices and regional climate in the HG. Further, based on cross-correlation function coefficients and lagged multiple regression models, we identified potential leading and lagging climate variables, and climate variables but with limited predictive capacity in forecasting future GSPUE. Despite significant inter-annual variability and marginally cooler SSTs since 2001, gannet sightings appear to be increasing. We hypothesize that at present underlying physical changes in the marine ecosystem may be insufficient to affect supply of preferred gannet main prey (pilchard Sardinops spp.), which tolerate a wide thermal range. Our study showcases the potential scientific value of lengthy non-systematic data streams and when designed properly (i.e., contain abundance, flock size, and spatial data), can yield useful information in climate impact studies on seabirds and other marine fauna. Such information can be invaluable for enhancing conservation measures for protected species in fiscally constrained research environments.

  17. Investigating the impacts of aviation NOX, SO2 and black carbon emissions on ozone, aerosol and climate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapadia, Zarashpe; Borman, Duncan; Spracklen, Dominick; Arnold, Stephen; Mann, Graham; Williams, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Aviation is currently responsible for 3% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions, but 2-14% of anthropogenic induced warming due to the co-emission of NOX, SO2 and black carbon and formation of contrails. The impact of aviation emissions on ozone and aerosol is uncertain with recent research demonstrating the need to include atmospheric nitrate chemistry. The inclusion of nitrate chemistry may lead to a 20% reduction in aviation induced ozone forcing estimates due to the competition for atmospheric oxidants such as OH . Compounding this, uncertainties relating to the effects of NOx on ozone and methane illustrate the need for refining the understanding of aviation induced impacts. Furthermore the role of aerosol microphysics in controlling the climate impacts of aviation has not yet been explored. Here we use the TOMCAT 3-D chemical transport model coupled to the GLOMAP-mode aerosol microphysics model to quantify the impacts of aviation NOX, SO2 and BC emissions on ozone, aerosol and climate. GLOMAP-mode treats size resolved aerosol using a two-moment modal approach. We evaluate the effects of nitrate processing on the diagnosed impacts of aviation emissions on atmospheric composition including the first assessment of the impact on the global concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei. We investigate interactions between gas-phase oxidant photochemistry and aerosol microphysics in regions influenced by aircraft emissions, using fully-coupled tropospheric chemistry and multi-component aerosol treatment (BC, sulphate, nitrate). Finally, we use a 3-D radiative transfer model to quantify the ozone and aerosol direct and indirect radiative effects of aviation emissions. The work presented here is part of a wider research project which will be the first study to combine aviation NOX, SO2 and black carbon emission in a global size-resolved model which considers atmospheric nitrate chemistry, which will aim to add to the science surrounding present day aviation impacts by

  18. IODP Expedition 339 in the Gulf of Cadiz and off West Iberia: decoding the environmental significance of the Mediterranean outflow water and its global influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Molina, F. J.; Stow, D.; Alvarez-Zarikian, C.

    2013-11-01

    IODP Expedition 339 drilled five sites in the Gulf of Cadiz and two off the west Iberian margin (November 2011 to January 2012), and recovered 5.5 km of sediment cores with an average recovery of 86.4%. The Gulf of Cadiz was targeted for drilling as a key location for the investigation of Mediterranean outflow water (MOW) through the Gibraltar Gateway and its influence on global circulation and climate. It is also a prime area for understanding the effects of tectonic activity on evolution of the Gibraltar Gateway and on margin sedimentation. We penetrated into the Miocene at two different sites and established a strong signal of MOW in the sedimentary record of the Gulf of Cadiz, following the opening of the Gibraltar Gateway. Preliminary results show the initiation of contourite deposition at 4.2-4.5 Ma, although subsequent research will establish whether this dates the onset of MOW. The Pliocene succession, penetrated at four sites, shows low bottom current activity linked with a weak MOW. Significant widespread unconformities, present in all sites but with hiatuses of variable duration, are interpreted as a signal of intensified MOW, coupled with flow confinement. The Quaternary succession shows a much more pronounced phase of contourite drift development, with two periods of MOW intensification separated by a widespread unconformity. Following this, the final phase of drift evolution established the contourite depositional system (CDS) architecture we see today. There is a significant climate control on this evolution of MOW and bottom-current activity. However, from the closure of the Atlantic-Mediterranean gateways in Spain and Morocco just over 6 Ma and the opening of the Gibraltar Gateway at 5.3 Ma, there has been an even stronger tectonic control on margin development, downslope sediment transport and contourite drift evolution. The Gulf of Cadiz is the world's premier contourite laboratory and thus presents an ideal testing ground for the contourite

  19. TCGA Expedition: A Data Acquisition and Management System for TCGA Data

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Uma R.; Medvedeva, Olga P.; Barmada, M. Michael; Blood, Philip D.; Chakka, Anish; Luthra, Soumya; Ferreira, Antonio; Wong, Kim F.; Lee, Adrian V.; Zhang, Zhihui; Budden, Robert; Scott, J. Ray; Berndt, Annerose; Berg, Jeremy M.; Jacobson, Rebecca S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Cancer Genome Atlas Project (TCGA) is a National Cancer Institute effort to profile at least 500 cases of 20 different tumor types using genomic platforms and to make these data, both raw and processed, available to all researchers. TCGA data are currently over 1.2 Petabyte in size and include whole genome sequence (WGS), whole exome sequence, methylation, RNA expression, proteomic, and clinical datasets. Publicly accessible TCGA data are released through public portals, but many challenges exist in navigating and using data obtained from these sites. We developed TCGA Expedition to support the research community focused on computational methods for cancer research. Data obtained, versioned, and archived using TCGA Expedition supports command line access at high-performance computing facilities as well as some functionality with third party tools. For a subset of TCGA data collected at University of Pittsburgh, we also re-associate TCGA data with de-identified data from the electronic health records. Here we describe the software as well as the architecture of our repository, methods for loading of TCGA data to multiple platforms, and security and regulatory controls that conform to federal best practices. Results TCGA Expedition software consists of a set of scripts written in Bash, Python and Java that download, extract, harmonize, version and store all TCGA data and metadata. The software generates a versioned, participant- and sample-centered, local TCGA data directory with metadata structures that directly reference the local data files as well as the original data files. The software supports flexible searches of the data via a web portal, user-centric data tracking tools, and data provenance tools. Using this software, we created a collaborative repository, the Pittsburgh Genome Resource Repository (PGRR) that enabled investigators at our institution to work with all TCGA data formats, and to interrogate these data with analysis pipelines, and

  20. Long-term changes of the benthos in the Arctic area under influence of the climatic fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Denisenko, S.G.; Denisenko, N.V.

    1996-12-31

    The Barents Sea, with the White Sea, is one of the most investigated Russian northern seas. For this reason benthos material sampled during the current century in the expeditions to the Barents Sea is important because of long-term changes in the bottom fauna in the Arctic Seas. The changes can occur under the influence of the long-term climatic fluctuations, as well as under human impact. This knowledge of the changes of the bottom fauna in the Arctic Seas can be useful in forecasting future global climatic changes. The aim of the present work was to understand how the climatic fluctuations influence the changes of the total biomass and abundance of zoobenthos. The biomass data of the 4 total benthic surveys (1924--1927; 1958--1959; 1968--1970; 1988--1993) were analyzed.

  1. Nutritional status and the gonadotrophic response to a polar expedition.

    PubMed

    Woods, David R; Delves, Simon K; Britland, Sophie E; Shaw, Anneliese; Brown, Piete E; Bentley, Conor; Hornby, Simon; Burnett, Anne; Lanham-New, Sue A; Fallowfield, Joanne L

    2015-03-01

    Polar expeditions have been associated with changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis consistent with central hypogonadism (i.e., decreased testosterone, luteinising hormone (LH), and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)). These changes are typically associated with body mass loss. Our aim was to evaluate whether maintenance of body mass during a polar expedition could mitigate against the development of central hypogonadism. Male participants (n = 22) from a 42-day expedition (British Services Antarctic Expedition 2012) volunteered to take part in the study. Body mass, body composition, and strength data were recorded pre- and postexpedition in addition to assessment of serum testosterone, LH, FSH, thyroid hormones, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and trace elements. Energy provision and energy expenditure were assessed at mid- and end-expedition. Daily energy provision was 6335 ± 149 kcal·day(-1). Estimated energy expenditure midexpedition was 5783 ± 1690 kcal·day(-1). Body mass and percentage body fat did not change between pre- and postexpedition. Total testosterone (nmol·L(-1)) (14.0 ± 4.9 vs. 17.3 ± 4.0, p = 0.006), calculated free testosterone (pmol·L(-1)) (288 ± 82 vs. 350 ± 70, p = 0.003), and sex hormone binding globulin (nmol·L(-1)) (33 ± 12 vs. 36 ± 11, p = 0.023) concentrations increased. LH and FSH remained unchanged. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH; IU·L(-1)) (2.1 ± 0.8 vs. 4.1 ± 2.1, p < 0.001) and free triiodothyronine (FT3; IU·L(-1)) (5.4 ± 0.4 vs. 6.1 ± 0.8, p < 0.001) increased while free thyroxine, IGF-1, and trace elements remained unchanged. Hand-grip strength was reduced postexpedition but static lift strength was maintained. Maintenance of body mass and nutritional status appeared to negate the central hypogonadism previously reported from polar expeditions. The elevated TSH and free FT3 were consistent with a previously reported "polar T3 syndrome".

  2. An Observation-base investigation of nudging in WRF for downscaling surface climate information to 12-km Grid Spacing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous research has demonstrated the ability to use the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model and contemporary dynamical downscaling methods to refine global climate modeling results to a horizontal resolution of 36 km. Environmental managers and urban planners have expre...

  3. Linking Topographic, Hydrologic, Climatic, and Ecologic Processes in Semi-arid Forests: an investigation of aboveground growth dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, H. R.; Loomis, A. K.; Barnard, H. R.

    2013-12-01

    Topography and climate play an integral role in the spatial variability and annual dynamics of aboveground carbon sequestration. Topographic, climatic, and hydrologic dynamics of a catchment interact to drive vegetation spatial distribution, growth patterns, and physiological processes in the catchment. Despite previous knowledge concerning gradient-theory influences on vegetation spatial distribution, little is known about the specific influence of complex terrain coupled with hydrologic and topo-climatic variation on aboveground biomass, especially in semi-arid forests of the Rocky Mountains. Climate change predictions for the semi-arid west, however, include increased temperatures, more frequent and extreme drought events, and decreases in snow pack all of which put forests at risk of altered species ranges and physiological processes, and susceptibility to disturbance events. In this study, we determine how species-specific tree growth patterns and water use efficiency respond to interannual variability in moisture availability (drought) through the use of dendrochronology techniques and carbon isotopes as a measure of water use efficiency with regard to topography and climate through data collection at 75 forest plots. Preliminary results suggest that tree growth and physiological processes respond directly to topographic and climatic parameters including aspect, elevation, and drought events (p < .05) and species vary in their response to these parameters (p < .05). Carbon isotope analyses indicate no significant difference appears in the water use efficiency of ponderosa pine between a drought year and a non-drought year while lodgepole pine water use efficiency increases significantly in a drought year. Both species, however, experience decreases in growth in drought years (p < .05) and, while aspect is a significant predictor of lodgepole pine tree growth in a wet year (p < .05), it becomes insignificant in a dry year. Varying responses from different

  4. Investigating the Impact of Climate Change on Dust Storms Over Kuwait by the Middle of the Century Simulated by WRF Dynamical Downscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsarraf, Hussain

    The aim of this study is to examine the impact of climate change on future dust storms in Kuwait. Dust storms are more frequent in summertime in the Arabian Peninsula, and can be highly influential on the climate and the environment in the region. In this study, the influence of climate change in the Middle East and especially in Kuwait was investigated by high-resolution (48, 12, and 4 km grid spacing) dynamic downscaling using the WRF (Weather Research & Forecasting) model. The WRF dynamic downscaling was forced by reanalysis using the National Centers for Environment Prediction (NCEP) model for the years 1997, 2000, and 2008. The downscaling results were first validated by comparing NCEP model outputs with the observational data. The global climate change dynamic downscaling model was run using current WRF regional climate model (RCM) simulations (2006--2010) and WRF-RCM climate simulations of the future (2056--2060). They were used to compare results between the present and the middle of the century. In general, the dominant features from (NCEP) runs were consistent with each other, as well as with WRF-RCM results. The influence of climate change in the Middle East and Kuwait can be projected from the differences between the current and model future run. The average temperature showed a positive trend in the future, as in other studies. The temperature was predicted to increase by around 0.5-2.5 °C over the next 50 years. No significant change in mean sea level pressure patterns was projected. However, amongst other things, a change in the trend of the surface wind speeds was indicated during summertime. As a result, the increase in temperature and the decline in wind speed in the future indicate a reduction in dust storm days in Kuwait by the middle of the century.

  5. a Map Mash-Up Application: Investigation the Temporal Effects of Climate Change on Salt Lake Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirtiloglu, O. S.; Orhan, O.; Ekercin, S.

    2016-06-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate climate change effects that have been occurred at the beginning of the twenty-first century at the Konya Closed Basin (KCB) located in the semi-arid central Anatolian region of Turkey and particularly in Salt Lake region where many major wetlands located in and situated in KCB and to share the analysis results online in a Web Geographical Information System (GIS) environment. 71 Landsat 5-TM, 7-ETM+ and 8-OLI images and meteorological data obtained from 10 meteorological stations have been used at the scope of this work. 56 of Landsat images have been used for extraction of Salt Lake surface area through multi-temporal Landsat imagery collected from 2000 to 2014 in Salt lake basin. 15 of Landsat images have been used to make thematic maps of Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in KCB, and 10 meteorological stations data has been used to generate the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), which was used in drought studies. For the purpose of visualizing and sharing the results, a Web GIS-like environment has been established by using Google Maps and its useful data storage and manipulating product Fusion Tables which are all Google's free of charge Web service elements. The infrastructure of web application includes HTML5, CSS3, JavaScript, Google Maps API V3 and Google Fusion Tables API technologies. These technologies make it possible to make effective "Map Mash-Ups" involving an embedded Google Map in a Web page, storing the spatial or tabular data in Fusion Tables and add this data as a map layer on embedded map. The analysing process and map mash-up application have been discussed in detail as the main sections of this paper.

  6. Modern Exploration of the Lewis and Clark Expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The Lewis and Clark Geosystem is an online collection of private, state, local, and Federal data resources associated with the geography of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Data were compiled from key partners including NASA s Stennis Space Center, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the University of Montana, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, and from a collection of Lewis and Clark scholars. It combines modern views of the landscape with historical aerial photography, cartography, and other geographical data resources and historical sources, including: The Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, the Academy of Natural Science's Lewis and Clark Herbarium, high-resolution copies of the American Philosophical Society s primary-source Lewis and Clark Journals, The Library of Congress Lewis and Clark cartography collection, as well as artifacts from the Smithsonian Institution and other sources.

  7. STS-102 (Expedition II) crew members in SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Inside the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF), a technician (right) explains use of the equipment in front of (left) STS-102 Mission Specialists James Voss, Susan Helms and Yuri Usachev, with the Russian Space Agency (RSA). STS-102 is a resupply mission to the International Space Station, transporting the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) with equipment to assist in outfitting the U.S. Lab, which will already be in place. The mission is also transporting Helms, Voss and Usachev as the second resident crew (designated Expedition crew 2) to the station. In exchange, the mission will return to Earth the first expedition crew on ISS: William Shepherd, Sergei Krikalev (RSA) and Yuri Gidzenko (RSA). STS-102 is scheduled to launch no earlier than Oct. 19, 2000.

  8. Geothermal policy development program: expediting the local geothermal permitting process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    For a number of years, concerns have been raised about the length of time and the complexity involved in obtaining required permits in order to develop the geothermal resource at the Geysers. Perhaps the most important factor is jurisdiction. At the Geysers, all three levels of government - local, state, and federal - exercise significant authority over various aspects of geothermal development. In addition, several agencies within each governmental level play an active role in the permitting process. The present study is concerned primarily with the local permitting process, and the ways in which this process could be expedited. This report begins by looking at the local role in the overall permitting process, and then reviews the findings and conclusions that have been reached in other studies of the problem. This is followed by a case study evaluation of recent permitting experience in the four Geysers-Calistoga KGRA counties, and the report concludes by outlining several approaches to expediting the local permitting process.

  9. Return to Siberia: The 2008 Kotuykan River Expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranson, Jon; Kharuk, Slava; Howl, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    In the September-October 2007 issue of'The Earth Observer [volume 19, Number 4, pp. 13-21] we presented an article entitled "Expedition to Siberia: A Firsthand Account." In that article we shared excerpts from a blog that chronicled the adventures of a team of scientists from NASA and Russia's Academy of Science as they embarked on a three-week adventure in the wilds of Siberia in hopes of collecting measurements to validate data from satellites flying 700 km overhead. The same team, plus a couple new participants, headed back to Siberia this past sumner and we are now pleased to present the continuation of their story. For more background details on the expedition to Siberia or if you missed the first part of the story, please refer to the previous article.

  10. Expedition 8 Crew Interviews: C. Michael Foale - CDR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    C. Michael Foale, Commander of the Expedition 8 crew to the International Space Station (ISS), answers interview questions in this video. The questions cover: 1) The goals of the Expedition; 2) How his Mir experience prepared him for long-duration spaceflight; 3) The reaction the Columbia accident where he was training in Star City, Russia; 4) Why the rewards of spaceflight are worth the risks; 5) Why he wanted to become an astronaut; 6) His career path; 7) His influences; 8) His path of study; 9) His responsibilities on a mission; 10) What a Soyuz capsule is like; 11) What the oncoming and offgoing ISS crews will do together; 12) How the ISS science mission will be advanced during his stay; 13) Training and plans for extravehicular activity (EVA); 14) Return to Flight of Shuttle; 15) What is needed to make his mission a success; 16) The most valuable contribution of the ISS.

  11. The Popularization of Astronomy in the Children Ecological Expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovik, Valeria N.; Kiyaeva, Olga V.; Shakht, Natalia A.

    2007-08-01

    The ecological expeditions for schoolboys (girls) from Saint-Petersburg and other cities and regions of Russia are organized as a camp each summer (since 1995) on the rocky peninsula of the lake Vuoksa not far from one of the most great north lake Ladoga. The knowledge on the spherical astronomy, geographic coordinates and navigation stars is given for children. The observations of the Sun, Mars, Jupiter and some stars are made with the small mirror telescope. On the basis of scientific articles and proceedings of the last conferences the young people receive new information about cosmos. We hope, these expeditions help to increase the sense of duty and responsibility of the young people for the safe life on our unique planet - Earth.

  12. Core Petrophysical Services for IODP Mission Specific Platform Expeditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Louise; Davies, Sarah; Fehr, Annick; Inwood, Jennifer; Lofi, Johanna; Morgan, Sally

    2010-05-01

    Petrophysical and downhole logging services for Mission Specific Platform (MSP) Expeditions (310, 313 and 325) are provided by the European Petrophysics Consortium (EPC), part of the ECORD Science Operator (ESO). EPC comprises the universities of Leicester (lead), Montpellier and Aachen and has a 25 year involvement with ODP/IODP. The core petrophysical data is used in tandem with the downhole logging data (also provided by EPC) and other geological data to help identify key boundaries and trends in individual boreholes as well as allowing correlation between boreholes and formations. There are 2 phases of core petrophysical services provided by EPC. One set of measurements is taken during the offshore phase of the Expedition using a Geotek Multi-Sensor Core Logger (MSCL) provided by Leicester. The MSCL provides high resolution whole-core logging data including gamma density, P-wave velocity, non-contact resistivity and magnetic susceptibility, as well as temperature and core diameter. A second phase of measurement collection is conducted onshore prior to and during the Onshore Science Party (OSP) which is hosted by the University of Bremen. Measurements taken on whole cores prior to the OSP include natural gamma radiation (where appropriate (Exp. 302 and 313)) and discrete thermal conductivity. Once the cores are split, colour reflectance spectrophotometry and high resolution line scanning is undertaken. In addition, measurements on discrete samples from the cores are also conducted. These discrete measurements include p-wave velocity and moisture and density. Core petrophysical measurements for MSP expeditions are contracted to meet the IODP minimum measurement requirements as well as addressing the specific scientific objectives of an expedition where possible. These measurements are essential in helping provide a means of testing hypotheses and ground-truthing remotely acquired data.

  13. ISS Expeditions 16 & 17: Chemical Analysis Results for Potable Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straub, John E., II; Plumlee, Debrah K.; Schultz, John R.

    2009-01-01

    During the twelve month span of Expeditions 16 and 17 beginning October of 2007, the chemical quality of the potable water onboard the International Space Station (ISS) was verified safe for crew consumption through the return and chemical analysis of water samples by the Water and Food Analytical Laboratory (WAFAL) at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Reclaimed cabin humidity condensate and Russian ground-supplied water were the principle sources of potable water and for the first time, European groundsupplied water was also available. Although water was transferred from Shuttle to ISS during Expeditions 16 and 17, no Shuttle potable water was consumed during this timeframe. A total of 12 potable water samples were collected using U.S. hardware during Expeditions 16 and 17 and returned on Shuttle flights 1E (STS122), 1JA (STS123), and 1J (STS124). The average sample volume was sufficient for complete chemical characterization to be performed. The results of JSC chemical analyses of these potable water samples are presented in this paper. The WAFAL also received potable water samples for analysis from the Russian side collected inflight with Russian hardware, as well as preflight samples of Rodnik potable water delivered to ISS on Russian Progress vehicles 28 to 30. Analytical results for these additional potable water samples are also reported and discussed herein. Although the potable water supplies available during Expeditions 16 and 17 were judged safe for crew consumption, a recent trending of elevated silver levels in the SVOZV water is a concern for longterm consumption and efforts are being made to lower these levels.

  14. Cruise Report, INDOPAC Expedition, Legs 9 through 16.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-23

    the R/V Thomas Washington of the Scripps Insti :ution of Oceanography continued work on INDOPAC Expedition , starting from Guam , Marianas , anU...the Sunda Transect of benthic biology carried out in the Mariana the IDOE SEATAR program. Curray and Daniel Trench by Aristides Yayanos. In addition...multi-channel reflection system streamer for proper buoyancy. January 12. En route to the 15N — Challenger Deep, Marianas Trench . Began bathymetric

  15. Columbia River Fishes of the Lewis and Clark Expedition

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, Dennis D.

    2007-06-21

    The Lewis and Clark expedition crossed the Continental Divide in 1805 on the way west to the Pacific Ocean. Based on journal entries, members of the expedition probably encountered two species of resident salmonids and four of the six species of anadromous salmonids and steelhead (Family Salmonidae, genus Oncorhynchus). The salmonid species were called common salmon (now known as Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha), red char (sockeye salmon O.nerka) white salmon trout (coho salmon [also known as silver salmon] O. kisutch), salmon trout (steelhead O. mykiss), and spotted trout (cutthroat trout O. clarkii). There was no evidence of the expedition encountering pink salmon O. gorbuscha, chum salmon O. keta, or species of true char Salvelinus spp. Common fishes procured from Indian tribes living along the lower Columbia River included eulachon Thaleichthys pacificus and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus. The identity of three additional resident freshwater species is questionable. Available descriptions suggest that what they called mullet were largescale sucker Catastomus macrocheilus, and that chubb were peamouth Mylocheilus caurinus. The third questionable fish, which they called bottlenose, was probably mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni, although there is no evidence that the species was observed in the Columbia River drainage. Missing from the species list were more than 20 other fishes known to Sahaptin-speaking people from the mid-Columbia region. More complete documentation of the icthyofauna of the Pacific Northwest region did not occur until the latter half of the 19th century. However, journals from the Lewis and Clark expedition provide the first documentation of Columbia River fishes.

  16. [The concept of microbiological safety of a piloted Martian expedition].

    PubMed

    Novikova, N D

    2003-01-01

    It is the peculiar evolution of the microbial association aboard long-operating space vehicles that lends additional medical, technical and technological risks that may impact crew safety and orbital systems performance. Based on the experience of the Russian space stations, a concept of microbiological safety of a piloted expedition to Mars has been proposed comprising preventive measures, methods, means and technologies to control the microbiological environment in transport vehicles, lander and Martian habitation module.

  17. IODP Expedition 335: Deep Sampling in ODP Hole 1256D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teagle, D. A. H.; Ildefonse, B.; Blum, P.; IODP Expedition 335 Scientists, the

    2012-04-01

    Observations of the gabbroic layers of untectonized ocean crust are essential to test theoretical models of the accretion of new crust at mid-ocean ridges. Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 335 ("Superfast Spreading Rate Crust 4") returned to Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 1256D with the intention of deepening this reference penetration of intact ocean crust a significant distance (~350 m) into cumulate gabbros. Three earlier cruises to Hole 1256D (ODP 206, IODP 309/312) have drilled through the sediments, lavas, and dikes and 100 m into a complex dike-gabbro transition zone. Operations on IODP Expedition 335 proved challenging throughout, with almost three weeks spent re-opening and securing unstable sections of the hole. When coring commenced, the comprehensive destruction of the coring bit required further remedial operations to remove junk and huge volumes of accumulated drill cuttings. Hole-cleaning operations using junk baskets were successful, and they recovered large irregular samples that document a hitherto unseen sequence of evolving geological conditions and the intimate coupling between temporally and spatially intercalated intrusive, hydrothermal, contact-metamorphic, partial melting, and retrogressive processes. Hole 1256D is now clean of junk, and it has been thoroughly cleared of the drill cuttings that hampered operations during this and previous expeditions. At the end of Expedition 335, we briefly resumed coring before undertaking cementing operations to secure problematic intervals. To ensure the greatest scientific return from the huge efforts to stabilize this primary ocean lithosphere reference site, it would be prudent to resume the deepening of Hole 1256D in the nearest possible future while it is open to full depth. doi:10.2204/iodp.sd.13.04.2011

  18. [Problems of radiation safety of a Martian expedition crew].

    PubMed

    Petrov, V M; Bengin, V V; Kolomenskiĭ, A V; Shurshakov, V A

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of the radiation conditions during a piloted expedition to Mars made it evident that the radiation safety system will be one of the most critical components of life support aboard the future Martian vehicle. The concept and main functions of the system have been considered. The authors give their vision of the radiation monitoring system based on the present-day radiation safety postulates, comparison and contrasting methods and equipment applied for the purpose in current orbital and projected interplanetary flights.

  19. The Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory's 25th Anniversary Expedition to the South Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. R.; Wiltshire, J. C.; Malahoff, A.

    2005-12-01

    The Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory (HURL) was established by NOAA at the University of Hawaii 25 years ago as part of its National Undersea Research Program. HURL's mission is to study deep water marine processes in the Pacific Ocean through a competitive proposal and review process. The dual Pisces IV and Pisces V 2000-meter manned submersibles, an RCV-150 1000-meter ROV, and multibeam equipped support ship R/V Ka'imikai-o-Kanaloa ( KoK) were largely acquired from the petroleum industry then adapted and upgraded to carry out cutting edge scientific expeditions. These studies range from active submarine volcanoes, delicate precious coral gardens, endangered marine mammal and fisheries management, to engineering surveys and deployment of observatory systems. HURL successfully completed a major 5-month expedition to the South Pacific during March-August 2005, working in the waters of New Zealand, Tonga, American Samoa, and the U.S. Line Islands covering a distance of nearly 14,500 nautical miles. This mission was significant in both the scientific merit and scope of operations, consisting of 8 different cruise legs at 21 study sites, with 12 chief and co-chief scientists, 58 total science team participants, and completing 61 out of 56 scheduled Pisces science dives, 17 ROV dives, 5 multibeam survey areas, 6 CTD rosette deployments, and 7 instrument mooring recoveries. The $3.5 million expedition was funded by an international partnership with New Zealand agencies (GNS & NIWA) and the University of Kiel in Germany along with the NOAA Office of Exploration and National Undersea Research Program. While most of the individual cruise legs focused on active submarine volcanoes of the Tonga-Kermadec Islands Arc and the Samoan hot spot chain with their hydrothermal systems and associated biological communities, others concentrated on marine protected areas including those of American Samoa and the remote atolls of the Line Islands of the Central Pacific. These studies

  20. Fossil ostracodes of continental shelf cores at IODP Site U1354 (Expedition 317)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusunoki, S.; Ohi, T.; Kawagata, S.; Ishida, K.; Shipboard Scientific Party, E.

    2010-12-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 317 was devoted to understanding the relative importance of global sea level (eustasy) versus local tectonic and sedimentary processes in controlling continental margin sedimentary cycles. The expedition recovered sediments from the Eocene to recent period, with a particular focus on the sequence stratigraphy of the late Miocene to recent, when global sea level change was dominated by glacioeustasy. Drilling in the Canterbury Basin, on the eastern margin of the South Island of New Zealand took advantage of high rates of Neogene sediment supply, which preserved a high-frequency (0.1-0.5 m.y.) record of depositional cyclicity. Ostracodes are crustaceans that widely inhabit marine, brackish, and non-marine environments. Shallow marine species have more restricted habitat and respond sensitively to environmental changes. Therefore they are a useful tool for high-resolution analyses of paleoenvironmental changes. We study samples older than ~1.0 Ma from Site U1354, which is in an intermediate position within the three shelf sites transect of Expedition 317. Quaternary to early Pliocene (~4.5 Ma) sediments were cored in this site with best core recovery (81%) among the shelf sites. The period from the Pliocene to Pleistocene is known for distinct paleoclimatic changes, from the intensive warming at around 3.5 Ma, to the cooling stage starting from 2.75 Ma. We expect that high-resolution analyses of fossil ostracode assemblages reveal detailed sea level and paleoceanographic changes on the continental shelf of the Canterbury Basin caused by global climate changes. Samples were examined at 1.5 m depth intervals. Samples of ~20 cc were freeze-dried and washed through a 63 µm opening sieve. The residues were dried and then divided into aliquot parts containing around 200 specimens using a sample splitter. All individual ostracodes were picked from residues coarser than 125 µm. Valves and carapaces were counted as one

  1. Medical Operational Challenges in the Expedition 16 Landing and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, S.; Johnston, S. L.; Ilcus, L. S.; Shevchenko, V.

    2009-01-01

    On April 19, 2008 the crew of Expedition 16 left the International Space Station and returned to earth via their Soyuz TMA-11 capsule after 192 days on orbit. Their capsule experienced the second consecutive and third ballistic reentry in the last 10 TMA recoveries and landed approximately 260 miles (420 km) from the prime landing site. Issues: The purpose of this presentation will be to describe, not only the typical medical operational challenges faced by Flight Surgeons recovering a long duration crew from space, but also address the unique challenges that existed with the Expedition 16 landing and crew recovery. Nominal Soyuz recovery challenges include remote recovery sites with crew exposures to sleep shifting and fatigue, dehydration, hypothermia and hyperthermia, and rotational, sustained, and impact g-forces. These environmental factors coupled with the patho-physiologic neuro-vestibular and orthostatic intolerance changes that occur secondary to the crews reintroduction into the earth s gravity field will be detailed. Additional challenges that were unique to this expedition included a ballistic reentry with higher g-loads, the presence of fire outside of the capsule on landing, a contingency medical event of a ground support personnel, and loss of communications with the crew just prior to landing and during recovery operations. Conclusions: In spite of these unique challenges the Russian Search and Rescue Forces and Medical Support personnel along with U.S. Medical Support performed well together. Possible improvements in training and coordination will be discussed.

  2. STS-102 Expedition 2 Increment and Science Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Merri Sanchez, Expedition 2 Increment Manager, John Uri, Increment Scientist, and Lybrease Woodard, Lead Payload Operations Director, give an overview of the upcoming activities and objectives of the Expedition 2's (E2's) mission in this prelaunch press conference. Ms. Sanchez describes the crew rotation of Expedition 1 to E2, the timeline E2 will follow during their stay on the International Space Station (ISS), and the various flights going to the ISS and what each will bring to ISS. Mr. Uri gives details on the on-board experiments that will take place on the ISS in the fields of microgravity research, commercial, earth, life, and space sciences (such as radiation characterization, H-reflex, colloids formation and interaction, protein crystal growth, plant growth, fermentation in microgravity, etc.). He also gives details on the scientific facilities to be used (laboratory racks and equipment such as the human torso facsimile or 'phantom torso'). Ms. Woodard gives an overview of Marshall Flight Center's role in the mission. Computerized simulations show the installation of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) onto the ISS and the installation of the airlock using SSRMS. Live footage shows the interior of the ISS, including crew living quarters, the Progress Module, and the Destiny Laboratory. The three then answer questions from the press.

  3. The Wegener Memorial Expedition to the Greenland Caledonides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stüwe, Kurt; Piller, Werner

    2014-05-01

    2012 marked the 100 anniversary of the publication of Alfred Wegeners book: 'Die Entstehung der Kontinente' - which is often hailed as the discovery of continental drift theory in the advent of plate tectonics. Wegener was later appointed as professor for geophysics at the University of Graz in Austria - in part for this discovery. He held this position until his death in Greenland in 1930. In honor of the hundredth anniversary of the 1912 milestone publication, the University of Graz in Austria stages an expedition to Greenland in the spirit of Alfred Wegener, supported by the Austrian Academy of Sciences. The expedition aims predominantly to unravel secrets of the Caledonides of Northeastern Greenland using an extensive sampling program to some of the least explored corners of the orogenic belt. Particular emphasis will be placed on the Hager Bjerg allochthon and its relationship to the hanging wall and footwall units. The expedition will use the unparalleled flexibility of small aircraft that will be piloted by experienced Alaskan bush pilots and brought to Greenland from Alaska for this purpose.

  4. Contrails and Climate Change: An Investigation of the Role of Aviation-Induced-Cloudiness on the Ireland Climate Using AATSR Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, Gillian M.; Cawkwell, Fiona; Mannstein, Hermann; Minnis, Patrick

    2010-12-01

    Contrails, or 'condensation trails', produced in the wake of jet aircraft have been found to have a small but significant global net climate-warming effect [1]. When atmospheric conditions are favorable (i.e. when ambient atmospheric humidity is high and temperature is below a threshold value of typically less than -40oC), contrails can persist for several hours, grow to become several kilometers long and can also trigger additional cirrus- cloud formation as they spread - which can further impact climate! Due to Ireland's proximity to the North Atlantic Flight Corridor, large volumes of high-altitude overflights cross Ireland daily. Contrails are essentially artificial-linear-ice-clouds at a lower temperature than the surrounding atmosphere and so are visible in 1 Km satellite imagery at the 11 and 12 μm wavelengths; but are better detected in the temperature difference image between these two thermal channels. An automated Contrail Detection Algorithm (CDA) is applied to AATSR thermal imagery over Ireland, and the percentage contrail-coverage of each scene determined. Preliminary results, based on 2008 morning and evening AATSR overpasses show a similar annual average contrail-coverage when present of 0.25% and 0.19% respectively, even though air-traffic density is typically several times higher during the morning overpasses. Cases of excessive contrail-coverage, of up to 2.06% have been observed in combination with extensive cirrus-coverage over Ireland. Results from meteorological data indicate more highly favorable atmospheric conditions for contrail formation and persistence in 00h00 and 06h00 radiosonde ascents; which corresponds to a night-time peak in high-altitude flights over Ireland. Furthermore, exceptionally thick contrail-susceptible-atmospheric layers are found in conjunction with cases of excessive satellite-derived- contrail-coverage.

  5. A Dynamic Population Model to Investigate Effects of Climate and Climate-Independent Factors on the Lifecycle of Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Antoinette; Ginsberg, Howard S; Hickling, Graham J; Ogden, Nicholas H

    2016-01-01

    The lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum, is a disease vector of significance for human and animal health throughout much of the eastern United States. To model the potential effects of climate change on this tick, a better understanding is needed of the relative roles of temperature-dependent and temperature-independent (day-length-dependent behavioral or morphogenetic diapause) processes acting on the tick lifecycle. In this study, we explored the roles of these processes by simulating seasonal activity patterns using models with site-specific temperature and day-length-dependent processes. We first modeled the transitions from engorged larvae to feeding nymphs, engorged nymphs to feeding adults, and engorged adult females to feeding larvae. The simulated seasonal patterns were compared against field observations at three locations in United States. Simulations suggested that 1) during the larva-to-nymph transition, some larvae undergo no diapause while others undergo morphogenetic diapause of engorged larvae; 2) molted adults undergo behavioral diapause during the transition from nymph-to-adult; and 3) there is no diapause during the adult-to-larva transition. A model constructed to simulate the full lifecycle of A. americanum successfully predicted observed tick activity at the three U.S. study locations. Some differences between observed and simulated seasonality patterns were observed, however, identifying the need for research to refine some model parameters. In simulations run using temperature data for Montreal, deterministic die-out of A. americanum populations did not occur, suggesting the possibility that current climate in parts of southern Canada is suitable for survival and reproduction of this tick.

  6. A dynamic population model to investigate effects of climate and climate-independent factors on the lifecycle of the tick Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, Antoinette; Ginsberg, Howard; Hickling, Graham J.; Ogden, Nicholas H.

    2016-01-01

    The lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum, is a disease vector of significance for human and animal health throughout much of the eastern United States. To model the potential effects of climate change on this tick, a better understanding is needed of the relative roles of temperature-dependent and temperature-independent (day-length-dependent behavioral or morphogenetic diapause) processes acting on the tick lifecycle. In this study, we explored the roles of these processes by simulating seasonal activity patterns using models with site-specific temperature and day-length-dependent processes. We first modeled the transitions from engorged larvae to feeding nymphs, engorged nymphs to feeding adults, and engorged adult females to feeding larvae. The simulated seasonal patterns were compared against field observations at three locations in United States. Simulations suggested that 1) during the larva-to-nymph transition, some larvae undergo no diapause while others undergo morphogenetic diapause of engorged larvae; 2) molted adults undergo behavioral diapause during the transition from nymph-to-adult; and 3) there is no diapause during the adult-to-larva transition. A model constructed to simulate the full lifecycle of A. americanum successfully predicted observed tick activity at the three U.S. study locations. Some differences between observed and simulated seasonality patterns were observed, however, identifying the need for research to refine some model parameters. In simulations run using temperature data for Montreal, deterministic die-out of A. americanum populations did not occur, suggesting the possibility that current climate in parts of southern Canada is suitable for survival and reproduction of this tick.

  7. Inspiring students through an authentic polar science expedition: the RESEt Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattadori, Matteo

    2016-04-01

    RESEt (Research and Education Svalbard Experience www.resetsvalbard.it) is an ongoing educational project focusing mainly on polar and climate system topics. It started in 2014 and will end in 2017 with the high school diploma of the 22 students (16 y. o.) making the participant class. This class attend a school (Liceo Filzi, Rovereto, Trento. Italy) with a primary focus on disciplines like philosophy and education, rather then STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics). Nevertheless their science curricula include climate topics that are rather challenging to grasp and, at the same time, crucial for their scientific citizenship. Some questions arise: How to foster their interest in geosciences topics? How to engage them in authentic scientific knowledge? How to increase their interest in scientific university courses during their post-secondary career? RESEt project will attempt to answer these questions through the development of integrated activities distributed over the last three years of their high school cycle. The most important moment will be an educational scientific expedition at the Svalbard, an archipelago located in the Arctic. The expedition be entirely organized, planned, and directed by students. In Svalbard, students will visit the main scientific facilities devoted to climate studies including those of Italian CNR (National Research Council) and they will perform some environmental measurement using data-loggers. Students are even involved in the fundraising process to raise more than ten thousand Euros needed to for travel expenses. This work is aimed mainly at presenting some of the preliminary data collected during the RESEt project, including the fundraising aspects. The management of the RESEt project strongly relies on the experience and network gained by the abstract author during the participation to the Education and Public Outreach (EPO) program of International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2009 as well as the support of Polar

  8. Initializing the Greenland ice sheet to investigate its sensitivity to climate changes: a study with the GRISLI model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le clec'h, Sébastien; Dumas, Christophe; Kageyama, Masa; Charbit, Sylvie; Ritz, Catherine; Gallée, Hubert; Fettweis, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is bound to play a crucial role in sea level rise over the next century. In this context, initializing Greenland ice sheet models properly is of prime importance. In this work, we will use the GRenoble Ice Shelf and Land Ice (GRISLI) model at 5km resolution (Ritz et al., 2001) to evaluate the evolution of the Greenland ice sheet under different climate forcings. The first step is to choose the most appropriate parameters to obtain a realistic Greenland ice sheet for present day. To perform this initialization, we use an inverse method and determine the basal stress given the observed geometry and mean climate between 1979 and 2014. We use the mean climate computed by the MAR regional atmospheric model (Fettweis et al.,2013) forced by reanalyses. At the end of this first step, we run a first simulation using the mean climate to check if the model is not drifting. In a second step, we apply three other climatologies built from MAR. We use: 1/ the warmest years of the period, 2/ the coolest years, 3/ the 2012 extreme melt event year (Nilsson et al, 2015). For each experiment we analyse the impact of these different climates on mass balance in 7 different regions (corresponding to drainage basins) of Greenland.

  9. Lending a Helping Hand at Work: A Multilevel Investigation of Prosocial Motivation, Inclusive Climate and Inclusive Behavior.

    PubMed

    Nelissen, Philippe T J H; Hülsheger, Ute R; van Ruitenbeek, Gemma M C; Zijlstra, Fred R H

    2016-11-11

    Purpose People with disabilities often encounter difficulties at the workplace such as exclusion or unfair treatment. Researchers have therefore pointed to the need to focus on behavior that fosters inclusion as well as variables that are antecedents of such 'inclusive behavior'. Therefore the purpose of this study was to research the relationship between prosocial motivation, team inclusive climate and employee inclusive behavior. Method A survey was conducted among a sample of 282 paired employees and colleagues, which were nested in 84 teams. Employees self-rated prosocial motivation and team inclusive climate, their inclusive behavior was assessed by colleagues. Hypotheses were tested using multilevel random coefficient modeling. Results Employees who are prosocially motivated will display more inclusive behavior towards people with disabilities, and this relationship is moderated by team inclusive climate in such a way that the relationship is stronger when the inclusive climate is high. Conclusion This study shows that inclusive organizations, which value a diverse workforce, need to be aware of not only individual employee characteristics, but also team level climate to ensure the smooth integrations of people with disabilities into regular work teams.

  10. Polaris Undergraduates Connecting With K-12 Students Though Story Telling-Learning About Climate Change Using Web-Mapping Based Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, J. H.; Natali, S.; Schade, J. D.; Fiske, G. J.; Linder, C.; Ramos, E.; Weber, L. R.; Kuhn, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Polaris Project is a unique undergraduate education, research, and outreach initiative that examines global climate change in the Siberian Arctic. The program focuses on permafrost and carbon processes in the boreal and tundra ecosystems of the Kolyma Watershed, the largest watershed underlain by continuous permafrost. Each summer, a diverse group of undergraduate students and faculty mentors spends one month living on the Kolyma River, developing independent projects that engage the students directly in the biogeosciences through authentic scientific research experiences in remote field sites. In all cases the student projects contribute to the overall goal of the Polaris Project to investigate the transport and transformations of carbon and nutrients as they move among terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and the atmosphere. Through the use of online interactive ArcGIS maps the students share their experiences and learning, while posing questions in a format that can be used to engage K-12 learners in the classroom. By embedding information; including databases, photographs and video, informational text, and geospatial data; into user-friendly maps the Polaris Project students will "tell the story" of studying climate change in the Siberian tundra in a way that allows the users to explore climate science through inquiry and web-map based investigation. Through performance expectation topics including Weather and Climate, Interactions, Earth's Systems, and Human impacts, this investigation uses consideration of the vast amounts of ancient organic matter locked up in permafrost in the region, and concerns about the fate of this ancient organic carbon as temperatures warm and permafrost thaws, to make K-12 climate change connections with the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS).

  11. Investigating the Influence of Climate Changes on Rodent Communities at a Regional-Scale (MIS 1-3, Southwestern France).

    PubMed

    Royer, Aurélien; Montuire, Sophie; Legendre, Serge; Discamps, Emmanuel; Jeannet, Marcel; Lécuyer, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems have continuously evolved throughout the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene, deeply affected by both progressive environmental and climatic modifications, as well as by abrupt and large climatic changes such as the Heinrich or Dansgaard-Oeschger events. Yet, the impacts of these different events on terrestrial mammalian communities are poorly known, as is the role played by potential refugia on geographical species distributions. This study examines community changes in rodents of southwestern France between 50 and 10 ky BP by integrating 94 dated faunal assemblages coming from 37 archaeological sites. This work reveals that faunal distributions were modified in response to abrupt and brief climatic events, such as Heinrich events, without actually modifying the rodent community on a regional scale. However, the succession of events which operated between the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene gradually led to establishing a new rodent community at the regional scale, with intermediate communities occurring between the Bølling and the Allerød.

  12. Lidar Measurements of Aerosol and Ozone Distributions During the 1992 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, E. V.; Butler, C. F.; Fenn, M. A.; Grant, W. B.; Carter, A. F.

    1992-01-01

    The LaRC airborne lidar system was operated from the ARC DC-8 aircraft during the 1992 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (ASEE-2) to investigate the distribution of stratospheric aerosols and O3 across the Arctic vortex from Jan. to Mar. 1992. Monthly flights were made across the Arctic vortex from Anchorage, Alaska, to Stavanger, Norway, and then back to Bangor, Maine, and additional round-trip flights north into the vortex were made each month from either Stavanger or Bangor depending on the location of the vortex that month. The airborne lidar system uses the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique at laser wavelengths of 301.5 and 310.8 nm to measure O3 profiles above the DC-8 over the 12-25 km altitude range. Lidar measurements of aerosol backscatter and depolarization profiles over the 12-30 km altitude range are made simultaneously with the O3 measurements using infrared (IR) and visible (VIS) laser wavelengths of 603 and 1064 nm, respectively. The measurements of Pinatubo aerosols, polar stratospheric clouds, and O3 made with the airborne DIAL system during the AASE-2 expedition and to chemical and dynamical process that contribute to O3 depletion in the wintertime Arctic stratosphere.

  13. Sleep during an Antarctic summer expedition: new light on "polar insomnia".

    PubMed

    Pattyn, Nathalie; Mairesse, Olivier; Cortoos, Aisha; Marcoen, Nele; Neyt, Xavier; Meeusen, Romain

    2017-01-12

    Sleep complaints are consistently cited as the most prominent health and well-being problem in Arctic and Antarctic expeditions, without clear evidence to identify the causal mechanisms. The present investigation aimed at studying sleep and determining circadian regulation and mood during a 4 months Antarctic summer expedition. All data collection was performed during the continuous illumination of the Antarctic summer. After an habituation night and acclimatization to the environment (3 weeks), ambulatory polysomnography (PSG) was performed in 21 healthy male subjects, free of medication. 18 hours profile (saliva sampling every 2 hr) of cortisol and melatonin were assessed. Mood, sleepiness and subjective sleep quality were assessed and the psychomotor vigilance task was administered. PSG showed, in addition to high sleep fragmentation, a major decrease in slow wave sleep (SWS) and an increase in stage R sleep. Furthermore, the ultradian rhythmicity of sleep was altered, with SWS occurring mainly at the end of the night and stage R sleep at the beginning. Cortisol secretion profiles were normal; melatonin secretion however showed a severe phase delay. There were no mood alterations according to the POMS scores, but the PVT showed an impaired vigilance performance. These results confirm previous reports on "polar insomnia" -the decrease in SWS- and present novel insight -the disturbed ultradian sleep structure. A hypothesis is formulated linking the prolonged SWS latency to the phase delay in melatonin.

  14. Information and communication technology needs for distributed communication and coordination during expedition-class spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, B S

    2000-09-01

    AO-lU. Expedition-class missions are distinct from historical human presence in space in ways that significantly affect information flow and information technology designs for such missions. The centrality of Mission Control in these missions is challenged by the distances, associated communication delays, and durations of expeditions, all of which require crews to have more local resources available to manage on-board situations. The author's current research investigates how ground controllers effectively allocate communications bandwidth, cognitive resources, and knowledge sharing skills during time critical routine and non-routine situations. The research focus is on team-based information and communication technology (ICT) use to provide recommendations for improvements to support adaptive bandwidth allocations and improved sharing of data and knowledge in Mission Control contexts. In order to further improve communication and coordination between controllers and crew, additional ICT support resources will be needed to provide shared context knowledge and dynamic assessment of costs and benefits for accessing local information vs. remote expertise. Crew members will have critical needs to understand the goals, intentions, and situational constraints associated with mission information resources in order to use them most effectively in conditions where ground-based expertise is insufficient or requires more time to access and coordinate than local task demands permit. Results of this research will serve to improve the design and implementation of ICT systems to improve human performance capabilities and system operating tolerances for exploration missions. (Specific research data were not available at the time of publication.)

  15. Persistent Identifiers for Field Expeditions: A Next Step for the US Oceanographic Research Fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, Robert; Carbotte, Suzanne; Chandler, Cynthia; Smith, Shawn; Stocks, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Oceanographic research cruises are complex affairs, typically requiring an extensive effort to secure the funding, plan the experiment, and mobilize the field party. Yet cruises are not typically published online as first-class digital objects with persistent, citable identifiers linked to the scientific literature. The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R; info@rvdata.us) program maintains a master catalog of oceanographic cruises for the United States research fleet, currently documenting over 6,000 expeditions on 37 active and retired vessels. In 2015, R2R started routinely publishing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) for each completed cruise. Cruise DOIs, in turn, are linked to related persistent identifiers where available including the Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID) for members of the science party, the International Geo Sample Number (IGSN) for physical specimens collected during the cruise, the Open Funder Registry (FundRef) codes that supported the experiment, and additional DOIs for datasets, journal articles, and other products resulting from the cruise. Publishing a persistent identifier for each field expedition will facilitate interoperability between the many different repositories that hold research products from cruises; will provide credit to the investigators who secured the funding and carried out the experiment; and will facilitate the gathering of fleet-wide altmetrics that demonstrate the broad impact of oceanographic research.

  16. Volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons in Antarctic superficial snow sampled during Italian ITASE expeditions.

    PubMed

    Zoccolillo, Lelio; Amendola, Luca; Cafaro, Claudia; Insogna, Susanna

    2007-05-01

    In order to detect the presence of some volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (VCHCs) and to understand their transport and deposition mechanism, superficial snow was sampled during two Italian ITASE (International Trans Antarctic Scientific Expedition) expeditions: the first traverse was carried out in 1998/1999 from Terra Nova Bay to Dome Concordia; the second traverse was carried out in 2001/2002 through Adélie, George V, Oates and Northern Victoria Lands. Some VCHCs (chloroform; 1,1,1-trichloroethane; tetrachloromethane; 1,1,2-trichloroethylene; tetrachloroethylene) were analysed using a highly sensitive and selective hyphenated technique composed of a purge-and-trap injector coupled to a gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometric detector (PTI-GC-MS) operating in SIM mode. Investigated VCHCs were present in all analysed snow samples with concentration levels of several units, tens, or sometimes hundreds of ng kg(-1). VCHC snow concentration levels remained approximately constant with changing distance from the coast and the comparison between fresh and aged snow did not show any substantial differences; on the basis of this evidence marine aerosol and dry deposition may be rejected as principal VCHC transport and deposition mechanism hypotheses. VCHC concentration levels in Antarctic snow samples were comparable to or greater than those found in snow from temperate zones.

  17. Tri-Agency Coordination: Challenges and Successes in Creating a Community of Practice among Climate Change Education Principal Investigators funded by NASA, NOAA, and NSF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoedinger, S. E.; McDougall, C.; Karsten, J. L.; Campbell, D.; Pippin, M. R.; Chambers, L. H.

    2013-12-01

    The effort needed for comprehensive climate change education is far greater than any one institution, education sector, or even federal agency can handle. Recognizing a need to synergistically combine efforts, NSF, NASA, and NOAA have created a collaborative community of their climate change education principal investigators (PIs) through tri-agency coordination. The goals of this tri-agency collaboration are to leverage existing resources, minimize duplicate efforts, and facilitate communication among this emergent community of scientists and educators. NASA, NOAA, and NSF work together to strategically coordinate and support a portfolio of projects focused on climate literacy and education in formal and informal learning environments. The activities of the tri-agency collaboration, including annual meetings for PIs, a catalog of the agencies collective investments in climate change education and the ongoing development of a nascent common evaluation framework, have created a strong national network for effectively engaging diverse audiences with the principles of climate literacy (see Eos Vol. 92, No. 24, 14 June 2011). Last year, after 3 years of active collaboration, similar programs underway at other U.S. Global Change Research Program agencies: the EPA, National Institutes for Environmental Health Sciences, and USDA, were engaged in the collaboration. And, in an attempt to understand the interests of the private sector in this arena, conversations have begun with private philanthropic organizations. This year, as many of the funded projects are maturing, the PI meeting will have a focus on bringing this community together to create a science-theme based tangible outcome that can move the field of climate change education forward. Additional outcomes from this PI meeting will be presented as well as the challenges that were encountered in bringing together institutions with diverse missions, and approaches developed to ensure all parties feel they

  18. GC23G-1310: Investigation Into the Effects of Climate Variability and Land Cover Change on the Hydrologic System of the Lower Mekong Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markert, Kel N.; Griffin, Robert; Limaye, Ashutosh S.; McNider, Richard T.; Anderson, Eric R.

    2016-01-01

    The Lower Mekong Basin (LMB) is an economically and ecologically important region that experiences hydrologic hazards such as floods and droughts, which can directly affect human well-being and limit economic growth and development. To effectively develop long-term plans for addressing hydrologic hazards, the regional hydrological response to climate variability and land cover change needs to be evaluated. This research aims to investigate how climate variability, specifically variations in the precipitation regime, and land cover change will affect hydrologic parameters both spatially and temporally within the LMB. The research goal is achieved by (1) modeling land cover change for a baseline land cover change scenario as well as changes in land cover with increases in forest or agriculture and (2) using projected climate variables and modeled land cover data as inputs into the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model to simulate the changes to the hydrologic system. The VIC model outputs were analyzed against historic values to understand the relative contribution of climate variability and land cover to change, where these changes occur, and to what degree these changes affect the hydrology. This study found that the LMB hydrologic system is more sensitive to climate variability than land cover change. On average, climate variability was found to increase discharge and evapotranspiration (ET) while decreasing water storage. The change in land cover show that increasing forest area will slightly decrease discharge and increase ET while increasing agriculture area increases discharge and decreases ET. These findings will help the LMB by supporting individual country policy to plan for future hydrologic changes as well as policy for the basin as a whole.

  19. Investigating the Impacts of Climate, Hydrology, and Asian Monsoon Intensity on a 13 kyr Speleothem Record from Laos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hongying

    I present a high- resolution record of Southeast Asian Monsoon (SEAM) evolution compiled from delta18O measurements conducted on five U-Th dated speleothems from Tham Mai Cave in northern Laos (20.75N, 102.65E), a key site at the interface between the Indian and East Asian monsoon systems. The speleothem oxygen isotope records are tied to robust uranium-series dates and indicate the records span from 0.79 to 13 kyr BP with sub-decadal resolution. During the Holocene, the Tham Mai speleothem delta18O records are characterized by lower values during the early to mid-Holocene with increasing values towards the late Holocene. This is similar to trends seen throughout the Asian monsoon region, reflecting the strong insolation control on monsoon strength and ITCZ position. The Younger Dryas is characterized by an abrupt delta 18O increase and is synchronous with the even observed in Chinese speleothem records and Greenland ice cores within age uncertainties. This suggests that the SEAM weakened in sync with high-latitude abrupt cooling events. Four speleothems from Tham Mai cave grew contemporaneously from 4,300 years BP to 9,000 years BP. These four samples show a similar delta 18O pattern, despite a 1.2‰ between sample delta18 O variability is observed. A lumped parameter forward model method (KarstFor model) is used to assess to which extent this 1.2‰ discrepancy can be attributed to hydrological variability. Results suggested that this 1.2‰ discrepancy can be generated due to hydrological variability within one cave. To better interpret interannual delta18O variability in high-resolution oxygen isotope records in the Asian Monsoon region, I utilize existing simulations from a spectrally nudged isotope-enabled general circulation model (IsoGSM) to investigate the climatic controls on delta18 Op at four cave locations along the Asian monsoon region. Results show that delta18Op at the four cave sites reflects large-scale ocean-atmosphere processes, instead of

  20. A GCM investigation of dust aerosol impact on the regional climate of North Africa and South/East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.; Xue, Y.; De Sales, F.; Liou, K. N.

    2016-04-01

    The climatic effects of dust aerosols in North Africa and South/East Asia have been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model, NCEP/GCM/SSiB (Simplified Simple Biosphere Model) and the three-dimensional aerosol data simulated by the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model. GCM simulations show that due to the scattering and absorption of solar radiation by dust particles, surface temperature decreases over both regions, accompanied by a reduced sensible heat flux. However, precipitation responses are different in these two regions. Due to differences in dust location and the associated heating with respect to the rainfall band and circulation, the effect of dust could either enhance or suppress precipitation. Over the North Africa region where dust particles are mainly located to the north of rainfall band, heating of the air column by dust particles forces a stronger ascent motion over dust layers, which induces an anomalous subsidence (or a weakened upward motion) and suppressed cyclonic circulation to its south where precipitation reduces. Furthermore, both humidity and cloud decrease due to the heating in the middle troposphere (semi-direct effect). In South/East Asia, dust particles are located in the upper troposphere over the major rainfall band during the monsoon season, especially Southwest India and the coastal area of Bay of Bengal. Heating of the air column increases upward motion and strengthens cyclonic circulation. Humidity also increases due to the draw-in of the low level moist air. Therefore, cloud and precipitation increase over South/East Asia associated with dust effect. During the pre-monsoon season, when dust particles are located to the north of the monsoon rainfall band, the heating effect results in shifting precipitation northward. The heating of air column due to dust particles, not surface cooling, plays the major role in precipitation changes. The anomalous upward motion over dust regions will

  1. Investigation of Climate Change Impacts to the Coastal Aquifer of North Germany: A 3D Modelling Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptak, T.; Yang, J.; Graf, T.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change is expected to induce sea level rise in the German Bight, which is part of the North Sea, Germany. Climate change may also modify discharge of the river Weser flowing into the German Bight, which will alter both water levels and salinity distributions along the coast. To study the long-term effects of sea level rise and discharge variations to the salinity distribution, a 3D seawater intrusion model was designed using the fully coupled surface-subsurface numerical model HydroGeoSphere. The model simulates the coastal aquifer as an integral system considering complexities such as variable-density groundwater flow, surface-subsurface interaction, irregular land topography and anthropogenic structures (e.g. dykes, drainage canals, water gates). Using PEST, steady state groundwater flow of year 2009 is calibrated. In addition, 3 climate change scenarios are simulated based on the calibrated model: (i) sea level rise of 1 m, (ii) the salinity of the seaside boundary increased by 25 %, and (iii) the salinity of the seaside boundary decreased by 70 %. Results demonstrate the changes of fresh groundwater resources, surface water depths and salinity distribution. The obtained results are useful for coastal engineering practices, drinking water resources management and for the development of climate change adaptation strategies.

  2. Deferoxamine Expedites Consolidation during Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Donneys, Alexis; Deshpande, Sagar S.; Tchanque-Fossuo, Catherine N.; Johnson, Kelsey L.; Blough, Jordan T.; Perosky, Joseph E.; Kozloff, Kenneth M.; Felice, Peter A.; Nelson, Noah S.; Farberg, Aaron S.; Levi, Benjamin; Buchman, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Background A limitation of mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis (DO) is the length of time required for consolidation. This drawback subjects patients to possible pin-site infections, as well as a prolonged return to activities of normal daily living. Developing innovative techniques to abridge consolidation periods could be immensely effective in preventing these problematic morbidities. Deferoxamine (DFO) is an angiogenic activator that triggers the HIF-1α pathway through localized iron depletion. We previously established the effectiveness of DFO in enhancing regenerate vascularity at a full consolidation period (28 days) in a murine mandibular DO model. To investigate whether this augmentation in vascularity would function to accelerate consolidation, we progressively shortened consolidation periods prior to μCT imaging and biomechanical testing (BMT). Materials and Methods Three time points (14d, 21d and 28d) were selected and six groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (n=60) were equally divided into control (C) and experimental (E) groups for each time period. Each group underwent external fixator placement, mandibular osteotomy, and a 5.1mm distraction. During distraction, the experimental groups were treated with DFO injections into the regenerate gap. After consolidation, mandibles were imaged and tension tested to failure. ANOVA was conducted between groups, and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results At 14 days of consolidation the experimental group demonstrated significant increases in Bone Volume Fraction (BVF), Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and Ultimate Load (UL) in comparison to non-treated controls. The benefit of treatment was further substantiated by a striking 100% increase in the number of bony unions at this early time-period (C:4/10 vs. E:8/10). Furthermore, metrics of BVF, BMD, Yield and UL at 14 days with treatment demonstrated comparable metrics to those of the fully consolidated 28d control group. Conclusion Based on these

  3. Investigating the relationship between climate teleconnection patterns and soil moisture variability in the Rio Grande/Río Bravo del Norte basin using the NOAH land surface model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khedun, C. P.; Mishra, A. K.; Bolten, J. D.; Giardino, J. R.; Singh, V. P.

    2010-12-01

    Soil moisture is an important component of the hydrological cycle. Climate variability patterns, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) are determining factors on surface water availability and soil moisture. Understanding this complex relationship and the phase and lag times between climate events and soil moisture variability is important for agricultural management and water planning. In this study we look at the effect of these climate teleconnection patterns on the soil moisture across the Rio Grande/Río Bravo del Norte basin. The basin is transboundary between the US and Mexico and has a varied climatology - ranging from snow dominated in its headwaters in Colorado, to an arid and semi-arid region in its middle reach and a tropical climate in the southern section before it discharges into the Gulf of Mexico. Agricultural activities in the US and in northern Mexico are highly dependent on the Rio Grande and are extremely vulnerable to climate extremes. The treaty between the two countries does not address climate related events. The soil moisture is generated using the community NOAH land surface model (LSM). The LSM is a 1-D column model that runs in coupled or uncoupled mode, and it simulates soil moisture, soil temperature, skin temperature, snowpack depth, snow water equivalent, canopy water content, and energy flux and water flux of the surface energy and water balance. The North American Land Data Assimilation Scheme 2 (NLDAS2) is used to drive the model. The model is run for the period 1979 to 2009. The soil moisture output is validated against measured values from the different Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) sites within the basin. The spatial and temporal variability of the modeled soil moisture is then analyzed using marginal entropy to investigate monthly, seasonal, and annual variability. Wavelet transform is used to determine the relation, phase

  4. The role of the expedition doctor: lessons from 100 years ago.

    PubMed

    Guly, Henry R

    2012-06-01

    This paper explores the role of the doctor on the expeditions of the heroic age of Antarctic exploration. The medical role includes medical screening of prospective expedition members, choosing medical equipment so as to maintain a balance between being able to cope with any eventuality and the cost and weight of equipment and drugs, health screening during an expedition, first aid training for field parties without a doctor, and, obviously, treatment of any injury or disease that occurs. If injury or illness occurs, the presence of a doctor is of great psychological benefit to the expedition. Although medical experience is important, it is probably more important that the doctor is a "team member," playing a full part in the expedition's aims, whether these are scientific, exploration, or reaching some goal. Most of the lessons learned during these expeditions a hundred years ago are just as relevant today.

  5. Sequencing at sea: challenges and experiences in Ion Torrent PGM sequencing during the 2013 Southern Line Islands Research Expedition

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Yan Wei; Cuevas, Daniel A.; Silva, Genivaldo Gueiros Z.; Aguinaldo, Kristen; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A.; Haas, Andreas F.; Hatay, Mark; Sanchez, Savannah E.; Wegley-Kelly, Linda; Dutilh, Bas E.; Harkins, Timothy T.; Lee, Clarence C.; Tom, Warren; Sandin, Stuart A.; Smith, Jennifer E.; Zgliczynski, Brian; Vermeij, Mark J.A.; Rohwer, Forest

    2014-01-01

    Genomics and metagenomics have revolutionized our understanding of marine microbial ecology and the importance of microbes in global geochemical cycles. However, the process of DNA sequencing has always been an abstract extension of the research expedition, completed once the samples were returned to the laboratory. During the 2013 Southern Line Islands Research Expedition, we started the first effort to bring next generation sequencing to some of the most remote locations on our planet. We successfully sequenced twenty six marine microbial genomes, and two marine microbial metagenomes using the Ion Torrent PGM platform on the Merchant Yacht Hanse Explorer. Onboard sequence assembly, annotation, and analysis enabled us to investigate the role of the microbes in the coral reef ecology of these islands and atolls. This analysis identified phosphonate as an important phosphorous source for microbes growing in the Line Islands and reinforced the importance of L-serine in marine microbial ecosystems. Sequencing in the field allowed us to propose hypotheses and conduct experiments and further sampling based on the sequences generated. By eliminating the delay between sampling and sequencing, we enhanced the productivity of the research expedition. By overcoming the hurdles associated with sequencing on a boat in the middle of the Pacific Ocean we proved the flexibility of the sequencing, annotation, and analysis pipelines. PMID:25177534

  6. Sequencing at sea: challenges and experiences in Ion Torrent PGM sequencing during the 2013 Southern Line Islands Research Expedition.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yan Wei; Cuevas, Daniel A; Silva, Genivaldo Gueiros Z; Aguinaldo, Kristen; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Haas, Andreas F; Hatay, Mark; Sanchez, Savannah E; Wegley-Kelly, Linda; Dutilh, Bas E; Harkins, Timothy T; Lee, Clarence C; Tom, Warren; Sandin, Stuart A; Smith, Jennifer E; Zgliczynski, Brian; Vermeij, Mark J A; Rohwer, Forest; Edwards, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Genomics and metagenomics have revolutionized our understanding of marine microbial ecology and the importance of microbes in global geochemical cycles. However, the process of DNA sequencing has always been an abstract extension of the research expedition, completed once the samples were returned to the laboratory. During the 2013 Southern Line Islands Research Expedition, we started the first effort to bring next generation sequencing to some of the most remote locations on our planet. We successfully sequenced twenty six marine microbial genomes, and two marine microbial metagenomes using the Ion Torrent PGM platform on the Merchant Yacht Hanse Explorer. Onboard sequence assembly, annotation, and analysis enabled us to investigate the role of the microbes in the coral reef ecology of these islands and atolls. This analysis identified phosphonate as an important phosphorous source for microbes growing in the Line Islands and reinforced the importance of L-serine in marine microbial ecosystems. Sequencing in the field allowed us to propose hypotheses and conduct experiments and further sampling based on the sequences generated. By eliminating the delay between sampling and sequencing, we enhanced the productivity of the research expedition. By overcoming the hurdles associated with sequencing on a boat in the middle of the Pacific Ocean we proved the flexibility of the sequencing, annotation, and analysis pipelines.

  7. Gas hydrate drilling transect across northern Cascadia margin - IODP Expedition 311

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riedel, M.; Collett, T.; Malone, M.J.; Collett, T.S.; Mitchell, M.; Guerin, G.; Akiba, F.; Blanc-Valleron, M.; Ellis, M.; Hashimoto, Y.; Heuer, V.; Higashi, Y.; Holland, M.; Jackson, P.D.; Kaneko, M.; Kastner, M.; Kim, J.-H.; Kitajima, H.; Long, P.E.; Malinverno, A.; Myers, Gwen E.; Palekar, L.D.; Pohlman, J.; Schultheiss, P.; Teichert, B.; Torres, M.E.; Trehu, A.M.; Wang, Jingyuan; Worthmann, U.G.; Yoshioka, H.

    2009-01-01

    A transect of four sites (U1325, U1326, U1327 and U1329) across the northern Cascadia margin was established during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 311 to study the occurrence and formation of gas hydrate in accretionary complexes. In addition to the transect sites, a fifth site (U1328) was established at a cold vent with active fluid flow. The four transect sites represent different typical geological environments of gas hydrate occurrence across the northern Cascadia margin from the earliest occurrence on the westernmost first accreted ridge (Site U1326) to the eastward limit of the gas hydrate occurrence in shallower water (Site U1329). Expedition 311 complements previous gas hydrate studies along the Cascadia accretionary complex, especially ODP Leg 146 and Leg 204 by extending the aperture of the transect sampled and introducing new tools to systematically quantify the gas hydrate content of the sediments. Among the most significant findings of the expedition was the occurrence of up to 20 m thick sand-rich turbidite intervals with gas hydrate concentrations locally exceeding 50% of the pore space at Sites U1326 and U1327. Moreover, these anomalous gas hydrate intervals occur at unexpectedly shallow depths of 50-120 metres below seafloor, which is the opposite of what was expected from previous models of gas hydrate formation in accretionary complexes, where gas hydrate was predicted to be more concentrated near the base of the gas hydrate stability zone just above the bottom-simulating reflector. Gas hydrate appears to be mainly concentrated in turbidite sand layers. During Expedition 311, the visual correlation of gas hydrate with sand layers was clearly and repeatedly documented, strongly supporting the importance of grain size in controlling gas hydrate occurrence. The results from the transect sites provide evidence for a structurally complex, lithology-controlled gas hydrate environment on the northern Cascadia margin. Local shallow

  8. 38 CFR 20.1500 - Rule 1500. Expedited Claims Adjudication Initiative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) BOARD OF VETERANS' APPEALS: RULES OF PRACTICE Expedited Claims... identified statutory and regulatory time limits, procedural rights, and processing issues that may arise....

  9. Analysis of Auroral Data from Nasa's 1968 and 1969 Airborne Auroral Expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Results of a methodical compilation, reduction, and correlated analysis of spectrophotometric data obtained by various scientific groups during NASA's 1968 and 1969 Airborne Auroral Expedition are presented.

  10. 20 CFR 405.705 - When the expedited appeals process may be used.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PROCESS FOR ADJUDICATING INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Expedited Appeals Process for Constitutional Issues... an initial determination and a decision by a Federal reviewing official, but an administrative...

  11. 20 CFR 404.925 - How to request expedited appeals process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determinations, Administrative Review Process, and Reopening of Determinations... service in the railroad industry. (c) Extension of time to request expedited appeals process. If you...

  12. Paleoceanographic history of the Lower Bengal Fan during the last glacial cycle - IODP Expedition 354

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekens, P. S.; Weber, M. E.; Lantzsch, H.; Das, S. K.; Williams, T.; Adhikari, R. R.; Jia, G.; Fox, L. R.; Ge, J.; Manoj, M. C.; Savian, J. F.; Reilly, B. T.; Selkin, P. A.; Meynadier, L.; Spiess, V.; France-Lanord, C.; Sharma, B.

    2015-12-01

    IODP Expedition 354 drilled a ~320 km long transect of seven sites on the Lower Bengal Fan at 8o N in the Northern Indian Ocean. The sediments cores recovered record a complex relationship between turbiditic and hemipelagic environments. This variability offers a unique opportunity to link our understanding of tectonic and terrestrial processes with climate and oceanography. With the exception the westernmost Site U1454, all sites show a several meter thick, hemipelagic top layer, usually representing Late Quaternary sediment. We present physical, geochemical and stable isotopic properties of this interval to establish a time frame and assess the paleoceanographic development of the region during the last glacial cycle. We sampled Site U1452C-1H continuously for the uppermost 480 cm of hemipelagic sediment in 2-cm increments. Preliminary results indicate the Toba Ash 1 (0.74 ka) is a distinct time marker in all physical properties. Furthermore, wet-bulk density as well as color reflectance b* (the red-green component) and L* (the lightness) show a dominant precession cyclicity. Hence, we are able to provide an insolation-tuned chronology for the last 200 ka (MIS1 - 7) as a preliminary age model. These records agree well with d18O records retrieved from Chinese caves. We will present a preliminary paleoceanographic proxy data to reconstruct sea-surface temperature (SST), sea-surface salinity (SSS), ice volume, marine biological productivity, nutrient supply, and deep-water circulation. These oceanographic and climate conditions are linked to changes in monsoonal strength and terrestrial input using sedimentary proxies to reconstruct chemical weathering and sediment sources and transport time. This work addresses one of the primary cruise objectives - linking monsoon variability, regional and global climate, and Bay of Bengal sediment deposition.

  13. An investigation of the astronomical theory of the ice ages using a simple climate-ice sheet model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollard, D.

    1978-01-01

    The astronomical theory of the Quaternary ice ages is incorporated into a simple climate model for global weather; important features of the model include the albedo feedback, topography and dynamics of the ice sheets. For various parameterizations of the orbital elements, the model yields realistic assessments of the northern ice sheet. Lack of a land-sea heat capacity contrast represents one of the chief difficulties of the model.

  14. Plants for passive cooling. A preliminary investigation of the use of plants for passive cooling in temperate humid climates

    SciTech Connect

    Spirn, A W; Santos, A N; Johnson, D A; Harder, L B; Rios, M W

    1981-04-01

    The potential of vegetation for cooling small, detached residential and commercial structures in temperate, humid climates is discussed. The results of the research are documented, a critical review of the literature is given, and a brief review of energy transfer processes is presented. A checklist of design objectives for passive cooling, a demonstration of design applications, and a palette of selected plant species suitable for passive cooling are included.

  15. Composites Manufacturing Education and Technology Facility Expedites Manufacturing Innovation

    SciTech Connect

    2017-01-01

    The Composites Manufacturing Education and Technology facility (CoMET) at the National Wind Technology Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) paves the way for innovative wind turbine components and accelerated manufacturing. Available for use by industry partners and university researchers, the 10,000-square-foot facility expands NREL's composite manufacturing research capabilities by enabling researchers to design, prototype, and test composite wind turbine blades and other components -- and then manufacture them onsite. Designed to work in conjunction with NREL's design, analysis, and structural testing capabilities, the CoMET facility expedites manufacturing innovation.

  16. Expedition 6 Crew Interviews: Nikolai Budarin FEI (Flight Engineer 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Expedition 6 Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin is seen during a prelaunch interview. He provides details on the mission's goals and significance, his role in the mission, what his responsibilities will be, what the crew activities will be like (docking of a Progress unpiloted supply vehicle, maintaining the space station, conducting science experiments and performing one spacewalk), the day-to-day life on an extended stay mission, and the experiments he will be conducting on board. Budarin also discusses how his previous experiences on mir space missions will help him and ends his thoughts on how valuable the International Space Station has proven.

  17. NMC stratospheric analyses during the 1987 Antarctic expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelman, Melvyn E.; Newman, Paul A.

    1988-01-01

    Stratospheric constant pressure analyses of geopotential height and temperature, produced as part of regular operations at the National Meteorological Center (NMC), were used by several participants of the Antarctic Ozone Expedition. A brief decription is given of the NMC stratospheric analyses and the data that are used to derive them. In addition, comparisons of the analysis values at the locations of radiosonde and aircraft data are presented to provide indications for assessing the representativeness of the NMC stratospheric analyses during the 1987 Antarctic winter-spring period.

  18. Community College's CAN do Research A Decade of Eclipse Expeditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saken, Jon M.

    2006-12-01

    Gale force winds, ravenous Tsetse flies and duct-tape equipment repairs. Now that's science! This talk will describe the triumphs and disasters over almost a decade of world-wide astronomical expeditions involving community college students, faculty and K-12 teachers chasing one of nature's most spectacular shows a total solar eclipse. The impact of this kind of field science on the participants and the wider community, along with other lessons learned along the way, will also be discussed, as we present ideas to encourage others to join in the fun.

  19. Investigating the Influence of Climate Changes on Rodent Communities at a Regional-Scale (MIS 1-3, Southwestern France)

    PubMed Central

    Royer, Aurélien; Montuire, Sophie; Legendre, Serge; Discamps, Emmanuel; Jeannet, Marcel; Lécuyer, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems have continuously evolved throughout the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene, deeply affected by both progressive environmental and climatic modifications, as well as by abrupt and large climatic changes such as the Heinrich or Dansgaard-Oeschger events. Yet, the impacts of these different events on terrestrial mammalian communities are poorly known, as is the role played by potential refugia on geographical species distributions. This study examines community changes in rodents of southwestern France between 50 and 10 ky BP by integrating 94 dated faunal assemblages coming from 37 archaeological sites. This work reveals that faunal distributions were modified in response to abrupt and brief climatic events, such as Heinrich events, without actually modifying the rodent community on a regional scale. However, the succession of events which operated between the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene gradually led to establishing a new rodent community at the regional scale, with intermediate communities occurring between the Bølling and the Allerød. PMID:26789523

  20. Climate Reconstructions of the Younger Dryas: An ELA Model Investigating Variability in ELA Depressions, Temperature, and Precipitation Changes for the Graubϋnden Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeler, D. G.; Rupper, S.; Schaefer, J. M.; Finkel, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    The high sensitivity of mountain glaciers to even small perturbations in climate, combined with a near global distribution, make alpine glaciers an important target for terrestrial paleoclimate reconstructions. The geomorphic remnant of past glaciers can yield important insights into past climate, particularly in regions where other methods of reconstruction are not possible. The quantitative conversion of these changes in geomorphology to a climate signal, however, presents a significant challenge. A particular need exists for a versatile climate reconstruction method applicable to diverse glacierized regions around the globe. Because the glacier equilibrium line altitude (ELA) provides a more explicit comparison of climate than properties such as glacier length or area, ELA methods lend themselves well to such a need, and allow for a more direct investigation of the primary drivers of mountain glaciations during specific events. Here, we present an ELA model for quantifying changes in climate based on changes in glacier extent, while accounting for differences in glacier width, glacier shape, bed topography, ice thickness, and glacier length. The model furthermore provides bounds on the ΔELA using Monte Carlo simulations. These methods are validated using published mass balances and ELA measurements from 4 modern glaciers in the European Alps. We then use this ELA model, combined with a surface mass and energy balance model, to estimate the changes in temperature/precipitation between the Younger Dryas (constrained by 10Be surface exposure ages) and the present day for three glacier systems in the Graubϋnden Alps. Our results indicate an ELA depression in this area of 257 m ±45 m during the Younger Dryas (YD) relative to today. This corresponds to a 1.3 °C ±0.36 °C decrease in temperature or a 156% ±30% increase in precipitation relative to today. These results indicate the likelihood of a predominantly temperature-driven change rather than a strong

  1. Investigation of aviation emission impacts on global tropospheric chemistry and climate using a size-resolved aerosol-chemistry model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapadia, Zarashpe; Spracklen, Dominick; Arnold, Stephen; Borman, Duncan; Mann, Graham; Pringle, Kirsty; Monks, Sarah; Reddington, Carly; Rap, Alexandru; Scott, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    Aviation is responsible for 3% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions, but 2-14% of anthropogenic induced climate warming due to contributions from short lived climate forcers. The global civil aviation fleet is projected to double by 2026 in relation to a 2006 baseline and so will play a substantial role in future climate change. Uncertainty in the net impact of aviation on climate is largely due to uncertainty in the impacts of aviation emissions on ozone and aerosol. To study the impact of aviation emissions we use the GLOMAP-mode global aerosol microphysics model coupled to the 3-D chemical transport model TOMCAT. GLOMAP-mode has been extended to include treatment of nitrate aerosol. We include a full suite of non-CO2 aviation emissions (including NOX, SO2, HCs, BC and OC) in the model. We combined the simulated changes in ozone and aerosol with a 3D radiative transfer model to quantify the radiative effect due to aviation non-CO2 emissions. We find that aviation emissions increase O3 concentrations by up to 5.3% in the upper troposphere (UT), broadly matching previous studies. Black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) concentrations increase by 26.5% and 14.6% respectively in the UT, whereas nitrate aerosol is reduced in some regions due to co-emission of NOX and SO2 In the UT, aviation emissions increase both total aerosol number as well as the concentration of particles greater than 70 nm diameter (N70). Entrainment of these particles into the free troposphere results in aviation emissions also increasing N70 in the boundary layer, causing a cooling through the first aerosol indirect effect. We explore differences in these responses compared with those simulated when using the recommended aviation emissions from CMIP5 (5th Climate Model Intercomparison Project), which only include NOX and BC emissions. Our results suggest that aviation emissions of SO2 and HCs neglected by CMIP5 produce important effects on ozone, aerosol number, and N70. We suggest CMIP5

  2. Connecting Teachers and Students with Science Experts: NASA's Expedition Earth and Beyond Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graff, P. V.; Stefanov, W. L.; Willis, K. J.; Runco, S.; McCollum, T.; Baker, M.; Mailhot, M.; Lindgren, C. F.

    2010-12-01

    Classroom teachers are challenged with engaging and preparing today’s students for the future. Activities are driven by state required skills, education standards, and high stakes testing. How can educators teach required standards and motivate students to not only learn essential skills, but also acquire a sense of intrigue to want to learn more? One way is to allow students to take charge of their learning and conduct student-driven research. NASA’s Expedition Earth and Beyond program, based at the NASA Johnson Space Center, is designed to do just that. The program, developed by both educators and scientists, promotes inquiry-based investigations in classrooms (grades 5-14) by using current NASA data. By combining the expertise of teachers, who understand the everyday challenges of working with students, and scientists, who work with the process of science as they conduct their own research, the result is a realistic and useable means in which to promote authentic research in classrooms. NASA’s Expedition Earth and Beyond Program was created with the understanding that there are three important aspects that enable teachers to implement authentic research experiences in the classroom. These aspects are: 1) Standards-aligned, inquiry based curricular resources and an implementation structure to support student-driven research; 2) Professional development opportunities to learn techniques and strategies to ensure seamless implementation of resources; and 3) Ongoing support. Expedition Earth and Beyond provides all three of these aspects and adds two additional and inspiring motivators. One is the opportunity for student research teams to request new data. Data requested and approved would be acquired by astronauts orbiting Earth on the International Space Station. This aspect is part of the process of science structure and provides a powerful way to excite students. The second, and perhaps more significant motivator, is the creation of connections between

  3. Investigation of detailed spatial structure of the Moscow urban heat island with application of the newest meteorological observations and regional climate modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varentsov, Mikhail; Pavel, Konstantinov; Timofey, Samsonov

    2016-04-01

    During the last years, the network of metrological observation in Moscow megacity and its neighborhoods, forming the biggest urban agglomeration in Europe, was significantly extended. Several new weather stations and completely new dense network of air-quality monitoring appears during the last decade. In addition, several microwave meteorological profilers MTP 5, which are available to measure temperature at the heights from 0 to 1000 meters with 50-m resolution, were installed in the city and its surrounding. All these measurements allow revealing undiscovered features of Moscow urban climate and urban heat island (UHI). In our research, bases on this data, we covered several topics related to urban climatology: - Investigation of detailed spatial structure of Moscow UHI and its relationships with building features, such as land use and morphology of the street canyons, obtained by GIS-algorithms according (Samsonov et. al, 2015); - Investigation of three-dimensional structure of the UHI, including its vertical extend and influence on the stratification of the atmosphere, and three-dimensional structure of the urban heat island advection and urban heat plumes; - Application of the newest data for validation of the regional climate model COSMO-CLM, coupled with TEB urban scheme (Masson, 2000; Trusilova et. al., 2013), launched for Moscow region with 1-km spatial resolution. References: 1. Masson V. A. Physically-Based Scheme for the Urban Energy Budget in Atmospheric models. Bound. Layer Meteor. 2000. V. 94 (3). P. 357-397. 2. Trusilova K., Früh B., Brienen S., Walter A., Masson V., Pigeon G., Becker P. Implementation of an Urban Parameterization Scheme into the Regional Climate Model COSMO-CLM. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. V. 52. P. 2296-2311. 3. Samsonov T.E., Konstantinov P.I., Varentsov M.I. Object-oriented approach to urban canyon analysis and its applications in meteorological modeling. Urban Climate. 2015. Vol. 13. P. 122-139.

  4. Polar poisons: did Botulism doom the Franklin expedition?

    PubMed

    Horowitz, B Zane

    2003-01-01

    In 1845 the Franklin expedition left London with 2 ships and 134 men on board in an attempt to find the route through the Northwest Passage. The ships were built with state-of-the-art technology for their day, but provisioned with supplies from the lowest bidder. After taking on fresh provisions in the Whalefish Islands, off the coast of Greenland, the entire crew was never heard from again. Graves found on remote Beechey Island indicate that three able-bodied seamen died during the first winter. A note written on a ship's log, later found in a cairn, indicate that the expedition's leader, Sir John Franklin, died during the second winter entrapped on the ice, by which time 24 men had also perished. The remaining crew failed in their attempt to walk out of the Arctic by an overland route. In 1981 Owen Beattie, from the University of Alberta, exhumed the remains of the sailors from the three graves on Beechey Island. Elevated lead levels were found in all three sailors. While lead poisoning has been a leading theory of the cause of the crew's deaths, blamed on the crudely tinned provisions the ships carried with them from England, chronic lead exposure may only have weakened the crew, not necessarily killed them. One of three exhumed sailors also had in his intestine the spores of an unspecified Clostridium species. The theory put forth by this article is that Botulism, type E, which is endemic in the Arctic, may have been responsible for their deaths.

  5. Some approaches to medical support for Martian expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlovskaya, Inessa B.; Egorov, Anatoly D.

    2003-01-01

    Medical support in a Martian expedition will be within the scope of crew responsibilities and maximally autonomous. Requirements to the system of diagnostics in this mission include considerable use of means and methods of visualization of the main physiological parameters, telemedicine, broad usage of biochemical analyses (including "dry" chemistry), computerized collection, measurement, analysis and storage of medical information. The countermeasure system will be based on objective methods of crew fitness and working ability evaluation, individual selection of training regimens, and intensive use of computer controlled training. Implementation of the above principles implies modernization and refinement of the countermeasures currently used by space crews of long-term missions (LTM), and increases of the assortment of active and passive training devices, among them a short-arm centrifuge. The system of medical care with the functions of prevention, clinical diagnostics and timely treatment will be autonomous, too. The general requirements to medical care during the future mission are the following: availability of conditions and means for autonomous urgent and special medical aid and treatment of the most possible states and diseases, "a hospital", and assignment to the crew of one or two doctors. To ensure independence of medical support and medical care in an expedition to Mars an automated expert system needs to be designed and constructed to control the medical situation as a whole. c2003 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  6. Expedition 8 Crew Interviews: Alexander Y. Kaleri - FE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Russian cosmonaut Alexander Y. Kaleri, Flight Engineer on Expedition 8 to the International Space Station (ISS), answers interview questions on this video, either himself or with the help of an interpreter. The questions cover: 1) The goal of the expedition; 2) The place in history of Mir; 3) The reaction to the loss of Columbia in Houston; 4) Why the rewards of spaceflight are worth the risks; 5) Why he decided to become a cosmonaut; 6) His memory of Yuri Gagarin's first flight; 7) What happens on a Soyuz capsule during launch and flight; 8) Are Soyuz maneuvers automatic or manual; 8) How the ISS science mission will be advanced during his stay; 9) The responsibilities of a Flight Engineer onboard the ISS; 10) Extravehicular activity (EVA) plans at that time; 11) The Shuttle Return to Flight and his preference for a Shuttle or Soyuz landing; 12) Why the last Soyuz landing was too rough; 13) The most valueable contribution of the ISS program.

  7. Some approaches to medical support for Martian expedition.

    PubMed

    Kozlovskaya, Inessa B; Egorov, Anatoly D

    2003-01-01

    Medical support in a Martian expedition will be within the scope of crew responsibilities and maximally autonomous. Requirements to the system of diagnostics in this mission include considerable use of means and methods of visualization of the main physiological parameters, telemedicine, broad usage of biochemical analyses (including "dry" chemistry), computerized collection, measurement, analysis and storage of medical information. The countermeasure system will be based on objective methods of crew fitness and working ability evaluation, individual selection of training regimens, and intensive use of computer controlled training. Implementation of the above principles implies modernization and refinement of the countermeasures currently used by space crews of long-term missions (LTM), and increases of the assortment of active and passive training devices, among them a short-arm centrifuge. The system of medical care with the functions of prevention, clinical diagnostics and timely treatment will be autonomous, too. The general requirements to medical care during the future mission are the following: availability of conditions and means for autonomous urgent and special medical aid and treatment of the most possible states and diseases, "a hospital", and assignment to the crew of one or two doctors. To ensure independence of medical support and medical care in an expedition to Mars an automated expert system needs to be designed and constructed to control the medical situation as a whole.

  8. Sharing Data: Building on the Traditions of Collaborative Ocean Expeditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinen, M.

    2015-12-01

    Collaborative international marine research programs over the past 60 years have built on the historic tradition of extended national expeditions during the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries that explored new regions of the ocean and integrated knowledge: the Challenger, Albatross, and Meteor Expeditions. As oceanography matured after WWII, a new style of collaborative program emerged that focused on specific processes or problems rather than general exploration; the International Geophysical Year (IGY, 1957-58) was followed by the International Decade of Ocean Exploration (IDOE, 1970s). The latter set the stage for regular campaign-style oceanography focused on large-scale problems beyond the capability of individuals or small groups. These have become a staple of international oceanography and provide a framework around which oceanographers from around the world can contribute to global ocean discovery regardless of the capabilities of their individual nations. These collaborations have explored everything from processes controlling and associated with the formation of new ocean floor (RIDGE) to the Census of Marine Life. New collaborations have extended the concept of the international campaign to networks of autonomous vehicles (ARGO) in which all data are freely available. Regardless of the immediate discoveries associated with a campaign, much of its influence derives from the free availability of the data. Those research programs that have made digital data freely available have had an enormous follow-on impact as new models (digital and otherwise) are applied to the results. .

  9. Some approaches to medical support for Martian expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovskaya, Inessa B.; Egorov, Anatoly D.

    2003-08-01

    Medical support in a Martian expedition will be within the scope of crew responsibilities and maximally autonomous. Requirements to the system of diagnostics in this mission include considerable use of means and methods of visualization of the main physiological parameters, telemedicine, broad usage of biochemical analyses (including "dry" chemistry), computerized collection, measurement, analysis and storage of medical information. The countermeasure system will be based on objective methods of crew fitness and working ability evaluation, individual selection of training regimens, and intensive use of computer controlled training. Implementation of the above principles implies modernization and refinement of the countermeasures currently used by space crews of long-term missions (LTM), and increases of the assortment of active and passive training devices, among them a short-arm centrifuge. The system of medical care with the functions of prevention, clinical diagnostics and timely treatment will be autonomous, too. The general requirements to medical care during the future mission are the following: availability of conditions and means for autonomous urgent and special medical aid and treatment of the most possible states and diseases, "a hospital", and assignment to the crew of one or two doctors. To ensure independence of medical support and medical care in an expedition to Mars an automated expert system needs to be designed and constructed to control the medical situation as a whole.

  10. Lidar measurements of ozone and aerosol distributions during the 1992 airborne Arctic stratospheric expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, Edward V.; Butler, Carolyn F.; Fenn, Marta A.; Grant, William B.; Ismail, Syed; Carter, Arlen F.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Langley airborne differential absorption lidar system was operated from the NASA Ames DC-8 aircraft during the 1992 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition to investigate the distribution of stratospheric aerosols and ozone (O3) across the Arctic vortex from January to March 1992. Aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption were found outside and inside the Arctic vortex with distinctly different scattering characteristics and spatial distributions in the two regions. The aerosol and O3 distributions clearly identified the edge of the vortex and provided additional information on vortex dynamics and transport processes. Few polar stratospheric clouds were observed during the AASE-2; however, those that were found had enhanced scattering and depolarization over the background Pinatubo aerosols. The distribution of aerosols inside the vortex exhibited relatively minor changes during the AASE-2. Ozone depletion inside the vortex as limited to less than or equal to 20 percent in the altitude region from 15-20 km.

  11. QuickSite{sup SM}, the Argonne expedited site characterization methodology,

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, J.C.; Meyer, W.T.

    1997-09-01

    Expedited site characterization (ESC), developed by Argonne National Laboratory, is an interactive, integrated process emphasizing the use of existing data of sufficient quality, multiple complementary characterization methods, and on-site decision making to optimize site investigations. The Argonne ESC is the basis for the provisional ESC standard of the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials). QuickSite{sup SM} is the implementation package developed by Argonne to facilitate ESC of sites contaminated with hazardous wastes. At various sites, Argonne has successfully implemented QuickSite{sup SM} and demonstrated the technical superiority of the ESC process over traditional methodologies guided by statistics and random-sampling approaches. For example, in a QuickSite{sup SM} characterization of a perched aquifer at the Pantex Plant in Texas, past data and geochemical analyses of existing wells were used to develop a model for recharge and contaminant movement. With the model as a guide, closure was achieved with minimal field work.

  12. A closer investigation of associations between Autumn Arctic sea ice and central and east Eurasian winter climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shaoyin; Liu, Jiping

    2016-04-01

    Whether recent Arctic sea ice loss is responsible for recent severe winters over mid-latitude continents has emerged as a major debate among climate scientists owing to short records of observations and large internal variability in mid- and high-latitudes. In this study, we divide the evolution of autumn Arctic sea ice extent during 1979-2014 into three epochs, 1979-1986 (high), 1987-2006 (moderate) and 2007-2014 (low), using a regime shift identification method. We then compare the associations between autumn Arctic sea ice and winter climate anomalies over central and eastern Eurasia for the three epochs with focus not only on the mean state, but also the extreme events. The results show robust and detectable signals of sea ice loss in weather and climate over western Siberia and East Asia. For the mean state, anomalous low sea ice extent is associated with a strengthening of the Siberian high pressure, a weakening of westerly winds over north Asia, leading to cold anomalies in central Asia and northern China. For the extreme events, the latitude (speed) of the jet stream shifts southward (reduces), the wave extent amplifies, blocking high events increase over Ural Mountains, leading to increased frequency of cold air outbreaks extending from central Asia to northeast China. These associations bear a high degree of similarity to the observed atmospheric anomalies during the low sea ice epoch. By contrast, the patterns of atmospheric anomalies for the high sea ice epoch are different from those congruent with sea ice variability, which is related to the persistent negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation. We also found that the ENSO plays a minor role in the determination of the observed atmospheric anomalies for the three epochs. Support for these observational analysis is largely corroborated by independent atmospheric model simulations.

  13. Multiproxy investigation of climatic changes and human activities in a Baltic bog (N. Poland) during the last millennium.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vleeschouwer, François; Fagel, Nathalie; Piotrowska, Natalia; Sikorski, Jarek; Pawlyta, Jacek; Cheburkin, Andriy; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Pazdur, Anna; Mattielli, Nadine; Renson, Virginie

    2010-05-01

    We present a multiproxy study carried out on a peat core retrieved from Słowińskie Błota bog (Pomerania, N-Poland). Several organic (palynology, plant macrofossils, testate amoebae, d13C) and inorganic (elemental geochemistry, lead isotopes) proxies were coupled to 210Pb-14C age-modelling in order to discriminate climatic and anthropogenic signals. Reconstruction of dust fluxes through time has remained a challenge, especially for tracing the nature of climatic changes. Although the idea of enhanced erosion conditions and storminess is commonly discussed, the conditions for dust deposition in peatlands over Europe during, for example, the ‘Little Ice Age' (LIA), are rarely favourable. Indeed the natural forest cover over Europe was much more important than nowadays, preventing dust deposition. Northern Poland, near the Baltic shore, was deforested just before the LIA (around AD 1100), and therefore constitutes a key area for the reconstruction of LIA climatic change. Our study of organic proxies evidences the LIA and is combined to our inorganic geochemical approach to validate our dust record. Overall, both organic and inorganic proxies show that LIA climatic changes are in good agreement with other records from Poland and NE Europe within a ca. 50yrs uncertainty. The severity of the LIA does however not affect the dynamism of mining activities over the last millennium. Indeed, during the LIA, Poland is experiencing its economical and cultural apogee, which can be seen by an increase in lead enrichment factors interpreted as an increase in mining activities. Lead, Zn, Cu, Ni concentrations and Pb isotopic ratios show that Polish Pb-Zn ores and coal were the main sources of Pb, as well as other heavy metals and S over Northern Poland until the industrial revolution. During the last century, leaded gasoline also contributed to anthropogenic Pb input over Poland. Coal and Pb-Zn ores, however, remained important sources of pollution in Eastern European countries

  14. Investigating variation in the nutritional ecology and genetics of White-tailed Ptarmigan: implications for climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyler-McCance, S. J.; Stricker, C. A.; Braun, C. E.; Wann, G. T.; Aldridge, C. L.

    2010-12-01

    White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura) are well suited as a focal species for the study of climate change because they are adapted to cool, alpine environments that are expected to undergo unusually rapid climate change. We compared samples collected in the late 1930s, the late 1960s, and the late 2000s using molecular genetic and stable isotope methods in an effort to determine whether White-tailed Ptarmigan on Mt. Evans, Colorado have experienced recent environmental changes resulting in shifts in genetic diversity, gene frequency, and nutritional ecology. We genotyped 115 individuals spanning the three time periods using nine polymorphic microsatellite loci in our genetic analysis. These samples were also analyzed for stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition. We found a slight trend of lower heterozygosity through time and allelic richness values were lower in more recent times. We found no changes in allele frequencies across time periods suggesting that population sizes have not changed dramatically. Feather δ13C and δ15N values decreased significantly across time periods, whereas the range in isotope values increased consistently from the late 1930s to the later time periods. Inferred changes in the nutritional ecology of White-tailed Ptarmigan on Mt. Evans relates primarily to increased atmospheric deposition of nutrients that likely influenced foraging habits and tundra plant composition and nutritional quality. We briefly discuss similar ongoing work on the neighboring population in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado and tie in genetic results from across the species range.

  15. Formation MicroScanner (FMS) data and orbital cycle records: preliminary interpretation from the Asian Monsoon IODP Expedition 346

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johanna, Lofi; Grizel, Jimenez Soto; Ryuji, Tada; Murray Richard, W.; Alvarez Zarikian Carlos, A.; Martin, Ziegler

    2015-04-01

    Recently, IODP Expedition 346 (29 July-27 September 2013) drilled seven sites in in the marginal sea bordered by the Eurasian continent, the Korean Peninsula, and the Japanese Islands, as well as two closely spaced sites in the East China Sea. Expedition 346 was the first scientific drilling expedition ever to focus exclusively on the climate system in this region. During the expedition, the Formation MicroScanner (FMS) downhole logging tool was deployed, providing high-resolution electrical resistivity-based images of borehole walls. Features such as bedding, slump folding and bioturbation can be resolved. Here we analyze FMS image resistivity data collected at Site U1425 that extend back to the Miocene. Analysis allowed the recognition of several FMS intervals, with vertical extension ranging from several tens of centimeters to a few meters, with an apparent cyclicity. These FMS intervals correlate well with other downhole logs (Total Gamma Ray, Uranium, Thorium, Potassium and density). Conductive intervals generally correlate with low gamma ray and low density log values. Conversely, more resistive intervals generally correlate with higher values in the gamma ray and bulk density logs. This relationship can be interpreted in terms of the relative abundance of terrigenous clay/diatoms in the sediment. Clay has high K and Th contents and relatively higher density and lower porosity than higher diatom-rich sediment. Consequently, with the exception of sporadic ash and dolomite layers, conductive intervals in the FMS images tend to reflect intervals enriched in diatoms, whereas resistive intervals reflect relative high-terrigenous clay content. An apparent cyclic nature, with several orders of cycles on the FMS images, is locally clearly observed. The cyclic pattern consists of ~4-8 m thick resistive intervals alternating with conductive intervals, generally correlating in core with laminated (diatomite or carbonate rich) intervals. These conductive intervals often

  16. 22 CFR 171.50 - Appeal of denials of expedited processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appeal of denials of expedited processing. 171.50 Section 171.50 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACCESS TO INFORMATION AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION AND RECORDS TO THE PUBLIC Appeal Procedures § 171.50 Appeal of denials of expedited processing....

  17. 3 CFR - Expediting Review of Pipeline Projects From Cushing, Oklahoma, to Port Arthur, Texas, and Other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Expediting Review of Pipeline Projects From Cushing, Oklahoma, to Port Arthur, Texas, and Other Domestic Pipeline Infrastructure Projects Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of March 22, 2012 Expediting Review of Pipeline Projects...

  18. Medical support for Pershing's Punitive Expedition in Mexico, 1916-1917.

    PubMed

    Marble, William Sanders

    2008-03-01

    Pershing's Punitive Expedition had adequate medical support despite deliberately limited in-theater resources. The few casualties did not strain the inadequate number of forward providers. Preventive medicine was highly successful due to significant medical and command emphasis. New technologies were useful and helped minimize the medical footprint. National Guard troops mobilized to support the Expedition had troublesome medical readiness rates.

  19. 39 CFR 3004.40 - Hard copy requests for records and for expedited processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 3004.40 Hard copy requests for records and for expedited processing. (a) A... clearly identified as “Freedom of Information Act Request” both in the text of the request and on the... identified as “Expedited Freedom of Information Act Request” both in the text of the request and on...

  20. 39 CFR 3004.40 - Hard copy requests for records and for expedited processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 3004.40 Hard copy requests for records and for expedited processing. (a) A... clearly identified as “Freedom of Information Act Request” both in the text of the request and on the... identified as “Expedited Freedom of Information Act Request” both in the text of the request and on...