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Sample records for expedition investigates climate

  1. EarthLabs Climate Detectives: Using the Science, Data, and Technology of IODP Expedition 341 to Investigate the Earth's Past Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mote, A. S.; Lockwood, J.; Ellins, K. K.; Haddad, N.; Ledley, T. S.; Lynds, S. E.; McNeal, K.; Libarkin, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    EarthLabs, an exemplary series of lab-based climate science learning modules, is a model for high school Earth Science lab courses. Each module includes a variety of learning activities that allow students to explore the Earth's complex and dynamic climate history. The most recent module, Climate Detectives, uses data from IODP Expedition 341, which traveled to the Gulf of Alaska during the summer of 2013 to study past climate, sedimentation, and tectonics along the continental margin. At the onset of Climate Detectives, students are presented with a challenge engaging them to investigate how the Earth's climate has changed since the Miocene in southern Alaska. To complete this challenge, students join Exp. 341 to collect and examine sediments collected from beneath the seafloor. The two-week module consists of six labs that provide students with the content and skills needed to solve this climate mystery. Students discover how an international team collaborates to examine a scientific problem with the IODP, compete in an engineering design challenge to learn about scientific ocean drilling, and learn about how different types of proxy data are used to detect changes in Earth's climate. The NGSS Science and Engineering Practices are woven into the culminating activity, giving students the opportunity to think and act like scientists as they investigate the following questions: 1) How have environmental conditions in in the Gulf of Alaska changed during the time when the sediments in core U1417 were deposited? (2) What does the occurrence of different types of diatoms and their abundance reveal about the timing of the cycles of glacial advance and retreat? (3) What timeline is represented by the section of core? (4) How do results from the Gulf of Alaska compare with the global record of glaciations during this period based on oxygen isotopes proxies? Developed by educators in collaboration with Expedition 341 scientists, Climate Detectives is a strong example of

  2. An Investigation of the Outward Bound Final Expedition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobilya, Andrew J.; Kalisch, Ken; Daniel, Brad

    2011-01-01

    Research of wilderness programs indicates a clear need for additional investigation of specific program components and their influence on participant outcomes. This study examines one component of the Outward Bound wilderness program--the Final Expedition. The Final Expedition is a student-led wilderness expedition and is also referred to as an…

  3. Expedition Earth and Beyond: Student Scientist Guidebook. Model Research Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, Paige Valderrama

    2009-01-01

    The Expedition Earth and Beyond Student Scientist Guidebook is designed to help student researchers model the process of science and conduct a research investigation. The Table of Contents listed outlines the steps included in this guidebook

  4. Expedited site characterization for remedial investigations at federal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, J.C.

    1994-04-01

    Argonne National Laboratory`s Expedited Side Characterization (ESC) methodology gives federal agencies a process for producing high-quality CERCLA and RCRA site characterizations and remedial investigations in a cost- and time-efficient manner. The ESC process has been successfully tested and applied at numerous federal facilities. Examples include expanded site investigations for the Department of Interior`s Bureau of Land Management and remedial investigations for the Commodity Credit Corporation/US Dept. of Agriculture (CCC/USDA). In particular, the CCC/USDA has been the major sponsor in the development of the ESC process at Argonne. The technical successes and the cost and time savings of the ESC process for these programs have been detailed in previous papers. The Argonne ESC is currently being implemented at a Department of Energy facility (Pantex) and is schedules for implementation in the Department of Defense base closure program in order to meet accelerated schedules for remedial actions by these agencies.

  5. Organized investigation expedites insurance claims following a blowout

    SciTech Connect

    Armstreet, R.

    1996-01-22

    Various types of insurance policies cover blowouts to different degrees, and a proper understanding of the incident and the coverage can expedite the adjustment process. Every well control incident, and the claim arising therefrom, has a unique set of circumstances which must be analyzed thoroughly. A blowout incident, no matter what size or how severe, can have an emotional impact on all who become involved. Bodily injuries or death of friends and coworkers can result in additional stress following a blowout. Thus, it is important that all parties involved remain mindful of sensitive matters when investigating a blowout. This paper reviews the definition of a blowout based on insurance procedures and claims. It reviews blowout expenses and contractor cost and accepted well control policies. Finally, it reviews the investigation procedures normally followed by an agent and the types of information requested from the operator.

  6. Investigating Future Climate Scenarios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Chris; Bodzin, Alec; Anastasio, David; Sahagian, Dork; Cirucci, Lori

    2012-01-01

    One of the most alarming impacts of projected climate change is a significant rise in sea level. Sea level has varied by hundreds of meters over geologic time, yet these changes have generally been slow paced, allowing ecosystems to adjust to changing land surface and marine habitats. Since the Industrial Revolution, anthropogenic emissions have…

  7. Investigating Future Climate Scenarios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Chris; Bodzin, Alec; Anastasio, David; Sahagian, Dork; Cirucci, Lori

    2012-01-01

    One of the most alarming impacts of projected climate change is a significant rise in sea level. Sea level has varied by hundreds of meters over geologic time, yet these changes have generally been slow paced, allowing ecosystems to adjust to changing land surface and marine habitats. Since the Industrial Revolution, anthropogenic emissions have…

  8. Vegetation and climate development on the Atlantic Coastal Plain during the late Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (IODP Expedition 313)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prader, Sabine; Kotthoff, Ulrich; McCarthy, Francine; Greenwood, David

    2015-04-01

    The major aims of IODP Expedition 313 are estimating amplitudes, rates and mechanisms of sea-level change and the evaluation of sequence stratigraphic facies models that predict depositional environments, sediment compositions, and stratal geometries in response to sea-level change. Cores from three Sites (313-M0027, M0028, and M0029) from the New Jersey shallow shelf (water depth approximately 35 m) were retrieved during May to July 2009, using an ECORD "mission-specific" jack-up platform. We have investigated the palynology of sediment cores from Site M0027, 45 km off the present-day coast of New Jersey. For this study, we have focused on pollen studies for the second half of the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO) and the subsequent transition to cooler conditions (ca. 15 to 13 million years before present). Transport-caused bias of the pollen assemblages was identified via the analysis of the terrestrial/marine palynomorph ratio and these results were considered when interpreting palaeo-vegetation from the pollen data. Pollen preservation in the interval analyzed herein was generally very good. Pollen grains were analyzed via both light and scanning electron microscopy. For most samples, the pollen assemblages were not highly diverse. The most abundant taxa through all samples were Quercus (oak) and Carya (hickory). Typical wetland elements like Cyperaceae, Taxodium (cypress), Nyssa (tupelo tree) and taxa today growing in the tropics and subtropics like Sapotaceae, Symplocaceae, Arecaceae (palm trees) and Alangium, which indicate particularly warm climate conditions, were only sporadically found, but indicate warmer phases during the second half of the MMCO. Herbal pollen was generally rare, but members of the Asteraceae, Apiaceae, and Ericaceae families, together with infrequent occurences of Poaceae pollen indicate the presence of areas with open vegetation. The Mid-Miocene pollen assemblages reflect a vegetation in the hinterland of the New Jersey shelf

  9. The Majority of Expedited Investigational New Drug Safety Reports Are Uninformative.

    PubMed

    Jarow, Jonathan P; Casak, Sandra; Chuk, Meredith; Ehrlich, Lori A; Khozin, Sean

    2016-05-01

    Sponsors of human drug and biologic products subject to an investigational new drug (IND) application are required to distribute expedited safety reports of serious and unexpected suspected adverse reactions to participating investigators and the FDA to assure the protection of human subjects participating in clinical trials. On September 29, 2010, the FDA issued a final rule amending its regulations governing expedited IND safety reporting requirements that revised the definitions used for reporting and clarified when to submit relevant and useful information to reduce the number of uninformative reports distributed by sponsors. From January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2014, the FDA's Office of Hematology and Oncology Products received an average of 17,686 expedited safety reports per year. An analysis of FDA submissions by commercial sponsors covering this time period suggested a slight increase in the number of expedited safety reports per IND per year after publication of the final rule. An audit of 160 randomly selected expedited safety reports submitted to the FDA's Office of Hematology and Oncology Products in 2015 revealed that only 22 (14%) were informative. The submission of uninformative expedited safety reports by commercial sponsors of INDs continues to be a significant problem that can compromise detection of valid safety signals. Clin Cancer Res; 22(9); 2111-3. ©2016 AACR.

  10. Climate-Ice Sheet Interactions through the Pliocene-Pleistocene: Preliminary Results from IODP Expedition 341 (Gulf of Alaska)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, J.; McClymont, E.; Sanchez Montes, M. L.; Moy, C. M.; Romero, O. E.; Lloyd, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Since the Pliocene, global climate history is distinguished by the transition into a colder world, dominated by the onset and intensification of major Northern Hemisphere glaciations which have also changed in their duration and intensity. Potential drivers for these events include falling atmospheric CO2, progressive sub-glacial erosion, tectonic uplift, and associated feedbacks. At present, isolating climate as the driver of evolving continental ice volume since the Pliocene is hindered by the limited long term data sets which directly link climate changes to evidence for ice-sheet advance/retreat, erosion, and tectonic evolution over million year timescales. IODP Expedition 341 drilled a cross-margin transect in the Gulf of Alaska from ice-proximal sites on the continental shelf to distal sites in the deep Pacific. This study focuses on the distal site (Site U1417, c.4190 m water depth) which contains variable biogenic and terrigenous contributions, and evidence for deposition through pelagic, mass movement and glacial processes. Our aim is to investigate links between north-east Pacific paleoceanography and the history of the north-west Cordilleran ice sheet, neither of which are fully understood given limited data pre-dating the Last Glacial Maximum. We reconstruct SSTs during the mid-Pliocene, Plio-Pleistocene Transition (PPT) and mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT) using the UK37' index. We consider the interaction between SSTs and primary production by examining the absolute and relative abundances of plankton biomarkers (e.g. for haptophytes, diatoms and dinoflagellates), carbon/nitrogen ratios, stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N) and diatom assemblages. Links between these climatic events and the north-west Cordilleran ice-sheet advance/retreat history are initially made using shipboard stratigraphy; emerging data sets on ice-rafting from members of the Expedition 341 Scientific Party will refine these relationships.

  11. South African Climates: Highlights From International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 361

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemming, S. R.; Hall, I. R.; LeVay, L.

    2016-12-01

    International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 361 drilled six sites on the southeast African margin and in the Indian-Atlantic ocean gateway, southwest Indian Ocean, from 30 January to 31 March 2016. In total, 5175 m of core was recovered, with an average recovery of 102%, during 29.7 days of on-site operations. The sites, situated in the Mozambique Channel, at locations directly influenced by discharge from the Zambezi and Limpopo River catchments, the Natal Valley, the Agulhas Plateau, and the Cape Basin were targeted to reconstruct the history of the Greater Agulhas Current System over the past 5 Ma. The Agulhas Current transports 70 Sv of warm and saline surface waters from the tropical Indian Ocean along the East African margin to the tip of Africa. Exchanges of heat and moisture with the atmosphere influence southern African rainfall patterns. Recent ocean model and paleoceanographic data further point at a potential role of the Agulhas Current in controlling the strength and mode of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) during the Late Pleistocene. The main objectives of the expedition were to document the oceanographic properties of the Agulhas Current through tectonic and climatic changes during the Plio-Pleistocene, to determine the dynamics of the Indian-Atlantic gateway circulation during this time, to examine the connection of the Agulhas leakage and AMOC, to address the influence of the Agulhas Current on African terrestrial climates and potential links to Human evolution. Additionally, the Expedition set out to fulfill the needs of the Ancillary Project Letter, consisting of high-resolution interstitial water samples that will, and to constrain the temperature and salinity profiles of the ocean during the Last Glacial Maximum. Here we highlight some of the expedition successes and show how it has made major strides toward fulfilling each of these objectives. The recovered sequences allowed complete spliced stratigraphic sections

  12. Oligocene and Miocene Vegetation and climate development on the Atlantic Coastal Plain (IODP Expedition 313)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotthoff, Ulrich; McCarthy, Francine; Greenwood, David; Hesselbo, Stephen

    2013-04-01

    The major aims of IODP Expedition 313 are estimating amplitudes, rates and mechanisms of sea-level change and the evaluation of sequence stratigraphic facies models that predict depositional environments, sediment compositions, and stratal geometries in response to sea-level change. Cores from three Sites (313-M0027, M0028, and M0029; 45 to 67 km off the coast of New Jersey) from the New Jersey shallow shelf (water depth approximately 35 m) were retrieved during May to July 2009, using an ECORD "mission-specific" jack-up platform. The recovery rate for the three sites exceeded 80%; in total, more than 1300 m core length were achieved. The oldest sediments were recovered from Hole M0027A, and dated as late Eocene/early Oligocene according to biostratigraphy, sequence-stratigraphy, and Sr-isotopy-based age estimates. We have investigated the palynology of sediment cores from Sites M0027 and M0029. The cores examined span ca. 33 to 13 million years before present together with additional samples from younger sediments. The palynological results were complemented with pollen-based quantitative climate reconstructions using bioclimatic analysis, a mutual climate range NLR approach. Until the Pleistocene, the hinterland vegetation of the New Jersey shelf was characterized by oak-hickory forests in the lowlands and conifers in the highlands. The Oligocene witnessed several downward expansions of conifer forest, which were probably related to cooling events. The pollen-based climate data show a temperature increase during the Rupelian and at the Chattian-Aquitanian transition, with mean annual temperatures surpassing 15 °C. For the Miocene, mean annual temperatures varied around ~13.5 °C. Generally, the Miocene ecosystem and climate conditions were similar to those of the Oligocene in the hinterland of the New Jersey shelf. We conjecture that the Miocene uplift of the Appalachian Mountains led to the proliferation of mountainous taxa and thus to an increase of related

  13. Climate-ice sheet interactions through the Pliocene-Pleistocene: Preliminary results from Expedition 341 (Gulf of Alaska)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClymont, Erin; Sanchez Montes, Maria Luisa; Mueller, Juliane; Henry, Matthew; Lloyd, Jerry; 341 Science Party, Expedition

    2014-05-01

    (SSTs), sea ice, and marine primary productivity through the Pliocene and Pleistocene. Here we present initial findings from sites U1417 (the most distal site, 4190 m water depth) and U1418 (at 3667 m water depth). We reconstruct SSTs using the alkenone biomarker proxy, the UK37' index, and compare our results with evidence for evolving ice-sheet history as determined through the shipboard-generated lithostratigraphy of the two sites. We consider the interaction between SSTs and primary production by examining the absolute abundance and relative distribution of biomarkers specific to plankton groups (e.g. for haptophytes, diatoms and dinoflagellates). Further investigation of the relationship between these climatic events and the northwest Cordilleran ice sheet advance/retreat history will continue through comparison to emerging data sets on ice-rafting and associated changes to sediment provenance, generated by members of the Expedition 341 Scientific Party.

  14. IODP Expedition 325: Great Barrier Reefs Reveals Past Sea-Level, Climate and Environmental Changes Since the Last Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Y.; Webster, J. M.; Cotterill, C.; Braga, J. C.; Jovane, L.; Mills, H.; Morgan, S.; Suzuki, A.; IODP Expedition 325 Scientists, the

    2011-09-01

    The timing and courses of deglaciations are key components in understanding the global climate system. Cyclic changes in global climate have occurred, with growth and decay of high latitude ice sheets, for the last two million years. It is believed that these fluctuations are mainly controlled by periodic changes to incoming solar radiation due to the changes in Earth's orbit around the sun. However, not all climate variations can be explained by this process, and there is the growing awareness of the important role of internal climate feedback mechanisms. Understanding the nature of these feedbacks with regard to the timing of abrupt global sea-level and climate changes is of prime importance. The tropical ocean is one of the major components of the feedback system, and hence reconstructions of temporal variations in sea-surface conditions will greatly improve our understanding of the climate system. The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 325 drilled 34 holes across 17 sites in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia to recover fossil coral reef deposits. The main aim of the expedition was to understand the environmental changes that occurred during the last ice age and subsequent deglaciation, and more specifically (1) establish the course of sea-level change, (2) reconstruct the oceanographic conditions, and (3) determine the response of the reef to these changes. We recovered coral reef deposits from water depths down to 126 m that ranged in age from 9,000 years to older than 30,000 years ago. Given that the interval of the dated materials covers several paleoclimatologically important events, including the Last Glacial Maximum, we expect that ongoing scientific analyses will fulfill the objectives of the expedition. doi:10.2204/iodp.sd.12.04.2011

  15. Investigating hormonal adaptations to high altitude: five years of Defence Medical Services expeditions.

    PubMed

    Rowland, C

    2012-01-01

    The military has a tradition of supporting and promoting scientific expeditions. The past five years have witnessed a series of Defence Medical Service (DMS) expeditions to mountainous areas of the world, which set out with the dual purpose of researching high altitude human physiology and promoting the uptake of adventurous pursuits within the military. Beginning with exercise Medical Sentinel to Aconcagua, Argentina, in 2007, members of the DMS have since conducted two expeditions to the Himalayas (expedition Imja Tse, 2009 and expedition Khumbu Ramble, 2011) before returning to South America, to the Cordillera Real mountain range in Bolivia, on expedition Bolivian Venture, in late May 2012. This article aims to provide a brief background to the rationale behind these expeditions, a brief description of our understanding of altitude sickness and a history of the adventures that members of the Defence Medical Services have been having contributing to that understanding.

  16. NASA Climate Adaptation Science Investigators (CASI) Workgroup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, C.; Horton, R.

    2011-12-01

    The Climate Adaptation Science Investigators (CASI) Workgroup is comprised of NASA Earth scientists, applications researchers and institutional stewards, tasked with assisting the development of Climate Change Adaptation strategies for NASA as a whole as well as at individual Centers. In an Executive Order dated October 5, 2009, titled "Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance" the President mandates that all agencies "evaluate agency climate-change risks and vulnerabilities to manage the effects of climate change on the agency's operations and mission in both the short and long-term." To further these goals, the CASI Workgroup contributes to the scientific advancement of relevant climate and impacts studies at the Center-scale, contributes to a body of knowledge on how to apply Earth science in decision-making and ensures that NASA institutional stewards' decision-making process benefits from the best available scientific information. Climate variability and climate change pose a range of hazards to the NASA Centers located throughout the country. These changing climate hazards may challenge key NASA missions by threatening operations and damaging critical infrastructure. Studying and understanding these hazards are essential to ensuring effective risk management for the centers. By developing climate change adaptation strategies tailored to the specific impacts that are anticipated, NASA decision makers will be able to minimize negative effects of climate and climate change, while leveraging positive outcomes. The NASA CASI Workgroup will perform a variety of tasks including development of climate projections for each Center, inventory of climate and climate impact data and project activities within NASA, assessment of adaption approaches and Center-level planning strategies, recommendations for future research initiatives, and leading of thematic and region-specific workshops.

  17. 43 CFR 404.28 - Is it possible to expedite the completion of an appraisal investigation or feasibility study?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Is it possible to expedite the completion of an appraisal investigation or feasibility study? 404.28 Section 404.28 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.28 Is it...

  18. 43 CFR 404.28 - Is it possible to expedite the completion of an appraisal investigation or feasibility study?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Is it possible to expedite the completion of an appraisal investigation or feasibility study? 404.28 Section 404.28 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.28 Is it...

  19. Late Eocene to middle Miocene (33 to 13 million years ago) vegetation and climate development on the North American Atlantic Coastal Plain (IODP Expedition 313, Site M0027)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotthoff, U.; Greenwood, D. R.; McCarthy, F. M. G.; Müller-Navarra, K.; Prader, S.; Hesselbo, S. P.

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the palynology of sediment cores from Site M0027 of IODP (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program) Expedition 313 on the New Jersey shallow shelf to examine vegetation and climate dynamics on the east coast of North America between 33 and 13 million years ago and to assess the impact of over-regional climate events on the region. Palynological results are complemented with pollen-based quantitative climate reconstructions. Our results indicate that the hinterland vegetation of the New Jersey shelf was characterized by oak-hickory forests in the lowlands and conifer-dominated vegetation in the highlands from the early Oligocene to the middle Miocene. The Oligocene witnessed several expansions of conifer forest, probably related to cooling events. The pollen-based climate data imply an increase in annual temperatures from ∼11.5 °C to more than 16 °C during the Oligocene. The Mi-1 cooling event at the onset of the Miocene is reflected by an expansion of conifers and mean annual temperature decrease of ∼4 °C, from ∼16 °C to ∼12 °C around 23 million years before present. Relatively low annual temperatures are also recorded for several samples during an interval around ∼20 million years before present, which may reflect the Mi-1a and the Mi-1aa cooling events. Generally, the Miocene ecosystem and climate conditions were very similar to those of the Oligocene. Miocene grasslands, as known from other areas in the USA during that time period, are not evident for the hinterland of the New Jersey shelf, possibly reflecting moisture from the proto-Gulf Stream. The palaeovegetation data reveal stable conditions during the mid-Miocene climatic optimum at ∼15 million years before present, with only a minor increase in deciduous-evergreen mixed forest taxa and a decrease in swamp forest taxa. Pollen-based annual temperature reconstructions show average annual temperatures of ∼14 °C during the mid-Miocene climatic optimum, ∼2

  20. Ecosystem reconstructions for the hinterland of the Atlantic Coastal Plain during the late Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (IODP Expedition 313)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prader, Sabine; Kotthoff, Ulrich; McCarthy, Francine; Greenwood, David

    2016-04-01

    During IODP Expedition 313, cores from three Sites (313-M0027, M0028, and M0029) from the New Jersey shallow shelf (water depth approximately 35 m) were retrieved in 2009. We have investigated the palynology of sediment cores from Site M0027, 45 km off the present-day coast of New Jersey in order to reconstruct environmental and climate change in the region during the second half of the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO) and the subsequent transition to cooler conditions (ca. 15 to 13 million years before present). Transport-caused bias of the pollen assemblages was identified via the analysis of the terrestrial/marine palynomorph ratio and these results were considered when interpreting palaeo-vegetation from the pollen data. Pollen preservation in the interval analyzed herein was generally very good. Pollen grains were analyzed via both light and scanning electron microscopy. In the analyzed samples, angiosperm tree pollen grains were most abundant and probably formed the main vegetation zone in the lowland during the MMCO. The pollen-based results point to the presence of a deciduous-evergreen mixed forest that was characterised by e.g. Quercus, Carya, Liquidambar, Juglans, Pterocarya, Tilia, Engelhardia. Frequent conifer pollen grains indicate that highland forests with e.g. Pinus, Cathaya, and Picea were present the hinterland of the New Jersey shelf. Typical wetland elements like Nyssa and Taxodium as well as herbal taxa like Polygonum and Polygala were generally rare. The pollen-based climate reconstructions for the hinterland oft the New Jersey shallow shelf document a warm temperate climate without winterfrost and relatively high precipitation through the year during this time. Our results imply that the vegetation and regional climate in the hinterland of the New Jersey shelf did not react as sensitively to the cooling phase following the MMCO as other regions in North America or Europe.

  1. Vegetation and climate development on the North American Atlantic Coastal Plain from 33 to 13 million years ago (IODP Expedition 313)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotthoff, U.; Greenwood, D. R.; McCarthy, F. M. G.; Müller-Navarra, K.; Hesselbo, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    We have investigated the palynology of sediment cores from Sites M0027 and M0029 of IODP Expedition 313 on the New Jersey shallow shelf, east coast of North America, spanning an age range of 33 to 13 million years before present. Additionally, a pollen assemblage from the Pleistocene was examined. The palynological results were statistically analyzed and complemented with pollen-based quantitative climate reconstructions. Transport-related bias of the pollen assemblages was identified via analysis of the ratio of terrestrial to marine palynomorphs, and considered when interpreting palaeovegetation and palaeoclimate from the pollen data. Results indicate that from the early Oligocene to the middle Miocene, the hinterland vegetation of the New Jersey shelf was characterized by oak-hickory forests in the lowlands and conifer-dominated vegetation in the highlands. The Oligocene witnessed several expansions of conifer forest, probably related to cooling events. The pollen-based climate data imply an increase in annual temperatures from ~12 °C to more than 15 °C during the Oligocene. The Mi-1 cooling event at the onset of the Miocene is reflected by an expansion of conifers and an annual temperature decrease by almost 3 °C, from 15 °C to 12.5 °C around 23 million years before present. Particularly low annual temperatures are also recorded for an interval around ~20 million years before present, which probably reflects the Mi-1aa cooling event. Generally, the Miocene ecosystem and climate conditions were very similar to those of the Oligocene in the hinterland of the New Jersey shelf. Miocene grasslands, as known from other areas in the USA during that time period, are not evident for the hinterland of the New Jersey shelf. Surprisingly, the palaeovegetation data for the hinterland of the New Jersey shelf do not show extraordinary changes during the Mid-Miocene climatic optimum at ~15 million years before present, except for a minor increase in deciduous

  2. Climate-Ice Sheet Interactions through the Plio-Pleistocene: Preliminary Results from IODP 341 Expedition (Gulf of Alaska).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Montes, M. L.; McClymont, E.; Romero, O. E.; Cowan, E. A.; Müller, J.; Lloyd, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Since the Pliocene, global climate history is distinguished by the transition into a colder world, dominated by the onset and intensification of major Northern Hemisphere glaciations which have changed in their duration and intensity. It has been argued that cooling in the surface ocean has been driven by or been conducive to continental ice-sheet growth or influenced by progressive sub-glacial erosion and feedbacks to explain changing ice-sheet extent and dynamics, which may occur independently of climate change and/or the potential regional climate impacts of tectonic uplift. At present, isolating climate as the driver of evolving continental ice volume since the Pliocene is hindered by the limited long term data sets which directly link climate changes to evidence for ice-sheet advance/retreat, erosion, and tectonic evolution over million year timescales. IODP Expedition 341 (May-July 2013) drilled a cross-margin transect from ice-proximal sites on the continental shelf to distal sites in the deep Pacific. This study focuses on the most distal drilled site, (Site U1417, c. 4190 m water depth) which extends through the Pleistocene, Pliocene and Miocene and was targeted due to its rich recorded history of climate change, glaciation and tectonics and which will allow for a more detailed understanding of the interaction between north-east Pacific paleoceanography and the history of the north-west Cordilleran ice sheet, neither of which are fully understood given limited data which pre-dates the Last Glacial Maximum. The focus of this research is to target the evidence for past climate change as recorded in evidence for evolving sea surface conditions including sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and ice rafted debris (IRD) through the Pliocene and Pleistocene. We have reconstructed SSTs during the mid-Pliocene and Plio-Pleistocene Transition (PPT) using the alkenone biomarker proxy, the UK37' index, the relative abundance of C37:4 alkenone and IRD counts and compare our

  3. Cenozoic Climate-Tectonic Interactions in the Western Himalaya Recorded in the Indus Submarine Fan from IODP Expedition 355

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clift, P. D.; Pandey, D.; Kulhanek, D. K.; Andò, S.; Science Party, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Indus Submarine Fan is the largest repository of clastic sediment eroded from the Western Himalayas since the start of India-Eurasia collision likely around 50 Ma. This sedimentary archiveis central to understanding how the climate and the tectonic evolution of the mountains have evolved together. A number of models now propose linkages between surface processes, controlled by climatic influences, and the tectonics of the solid Earth. In particular, exhumation of deeply-buried high-grade metamorphic rocks in the Greater Himalaya and the development of large-scale duplexes within the Lesser Himalaya are likely triggered by changes in the rate and location of erosion. Although some of these issues can be addressed by studies onshore, erosion has removed much of the older record from the crystalline basement itself. As a result the sediment record must be used to understand how fast erosion was occurring and whether that was linked to changes in tectonics and climate. A major unconformity in the foreland basin means that this work cannot be done fully using terrestrial records but rather the more complete records in the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. Drilling by International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 355 in the Eastern Arabian Sea has recovered two sections spanning the last ~11 Ma, which should allow us to reconstruct how the Western Himalaya have responded to climate change since the late Miocene, spanning the time when the Lesser Himalaya began to exhume. Autocyclic processes within the fan and a major mass transport deposit mean that the record is not continuous, but should nonetheless allow us to examine the impact of the important climatic transition at 7-8 Ma noted on the Oman margin and in the foreland basin. Initial results indicate that the Indus Fan was receiving material from Himalayan high-grade metamorphic rocks since at least ca. 14-17 Ma and that there was a direct connection with the suture, likely close to the western syntaxis, dating

  4. What Can Expeditions Do for Students … and for Science? An Investigation into the Impact of University of Glasgow Exploration Society Expeditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Lynsey R.; Downie, J. Roger; Muir, Martin; White, Stewart A.

    2017-01-01

    The benefits of field courses for biological science students are well established, but field courses also have limitations: they are generally too brief to allow significant research and they are staff-designed and led, limiting the development of student autonomy. In contrast, the value of student-organised field expeditions has been little…

  5. What Can Expeditions Do for Students … and for Science? An Investigation into the Impact of University of Glasgow Exploration Society Expeditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Lynsey R.; Downie, J. Roger; Muir, Martin; White, Stewart A.

    2017-01-01

    The benefits of field courses for biological science students are well established, but field courses also have limitations: they are generally too brief to allow significant research and they are staff-designed and led, limiting the development of student autonomy. In contrast, the value of student-organised field expeditions has been little…

  6. CALIPSO Expedited Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-07-10

    ... Thursday, January 31, 2013 The Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) at NASA Langley Research Center in collaboration ... Science investigations to be published in research journals should, therefore, not be based on the Expedited data products, but ...

  7. Expedition Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Alan

    Planning an expedition, particularly an expedition to climb Mount McKinley, can appear monumental. Not only must the obvious items like food, equipment and personnel be carefully planned, but attention must also focus on "insignificant" items like applications and reservations which, if forgotten, could mean the difference between a…

  8. Argonne`s Expedited Site Characterization: An integrated approach to cost- and time-effective remedial investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, J.C.; Walker, J.L.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Meyer, W.T.

    1995-07-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a methodology for remedial site investigation that has proven to be both technically superior to and more cost- and time-effective than traditional methods. This methodology is referred to as the Argonne Expedited Site Characterization (ESC). Quality is the driving force within the process. The Argonne ESC process is abbreviated only in time and cost and never in terms of quality. More usable data are produced with the Argonne ESC process than with traditional site characterization methods that are based on statistical-grid sampling and multiple monitoring wells. This paper given an overview of the Argonne ESC process and compares it with traditional methods for site characterization. Two examples of implementation of the Argonne ESC process are discussed to illustrate the effectiveness of the process in CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) and RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) programs.

  9. A Cooperative Classroom Investigation of Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constible, Juanita; Sandro, Luke; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Scientists have a particularly difficult time explaining warming trends in Antarctica--a region with a relatively short history of scientific observation and a highly variable climate (Clarke et al. 2007). Regardless of the mechanism of warming, however, climate change is having a dramatic impact on Antarctic ecosystems. In this article, the…

  10. A Cooperative Classroom Investigation of Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constible, Juanita; Sandro, Luke; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Scientists have a particularly difficult time explaining warming trends in Antarctica--a region with a relatively short history of scientific observation and a highly variable climate (Clarke et al. 2007). Regardless of the mechanism of warming, however, climate change is having a dramatic impact on Antarctic ecosystems. In this article, the…

  11. Space weather effects on lower ionosphere: First investigation from Bharati station during 34th Indian scientific expedition to Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, Anirban; Saha, Kumarjit; De, Barin Kumar; Subrahmanyam, Kandula Venkata; Shreedevi, P. R.

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the solar flare effects on the D-region of the ionosphere with the help of VLF (Very Low Frequency) radio waves using a portable E-field system from Antarctica during the summer period of 34th Indian scientific expedition. Two GPS time synchronized VLF receivers, one located at Bharati, Antarctica (geographical latitude 69.40°S, longitude 76.18°E) and another located at Tripura, India (geographical latitude 23.84°N, longitude 91.28°E) were operated simultaneously to infer common mode changes in the lower ionosphere for a number of solar flares events. The two systems constantly monitored the carrier amplitude and phase of the MSK (Minimum Shift Keying) modulated navy transmitter located in Australia (Callsign: NWC, 19.8 kHz, geographical latitude 21.88°S, longitude 114.13°E), around 5.6 Mm great circle distance from the two receivers. The results are interpreted in terms of Earth-ionosphere wave-guide characteristics. A Long Wave Propagation Capability (LWPC) model study is also performed to infer the changes in the daytime electron density in polar D-region ionosphere during the solar flares. The exponential fit of the modeled electron density change with average X-ray flux change shows an excellent correlation (R2 value 0.95). The exponential fit is utilized to infer the daytime electron density change in the polar ionosphere during solar flare events. The analyses indicate that small solar flares of class 'C' can be very effectively detected with the portable antenna system even if the receiver is located in polar coastal region compared to equatorial region. The expedition results also demonstrate the feasibility of using portable VLF receivers from the coastal stations for monitoring the polar lower ionosphere from Antarctica and open up new opportunities for long term exploration.

  12. Using Tree-Ring Data, Research, and Expeditions as an Accessible, Hands-on "Bridge" into Climate Studies for Diverse Audiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davi, N. K.; Wattenberg, F.; Pringle, P. T.; Tanenbaum, J.; O'Brien, A.; Greidanus, I.; Perry, M.

    2012-12-01

    Tree-ring research provides an engaging, intuitive, and relevant entryway into understanding both climate-change and environmental research, as well as the process of science from inspiration, to fieldwork, to analysis, to publishing and communicating. The basic premise of dendrochronology is that annual rings reflect environmental conditions year-by-year and that by studying long-lived trees we can learn about past environments and climates for hundreds-to-thousands of years in the past. Conceptually, this makes tree-ring studies accessible to students and faculty for a number of reasons. First, in order to collect their data, dendrochronologists often launch expeditions to stunningly picturesque and remote places in search of long-lived, climate sensitive trees. Scientist exciting stories and images from the field can be leveraged to connect students to the study and the data. Second, tree-rings can be more easily explained as a proxy for climate than other methods (ice cores, carbon-isotope ratios, etc.), and most people have prior-knowledge about trees and annual growth rings. It is even possible, for example, for non-expert audiences to see climate variability through time with the naked eye by looking at climate sensitive tree cores. Third, tree-rings are interdisciplinary and illustrate the interplay between the mathematical sciences, the biological sciences, and the geosciences—that is, they show that the biosphere is a fundamental component of the Earth system. Here, we will present several projects have been initiated for a range of audiences, including; elementary school, where 5th graders visited a local forest to collect samples and apply their samples and what they learned to math and science classes. 5th grade students also leaned how to use Climate Explorer (KNMI), an online tool that allows scientist and students the opportunity to access and visualize global climate data within a few clicks. Geared to 2 and 4 year colleges, we are also

  13. [Expedition medicine].

    PubMed

    Donlagić, Lana

    2009-01-01

    Expedition and wildeness medicine is a term that combines rescue medicine, sport medicine as well as more specific branches as polar or high altitude medicine. It is being intensively studied both at the reaserch institutes and on expeditions. Ophtalmologists are concentrated on the reaserch of HARH (High Altitude Retinal Hemorrhage), neurologists on HACE reaserch (High Altitude Cerebral Edema), psychologists are developing tests to decsribe cognitive functions and many physicians are being trained to work in extreme enviroment. The result of all this effort are numerous new findings in pathophysiology and therapy of altitude illness, increased security on expedition and further development of expeditionism.

  14. Climate-sensitive carbon cycling on the western Antarctic continental shelf: results from the Amundsen Sea Polynya International Research Expedition (ASPIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, P. L.; Sherrell, R. M.; Stammerjohn, S. E.

    2016-02-01

    The Amundsen Sea hosts the most productive polynya in all of coastal Antarctica, with its vibrant green waters exceeding 20 µg Chl a per liter. It is also one of the global regions most vulnerable to climate change, experiencing rapid losses in both sea ice cover and nearby ice sheets. During the Amundsen Sea Polynya International Research Expedition (ASPIRE) in austral summer 2010-11, we aimed to determine mechanisms driving the production and fate of this extraordinary algal bloom, with an eye towards predicting how this system will respond to further change. Here we summarize and synthesize results from the expedition, highlight results now being published in a special ASPIRE feature in the journal Elementa, and present an effort to balance the carbon budget for the region. We collected water column profiles for total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and nutrients, particulate and dissolved organic matter, chlorophyll a, macrozooplankton, and microbial biomass. We also measured primary and secondary production, community respiration rates, vertical particle flux and fecal pellet production and grazing. With observations arranged along a gradient of increasing integrated nitrate depletion, changes in DIC in the upper water column (ranging from 0.2 to 4.7 mol C m-2) and gas exchange are compared to nutrient and organic matter inventories to estimate export. Comparisons to short-term (days) drifting traps and a year-long moored sediment trap capturing the downward flux confirmed that a high fraction (up to 60%) of the net community production was exported to sub-euphotic depths during the early part of the bloom in this productive region. The ultimate fate of this carbon is also estimated. We discuss the importance of this carbon sequestration, particularly in light of changing climate conditions in this region, informed by ongoing data synthesis and modeling efforts (INSPIRE).

  15. Investigation delayed is justice denied: proposals for expediting forensic examinations of digital evidence.

    PubMed

    Casey, Eoghan; Ferraro, Monique; Nguyen, Lam

    2009-11-01

    There is an urgent need to reduce the growing backlog of forensic examinations in Digital Forensics Laboratories (DFLs). Currently, DFLs routinely create forensic duplicates and perform in-depth forensic examinations of all submitted media. This approach is rapidly becoming untenable as more cases involve increasing quantities of digital evidence. A more efficient and effective three-tiered strategy for performing forensic examinations will enable DFLs to produce useful results in a timely manner at different phases of an investigation, and will reduce unnecessary expenditure of resources on less serious matters. The three levels of forensic examination are described along with practical examples and suitable tools. Realizing that this is not simply a technical problem, we address the need to update training and establish thresholds in DFLs. Threshold considerations include the likelihood of missing exculpatory evidence and seriousness of the offense. We conclude with the implications of scaling forensic examinations to the investigation.

  16. Making Real Life Connections and Engaging High School Students as They Become Climate Detectives using data obtained through JOIDES Resolution Expedition 341

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chegwidden, D.; Mote, A. S.; Manley, J.; Ledley, T. S.; Haddad, N.; Ellins, K.; Lynds, S. E.

    2016-02-01

    Texas is a state that values and supports an Earth Science curriculum, and as an experienced educator in Texas, I find it crucial to educate my students about the various Ocean Science careers that exist and also be able to use the valuable data that is obtained in a core sample from the ocean floor. "Climate Detective" is an EarthLabs module that is supported by TERC and International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 341. This module contains hands-on activities, many opportunities to interpret actual data from a core sample, and collaborative team skills to solve a problem. Through the module, students are able to make real connections with scientists when they understand various roles aboard the JOIDES Resolution. Students can also visually experience real-time research via live video streaming within the research vessel. In my classroom, the use of the "Climate Detective" not only establishes a beneficial relationship between teacher and marine scientists, but such access to the data also helps enhance the climate-related concepts and explanatory procedures involved in obtaining reports. Data is applied to a challenge question for all student groups to answer at the end of the module. This Project-based learning module emphasizes different forms of evidence and requires that learners apply different inquiry approaches to build the knowledge each one needs to acquire, as they become climate-literate citizens. My involvement with the EarthLabs project has strengthened my overall knowledge and confidence to teach about Earth's systems and climate change. In addition, this experience has led me to become an advocate who promotes vigorous classroom discussion among my students; additionally, I am encouraged to collaborate with other educators through the delivery of professional development across the state of Texas. Regularly, I connect with scientists in my classroom and such connection truly enriches not only my personal knowledge, but also provides a

  17. Guide for Planning a Learning Expedition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Meg, Ed.; Liebowitz, Martin, Ed.; Mednick, Amy, Ed.; Rugen, Leah, Ed.

    This guide aims to help teachers plan, reflect on, and revise learning expeditions. Growing out of the metaphor of an Outward Bound wilderness expedition, learning expeditions are long-term, in-depth investigations of a topic that engage students in the world through authentic projects, fieldwork, and service. The work centers on critical…

  18. Guide for Planning a Learning Expedition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Meg, Ed.; Liebowitz, Martin, Ed.; Mednick, Amy, Ed.; Rugen, Leah, Ed.

    This guide aims to help teachers plan, reflect on, and revise learning expeditions. Growing out of the metaphor of an Outward Bound wilderness expedition, learning expeditions are long-term, in-depth investigations of a topic that engage students in the world through authentic projects, fieldwork, and service. The work centers on critical…

  19. Expedition 23

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-30

    JSC2010-E-044360 (30 March 2010) --- In preparation for an April 2 liftoff for Expedition 23, the final assembly for Soyuz TMA-18 was performed March 30 by TsSKB-Progress personnel in the Launch Vehicle Assembly facility at Site 112 of Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo credit: NASA/Victor Zelentsov

  20. Expedition 23

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-30

    JSC2010-E-044365 (30 March 2010) --- In preparation for an April 2 liftoff for Expedition 23, the final assembly for Soyuz TMA-18 was performed March 30 by TsSKB-Progress personnel in the Launch Vehicle Assembly facility at Site 112 of Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo credit: NASA/Victor Zelentsov

  1. Expedition 23

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-30

    JSC2010-E-044363 (30 March 2010) --- In preparation for an April 2 liftoff for Expedition 23, the final assembly for Soyuz TMA-18 was performed March 30 by TsSKB-Progress personnel in the Launch Vehicle Assembly facility at Site 112 of Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo credit: NASA/Victor Zelentsov

  2. Expedition 23

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-30

    JSC2010-E-044364 (30 March 2010) --- In preparation for an April 2 liftoff for Expedition 23, the final assembly for Soyuz TMA-18 was performed March 30 by TsSKB-Progress personnel in the Launch Vehicle Assembly facility at Site 112 of Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo credit: NASA/Victor Zelentsov

  3. Expedition 23

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-30

    JSC2010-E-044366 (30 March 2010) --- In preparation for an April 2 liftoff for Expedition 23, the final assembly for Soyuz TMA-18 was performed March 30 by TsSKB-Progress personnel in the Launch Vehicle Assembly facility at Site 112 of Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo credit: NASA/Victor Zelentsov

  4. Expedition 23

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-30

    JSC2010-E-044362 (30 March 2010) --- In preparation for an April 2 liftoff for Expedition 23, the final assembly for Soyuz TMA-18 was performed March 30 by TsSKB-Progress personnel in the Launch Vehicle Assembly facility at Site 112 of Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo credit: NASA/Victor Zelentsov

  5. Expedition 23

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-30

    JSC2010-E-044357 (30 March 2010) --- In preparation for an April 2 liftoff for Expedition 23, the final assembly for Soyuz TMA-18 was performed March 30 by TsSKB-Progress personnel in the Launch Vehicle Assembly facility at Site 112 of Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo credit: NASA/Victor Zelentsov

  6. Focus on Quality: Investigating Residents’ Learning Climate Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Silkens, Milou E. W. M.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background A department’s learning climate is known to contribute to the quality of postgraduate medical education and, as such, to the quality of patient care provided by residents. However, it is unclear how the learning climate is perceived over time. Objectives This study investigated whether the learning climate perceptions of residents changed over time. Methods The context for this study was residency training in the Netherlands. Between January 2012 and December 2014, residents from 223 training programs in 39 hospitals filled out the web-based Dutch Residency Educational Climate Test (D-RECT) to evaluate their clinical department’s learning climate. Residents had to fill out 35 validated questions using a five point Likert-scale. We analyzed data using generalized linear mixed (growth) models. Results Overall, 3982 D-RECT evaluations were available to investigate our aim. The overall mean D-RECT score was 3.9 (SD = 0.3). The growth model showed an increase in D-RECT scores over time (b = 0.03; 95% CI: 0.01–0.06; p < 0.05). Conclusions The observed increase in D-RECT scores implied that residents perceived an improvement in the learning climate over time. Future research could focus on factors that facilitate or hinder learning climate improvement, and investigate the roles that hospital governing committees play in safeguarding and improving the learning climate. PMID:26765742

  7. Cenozoic Climate-Tectonic Interactions in the Western Himalaya Recorded in the Indus Submarine Fan: Initial Results from IODP Expedition 355

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clift, Peter; Pandey, Dhananjai; Kulhanek, Denise; Andò, Sergio; Zhou, Peng; 355 Scientists Expedition

    2016-04-01

    The Indus Submarine Fan is the largest repository of clastic sediment eroded from the Western Himalayas since the start of India-Eurasia collision, likely around 50 Ma. Interpreting this sedimentary archive is central to understanding how the Asian monsoon and Himalaya have evolved together. Models indicate linkages between surface processes, controlled by climatic influences, and the tectonics of the solid Earth. The development of large-scale duplexes within the Lesser Himalaya starting in the Late Miocene may be linked to changes in erosion intensity and location, especially spanning the 7-8 Ma climatic transition previously identified in the foreland basin and offshore Oman. Although some of these issues can be addressed by studies onshore, erosion has removed much of the older record from the crystalline basement itself and the Siwalik Group foreland sediment tend to image limited stretches of the Himalayan front rather than supplying a basin-wide record. The sediment record of the Arabian Sea must be used to understand how the Indus catchment responds to changes in monsoon strength. Drilling by International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 355 in the Eastern Arabian Sea has recovered two submarine fan sections spanning the last ca. 11 Ma, predated by a mass transport deposit. These should allow us to reconstruct how the Western Himalaya have responded to climate change since the late Miocene. Autocyclic processes within the fan and a major mass transport deposit mean that the record is not continuous, but is largely complete. Initial results indicate that the Indus Submarine Fan was receiving materials from Himalayan high-grade metamorphic rocks since at least ca. 14-17 Ma and that there was a direct connection with the suture, likely close to the western syntaxis, dating from the late Miocene. However, initial postcruise results now indicate that there has been significant flux directly from the Indian Peninsular, especially since 3 Ma that disrupts the

  8. Expedited and Standard Data Set Definitions

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-03

    ... delivery to LaRC. Latency between onboard acquisition and analysis expedited processing is typically on the order of 6 to 28 hours. ... detail in " Adapting CALIPSO Climate Measurements for Near Real Time Analyses and Forecasting " (PDF). ...

  9. First results from IODP Expedition 325 to the Great Barrier Reef: unlocking climate and sea level secrets since the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, J. M.; Yokoyama, Y.; Cotterill, C.; Expedition 325 Scientists

    2010-12-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Exp. 325 (GBREC: Great Barrier Reef Environmental Change) that investigated fossil reefs on the shelf edge of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), was the fourth IODP expedition to use a mission-specific platform, and was conducted by the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) Science Operator (ESO). The scientific objectives are to establish the course of sea level change, define sea-surface temperature variations, and to analyze the impact of these environmental changes on reef growth and geometry over the period of 20-10 ka. Exp.325 complements and extends the findings of the 2005 Exp. 310 (Tahiti Sea Level) that recovered Postglacial coral reef cores from the flanks of Tahiti from 41.6-117.5 meters below sea level and spanned ~16 to ~8 ka. Preliminary data confirms that Exp. 325 recovered truly unique and valuable fossil coral reef material from key periods in Earth's sea level and climate history from 30 to 9 ka. On Exp. 325 a succession of fossil reef structures preserved on the shelf edge seaward of the modern barrier reef were cored at three geographic locations (Hydrographers Passage, Noggin Pass and Ribbon Reef) from a dynamically positioned vessel in February-April 2010. A total of 34 boreholes were cored from 17 sites in four transects at depths ranging from 42.2 to 167.2 meters below sea level. Borehole logging of four boreholes provided continuous geophysical information about the drilled strata. The cores were split and described during the Onshore Science Party at the IODP Bremen Core Repository (Germany) in July 2010, where minimum and some standard measurements were made. Initial lithologic and biologic observations identified high-quality fossil coralgal frameworks, consistent with shallow, high energy reef settings - crucial for precise reconstructions of sea level and paleoclimate change. Preliminary C14-AMS and U-Th age interpretations from 60 core catcher samples confirmed that the cores span

  10. Investigation of the climate change within Moscow metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varentsov, Mikhail; Trusilova, Kristina; Konstantinov, Pavel; Samsonov, Timofey

    2014-05-01

    As the urbanization continues worldwide more than half of the Earth's population live in the cities (U.N., 2010). Therefore the vulnerability of the urban environment - the living space for millions of people - to the climate change has to be investigated. It is well known that urban features strongly influence the atmospheric boundary layer and determine the microclimatic features of the local environment, such as urban heat island (UHI). Available temperature observations in cities are, however, influenced by the natural climate variations, human-induced climate warming (IPCC, 2007) and in the same time by the growth and structural modification of the urban areas. The relationship between these three factors and their roles in climate changes in the cities are very important for the climatic forecast and requires better understanding. In this study, we made analysis of the air temperature change and urban heat island evolution within Moscow urban area during decades 1970-2010, while this urban area had undergone intensive growth and building modification allowing the population of Moscow to increase from 7 to 12 million people. Analysis was based on the data from several meteorological stations in Moscow region and Moscow city, including meteorological observatory of Lomonosov Moscow State University. Differences in climate change between urban and rural stations, changes of the power and shape of urban heat island and their relationships with changes of building height and density were investigated. Collected data and obtained results are currently to be used for the validation of the regional climate model COSMO-CLM with the purpose to use this model for further more detailed climate research and forecasts for Moscow metropolitan area. References: 1. U.N. (2010), World Urbanization Prospects. The 2009 Revision.Rep., 1-47 pp, United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division., New York. 2. IPCC (2007), IPCC Fourth Assessment Report

  11. Caudwell xtreme Everest expedition.

    PubMed

    Grocott, Michael P W; Martin, Daniel S; Wilson, Mark H; Mitchell, Kay; Dhillon, Sundeep; Mythen, Monty G; Montgomery, Hugh E; Levett, Denny Z H

    2010-01-01

    The Caudwell Xtreme Everest (CXE) expedition involved the detailed study of 222 subjects ascending to 5300 m or higher during the first half of 2007. Following baseline measurements at sea level, 198 trekker-subjects trekked to Everest Base Camp (EBC) following an identical ascent profile. An additional group of 24 investigator-subjects followed a similar ascent to EBC and remained there for the duration of the expedition, with a subgroup of 14 collecting data higher on Everest. This article focuses on published data obtained by the investigator-subjects at extreme altitude (>5500 m). Unique measurements of peak oxygen consumption, middle cerebral artery diameter and blood velocity, and microcirculatory blood flow were made on the South Col (7950 m). Unique arterial blood gas values were obtained from 4 subjects at 8400 m during descent from the summit of Everest. Arterial blood gas and microcirculatory blood flow data are discussed in detail.

  12. Using R for Hydrologic Investigations of Climate Change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obeysekera, J.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change hydrologic investigations involve assembling, organizing, and analyzing large data sets from archived observations and complex model outputs. R is a free open-source software system consisting of nearly 4,800 packages running on Windows, Unix-like, and Mac families of operating systems. It is becoming a popular option for statisticians, scientists and engineers for investigations associated with climate change. The rapid growth and use of R is facilitated by the relative ease of assembling the user's scripts into a customized 'package' that can be submitted to the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN) for others to use. This presentation includes several examples of climate change investigations where R was used for trend analysis in historical time series; reading and analyzing downscaled; large climate data sets; extreme value modeling of hydrologic time series and presentation of analysis results. An R package called nsextremes was created for modeling non-stationary hydrologic time series using a recently developed methodology for computing risk and return periods in changing environments. The presentation describes the theory, details of the scripts, and the process that was used to create the nsextremes package.

  13. Investigations of the Climate System Response to Climate Engineering in a Hierarchy of Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCusker, Kelly E.

    Global warming due to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases is causing negative impacts on diverse ecological and human systems around the globe, and these impacts are projected to worsen as climate continues to warm. In the absence of meaningful greenhouse gas emissions reductions, new strategies have been proposed to engineer the climate, with the aim of preventing further warming and avoiding associated climate impacts. We investigate one such strategy here, falling under the umbrella of `solar radiation management', in which sulfate aerosols are injected into the stratosphere. We use a global climate model with a coupled mixed-layer depth ocean and with a fully-coupled ocean general circulation model to simulate the stabilization of climate by balancing increasing carbon dioxide with increasing stratospheric sulfate concentrations. We evaluate whether or not severe climate impacts, such as melting Arctic sea ice, tropical crop failure, or destabilization of the West Antarctic ice sheet, could be avoided. We find that while tropical climate emergencies might be avoided by use of stratospheric aerosol injections, avoiding polar emergencies cannot be guaranteed due to large residual climate changes in those regions, which are in part due to residual atmospheric circulation anomalies. We also find that the inclusion of a fully-coupled ocean is important for determining the regional climate response because of its dynamical feedbacks. The efficacy of stratospheric sulfate aerosol injections, and solar radiation management more generally, depends on its ability to be maintained indefinitely, without interruption from a variety of possible sources, such as technological failure, a breakdown in global cooperation, lack of funding, or negative unintended consequences. We next consider the scenario in which stratospheric sulfate injections are abruptly terminated after a multi- decadal period of implementation while greenhouse gas emissions have continued unabated

  14. A lunar polar expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Tomas

    1992-01-01

    Advanced exploration and development in harsh environments require mastery of basic human survival skill. Expeditions into the lethal climates of Earth's polar regions offer useful lessons for tommorrow's lunar pioneers. In Arctic and Antarctic exploration, 'wintering over' was a crucial milestone. The ability to establish a supply base and survive months of polar cold and darkness made extensive travel and exploration possible. Because of the possibility of near-constant solar illumination, the lunar polar regions, unlike Earth's may offer the most hospitable site for habitation. The World Space Foundation is examining a scenario for establishing a five-person expeditionary team on the lunar north pole for one year. This paper is a status report on a point design addressing site selection, transportation, power, and life support requirements.

  15. It's A Gassy World: Middle School Students Investigate Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, C.

    2016-12-01

    When middle school students are asked about our changing earth system, their responses likely include terms like global warming, climate change, and greenhouse gases. However, many students struggle to understand how it all fits together, and sometimes they hear conflicting information or myths about climate change. This activity allows students to explore the impacts of warming oceans and oceans' absorption of carbon dioxide (CO2) through a student planned and carried out investigation that begins with a pre-laboratory engagement and exploration piece, includes a laboratory component, and concludes with an explanation where students analyze their data and interpret their results through the claim-evidence-reasoning framework. It's a Gassy World was developed with three-dimensional instruction in mind to introduce middle school students to the relationship between warming oceans and changes in carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption in the oceans. Students explore disciplinary core ideas in the Earth and Space Sciences discipline of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) using crosscutting concepts and science and engineering practices. Specifically, students study CO2 as a greenhouse gas and the effect of increased atmospheric CO2 levels on global climate change by planning and carrying out their own investigations. We structured this activity in a 5E format that can take place in four to five days during a climate change unit. After piloting this activity in over 20 formal classrooms and with 5 informal education groups, we have seen how It's a Gassy World helps support inquiry in the classroom and allows students to experience crosscutting concepts and science and engineering practices in NGSS. We found that students were engaged and actively learning throughout the activity. Student work and pilot teacher feedback indicated that, through this activity, many students increased their understanding of CO2 as a greenhouse gas and recognized that warmer oceans will

  16. Biomarker based reconstruction of Pleistocene climate and environmental conditions in the Gulf of Alaska: Preliminary results obtained from IODP Expedition 341 sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Juliane; Sanchez Montes, Maria Luisa; McClymont, Erin; Stein, Ruediger; Fahl, Kirsten; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Wilkes, Heinz; 341 Scientists, Expedition

    2014-05-01

    A remarkable sedimentary record that extends from the Miocene to the late Pleistocene/Holocene has been drilled during IODP Expedition 341 (May - July 2013) in the Gulf of Alaska. The recovery and examination of sediments along a transect of five drill sites (U1417 - U1421) from the deep ocean towards the continental slope and shelf offshore the St. Elias Mountains enables the reconstruction of the palaeoceanographic and environmental development in the NE Pacific during a period of significant global cooling and directly addresses the overall research objectives of the IODP programme. The knowledge about palaeo sea surface conditions and their relation to climate changes in the subpolar NE Pacific is relatively scarce and mainly confined to the past 17 ka BP (Barron et al., 2009; Davies et al., 2011; Addison et al., 2012). Biomarker based reconstructions of the sea surface conditions (i.e. sea surface temperature (SST), sea ice coverage, marine primary productivity) that characterised the subpolar NE Pacific during critical time intervals of Plio- and Pleistocene climate change may provide new information on oceanic and atmospheric feedback mechanisms and further enable the identification of teleconnections between the palaeoceanographic evolution in the North Pacific and the North Atlantic. Here we present preliminary biomarker data obtained from sediments from the distal deepwater site U1417 and the proximal site U1419 located at the Gulf of Alaska continental slope. Variability in the distribution and abundance of short- and long-chain n-alkanes, sterols, and C25-highly branched isoprenoids (HBIs) is interpreted to reflect changes in the environmental setting. These data provide insight in marine primary productivity changes (in response to cooling and warming intervals) and the variable input of terrigenous organic matter via meltwater and/or iceberg discharge events. The C25-HBI diene/triene ratio - hitherto used as a sea ice proxy in the Southern Ocean

  17. Investigating Forearc Strength by Triaxial Testing of Marine Sediments from the Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project (IODP Expeditions 334 and 344)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stipp, M.; Kurzawski, R. M.; Doose, R.; Schulte-Kortnack, D.

    2015-12-01

    Forearc stability and inherent tectonic failure processes at active continental margins very much depend on the strength of the composing sediments. Forearc sediments can either be prone to fracturing and more localized deformation or alternatively to creep and distributed deformation. Strength and deformation behavior can vary significantly depending on small differences in composition and fabric of the sediments as has been shown in a similar study on samples from the Nankai trench and forearc (Stipp et al., 2013). Cylindrical core samples with diameters of 30 and 50 mm recovered during IODP Expeditions 334 and 344 from a depth range of 7-788 m below sea floor were experimentally deformed in two different triaxial deformation apparatus under consolidated and undrained conditions at confining pressures of 0.4-20 MPa, room temperature, variable axial displacement rates of ~0.01-0.5 mm/min, and up to axial compressive strains of ~50%. Experimental results show great differences in the consolidation state and the related mechanical behavior of upper plate and incoming plate sediments. Similar to previous findings from the Nankai trench and forearc, structurally weak and structurally strong samples can be distinguished. One sample from shallow depth in the incoming plate shows a transition from structurally strong to structurally weak behavior with increasing confining pressure that has not been observed for Nankai samples. The differences in mechanical behavior may be the key for strain localization, faulting and surface breakage at active erosive as well as accretionary continental margins. Reference: Stipp, M., Rolfs, M., Kitamura, Y., Behrmann, J.H., Schumann, K., Schulte-Kortnack, D. and Feeser, V. (2013). - Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 14/11, doi: 10.1002/ggge.20290.

  18. Expedition 9 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-24

    Expedition 9 Flight Engineer Michael Fincke performs the traditional crew signing inside of his Russian search and rescue helicopter while Expedition 5 Flight Engineer Peggy Whitson looks on, Sunday, October 24, 2004. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Expedition 25 Prelaunch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-06

    NASA Expedition 25 Flight Engineer, left, Expedition 25 Soyuz Commander Alexander Kaleri, and Expedition 25 Flight Engineer Oleg Skripochka receive the traditional blessing from a Russian Orthodox priest at the Cosmonaut Hotel the evening before their Soyuz launch to the International Space Station on Thursday, Oct. 7, 2010 in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  20. Expedition 25 Docking

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-09

    The crews of Expedition 24 and Expedition 25 are seen on a video monitor at Russian Mission Control in Korolev, Russia shortly after crew members of Expedition 25 docked to and entered the International Space Station on Sunday, Oct. 10, 2010. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  1. Paleomagnetic contributions to IODP Wilkes Land Expedition (318) science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauxe, L.; Sugisaki, S.; Bijl, P.; Brinkhuis, H.; Escutia, C.; Flores, J.; González, J. J.; Iwai, M.; Klaus, A.; Passchier, S.; Roehl, U.; Sakai, T.; Williams, T.; Scientific Team of IODP Expedition 318

    2011-12-01

    Paleo- and rock magnetic investigations of sediments recovered from the Antarctic Margin off Wilkes Land during IODP Expedition 318 contributed significantly in a variety of ways toward achieving expedition goals. Magnetostratigraphy, combined with biostratigraphic constraints serves as the backbone for a well constrained chronostratigraphic framework. Sediments recovered include the early Eocene, nearly the entire Oligocene including the Oligo/Miocene boundary, the middle and late Miocene, the entire Pliocene and the Pleistocene from below the Jaramillo. The chronostratigraphic framework provides tight bounds on the duration and placement of several key hiati seen across the Antarctic Margin. A complete Pliocene record will also allow a major revision in the calibration of the diatom biostratigraphic time scale. In addition to magnetostratigarphy, rock magnetic data inform discussions of climatic change on the Wilkes Land Margin.

  2. Investigating drought using extreme climatic indices over Idaho, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrabi, M.; Ryu, J.

    2011-12-01

    To investigate consequences of climate variability and change, twenty-seven climatic indices of temperature and precipitation for Idaho, USA were computed, especially focusing on growing seasons (May through August). Mean temperature and average of maximum of maximum temperature, yearly minimum value of Self Calibrated Palmer Index (sc-PDSI) and Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) for 1, 3, 6 and 12 month time scales were also used to identify spatial and temporal distributions of climatic variability to be utilized in water management decisions. The analyses were conducted for 57 meteorological stations, during the period from 1962 to 2007, characterized by a long-term and high-quality dataset. Preliminary results indicate that global warming likely occurs over Idaho in the sense that declining trends in precipitation amount and frequency have been presented over most of the stations. Increasing trends in minimum of minimum temperature have been seen at the 56 stations and statistical significance of the trends were shown at the 33 stations out of them. Similarly, increasing trends in maximum of maximum temperature at the 48 stations have been found, and 25 stations out of them have significant trends. Consequently, frost and ice days dwindle as growing season length, tropical nights and summer days increase. Annual precipitation shows decreasing trends in 39 stations which 33 percent of them are significant. Generally, precipitation amount and frequency considerably dwindle in southern Idaho, while these indices increase in northern Idaho. Growing season precipitation also declines considerably, particularly in Snake River basin. Results of monthly and annual average of both SPI and sc-PDSI reveal considerable number of negative trends (approaching dry condition). SPI 12 month time scale and sc-PDSI indicate similar pattern. Furthermore, their results are consistent with drought reports published by Idaho Department of Water Resources. Minimum sc-PDSI has negative

  3. Investigating afforestation and bioenergy CCS as climate change mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humpenöder, Florian; Popp, Alexander; Dietrich, Jan Philip; Klein, David; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Bonsch, Markus; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Weindl, Isabelle; Stevanovic, Miodrag; Müller, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The land-use sector can contribute to climate change mitigation not only by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but also by increasing carbon uptake from the atmosphere and thereby creating negative CO2 emissions. In this paper, we investigate two land-based climate change mitigation strategies for carbon removal: (1) afforestation and (2) bioenergy in combination with carbon capture and storage technology (bioenergy CCS). In our approach, a global tax on GHG emissions aimed at ambitious climate change mitigation incentivizes land-based mitigation by penalizing positive and rewarding negative CO2 emissions from the land-use system. We analyze afforestation and bioenergy CCS as standalone and combined mitigation strategies. We find that afforestation is a cost-efficient strategy for carbon removal at relatively low carbon prices, while bioenergy CCS becomes competitive only at higher prices. According to our results, cumulative carbon removal due to afforestation and bioenergy CCS is similar at the end of 21st century (600-700 GtCO2), while land-demand for afforestation is much higher compared to bioenergy CCS. In the combined setting, we identify competition for land, but the impact on the mitigation potential (1000 GtCO2) is partially alleviated by productivity increases in the agricultural sector. Moreover, our results indicate that early-century afforestation presumably will not negatively impact carbon removal due to bioenergy CCS in the second half of the 21st century. A sensitivity analysis shows that land-based mitigation is very sensitive to different levels of GHG taxes. Besides that, the mitigation potential of bioenergy CCS highly depends on the development of future bioenergy yields and the availability of geological carbon storage, while for afforestation projects the length of the crediting period is crucial.

  4. Investigation into regional climate variability using tree-ring reconstruction, climate diagnostics and prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barandiaran, Daniel A.

    This document is a summary of research conducted to develop and apply climate analysis tools toward a better understanding of the past and future of hydroclimate variability in the state of Utah. Two pilot studies developed data management and climate analysis tools subsequently applied to our region of interest. The first investigated the role of natural atmospheric forcing in the inter-annual variability of precipitation of the Sahel region in Africa, and found a previously undocumented link with the East Atlantic mode, which explains 29% of variance in regional precipitation. An analysis of output from an operational seasonal climate forecast model revealed a failure in the model to reproduce this linkage, thus highlighting a shortcoming in model performance. The second pilot study studied long-term trends in the strength of the Great Plains low-level jet, an driver of storm development in the region's wet spring season. Our analysis showed that since 1979 the low-level jet has strengthened as shifted the timing of peak activity, resulting in shifts both in time and location for peak precipitation, possibly the result of anthropogenic forcing. Our third study used a unique tree-ring dataset to create a reconstruction of April 1 snow water equivalent, an important measure of water supply in the Intermountain West, for the state of Utah to 1850. Analysis of the reconstruction shows the majority of snowpack variability occurs monotonically over the whole state at decadal to multidecadal frequencies. The final study evaluated decadal prediction performance of climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5. We found that the analyzed models exhibit modest skill in prediction of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and better skill in prediction of global temperature trends post 1960.

  5. Chlorofluorocarbon measurements in the southwestern pacific during the CGC-90 expedition. Data report

    SciTech Connect

    Wisegarver, D.P.; Bullister, J.L.; Van Woy, F.A.; Menzia, F.A.; Weiss, R.F.

    1995-09-01

    This report presents chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydgrographic data collected in the Southwest Pacific Ocean during the 1990 NOAA Climate and Global Change (CGC-90) expedition on NOAA Research Ship Malcolm Baldrige. On this expedition, full water column CTD/hydrocast stations were made on a section extending along 170 deg W from 5 deg N to 60 deg S, on a short section crossing the Southwest Pacific Basin to the southeast of New Zealand, and on a short section along 32 deg 30`S east of the kermadec Ridge. Measurements of dissolved and atmospheric dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) and trichlorofluromethane (CFC-11) made by the SIO and NOAA/PMEL groups are compared in this report. Also included in the report are hydrographic data (measurements of salinity, temperature, pressure and depth) collected by NOAA/PMEL investigators during this expedition.

  6. Clinical Trial Electronic Portals for Expedited Safety Reporting: Recommendations from the Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative Investigational New Drug Safety Advancement Project

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Raymond P; Finnigan, Shanda; Patel, Krupa; Whitney, Shanell

    2016-01-01

    Background Use of electronic clinical trial portals has increased in recent years to assist with sponsor-investigator communication, safety reporting, and clinical trial management. Electronic portals can help reduce time and costs associated with processing paperwork and add security measures; however, there is a lack of information on clinical trial investigative staff’s perceived challenges and benefits of using portals. Objective The Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative (CTTI) sought to (1) identify challenges to investigator receipt and management of investigational new drug (IND) safety reports at oncologic investigative sites and coordinating centers and (2) facilitate adoption of best practices for communicating and managing IND safety reports using electronic portals. Methods CTTI, a public-private partnership to improve the conduct of clinical trials, distributed surveys and conducted interviews in an opinion-gathering effort to record investigator and research staff views on electronic portals in the context of the new safety reporting requirements described in the US Food and Drug Administration’s final rule (Code of Federal Regulations Title 21 Section 312). The project focused on receipt, management, and review of safety reports as opposed to the reporting of adverse events. Results The top challenge investigators and staff identified in using individual sponsor portals was remembering several complex individual passwords to access each site. Also, certain tasks are time-consuming (eg, downloading reports) due to slow sites or difficulties associated with particular operating systems or software. To improve user experiences, respondents suggested that portals function independently of browsers and operating systems, have intuitive interfaces with easy navigation, and incorporate additional features that would allow users to filter, search, and batch safety reports. Conclusions Results indicate that an ideal system for sharing expedited IND

  7. Clinical Trial Electronic Portals for Expedited Safety Reporting: Recommendations from the Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative Investigational New Drug Safety Advancement Project.

    PubMed

    Perez, Raymond P; Finnigan, Shanda; Patel, Krupa; Whitney, Shanell; Forrest, Annemarie

    2016-12-15

    Use of electronic clinical trial portals has increased in recent years to assist with sponsor-investigator communication, safety reporting, and clinical trial management. Electronic portals can help reduce time and costs associated with processing paperwork and add security measures; however, there is a lack of information on clinical trial investigative staff's perceived challenges and benefits of using portals. The Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative (CTTI) sought to (1) identify challenges to investigator receipt and management of investigational new drug (IND) safety reports at oncologic investigative sites and coordinating centers and (2) facilitate adoption of best practices for communicating and managing IND safety reports using electronic portals. CTTI, a public-private partnership to improve the conduct of clinical trials, distributed surveys and conducted interviews in an opinion-gathering effort to record investigator and research staff views on electronic portals in the context of the new safety reporting requirements described in the US Food and Drug Administration's final rule (Code of Federal Regulations Title 21 Section 312). The project focused on receipt, management, and review of safety reports as opposed to the reporting of adverse events. The top challenge investigators and staff identified in using individual sponsor portals was remembering several complex individual passwords to access each site. Also, certain tasks are time-consuming (eg, downloading reports) due to slow sites or difficulties associated with particular operating systems or software. To improve user experiences, respondents suggested that portals function independently of browsers and operating systems, have intuitive interfaces with easy navigation, and incorporate additional features that would allow users to filter, search, and batch safety reports. Results indicate that an ideal system for sharing expedited IND safety information is through a central portal used by

  8. Stochastic investigation of temperature process for climatic variability identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerias, Eleutherios; Kalamioti, Anna; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Markonis, Yannis; Iliopoulou, Theano; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2016-04-01

    The temperature process is considered as the most characteristic hydrometeorological process and has been thoroughly examined in the climate-change framework. We use a dataset comprising hourly temperature and dew point records to identify statistical variability with emphasis on the last period. Specifically, we investigate the occurrence of mean, maximum and minimum values and we estimate statistical properties such as marginal probability distribution function and the type of decay of the climacogram (i.e., mean process variance vs. scale) for various time periods. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.

  9. Stochastic investigation of wind process for climatic variability identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deligiannis, Ilias; Tyrogiannis, Vassilis; Daskalou, Olympia; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Markonis, Yannis; Iliopoulou, Theano; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2016-04-01

    The wind process is considered one of the hydrometeorological processes that generates and drives the climate dynamics. We use a dataset comprising hourly wind records to identify statistical variability with emphasis on the last period. Specifically, we investigate the occurrence of mean, maximum and minimum values and we estimate statistical properties such as marginal probability distribution function and the type of decay of the climacogram (i.e., mean process variance vs. scale) for various time periods. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.

  10. Expedition 9 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-24

    Expedition 9 Flight Engineer Michael Fincke is assisted by NASA Flight Doctor Steve Heart as he walks to the helicopter near the Soyuz landing site for the flight back to Kustanay, Kazakhstan. The Soyuz capsule landed with Expedition 9 Flight Engineer Mike Fincke, Expedition 9 Commander Gennady Padalka and Russian Space Forces cosmonaut Yuri Shargin approximately 85 kilometers northeast of Arkalyk in northern Kazakhstan, Sunday, October 24, 2004. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Expedition 9 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-24

    Expedition 9 Flight Engineer Michael Fincke is interviewed by former Expedition 5 Flight Engineer Peggy Whitson for the video phone after the successful landing in the Soyuz spacecraft with fellow crew members Expedition 9 Commander Gennady Padalka and Russian Space Forces cosmonaut Yuri Shargin. The crew landed in their Soyuz capsule approximately 85 kilometers northeast of Arkalyk in northern Kazakhstan, Sunday, October 24, 2004. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Expedition 21 Docking

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-01

    Anna-Marie Williams talks on the phone to her husband Expedition 21 with Flight Engineer Jeffrey N. Williams who is onboard the International Space Station (ISS) from the Mission Control Center Moscow in Korolev, Russia shortly after the successful docking of the Soyuz TMA-16 spacecraft with the International Space Station marking the start of Expedition 21 with Williams, Expedition 21 Flight Engineer Maxim Suraev, and Spaceflight Participant Guy Laliberté, Friday, Oct. 2, 2009. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Expedition 28 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-16

    Expedition 28 Flight Engineer Ron Garan looks out the window of his helicopter as it prepares to depart for Karaganda from the Soyuz TMA-21 Capsule landing site outside of the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan on Friday, Sept. 16, 2011. Expedition 28 Commander Andrey Borisenko, and Flight Engineers Ron Garan, and Alexander Samokutyaev returned from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 27 and 28 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Expedition 32 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-09-17

    Expedition 32 NASA Flight Engineer Joe Acaba is carried in a chair to the medical tent after he and Expedition 32 Commander Gennady Padalka and Flight Engineer Sergei Revin landed in their Soyuz TMA-04M capsule in a remote area near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan, on Monday, Sept. 17, 2012. Acaba, Padalka and Revin returned from five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 31 and 32 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  15. Expedition 25 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-26

    Expedition 25 Commander Doug Wheelock signs the inside of a Russian Search and Rescue helicopter shortly after Wheelock, Expedition 25 Flight Engineers Shannon Walker and Fyodor Yurchikhin landed in the Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft near Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Friday, Nov. 26, 2010. Russian Cosmonaut Yurchikhin and NASA Astronauts Wheelock and Walker, are returning from nearly six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 24 and 25 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Expedition 32 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-09-17

    Expedition 32 NASA Flight Engineer Joe Acaba is helped from a Russian Search and Rescue all terrain vehicle (ATV) after he and Expedition 32 Commander Gennady Padalka and Flight Engineer Sergei Revin returned from the International Space Station on Monday, Sept. 17, 2012. Acaba, Padalka and Revin returned from five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 31 and 32 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  17. Expedition 32 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-09-17

    Expedition 32 NASA Flight Engineer Joe Acaba is helped from a Russian Search and Rescue all terrain vehicle (ATV) to his helicopter after he and Expedition 32 Commander Gennady Padalka and Flight Engineer Sergei Revin returned from the International Space Station on Monday, Sept. 17, 2012. Acaba, Padalka and Revin returned from five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 31 and 32 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  18. Expedition Seven Crew Members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This crew portrait of Expedition Seven, Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven mission commander (left), and Astronaut Edward T. Lu, Expedition Seven NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer (right) was taken while in training at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. Destined for the International Space Station (ISS), the two-man crew launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on April 26, 2003. aboard a Soyez TMA-1 spacecraft.

  19. Expedition Seven Crew Members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This crew portrait of Expedition Seven, Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven mission commander (left), and Astronaut Edward T. Lu, Expedition Seven NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer (right) was taken while in training at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. Destined for the International Space Station (ISS), the two-man crew launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on April 26, 2003. aboard a Soyez TMA-1 spacecraft.

  20. Expedition 18 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-10

    Expedition 18 Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov, right, Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke and American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott, left, pose for photographs after a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel, Saturday, Oct. 11, 2008, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The Expedition 18 crew will launch on the Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft on Oct. 12 and dock with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Expedition 24 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-24

    Expedition 24 Flight Engineer Mikhail Kornienko, embraces his family after he and Expedition 24 Commander Alexander Skvortsov arrived at Chkalovskaya airport just outside Moscow on Saturday, Sept. 25, 2010. Skvortsov, Kornienko and Expedition 24 Flight Engineer Tracy Caldwell Dyson, landed in their Soyuz TMA-18 spacecraft near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, Sept. 25, 2010. Russian Cosmonauts Skvortsov and Kornienko and NASA Astronaut Caldwell Dyson, are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 23 and 24 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Expedition 24 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-24

    Expedition 24 Commander Alexander Skvortsov, embraces his family after he and Expedition 24 Flight Engineer Mikhail Kornienko arrived at Chkalovskaya airport just outside Moscow on Saturday, Sept. 25, 2010. Skvortsov, Kornienko and Expedition 24 Flight Engineer Tracy Caldwell Dyson, landed in their Soyuz TMA-18 spacecraft near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, Sept. 25, 2010. Russian Cosmonauts Skvortsov and Kornienko and NASA Astronaut Caldwell Dyson, are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 23 and 24 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Expedition 24 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-24

    Expedition 24 Flight Engineer Mikhail Kornienko, foreground, and Expedition 24 Commander Alexander Skvortsov embrace their family and friends after their arrival at Chkalovskaya airport just outside Moscow on Saturday, Sept. 25, 2010. Skvortsov, Kornienko and Expedition 24 Flight Engineer Tracy Caldwell Dyson, landed in their Soyuz TMA-18 spacecraft near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, Sept. 25, 2010. Russian Cosmonauts Skvortsov and Kornienko and NASA Astronaut Caldwell Dyson, are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 23 and 24 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Expedition 26 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-16

    Expedition 26 Flight Engineer Alexander Kaleri, bottom, and Expedition 26 Flight Engineer Oleg Skripochka are seen as they arrive at the Chkalovsky airport outside Star City, Russia several hours after they and Expedition 26 Commander Scott Kelly landed in their Soyuz TMA-01M capsule near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan, Wednesday, March 16, 2011. NASA Astronaut Kelly, Russian Cosmonauts Skripochka and Kaleri are returning from almost six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 25 and 26 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. The relationship between patient safety climate and occupational safety climate in healthcare - A multi-level investigation.

    PubMed

    Pousette, Anders; Larsman, Pernilla; Eklöf, Mats; Törner, Marianne

    2017-06-01

    Patient safety climate/culture is attracting increasing research interest, but there is little research on its relation with organizational climates regarding other target domains. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between patient safety climate and occupational safety climate in healthcare. The climates were assessed using two questionnaires: Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture and Nordic Occupational Safety Climate Questionnaire. The final sample consisted of 1154 nurses, 886 assistant nurses, and 324 physicians, organized in 150 work units, within hospitals (117units), primary healthcare (5units) and elderly care (28units) in western Sweden, which represented 56% of the original sample contacted. Within each type of safety climate, two global dimensions were confirmed in a higher order factor analysis; one with an external focus relative the own unit, and one with an internal focus. Two methods were used to estimate the covariation between the global climate dimensions, in order to minimize the influence of bias from common method variance. First multilevel analysis was used for partitioning variances and covariances in a within unit part (individual level) and a between unit part (unit level). Second, a split sample technique was used to calculate unit level correlations based on aggregated observations from different respondents. Both methods showed associations similar in strength between the patient safety climate and the occupational safety climate domains. The results indicated that patient safety climate and occupational safety climate are strongly positively related at the unit level, and that the same organizational processes may be important for the development of both types of organizational climate. Safety improvement interventions should not be separated in different organizational processes, but be planned so that both patient safety and staff safety are considered concomitantly. Copyright © 2017 National Safety

  6. Expedition crews at the table

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-05

    ISS020-E-046945 (5 Oct. 2009) --- Crew members on the International Space Station share a meal near the galley in the Zvezda Service Module. Pictured from the left are NASA astronaut Michael Barratt, Expedition 19/20 flight engineer; European Space Agency astronaut Frank De Winne, Expedition 20 flight engineer and Expedition 21 commander; Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka, Expedition 19/20 commander; Canadian Space Agency astronaut Robert Thirsk, Expedition 20/21 flight engineer; and NASA astronaut Jeffrey Williams, Expedition 21 flight engineer and Expedition 22 commander; along with NASA astronaut Nicole Stott, Expedition 20/21 flight engineer.

  7. ASTER Expedited Data Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duda, K. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on the Terra spacecraft offers near real-time data delivery through an expedited system used to support emergency responders and science field campaigns. Data acquired and processed in this manner can be available for download within six hours of collection, as compared with a lag time of many days before standard products become available at two distribution sites. The orbit revisit frequency is 16 days for nadir views, but this can be reduced substantially through off-nadir pointing, at high latitudes, and by night observations. Scheduling confirmation takes place two to four days prior to imaging. ASTER is a joint mission involving the U.S. and Japan. ASTER expedited data are generated at the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), where standard products are also archived after receipt from affiliates at the Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC) in Tokyo. The ASTER instrument operates through scheduled observations, and is very successfully completing a global mapping mission. With three visible and near-infrared (VNIR) bands at 15 m ground resolution, six shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands at 30 m resolution, and five thermal infrared (TIR) bands at 90 m resolution, the 1.7-million scene archive of ASTER data acquired during the last decade provides utility in a wide range of investigations. A back-looking band is also present that enables the generation of digital elevation models (DEM). ASTER expedited data have been requested by national and international emergency response organizations to provide current views of many types of disaster situations, including volcanoes, hurricanes, wildfires, floods, tsunamis, landslides and other events. ASTER data have been provided in response to activations of the International Charter, Space and Major Disasters. Examples of data acquired for a variety of disaster situations will be provided. Recent events supported

  8. Expedition 9 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-24

    Expedition 9 Flight Engineer Michael Fincke shows his happiness with the successful landing in the Syouz spacecraft with fellow crew members, Expedition 9 Commander Gennady Padalka and Russian Space Forces cosmonaut Yuri Shargin. The crew landed in their Soyuz capsule approximately 85 kilometers northeast of Arkalyk in northern Kazakhstan, Sunday, October 24, 2004. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Expedition 27 Prelaunch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-04

    Expedition 27 Russian Flight Engineer Andrey Borisenko performs the traditional door signing Monday, April 4, 2011 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Borisenko was launched onboard the Soyuz rocket the following morning with Expedition 27 Soyuz Commander Alexander Samokutyaev and NASA Flight Engineer Ron Garan on a mission to the International Space Station (ISS). Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  10. Expedition 27 Prelaunch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-04

    Expedition 27 Soyuz Commander Alexander Samokutyaev performs the traditional door signing Monday, April 4, 2011 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Samokutyaev was launched onboard the Soyuz rocket the following morning with Expedition 27 NASA Flight Engineer Ron Garan and Russian Flight Engineer Andrey Borisenko on a mission to the International Space Station (ISS). Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  11. Expedition 23 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-01

    Expedition 23 Flight Engineer Tracy Caldwell Dyson performs the traditional door signing Friday, April 2, 2010 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Caldwell Dyson was launched onboard the Soyuz rocket later that day with Expedition 23 Soyuz Commander Alexander Skvortsov and Flight Engineer Mikhail Kornienko on a mission to the International Space Station (ISS). Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  12. Expedition 8 Certification

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-12

    Expedition 8 Soyuz Commander Alexander Kaleri responds to a reporter's question during a prelaunch news conference, Friday, Oct. 17, 2003 in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Kaleri, Expedition 8 Commander and NASA Science Officer Mike Foale and European Space Agency astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain launched Oct. 18 to the International Space Station. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Expedition 8 Certification

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-17

    Expedition 8 Commander and NASA Science Officer Michael Foale listens to a reporter's question during a prelaunch news conference, Friday, Oct. 17, 2003, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Foale, Expedition 8 Soyuz Commander Alexander Kaleri and European Space Agency Astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain launched in a Soyuz TMA-3 vehicle Oct. 18 to the International Space Station. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Expedition 8 Certification

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-17

    Expedition 8 Commander and NASA Science Officer Michael Foale, left, responds to a reporter's question as Expedition 8 Soyuz Commander Alexander Kaleri and European Space Agency astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain, right, look on during a prelaunch news conference, Friday, Oct. 17, 2003, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Expedition 9 Preflight Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-14

    Expedition 9 Commander Gennady Padalka, center, trains on a Soyuz simulator while Expedition 9 Flight Engineer and NASA Science Officer Mike Fincke, right, watches at the Cosmonaut Hotel, Thursday, April 15, 2004, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Expedition 29 State Commission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-12

    Expedition 29 Soyuz Commander Anton Shkaplerov speaks during the State Commission meeting to approve the Soyuz launch of Expedition 29 to the International Space Station, Saturday, Nov. 12, 2011 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch November 14 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  17. Expedition 25 Prelaunch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-06

    Expedition 25 Flight Engineer Oleg Skripochka performs the traditional door signing Thursday, October 7, 2010 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Skripochka was launched onboard the Soyuz rocket the following morning with Expedition 25 Soyuz Commander Alexander Kaleri and Flight Engineer Scott Kelly on a mission to the International Space Station (ISS). Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  18. Expedition 29 State Commission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-12

    Expedition 29 Russian Flight Engineer Anatoly Ivanishin speaks during the State Commission meeting to approve the Soyuz launch of Expedition 29 to the International Space Station, Saturday, Nov. 12, 2011 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch November 14 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  19. Expedition 29 State Commission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-12

    NASA Expedition 29 backup crew member Joseph Acaba speaks during the State Commission meeting to approve the Soyuz launch of Expedition 29 to the International Space Station, Saturday, Nov. 12, 2011 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch November 14 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  20. Expedition 28 State Commission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-06

    Expedition 28 NASA Flight Engineer Mike Fossum stands during the State Commission meeting to approve the Soyuz launch of Expedition 28 to the International Space Station, Monday, June 6, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch on Tuesday, June 8, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  1. Expedition 28 State Commission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-06

    Expedition 28 Russian backup Flight Engineer Oleg Kononenko is seen seated during the State Commission meeting to approve the Soyuz launch of Expedition 28 to the International Space Station, Monday, June 6, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch on Tuesday, June 8, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  2. Expedition 29 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-12

    Expedition 29 NASA Flight Engineer Dan Burbank answers a reporter’s question during a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan on Saturday, Nov. 12, 2011. The launch of the Soyuz spacecraft with Expedition 29 NASA Flight Engineer Dan Burbank, Soyuz Commander Anton Shkaplerov and Flight Engineer Anatoly Ivanishin is scheduled for November 14. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  3. Expedition 29 State Commission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-12

    Expedition 29 backup crew member Sergei Revin speaks during the State Commission meeting to approve the Soyuz launch of Expedition 29 to the International Space Station, Saturday, Nov. 12, 2011 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch November 14 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  4. Expedition 8 Launch Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-12

    Backup Expedition 8 Commander Bill McArthur, left, and prime Expedition 8 Commander Michael Foale practice procedures with a satellite phone during final training at their crew quarters in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Wednesday, Oct. 15, 2003, for launch on a Soyuz TMA-3 vehicle Oct. 18 to the International Space Station. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Expedition 9 Preflight Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-13

    Expedition 9 Science Officer and Flight Engineer Mike Fincke, left, Expedition 9 Commander Gennady Padalka, center and European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers of the Netherlands listen to instructions on satellite phone and GPS use in building 254 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Wednesday, April 14, 2004, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Expedition 9 Preflight Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-13

    Expedition 9 Science Officer and Flight Engineer Mike Fincke, left, Expedition 9 Commander Gennady Padalka, second from left and Flight Engineer and European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers of the Netherlands listen to instructions on satellite phone and GPS use at building 254 at Baikonur Cosmodrome Wednesday, April 14, 2004, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Expedition 9 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-24

    The crew return bus pulls away from the Gargarin Cosmonaut Training Center's airplane in Star City, Russia. The Soyuz capsule carrying Expedition 9 Flight Engineer Michael Fincke, Expedition 9 Commander Gennady Padalka and Russian Space Forces cosmonaut Yuri Shargin landed approximately 85 kilometers northeast of Arkalyk in northern Kazakhstan, Sunday, October 24, 2004. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Expedition 25 Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-07

    Expedition 25 Soyuz Commander Alexander Kaleri awaits to have his Russian Sokol Suit pressure checked at the Baikonur Cosmodrome on Friday, Oct. 8, 2010 in Kazakhstan. Kaleri and fellow Expedition 25 crew members Flight Engineers Scott Kelly and Oleg Skripochka launched in their Soyuz TMA-01M at 5:10 a.m. Friday morning. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  9. Expedition 25 Prelaunch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-06

    Expedition 25 Flight Engineer Scott Kelly performs the traditional door signing Thursday, October 7, 2010 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Kelly was launched onboard the Soyuz rocket the following morning with Expedition 25 Soyuz Commander Alexander Kaleri and Flight Engineer Oleg Skripochka on a mission to the International Space Station (ISS). Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  10. Expedition 25 Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-07

    Expedition 25 Soyuz Commander Alexander Kaleri awaits to have his Russian Sokol Suit pressure checked at the Baikonur Cosmodrome on Friday, Oct. 8, 2010 in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Kaleri and fellow Expedition 25 crew members Flight Engineers Scott Kelly and Oleg Skripochka launched in their Soyuz TMA-01M at 5:10 a.m. Friday morning. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  11. Expedition 19 Crew Training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-20

    Expedition 19 Commander Gennady I. Padalka, left, listens to his mp3 player as a medical doctor looks on during the he participates tilt table training at the Cosmonaut Hotel, Saturday, March 21, 2009 in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Expedition 19 Flight Engineer Michael R. Barratt in on the tilt table on the right. (Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Expedition 9 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-24

    An inflatable medical tent stands in the foreground of the Expedition 9 landing site, while in the background the Soyuz capsule lays on its side after landing approximately 85 kilometers northeast of Arkalyk in northern Kazakhstan with Expedition 9 crew members Flight Engineer Michael Fincke, Commander Gennady Padalka and Russian Space Forces cosmonaut Yuri Shargin, Sunday, October 24, 2004.

  13. Effective Expedition Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cederquist, John

    An expedition is different from other forms of overnight wilderness travel in that it involves extended time and distance in the field; it is beyond the reach of immediate rescue; and the party is self-contained regarding gear, provisions, and decision-making responsibilities. Successful expeditions may prove to be powerful, life-changing…

  14. Expedition 9 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-24

    An inflatable medical tent stands in the foreground of the Expedition 9 landing site, while an incoming Russian Search and Rescue helicopter lands. The Soyuz capsule, which carried Expedition 9 Flight Engineer Michael Fincke, Commander Gennady Padalka and Russian Space Forces cosmonaut Yuri Shargin landed approximately 85 kilometers northeast of Arkalyk in northern Kazakhstan, Sunday, October 24, 2004. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Expedition 52 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-10

    Expedition 52 flight engineers Paolo Nespoli of ESA, left, Sergey Ryazanskiy of Roscosmos, center, and Expedition 52 flight engineer Randy Bresnik of NASA pose for group photograph at the conclusion of their crew press conference at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), Monday, July 10, 2017 in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Expedition 8 Certification

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-17

    Expedition 8 Commander and NASA Science Officer Michael Foale, left, Expedition 8 Soyuz Commander Alexander Kaleri and European Space Agency astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain, right, wave to reporters at the conclusion of a prelaunch news conference, Friday, Oct. 17, 2003 in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Expedition 8 Capsule Inspection

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-13

    Expedition 8 Soyuz Commander and Flight Engineer Alexander Kaleri, center, Expedition 8 Commander Michael Foale, European Space Agency astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain, right, along with Valery Korzun, Chief of Cosmonauts, arrive in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Sunday, Oct. 12, 2003. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Expedition 8 Capsule Inspection

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-13

    Expedition 8 Soyuz Commander and Flight Engineer Alexander Kaleri, left, Expedition 8 Commander Michael Foale, European Space Agency Astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain, right, along with Valery Korzun, Chief of Cosmonauts, arrive in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Sunday, Oct. 12, 2003. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Expedition 8 Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-12

    European Space Agency astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain, left, Expedition 8 Commander Michael Foale and Expedition 8 Soyuz Commander and Flight Engineer Alexander Kaleri gather on a bus following their arrival in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Sunday, Oct. 12, 2003, in preparation for their Oct. 18 launch from the Baikonur Cosmodrome onboard a Soyuz rocket to the International Space Station. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Expedition 8 Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-12

    Expedition 8 Soyuz Commander and Flight Engineer Alexander Kaleri, left, Expedition 8 Commander Michael Foale, European Space Agency astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain, right, along with Valery Korzun, Chief of Cosmonauts, rear, arrive in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Sunday, Oct. 12, 2003. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Expedition 9 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-24

    Expedition 9 Commander Gennady Padalka, center, and Expedition 9 Flight Engineer Michael Fincke, background, exit the Gargarin Cosmonaut Training Center's airplane to an awaiting crowd of officials and family members after their flight from Kustanay, Kazakhstan, Sunday, October 24, 2004. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Investigating Hilbert frequency dynamics and synchronisation in climate data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappalà, Dario; Masoller, Cristina; Tirabassi, Giulio

    2016-04-01

    In this work we investigate climate dynamics and interactions from the point of view of synchronisation. We analyse daily Surface Air Temperature (SAT) time series in 10512 grid points over the Earth's surface. [1] From each SAT time series we calculate the anomalies time series and also, by using the Hilbert transform, we calculate the frequency time series. By plotting the map of the average frequency in every grid point, we extract relevant information about the SAT dynamics in different regions of the world. Then, we calculate frequency and anomalies autocorrelations. The autocorrelation maps also allow uncovering geographical regions with different memory properties. In a second step, to detect Hilbert-frequency synchronisation in different regions, we compute the zero-lag cross correlation (CC). By thresholding the CC matrices (both, of SAT anomalies and of Hilbert frequencies), we build two undirected networks. A comparison between these networks allows to test the recent demonstration of optimal network inference when the similarity analysis is performed over Hilbert frequency time series. [2] In a third step, we consider non uniform thresholds and keep in each geographical location only the links with the highest CC values. In this way, we build directed networks that allow identifying in each geographical region the most relevant inward teleconnections. [1] ERA-Interim analysis daily data, from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. [2] G. Tirabassi, R. Sevilla-Escoboza, J. M. Buldú and C. Masoller, Inferring the connectivity of coupled oscillators from time-series statistical similarity analysis, Sci. Rep. 5 10829 (2015).

  3. Investigation of carbon dioxide in the South Atlantic and northern Weddell Sea areas (WOCE Sections A-12 and A-21) during the METEOR expedition 11/5, January--March 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Chipman, D.W.; Takahashi, Taro; Breger, D.; Sutherland, S.C.

    1991-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of investigation the oceanographic expedition aboard the F/S METEOR in South Atlantic Ocean including the Drake Passage, the northern Weddell Sea and the eastern South Atlantic during the austral summer of January through March 1990. The total CO{sub 2} concentration in about 1300 seawater samples and CO{sub 2} partial pressure (pCO{sub 2}) in about 870 seawater samples collected at 77 stations were determined aboard the ship using a coulometer and equilibrator/gas chromatograph system. The temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and nutrient salt data presented in this report were determined by other participants of the expedition including the members of the Oceanographic Data Facility of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Argentine Hydrographic Office and German institutions.

  4. Investigation of carbon dioxide in the South Atlantic and northern Weddell Sea areas (WOCE Sections A-12 and A-21) during the METEOR expedition 11/5, January--March 1990. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Chipman, D.W.; Takahashi, Taro; Breger, D.; Sutherland, S.C.

    1991-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of investigation the oceanographic expedition aboard the F/S METEOR in South Atlantic Ocean including the Drake Passage, the northern Weddell Sea and the eastern South Atlantic during the austral summer of January through March 1990. The total CO{sub 2} concentration in about 1300 seawater samples and CO{sub 2} partial pressure (pCO{sub 2}) in about 870 seawater samples collected at 77 stations were determined aboard the ship using a coulometer and equilibrator/gas chromatograph system. The temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and nutrient salt data presented in this report were determined by other participants of the expedition including the members of the Oceanographic Data Facility of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Argentine Hydrographic Office and German institutions.

  5. Investigating the Climatic Transition Zone in Guyana, South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovolo, C.; Pereira, R.; Parkin, G.; Kilsby, C. G.; Wagner, T.

    2010-12-01

    The climate of Guyana is influenced by the seasonal oscillation of the rain-bearing Inter-Tropical-Convergence Zone over the northern part of South America, producing two wet seasons on the coast and one wet season inland. The transition zone between the two climate regimes also corresponds to a distinct vegetation transition between intact and highly biodiverse rainforests in northern and central Guyana, and open, savannah type vegetation in the southwest. Coastal Guyana has been shown to be highly susceptible to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, with El-Niño conditions most likely to result in drought; however a brief analysis of available observations suggests that an opposite effect may exist inland. Geographically sparse meteorological records of variable quality (especially inland) have so far precluded detailed climatic studies of the Guianas. It is important therefore, to establish the climate regime of the area and to analyse the influence of ENSO on the region in order to derive baselines against which the impacts of any future landuse change or climate change can be measured. The impacts of climatic variations on the ecosystem services of the area can then also begin to be determined. This study compares the ECMWF ERA40 reanalysis dataset for the period 1957-2002 at a ~125 km2 (1.125 degree) resolution against available areally averaged meteorological observations in the Guyanas to determine if reanalysis data can be used to supplement observations in data-poor areas. Mean differences (biases) and correlations are examined comparing the seasonal cycles and the yearly, monthly and monthly anomaly time series. Results show that maps of average annual reanalysis precipitation for the region compare favourably against observations, although the model underestimates precipitation in some zones of higher elevation. ERA40 also appears slightly positively biased on the coast and negatively biased inland. Correlations between observed and modelled

  6. Expedition 18 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-11

    Expedition 18 Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov walks from the crew bus to the Soyuz rocket with Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke, not pictured, and American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott, background left, prior to their launch in the Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft, Sunday, Oct. 12, 2008 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The three crew members are scheduled to dock with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Expedition 18 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-10

    Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke answers reporters' questions during a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel, Saturday, Oct. 11, 2008, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Fincke will launch on the Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft along with Expedition 18 Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov and American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott on Oct. 12 and dock with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Expedition 18 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-10

    American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott, left, and Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke answer reporters' questions during a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel, Saturday, Oct. 11, 2008, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Garriott and Fincke will launch on the Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft along with Expedition 18 Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov on Oct. 12 and dock with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Expedition 18 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-11

    American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott, left, Expedition 18 Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov and Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke, right, depart building 254 where the crew donned their spacesuits prior to launch in the Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft, Sunday Oct. 12, 2008 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The crew is scheduled to dock to the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crewmembers currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Victor Zelentsov)

  10. Expedition 18 State Commission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-10

    Expedition 18 Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov, left, and Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke listen to the State Commission give the approval for launch of the Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft, Saturday, Oct. 11, 2008, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Lonchakov, Fincke and American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott are scheduled to launch Oct. 12 and then to dock with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Expedition 18 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-11

    Expedition 18 Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov, bottom, Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke and American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott, top, board the Soyuz rocket prior to their launch in the Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft, Sunday, Oct. 12, 2008 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The three crew members are scheduled to dock with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Expedition 18 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-10

    The quarantined crew, from left, American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott, Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke, Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov, back up Expedition 18 Commander Gennady Padalka, Flight Engineer Mike Barratt and spaceflight participant Nik Halik answer reporters questions during a press conference at the Cosmonaut Hotel, Saturday, Oct. 11, 2008, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Fincke, Lonchakov and Garriott are scheduled to launch Oct. 12 and dock with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Expedition 18 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-11

    American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott, left, Expedition 18 Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov and Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke, right, prepare to salute officials prior to launch in the Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft, Sunday Oct. 12, 2008 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The crew is scheduled to dock to the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crewmembers currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Victor Zelentsov)

  14. Expedition 18 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-10

    Expedition 18 Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov answers reporters' questions during a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel, Saturday, Oct. 11, 2008, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Lonchakov will launch on the Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft along with Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke and American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott on Oct. 12 and dock with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Expedition 18 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-11

    Expedition 18 Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov waves farewell as he and fellow crew members Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke and American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott depart the Cosmonaut Hotel for the bus ride to building 254 where the crew will don their spacesuits, Sunday, Oct. 12, 2008, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The three crew members are scheduled to dock with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Victor Zelentsov)

  16. Expedition 18 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-11

    Expedition 18 Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov pumps his fists as he and fellow crew members Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke and American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott depart the Cosmonaut hotel for the bus ride to building 254 where the crew will don their spacesuits, Sunday, Oct. 12, 2008, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The three crew members are scheduled to dock with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Victor Zelentsov)

  17. Expedition 18 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-11

    Expedition 18 Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov, bottom, Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke and American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott, top, wave farewell from the steps of the Soyuz launch pad prior to their launch in the Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft, Sunday, Oct. 12, 2008 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The three crew members are scheduled to dock with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Expedition 23 Docking

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-03

    The crew of Expedition 23 are seen on a large TV screen in the Russian Mission Control Center in Korolev, Russia, Sunday, April 4, 2010, shortly after the Soyuz TMA-18 spacecraft docked to the International Space Station and delivered Expedition 23 Flight Engineers Alexander Skvortsov, Mikhail Kornienko and Tracy Caldwell Dyson. Clockwise from top right are NASA astronaut TJ Creamer, NASA astronaut Tracy Caldwell Dyson, Russian cosmonaut Alexander Skvortsov, Russian cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko, JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) astronaut Soichi Noguchi and Expedition 23 commander Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov . Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  19. Expedition 8 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-18

    With a throng of reporters looking on, the prime and backup crews for the Expedition 8 mission to the International Space Station and the prime and backup European Space Agency Astronauts receive final well-wishes from Russian and U.S. space officials at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, Saturday, Oct. 18, 2003, before heading to the launch pad. Expedition 8 Commander and NASA Science Officer Michael Foale, Expedition 8 Soyuz Commander Alexander Kaleri and ESA's Pedro Duque of Spain were launched on a Soyuz TMA-3 vehicle, arriving at the ISS on Oct. 20. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Expedition 21 Docking

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-01

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, Left, and Head of the Russian Federal Space Agency, Anatoly Perminov listen to reporter's questions during a press conference at Mission Control Center Moscow in Korolev, Russia shortly after the successful docking of the Soyuz TMA-16 spacecraft with the International Space Station (ISS) marking the start of Expedition 21 with Flight Engineer Jeffrey N. Williams, Expedition 21 Flight Engineer Maxim Suraev, and Spaceflight Participant Guy Laliberté, Friday, Oct. 2, 2009. Laliberté will return to Earth with the Expedition 20 crew on October 11, 2009. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Expedition 20 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-10

    Expedition 20 Flight Engineer Michael Barratt, left, and Expedition 20 Commander Gennady Padalka, right, are carried in chairs to the medical tent shortly after they and Spaceflight participant Guy Laliberté landed in their Soyuz TMA-14 capsule near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Sunday, Oct. 11, 2009. Padalka and Barratt are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station, along with Laliberté who arrived at the station on Oct. 2 with Expedition 21 Flight Engineers Jeff Williams and Maxim Suraev aboard the Soyuz TMA-16 spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Expedition 20 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-10

    Spaceflight participant Guy Laliberté is carried in a chair to the medical tent shortly after he and Expedition 20 Flight Engineer Michael Barratt, and Expedition 20 Commander Gennady Padalka landed in their Soyuz TMA-14 capsule near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Sunday, Oct. 11, 2009. Padalka and Barratt are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station, along with Laliberté who arrived at the station on Oct. 2 with Expedition 21 Flight Engineers Jeff Williams and Maxim Suraev aboard the Soyuz TMA-16 spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Expedition 20 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-10

    Expedition 20 Flight Engineer Michael Barratt rests in a chair and is checked by medical personnel shortly after he and Spaceflight participant Guy Laliberté, and Expedition 20 Commander Gennady Padalka landed in their Soyuz TMA-14 capsule near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Sunday, Oct. 11, 2009. Padalka and Barratt are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station, along with Laliberté who arrived at the station on Oct. 2 with Expedition 21 Flight Engineers Jeff Williams and Maxim Suraev aboard the Soyuz TMA-16 spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Expedition 20 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-10

    Russian medical personnel monitor Expedition 20 Flight Engineer Michael Barratt onboard a helicopter heading to Kustanay, Kazakhstan shortly after Barratt, Expedition 20 Commander Gennady Padalka, and spaceflight participant Guy Laliberté landed their Soyuz TMA-14 capsule near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Sunday, Oct. 11, 2009. Padalka and Barratt are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station, along with Laliberté who arrived at the station on Oct. 2 with Expedition 21 Flight Engineers Jeff Williams and Maxim Suraev aboard the Soyuz TMA-16 spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Expedition 20 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-10

    Expedition 20 Flight Engineer Michael Barratt is carried in a chair to the medical tent shortly after he and Spaceflight participant Guy Laliberté, and Expedition 20 Commander Gennady Padalka landed in their Soyuz TMA-14 capsule near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Sunday, Oct. 11, 2009. Padalka and Barratt are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station, along with Laliberté who arrived at the station on Oct. 2 with Expedition 21 Flight Engineers Jeff Williams and Maxim Suraev aboard the Soyuz TMA-16 spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Expedition 20 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-10

    Expedition 20 Commander Gennady Padalka is carried in a chair to the medical tent shortly after he and Spaceflight participant Guy Laliberté, and Expedition 20 Flight Engineer Michael Barratt landed in their Soyuz TMA-14 capsule near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Sunday, Oct. 11, 2009. Padalka and Barratt are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station, along with Laliberté who arrived at the station on Oct. 2 with Expedition 21 Flight Engineers Jeff Williams and Maxim Suraev aboard the Soyuz TMA-16 spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Expedition 35 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-14

    Expedition 35 NASA Flight Engineer Tom Marshburn speaks to family members on a satellite phone following his landing in the Soyuz TMA-07M spacecraft in a remote area near the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, Tuesday, May 14, 2013. Marshburn, Expedition 35 Commander Chris Hadfield of the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) and Russian Flight Engineer Roman Romanenko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) returned to earth from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 34 and 35 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  8. Expedition 34 Crew Lands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    Expedition 34 Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy, left, and Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin pose for a photograph with women in ceremonial Kazakh dress at the Kustanay Airport in Kazakhstan a few hours after they, along with Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford of NASA, landed their Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft near the town of Arkalyk on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Novitskiy, Tarelkin, and Ford returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Expedition 24 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-24

    Expedition 24 Flight Engineer Mikhail Kornienko, left, and Commander Alexander Skvortsov, shake hands with Russian dignitaries after their arrival at Chkalovskaya airport just outside Moscow on Saturday, Sept. 25, 2010. Skvortsov, Kornienko and Expedition 24 Flight Engineer Tracy Caldwell Dyson, landed in their Soyuz TMA-18 spacecraft near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, Sept. 25, 2010. Russian Cosmonauts Skvortsov and Kornienko and NASA Astronaut Caldwell Dyson, are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 23 and 24 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Expedition 34 Crew Lands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford of NASA poses for a photograph after receiving welcome home gifts at the Kustanay Airport in Kazakhstan a few hours after he, along with Expedition 34 Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy, and Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin, landed their Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft near the town of Arkalyk on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Ford, Novitskiy, and, Tarelkin returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Expedition 24 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-24

    Expedition 24 Commander Alexander Skvortsov, front left, and Flight Engineer Mikhail Kornienko, back left, are helped down the stairs of an airplane after their arrival at Chkalovskaya airport just outside Moscow on Saturday, Sept. 25, 2010. Skvortsov, Kornienko and Expedition 24 Flight Engineer Tracy Caldwell Dyson, landed in their Soyuz TMA-18 spacecraft near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, Sept. 25, 2010. Russian Cosmonauts Skvortsov and Kornienko and NASA Astronaut Caldwell Dyson, are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 23 and 24 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Expedition 34 Crew Lands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford of NASA poses for a photograph with women in ceremonial Kazakh dress at the Kustanay Airport in Kazakhstan a few hours after he, along with Expedition 34 Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy, and Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin, landed their Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft near the town of Arkalyk on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Ford, Novitskiy, and, Tarelkin returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Expedition 28 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-15

    Expedition 28 Flight Engineer Ron Garan answers reporters questions in traditional Kazakh dress during a press conference at the Karaganda airport shortly after he and Expedition 28 Commander Andrey Borisenko and Flight Engineer Ron Garan landed in their Soyuz TMA-21 outside of the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, on Friday, Sept. 16, 2011. Garan, Borisenko and Samokutyaev are returning from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 27 and 28 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Expedition 27 Prelaunch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-01

    Expedition 27 NASA Flight Engineer Ron Garan, left, Expedition 27 Soyuz Commander Alexander Samokutyaev and Expedition 27 Flight Engineer Andrey Borisenko, third from left, depart the Cosmonaut Hotel on the evening before their Soyuz launch to the International Space Station Monday, April 4, 2011 in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The Soyuz, which has been dubbed “Gagarin”, is launching one week shy of the 50th anniversary of the launch of Yuri Gagarin from the same launch pad in Baikonur on April 12, 1961 to become the first human to fly in space. Photo Credit: (NASA/Victor Zelentsov)

  15. Expedition 27 Prelaunch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-01

    Expedition 27 NASA Flight Engineer Ron Garan, left, Expedition 27 Soyuz Commander Alexander Samokutyaev and Expedition 27 Flight Engineer Andrey Borisenko, right, talk to officials prior to their launch on board the Soyuz TMA-21 spacecraft to the International Space Station, Tuesday, April 5, 2011 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The Soyuz, which has been dubbed “Gagarin”, is launching one week shy of the 50th anniversary of the launch of Yuri Gagarin from the same launch pad in Baikonur on April 12, 1961 to become the first human to fly in space. Photo Credit: (NASA/Victor Zelentsov)

  16. Expedition 12 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-04-08

    Expedition 12 Commander Bill McArthur rest onboard a Russian helicopter that will take him from the landing site to Kustanay, Kazakhstan. Expedition 12 returned to Earth and landed in the steppes of Kazakhstan onboard a Soyuz TMA-7 spacecraft that touched down at 7:48 p.m. EDT on Sunday, April 9, 2006. Returning with Commander Bill McArthur and Flight Engineer Valery Tokarev was Brazil’s first astronaut, Marcos Pontes, who arrived at the station with Expedition 13 on April 1. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Expedition 12 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-04-08

    Expedition 12 Commander and International Space Station Science Officer, Bill McArthur waits onboard a helicopter before transferring to an airplane and a flight back to Moscow from Kustanay, Kazakhstan. Expedition 12 returned to Earth and landed in the steppes of Kazakhstan. The Soyuz TMA-7 spacecraft touched down at 7:48 p.m. EDT, Sunday, April 9, 2006. Returning with Commander Bill McArthur were Flight Engineer Valery Tokarev and Brazil’s first astronaut, Marcos Pontes, who arrived at the station with Expedition 13 on April 1. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Expedition 12 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-04-08

    Expedition 12 Commander Bill McArthur signs the interior of the Russian helicopter that will take him from the landing site to Kustanay, Kazakhstan. Expedition 12 returned to Earth and landed in the steppes of Kazakhstan onboard a Soyuz TMA-7 spacecraft that touched down at 7:48 p.m. EDT, Sunday, April 9, 2006. Returning with Commander Bill McArthur and Flight Engineer Valery Tokarev was Brazil’s first astronaut, Marcos Pontes, who arrived at the station with Expedition 13 on April 1. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Expedition 12 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-04-08

    Expedition 12 crew members have the traditional bread and salt upon their return to Star City, Russia. Expedition 12 returned to Earth and landed in the steppes of Kazakhstan onboard a Soyuz TMA-7 spacecraft that touched down at 7:48 p.m. EDT, Sunday, April 9, 2006. Returning with Commander Bill McArthur (right) and Flight Engineer Valery Tokarev (left) was Brazil’s first astronaut, Marcos Pontes, who arrived at the station with Expedition 13 on April 1. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Expedition 22 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-20

    Expedition 22 NASA Flight Engineer Timothy J. Creamer of the U.S., left, and Flight Engineer Soichi Noguchi of Japan pose for a photograph with NASA Flight Surgeon Pete Bauer, standing left, and NASA Expedition 22 backup Astronaut Doug Wheelock at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Sunday, Dec. 20, 2009. Creamer, Noguchi and fellow Expedition 22 crew member, Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov of Russia, launched in their Soyuz TMA-17 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Monday, Dec. 21, 2009. (Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Expedition 35 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-14

    Expedition 35 NASA Flight Engineer Tom Marshburn is helped off a Russian Search and Rescue helicopter at Karaganda Airport in Kazakhstan following his landing in the Soyuz TMA-07M spacecraft in a remote area near the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, Tuesday, May 14, 2013. Marshburn, Expedition 35 Commander Chris Hadfield of the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) and Russian Flight Engineer Roman Romanenko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) returned to earth from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 34 and 35 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  2. Expedition 32 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-09-17

    A view inside inside the Russian Search and Rescue helicopter that will carry Expedition 32 Flight Engineer Joe Acaba from the Soyuz TMA-04M landing site in a remote area outside Arkalyk, Kazakhstan to Kostanay, Kazakhstan shortly after he and Expedition 32 Commander Gennady Padalka and Flight Engineer Sergei Revin returned from the International Space Station on Monday, Sept. 17, 2012. Acaba, Padalka and Revin returned from five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 31 and 32 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  3. Expedition 25 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-26

    A Russian Search and Rescue all terrain vehicle carrying Expedition 25 Flight Engineer Shannon Walker from the medical tent pulls up to a helicopter shortly after Walker, Expedition 25 Commander Doug Wheelock and Flight Engineer Fyodor Yurchikhin landed in the Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft near Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Friday, Nov. 26, 2010. Russian Cosmonaut Yurchikhin and NASA Astronauts Wheelock and Walker, are returning from nearly six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 24 and 25 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Expedition 31 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-07-01

    Expedition 31 Flight Engineer Don Pettit of NASA is helped out of a Russian Search and Rescue helicopter after it carried him from the Soyuz TMA-03M capsule landing site in a remote area near the town of Zhezkazgan to Karaganda on Sunday, July 1, 2012 in Kazakhstan. Expedition 31 Commander Oleg Kononenko of Russia and Flight Engineers Pettit and Andre Kuipers of the European Space Agency landed in their Soyuz TMA-03M capsule in a remote area near the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan after serving more than six months onboard the International Space Station as members of the Expedition 30 and 31 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Expedition 25 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-26

    Expedition 25 Commander Doug Wheelock waves to the camera as Russian Search and Rescue teams and medical personnel carry him from the Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft shortly after the capsule landed with him, Expedition 25 Flight Engineer Shannon Walker and Flight Engineer Fyodor Yurchikhin near Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Friday, Nov. 26, 2010. Russian Cosmonaut Yurchikhin and NASA Astronauts Wheelock and Walker, are returning from nearly six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 24 and 25 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Expedition 35 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-14

    Expedition 35 Commander Chris Hadfield of the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is helped off a Russian Search and Rescue helicopter at Karaganda Airport in Kazakhstan following his landing in the Soyuz TMA-07M spacecraft in a remote area near the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, Tuesday, May 14, 2013. Hadfield, Expedition 35 NASA Flight Engineer Tom Marshburn and Russian Flight Engineer Roman Romanenko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) returned to earth from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 34 and 35 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  7. Expedition 20 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-10

    A Russian Search and Rescue team All Terrain Vehicle (ATV) brings Expedition 20 Flight Engineer Michael Barratt to his helicopter shortly after he and Expedition 20 Commander Gennady Padalka, and spaceflight participant Guy Laliberté landed their Soyuz TMA-14 capsule near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Sunday, Oct. 11, 2009. Padalka and Barratt are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station, along with Laliberté who arrived at the station on Oct. 2 with Expedition 21 Flight Engineers Jeff Williams and Maxim Suraev aboard the Soyuz TMA-16 spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Expedition 25 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-26

    Expedition 25 Flight Engineer Fyodor Yurchikhin is helped from a Russian Search and Rescue all terrain vehicle to a helicopter shortly after Yurchikhin, Expedition 25 Commander Doug Wheelock and Flight Engineer Shannon Walker landed in the Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft near Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Friday, Nov. 26, 2010. Russian Cosmonaut Yurchikhin and NASA Astronauts Wheelock and Walker, are returning from nearly six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 24 and 25 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Expedition 20 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-10

    Russian Search and Rescue helicopters are seen out the window of another helicopter carrying Expedition 20 Flight Engineer Michael Barratt shortly after shortly after he and Expedition 20 Commander Gennady Padalka, and spaceflight participant Guy Laliberté landed their Soyuz TMA-14 capsule near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Sunday, Oct. 11, 2009. Padalka and Barratt are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station, along with Laliberté who arrived at the station on Oct. 2 with Expedition 21 Flight Engineers Jeff Williams and Maxim Suraev aboard the Soyuz TMA-16 spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Expedition 25 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-26

    A Russian Search and Rescue helicopter and crew awaits the arrival of an all terrain vehicle carrying Expedition 25 Flight Engineer Fyodor Yurchikhin from the medical tent shortly after he and Expedition 25 Commander Doug Wheelock and Flight Engineer Shannon Walker landed in the Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft near Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Friday, Nov. 26, 2010. Russian Cosmonaut Yurchikhin and NASA Astronauts Wheelock and Walker, are returning from nearly six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 24 and 25 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Expedition 32 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-09-17

    Expedition 32 NASA Flight Engineer Joe Acaba rests on the Russian Search and Rescue helicopter that is carrying him from the Soyuz TMA-04M landing site in a remote area outside Arkalyk, Kazakhstan to Kostanay, Kazakhstan shortly after he and Expedition 32 Commander Gennady Padalka and Flight Engineer Sergei Revin returned from the International Space Station on Monday, Sept. 17, 2012. Acaba, Padalka and Revin returned from five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 31 and 32 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  12. Expedition 20 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-10

    Expedition 20 Flight Engineer Michael Barratt is helped out of a Russian Search and Rescue helicopter after a two hour helicopter flight from the Soyuz TMA-14 landing site to Kustanay, kazakhstan on Sunday, Oct. 11, 2009. Barratt, Expedition 20 Commander Gennady Padalka, and spaceflight participant Guy Laliberté landed their Soyuz TMA-14 capsule near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan. Padalka and Barratt are returned from six months onboard the International Space Station, along with Laliberté who arrived at the station on Oct. 2 with Expedition 21 Flight Engineers Jeff Williams and Maxim Suraev aboard the Soyuz TMA-16 spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Expedition 25 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-26

    Russian Search and Rescue teams and medical personnel help Expedition 25 Commander Doug Wheelock out of the Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft shortly after the capsule landed with him, Expedition 25 Flight Engineer Shannon Walker and Flight Engineer Fyodor Yurchikhin near Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Friday, Nov. 26, 2010. Russian Cosmonaut Yurchikhin and NASA Astronauts Wheelock and Walker, are returning from nearly six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 24 and 25 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Expedition 35 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-14

    Expedition 35 NASA Flight Engineer Tom Marshburn, center, is seen on a Russian Search and Rescue helicopter just before arriving at Karaganda Airport in Kazakhstan following his landing in the Soyuz TMA-07M spacecraft in a remote area near the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, Tuesday, May 14, 2013. Marshburn, Expedition 35 Commander Chris Hadfield of the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) and Russian Flight Engineer Roman Romanenko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) returned to earth from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 34 and 35 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  15. Expedition 35 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-14

    Expedition 35 NASA Flight Engineer Tom Marshburn, center, is attended to by his nurse and crew support personnel following his landing in the Soyuz TMA-07M spacecraft in a remote area near the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, Tuesday, May 14, 2013. Marshburn and crew mates Expedition 35 Commander Chris Hadfield of the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) and Russian Flight Engineer Roman Romanenko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) returned to earth from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 34 and 35 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  16. Expedition 35 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-14

    Expedition 35 NASA Flight Engineer Tom Marshburn is attended to by his nurse following his landing in the Soyuz TMA-07M spacecraft in a remote area near the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, Tuesday, May 14, 2013. Marshburn and crew mates Expedition 35 Commander Chris Hadfield of the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) and Russian Flight Engineer Roman Romanenko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) returned to earth from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 34 and 35 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  17. Expedition 30 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-27

    Expedition 30 flight engineer and Russian cosmonaut Anatoly Ivanishin is seen as he is extracted from the Soyuz TMA-22 spacecraft shortly after the capsule landed with Expedition 30 Commander Dan Burbank and flight engineer Anton Shkaplerov in a remote area outside of the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Friday, April 27, 2012. Ivanishin, Burbank and Shkaplerov are returning from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 29 and 30 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  18. Expedition 20 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-10

    NASA Flight Surgeon Ed Powers, left, laughs as Expedition 20 Flight Engineer Michael Barratt talks about how strange, weight and gravity feel when holding a bottle of water shortly after Barratt, Expedition 20 Commander Gennady Padalka, and spaceflight participant Guy Laliberté landed their Soyuz TMA-14 capsule near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Sunday, Oct. 11, 2009. Padalka and Barratt are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station, along with Laliberté who arrived at the station on Oct. 2 with Expedition 21 Flight Engineers Jeff Williams and Maxim Suraev aboard the Soyuz TMA-16 spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Investigating the case of human nose shape and climate adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Arslan A.; Claes, Peter; McEcoy, Brian; Shriver, Mark D.

    2017-01-01

    The evolutionary reasons for variation in nose shape across human populations have been subject to continuing debate. An import function of the nose and nasal cavity is to condition inspired air before it reaches the lower respiratory tract. For this reason, it is thought the observed differences in nose shape among populations are not simply the result of genetic drift, but may be adaptations to climate. To address the question of whether local adaptation to climate is responsible for nose shape divergence across populations, we use Qst–Fst comparisons to show that nares width and alar base width are more differentiated across populations than expected under genetic drift alone. To test whether this differentiation is due to climate adaptation, we compared the spatial distribution of these variables with the global distribution of temperature, absolute humidity, and relative humidity. We find that width of the nares is correlated with temperature and absolute humidity, but not with relative humidity. We conclude that some aspects of nose shape may indeed have been driven by local adaptation to climate. However, we think that this is a simplified explanation of a very complex evolutionary history, which possibly also involved other non-neutral forces such as sexual selection. PMID:28301464

  20. Investigating Climate Change and Reproduction: Experimental Tools from Evolutionary Biology

    PubMed Central

    Grazer, Vera M.; Martin, Oliver Y.

    2012-01-01

    It is now generally acknowledged that climate change has wide-ranging biological consequences, potentially leading to impacts on biodiversity. Environmental factors can have diverse and often strong effects on reproduction, with obvious ramifications for population fitness. Nevertheless, reproductive traits are often neglected in conservation considerations. Focusing on animals, recent progress in sexual selection and sexual conflict research suggests that reproductive costs may pose an underestimated hurdle during rapid climate change, potentially lowering adaptive potential and increasing extinction risk of certain populations. Nevertheless, regime shifts may have both negative and positive effects on reproduction, so it is important to acquire detailed experimental data. We hence present an overview of the literature reporting short-term reproductive consequences of exposure to different environmental factors. From the enormous diversity of findings, we conclude that climate change research could benefit greatly from more coordinated efforts incorporating evolutionary approaches in order to obtain cross-comparable data on how individual and population reproductive fitness respond in the long term. Therefore, we propose ideas and methods concerning future efforts dealing with reproductive consequences of climate change, in particular by highlighting the advantages of multi-generational experimental evolution experiments. PMID:24832232

  1. Investigating the case of human nose shape and climate adaptation.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Arslan A; Mattern, Brooke C; Claes, Peter; McEcoy, Brian; Hughes, Cris; Shriver, Mark D

    2017-03-01

    The evolutionary reasons for variation in nose shape across human populations have been subject to continuing debate. An import function of the nose and nasal cavity is to condition inspired air before it reaches the lower respiratory tract. For this reason, it is thought the observed differences in nose shape among populations are not simply the result of genetic drift, but may be adaptations to climate. To address the question of whether local adaptation to climate is responsible for nose shape divergence across populations, we use Qst-Fst comparisons to show that nares width and alar base width are more differentiated across populations than expected under genetic drift alone. To test whether this differentiation is due to climate adaptation, we compared the spatial distribution of these variables with the global distribution of temperature, absolute humidity, and relative humidity. We find that width of the nares is correlated with temperature and absolute humidity, but not with relative humidity. We conclude that some aspects of nose shape may indeed have been driven by local adaptation to climate. However, we think that this is a simplified explanation of a very complex evolutionary history, which possibly also involved other non-neutral forces such as sexual selection.

  2. EXPEDITION 46 PLAQUE HANGING

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-01

    RETIRED NASA ASTRONAUT SCOTT KELLY, LEFT, AND PAYLOAD PLANNING MANAGER TONY PITTMAN PAUSE FOR A PHOTO BEFORE HANGING THE MISSION PATCH FOR EXPEDITION 46 ON THE WALL OF THE PAYLOAD OPERATIONS INTEGRATION CENTER

  3. Expedition 34 Thanksgiving Message

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford shares a Thanksgiving message from the International Space Station. Ford demonstrates how the crew will spend the holiday on orbit and describes the menu he and h...

  4. Expedition 27 Says Goodbye

    NASA Image and Video Library

    At 2:45 p.m. EDT on May 23, 2011, hatches were closed between the International Space Station and Soyuz TMA-20 spacecraft. Expedition 27 crew members Dmitry Kondratyev, NASA Flight Engineer Cady Co...

  5. Expedition 52 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-10

    Expedition 52 flight engineer Randy Bresnik of NASA answers a reporter's question during a crew press conference at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), Monday, July 10, 2017 in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Expedition 52 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-10

    Expedition 52 flight engineer Sergey Ryazanskiy of Roscosmos answers a reporter's question during a crew press conference at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), Monday, July 10, 2017 in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Expedition 32 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-07-13

    Quarantined Expedition 32 Canadian backup crewmember Chris Hadfield answers reporters questions from behind glass during a prelaunch press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel on Friday, July 13, 2012 in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  8. Expedition 52 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-10

    Expedition 52 flight engineer Paolo Nespoli of ESA answers a reporter's question during a crew press conference at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), Monday, July 10, 2017 in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Expedition 19 Crew Relaxes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-20

    Expedition 19 Flight Engineer Michael R. Barratt is interviewed by members of the press during a recreation break at the Cosmonaut Hotel, Saturday, March 21, 2009 in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. (Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Expedition 19 Crew Ceremony

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-20

    Expedition 19 Commander Gennady I. Padalka, left, watches as Flight Engineer Michael R. Barratt plants a tree during the traditional tree planting ceremony at the Cosmonaut Hotel, Saturday, March 21, 2009 in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. (Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Expedition Six landing views

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-04

    May 4, 2003, Star City, Russia. Russian Space Agency Director Yuri Koptev shakes hands with Expedition Six Commander Ken Bowersox, as bowersox is also hugged by his wife Annie. Photo Credit: "NASA/Bill Ingalls"

  12. Expedition 6 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-03

    Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox is hugged by his wife Annie as he shakes hands with Russian Federal Space Agency Director Yuri Koptev, right, after returning, Tuesday, May 4, 2003, to Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Expedition 29 Crew Profile

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The six members of Expedition 29 are profiled and interviewed. NASA astronauts Mike Fossum and Dan Burbank; JAXA astronaut Satoshi Furukawa; and cosmonauts Anton Shkaplerov and Anatoly Ivanishin di...

  14. Expedition 9 Preflight Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-13

    A technician at the Baikonur Cosmodrome packs a satellite phone after instructing the Expedition 9 crew on its use, Wednesday, April, 14, 2004, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Expedition 6 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-05

    Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, left and NASA International Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit speak during a press conference at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia, Thursday, May 6, 2003. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Expedition 6 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-05

    Expedition 6 International Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit speaks during a press conference at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia, Thursday, May 6, 2003. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Expedition 25 Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-07

    Expedition 25 Flight Engineer Oleg Skripochka awaits to have his Russian Sokol Suit pressure checked at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Friday, Oct. 8, 2010. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  18. Expedition 25 Docking

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-09

    NASA astronaut Mark Kelly speaks on the phone to his twin brother, Expedition 25 Flight Engineer Scott Kelly, after his arrival to the International Space Station on Sunday, Oct. 10, 2010 in Korolev, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  19. Expedition 25 Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-07

    Expedition 25 NASA Flight Engineer Scott Kelly awaits to have his Russian Sokol Suit pressure checked at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Friday, Oct. 8, 2010. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  20. Expedition 35 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-14

    Expedition 35 Russian Flight Engineer Roman Romanenko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) greets his children upon his return home at Chkalovsky Airport in Russia, Tuesday, May 14, 2013. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  1. Expedition 19 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-24

    Expedition 19 Flight Engineer Michael R. Barratt smiles at his family from a quarantined glass room after a press conference on Wednesday, March 25, 2009 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Expedition 19 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-25

    Expedition 19 Flight Engineer Michael R. Barratt, smiles to family and colleagues in the suit up room of building 254, Thursday, March 26, 2009 in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. (Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Expedition 9 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-24

    Expedition 9 Flight Engineer Michael Fincke exits the Russian search and rescue helicopter in Kustanay, Kazakhstan after the 2 hour flight from the landing site, Sunday, October 24, 2004. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Expedition 9 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-24

    Women dressed in traditional Kazak clothing pose for a photo after presenting the returning Expedition 9 and taxi flight crew members with gifts at the airport in Kustanay, Kazakhstan, Sunday, October 24, 2004. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Expedition 9 Preflight Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-13

    NASA Science Officer Mike Fincke, left and Expedition 9 Commander Gennady Padalka sign books, envelops and mementoes in the space museum located at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Wednesday, April, 14, 2004, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Expedition 34 Final Training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The Expedition 34 crew members conduct final training at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center before their Dec. 19 launch to the International Space Station. Flight Engineers Chris Hadfield, Roman...

  7. Expedition 18 Door Signing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-11

    Expedition 18 Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov signs the door of a hotel room at the Cosmonaut Hotel prior to departing for the launch aboard a Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft, Sunday, Oct. 12, 2008, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan carrying Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke, Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov and American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Expedition 18 Door Signing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-11

    Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke signs the door of a hotel room at the Cosmonaut Hotel prior to departing for the launch aboard a Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft, Sunday, Oct. 12, 2008, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan carrying Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke, Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov and American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Expedition 18 Traditional Blessing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-11

    American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott, left, Expedition 18 Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov and Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke, right, participate in the traditional blessing prior to the bus ride to building 254 where the crew don their spacesuits, Sunday, Oct. 12, 2008, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan carrying Fincke, Lonchakov and Garriott. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Expedition 30 Preflight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-12-21

    Expedition 30 Soyuz Commander Oleg Kononenko is seen after performing the traditional door signing Wednesday, Dec. 21, 2011 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Kononenko was launched onboard the Soyuz rocket the same evening with Expedition 30 NASA Flight Engineer Don Pettit and ESA (European Space Agency) astronaut Andre Kuipers on a mission to the International Space Station (ISS). Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  11. Expedition 34 Crew Lands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    Expedition 34 Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin, left with flowers, Commander Kevin Ford of NASA, center with flowers, and Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy are greeted at the Kustanay Airport a few hours after they landed near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Ford, Novitskiy, and Tarelkin are returning from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Expedition 24 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-24

    Expedition 24 Commander Alexander Skvortsov laughs after being given fresh fruit and vegetables shortly after landing in the Soyuz TMA-18 spacecraft with fellow crew members Tracy Caldwell Dyson and Mikhail Kornienko near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, Sept. 25, 2010. Russian Cosmonauts Skvortsov and Kornienko and NASA Astronaut Caldwell Dyson, are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 23 and 24 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Expedition 34 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-18

    Expedition 34/35 Flight Engineer and Expedition 35 Commander Chris Hadfield of the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) answers a reporter's question at a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel, on Tuesday, Dec. 18, 2012, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket is scheduled for December 19 and will send Hadfield, Tom Marshburn of NASA and Roman Romanenko of ROSCOSMOS on a five-month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  14. Expedition 8 Capsule Inspection

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-13

    Expedition 8 Commander and NASA Science Officer Michael Foale, left, Expedition 8 Soyuz Commander Alexander Kaleri and European Space Agency Astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain, right, report to launch officials on their inspection of the Soyuz TMA-3 spacecraft during a final vehicle training session at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, Monday, Oct. 13, 2003. The trio launched to the International Space Station on Oct. 18, 2003. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Expedition 33 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-22

    Expedition 33 Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy answers a reporters question during a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel, on Monday, October 22, 2012, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket is scheduled for October 23 and will send Expedition 33/34 Flight Engineer Kevin Ford of NASA, Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin of ROSCOSMOS on a five-month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Expedition 10 Preflight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-03

    Expedition 10 Commander and NASA Science Officer Leroy Chiao, left, and Flight Engineer and Soyuz Commander Salizhan Sharipov invite VIP’s in for the crew departure breakfast prior to their departure from Star City, Russia for Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Monday, Oct. 4, 2004. The Expedition 10 crew will launch on the Soyuz TMA-5 spacecraft October 14, 2004 to the International Space Station. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Expedition 10 Preflight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-03

    Expedition 10 Commander and NASA Science Officer Leroy Chiao, sixth from left, Flight Engineer and Soyuz Commander Salizhan Sharipov and Russian Space Forces cosmonaut Yuri Shargin, fifth from left, join VIP’s for the crew departure breakfast prior to their departure from Star City, Russia for Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Monday, Oct. 4, 2004. The Expedition 10 crew will launch on the Soyuz TMA-5 spacecraft October 14, 2004 to the International Space Station. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Expedition 38 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-06

    Expedition 38 backup crew member Reid Wiseman of NASA is seen in quarantine, behind glass, during the final press conference held a day ahead of the launch of Expedition 38 prime crew members; Flight Engineer Koichi Wakata of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Soyuz Commander Mikhail Tyurin of Roscosmos, and, Flight Engineer Rick Mastracchio of NASA, to the International Space Station, Wednesday, Nov. 6, 2013 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Expedition 28 Preflight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-07

    Expedition 28 NASA Flight Engineer Mike Fossum performs the traditional door signing Tuesday, June 7, 2011 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Fossum was launched onboard the Soyuz rocket the following morning with Expedition 28 Soyuz Commander Sergei Volkov and JAXA (Japanase Aerospace Exploration Agency) astronaut and Flight Engineer Satoshi Furukawa on a mission to the International Space Station (ISS). Photo Credit: (NASA/Victor Zelentsov)

  20. Expedition 41 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-24

    NASA Expedition 41 backup crew member Flight Engineer Scott Kelly of NASA answers a question during a press conference Wednesday, Sept. 24, 2014 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Expedition 41 Flight Engineer Barry Wilmore of NASA, Soyuz Commander Alexander Samokutyaev of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos), and Flight Engineer Elena Serova of Roscosmos are set to launch Sept. 26 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  1. Expedition 38 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-06

    Expedition 38 Flight Engineer Koichi Wakata of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency is seen in quarantine, behind glass, during the final press conference held a day ahead of his launch with fellow crew mates, Expedition 38 Soyuz Commander Mikhail Tyurin of Roscosmos, and, Flight Engineer Rick Mastracchio of NASA, to the International Space Station, Wednesday, Nov. 6, 2013 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Expedition 38 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-06

    Expedition 38 backup crew member Alexander Gerst of the European Space Agency is seen in quarantine, behind glass, during the final press conference held a day ahead of the launch of Expedition 38 prime crew members; Flight Engineer Koichi Wakata of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Soyuz Commander Mikhail Tyurin of Roscosmos, and, Flight Engineer Rick Mastracchio of NASA, to the International Space Station, Wednesday, Nov. 6, 2013 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Expedition 28 Preflight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-07

    Expedition 28 Soyuz Commander Sergei Volkov performs the traditional door signing Tuesday, June 7, 2011 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Volkov was launched onboard the Soyuz rocket the following morning with Expedition 28 NASA Flight Engineer Mike Fossum and JAXA (Japanase Aerospace Exploration Agency) Flight Engineer Satoshi Furukawa on a mission to the International Space Station (ISS). Photo Credit: (NASA/Victor Zelentsov)

  4. Expedition 37 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-11

    Expedition 37 NASA Flight Engineer Karen Nyberg is seen speaking to her family by satellite phone minutes after her landing in the Soyuz TMA-09M spacecraft in a remote area southeast of the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, on Monday, Nov. 11, 2013. Nyberg, Expedition 37 Commander Fyodor Yurchikhin of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) and Italian Flight Engineer Luca Parmitano returned to earth after five and a half months on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  5. Expedition 24 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-24

    Expedition 24 Flight Engineer Tracy Caldwell Dyson talks to her husband on a satellite phone shortly after landing in the Soyuz TMA-18 spacecraft with fellow crew members Commander Alexander Skvortsov and Mikhail Kornienko near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, Sept. 25, 2010. Russian Cosmonauts Skvortsov and Kornienko and NASA Astronaut Caldwell Dyson, are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 23 and 24 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Expedition 22 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-21

    Expedition 22 NASA Flight Engineer Timothy J. Creamer of the U.S. prepares to have his Russian Sokol suit pressure checked at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Monday, Dec. 21, 2009. Creamer and fellow Expedition 22 crew members, Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov of Russia, and Flight Engineer Soichi Noguchi of Japan launched in their Soyuz TMA-17 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Monday, Dec. 21, 2009. (Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Expedition 23 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-01

    Expedition 23 Flight Engineer Mikhail Kornienko of the Russia has his Russian Sokol suit prepared for launch by a technician at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Friday, April 2, 2010. Kornienko and fellow Expedition 23 crewmembers Soyuz Commander Alexander Skvortsov and NASA Flight Engineer Tracy Caldwell Dyson of the U.S. launched in their Soyuz TMA-18 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Friday, April 2, 2010. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  8. Expedition 37 Preflight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-25

    Expedition 37/38 Russian Flight Engineer Sergey Ryazanskiy has his Russian Sokol suit pressure checked ahead of his launch onboard a Soyuz TMA-10M spacecraft to the International Space Station with fellow crewmates NASA Flight Engineer Michael Hopkins and Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov, on Wednesday, Sept. 25, 2013, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket will send the Expedition 37/38 crewmates on a five-month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  9. Expedition 37 Preflight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-25

    Expedition 37/38 Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov, right, and NASA Flight Engineer Michael Hopkins pose for a photo before having their Russian Sokol suits pressure checked ahead of their launch onboard a Soyuz TMA-10M spacecraft to the International Space Station, on Wednesday, Sept. 25, 2013, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket will send the Expedition 37/38 crewmates on a five-month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  10. Expedition 24 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-06-14

    Expedition 24 Flight Engineer Doug Wheelock has his Russian Sokol suit pressure checked at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Tuesday, June 15, 2010. Wheelock and fellow Expedition 24 crew members Flight Engineer Shannon Walker and Soyuz Commander Fyodor Yurchikhin launched in their Soyuz TMA-19 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Wednesday, June 16, 2010 at 3:35 a.m. Kazakhstan time. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  11. Expedition 23 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-01

    Expedition 23 NASA Flight Engineer Tracy Caldwell Dyson of the U.S. prepares to have her Russian Sokol suit pressure checked at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Friday, April 2, 2010. Caldwell Dyson and fellow Expedition 23 crewmembers Soyuz Commander Alexander Skvortsov and Flight Engineer Mikhail Kornienko of Russia launched in their Soyuz TMA-18 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Friday, April 2, 2010. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  12. Expedition 22 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-21

    Expedition 22 NASA Flight Engineer Timothy J. Creamer of the U.S. waves after having his Russian Sokol suit pressure checked at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Monday, Dec. 21, 2009. Creamer and fellow Expedition 22 crew members, Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov of Russia, and Flight Engineer Soichi Noguchi of Japan launched in their Soyuz TMA-17 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Monday, Dec. 21, 2009. (Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Expedition 28 Preflight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-07

    Expedition 28 JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) astronaut and Flight Engineer Satoshi Furukawa has his Russian Sokol suit prepared for launch by a technician at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Tuesday, June 7, 2011. Furukawa and fellow Expedition 28 crew members Soyuz Commander Sergei Volkov and NASA Flight Engineer Mike Fossum launched in their Soyuz TMA-02M rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan the following morning on June 8th. Photo Credit: (NASA/Roscosmos/Andrey Shelepin)

  14. Expedition 22 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-21

    Expedition 22 NASA Flight Engineer Timothy J. Creamer of the U.S. has his Russian Sokol suit pressure checked at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Monday, Dec. 21, 2009. Creamer and fellow Expedition 22 crew members, Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov of Russia, and Flight Engineer Soichi Noguchi of Japan launched in their Soyuz TMA-17 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Monday, Dec. 21, 2009. (Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Expedition 23 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-01

    Expedition 23 Soyuz Commander Alexander Skvortsov has his Russian Sokol suit prepared for launch by a technician at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Friday, April 2, 2010. Skvortsov and fellow Expedition 23 crewmembers Flight Engineer Mikhail Kornienko of the Russia and NASA Flight Engineer Tracy Caldwell Dyson of the U.S. launched in their Soyuz TMA-18 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Friday, April 2, 2010. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  16. Expedition 22 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-20

    Expedition 22 Flight Engineer Soichi Noguchi of Japan has his Russian Sokol suit prepared for launch by a technician at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Sunday, Dec. 20, 2009. Soichi and fellow Expedition 22 crew members NASA Flight Engineer Timothy J. Creamer of the U.S., Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov of Russia launched in their Soyuz TMA-17 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Monday, Dec. 21, 2009. (Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Expedition 23 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-01

    Expedition 23 NASA Flight Engineer Tracy Caldwell Dyson, left, talks with Soyuz Commander Alexander Skvortsov of Russia, while Flight Engineer Mikhail Kornienko of Russia has his Russian Sokol suit prepared for launch at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Friday, April 2, 2010. The Expedition 23 crew members launched in their Soyuz TMA-18 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Friday, April 2, 2010. (Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Expedition 26 Prelaunch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-12-15

    Expedition 26 NASA Flight Engineer Catherine Coleman has her Russian Sokol suit pressure checked prior to her launch at the Baikonur Cosmodrome Wednesday, Dec. 15, 2010 in Kazakhstan. Coleman and fellow Expedition 26 crew members Soyuz Commander Dmitry Kondratryev and ESA Flight Engineer Paolo Nespoli launched in their Soyuz TMA-20 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan the following morning at 1:09 a.m. local time. (Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  19. Expedition 37 Preflight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-25

    Expedition 37/38 NASA Engineer Michael Hopkins has his Russian Sokol suit pressure checked ahead of his launch onboard a Soyuz TMA-10M spacecraft to the International Space Station with fellow crewmates Russian Flight Engineer Sergey Ryazanskiy and Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov, on Wednesday, Sept. 25, 2013, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket will send the Expedition 37/38 crewmates on a five-month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  20. Expedition 23 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-01

    Expedition 23 Soyuz Commander Alexander Skvortsov has his Russian Sokol suit pressure checked at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Friday, April 2, 2010. Skvortsov and fellow Expedition 23 crew members Flight Engineer Mikhail Kornienko of Russia and NASA Flight Engineer Tracy Caldwell Dyson launched in their Soyuz TMA-18 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Friday, April 2, 2010. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  1. Expedition 37 Preflight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-25

    Expedition 37/38 Russian Flight Engineer Sergey Ryazanskiy is seen speaking to his family after having his Russian Sokol suit pressure checked ahead of his launch onboard a Soyuz TMA-10M spacecraft to the International Space Station, on Wednesday, Sept. 25, 2013, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket will send the Expedition 37/38 crewmates on a five-month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  2. Expedition 37 Preflight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-25

    Expedition 37/38 Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov smiles after having his Russian Sokol suit pressure checked ahead of his launch onboard a Soyuz TMA-10M spacecraft to the International Space Station, on Wednesday, Sept. 25, 2013, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket will send the Expedition 37/38 crewmates on a five-month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  3. Expedition 23 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-01

    Expedition 23 Flight Engineer Mikhail Kornienko of Russia prepares to have his Russian Sokol suit pressure checked at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Friday, April 2, 2010. Kornienko and fellow Expedition 23 crewmembers Soyuz Commander Alexander Skvortsov and NASA Flight Engineer Tracy Caldwell Dyson launched in their Soyuz TMA-18 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Friday, April 2, 2010. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  4. Expedition 28 Preflight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-07

    Expedition 28 NASA Flight Engineer Mike Fossum has his Russian Sokol suit prepared for launch at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Tuesday, June 7, 2011. Fossum and fellow Expedition 28 crew members Soyuz Commander Sergei Volkov and JAXA (Japanase Aerospace Exploration Agency) Flight Engineer Satoshi Furukawa launched in their Soyuz TMA-02M rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan the following morning on June 8th. Photo Credit: (NASA/Roscosmos/Andrey Shelepin)

  5. Expedition 23 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-01

    Expedition 23 NASA Flight Engineer Tracy Caldwell Dyson of the U.S. has her Russian Sokol suit prepared for launch by a technician at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Friday, April 2, 2010. Caldwell Dyson and fellow Expedition 23 crew members Soyuz Commander Alexander Skvortsov and Flight Engineer Mikhail Kornienko of Russia launched in their Soyuz TMA-18 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Friday, April 2, 2010. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  6. Expedition 24 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-06-14

    Expedition 24 Flight Engineer Shannon Walker has her Russian Sokol suit pressure checked at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Tuesday, June 15, 2010. Walker and fellow Expedition 24 crew members Flight Engineers Doug Wheelock and Soyuz Commander Fyodor Yurchikhin launched in their Soyuz TMA-19 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Wednesday, June 16, 2010 at 3:35 a.m. Kazakhstan time. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  7. Expedition 26 Prelaunch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-12-15

    Expedition 26 European Space Agency astronaut Paolo Nespoli has his Russian Sokol suit pressure checked at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Wednesday, Dec. 15, 2010. Nespoli and fellow Expedition 26 crew members Soyuz Commander Dmitry Kondratryev and NASA Flight Engineer Catherine Coleman launched in their Soyuz TMA-20 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan the following morning at 1:09 a.m. local time. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  8. Expedition 23 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-01

    Expedition 23 Flight Engineer Mikhail Kornienko of Russia has his Russian Sokol suit pressure checked at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Friday, April 2, 2010. Kornienko and fellow Expedition 23 crewmembers Soyuz Commander Alexander Skvortsov and NASA Flight Engineer Tracy Caldwell Dyson launched in their Soyuz TMA-18 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Friday, April 2, 2010. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Expedition 30 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-27

    Expedition 30 Commander Dan Burbank looks out the window of his helicopter as it prepares to depart for Kustanai from the Soyuz TMA-22 capsule landing site outside of the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Friday, April 27, 2012. Astronaut Burbank, Russian Cosmonauts Shkaplerov and Ivanishin are returning from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 29 and 30 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  10. Expedition 30 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-28

    Expedition 30 Flight Engineer Anatoly Ivanishin is welcomed home by colleagues and family in Star City, Russia on Saturday, April 28, 2012. Russian Cosmonaut Ivanishin, Expedition 30 Commander Daniel Burbank, and Russian Cosmonaut Anton Shkaplerov landed outside of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan earlier in the day from over five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedtion 29 and 30 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  11. Expedition 30 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-28

    Expedition 30 Flight Engineers Anatoly Ivanishin, far left, and Anton Shkaplerov are welcomed home by colleagues and family in Star City, Russia on Saturday, April 28, 2012. Russian Cosmonauts Ivanishin, Shkaplerov and Expedition 30 Commander Daniel Burbank landed outside of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan earlier in the day from over five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedtion 29 and 30 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  12. Expedition 28 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-16

    Expedition 28 Commander Andrey Borisenko, left, Flight Engineers Alexander Samokutyaev, center, and Ron Garan, sit in chairs outside the Soyuz Capsule just minutes after they landed in a remote area outside the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, on Friday, Sept. 16, 2011. NASA Astronaut Garan, Russian Cosmonauts Borisenko and Samokutyaev are returning from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 27 and 28 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Expedition 9 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-24

    Expedition 9 Commander Gennady Padalka is carried in a chair from the landing site to the medical tent in order to remove his sokol suit. Padalka landed in the Soyuz capsule along with Expedition 9 Flight Engineer Michael Fincke and Russian Space Forces cosmonaut Yuri Shargin. The crew landed in their Soyuz capsule approximately 85 kilometers northeast of Arkalyk in northern Kazakhstan, Sunday, October 24, 2004. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Expedition 14 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-20

    American spaceflight participant Charles Simonyi, left, Expedition 14 Flight Engineer Mikhail Tyurin and Expedition 14 Commander Michael Lopez-Alegria, right, sit in chairs in near their Soyuz TMA-9 spacecraft at their landing site as landing and recovery officials conduct post-landing medical checks, Friday, April 21, 2007 in Kazakhstan. The Soyuz spacecraft landed southwest of Karaganda, Kazakhstan at approximately 6:30 p.m. local time. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Expedition 25 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-26

    The Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft is seen as it descends with Expedition 25 Commander Doug Wheelock and Flight Engineers Shannon Walker and Fyodor Yurchikhin near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Friday, Nov. 26, 2010. Russian Cosmonaut Yurchikhin and NASA Astronauts Wheelock and Walker, are returning from nearly six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 24 and 25 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Expedition 25 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-26

    The Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft with Expedition 25 Commander Doug Wheelock and Flight Engineers Shannon Walker and Fyodor Yurchikhin touches down near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Friday, Nov. 26, 2010. Russian Cosmonaut Yurchikhin and NASA Astronauts Wheelock and Walker, are returning from nearly six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 24 and 25 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Expedition 25 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-26

    Engineer Shannon Walker out of the Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft shortly after the capsule landed with her, Expedition 25 Commander Doug Wheelock and Flight Engineer Fyodor Yurchikhin near Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Friday, Nov. 26, 2010. Russian Cosmonaut Yurchikhin and NASA Astronauts Wheelock and Walker, are returning from nearly six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 24 and 25 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Expedition 25 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-26

    Soyuz TMA-19 crewmembers including Expedition 25 Commander Doug Wheelock, left, and Flight Engineers Fyodor Yurchikhin and Shannon Walker are seen after being removed from th capsule near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Friday, Nov. 26, 2010. Russian Cosmonaut Yurchikhin and NASA Astronauts Wheelock and Walker, are returning from nearly six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 24 and 25 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Expedition 25 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-26

    The Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft with Expedition 25 Commander Doug Wheelock and Flight Engineers Shannon Walker and Fyodor Yurchikhin is rolled by technicians in order to assist with getting the crew out of the capsule, near Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Friday, Nov. 26, 2010. Russian Cosmonaut Yurchikhin and NASA Astronauts Wheelock and Walker, are returning from nearly six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 24 and 25 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Expedition 25 Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-07

    Expedition 25 NASA Flight Engineer Scott Kelly of the U.S. has his Russian Sokol suit prepared for launch by a technician at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Friday, Oct. 8, 2010. Kelly and fellow Expedition 25 crew members Soyuz Commander Alexander Kaleri and Flight Engineer Oleg Skripochka launched in their Soyuz TMA-01M at 5:10 a.m. Friday morning. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  1. Expedition 25 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-26

    Expedition 25 Flight Engineer Shannon Walker is carried to a nearby medical tent following the landing of the Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Friday, Nov. 26, 2010. Russian Cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin and NASA Astronauts Doug Wheelock and Walker, are returning from nearly six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 24 and 25 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Expedition 25 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-26

    Expedition 25 Commander Doug Wheelock is carried to a nearby medical tent following the landing of the Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Friday, Nov. 26, 2010. Russian Cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin and NASA Astronauts Wheelock and Shannon Walker, returned from nearly six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 24 and 25 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Expedition 25 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-26

    Expedition 25 Soyuz Commander Fyodor Yurchikhin is carried to a nearby medical tent near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Friday, Nov. 26, 2010, following the landing of the TMA-19 spacecraft. Russian Cosmonaut Yurchikhin and NASA Astronauts Doucg Wheelock and Shannon Walker, returned from nearly six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 24 and 25 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Expedition 25 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-26

    A technician enters the Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft with Expedition 25 Commander Doug Wheelock and Flight Engineers Shannon Walker and Fyodor Yurchikhin in order to assist with getting the crew out of the capsule, near Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Friday, Nov. 26, 2010. Russian Cosmonaut Yurchikhin and NASA Astronauts Wheelock and Walker, are returning from nearly six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 24 and 25 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Expedition 25 Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-07

    Expedition 25 NASA Flight Engineer Scott Kelly of the U.S. has his Russian Sokol suit prepared for launch by a technician at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, Friday, Oct. 8, 2010. Kelly and fellow Expedition 25 crew members Soyuz Commander Alexander Kaleri and Flight Engineer Oleg Skripochka launched in their Soyuz TMA-01M at 5:10 a.m. Friday morning. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  6. Expedition 28 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-15

    Expedition 28 Commander Andrey Borisenko, left, Flight Engineer Alexander Samokutyaev and Flight Engineer Ron Garan, right, are seen at a press conference at the Karaganda Airport in Kazakhstan following their landing to earth on Friday, Sept. 16, 2011. Borisenko, Samokutyaev and Garan are returning from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 27 and 28 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Expedition 29 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-22

    Expedition 29 Commander Mike Fossum is seen in a traditional Kazakhstan hat gifted to him during a welcome ceremony at the Kustanay Airport in Kazakhstan on Tuesday, Nov. 22, 2011. NASA Astronaut Fossum, Russian Cosmonaut Sergei Volkov and JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) Astronaut Satoshi Furukawa returned from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 28 and 29 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Expedition 29 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-22

    Expedition 29 Flight Engineer, JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) Astronaut, Satoshi Furukawa is seen in a traditional Kazakhstan hat gifted to him during a welcome ceremony at the Kustanay Airport in Kazakhstan on Tuesday, Nov. 22, 2011. NASA Astronaut Mike Fossum, Russian Cosmonaut Sergei Volkov and Furukawa returned from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 28 and 29 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Expedition 29 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-22

    Seated from left, Expedition 29 Commander Mike Fossum, Flight Engineers Sergei Volkov, and Satoshi Furukawa are seen during a welcome ceremony and press conference at the Kustanay Airport in Kazakhstan on Tuesday, Nov. 22, 2011. NASA Astronaut Fossum, Russian Cosmonaut Volkov and JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) Astronaut Furukawa returned from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 28 and 29 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Expedition 29 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-22

    Expedition 29 Flight Engineer Sergei Volkov is seen in a gift of traditional Kazakhstan dress during a welcome ceremony at the Kustanay Airport in Kazakhstan on Tuesday, Nov. 22, 2011. NASA Astronaut Mike Fossum, Russian Cosmonaut Volkov and JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) Astronaut Satoshi Furukawa returned from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 28 and 29 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Expedition 29 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-22

    Matryoshka dolls representing Expedition 29 Commander Mike Fossum, and Flight Engineers Sergei Volkov and Satoshi Furukawa are seen at a welcome ceremony at the Kustanay Airport in Kazakhstan on Tuesday, Nov. 22, 2011. NASA Astronaut Fossum, Russian Cosmonaut Volkov and JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) Astronaut Furukawa returned from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 28 and 29 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Expedition 34 Crew Lands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    Women in ceremonial Kazakh dress prepare to welcome home Expedition 34 Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin, Commander Kevin Ford of NASA, and Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy at the Kustanay Airport a few hours after they landed near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Tarelkin, Ford, and Novitskiy, returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Expedition 34 Crew Lands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    Expedition 34 Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin, left, Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy, center, and Commander Kevin Ford of NASA sit together at the Kustanay Airport a few hours after they landed near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Ford, Novitskiy, and Tarelkin are returning from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Expedition 14 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-20

    Expedition 14 Flight Engineer Mikhail Tyurin is taken in his chair to the medical tent near the Soyuz TMA-9 spacecraft where the recovery officials conduct post-landing medical checks, Friday, April 21, 2007 in Kazakhstan. Expedition 14 Commander Michael Lopez-Alegria, Flight Engineer Mikhail Tyurin and American spaceflight participant Charles Simonyi landed in their Soyuz TMA-9 spacecraft southwest of Karaganda, Kazakhstan at approximately 6:30 p.m. local time. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Expedition 12 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-04-08

    Expedition 12 Commander Bill McArthur is being helped down from the Soyuz TMA-7 spacecraft after it landed in the steppes of Kazakhstan at 7:48 p.m. EDT on Sunday, April 9, 2006. Returning with him was Flight Engineer Valery Tokarev and Brazil's first astronaut, Marcos Pontes, who arrived at the space station with Expedition 13 on April 1. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Expedition 22 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-20

    Expedition 22 Flight Engineer Soichi Noguchi of Japan prepares to have his Russian Sokol suit pressure checked at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Sunday, Dec. 20, 2009. Soichi and fellow Expedition 22 crew members NASA Flight Engineer Timothy J. Creamer of the U.S., Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov of Russia launched in their Soyuz TMA-17 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Monday, Dec. 21, 2009. (Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Expedition 22 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-20

    Expedition 22 Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov of Russia, center, has his Russian Sokol suit prepared for launch while NASA Flight Engineer Timothy J. Creamer of the U.S., left, and Flight Engineer Soichi Noguchi of Japan wait at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Sunday, Dec. 20, 2009. The Expedition 22 crew members launched in their Soyuz TMA-17 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Monday, Dec. 21, 2009. (Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Expedition 22 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-20

    Expedition 22 NASA Flight Engineer Timothy J. Creamer of the U.S. has his Russian Sokol suit prepared for launch by a technician at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Sunday, Dec. 20, 2009. Creamer and fellow Expedition 22 crew members, Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov of Russia, Flight Engineer Soichi Noguchi of Japan launched in their Soyuz TMA-17 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Monday, Dec. 21, 2009. (Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Expedition 22 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-20

    Expedition 22 NASA Flight Engineer Timothy J. Creamer of the U.S., left, talks with Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov of Russia, right, while Flight Engineer Soichi Noguchi of Japan has his Russian Sokol suit prepared for launch at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Sunday, Dec. 20, 2009. The Expedition 22 crew members launched in their Soyuz TMA-17 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Monday, Dec. 21, 2009. (Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Expedition 26 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-16

    A Russian Search and Rescue helicopter arrives as the Soyuz TMA-01M spacecraft lands with Expedition 26 Commander Scott Kelly and Flight Engineers Oleg Skripochka and Alexander Kaleri near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Wednesday, March 16, 2011. NASA Astronaut Kelly, Russian Cosmonauts Skripochka and Kaleri are returning from almost six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 25 and 26 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Expedition 24 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-24

    Russian search and rescue teams arrive at the landing site seconds after the Soyuz TMA-18 spacecraft touched down with Expedition 24 Commander Alexander Skvortsov and Flight Engineers Tracy Caldwell Dyson and Mikhail Kornienko near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, Sept. 25, 2010. Russian Cosmonauts Skvortsov and Kornienko and NASA Astronaut Caldwell Dyson, are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 23 and 24 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Expedition 34 Crew Lands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford of NASA is helped out a Russian Search and Rescue helicopter after flying from his Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft landing site outside the town of Arkalyk to Kustanay, Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Ford, along with Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin of Russia returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Expedition 37 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-11

    Russian Search and Rescue personnel prepare to assist Expedition 37 Flight Engineer Karen Nyberg from the helicopter shortly after her arrival at the Karaganda airport in Kazakhstan, Monday, Nov. 11, 2013. Nyberg, Expedition 37 Commander Fyodor Yurchikhin of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) and Italian Flight Engineer Luca Parmitano landed in a remote area outside of the town of Zhezkazgan after after five and a half months spent on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  4. Expedition 24 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-24

    Russian search and rescue helicopters refuel in Arkalyk, Kazakhstan prior to the landing of the Soyuz TMA-18 spacecraft with Expedition 24 Commander Alexander Skvortsov and Flight Engineers Tracy Caldwell Dyson and Mikhail Kornienko on Saturday, Sept. 25, 2010. Russian Cosmonauts Skvortsov and Kornienko and NASA Astronaut Caldwell Dyson, are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 23 and 24 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Expedition 25 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-26

    Two Russian Search and Rescue helicopters land near the Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft shortly after touch down with Expedition 25 Commander Doug Wheelock and Flight Engineers Shannon Walker and Fyodor Yurchikhin near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Friday, Nov. 26, 2010. Russian Cosmonaut Yurchikhin and NASA Astronauts Wheelock and Walker, are returning from nearly six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 24 and 25 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Expedition 34 Crew Lands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    Expedition 34 Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin of Russia is helped out a Russian Search and Rescue helicopter after flying from his Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft landing site outside the town of Arkalyk to Kustanay, Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Tarelkin, along with Commander Kevin Ford of NASA and Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Expedition 25 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-26

    A Russian Search and Rescue helicopter lands near the Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft shortly after touch down with Expedition 25 Commander Doug Wheelock and Flight Engineers Shannon Walker and Fyodor Yurchikhin near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Friday, Nov. 26, 2010. Russian Cosmonaut Yurchikhin and NASA Astronauts Wheelock and Walker, are returning from nearly six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 24 and 25 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Expedition 25 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-26

    A Russian Search and Rescue hellicopter is seen in eth back ground as the Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft descends with Expedition 25 Commander Doug Wheelock and Flight Engineers Shannon Walker and Fyodor Yurchikhin near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Friday, Nov. 26, 2010. Russian Cosmonaut Yurchikhin and NASA Astronauts Wheelock and Walker, are returning from nearly six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 24 and 25 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Expedition 37 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-11

    Russian Search and Rescue all-terrain vehicles are seen waiting to ferry the Expedition 37 crew to their respective helicopters in a remote area outside the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, on Monday, Nov. 11, 2013. The crew of Expedition 37 Commander Fyodor Yurchikhin of Roscosmos, Flight Engineers Karen Nyberg of NASA and Luca Parmitano of Italy returned to earth after five and a half months on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  10. Expedition 9 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-24

    Russian Federal Space Agency Deputy General-Director Nikolai Moiseev, center, Renita Fincke, wife of Expedition 9 Flight Engineer Michael Fincke, second from right with baby, and other officials and family members celebrate the return of the Expedition 9 crew to Star City, Russia after their Soyuz capsule landed safely approximately 85 kilometers northeast of Arkalyk in northern Kazakhstan, Sunday, October 24, 2004. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Expedition 22 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-20

    Expedition 22 Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov of Russia listens to an audio check on his headset after donning his Russian Sokol suit at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Sunday, Dec. 20, 2009. Kotov and fellow Expedition 22 crew members, NASA Flight Engineer Timothy J. Creamer of the U.S., and Flight Engineer Soichi Noguchi of Japan launched in their Soyuz TMA-17 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Monday, Dec. 21, 2009. (Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Expedition 8 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-18

    Expedition 8 Soyuz Commander Alexander Kaleri, left foreground, European Space Agency astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain and Expedition 8 Commander and NASA Science Officer Michael Foale walk to a bus at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, Saturday, Oct. 18, 2003, for transportation to the launch pad to liftoff in a Soyuz TMA-3 vehicle to the International Space Station. The trio arrived at the ISS Oct. 20. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Expedition 8 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-18

    Expedition 8 Soyuz Commander Alexander Kaleri, left, European Space Agency astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain and Expedition 8 Commander and NASA Science Officer Michael Foale, right, prepare to board a bus at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, Saturday, Oct. 18, 2003, for transportation to the launch pad to liftoff in a Soyuz TMA-3 vehicle to the International Space Station. The trio arrived at the ISS Oct. 20. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Expedition 8 Capsule Inspection

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-13

    European Space Agency astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain climbs into the Soyuz TMA-3 vehicle in a processing facility at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Monday, Oct. 13, 2003, during prelaunch training with his crew mates, Expedition 8 Commander and NASA Science Officer Mike Foale and Expedition 8 soyuz Commander Alexander Kaleri. The trio launched on Oct. 18, 2003 to the International Space Station. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Expedition 8 Soyuz Transport

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-16

    A Soyuz TMA-3 spacecraft and its booster rocket is transported on a rail car to the launch pad at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on Thursday, Oct. 16, 2003 in preparation for liftoff Oct. 18 to carry Expedition 8 Commander and NASA Science Officer Michael Foale, Expedition 8 Soyuz Commander Alexander Kaleri and European Space Agency astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain to the International Space Station. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Expedition 8 Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-12

    Expedition 8 Commander Michael Foale, right, along with Expedition 8 Soyuz Commander and Flight Engineer Alexander Kaleri, center, are joined by European Space Agency astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia outside Moscow, Sunday, Oct. 12, 2003, before departing for the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan for their launch on a Soyuz rocket to the International Space Station scheduled for Oct. 18. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Expedition 8 Soyuz Transport

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-16

    A Soyuz TMA-3 spacecraft and its booster rocket is seen, Thursday, Oct. 16, 2003, on a rail car near the launch pad at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan during preparations for liftoff Oct. 18 to carry Expedition 8 Commander and NASA Science Officer Michael Foale, Expedition 8 Soyuz Commander Alexander Kaleri and European Space Agency astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain to the International Space Station. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Expedition 8 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-18

    European Space Agency astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain, bottom, Expedition 8 Soyuz Commander Alexander Kaleri, top and Expedition 8 Commander and NASA Science Officer Michael Foale, receive final well wishes from Russian and U.S. officials at the base of the Soyuz rocket at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, Saturday, Oct. 18, 2003. The trio were launched on a Soyuz TMA-3 vehicle to the International Space Station, arriving on Oct. 20. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Expedition 8 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-18

    Technicians conduct a leak check on the spacesuit of Expedition 8 Soyuz Commander Alexander Kaleri at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Saturday, Oct. 18, 2003, prior to his departure for the launch pad with Expedition 8 Commander and NASA Science Officer Mike Foale and European Space Agency astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain. The trio were launched on a Soyuz TMA-3 vehicle to the International Space Station, arriving on Oct. 20. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Expedition 8 Soyuz Transport

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-16

    A Soyuz TMA-3 spacecraft and its booster rocket is raised, Thursday, Oct. 16, 2003, on the launch pad at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan during preparations for liftoff Oct. 18 to carry Expedition 8 Commander and NASA Science Officer Michael Foale, Expedition 8 Soyuz Commander Alexander Kaleri and European Space Agency astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain to the International Space Station. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Expedition 8 Launch Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-12

    Expedition 8 Commander and NASA Science Officer Michael Foale talks to a colleague on his cell phone from his crew quarters at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Wednesday, Oct. 15, 2003. Foale along with Expedition 8 Soyuz Commander Alexander Kaleri and European Space Agency astronaut Pedro Duuque of Spain, launched on a Soyuz TMA-3 vehicle to the International Space Station. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Expedition 8 Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-12

    Victor Grin, a member of the Russian State Commission, left, greets Expedition 8 Commander Michael Foale, far right, Expedition 8 Soyuz Commander and Flight Engineer Alexander Kaleri and European Space Agency astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain, right, Sunday, Oct. 12, 2003, upon their arrival in Baikonur, Kazakhstan for the Oct. 18 launch of a Soyuz rocket to the International Space Station. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Expedition 8 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-18

    Expedition 8 Commander and NASA Science Officer Michael Foale completes suiting up at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, Saturday, Oct. 18, 2003, prior to departing for the launch pad with Expedition 8 Soyuz Commander Alexander Kaleri and European Space Agency astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain. The trio were launched on the Soyuz TMA-3 vehicle to the International Space Station, arriving on Oct. 20. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Expedition 30 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-27

    Expedition 30 Commander Dan Burbank is seen as he is extracted from the Soyuz TMA-22 spacecraft shortly after the capsule landed with Russian flight engineers Anton Shkaplerov and Anatoly Ivanishin in a remote area outside of the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Friday, April 27, 2012. Burbank, Ivanishin, and Shkaplerov are returning from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 29 and 30 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  5. Expedition 7 Soyuz Check

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-04-09

    The interior of the Soyuz Integration Facility at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan is seen, Thursday, April 10, 2003. The Soyuz module is in the yellow work stand with its payload fairing ready in the foreground. Expedition 7 NASA International Space Station Science Officer and Flight Engineer Edward T. Lu and Expedition 7 Commander Yuri I. Malenchenko (both out of view) are in the Soyuz TMA-2 capsule for an inspection and seat liner check.

  6. Investigating Climate at an Inland Sea During Snowball Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, A. J.; Bitz, C. M.; Warren, S. G.; Waddington, E. D.

    2013-12-01

    During the Neoproterozoic, the Earth's oceans may have been completely covered with thick ice, during periods commonly called Snowball Earth events. The Snowball Earth environment would seemingly have prohibited the survival of photosynthetic eukaryotic algae; however, these organisms were alive immediately prior to and immediate subsequent to these periods. Where on a Snowball Earth, or a Snowball-like exoplanet, could photosynthetic eukaryotic algae survive? Recent research, in attempt to reconcile this paradox, has demonstrated that narrow channels connected the ocean, called inland seas, could have provided refugia for photosynthetic eukaryotic algae during Snowball Earth events. Narrow channels could have restricted the flow of ocean-derived ice, called sea glaciers, diminishing sea-glacier penetration into these channels. Provided certain climate conditions and channel geometries, this diminished sea-glacier penetration would have allowed for either open water or thin sea ice, at the far end of these channels. A channel with open water or thin sea ice would provide the conditions needed for survival of photosynthetic eukaryotic algae. Here we test whether the climate needed to prevent sea-glacier penetration, could have existed in the special inland sea environment. Previous climate modeling of Snowball Earth has shown that tropical regions would have likely been warmer than the global average and would have experienced net sublimation at the surface. An inland sea located in the tropics would be surrounded by land that is bare and free from snow, while the inland sea itself would be either ice-covered or open water. With these conditions the inland sea would likely have a high albedo, while the surrounding bare land, would have a lower albedo. This albedo contrast could cause the climate over an inland sea to be warmer than the climate over the ice-covered ocean at the same latitude. We calculate the surface temperature and sublimation rate at an inland sea

  7. Mars Climate Orbiter's Investigation of the Atmosphere and Polar Caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleese, D. J.; Moroz, V.; Schofield, T.; Taylor, F.; Zurek, R.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Climate Orbiter (MCO) is now on its way to Mars. It carries an atmospheric sounder whose observations will provide a continuous, global data set on weather and climate for a full Martian year. This paper describes the observation strategy and anticipated results from the Pressure Modulator Infrared Radiometer (PMIRR). PMIRR will measure vertical profiles of atmospheric infrared radiance in the 7 to 50 micron wavelength region extending from the surface of Mars to 80-km altitude. The observations have a vertical resolution of 5 km, or one-half the atmospheric scale height. From these radiance profiles we will retrieve profiles of atmospheric temperature, pressure, and the amounts of dust, condensates and water vapor. In addition, PMIRR will measure the radiative balance of the polar regions of Mars in an effort to better understand the short-term climate variability of the planet. The information obtained with PMIRR on MCO will be complementary to data obtained by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and Radio Science (RS) experiments on the Mars Global Surveyor. A major emphasis of our research will be the assimilation of PMIRR data into numerical models of the Martian atmosphere. Assimilation schemes, of which several are currently in development, will permit the extension of measurements to spatial and temporal scales and to phenomena (e.g. winds) not observed directly by PMIRR.

  8. Expedition 11 and Expedition 12 on-orbit crew portrait

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-10-08

    ISS011-E-14191 (8 October 2005) --- The crewmembers onboard the International Space Station pose for a group photo in the Destiny laboratory following the ceremony of Changing-of-Command from Expedition 11 to Expedition 12. From the left (front row) are Russian Federal Space Agency cosmonaut Sergei K. Krikalev, Expedition 11 commander; and astronaut William S. McArthur Jr., Expedition 12 commander and NASA science officer. From the left (back row) are astronaut John L. Phillips, Expedition 11 NASA science officer and flight engineer; U.S. Spaceflight Participant Gregory Olsen; and Russian Federal Space Agency cosmonaut Valery I. Tokarev, Expedition 12 flight engineer.

  9. Investigating Climate Change Issues With Web-Based Geospatial Inquiry Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempsey, C.; Bodzin, A. M.; Sahagian, D. L.; Anastasio, D. J.; Peffer, T.; Cirucci, L.

    2011-12-01

    In the Environmental Literacy and Inquiry middle school Climate Change curriculum we focus on essential climate literacy principles with an emphasis on weather and climate, Earth system energy balance, greenhouse gases, paleoclimatology, and how human activities influence climate change (http://www.ei.lehigh.edu/eli/cc/). It incorporates a related set of a framework and design principles to provide guidance for the development of the geospatial technology-integrated Earth and environmental science curriculum materials. Students use virtual globes, Web-based tools including an interactive carbon calculator and geologic timeline, and inquiry-based lab activities to investigate climate change topics. The curriculum includes educative curriculum materials that are designed to promote and support teachers' learning of important climate change content and issues, geospatial pedagogical content knowledge, and geographic spatial thinking. The curriculum includes baseline instructional guidance for teachers and provides implementation and adaptation guidance for teaching with diverse learners including low-level readers, English language learners and students with disabilities. In the curriculum, students use geospatial technology tools including Google Earth with embedded spatial data to investigate global temperature changes, areas affected by climate change, evidence of climate change, and the effects of sea level rise on the existing landscape. We conducted a designed-based research implementation study with urban middle school students. Findings showed that the use of the Climate Change curriculum showed significant improvement in urban middle school students' understanding of climate change concepts.

  10. Mortality disparities among groups participating in an East Africa surveying expedition: the Herbert Henry Austin expedition of 1900-1901.

    PubMed

    Imperato, Pascal James; Imperato, Gavin H; Imperato, Austin C

    2013-10-01

    In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a number of European expeditions traveled to the region of Lake Rudolf, now largely in northern Kenya. Although diverse in intent, many of these were undertaken in the interests of furthering colonial territorial claims. In 1900-1901, Major Herbert Henry Austin led a British expedition down to the lake from Khartoum in the north. Of the 62 African, Arab, and European members of this expedition, only 18 (29 %) arrived at its final destination at Lake Baringo in Kenya. Because of a confluence of adverse climatic, social, and political conditions, the expedition ran short of food supplies when it arrived at the northern end of the lake in April 1901. For the next 4 months, the members of the expedition struggled down the west side of the lake and beyond. The greatest mortality (91 %) occurred among the 32 African transport drivers who were the most marginally nourished at the outset of the trip. The lowest mortality among the Africans on the expedition (15 %) occurred among the members of the Tenth Sudanese Rifles Battalion, who had an excellent nutritional status at the start of the expedition. Major Austin himself suffered from severe scurvy with retinal hemorrhages which left him partially blind in his right eye. An analysis of the mortality rates among the groups that participated in this expedition was undertaken. This revealed that poor nutritional status at the start of the trip was predictive of death from starvation.

  11. Controls on the Archean climate system investigated with a global climate model.

    PubMed

    Wolf, E T; Toon, O B

    2014-03-01

    The most obvious means of resolving the faint young Sun paradox is to invoke large quantities of greenhouse gases, namely, CO2 and CH4. However, numerous changes to the Archean climate system have been suggested that may have yielded additional warming, thus easing the required greenhouse gas burden. Here, we use a three-dimensional climate model to examine some of the factors that controlled Archean climate. We examine changes to Earth's rotation rate, surface albedo, cloud properties, and total atmospheric pressure following proposals from the recent literature. While the effects of increased planetary rotation rate on surface temperature are insignificant, plausible changes to the surface albedo, cloud droplet number concentrations, and atmospheric nitrogen inventory may each impart global mean warming of 3-7 K. While none of these changes present a singular solution to the faint young Sun paradox, a combination can have a large impact on climate. Global mean surface temperatures at or above 288 K could easily have been maintained throughout the entirety of the Archean if plausible changes to clouds, surface albedo, and nitrogen content occurred.

  12. An Investigation of Students' Perceptions about Democratic School Climate and Sense of Community in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karakus, Memet

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate students' perceptions about democratic school climate and sense of community in school. In line with this purpose, it aims to find answers to the following questions: How democratic do students find the school climate? What is students' sense of belonging level at school? What is the academic success level of…

  13. Investigating Satellite Microwave observations of Precipitation in Different Climate Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, N.; Ferraro, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    Microwave satellite remote sensing of precipitation over land is a challenging problem due to the highly variable land surface emissivity, which, if not properly accounted for, can be much greater than the precipitation signal itself, especially in light rain/snow conditions. Additionally, surfaces such as arid land, deserts and snow cover have brightness temperature characteristics similar to precipitation Ongoing work by GPM microwave radiometer team is constructing databases through a variety of means, however, there is much uncertainty as to what is the optimal information needed for the wide array of sensors in the GPM constellation, including examination of regional conditions. The original data sets will focus on stratification by emissivity class, surface temperature and total perceptible water. We'll perform sensitivity studies to determine the potential role of ancillary data (e.g., land surface temperature, snow cover/water equivalent, etc.) to improve precipitation estimation over land in different climate regimes, including rain and snow. In other words, what information outside of the radiances can help describe the background and subsequent departures from it that are active precipitating regions? It is likely that this information will be a function of the various precipitation regimes. Statistical methods such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) will be utilized in this task. Databases from a variety of sources are being constructed. They include existing satellite microwave measurements of precipitating and non-precipitating conditions, ground radar precipitation rate estimates, surface emissivity climatology from satellites, surface temperature and TPW from NWP reanalysis. Results from the analysis of these databases with respect to the microwave precipitation sensitivity to the variety of environmental conditions in different climate regimes will be discussed.

  14. Expedition 17 Portrait

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-03-01

    JSC2008-E-027004 (March 2008) --- Two Expedition 17 crewmembers pose for a portrait with a spaceflight participant at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. From the left are South Korea's So-yeon Yi, spaceflight participant; along with Russian Federal Space Agency cosmonauts Sergei Volkov, Expedition 17 commander; and Oleg Kononenko, flight engineer. The three will launch aboard Soyuz TMA-12 on April 8. The two cosmonauts will spend six months on the International Space Station, and So-yeon Yi will spend several days on the station before returning to Earth with the Expedition 16 crew. Volkov and Kononenko will join NASA Astronaut Garrett Reisman, who arrived on the station in mid-March. CREDIT: Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center

  15. Expedition 27 Prelaunch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-01

    Expedition 27 Russian Flight Engineer Andrey Borisenko, far right, Expedition 27 Soyuz Commander Alexander Samokutyaev and Expedition 27 NASA Flight Engineer Ron Garan, third from right, talk to Mike Suffredini, Manager, International Space Station (ISS) Program, far left, prior to their launch on board the Soyuz TMA-21 spacecraft to the International Space Station, Tuesday, April 5, 2011 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The Soyuz, which has been dubbed “Gagarin”, is launching one week shy of the 50th anniversary of the launch of Yuri Gagarin from the same launch pad in Baikonur on April 12, 1961 to become the first human to fly in space. Photo Credit: (NASA/Victor Zelentsov)

  16. Expedition 27 Prelaunch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-01

    Expedition 27 Russian Flight Engineer Andrey Borisenko, far right, Expedition 27 Soyuz Commander Alexander Samokutyaev and Expedition 27 NASA Flight Engineer Ron Garan, third from right, talk to Head of the Russian Federal Space Agency Anatoly Perminov, far left, prior to their launch on board the Soyuz TMA-21 spacecraft to the International Space Station, Tuesday, April 5, 2011 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The Soyuz, which has been dubbed “Gagarin”, is launching one week shy of the 50th anniversary of the launch of Yuri Gagarin from the same launch pad in Baikonur on April 12, 1961 to become the first human to fly in space. Photo Credit: (NASA/Victor Zelentsov)

  17. Investigating Tectonic Drivers of Miocene - Pliocene Polar Climate Evolution using the HadCM3 Climate Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, S. J.; Knies, J.; Haywood, A. M.; Dolan, A. M.; Pound, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    We model the climate of the Miocene (Tortonian and the Messinian) and the Pliocene (Piacenzian) using the HadCM3 Atmosphere-Ocean GCM. We use baseline Miocene and Pliocene geographies that have different reconstruction lineages so we describe methods to create a set of self-consistent paleogeographies that represent the main features of the three stages. We present large-scale features of the evolving climate and examine model fidelity by comparing modelled climatology against palaeoenvironmental proxy data. We focus on the climate of the Arctic region and investigate tectonic drivers of sea ice expansion by comparing and interpreting model predictions against borehole data from the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean. In particular how Late Miocene/ early Pliocene tectonic uplift in the Svalbard/Barents Sea and Greenland region, the opening of the Bering Strait, and the onset of deep water Atlantic-Arctic exchange influenced the development of modern sea ice cover.

  18. An Investigation of the Sensitivity of East African Climate Variability to Urbanization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudoshava, Masilin

    The aim of this research was to investigate the impact of urbanization on the climate of East Africa and the subsequent consequences on the energy and agricultural sectors. This was achieved by accomplishing the following objectives (i) Comprehensive customization and evaluation of the performance of the International Center of Theoretical Physics (ICTP) Regional climate model (ii) Investigation of the ability of the ICTP Regional climate model to reproduce the modes of climate variability from observational data. (iii) Investigate the impact of urbanization on the precipitation of East Africa (iv) Investigation of the dominant process between, moisture supply, thermal convergence and frictional convergence, and (v) Impact on agriculture and energy sector. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  19. Expedition 18 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-11

    Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke waves goodbye to family and friends from the bus that will take him and fellow crew members Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov and American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott to the Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft for launch, Sunday, Oct. 12, 2008 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The three crew members are scheduled to dock with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Victor Zelentsov)

  20. Expedition 18 State Commission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-10

    The State Commission gives the approval for launch of the Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft carrying Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke, Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov and American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott to the International Space Station, Saturday, Oct. 11, 2008, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The three crew members are scheduled to launch Oct. 12 for a docking with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Expedition 18 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-11

    Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke waves farewell from the crew bus as he and Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov and American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott depart the Cosmonaut Hotel to building 254 were they will don their flight suits prior to their launch, Sunday, Oct. 12, 2008, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The three crew members are scheduled to dock with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Expedition 18 State Commission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-10

    A Russian flight surgeon, right, along with the quarantined prime and backup crews listen to the State Commission give the final approval for the launch of the Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft, Saturday, Oct. 11, 2008 in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke, Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov and American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott are scheduled to launch Oct. 12 and dock with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Expedition 18 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-10

    Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke, left, and Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov answer reporters' questions during a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel, Saturday, Oct. 11, 2008, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Fincke and Lonchakov will launch on the Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft along with American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott on Oct. 12 and dock with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Expedition 18 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-10

    American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott answers reporters' questions during a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel, Saturday, Oct. 11, 2008, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Garriott will launch on the Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft along with Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke and Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov on Oct. 12 and dock with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Expedition 34 Preflight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-19

    Expedition 34/35 Flight Engineer and Expedition 35 ISS Commander Chris Hadfield, of the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), performs the traditional door signing before he and fellow cremates, Flight Engineer Tom Marshburn, and Soyuz Commander Roman Romanenko depart the Cosmonaut Hotel for their Soyuz launch to the International Space Station on Wednesday, Dec. 19, 2012, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket will send Hadfield, Romanenko and Marshburn on a five-month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  6. Expedition 31 Preflight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-23

    Expedition 31 NASA Flight Engineer Joe Acaba, far left, Expedition 31 Soyuz Commander Gennady Padalka and Flight Engineer Sergei Revin, third from left, select International Space Station Russian segment event simulation test cards for their final qualification test in preparation for launch, Monday, April 23, 2012 at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. Padalka, Acaba and Revin are set to launch May 15 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in their Soyuz TMA-04M spacecraft to the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  7. Expedition 31 Preflight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-23

    Expedition 31 NASA backup crew member Kevin Ford signs for his Soyuz vehicle simulation test card before senior officials at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center, Monday, April 23, 2012 in Star City, Russia, while his fellow crew members Oleg Novitskiy (far left) and Evgeny Tarelkin look on. Expedition 31 prime crew members commander Gennady Padalka, flight engineers Joe Acaba and Sergei Revin practiced similar scenarios nearby in advance of their final approval for launch to the International Space Station, scheduled for May 15, 2012. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  8. Expedition 43 Media Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-21

    Media wait to be escorted to the next event during the Expedition 43 prime and backup crew media day on Saturday, March 21, 2015 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Expedition 43 NASA Astronaut Scott Kelly, and Russian Cosmonauts Gennady Padalka, and Mikhail Kornienko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) are scheduled to launch to the International Space Station in the Soyuz TMA-16M spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan March 28, Kazakh time (March 27 Eastern time.) As the one-year crew, Kelly and Kornienko will return to Earth on Soyuz TMA-18M in March 2016. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Expedition 43 Media Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-21

    Expedition 43 Russian Cosmonauts Gennady Padalka, left, and Mikhail Kornienko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) take part the tilt table training during media day, Saturday, March 21, 2015, Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Padalka, Kornienko, and Expedition 43 NASA Astronaut Scott Kelly are scheduled to launch to the International Space Station in the Soyuz TMA-16M spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan March 28, Kazakh time (March 27 Eastern time.) As the one-year crew, Kelly and Kornienko will return to Earth on Soyuz TMA-18M in March 2016. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Expedition 43 Media Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-21

    Expedition 43 prime and backup crews arrive at the Cosmonaut Hotel during media day, Saturday, March 21, 2015, Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Expedition 43 NASA Astronaut Scott Kelly, and Russian Cosmonauts Gennady Padalka, and Mikhail Kornienko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) are scheduled to launch to the International Space Station in the Soyuz TMA-16M spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan March 28, Kazakh time (March 27 Eastern time.) As the one-year crew, Kelly and Kornienko will return to Earth on Soyuz TMA-18M in March 2016. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Expedition 43 Media Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-21

    Expedition 43 NASA Astronaut Scott Kelly answers questions from the press during media day, Saturday, March 21, 2015, Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Expedition 43 NASA Astronaut Scott Kelly, and Russian Cosmonauts Gennady Padalka, and Mikhail Kornienko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) are scheduled to launch to the International Space Station in the Soyuz TMA-16M spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan March 28, Kazakh time (March 27 Eastern time.) As the one-year crew, Kelly and Kornienko will return to Earth on Soyuz TMA-18M in March 2016. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Expedition 43 Media Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-21

    Expedition 43 Russian Cosmonauts Gennady Padalka, background, and Mikhail Kornienko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) take part the tilt table training during media day, Saturday, March 21, 2015, Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Padalka, Kornienko, and Expedition 43 NASA Astronaut Scott Kelly are scheduled to launch to the International Space Station in the Soyuz TMA-16M spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan March 28, Kazakh time (March 27 Eastern time.) As the one-year crew, Kelly and Kornienko will return to Earth on Soyuz TMA-18M in March 2016. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Expedition 21 Docking

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-01

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, left, Head of the Russian Federal Space Agency, Anatoly Perminov, center, and Deputy Head of the Russian Federal Space Agency, Vitaly A. Davyidov listen to reporters questions during a press conference at Mission Control Center Moscow in Korolev, Russia shortly after the successful docking of the Soyuz TMA-16 spacecraft with the International Space Station (ISS) marking the start of Expedition 21 with Flight Engineer Jeffrey N. Williams, Expedition 21 Flight Engineer Maxim Suraev, and Spaceflight Participant Guy Laliberté, Friday, Oct. 2, 2009. The entire crew onboard the ISS can be seen in the monitor below. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Expedition 40 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-27

    Expedition 40 Soyuz Commander Maxim Suraev of the Russian Federal Space Agency, Roscosmos, second left, reacts as he is introduced during a press conference, Tuesday, May 27, 2014, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Expedition 40 Soyuz Commander Maxim Suraev of the Russian Federal Space Agency, Roscosmos, Flight Engineer Alexander Gerst of the European Space Agency, ESA, and Flight Engineer Reid Wiseman of NASA will launch aboard their Soyuz TMA-13M spacecraft on their mission to the International Space Station in the early hours of May 29. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  15. Expedition 43 Media Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-21

    Expedition 43 prime and backup crews walk from the Cosmonaut Hotel over to the Zvjozdnyj Hotel for a short break during media day, Saturday, March 21, 2015, Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Expedition 43 NASA Astronaut Scott Kelly, and Russian Cosmonauts Gennady Padalka, and Mikhail Kornienko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) are scheduled to launch to the International Space Station in the Soyuz TMA-16M spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan March 28, Kazakh time (March 27 Eastern time.) As the one-year crew, Kelly and Kornienko will return to Earth on Soyuz TMA-18M in March 2016. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Expedition 11 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-10-11

    Expedition 11 astronaut John Phillips is helped out of a Russian Search and Rescue all terrain vehicle, Tuesday, Oct. 11, 2005, after landing near Arlalyk, Kazakhstan. Members of the 11th expedition to the international space station, astronaut John Phillips and cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev landed after a six-month mission in orbit. Along with American businessman Greg Olsen, who visited the station for more than a week, Phillips and Krikalev returned to Earth aboard a Russian Soyuz spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Expedition 27 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-23

    Expedition 27 Flight Engineer Cady Coleman waves hello and talks on a satellite phone to her family shortly after she and Commander Dmitry Kondratyev and Flight Engineer Paolo Nespoli landed in their Soyuz TMA-20 southeast of the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, on Tuesday, May 24, 2011. NASA Astronaut Coleman, Russian Cosmonaut Kondratyev and Italian Astronaut Nespoli are returning from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 26 and 27 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Expedition 10 Preflight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-08

    Expedition 10 Flight Engineer and Soyuz Commander Salizhan Sharipov, left, Expedition 10 Commander and NASA Science Officer Leroy Chiao and Russian Space Forces cosmonaut Yuri Shargin are given a review of the GPS and Satellite phone systems after having conducted a final inspection of their Soyuz TMA-5 spacecraft on Saturday, October 9, 2004, at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan in preparation for their launch October 14 to the International Space Station. The Soyuz vehicle will be mated to its booster rocket October 11 in preparation for its rollout to the Central Asian launch pad October 12. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Expedition 10 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-04-24

    Expedition 10 Commander Leroy Chiao, left, is greeted by his wife after arriving in Star City, Russia from Kazakhstan, Monday, April 25, 2005. The Expedition 10 crew brought their Soyuz TMA-5 capsule to a pre-dawn landing April 25 northeast of the town of Arkalyk to wrap up a six-month mission aboard the International Space Station for Chiao and Sharipov, and a ten-day mission for Vittori, who flew under a commercial contract between ESA and the Russian Federal Space Agency. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Expedition 10 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-04-24

    Expedition 10 Flight Engineer Salizhan Sharipov, on bus, looks out at well wishers after arriving back at Star City, Russia from Kazakhstan, Monday, April 25, 2005. Expedition 10 Commander Leroy Chiao, Flight Engineer Salizhan Sharipov and European Space Agency astronaut Roberto Vittori brought their Soyuz TMA-5 capsule to a pre-dawn landing April 25 northeast of the town of Arkalyk to wrap up a six-month mission aboard the International Space Station for Chiao and Sharipov, and a ten-day mission for Vittori, who flew under a commercial contract between ESA and the Russian Federal Space Agency. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Expedition 28 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-16

    The Soyuz TMA-21 spacecraft is seen with the Moon in the background as it lands with Expedition 28 Commander Andrey Borisenko, and Flight Engineers Ron Garan, and Alexander Samokutyaev in a remote area outside of the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, on Friday, Sept. 16, 2011. NASA Astronaut Garan, Russian Cosmonauts Borisenko and Samokutyaev are returning from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 27 and 28 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Expedition 34 Crew Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    A view of a Russian Search and Rescue helicopter that was grounded by low visibility at the Arkalyk Airport in Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. The Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft landed with Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford of NASA, Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Ford, Novitskiy, and Tarelkin returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Expedition 34 Crew Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    A helicopter crew member waits for weather to clear outside his Search and Rescue helicopter that was grounded by low visibility at the Arkalyk Airport in Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. The Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft landed with Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford of NASA, Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Ford, Novitskiy, and Tarelkin returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Expedition 27 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-24

    Expedition 27 Commander Dmitry Kondratyev, left, is seen after arriving at the Chkalovsky airport outside Star City, Russia several hours after he and Flight Engineers Paolo Nespoli and Cady Coleman landed in their Soyuz TMA-20 southeast of the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, on Tuesday, May 24, 2011. NASA Astronaut Coleman, Russian Cosmonaut Kondratyev and Italian Astronaut Nespoli are returning from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 26 and 27 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Expedition 34 Crew Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    A heavily frosted rotor of a Search and Rescue helicopter is seen as it is grounded by low visibility at the Arkalyk Airport in Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. The Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft landed with Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford of NASA, Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Ford, Novitskiy, and Tarelkin returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Expedition 26 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-16

    Expedition 26 Commander Scott Kelly listens to reporters questions while wearing a traditional Kazakh hat at the Kustanay, Kazakhstan airport on Wednesday, March 16, 2011 after he and fellow crew members Alexander Kaleri and Oleg Skripochka landed in their Soyuz TMA-01M capsule near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan. NASA Astronaut Kelly, Russian Cosmonauts Skripochka and Kaleri are returning from almost six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 25 and 26 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Expedition 34 Crew Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    NASA Astronauts Eric Boe, left, and Bob Behnken are seen making contact with other team members outside a Search and Rescue helicopter that was grounded by low visibility at the Arkalyk Airport in Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. The Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft landed with Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford of NASA, Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Ford, Novitskiy, and Tarelkin returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Expedition 27 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-24

    Chief, Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center, Sergei Krikalev shakes hands and welcomes home Expedition 27 Commander Dmitry Kondratyev at the Chkalovsky airport outside Star City, Russia several hours after Kondratyev and Flight Engineers Paolo Nespoli and Cady Coleman landed in their Soyuz TMA-20 southeast of the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, on Tuesday, May 24, 2011. NASA Astronaut Coleman, Russian Cosmonaut Kondratyev and Italian Astronaut Nespoli are returning from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 26 and 27 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Expedition 26 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-16

    Expedition 26 Flight Engineer Alexander Kaleri listens to reporters questions while wearing a traditional Kazakh hat at the Kustanay, Kazakhstan airport on Wednesday, March 16, 2011 after he and fellow crew members Scott Kelly and Oleg Skripochka landed in their Soyuz TMA-01M capsule near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan. NASA Astronaut Kelly, Russian Cosmonauts Skripochka and Kaleri are returning from almost six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 25 and 26 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Expedition 34 Crew Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    Search and Rescue helicopters are seen grounded by low visibility at the Arkalyk Airport in Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. The Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft landed with Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford of NASA, Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Ford, Novitskiy, and Tarelkin returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Expedition 27 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-23

    Expedition 27 Flight Engineer Cady Coleman answers reporters questions in traditional Kazakh dress during a press conference at the Karaganda airport shortly after she and Commander Dmitry Kondratyev and Flight Engineer Paolo Nespoli landed in their Soyuz TMA-20 southeast of the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, on Tuesday, May 24, 2011. NASA Astronaut Coleman, Russian Cosmonaut Kondratyev and Italian Astronaut Nespoli are returning from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 26 and 27 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Expedition 27 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-24

    Expedition 27 Commander Dmitry Kondratyev, left, shakes hands with Deputy Chair of the State Commission Mr. Skorobogotov after Kondratyev arrived at the Chkalovsky airport outside Star City, Russia and several hours after he and Flight Engineers Paolo Nespoli and Cady Coleman landed in their Soyuz TMA-20 southeast of the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, on Tuesday, May 24, 2011. NASA Astronaut Coleman, Russian Cosmonaut Kondratyev and Italian Astronaut Nespoli are returning from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 26 and 27 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Expedition 34 Crew Lands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    Cars carrying Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford of NASA, Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin pull up to the terminal at the Kustanay Airport a few hours after the crew landed their Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Ford, Novitskiy, and, Tarelkin returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Expedition 28 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-15

    Expedition 28 Commander Andrey Borisenko answers reporters questions in traditional Kazakh dress during a press conference at the Karaganda airport shortly after he and Flight Engineers Alexander Samokutyaev and Ron Garan landed in their Soyuz TMA-21 outside of the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, on Friday, Sept. 16, 2011. NASA Astronaut Garan, Russian Cosmonauts Borisenko and Samokutyaev are returning from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 27 and 28 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Expedition 26 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-16

    Expedition 26 Flight Engineer Oleg Skripochka listens to reporters questions in traditional Kazakh dress at the Kustanay, Kazakhstan airport on Wednesday, March 16, 2011 after he and fellow crew members Scott Kelly and Alexander Kaleri landed in their Soyuz TMA-01M capsule near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan. NASA Astronaut Kelly, Russian Cosmonauts Skripochka and Kaleri are returning from almost six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 25 and 26 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Expedition 34 Crew Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    A Search and Rescue helicopter is seen grounded by low visibility at the Arkalyk Airport in Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. The Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft landed with Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford of NASA, Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Ford, Novitskiy, and Tarelkin returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Expedition 27 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-24

    Kazakh performers at the Karaganda Airport in Kazakhstan play music prior to a welcome home ceremony for Expedition 27 Commander Dmitry Kondratyev, and, Flight Engineers Paolo Nespoli, and Cady Coleman, after the three landed in their Soyuz TMA-20 spacecraft in a remote area southeast of the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, on Tuesday, May 24, 2011. NASA Astronaut Coleman, Russian Cosmonaut Kondratyev and Italian Astronaut Nespoli are returning from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 26 and 27 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Expedition 34 Crew Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-16

    A Russian helicopter commander waits inside his Search and Rescue helicopter that was grounded by low visibility at the Arkalyk Airport in Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. The Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft landed with Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford of NASA, Russian Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, March 16, 2013. Ford, Novitskiy, and Tarelkin returned from 142 days onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 33 and 34 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Expedition 10 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-04-24

    An external view of the Expedition 10 crew inflatable medical tent, Monday, April 25, 2005, Arkalyk, Kazakhstan. Expedition 10 Commander Leroy Chiao, Flight Engineer Salizhan Sharipov and European Space Agency astronaut Roberto Vittori brought their Soyuz TMA-5 capsule to a pre-dawn landing April 25 northeast of the town of Arkalyk in Kazakhstan to wrap up a six-month mission aboard the International Space Station for Chiao and Sharipov, and a ten-day mission for Vittori, who flew under a commercial contract between ESA and the Russian Federal Space Agency. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Expedition 30 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-27

    NASA and GCTC (Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center) crew support personnel enter the inflatable medical tent in which Expedition 30 Commander Dan Burbank, and flight engineers Anton Shkaplerov and Anatoly Ivanishin are being checked out shortly after their Soyuz TMA-22 capsule landed out side the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan, Friday, April 27, 2012. Burbank, and Russian Cosmonauts Shkaplerov and Ivanishin are returning from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 29 and 30 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  1. Expedition 25 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-26

    A Russian Search and Rescue all terrain vehicles wait to transport Expedition 25 Commander Doug Wheelock, Flight Engineers Shannon Walker and Fyodor Yurchikhin from the medical tent to awaiting helicopters shortly after the three crew members landed in the Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft near Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Friday, Nov. 26, 2010. Russian Cosmonaut Yurchikhin and NASA Astronauts Wheelock and Walker, are returning from nearly six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 24 and 25 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Expedition 31 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-07-01

    Support and medical personnel carry Expedition 31 Commander Oleg Kononenko of Russia, foreground, and Flight Engineers Andre Kuipers of the European Space Agency, center, and Don Pettit of NASA, background, to the medical tent shortly after they landed in their Soyuz TMA-03M capsule in a remote area near the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, on Sunday, July 1, 2012. Pettit, Kononenko and Kuipers returned from more than six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 30 and 31 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Expedition 12 Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-10-01

    JSC2005-E-40271 (1 Oct. 2005) --- A Soyuz rocket launches from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan with astronaut William S. (Bill) McArthur, Jr., Expedition 12 commander; cosmonaut Valery I. Tokarev, flight engineer and Soyuz commander; and U.S. spaceflight participant Gregory Olsen aboard. The trio is on a mission to the International Space Station lasting six months for McArthur and Tokarev. Olsen will return with the current station crew, Expedition 11, after ten days in space under a commercial contract with the Russian Federal Space Agency. Photo Credit: NASA/Victor Zelentsov

  4. Expedition 12 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-04-08

    William S. McArthur Jr., Expedition 12 Commander and Space Station Science Officer, waves to some of the crowd on hand in the steppes of Kazakhstan to greet the three crewmembers returning to Earth from the International Space Station in the Soyuz TMA-7 spacecraft on Sunday, April 9, 2006. Returning with McArthur, Flight Engineer Valery Tokarev and Brazil’s first astronaut, Marcos Pontes, who arrived at the station with Expedition 13 on April 1. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Expedition 12 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-04-08

    Brazil’s first astronaut in space, Marcos C. Pontes smiles as he exchanges greetings with some of the crowd on hand in the steppes of Kazakhstan to meet him and the two Expedition 12 crewmembers returning to Earth from the International Space Station in the Soyuz TMA-7 spacecraft on Saturday, April 9, 2006. The Soyuz TMA-7 spacecraft touched down at 7:48 p.m. EDT. Pontes spent a little over a week onboard the orbital outpost. He arrived at the station with Expedition 13 on Sunday, April 1, 2008. He represented the Brazil Space Agency. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Expedition 12 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-04-08

    Brazil’s first astronaut in space, Marcos C. Pontes smiles as he exchanges greetings with some of the crowd on hand in the steppes of Kazakhstan to meet him and the two Expedition 12 crewmembers returning to Earth from the International Space Station in the Soyuz TMA-7 spacecraft, Sunday April 9, 2006. Pontes spent a little over a week onboard the orbital outpost. Returning with Pontes were Expedition 12 Commander Bill McArthur and Flight Engineer Valery Tokarev. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Expedition 12 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-04-08

    The Russian Sokol Suits are carried from the medical tent after the landing of the Soyuz TMA-7 spacecraft in the steppes of Kazakhstan. The Soyuz TMA-7 spacecraft touched down at 7:48 p.m. EDT on Saturday, April 9, 2006. Returning with Expedition 12 Commander Bill McArthur and Flight Engineer Valery Tokarev was Brazil’s first astronaut, Marcos Pontes, who arrived at the station with Expedition 13 on Sunday, April 1, 2006. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Expedition 22 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-20

    Expedition 22 Flight Engineer Soichi Noguchi of Japan has his Russian Sokol suit prepared for launch by a technician while space agency photographers document the process at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Sunday, Dec. 20, 2009. Soichi and fellow Expedition 22 crew members NASA Flight Engineer Timothy J. Creamer of the U.S., Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov of Russia launched in their Soyuz TMA-17 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Monday, Dec. 21, 2009. (Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Expedition 28 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-16

    A Russian Search and Rescue helicopter approaches the landing site of the Soyuz TMA-21 spacecraft shortly after it landed with Expedition 28 Commander Andrey Borisenko, and Flight Engineers Ron Garan, and Alexander Samokutyaev in a remote area outside of the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, on Friday, Sept. 16, 2011. NASA Astronaut Garan, Russian Cosmonauts Borisenko and Samokutyaev are returning from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 27 and 28 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Expedition 27 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-23

    Russian Search and rescue helicopters are seen as they prepare for the landing of the Soyuz TMA-20 spacecraft with Expedition 27 Commander Dmitry Kondratyev and Flight Engineers Paolo Nespoli and Cady Coleman in a remote area southeast of the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, on Tuesday, May 24, 2011. NASA Astronaut Coleman, Russian Cosmonaut Kondratyev and Italian Astronaut Nespoli are returning from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 26 and 27 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Expedition 20 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-10

    A member of the Russian Search and Rescue team folds up the parachute that was used to during the landing of the Soyuz TMA-14 spacecraft with Expedition 20 Commander Gennady Padalka, Flight Engineer Michael Barratt, and spaceflight participant Guy Laliberté near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Sunday, Oct. 11, 2009. Padalka and Barratt are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station, along with Laliberté who arrived at the station on Oct. 2 with Expedition 21 Flight Engineers Jeff Williams and Maxim Suraev aboard the Soyuz TMA-16 spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Expedition 20 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-10

    Russian Search and Rescue team All Terrain Vehicles (ATVs) are seen parked at the landing site of the Soyuz TMA-14 capsule that carried Expedition 20 Commander Gennady Padalka, Flight Engineer Michael Barratt, and spaceflight participant Guy Laliberté near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Sunday, Oct. 11, 2009. Padalka and Barratt are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station, along with Laliberté who arrived at the station on Oct. 2 with Expedition 21 Flight Engineers Jeff Williams and Maxim Suraev aboard the Soyuz TMA-16 spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Expedition 20 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-10

    Russian Search and Rescue force vehicles and helicopter arrive within seconds of the Soyuz TMA-14 spacecraft landing with Expedition 20 Commander Gennady Padalka, Flight Engineer Michael Barratt, and spaceflight participant Guy Laliberté near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Sunday, Oct. 11, 2009. Padalka and Barratt are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station, along with Laliberté who arrived at the station on Oct. 2 with Expedition 21 Flight Engineers Jeff Williams and Maxim Suraev aboard the Soyuz TMA-16 spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Expedition 31 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-07-01

    A Russian Search and Rescue helicopter flies to the the Soyuz TMA-03M capsule shortly after it landed with Expedition 31 Commander Oleg Kononenko of Russia and Flight Engineers Don Pettit of NASA and Andre Kuipers of the European Space Agency in a remote area near the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, on Sunday, July 1, 2012. Pettit, Kononenko and Kuipers returned from more than six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 30 and 31 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Expedition 20 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-10

    Russian Search and Rescue force vehicles follow the Soyuz TMA-14 spacecraft as it lands with Expedition 20 Commander Gennady Padalka, Flight Engineer Michael Barratt, and spaceflight participant Guy Laliberté near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Sunday, Oct. 11, 2009. Padalka and Barratt are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station, along with Laliberté who arrived at the station on Oct. 2 with Expedition 21 Flight Engineers Jeff Williams and Maxim Suraev aboard the Soyuz TMA-16 spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Expedition 24 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-24

    Russian search and rescue personnel and engineers prepare to extract the crew from the Soyuz TMA-18 moments after it landed with Expedition 24 Commander Alexander Skvortsov and Flight Engineers Tracy Caldwell Dyson and Mikhail Kornienko near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, Sept. 25, 2010. Russian Cosmonauts Skvortsov and Kornienko and NASA Astronaut Caldwell Dyson, are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 23 and 24 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Expedition 35 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-14

    Russian Search and Rescue Helicopters are seen as they await departure from the landing zone in a remote area near the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan following the the landing of the Soyuz TMA-07M spacecraft on Tuesday, May 14, 2013. The Soyuz spacecraft delivered Expedition 35 Commander Chris Hadfield of the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), NASA Flight Engineer Tom Marshburn and Russian Flight Engineer Roman Romanenko after having spent five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 34 and 35 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  18. Expedition 20 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-10

    A Russian Search and Rescue force helicopter flies around the Soyuz TMA-14 spacecraft as it lands with Expedition 20 Commander Gennady Padalka, Flight Engineer Michael Barratt, and spaceflight participant Guy Laliberté near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Sunday, Oct. 11, 2009. Padalka and Barratt are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station, along with Laliberté who arrived at the station on Oct. 2 with Expedition 21 Flight Engineers Jeff Williams and Maxim Suraev aboard the Soyuz TMA-16 spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Expedition 31 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-07-01

    Additional Russian Search and Rescue crews arrive near the Soyuz TMA-03M capsule after it landed with Expedition 31 Commander Oleg Kononenko of Russia and Flight Engineers Don Pettit of NASA and Andre Kuipers of the European Space Agency in a remote area near the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, on Sunday, July 1, 2012. Pettit, Kononenko and Kuipers returned from more than six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 30 and 31 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Expedition 40 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-27

    Expedition 40 prime crew members Flight Engineer Alexander Gerst of the European Space Agency, ESA, far left, Soyuz Commander Maxim Suraev of the Russian Federal Space Agency, Roscosmos, second left, and Flight Engineer Reid Wiseman of NASA, center, pose for a picture with Expedition 40 backup crew members Flight Engineer Terry Virts of NASA, third right, Soyuz Commander Anton Shkaplerov of Roscosmos, and Flight Engineer Samantha Cristoforetti of ESA at the conclusion a press conference, Tuesday, May 27, 2014, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission to the International Space Station is set to launch May 29 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  1. Expedition 35 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-14

    Expedition 35 Commander Chris Hadfield of the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is attended to by his nurse following his landing in the Soyuz TMA-07M spacecraft in a remote area near the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, Tuesday, May 14, 2013. Hadfield and crew mates NASA Flight Engineer Tom Marshburn and Russian Flight Engineer Roman Romanenko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) returned to earth from more than five months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 34 and 35 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  2. Expedition 24 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-24

    Girls in traditional Kazakhstan dress await the arrival of the Soyuz TMA-18 crew at the Karaganda airport in Kazakhstan. The Soyuz TMA-18 spacecraft, carrying Expedition 24 Commander Alexander Skvortsov and Flight Engineers Tracy Caldwell Dyson and Mikhail Kornienko, landed, near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Saturday, Sept. 25, 2010. Russian Cosmonauts Skvortsov and Kornienko and NASA Astronaut Caldwell Dyson, are returning from six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 23 and 24 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Expedition 33 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-19

    Girls in traditional Kazakh dress smile after welcoming home Expedition 33 crew members; Commander Sunita Williams of NASA, and Flight Engineers Yuri Malenchenko of ROSCOSMOS (Russian Federal Space Agency), and Akihiko Hoshide of JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) at the Kustanay Airport in Kazakhstan a few hours after the Expedition 33 crew landed their Soyuz spacecraft in a remote area outside the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan, on Monday, Nov. 19, 2012. Williams, Hoshide and Malenchenko returned from four months onboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Expedition 25 Soyuz Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-26

    Seated from left, Expedition 25 Commander Doug Wheelock and Flight Engineers Fyodor Yurchikhin and Shannon Walker talk during during a press conference after being greeting back to Earth by girls in traditional Kazakhstan at the Kostanay, Kazakhstan airport on Friday, Nov. 26, 2010. Russian Cosmonaut Yurchikhin and NASA Astronauts Wheelock and Walker, landed in their Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft outside the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan after nearly six months onboard the International Space Station where they served as members of the Expedition 24 and 25 crews. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Expedition 10 Preflight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-04

    Expedition 10 Commander and NASA Science Officer Leroy Chiao donned his launch and entry suit and climbed aboard the Soyuz TMA-5 spacecraft Friday, October 5, 2004, at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan for a dress rehearsal of launch day activities leading to their liftoff October 14 to the International Space Station. Chiao and Sharipov, the first crew of all-Asian extraction, will spend six months on the Station. Shargin will return to Earth October 24 with the Stations' current residents, Expedition 9 Commander Gennady Padalka and NASA Flight Engineer and Science Officer Mike Fincke. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Expedition 10 Preflight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-04

    Expedition 10 Flight Engineer and Soyuz Commander Salizhan Sharipov donned his launch and entry suit and climbed aboard the Soyuz TMA-5 spacecraft Friday, October 5, 2004 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan for a dress rehearsal of launch day activities leading to their liftoff October 14 to the International Space Station. Chiao and Sharipov, the first crew of all-Asian extraction, will spend six months on the Station. Shargin will return to Earth October 24 with the Stations' current residents, Expedition 9 Commander Gennady Padalka and NASA Flight Engineer and Science Officer Mike Fincke. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Expedition 10 Preflight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-04

    Expedition 10 Commander and NASA Science Officer Leroy Chiao, right, Flight Engineer and Soyuz Commander Salizhan Sharipov donned their launch and entry suits and climbed aboard their Soyuz TMA-5 spacecraft Friday, October 5, 2004, at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan for a dress rehearsal of launch day activities leading to their liftoff October 14 to the International Space Station. Chiao and Sharipov, the first crew of all-Asian extraction, will spend six months on the Station. Shargin will return to Earth October 24 with the Stations' current residents, Expedition 9 Commander Gennady Padalka and NASA Flight Engineer and Science Officer Mike Fincke. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Expedition 10 Preflight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-04

    Expedition 10 Commander and NASA Science Officer Leroy Chiao, left, and Flight Engineer and Soyuz Commander Salizhan Sharipov donned their launch and entry suits and climbed aboard their Soyuz TMA-5 spacecraft Friday, October 5, 2004, at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan for a dress rehearsal of launch day activities leading to their liftoff October 14 to the International Space Station. Chiao and Sharipov, the first crew of all-Asian extraction, will spend six months on the Station. Shargin will return to Earth October 24 with the Stations' current residents, Expedition 9 Commander Gennady Padalka and NASA Flight Engineer and Science Officer Mike Fincke. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Expedition 10 Preflight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-03

    Expedition 10 Commander and NASA Science Officer Leroy Chiao, right, Flight Engineer and Soyuz Commander Salizhan Sharipov and NASA Public Affairs Officer Rob Navias, left, review the Soyuz flight plan while on the plane taking the crew from Star City, Russia to Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Monday, Oct. 4, 2004. The crew will launch on the Soyuz TMA-5 spacecraft October 14, 2004 to the International Space Station. Chiao and Sharipov will spend six months on the Station, while Shargin will return to Earth October 24 with Expedition 9 Commander Gennady Padalka and NASA Science Officer and Flight Engineer Mike Fincke, who have been in space since April. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 349 and Multidisciplinary Research in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Li, C. F.; Wang, P.; Koppers, A. A. P.; Dadd, K. A.; Kulhanek, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is one of the largest low-latitude marginal seas in the world, serving as a natural laboratory for studying the linkages between complex tectonic, volcanic, and oceanic processes. The last several years have witnessed significant progress in investigation of the SCS through comprehensive research programs using multidisciplinary approaches and enhanced international collaboration. In January-March 2014, International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 349 drilled and cored five sites in the SCS, with three sites located near the relict spreading center in the East and Southwest Subbasins and two sites near the transition zone between the oceanic and continental crust (Expedition 349 Scientists, 2014). The expedition successfully obtained the first basaltic rock samples of the SCS relict spreading center, discovered large and frequent deep-sea turbidity events, and sampled multiple seamount volcaniclastic layers. The Expedition 349 shipboard and shorebased research involves the participation and strong collaboration of scientists from the international community including scientists from countries and regions surrounding the SCS. Meanwhile, major progress in studying the SCS processes has also been made through comprehensive multidisciplinary programs, for example, the "South China Sea Deep" initiative (Wang, 2012). This presentation will highlight the recent multidisciplinary research initiatives in investigation of the SCS and the important role of international collaboration. Expedition 349 Scientists, 2014. South China Sea tectonics: Opening of the South China Sea and its implications for southeast Asian tectonics, climates, and deep mantle processes since the late Mesozoic. International Ocean Discovery Program Preliminary Report, 349. http://dx.doi.org/10.14379/iodp.pr.349.2014. Wang, P., 2012. Tracing the life history of a marginal sea—on "The South China Sea Deep" research program. Chinese Science Bulletin, 57(24), 3093

  11. Expedition 25 portraits in Russia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-08-31

    JSC2010-E-124006 (August 2010) --- Attired in Russian Sokol launch and entry suits, NASA astronaut Scott Kelly (left), Expedition 25 flight engineer and Expedition 26 commander; along with Russian cosmonauts Alexander Kaleri (center) and Oleg Skripochka, both Expedition 25/26 flight engineers, take a break from training in Star City, Russia to pose for a portrait. Photo credit: Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center

  12. Expedition 22 Crewmembers pose for photo during Expedition 22

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-13

    ISS022-E-091547 (13 March 2010) --- Crew members on the International Space Station pose for a photo in the station?s Kibo laboratory. Pictured on the front row are NASA astronaut Jeffrey Williams (right), Expedition 22 commander; and Russian cosmonaut Maxim Suraev, Expedition 22 flight engineer. Pictured on the back row are Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov (center), Expedition 22 flight engineer and Expedition 23 commander; NASA astronaut T.J. Creamer (left) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Soichi Noguchi, both Expedition 22/23 flight engineers. Williams and Suraev are scheduled to return to Earth on March 18, 2010, completing almost a half-year aboard the station.

  13. International Space Station (ISS) Expedition Five Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Expedition Five crewmembers include (left to right) Cosmonaut Verleri Korzun, Commander; Astronaut Peggy Whitson, flight engineer; and Cosmonaut Sergei Treschev, flight engineer. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour, STS-111, in April 2002, Expedition Five replaced Expedition Four on the International Space Station (ISS) for a scheduled 4-month mission. Expedition Five carried several new experiments and science facilities to the ISS. The research compliment included 24 new and continuing investigations:10 human life sciences studies, 6 in microgravity, 5 in space product development, and 3 sponsored by the Office of Space Flight. The new experiments are expected to lead to new insights in the fields of materials, plant science, commercial biotechnology, and the long term effects of space flight on humans. 280 hours will be devoted to research in addition to the continuing building of the ISS. Station science will also be conducted by the ever-present ground crew, with a new cadre of controllers for Expedition Five in the ISS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Controllers work in three shifts around the clock, 7 days a week, in the POCC, the world's primary science command post for the Space Station. The POCC links Earth-bound researchers around the world with their experiments and crew aboard the Space Station.

  14. Expedition 1 training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-07-26

    JSC2000-05370 (7 June 2000) --- With the aid of technicians, astronaut William Shepherd is about to complete the donning his Orlan space suit in order to participate in an underwater spacewalk simulation in the Hydrolab facility at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Russia. Shepherd is mission commander for ISS Expedition One.

  15. Expedition 19 Soyuz Rollout

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-23

    A Russian security member and his dog check the railroad tracks ahead of the Soyuz rocket roll out to the launch pad Tuesday, March 24, 2009 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The Soyuz is scheduled to launch the crew of Expedition 19 and a spaceflight participant on March 26, 2009. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Expedition 19 Soyuz Rollout

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-23

    The Soyuz launch pad is seen about an hour before the Soyuz rocket is rolled out to the launch pad Tuesday, March 24, 2009 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The Soyuz is scheduled to launch the crew of Expedition 19 and a spaceflight participant on March 26, 2009. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Expedition 1 training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-07-26

    JSC2000-05376 (7 June 2000) --- Astronaut William Shepherd, mission commander for ISS Expedition One, is about to change from street clothes into an Orlan space suit in order to participate in an underwater spacewalk simulation in the Hydrolab facility at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Russia.

  18. Expedition 31 Preflight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-24

    Expedition 31 NASA backup crew member Kevin Ford, left, Oleg Novitskiy and Evgeny Tarelkin, third from left, select International Space Station Russian segment event simulation test cards for their final qualification test in preparation for flight, Tuesday, April 24, 2012 at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  19. Expedition 31 Preflight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-24

    Expedition 31 NASA backup crew member Kevin Ford signs for his International Space Station Russian segment event simulation test card before senior officials at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center, Tuesday, April 24, 2012 in Star City, Russia, while his fellow crew members Oleg Novitskiy (left) and Evgeny Tarelkin look on. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  20. Expedition 26 Docking

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-12-18

    Vladislav Kondratyev, son of Expedition 26 Soyuz Commander Dmitry Kondratyev, is seen at Russian Mission Control in Korolev, Russia speaking to his father shortly after his arrival at the International Space Station on Saturday, Dec. 18, 2010. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  1. Expedition 28 Docking

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-10

    Kenny Fossum, right, youngest son of Expedition 28 NASA Flight Engineer Mike Fossum, is seen at Russian Mission Control in Korolev, Russia speaking to his father shortly after his arrival at the International Space Station on Friday, June 10, 2011. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  2. Expedition 26 Docking

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-12-18

    Jamey Simpson, son of Expedition 26 Flight Engineer Catherine Coleman, is seen at Russian Mission Control in Korolev, Russia speaking to his mother shortly after her arrival at the International Space Station on Saturday, Dec. 18, 2010. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  3. Expedition 26 Docking

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-12-18

    Kirk Shireman, second from right, NASA's ISS Deputy Program Manager, is seen at Russian Mission Control in Korolev, Russia speaking to the crew of Expedition 26 shortly after their arrival at the International Space Station on Saturday, Dec. 18, 2010. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  4. Expedition 28 Docking

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-10

    John Fossum, right, son of Expedition 28 NASA Flight Engineer Mike Fossum, is seen at Russian Mission Control in Korolev, Russia speaking to his father shortly after his arrival at the International Space Station on Friday, June 10, 2011. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  5. Expedition 28 Docking

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-10

    Mitchell Fossum, right, son of Expedition 28 NASA Flight Engineer Mike Fossum, is seen at Russian Mission Control in Korolev, Russia speaking to his father shortly after his arrival at the International Space Station on Friday, June 10, 2011. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  6. Expedition 27 Docking

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-06

    Russian Mission Control Center is seen on Thursday, April 7, 2011 in Korolev, Russia. The Soyuz TMA-21 docked to the International Space Station carrying Expedition 27 Soyuz Commander Alexander Samokutyaev, NASA Flight Engineer Ron Garan and Russian Flight Engineer Andrey Borisenko. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  7. Expedition 28 Docking

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-10

    William Gerstenmaier, Associate Administrator for Space Operations, is seen at Russian Mission Control in Korolev, Russia speaking to the crew of Expedition 28 shortly after their arrival at the International Space Station on Friday, June 10, 2011. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  8. Expedition 27 Docking

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-06

    View from the balcony of the Russian Mission Control Center in Korolev, Russia as the Soyuz TMA-21 nears the International Space Station on Thursday, April 7, 2011. The Soyuz TMA-21 docked to the International Space Station carrying Expedition 27 Soyuz Commander Alexander Samokutyaev, NASA Flight Engineer Ron Garan and Russian Flight Engineer Andrey Borisenko. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  9. Expedition 21 Crew Haircuts

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-11-15

    ISS021-E-027120 (15 Nov. 2009) --- NASA astronaut Jeffrey Williams, Expedition 21 flight engineer, trims European Space Agency astronaut Frank De Winne's hair in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. Williams used hair clippers fashioned with a vacuum device to garner freshly cut hair.

  10. Expedition 21 Crew Haircuts

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-11-15

    ISS021-E-027108 (15 Nov. 2009) --- NASA astronaut Jeffrey Williams, Expedition 21 flight engineer, trims Canadian Space Agency astronaut Robert Thirsk's hair in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. Williams used hair clippers fashioned with a vacuum device to garner freshly cut hair.

  11. Expedition 21 Crew Haircuts

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-11-15

    ISS021-E-027106 (15 Nov. 2009) --- NASA astronaut Jeffrey Williams, Expedition 21 flight engineer, trims Canadian Space Agency astronaut Robert Thirsk's hair in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. Williams used hair clippers fashioned with a vacuum device to garner freshly cut hair.

  12. Expedition 27 Preflight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-11

    At the Kremlin Wall in Moscow March 11, 2011, NASA astronaut Ron Garan lays flowers in honor of fallen icons as part of the ceremonial activities leading to the scheduled launch of Expedition 27 to the International Space Station, scheduled for March 30 (Kazakhstan time) in the Soyuz TMA-21 spacecraft. Photo credit: NASA/Mark Polansky

  13. Expedition 27 Preflight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-11

    At the Kremlin Wall in Moscow March 11, 2011, Russian cosmonaut Andrey Borisenko lays flowers in honor of fallen icons as part of the ceremonial activities leading to the scheduled launch of Expedition 27 to the International Space Station, scheduled for March 30 (Kazakhstan time) in the Soyuz TMA-21 spacecraft. Photo credit: NASA/Mark Polansky

  14. Expedition 27 Preflight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-11

    At the Kremlin Wall in Moscow March 11, 2011, Russian cosmonaut Alexander Samokutyaev lays flowers in honor of fallen icons as part of the ceremonial activities leading to the scheduled launch of Expedition 27 to the International Space Station, scheduled for March 30 (Kazakhstan time) in the Soyuz TMA-21 spacecraft. Photo credit: NASA/Mark Polansky

  15. Expedition 9 Preflight Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-13

    NASA Science Officer Mike Fincke, left, Expedition 9 Commander Gennady Padalka, center and Flight Engineer and European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers of the Netherlands answer questions from reporters after completing their final fit check in the Soyuz capsule at building 254 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Wednesday, April 14, 2004, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls

  16. Expedition 34 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-18

    Russian backup crew member Fyodor Yurchikin, right, answers a reporter's question at a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel, on Tuesday, Dec. 18, 2012, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Seen next to him are NASA backup crew member Karen Nyberg and Expedition 34/35 Canadian Space Agency astronaut Chris Hadfield. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  17. Expedition 10 Preflight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-04

    Expedition 10 Flight Engineer and Soyuz Commander Salizhan Sharipov reports to space officials on the results of the dress rehearsal of their launch activities Friday, October 5, 2004, at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Chiao, Sharipov and Shargin are scheduled to launch October 14 on their Soyuz TMA-5 spacecraft to the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Expedition 19 Crew Ceremony

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-20

    Expedition 19 Flight Engineer Michael R. Barratt, left, Commander Gennady I. Padalka, center, and Spaceflight Participant Charles Simonyi pose for a photograph after the traditional tree planting ceremony at the Cosmonaut Hotel, Saturday, March 21, 2009 in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. (Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Expedition 19 Crew Ceremony

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-20

    Members of the media watch as Expedition 19 Commander Gennady I. Padalka, left, and Flight Engineer Michael R. Barratt plant a tree during the traditional tree planting ceremony at the Cosmonaut Hotel, Saturday, March 21, 2009 in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. (Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Expedition 9 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-24

    Expedition 9 Flight Engineer Michael Fincke, lower left, greets his wife and children for the first time in six months after exiting the Gargarin Cosmonaut Training Center's airplane in Star City, Russia, Sunday October 24, 2004. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Expedition 27 Docking

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-06

    Carmel Garan, center, wife of Expedition 27 NASA Flight Engineer Ron Garan, is seen at Russian Mission Control in Korolev, Russia speaking to her husband shortly after his arrival at the International Space Station on Thursday, April 7, 2011. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  2. Expedition 27 Docking

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-06

    Oksana Samokutyaev, far left, wife of Expedition 27 Soyuz Commander Alexander Samokutyaev, is seen at Russian Mission Control in Korolev, Russia speaking to her husband shortly after his arrival at the International Space Station on Thursday, April 7, 2011. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  3. Expedition 27 Docking

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-06

    Zoya Borisenko, center, wife of Expedition 27 Flight Engineer Andrey Borisenko, is seen at Russian Mission Control in Korolev, Russia speaking to her husband shortly after his arrival at the International Space Station on Thursday, April 7, 2011. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  4. Expedition 26 Docking

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-12-18

    Josh Simpson, husband of Expedition 26 Flight Engineer Catherine Coleman, is seen at Russian Mission Control in Korolev, Russia speaking to his wife shortly after her arrival at the International Space Station on Saturday, Dec. 18, 2010. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  5. Expedition 28 Docking

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-10

    Melanie Fossum, right, wife of Expedition 28 NASA Flight Engineer Mike Fossum, is seen at Russian Mission Control in Korolev, Russia speaking to her husband shortly after his arrival at the International Space Station on Friday, June 10, 2011. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  6. Expedition 28 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-06

    Expedition 28 NASA Flight Engineer Mike Fossum, left, and Soyuz Commander Sergei Volkov of Russia share a laugh during a press conference, Monday, June 6, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch on Tuesday, June 8, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  7. Expedition 29 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-12

    Expedition 29 Soyuz Commander Anton Shkaplerov answers a reporter’s question during a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan on Saturday, Nov. 12, 2011. The mission is set to launch November 14 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  8. Expedition 28 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-06

    Expedition 28 NASA Flight Engineer Mike Fossum, speaks during a press conference, Monday, June 6, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch on Tuesday, June 8, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  9. Expedition 28 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-06

    Expedition 28 NASA Flight Engineer Mike Fossum speaks during a press conference, Monday, June 6, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch on Tuesday, June 8, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  10. Expedition 28 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-06

    Expedition 28 NASA Flight Engineer Mike Fossum, left, and Soyuz Commander Sergei Volkov of Russia are seen during a press conference, Monday, June 6, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch on Tuesday, June 8, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  11. Expedition 29 State Commission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-12

    Michael Suffredini, Manager, International Space Station (ISS) Program speaks during the State Commission meeting to approve the Soyuz launch of Expedition 29 to the International Space Station, Saturday, Nov. 12, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch November 14 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  12. Expedition 29 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-12

    Expedition 29 backup crew members NASA Flight Engineer Joseph Acaba, far left, Russian Soyuz Commander Gennady Padalka, center, and Russian Flight Engineer Sergei Revin are seen at a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan on Saturday, Nov. 12, 2011. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  13. Expedition 33 State Commission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-22

    Members of the State Commission meet at the Cosmosnaut hotel to approve the Soyuz launch of Expedition 33/34 Flight Engineer Kevin Ford of NASA, Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin of ROSCOSMOS on Monday, Oct. 22, 2012 in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Expedition 28 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-06

    Expedition 28 NASA backup Flight Engineer Don Pettit looks on during a press conference, Monday, June 6, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch on Tuesday, June 8, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  15. Expedition 25 Prelaunch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-06

    Expedition 25 NASA Flight Engineer Scott Kelly waves farewell to friends and family as he and his crew mates depart the Cosmonaut Hotel on the evening before their launch at the Cosmonaut Hotel, Thursday, Oct. 7, 2010 in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  16. Expedition 28 State Commission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-06

    Michael Suffredini, Manager, International Space Station (ISS) Program, center, speaks during the State Commission meeting to approve the Soyuz launch of Expedition 28 to the International Space Station, Monday, June 6, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch on on Tuesday, June 8, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  17. Expedition 28 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-06

    Expedition 28 Soyuz Commander Sergei Volkov of Russia speaks during a press conference, Monday, June 6, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch on Tuesday, June 7, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  18. Expedition 29 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-12

    Expedition 29 NASA backup crew member Joe Acaba is seen at a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel, Saturday, Nov. 12, 2011 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch November 14 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  19. Expedition 29 State Commission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-12

    Vladimir Popovkin, Head of the Russian Federal Space Agency (ROSCOSMOS) speaks during the State Commission meeting to approve the Soyuz launch of Expedition 29 to the International Space Station, Saturday, Nov. 12, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch November 14 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  20. Expedition 28 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-06

    Expedition 28 Soyuz Commander Sergei Volkov speaks during a press conference, Monday, June 6, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch on Tuesday, June 8, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  1. Expedition 41 State Commission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-24

    Michael Suffredini, NASA International Space Station Program Manager, speaks during the State Commission meeting to approve the Soyuz launch of Expedition 41 to the International Space Station, Wednesday, Sept. 24, 2014, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch Sept. 26 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  2. Expedition 39 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-24

    Expedition 39 flight engineer Steve Swanson of NASA is seen in quarantine, behind glass, during the final press conference be Monday, March 24, 2014, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission to the International Space Station is set to launch March 26 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Expedition 29 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-12

    Expedition 29 backup crew members Joseph Acaba, left, and Russian Flight Engineer Gennady Padalka share a few words during a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan on Saturday, Nov. 12, 2011. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  4. Expedition 29 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-12

    Expedition 29 Flight Engineer Anatoly Ivanishin is seen at a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel, Saturday, Nov. 12, 2011 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch November 14 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  5. Expedition 29 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-12

    Expedition 29 Russian Flight Engineer Anatoly Ivanishin answers a reporter’s question during a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan on Saturday, Nov. 12, 2011. The launch of the Soyuz spacecraft with Ivanishin, Soyuz Commander Anton Shkaplerov and NASA Flight Engineer Dan Burbank is scheduled for November 14. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  6. Expedition 28 State Commission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-06

    Vladimir Popovkin, Head of the Russian Federal Space Agency (ROSCOSMOS) speaks during the State Commission meeting to approve the Soyuz launch of Expedition 28 to the International Space Station, Monday, June 6, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch on Tuesday, June 8, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  7. Expedition 28 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-06

    Expedition 28 NASA Flight Engineer Mike Fossum, left, looks on as Soyuz Commander Sergei Volkov speaks during a press conference, Monday, June 6, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch on Tuesday, June 8, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  8. Expedition 41 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-24

    NASA Expedition 41 backup crew member Flight Engineer Mikhail Kornienko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) answers a question during a press conference Wednesday, Sept. 24, 2014 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The prime crew is set to launch Sept. 26 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  9. Expedition 6 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-03

    One of three local Kazakh girls who were on hand at the International Airport Astana to welcome the Expedition 6 crew with roses after the crew landed on the Kazakh steppe in their Soyuz capsule, Tuesday, May 4, 2003 in Astana, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Expedition Six landing views

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-04

    May 4, 2003, Astana, Kazakhstan. One of three local Kazakh girls who were on hand at the Astana airport to welcome the Expedition Six crew with Roses after the crew landed on the Kazakh Steppe in their Soyuz capsule. Photo Credit: "NASA/Bill Ingalls"

  11. Expedition 7 Preflight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-04-25

    Edward T. Lu, Expedition 7 NASA International Space Station Science Officer and Flight Engineer, wearing his Russian Sokol suit, is pictured prior to his launch with Commander Yuri I. Malenchenko aboard the Soyuz rocket at 9:53 am from Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Saturday, April 26, 2003. Photo credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Expedition 24 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-06-14

    Expedition 24 NASA Flight Engineer Shannon Walker has her Russian Sokol suit prepared for launch by technicians at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Tuesday, June 15, 2010. Walker, Soyuz Commander Fyodor Yurchikhin and Flight Engineer Doug Wheelock launched in their Soyuz TMA-19 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Wednesday, June 16, 2010. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  13. Expedition 24 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-06-14

    Expedition 24 NASA Flight Engineer Doug Wheelock, center, has his Russian Sokol suit prepared for launch by a technician at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Tuesday, June 15, 2010. Wheelock, Soyuz Commander Fyodor Yurchikhin and Flight Engineer Shannon Walker launched in their Soyuz TMA-19 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Wednesday, June 16, 2010. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  14. Expedition 37 Preflight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-25

    Expedition 37/38 NASA Flight Engineer Michael Hopkins, left, is fitted into his Russian Sokol suit as Russian Flight Engineer Sergey Ryazanskiy looks on, on Wednesday, Sept. 25, 2013, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket will send Hopkins, Kotov and Ryazanskiy on a five-month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/GCTC/Andrey Shelepin)

  15. Expedition 24 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-06-14

    Expedition 24 NASA Flight Engineer Doug Wheelock has his Russian Sokol suit prepared for launch by a technician at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Tuesday, June 15, 2010. Wheelock, Soyuz Commander Fyodor Yurchikhin and Flight Engineer Shannon Walker launched in their Soyuz TMA-19 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Wednesday, June 16, 2010. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  16. Expedition 6 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-05

    Expedition 6 Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin, left, Commander Ken Bowersox and International Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit, right, pose for photos at a press conference at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia, Thursday, May 6, 2003. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Expedition 6 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-05

    Expedition 6 Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin, left, Commander Ken Bowersox and NASA International Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit, right, answer questions during a press conference at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia, Thursday, May 6, 2003. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Expedition 10 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-04-24

    Flight Engineer Salizhan Sharipov, bottom left, Expedition 10 Commander Leroy Chiao and European Space Agency astronaut Roberto Vittori, top left, arrive in Star City, Russia, Monday, April 25, 2005, after thet brought their Soyuz TMA-5 capsule to a pre-dawn landing northeast of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Expedition 7 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-28

    Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition 7 Mission Commander, rests in a chair after landing in the Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft in Kazakhstan on Monday, October 27, 2003 at 9:41 p.m. (EST). Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Expedition 10 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-04-24

    Expedition 10 Flight Engineer and Soyuz Commander Salizhan Sharipov sits in a chair after being pulled out of the Soyuz TMA-5 capsule, which landed northeast of the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Monday, April 25, 2005. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Expedition 7 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-28

    Astronaut Edward T. Lu, Expedition 7 NASA International Space Station Science Officer and Flight Engineer, rests in a chair after landing in the Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft in Kazakhstan on Monday, October 27, 2003 at 9:41 p.m. (EST). On the left is NASA Flight Surgeon Dr. Thomas H. Marshburn. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Expedition 14 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-20

    Expedition 14 Commander Michael Lopez-Alegria sits in a chair near the Soyuz TMA-9 spacecraft at the landing site as landing and recovery officials conduct post-landing medical checks, Friday, April 21, 2007 in Kazakhstan. The Soyuz spacecraft landed southwest of Karaganda, Kazakhstan at approximately 6:30 p.m. local time. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Expedition 25 Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-07

    Expedition 25 NASA Flight Engineer Scott Kelly of the U.S., left, Soyuz Commander Alexander Kaleri and Flight Engineer Oleg Skripochka, right, have their Russian Sokol suits prepared for launch by technicians at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, Friday, Oct. 8, 2010. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  4. Expedition 25 Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-07

    Expedition 25 crew members prepare to have their Russian Sokol Suits pressure checked at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Friday, Oct. 8, 2010. Soyuz Commander Alexander Kaleri, NASA Flight Engineer Scott Kelly and Flight Engineer Oleg Skripochka launched in their Soyuz TMA-01M at 5:10 a.m. Friday morning. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  5. Expedition 25 Docking

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-09

    The Soyuz TMA-01M nears its docking with the International Space Station as seen in the video monitor at Russian Mission Control Center in Korolev, Russia on Sunday, Oct. 10, 2010. The TMA-01M delivered the crew of Expedition 25 Soyuz Commander Alexander Kaleri, Flight Engineer Scott Kelly and Flight Engineer Oleg Skripochka to the ISS. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  6. Expedition 25 Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-07

    Expedition 25 NASA Flight Engineer Scott Kelly waves to friends and family as he awaits to have his Russian Sokol Suit pressure checked at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Friday, Oct. 8, 2010. Backup crew member Ron Garan, left, looks on. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  7. Expedition 25 Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-07

    Expedition 25 NASA Flight Engineer Scott Kelly of the U.S., left, and Soyuz Commander Alexander Kaleri have their Russian Sokol suits prepared for launch by technicians at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, Friday, Oct. 8, 2010. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  8. Expedition 25 Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-07

    Expedition 25 Flight Engineer Oleg Skripochka awaits to have his Russian Sokol Suit pressure checked at the Baikonur Cosmodrome on Friday, Oct. 8, 2010 in Kazakhstan. Skripochka, Soyuz Commander Alexander Kaleri and NASA Flight Engineer Scott Kelly launched in their Soyuz TMA-01M at 5:10 a.m. Friday morning. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  9. Expedition 13 Preflight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-03-26

    Nikolai Zelenschikov, Deputy General Designer, RSA- Energia, listens to the Expedition 13 crew members talk about their final check of the Soyuz spacecraft at building 254 of the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Sunday, March 26, 2006. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Expedition 49 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-31

    The Soyuz simulator is seen as Expedition 49 NASA astronaut Shane Kimbrough, Russian cosmonauts Sergei Ryzhikov and Andrey Borisenko of Roscosmos, Wednesday, Aug. 31, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Expedition 31 Preflight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-23

    A Soyuz TMA spacecraft mockup is seen at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center, Monday, April 23, 2012 in Star City, Russia. Expedition 31 prime and backup crew members train in the Soyuz mockup in preparation for final flight to the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  12. Expedition 49 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-31

    The interior of the Soyuz simulator is seen as Expedition 49 NASA astronaut Shane Kimbrough, Russian cosmonauts Sergei Ryzhikov and Andrey Borisenko of Roscosmos take their Soyuz qualification exams, Wednesday, Aug. 31, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Expedition 31 Preflight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-23

    International Space Station mockup training modules are seen at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center, Monday, April 23, 2012 in Star City, Russia. Expedition 31 prime and backup crew members train in these moduls in preparation for final flight to the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  14. Expedition 19 Crew Training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-20

    Expedition 19 Commander Gennady I. Padalka, left, and Flight Engineer Michael R. Barratt listen to their mp3 players as a medical doctor looks on during the tilt table training at the Cosmonaut Hotel, Saturday, March 21, 2009 in Baikonur, Kazakhstan.(Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Expedition 37 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-11

    The inflatable medical tent is seen in a remote area outside the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, on Monday, Nov. 11, 2013. Expedition 37 Commander Fyodor Yurchikhin of Roscosmos, Flight Engineers Karen Nyberg of NASA and Luca Parmitano of Italy returned to earth after five and a half months on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  16. Expedition 22 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-20

    Expedition 22 Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov of Russia smiles for photographers after performing the traditional door signing at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan before departing with fellow crew members, NASA Flight Engineer Timothy J. Creamer of the U.S., and Flight Engineer Soichi Noguchi of Japan to suit up for their launch, Sunday, Dec. 20, 2009. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Expedition 22 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-20

    Expedition 22 Flight Engineer Soichi Noguchi of Japan smiles for photographers after performing the traditional door signing at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan before departing with fellow crew members, Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov of Russia, and NASA Flight Engineer Timothy J. Creamer of the U.S. to suit up for their launch, Sunday, Dec. 20, 2009. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Expedition 22 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-20

    Expedition 22 NASA Flight Engineer Timothy J. Creamer of the U.S. smiles for photographers after performing the traditional door signing at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan before departing with fellow crew members, Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov of Russia, and Flight Engineer Soichi Noguchi of Japan to suit up for their launch, Sunday, Dec. 20, 2009. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Expedition 10 Preflight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-07

    Flight Engineer and Soyuz Commander Salizhan Sharipov, foreground right, Expedition 10 Commander Leroy Chiao and Russian Space Forces cosmonaut Yuri Shargin, background right, enjoy lunch at their crew quarters in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Friday, October 8, 2004, as they prepare for liftoff to the International Space Station October 14. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Expedition 11 Preflight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-04-10

    The Expedition 11 crew and their backup crew enjoy lunch at the Cosmonaut hotel, Monday, April 11, 2005, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan several days prior to the April 15 launch to the International Space Station from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Expedition 10 Preflight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-07

    Expedition 10 Commander Leroy Chiao, right, Flight Engineer and Soyuz Commander Salizhan Sharipov and Russian Space Forces cosmonaut Yuri Shargin, left, enjoy lunch at their crew quarters in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Friday, October 8, 2004, as they prepare for liftoff to the International Space Station October 14. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Expedition 8 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-18

    Expedition 8 Commander and NASA Science Officer Michael Foale smiles for the camera during the short bus ride to the launch pad for liftoff in a Soyuz TMA-3 vehicle to the International Space Station, Saturday, Oct. 18, 2003, at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Expedition 27 Prelaunch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-06

    Expedition 27 NASA Flight Engineer Ron Garan, sitting right, smiles to friends and family while Soyuz Commander Alexander Samokutyaev checks his Russian Sokol Suit the morning of their launch on Tuesday, April 5, 2011 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  4. Expedition 7 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-28

    Edward T. Lu, Expedition 7 NASA International Space Station Science Officer and Flight Engineer, smiles while resting in a chair after landing in the Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft in Kazakhstan on Monday, October 27, 2003 at 9:41 p.m. (EST). Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Expedition 27 Prelaunch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-04

    Expedition 27 Russian Flight Engineer Andrey Borisenko, sitting far left, smiles as NASA Flight Engineer Ron Garan flashes the peace sign to friends and family as they await to have their Russian Sokol suits prepared for launch on April 5, 2011 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  6. Expedition 7 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-28

    Astronaut Edward T. Lu, Expedition 7 NASA International Space Station Science Officer and Flight Engineer, smiles while resting in a chair after landing in the Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft in Kazakhstan on Monday, October 27, 2003 at 9:41 p.m. (EST). Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Expedition 10 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-04-24

    Expedition 10 Commander Leroy Chiao rests in a Russian search and rescue helicopter after a pre-dawn landing in the Soyuz TMA-5 capsule with crew mates Flight Engineer Salizhan Sharipov and European Space Agency astronaut Roberto Vittori northeast of the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan, Monday, April 25, 2005. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Expedition 9 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-24

    A Russian nurse sits next to Expedition 9 Flight Engineer Michael Fincke, while he sleeps inside a Russian search and rescue helicopter on his way to Kustanay, Kazakhstan after landing in a Soyuz capsule 85 kilometers northeast of Arkalyk in northern Kazakhstan, Sunday, October 24, 2004. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Expedition 9 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-24

    Renita Fincke, left, watches her husband, NASA astronaut Michael Fincke and Expedition 9 Flight Engineer depart from the crew bus while holding her 4 month-old baby Tarali Fincke, Sunday, October 24, 2004 in Star City, Russia. Astronaut Terry Virts helps by holding Chandra Fincke. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Expedition 50 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-26

    Expedition 50 NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson, left, Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy of Roscosmos, center, and ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet pose for a group photograph at the conclusion of a press conference, Wednesday, Oct. 26, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Expedition 52 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-10

    A painting of Yuri Gagarin is seen in the lobby of the building where the Expedition 52 prime and backup crews held a crew press conference on the grounds of the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), Monday, July 10, 2017 in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Expedition 11 Preflight training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-06-24

    JSC2004-E-26778 (24 June 2004) --- Cosmonaut Sergei K. Krikalev, Expedition 11 commander representing Russia’s Federal Space Agency, participates in medical training at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Space Medicine Instructor Tyler N. Carruth with Wyle Life Sciences assisted Krikalev.

  13. Expedition 7 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-28

    The Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft carrying cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition 7 Mission Commander; astronaut Edward T. Lu, NASA International Space Station Science Officer and Flight Engineer; and European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain floats to a landing in Kazakhstan on Monday, October 27, 2003 at 9:41 p.m. (EST). Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Expedition 8 Launch Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-15

    Expedition 8 Soyuz Commander and Flight Engineer Alexander Kaleri and European Space Agency astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain are briefed on launch procedures from a Russian trainer at their crew quarters in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Wednesday, Oct. 15, 2003 as they prepare for launch Oct. 18 in a Soyuz TMA-3 vehicle to the International Space Station. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Expedition 8 Flag Raising

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-14

    Expedition 8 Commander and NASA Science Officer Michael Foale, left, and European Space Agency astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain participate in the traditional raising of the flags at the Cosmonaut Hotel, Tuesday, Oct. 14, 2003, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Expedition 7 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-28

    Astronaut Edward T. Lu, Expedition 7 NASA International Space Station Science Officer and Flight Engineer, left, enjoys some hot tea with NASA Flight Surgeon Dr. Thomas H. Marshburn, center, and a Russian Medical personnel onboard a Russian helicopter in Arqalyk, Kazakhstan, Monday, October 27, 2003. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Expedition 7 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-28

    Astronaut Edward T. Lu, Expedition 7 NASA International Space Station Science Officer and Flight Engineer, left and cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Mission Commander, are seated in their chairs after being extracted from the Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft upon their landing in Kazakhstan on Monday, October 27, 2003 at 9:41 p.m. (EST). Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Expedition 50 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-25

    Expedition 50 crew members ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet, left, Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy of Roscosmos, center, and NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson answer reporter's questions ahead of their final qualification exams, Tuesday, Oct. 25, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Expedition 50 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-25

    Expedition 50 NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson dons her Sokol suit ahead of her final qualification exams with fellow crew mates Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy of Roscosmos and ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet, Tuesday, Oct. 25, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Expedition 50 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-25

    A pair of Russian Sokol suit gloves are seen as Expedition 50 crew members ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet, NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson, and Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy of Roscosmos, prepare for their final qualification exams, Tuesday, Oct. 25, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)