Science.gov

Sample records for experience transportation research

  1. Transport Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Timothy M.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Boering, Kristie A.; Eckman, Richard S.; Lerner, Jean; Plumb, R. Alan; Rind, David H.; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Waugh, Darryn W.; Wei, Chu-Feng

    1999-01-01

    MM II defined a series of experiments to better understand and characterize model transport and to assess the realism of this transport by comparison to observations. Measurements from aircraft, balloon, and satellite, not yet available at the time of MM I [Prather and Remsberg, 1993], provide new and stringent constraints on model transport, and address the limits of our transport modeling abilities. Simulations of the idealized tracers the age spectrum, and propagating boundary conditions, and conserved HSCT-like emissions probe the relative roles of different model transport mechanisms, while simulations of SF6 and C02 make the connection to observations. Some of the tracers are related, and transport diagnostics such as the mean age can be derived from more than one of the experiments for comparison to observations. The goals of the transport experiments are: (1) To isolate the effects of transport in models from other processes; (2) To assess model transport for realistic tracers (such as SF6 and C02) for comparison to observations; (3) To use certain idealized tracers to isolate model mechanisms and relationships to atmospheric chemical perturbations; (4) To identify strengths and weaknesses of the treatment of transport processes in the models; (5) To relate evaluated shortcomings to aspects of model formulation. The following section are included:Executive Summary, Introduction, Age Spectrum, Observation, Tropical Transport in Models, Global Mean Age in Models, Source-Transport Covariance, HSCT "ANOY" Tracer Distributions, and Summary and Conclusions.

  2. Transport Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Timothy M.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Boering, Kristie A.; Eckman, Richard S.; Lerner, Jean; Plumb, R. Alan; Rind, David H.; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Waugh, Darryn W.; Wei, Chu-Feng

    1999-01-01

    MM II defined a series of experiments to better understand and characterize model transport and to assess the realism of this transport by comparison to observations. Measurements from aircraft, balloon, and satellite, not yet available at the time of MM I [Prather and Remsberg, 1993], provide new and stringent constraints on model transport, and address the limits of our transport modeling abilities. Simulations of the idealized tracers the age spectrum, and propagating boundary conditions, and conserved HSCT-like emissions probe the relative roles of different model transport mechanisms, while simulations of SF6 and C02 make the connection to observations. Some of the tracers are related, and transport diagnostics such as the mean age can be derived from more than one of the experiments for comparison to observations. The goals of the transport experiments are: (1) To isolate the effects of transport in models from other processes; (2) To assess model transport for realistic tracers (such as SF6 and C02) for comparison to observations; (3) To use certain idealized tracers to isolate model mechanisms and relationships to atmospheric chemical perturbations; (4) To identify strengths and weaknesses of the treatment of transport processes in the models; (5) To relate evaluated shortcomings to aspects of model formulation. The following section are included:Executive Summary, Introduction, Age Spectrum, Observation, Tropical Transport in Models, Global Mean Age in Models, Source-Transport Covariance, HSCT "ANOY" Tracer Distributions, and Summary and Conclusions.

  3. Development of a Dynamically Scaled Generic Transport Model Testbed for Flight Research Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Thomas; Langford, William; Belcastro, Christine; Foster, John; Shah, Gautam; Howland, Gregory; Kidd, Reggie

    2004-01-01

    This paper details the design and development of the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) test-bed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). The aircraft is a 5.5% dynamically scaled, remotely piloted, twin-turbine, swept wing, Generic Transport Model (GTM) which will be used to provide an experimental flight test capability for research experiments pertaining to dynamics modeling and control beyond the normal flight envelope. The unique design challenges arising from the dimensional, weight, dynamic (inertial), and actuator scaling requirements necessitated by the research community are described along with the specific telemetry and control issues associated with a remotely piloted subscale research aircraft. Development of the necessary operational infrastructure, including operational and safety procedures, test site identification, and research pilots is also discussed. The GTM is a unique vehicle that provides significant research capacity due to its scaling, data gathering, and control characteristics. By combining data from this testbed with full-scale flight and accident data, wind tunnel data, and simulation results, NASA will advance and validate control upset prevention and recovery technologies for transport aircraft, thereby reducing vehicle loss-of-control accidents resulting from adverse and upset conditions.

  4. Commercial Experiment Transporter: COMET

    SciTech Connect

    Wessling, F.C.; Robinson, M.; Martinez, R.S.; Gallimore, T.; Combs, N.

    1994-09-01

    A launch system consisting of ground-support equipment, a four-stage rocket, a service module, a recovery system and a recovery site, and an orbital operations center is being assembled. The system is designed to launch 818 kg (1800 lb) to a 552-km (300-n.mi.) low earth orbit at a 40-deg inclination. Experiment space exists in both the service module and the recovery system. The service module provides space for 68 kg (150 lb) of experiments plus telemetry services, attitude control, and power and uses no consumables to maintain attitude. Consequently, the service module can maintain orbit attitude for years. Power of 400 W is supplied by solar cells and batteries for both experiment operation and housekeeping. The recovery system houses an experiment carrier for 136 kg (300 lb) of experiments, a retro rocket, a heat shield, and a parachute. An orbital operations control center provides tracking, telemetry, and commanding for the satellite. The payloads are also briefly described. The first launch was scheduled for 1995.

  5. Tungsten impurity transport experiments in Alcator C-Mod to address high priority research and development for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Loarte, A.; Polevoi, A. R.; Hosokawa, M.; Reinke, M. L.; Chilenski, M.; Howard, N.; Hubbard, A.; Hughes, J. W.; Rice, J. E.; Walk, J.; Köchl, F.; Pütterich, T.; Dux, R.; Zhogolev, V. E.

    2015-05-15

    Experiments in Alcator C-Mod tokamak plasmas in the Enhanced D-alpha H-mode regime with ITER-like mid-radius plasma density peaking and Ion Cyclotron Resonant heating, in which tungsten is introduced by the laser blow-off technique, have demonstrated that accumulation of tungsten in the central region of the plasma does not take place in these conditions. The measurements obtained are consistent with anomalous transport dominating tungsten transport except in the central region of the plasma where tungsten transport is neoclassical, as previously observed in other devices with dominant neutral beam injection heating, such as JET and ASDEX Upgrade. In contrast to such results, however, the measured scale lengths for plasma temperature and density in the central region of these Alcator C-Mod plasmas, with density profiles relatively flat in the core region due to the lack of core fuelling, are favourable to prevent inter and intra sawtooth tungsten accumulation in this region under dominance of neoclassical transport. Simulations of ITER H-mode plasmas, including both anomalous (modelled by the Gyro-Landau-Fluid code GLF23) and neoclassical transport for main ions and tungsten and with density profiles of similar peaking to those obtained in Alcator C-Mod show that accumulation of tungsten in the central plasma region is also unlikely to occur in stationary ITER H-mode plasmas due to the low fuelling source by the neutral beam injection (injection energy ∼ 1 MeV), which is in good agreement with findings in the Alcator C-Mod experiments.

  6. Integration and use of Microgravity Research Facility: Lessons learned by the crystals by vapor transport experiment and Space Experiments Facility programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heizer, Barbara L.

    1992-01-01

    The Crystals by Vapor Transport Experiment (CVTE) and Space Experiments Facility (SEF) are materials processing facilities designed and built for use on the Space Shuttle mid deck. The CVTE was built as a commercial facility owned by the Boeing Company. The SEF was built under contract to the UAH Center for Commercial Development of Space (CCDS). Both facilities include up to three furnaces capable of reaching 850 C minimum, stand-alone electronics and software, and independent cooling control. In addition, the CVTE includes a dedicated stowage locker for cameras, a laptop computer, and other ancillary equipment. Both systems are designed to fly in a Middeck Accommodations Rack (MAR), though the SEF is currently being integrated into a Spacehab rack. The CVTE hardware includes two transparent furnaces capable of achieving temperatures in the 850 to 870 C range. The transparent feature allows scientists/astronauts to directly observe and affect crystal growth both on the ground and in space. Cameras mounted to the rack provide photodocumentation of the crystal growth. The basic design of the furnace allows for modification to accommodate techniques other than vapor crystal growth. Early in the CVTE program, the decision was made to assign a principal scientist to develop the experiment plan, affect the hardware/software design, run the ground and flight research effort, and interface with the scientific community. The principal scientist is responsible to the program manager and is a critical member of the engineering development team. As a result of this decision, the hardware/experiment requirements were established in such a way as to balance the engineering and science demands on the equipment. Program schedules for hardware development, experiment definition and material selection, flight operations development and crew training, both ground support and astronauts, were all planned and carried out with the understanding that the success of the program science

  7. Ridesharing and transportation for the disadvantaged. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    Lauritzen, T.; McKelvey, F.X.; Lyles, R.W.; Lighthizer, D.R.; Hardy, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    The 11 papers in the report deal with the following areas: a 1-year review of performance measures for the Chicago transit authority's special services contracted service for the elderly and handicapped; evaluation of a demonstration small bus program for the elderly and handicapped; travel mode choice behavior and physical barrier constraints among the elderly and handicapped: an examination of travel-mode preferences; the role of private enterprise in elderly and handicapped transportation in Canada; special transportation-service in Sweden--involvement of private operators; role of the private sector in the delivery of transportation services to the elderly and handicapped in the United States; suburban activity center transportation demand management market research study; commuting behavior of Hawaii state workers in Honolulu: implications for transportation system management strategies; mobility and specialized transportation for elderly and for disabled persons: a view from four selected countries; an inventory of twelve paratransit service delivery experiences; integrating social-service client transportation and special needs transportation systems: the Portland experience.

  8. Transport experiments with Dirac electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Checkelsky, Joseph George

    This thesis presents transport experiments performed on solid state systems in which the behavior of the charge carriers can be described by the Dirac equation. Unlike the massive carriers in a typical material, in these systems the carriers behave like massless fermions with a photon-like dispersion predicted to greatly modify their spin and charge transport properties. The first system studied is graphene, a crystalline monolayer of carbon arranged in a hexagonal lattice. The band structure calculated from the hexagonal lattice has the form of the massless Dirac Hamiltonian. At the charge neutral Dirac point, we find that application of a magnetic field drives a transition to an insulating state. We also study the thermoelectric properties of graphene and find that the states near the Dirac point have a unique response compared to those at higher charge density. The second system is the 3D topological insulator Bi2Se3, where a Dirac-like dispersion for states on the 2D surface of the insulating 3D crystal arises as a result of the topology of the 3D bands and time reversal symmetry. To access the transport properties of the 2D states, we suppress the remnant bulk conduction channel by chemical doping and electrostatic gating. In bulk crystals we find strong quantum corrections to transport at low temperature when the bulk conduction channel is maximally suppressed. In microscopic crystals we are able better to isolate the surface conduction channel properties. We identify in-gap conducting states that have relatively high mobility compared to the bulk and exhibit weak anti-localization, consistent with predictions for protected 2D surface states with strong spin-orbit coupling.

  9. Experiences of Collaborative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahneman, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    The author's personal history of the research that led to his recognition in economics is described, focusing on the process of collaboration and on the experience of controversy. The author's collaboration with Amos Tversky dealt with 3 major topics: judgment under uncertainty, decision making, and framing effects. A subsequent collaboration,…

  10. Experiences of Collaborative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahneman, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    The author's personal history of the research that led to his recognition in economics is described, focusing on the process of collaboration and on the experience of controversy. The author's collaboration with Amos Tversky dealt with 3 major topics: judgment under uncertainty, decision making, and framing effects. A subsequent collaboration,…

  11. Research by retrieving experiments.

    PubMed

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2007-06-01

    Newton did not discover that apples fall: the information was available prior to his gravitational hypothesis. Hypotheses can be tested not only by performing experiments but also by retrieving experiments from the literature (via PubMed, for example). Here I show how disconnected facts from known data, if properly connected, can generate novel predictions testable in turn by other published data. With examples from cell cycle, aging, cancer and other fields of biology and medicine, I discuss how new knowledge was and will be derived from old information. Millions of experiments have been already performed to test unrelated hypotheses and the results of those experiments are available to 'test' your hypotheses too. But most data (99% by some estimates) remain unpublished, because they were negative, seemed of low priority, or did not fit the story. Yet for other investigators those data may be valuable. The well-known story of Franklin and Watson is a case in point. By making preliminary data widely available, 'data-owners' will benefit most, receiving the credit for otherwise unused results. If posted (pre-published) on searchable databases, these data may fuel thousands of projects without the need for repetitive experiments. Enormous 'pre-published' databases coupled with Google-like search engines can change the structure of scientific research, and shrinking funding will make this inevitable.

  12. Electrical Transport Experiments at High Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, S

    2009-02-11

    High-pressure electrical measurements have a long history of use in the study of materials under ultra-high pressures. In recent years, electrical transport experiments have played a key role in the study of many interesting high pressure phenomena including pressure-induced superconductivity, insulator-to-metal transitions, and quantum critical behavior. High-pressure electrical transport experiments also play an important function in geophysics and the study of the Earth's interior. Besides electrical conductivity measurements, electrical transport experiments also encompass techniques for the study of the optoelectronic and thermoelectric properties of materials under high pressures. In addition, electrical transport techniques, i.e., the ability to extend electrically conductive wires from outside instrumentation into the high pressure sample chamber have been utilized to perform other types of experiments as well, such as high-pressure magnetic susceptibility and de Haas-van Alphen Fermi surface experiments. Finally, electrical transport techniques have also been utilized for delivering significant amounts of electrical power to high pressure samples, for the purpose of performing high-pressure and -temperature experiments. Thus, not only do high-pressure electrical transport experiments provide much interesting and valuable data on the physical properties of materials extreme compression, but the underlying high-pressure electrical transport techniques can be used in a number of ways to develop additional diagnostic techniques and to advance high pressure capabilities.

  13. Transport Experiments on Topological Insulators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-16

    compounds that may exhibit Weyl physics and the chiral anomaly. In a different direction, Murakami has proposed that Weyl nodes always appear when the...been extended to the composition x(Sn) = 0.5. A major motivation for these experiments is a recent theory by Murakami et al. who predict that all...significantly the range of compounds that may exhibit Weyl physics and the chiral anomaly. In a different direction, Murakami has proposed that Weyl nodes

  14. Air medical transportation in India: Our experience

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Himanshu; Mehta, Yatin; Dubey, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Long distance air travel for medical needs is on the increase worldwide. The condition of some patients necessitates specially modified aircraft, and monitoring and interventions during transport by trained medical personnel. This article presents our experience in domestic and international interhospital air medical transportation from January 2010 to January 2014. Material and Methods: Hospital records of all air medical transportation undertaken to the institute during the period were analyzed for demographics, primary etiology, and events during transport. Results: 586 patients, 453 (77.3%) males and 133 (22.6%) females of ages 46.7 ± 12.6 years and 53.4 ± 9.7 years were transported by us to the institute. It took 3030 flying hours with an average of 474 ± 72 min for each mission. The most common indication for transport was cardiovascular diseases in 210 (35.8%) and central nervous system disease in 120 (20.4%) cases. The overall complication rate was 5.3% There was no transport related mortality. Conclusion: Cardiac and central nervous system ailments are the most common indication for air medical transportation. These patients may need attention and interventions as any critical patient in the hospital but in a difficult environment lacking space and help. Air medical transport carries no more risk than ground transportation. PMID:27625486

  15. Bacterial Transport Experiments in Fractured Crystalline Bedrock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, M.W.; Metge, D.W.; Collins, S.A.; Shapiro, A.M.; Harvey, R.W.

    2003-01-01

    The efficiency of contaminant biodegradation in ground water depends, in part, on the transport properties of the degrading bacteria. Few data exist concerning the transport of bacteria in saturated bedrock, particularly at the field scale. Bacteria and microsphere tracer experiments were conducted in a fractured crystalline bedrock under forced-gradient conditions over a distance of 36 m. Bacteria isolated from the local ground water were chosen on the basis of physicochemical and physiological differences (shape, cell-wall type, motility), and were differentially stained so that their transport behavior could be compared. No two bacterial strains transported in an identical manner, and microspheres produced distinctly different breakthrough curves than bacteria. Although there was insufficient control in this field experiment to completely separate the effects of bacteria shape, reaction to Gram staining, cell size, and motility on transport efficiency, it was observed that (1) the nonmotile, mutant strain exhibited better fractional recovery than the motile parent strain; (2) Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria exhibited higher fractional recovery relative to the Gram-positive rod-shaped strain of similar size; and (3) coccoidal (spherical-shaped) bacteria transported better than all but one strain of the rod-shaped bacteria. The field experiment must be interpreted in the context of the specific bacterial strains and ground water environment in which they were conducted, but experimental results suggest that minor differences in the physical properties of bacteria can lead to major differences in transport behavior at the field scale.

  16. Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1999-01-01

    The Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) is a fluids experiment supported by the Fundamentals in Biotechnology program in association with the Human Exploration and Development of Space (BEDS) initiative. The MTP Experiment will investigate fluid transport phenomena both in ground based experiments and in the microgravity environment. Many fluid transport processes are affected by gravity. Osmotic flux kinetics in planar membrane systems have been shown to be influenced by gravimetric orientation, either through convective mixing caused by unstably stratified fluid layers, or through a stable fluid boundary layer structure that forms in association with the membrane. Coupled transport phenomena also show gravity related effects. Coefficients associated with coupled transport processes are defined in terms of a steady state condition. Buoyancy (gravity) driven convection interferes with the attainment of steady state, and the measurement of coupled processes. The MTP Experiment measures the kinetics of molecular migration that occurs in fluids, in response to the application of various driving potentials. Three separate driving potentials may be applied to the MTP Experiment fluids, either singly or in combination. The driving potentials include chemical potential, thermal potential, and electrical potential. Two separate fluid arrangements are used to study membrane mediated and bulk fluid transport phenomena. Transport processes of interest in membrane mediated systems include diffusion, osmosis, and streaming potential. Bulk fluid processes of interest include coupled phenomena such as the Soret Effect, Dufour Effect, Donnan Effect, and thermal diffusion potential. MTP Experiments are performed in the Microgravity Transport Apparatus (MTA), an instrument that has been developed specifically for precision measurement of transport processes. Experiment fluids are contained within the MTA fluid cells, designed to create a one dimensional flow geometry

  17. Program plan and summary, remote fluvial experimental (REFLEX) series: Research experiments using advanced remote sensing technologies with emphasis on hydrologic transport, and hydrologic-ecologic interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wobber, F.J.

    1986-10-01

    This document describes research designed to evaluate advanced remote sensing technologies for environmental research. A series of Remote Fluvial Experiments (REFLEX) - stressing new applications of remote sensing systems and use of advanced digital analysis methods - are described. Program strategy, experiments, research areas, and future initiatives are summarized. The goals of REFLEX are: (1) to apply new and developing aerial and satellite remote sensing technologies - including both advanced sensor systems and digital/optical processing - for interdisciplinary scientific experiments in hydrology and to hydrologic/ecologic interactions; (2) to develop new concepts for processing and analyzing remote sensing data for general scientific application; and (3) to demonstrate innovative analytical technologies that advance the state of the art in applying information from remote sensing systems, for example, supercomputer processing and analysis.

  18. DHS Research Experience Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatachalam, V

    2008-10-24

    I learned a great deal during my summer internship at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). I plan to continue a career in research, and I feel that my experience at LLNL has been formative. I was exposed to a new area of research, as part of the Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (SPAMS) group, and I had the opportunity to work on projects that I would not have been able to work on anywhere else. The projects both involved the use of a novel mass spectrometer that was developed at LLNL, so I would not have been able to do this research at any other facility. The first project that Zachary and I worked on involved using SPAMS to detect pesticides. The ability to rapidly detect pesticides in a variety of matrices is applicable to many fields including public health, homeland security, and environmental protection. Real-time, or near real-time, detection of potentially harmful or toxic chemical agents can offer significant advantages in the protection of public health from accidental or intentional releases of harmful pesticides, and can help to monitor the environmental effects of controlled releases of pesticides for pest control purposes. The use of organophosphate neurotoxins by terrorists is a possibility that has been described; this is a legitimate threat, considering the ease of access, toxicity, and relatively low cost of these substances. Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (SPAMS) has successfully been used to identify a wide array of chemical compounds, including drugs, high explosives, biological materials, and chemical warfare agent simulants. Much of this groundbreaking work was carried out by our group at LLNL. In our work, we had the chance to show that SPAMS fulfills a demonstrated need for a method of carrying out real-time pesticide detection with minimal sample preparation. We did this by using a single particle aerosol mass spectrometer to obtain spectra of five different pesticides. Pesticide samples were chosen to

  19. Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1999-01-01

    The Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) is a fluids experiment supported by the Fundamentals in Biotechnology program in association with the Human Exploration and Development of Space (BEDS) initiative. The MTP Experiment will investigate fluid transport phenomena both in ground based experiments and in the microgravity environment. Many fluid transport processes are affected by gravity. Osmotic flux kinetics in planar membrane systems have been shown to be influenced by gravimetric orientation, either through convective mixing caused by unstably stratified fluid layers, or through a stable fluid boundary layer structure that forms in association with the membrane. Coupled transport phenomena also show gravity related effects. Coefficients associated with coupled transport processes are defined in terms of a steady state condition. Buoyancy (gravity) driven convection interferes with the attainment of steady state, and the measurement of coupled processes. The MTP Experiment measures the kinetics of molecular migration that occurs in fluids, in response to the application of various driving potentials. Three separate driving potentials may be applied to the MTP Experiment fluids, either singly or in combination. The driving potentials include chemical potential, thermal potential, and electrical potential. Two separate fluid arrangements are used to study membrane mediated and bulk fluid transport phenomena. Transport processes of interest in membrane mediated systems include diffusion, osmosis, and streaming potential. Bulk fluid processes of interest include coupled phenomena such as the Soret Effect, Dufour Effect, Donnan Effect, and thermal diffusion potential. MTP Experiments are performed in the Microgravity Transport Apparatus (MTA), an instrument that has been developed specifically for precision measurement of transport processes. Experiment fluids are contained within the MTA fluid cells, designed to create a one dimensional flow geometry

  20. Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1999-01-01

    The Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) is a fluids experiment supported by the Fundamentals in Biotechnology program in association with the Human Exploration and Development of Space (BEDS) initiative. The MTP Experiment will investigate fluid transport phenomena both in ground based experiments and in the microgravity environment. Many fluid transport processes are affected by gravity. Osmotic flux kinetics in planar membrane systems have been shown to be influenced by gravimetric orientation, either through convective mixing caused by unstably stratified fluid layers, or through a stable fluid boundary layer structure that forms in association with the membrane. Coupled transport phenomena also show gravity related effects. Coefficients associated with coupled transport processes are defined in terms of a steady state condition. Buoyancy (gravity) driven convection interferes with the attainment of steady state, and the measurement of coupled processes. The MTP Experiment measures the kinetics of molecular migration that occurs in fluids, in response to the application of various driving potentials. Three separate driving potentials may be applied to the MTP Experiment fluids, either singly or in combination. The driving potentials include chemical potential, thermal potential, and electrical potential. Two separate fluid arrangements are used to study membrane mediated and bulk fluid transport phenomena. Transport processes of interest in membrane mediated systems include diffusion, osmosis, and streaming potential. Bulk fluid processes of interest include coupled phenomena such as the Soret Effect, Dufour Effect, Donnan Effect, and thermal diffusion potential. MTP Experiments are performed in the Microgravity Transport Apparatus (MTA), an instrument that has been developed specifically for precision measurement of transport processes. Experiment fluids are contained within the MTA fluid cells, designed to create a one dimensional flow geometry

  1. Research Experiences for Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rettig, Terrence W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are six programs at different colleges and universities which provide research opportunities for undergraduate students in physics, astronomy, marine biology, meteorology, and anthropology. Background, features, and accomplishments of the programs are discussed. (CW)

  2. Research Experiences for Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rettig, Terrence W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are six programs at different colleges and universities which provide research opportunities for undergraduate students in physics, astronomy, marine biology, meteorology, and anthropology. Background, features, and accomplishments of the programs are discussed. (CW)

  3. Intervention research: GAO experiences.

    PubMed

    Grasso, P G

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes tools of program evaluation that may prove useful in conducting research on occupational health and safety interventions. It presents examples of three studies conducted by the U.S. General Accounting Office that illustrate a variety of techniques for collecting and analyzing data on program interventions, including analysis of extant data, synthesis of results of existing studies, and combining data from administrative files with survey results. At the same time, it stresses the importance and difficulty of constructing an adequate "theory" of how the intervention is expected to affect outcomes, both for guiding data collection and for allowing adequate interpretation of results.

  4. Design of a proof of principle high current transport experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, S.M.; Bangerter, R.O.; Barnard, J.J.; Celata, C.M.; Faltens, A.; Friedman, A.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Seidl, P.A.

    2000-01-15

    Preliminary designs of an intense heavy-ion beam transport experiment to test issues for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) are presented. This transport channel will represent a single high current density beam at full driver scale and will evaluate practical issues such as aperture filling factors, electrons, halo, imperfect vacuum, etc., that cannot be fully tested using scaled experiments. Various machine configurations are evaluated in the context of the range of physics and technology issues that can be explored in a manner relevant to a full scale driver. it is anticipated that results from this experiment will allow confident construction of next generation ''Integrated Research Experiments'' leading to a full scale driver for energy production.

  5. Nevada commercial spent nuclear fuel transportation experience

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to present an historic overview of commercial reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) shipments that have occurred in the state of Nevada, and to review the accident and incident experience for this type of shipments. Results show that between 1964 and 1990, 309 truck shipments covering approximately 40,000 miles moved through Nevada; this level of activity places Nevada tenth among the states in the number of truck shipments of SNF. For the same period, 15 rail shipments moving through the State covered approximately 6,500 miles, making Nevada 20th among the states in terms of number of rail shipments. None of these shipments had an accident or an incident associated with them. Because the data for Nevada are so limited, national data on SNF transportation and the safety of truck and rail transportation in general were also assessed.

  6. Airborne Research Experience for Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, V. B.; Albertson, R.; Smith, S.; Stockman, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Airborne Research Experience for Educators (AREE) Program, conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Office of Education in partnership with the AERO Institute, NASA Teaching From Space Program, and California State University Fullerton, is a complete end-to-end residential research experience in airborne remote sensing and atmospheric science. The 2009 program engaged ten secondary educators who specialize in science, technology, engineering or mathematics in a 6-week Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) offered through NSERC. Educators participated in collection of in-flight remote sensor data during flights aboard the NASA DC-8 as well as in-situ research on atmospheric chemistry (bovine emissions of methane); algal blooms (remote sensing to determine location and degree of blooms for further in-situ analysis); and crop classification (exploration of how drought conditions in Central California have impacted almond and cotton crops). AREE represents a unique model of the STEM teacher-as-researcher professional development experience because it asks educators to participate in a research experience and then translate their experiences into classroom practice through the design, implementation, and evaluation of instructional materials that emphasize the scientific research process, inquiry-based investigations, and manipulation of real data. Each AREE Master Educator drafted a Curriculum Brief, Teachers Guide, and accompanying resources for a topic in their teaching assignment Currently, most professional development programs offer either a research experience OR a curriculum development experience. The dual nature of the AREE model engaged educators in both experiences. Educators’ content and pedagogical knowledge of STEM was increased through the review of pertinent research articles during the first week, attendance at lectures and workshops during the second week, and participation in the airborne and in-situ research studies, data

  7. Transition research using flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reshotko, Eli

    1990-01-01

    The paper deals with flight experiments as a means of obtaining proper transition information in an uncontaminated environment. Flight transition experiments performed in the early to middle 1950s using rocket-propelled vehicles are outlined. It is noted that the standards for research quality experiments on stability and transition are no different for flight studies than for wind-tunnel experiments. The guidelines formulated by the U.S. Boundary Layer Transition Study Group are listed. Attention is focused on the relationship between the model design and the measurement of disturbance environment, the maintenance and monitoring of test and model-surface conditions, and a need for high data-sampling rates.

  8. Developing Effective Undergraduate Research Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Michael; Ilie, Carolina C.

    2011-03-01

    Undergraduate research is a valuable educational tool for students pursuing a degree in physics, but these experiences can become problematic and ineffective if not handled properly. Undergraduate research should be planned as an immersive learning experience in which the student has the opportunity to develop his/her skills in accordance with their interests. Effective undergraduate research experiences are marked by clear, measurable objectives and frequent student-professor collaboration. These objectives should reflect the long and short-term goals of the individual undergraduates, with a heightened focus on developing research skills for future use. 1. Seymour, E., Hunter, A.-B., Laursen, S. L. and DeAntoni, T. (2004), ``Establishing the benefits of research experiences for undergraduates in the sciences: First findings from a three-year study''. Science Education, 88: 493--534. 2. Behar-Horenstein, Linda S., Johnson, Melissa L. ``Enticing Students to Enter Into Undergraduate Research: The Instrumentality of an Undergraduate Course.'' Journal of College Science Teaching 39.3 (2010): 62-70.

  9. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    Air transportation research being carried on at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Princeton University, and Ohio University is discussed. Global Positioning System experiments, Loran-C monitoring, inertial navigation, the optimization of aircraft trajectories through severe microbursts, fault tolerant flight control systems, and expert systems for air traffic control are among the topics covered.

  10. Aeolian snow transport from wind tunnel experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterna, E.; Crivelli, P.; Lehning, M.

    2016-12-01

    Aeolian snow transport has a significant impact on snow redistribution in mountains, prairies as well as on glaciers, ice shelves, and sea ice. In all these environments, the local mass balance is highly influenced by Aeolian snow transport. The dynamics of snow saltation has a high impact on the land surface processes shaping these regions. More specifically, the observed high intermittency of saltation fluxes poses a problem for saltation models and needs to be better understood. We therefore aimed at unveiling the mechanisms underlying snow saltation at different saltation strengths and its coupling with the turbulent fluctuations of the wind. We conducted wind tunnel measurements of the momentum and mass-fluxes during snow saltation. For the mass-flux measurements we employed a shadowgraphy system which acquires images of the snow particle's shadows at high spatial and temporal resolution. The size and displacement of the particles are then determined by means of image analysis and Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV), allowing to estimate both snow mass-flux and flow velocity. Our controlled wind tunnel experiments revealed the existence of two regimes of saltation. In a turbulence-dependent regime occurring during weak saltation activity, we observed a strong coupling between snow transport and turbulent flow. Conversely during stronger saltation activity a turbulence-independent regime emerges, where the saltation develops its own length scale and it efficiently decouples from the wind fluctuations. We argue that different entrainment mechanisms could explain the existence of the two different saltation regimes as well as the observed high level of mass-flux intermittency.

  11. Transport Experiments on 2D Correlated Electron Physics in Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Tsui, Daniel

    2014-03-24

    This research project was designed to investigate experimentally the transport properties of the 2D electrons in Si and GaAs, two prototype semiconductors, in several new physical regimes that were previously inaccessible to experiments. The research focused on the strongly correlated electron physics in the dilute density limit, where the electron potential energy to kinetic energy ratio rs>>1, and on the fractional quantum Hall effect related physics in nuclear demagnetization refrigerator temperature range on samples with new levels of purity and controlled random disorder.

  12. The psychiatry resident research experience.

    PubMed

    MacMaster, Frank P; Cohen, Jordan; Waheed, Waqar; Magaud, Emilie; Sembo, Mariko; Langevin, Lisa Marie; Rittenbach, Katherine

    2016-11-14

    Research activity is especially critical in the field of psychiatry as it is evolving rapidly thanks to advances in neuroscience. We administered a 34-item survey regarding research experiences targeted at psychiatry residents and postgraduate residency program directors in Canada. One hundred and nineteen participants answered the survey (16 program directors, 103 residents) allowing for a margin of error of 8.4% at a 95% confidence interval. Research was rated as important in informing clinical practice (87.0% yes, 13.0% no), but only 28.7% of respondents reported that it was taught well at their home institution (33.0% no, 38.3% neutral). Only a small proportion was enthusiastic or very enthusiastic about participating in research (21.7%). While the importance of research is recognized, there is little consensus with respect to whether a standardized research practicum component is included in the resident curriculum.

  13. Experiment Definition Using the Space Laboratory, Long Duration Exposure Facility, and Space Transportation System Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheppard, Albert P.; Wood, Joan M.

    1976-01-01

    Candidate experiments designed for the space shuttle transportation system and the long duration exposure facility are summarized. The data format covers: experiment title, Experimenter, technical abstract, benefits/justification, technical discussion of experiment approach and objectives, related work and experience, experiment facts space properties used, environmental constraints, shielding requirements, if any, physical description, and sketch of major elements. Information was also included on experiment hardware, research required to develop experiment, special requirements, cost estimate, safety considerations, and interactions with spacecraft and other experiments.

  14. Designing Effective Undergraduate Research Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severson, S.

    2010-12-01

    I present a model for designing student research internships that is informed by the best practices of the Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO) Professional Development Program. The dual strands of the CfAO education program include: the preparation of early-career scientists and engineers in effective teaching; and changing the learning experiences of students (e.g., undergraduate interns) through inquiry-based "teaching laboratories." This paper will focus on the carry-over of these ideas into the design of laboratory research internships such as the CfAO Mainland internship program as well as NSF REU (Research Experiences for Undergraduates) and senior-thesis or "capstone" research programs. Key ideas in maximizing student learning outcomes and generating productive research during internships include: defining explicit content, scientific process, and attitudinal goals for the project; assessment of student prior knowledge and experience, then following up with formative assessment throughout the project; setting reasonable goals with timetables and addressing motivation; and giving students ownership of the research by implementing aspects of the inquiry process within the internship.

  15. Conceptual design of Dipole Research Experiment (DREX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qingmei, XIAO; Zhibin, WANG; Xiaogang, WANG; Chijie, XIAO; Xiaoyi, YANG; Jinxing, ZHENG

    2017-03-01

    A new terrella-like device for laboratory simulation of inner magnetosphere plasmas, Dipole Research Experiment, is scheduled to be built at the Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT), China, as a major state scientific research facility for space physics studies. It is designed to provide a ground experimental platform to reproduce the inner magnetosphere to simulate the processes of trapping, acceleration, and transport of energetic charged particles restrained in a dipole magnetic field configuration. The scaling relation of hydromagnetism between the laboratory plasma of the device and the geomagnetosphere plasma is applied to resemble geospace processes in the Dipole Research Experiment plasma. Multiple plasma sources, different kinds of coils with specific functions, and advanced diagnostics are designed to be equipped in the facility for multi-functions. The motivation, design criteria for the Dipole Research Experiment experiments and the means applied to generate the plasma of desired parameters in the laboratory are also described. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11505040, 11261140326 and 11405038), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Nos. 2016M591518, 2015M570283) and Project Supported by Natural Scientific Research Innovation Foundation in Harbin Institute of Technology (No. 2017008).

  16. Conceptual design of Dipole Research Experiment (DREX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Qingmei; Wang, Zhibin; Wang, Xiaogang; Xiao, Chijie; Yang, Xiaoyi; Zheng, Jinxing

    2017-03-01

    A new terrella-like device for laboratory simulation of inner magnetosphere plasmas, Dipole Research Experiment, is scheduled to be built at the Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT), China, as a major state scientific research facility for space physics studies. It is designed to provide a ground experimental platform to reproduce the inner magnetosphere to simulate the processes of trapping, acceleration, and transport of energetic charged particles restrained in a dipole magnetic field configuration. The scaling relation of hydromagnetism between the laboratory plasma of the device and the geomagnetosphere plasma is applied to resemble geospace processes in the Dipole Research Experiment plasma. Multiple plasma sources, different kinds of coils with specific functions, and advanced diagnostics are designed to be equipped in the facility for multi-functions. The motivation, design criteria for the Dipole Research Experiment experiments and the means applied to generate the plasma of desired parameters in the laboratory are also described. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11505040, 11261140326 and 11405038), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Nos. 2016M591518, 2015M570283) and Project Supported by Natural Scientific Research Innovation Foundation in Harbin Institute of Technology (No. 2017008).

  17. Cryogenics Research and Engineering Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toro Medina, Jaime A.

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficient storage, transfer and use of cryogens and cryogenic propellants on Earth and in space have a direct impact on NASA, government and commercial programs. Research and development on thermal insulation, propellant servicing, cryogenic components, material properties and sensing technologies provides industry, government and research institutions with the cross-cutting technologies to manage low-temperature applications. Under the direction of the Cryogenic Testing Lab at Kennedy Space Center, the work experience acquired allowed me to perform research, testing, design and analysis of current and future cryogenic technologies to be applied in several projects.

  18. International aircraft ECMO transportation: first French pediatric experience.

    PubMed

    Rambaud, Jerome; Léger, Pierre L; Porlier, Ludovic; Larroquet, Michelle; Raffin, Herve; Pierron, Charlotte; Walti, Herve; Carbajal, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    Refractory severe hemodynamic or respiratory failure may require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Since some patients are too sick to be transported safely to a referral ECMO center on conventional transportation, mobile ECMO transport teams have been developed. The experiences of some ECMO transport teams have already been reported, including air and international transport. We report the first French pediatric international ECMO transport by aircraft. This case shows that a long distance intervention of the pediatric ECMO transport team is feasible, even in an international setting. Long distance ECMO transportations are widely carried out for adults, but remain rare in neonates and children.

  19. Evaluation of Bed Load Transport Formulas Using Flume Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cashman, E. M.; Smith, B.; Sorenson, C.; Gayheart, J.

    2002-12-01

    The ability to model sediment transport is a critical assessment tool for forest management of water quality, endangered fisheries and downstream communities. The analysis of sediment transport is especially relevant on the North Coast of California. The economy of the region is heavily dependent upon the production of wood products and the extensive ownership and activity of forest product companies has led to substantial controversy over the effects of forest management on other resources. In this research, an experimental flume has been used to evaluate bed load transport formulas based on sediment size distributions appropriate to Coastal watersheds in Northern California. The intended outcome of this research project is to verify the total sediment transport equation used in mathematical modeling of sediments in this particular model (KINEROS2) to ensure that the most appropriate equation is being used for modeling sediment load in the North Coast Region. This analysis is critical to improve the physical and numerical models of sediment transport and extend this type of analysis to other Northern California watersheds. The flume experiments are being conducted in a research quality sediment transport flume at the College of Natural Resources and Sciences at Humboldt State University. The open channel flow laboratory flume is capable of simulation of open channel flows, sediment transport, flow through floodplains and unsteady flow over in-stream structures such as sediment traps and weirs. The flume is 40 feet long and 2.5 feet wide, with two-foot high sidewalls. There is a storage tank for water that runs under the flume, and water is recirculated through the tank and down the flume by several pumps. A headworks tank with baffling allows the water to enter at the top of the flume. At maximum output the flow is approximately 550 gpm and about 6 inches high. The slope on the flume can be adjusted from 0 to 6%. Instrumentation on the flume includes flow meters

  20. Transport systems research vehicle color display system operations manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easley, Wesley C.; Johnson, Larry E.

    1989-01-01

    A recent upgrade of the Transport Systems Research Vehicle operated by the Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program Office at the NASA Langley Research Center has resulted in an all-glass panel in the research flight deck. Eight ARINC-D size CRT color displays make up the panel. A major goal of the display upgrade effort was ease of operation and maintenance of the hardware while maintaining versatility needed for flight research. Software is the key to this required versatility and will be the area demanding the most detailed technical design expertise. This document is is intended to serve as a single source of quick reference information needed for routine operation and system level maintenance. Detailed maintenance and modification of the display system will require specific design documentation and must be accomplished by individuals with specialized knowledge and experience.

  1. The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, R. C.; Hendrix, M. K.; Fox, J. C.; Thomas, D. J.; Nicholson, J.

    1986-01-01

    The hardware and software of NASA's proposed Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) are described. The OARE is to provide aerodynamic acceleration measurements along the Orbiter's principal axis in the free-molecular flow-flight regime at orbital attitude and in the transition regime during reentry. Models considering the effects of electromagnetic effects, solar radiation pressure, orbiter mass attraction, gravity gradient, orbital centripetal acceleration, out-of-orbital-plane effects, orbiter angular velocity, structural noise, mass expulsion signal sources, crew motion, and bias on acceleration are examined. The experiment contains an electrostatically balanced cylindrical proofmass accelerometer sensor with three orthogonal sensing axis outputs. The components and functions of the experimental calibration system and signal processor and control subsystem are analyzed. The development of the OARE software is discussed. The experimental equipment will be enclosed in a cover assembly that will be mounted in the Orbiter close to the center of gravity.

  2. Researching Abroad: Actual Experiences and Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, James Calvert

    2004-01-01

    Although many dream about conducting research abroad, few researchers achieve that dream. From research experiences in different parts of the world involving information access, research material organization, time perceptions, motivating respondents, research requirements, unexpected surprises, inappropriate arrangements, language and cultural…

  3. A 22-year experience in global transport extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Christopher P; Tyree, Melissa; Larry, Karen; DiGeronimo, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Transport extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is currently available at 12 centers. We report a 22-year experience from the only facility providing global transport ECMO. Indications for transport ECMO include lack of ECMO services, inability to transport conventionally, inability to wean from cardiopulmonary bypass, extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and need to move a patient on ECMO for specialized services such as organ transplantation. Retrospective database review of children undergoing inhouse and transport ECMO from 1985 to 2007. Sixty-eight children underwent transport ECMO. Fifty-six were transported on ECMO into our facility. The remaining 12 were moved between 2 outside locations. Ground vehicles and fixed-wing aircraft were used. Distance transported was 8 to 7500 miles (13-12070 km), mean 1380 miles (2220 km). There were 116 inhouse ECMO runs. No child died during transport. Survival to discharge after transport ECMO was 65% (44/68) and, for inhouse ECMO, was 70% (81/116). Transport ECMO is feasible and effective, with survival rates comparable to inhouse ECMO. We have used transport ECMO to help children at non-ECMO centers with pulmonary failure who have not improved with inhaled nitric oxide and high-frequency ventilation. We have also transported a child after extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation, which may represent an emerging indication for transport ECMO. Transport ECMO often is the only option for children too unstable for conventional transport or those already on ECMO and requiring a specialized service at another facility, such as organ transplantation.

  4. Mass and Momentum Turbulent Transport Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. V.; Roback, R.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental study of mixing downstream of axial and swirling coaxial jets is being conducted to obtain data for the evaluation and improvement of turbulent transport models currently employed in a variety of computational procedures used throughout the propulsion community. Effort was directed toward the acquisition of length scale and dissipation rate data that will provide more accurate inlet boundary conditions for the computational procedures and a data base to evaluate the turbulent transport models in the near jet region where recirculation does not occur. Mass and momentum turbulent transport data with a blunt inner-jet inlet configuration will also be acquired.

  5. Transport studies in fusion plasmas: Perturbative experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Cardozo, N.J.L.

    1996-03-01

    By subjecting a plasma in steady state to small perturbations and measuring the response, it is possible to determine elements of the matrix of transport coefficients. Experimentally this is difficult, and results are mainly limited to transport driven by the pressure and temperature gradients. Importantly, off-diagonal elements in the transport matrix appear to be important. This has also implications for the interpretation of the so-called `power balance` diffusivity, determined from the steady state fluxes and gradients. Experimental techniques, analysis techniques, basic formulas, etc., are briefly reviewed. Experimental results are summarized. The fundamental question whether the fluxes are linear functions of the gradients or not is discussed. 31 refs.

  6. Early flavor experiences: research update.

    PubMed

    Mennella, J A; Beauchamp, G K

    1998-07-01

    Anyone who has observed infants for any period of time can testify to the intense activity occurring in and around their mouths--the primary site for learning in the first few months of life. Before they are even able to crawl, infants have learned much about their new sensory world. Though recent research we have begun to explore the impact of these early experiences on infants' acceptance of solid foods and how they explore objects in their environment. We have also begun to focus on the sensory experiences of the formula-fed infant, in particular, how their responses to particular formulas, which are extremely unpalatable to older children and adults, change during infancy. This is a relatively new and exciting area of study, with much research yet to be done. It is clear, however, that infants are not passive receptacles for flavored foods. Parents who offer a variety of foods will provide both a nutritious, well-balanced diet, as well as an opportunity for their children's own personal preferences to develop.

  7. Transportation planning and automated guideways. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The 8 papers in this report deal with the following areas: Green River Valley transportation action plan: the development of a successful interjurisdictional road-improvement plan; public-involvement process for identifying problems and alternative solutions for the Year 2010 transportation plan; Miami-downtown people mover demand analysis model; traffic-modeling techniques for the developing world: case studies; some issues in transport planning for third world cities; use of models by french consultants for urban transport planning in developing countries; stepwise regression model of development at nonmetropolitan interchanges; transport in rural areas of developing countries: empirical findings from Western Province, Zambia.

  8. Mass and Momentum Turbulent Transport Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. V.

    1983-01-01

    The downstream mixing of coaxial jets discharging in an expanded duct was studied to improve turbulent transport models which are used in computational procedures throughout the propulsion community for combustor flow modeling. Laser velocimeter (LV) and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) techniques were used to measure velocities and concentration and flow visualization techniques to determine the time dependent characteristics of the flow and the scale of the turbulent structure.

  9. Lessons Learned from Bacterial Transport Experiments at the South Oyster Site

    SciTech Connect

    Scheibe, Timothy D; Hubbard, Susan S; Onstott, Tullis C; Deflaun, Mary F

    2011-09-27

    This paper provides a high-level review of bacterial transport experiments conducted by a multi-investigator, multi-institution, multi-disciplinary team of researchers under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy. The experiments considered were conducted during the time period 1999-2001 at a field site near the town of Oyster, Virginia known as the South Oyster Site, and included four major experimental campaigns aimed at understanding and quantifying bacterial transport in the subsurface environment. Several key elements of the research are discussed here: 1) Quantification of bacterial transport in physically and biogeochemically heterogeneous aquifers, 2) evaluation of the efficacy of conventional colloid filtration theory, 3) scale effects in bacterial transport, 4) development of new methods for microbial enumeration and screening for low adhesion strains, 5) application of novel hydrogeophysical techniques for aquifer characterization, and 6) experiences regarding management of a large field research effort.

  10. Multicomponent reactive transport modeling of uranium bioremediation field experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Yilin; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Morrison, Stan J.; Amonette, James E.; Long, Philip E.

    2009-10-15

    Biostimulation field experiments with acetate amendment are being performed at a former uranium mill tailings site in Rifle, Colorado, to investigate subsurface processes controlling in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater. An important part of the research is identifying and quantifying field-scale models of the principal terminal electron-accepting processes (TEAPs) during biostimulation and the consequent biogeochemical impacts to the subsurface receiving environment. Integrating abiotic chemistry with the microbially mediated TEAPs in the reaction network brings into play geochemical observations (e.g., pH, alkalinity, redox potential, major ions, and secondary minerals) that the reactive transport model must recognize. These additional constraints provide for a more systematic and mechanistic interpretation of the field behaviors during biostimulation. The reaction network specification developed for the 2002 biostimulation field experiment was successfully applied without additional calibration to the 2003 and 2007 field experiments. The robustness of the model specification is significant in that 1) the 2003 biostimulation field experiment was performed with 3 times higher acetate concentrations than the previous biostimulation in the same field plot (i.e., the 2002 experiment), and 2) the 2007 field experiment was performed in a new unperturbed plot on the same site. The biogeochemical reactive transport simulations accounted for four TEAPs, two distinct functional microbial populations, two pools of bioavailable Fe(III) minerals (iron oxides and phyllosilicate iron), uranium aqueous and surface complexation, mineral precipitation, and dissolution. The conceptual model for bioavailable iron reflects recent laboratory studies with sediments from the Old Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) site that demonstrated that the bulk (~90%) of Fe(III) bioreduction is associated with the phyllosilicates rather than the iron oxides

  11. Partnership in Undergraduate Research Experience

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Practical laboratory and work experience has been helpful in reinforcing the undergraduate educational experience. With limited resources, individual organizations may struggle to give a student a well rounded opportunity. Most undergraduates work within internships or cooperative educational fram...

  12. Design Experiments in Educational Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Paul; Confrey, Jere; diSessa, Andrea; Lehrer, Richard; Schauble, Leona

    2003-01-01

    Indicates the range of purposes and variety of settings in which design experiments have been conducted, delineating five crosscutting features that collectively differentiate design experiments from other methodologies. Clarifies what is involved in preparing for and carrying out a design experiment and in conducting a retrospective analysis of…

  13. Design Experiments in Educational Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Paul; Confrey, Jere; diSessa, Andrea; Lehrer, Richard; Schauble, Leona

    2003-01-01

    Indicates the range of purposes and variety of settings in which design experiments have been conducted, delineating five crosscutting features that collectively differentiate design experiments from other methodologies. Clarifies what is involved in preparing for and carrying out a design experiment and in conducting a retrospective analysis of…

  14. Education in Transportation Systems Planning: Highway Research Record No. 462.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Transportation Research Board.

    The papers contained in the issue of Highway Research Record focus on current and emerging patterns of education and training related to transportation systems planning. The five papers are: Transportation Centers and Other Mechanisms to Encourage Interdisciplinary Research and Training Efforts in Transportation (Frederick J. Wegmann and Edward A.…

  15. Spent fuel and HLW transportation the French experience

    SciTech Connect

    Giraud, J.P.; Charles, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    With 53 nuclear power plants in operation at EDF and a fuel cycle with recycling policy of the valuable materials, COGEMA is faced with the transport of a wide range of radioactive materials. In this framework, the transport activity is a key link in closing the fuel cycle. COGEMA has developed a comprehensive Transport Organization System dealing with all the sectors of the fuel cycle. The paper will describe the status of transportation of spent fuel and HLW in France and the experience gathered. The Transport Organization System clearly defines the role of all actors where COGEMA, acting as the general coordinator, specifies the tasks to be performed and brings technical and commercial support to its various subcontractors: TRANSNUCLEAIRE, specialized in casks engineering and transport operations, supplies packaging and performs transport operations, LEMARECHAL and CELESTIN operate transport by truck in the Vicinity of the nuclear sites while French Railways are in charge of spent fuel transport by train. HLW issued from the French nuclear program is stored for 30 years in an intermediate storage installation located at the La Hague reprocessing plant. Ultimately, these canisters will be transported to the disposal site. COGEMA has set up a comprehensive transport organization covering all operational aspects including adapted procedures, maintenance programs and personnel qualification.

  16. Research experiments at Hangar L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Research assistant Trisha Bruno performs an analysis on potato samples at Hangar L at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The research she is performing is one of many studies at the Biological Sciences Branch in the Spaceport Engineering and Technology Directorate at Kennedy Space Center. The branch's operations and research areas include life sciences Space Shuttle payloads, bioregenerative life-support for long-duration spaceflight and environmental/ecological stewardship.

  17. Research experiments at Hangar L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Research scientist Greg Goins monitors radish growth under a sulfur-microwave light at Hangar L at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The research he is performing is one of many studies at the Biological Sciences Branch in the Spaceport Engineering and Technology Directorate at Kennedy Space Center. The branch's operations and research areas include life sciences Space Shuttle payloads, bioregenerative life-support for long- duration spaceflight and environmental/ecological stewardship.

  18. Research experiments at Hangar L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Research scientist Greg Goins monitors radish growth under a sulfur-microwave light at Hangar L at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The research he is performing is one of many studies at the Biological Sciences Branch in the Spaceport Engineering and Technology Directorate at Kennedy Space Center. The branch's operations and research areas include life sciences Space Shuttle payloads, bioregenerative life-support for long- duration spaceflight and environmental/ecological stewardship.

  19. Research experiments at Hangar L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Research assistant Trisha Bruno performs an analysis on potato samples at Hangar L at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The research she is performing is one of many studies at the Biological Sciences Branch in the Spaceport Engineering and Technology Directorate at Kennedy Space Center. The branch's operations and research areas include life sciences Space Shuttle payloads, bioregenerative life-support for long-duration spaceflight and environmental/ecological stewardship.

  20. Monitoring Trends in Research Student Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grebennikov, Leonid; Shah, Mahsood

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present approaches effectively used by a large multi-campus Australian university to improve the research student experience as a direct result of their feedback. These approaches include: identifying trends in the research student experience and areas needing improvement through the Research Student…

  1. Development of the COMmerical Experiment Transporter (COMET)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pawlick, Joseph F., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    In order to commercialize space, this nation must develop a well defined path through which the Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS's) and their industrial partners and counterparts can exploit the advantages of space manufacturing and processing. Such a capability requires systems, a supporting infrastructure, and funding to become a viable component of this nation's economic strength. This paper follows the development of the COMmercial Experiment Program (COMET) from inception to its current position as the country's first space program dedicated to satisfying the needs of industry: an industry which must investigate the feasibility of space based processes, materials, and prototypes. With proposals now being evaluated, much of the COMET story is yet to be written, however concepts and events which led to it's current status and the plans for implementation may be presented.

  2. Experience Effect in E-Learning Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bing; Xu, WenXia; Ge, Jun

    This study is a productivity review on the literature gleaned from SSCI, SCIE databases concerning experience in E-Learning research. The result indicates that the number of literature productions on experience effect in ELearning research is still growing from 2005. The main research development country is Croatia, and from the analysis of the publication year, the number of papers is increasing to the peaking in 2010. And the main source title is British Journal of Educational Technology. In addition the subject area concentrated on Education & Educational Research. Moreover the research focuses on are mainly survey research and empirical research, in order to explore experience effect in E-Learning research. Also the limitations and future research of these research were discussed, so that the direction for further research work can be exploited

  3. Summary of U.S. research on wood transportation structures

    Treesearch

    M. A. Ritter; R. C. Moody; S. R. Duwadi

    1996-01-01

    An extensive U.S. research program to further develop wood utilization in transportation structures is currently in progress as a joint effort of the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, and the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. This research is funded primarily by U.S. legislation and involves cooperative research with...

  4. 46 CFR 393.6 - Research on Marine Highway Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Research on Marine Highway Transportation. 393.6 Section...-469 AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.6 Research on Marine Highway Transportation. (a) Summary... as appropriate, within the limits of available resources, to conduct research in support of...

  5. 46 CFR 393.6 - Research on Marine Highway Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Research on Marine Highway Transportation. 393.6 Section...-469 AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.6 Research on Marine Highway Transportation. (a) Summary... as appropriate, within the limits of available resources, to conduct research in support of...

  6. 46 CFR 393.6 - Research on Marine Highway Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Research on Marine Highway Transportation. 393.6 Section...-469 AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.6 Research on Marine Highway Transportation. (a) Summary... as appropriate, within the limits of available resources, to conduct research in support of...

  7. Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research Testbed: Aircraft Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Thomas L.; Langford, William M.; Hill, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    The Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) testbed being developed at NASA Langley Research Center is an experimental flight test capability for research experiments pertaining to dynamics modeling and control beyond the normal flight envelope. An integral part of that testbed is a 5.5% dynamically scaled, generic transport aircraft. This remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) is powered by twin turbine engines and includes a collection of sensors, actuators, navigation, and telemetry systems. The downlink for the plane includes over 70 data channels, plus video, at rates up to 250 Hz. Uplink commands for aircraft control include over 30 data channels. The dynamic scaling requirement, which includes dimensional, weight, inertial, actuator, and data rate scaling, presents distinctive challenges in both the mechanical and electrical design of the aircraft. Discussion of these requirements and their implications on the development of the aircraft along with risk mitigation strategies and training exercises are included here. Also described are the first training (non-research) flights of the airframe. Additional papers address the development of a mobile operations station and an emulation and integration laboratory.

  8. Laboratory Experiments Modelling Sediment Transport by River Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Bruce; Gingras, Murray; Knudson, Calla; Steverango, Luke; Surma, Chris

    2016-11-01

    Through lock-release laboratory experiments, the transport of particles by hypopycnal (surface) currents is examined as they flow into a uniform-density and a two-layer ambient fluid. In most cases the tank is tilted so that the current flows over a slope representing an idealization of a sediment-bearing river flowing into the ocean and passing over the continental shelf. When passing into a uniform-density ambient, the hypopycnal current slows and stops as particles rain out, carrying some of the light interstitial fluid with them. Rather than settling on the bottom, in many cases the descending particles accumulate to form a hyperpycnal (turbidity) current that flows downslope. This current then slows and stops as particles both rain out to the bottom and also rise again to the surface, carried upward by the light interstitial fluid. For a hypopycnal current flowing into a two-layer fluid, the current slows as particles rain out and accumulate at the interface of the two-layer ambient. Eventually these particles penetrate through the interface and settle to the bottom with no apparent formation of a hyperpycnal current. Analyses are performed to characterize the speed of the currents and stopping distances as they depend upon experiment parameters. Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council.

  9. Research experiments at Hangar L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Visiting scientist Cheryl Frazier monitors a prototype composting machine in Hangar L at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The research she is performing is one of many studies at the Biological Sciences Branch in the Spaceport Engineering and Technology Directorate at Kennedy Space Center. The branch's operations and research areas include life sciences Space Shuttle payloads, bioregenerative life-support for long-duration spaceflight and environmental/ecological stewardship.

  10. Implementation of transportation distance for analyzing FLIM and FRET experiments.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Philippe; Gonzalez Pisfil, Mariano; Kahn, Jonas; Héliot, Laurent; Leray, Aymeric

    2014-10-01

    Analysis of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments in living cells is usually based on mean lifetimes computations. However, these mean lifetimes can induce misinterpretations. We propose in this work the implementation of the transportation distance for FLIM and FRET experiments in vivo. This non-fitting indicator, which is easy to compute, reflects the similarity between two distributions and can be used for pixels clustering to improve the estimation of the FRET parameters. We study the robustness and the discriminating power of this transportation distance, both theoretically and numerically. In addition, a comparison study with the largely used mean lifetime differences is performed. We finally demonstrate practically the benefits of the transportation distance over the usual mean lifetime differences for both FLIM and FRET experiments in living cells.

  11. Sediment-transport experiments in zero-gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iversen, James D.; Greeley, Ronald

    1987-01-01

    One of the important parameters in the analysis of sediment entrainment and transport is gravitational attraction. The availability of a laboratory in earth orbit would afford an opportunity to conduct experiments in zero and variable gravity environments. Elimination of gravitational attraction as a factor in such experiments would enable other critical parameters (such as particle cohesion and aerodynamic forces) to be evaluated much more accurately. A Carousel Wind Tunnel (CWT) is proposed for use in conducting experiments concerning sediment particle entrainment and transport in a space station. In order to test the concept of this wind tunnel design a one third scale model CWT was constructed and calibrated. Experiments were conducted in the prototype to determine the feasibility of studying various aeolian processes and the results were compared with various numerical analysis. Several types of experiments appear to be feasible utilizing the proposed apparatus.

  12. Constituting Information Technology Research: The Experience of IT Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Binh; Bruce, Christine; Stoodley, Ian

    2005-01-01

    The collective consciousness of effective groups of researchers is characterized by shared understandings of their research object or territory. In this study, we adopted a phenomenographic approach to investigate information technology (IT) research, and its objects and territories, as they are constituted in the experience of IT researchers.…

  13. Academic Factors that Affect Undergraduate Research Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taraban, Roman; Logue, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Undergraduate research experiences are considered an essential component in college curricula, and there is an ideological push to provide these experiences to all students. However, it is not clear whether engagement in research is better suited for higher ability undergraduates late in their programs or for all undergraduates and whether…

  14. Limitations of Experiments in Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore

    2012-01-01

    Research based on randomized experiments (along with high-quality quasi-experiments) has gained traction in education circles in recent years. There is little doubt this has been driven in large part by the shift in research funding strategy by the Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences under Grover Whitehurst's lead, described…

  15. Lessons learned from bacterial transport research at the South Oyster Site

    SciTech Connect

    Scheibe, T.; Hubbard, S.S.; Onstott, T.C.; DeFlaun, M.F.

    2011-04-01

    This paper provides a review of bacterial transport experiments conducted by a multi-investigator, multi-institution, multi-disciplinary team of researchers under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The experiments were conducted during the time period 1999-2001 at a field site near the town of Oyster, Virginia known as the South Oyster Site, and included four major experimental campaigns aimed at understanding and quantifying bacterial transport in the subsurface environment. Several key elements of the research are discussed here: (1) quantification of bacterial transport in physically, chemically and biologically heterogeneous aquifers, (2) evaluation of the efficacy of conventional colloid filtration theory, (3) scale effects in bacterial transport, (4) development of new methods for microbial enumeration and screening for low adhesion strains, (5) application of novel hydrogeophysical techniques for aquifer characterization, and (6) experiences regarding management of a large field research effort. Lessons learned are summarized in each of these areas. The body of literature resulting from South Oyster Site research has been widely cited and continues to influence research into the controls exerted by aquifer heterogeneity on reactive transport (including microbial transport). It also served as a model (and provided valuable experience) for subsequent and ongoing highly-instrumented field research efforts conducted by DOE-sponsored investigators.

  16. Propulsion system for research VTOL transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gertsma, L. W.; Zigan, S.

    1973-01-01

    In anticipation of an eventual VTOL requirement for civil aviation, NASA has been conducting studies directed toward determining and developing the technology required for a commercial VTOL transport. In this paper, the commercial transport configurations are briefly reviewed; the propulsion system specifications and components developed by the engine study contractor are presented and described; and methods for using the lift-propulsion system for aircraft attitude control are discussed.

  17. Designing Effective Research Experiences for Undergraduates (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones Whyte, P.; Dalbotten, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    The undergraduate research experience has been recognized as a valuable component of preparation for graduate study. As competition for spaces in graduate schools become more keen students benefit from a formal introduction to the life of a scholar. Over the last twenty years a model of preparing students for graduate study with the research experience as the base has been refined at the University of Minnesota. The experience includes assignment with a faculty member and a series of seminars that support the experience. The seminars cover topics to include academic writing, scholarly literature review, writing of the abstract, research subject protection protocols, GRE test preparation, opportunities to interact with graduate student, preparing the graduate school application, and preparation of a poster to demonstrate the results of the research. The next phase of the process is to determine the role of the undergraduate research experience in the graduate school admission process.

  18. 46 CFR 393.6 - Research on Marine Highway Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Research on Marine Highway Transportation. 393.6 Section...-469 AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.6 Research on Marine Highway Transportation. (a) Summary... Marine Highway or in direct support of designated Marine Highway Corridors and Projects. (b)...

  19. 46 CFR 393.6 - Research on Marine Highway Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research on Marine Highway Transportation. 393.6 Section...-469 AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.6 Research on Marine Highway Transportation. (a) Summary... Marine Highway or in direct support of designated Marine Highway Corridors and Projects. (b)...

  20. The language of 'experience' in nursing research.

    PubMed

    Allen, David; Cloyes, Kristin

    2005-06-01

    This paper is an analysis of how the signifier 'experience' is used in nursing research. We identify a set of issues we believe accompany the use of experience but are rarely addressed. These issues are embedded in a spectrum that includes ontological commitments, visions of the person/self and its relation to 'society', understandings of research methodology and the politics of nursing. We argue that a poststructuralist understanding of the language of experience in research opens up additional ways to analyze the relationship between the conduct of nursing research and cultural/political commitments.

  1. Feminist research or humanistic research? Experiences of studying prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Pateman, B

    2000-03-01

    This paper highlights issues related to men's health research arising from a small-scale study, carried out by a male researcher, to identify the experience of men following transuretheral resection of prostate (TURP) for benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). The intention of this paper is to stimulate methodological debate rather than to be a research report. For the study, an informal interview approach was used within a phenomenological framework, and interview experiences raised issues which have been previously discussed under the rubric of feminist research. The conclusion drawn is that a style of research which attempts to gain a holistic view of patients' experiences is better termed 'humanistic research' because the term 'feminist research' clearly cannot be applied to men studying men's health-related experiences.

  2. Researching the experience of kidney cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Taylor, K

    2002-09-01

    The author's personal experience as a kidney cancer patient, researcher and founder of a kidney cancer support group forms the basis for consideration of the challenges involved in researching patients' experiences. The researcher needs to understand the variability of those experiences in both clinical and psychological-emotional terms, and in relation to the personal, familial and social contexts of the patient. It is also essential to define the purpose of the research and to show how an understanding of personal experiences of cancer can be used to enhance the quality of care for cancer patients. The research encounter with a patient is also in some respects a therapeutic encounter requiring a considerable degree of sensitivity on the part of the researcher. The person-centred approach of Carl Rogers is of value in supporting such an encounter.

  3. Research requirements for a real-time flight measurements and data analysis system for subsonic transport high-lift research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, Julia H.; Harris, Franklin K.; Lytle, Carroll D.

    1993-01-01

    A multiphased research program to obtain detailed flow characteristics on a multielement high-lift flap system is being conducted on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (B737-100 aircraft) at NASA Langley Research Center. Upcoming flight tests have required the development of a highly capable and flexible flight measurement and data analysis instrumentation system. This instrumentation system will be more comprehensive than any of the systems used on previous high-lift flight experiment at NASA Langley. The system will provide the researcher near-real-time information for decision making needed to modify a flight test in order to further examine unexpected flow conditions. This paper presents the research requirements and instrumentation design concept for an upcoming flight experiment for the subsonic transport high-lift research program. The flight experiment objectives, the measurement requirements, the data acquisition system, and the onboard data analysis and display capabilities are described.

  4. Research requirements for a real-time flight measurements and data analysis system for subsonic transport high-lift research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, Julia H.; Harris, Franklin K.; Lytle, Carroll D.

    1993-01-01

    A multiphased research program to obtain detailed flow characteristics on a multielement high-lift flap system is being conducted on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (B737-100 aircraft) at NASA Langley Research Center. Upcoming flight tests have required the development of a highly capable and flexible flight measurement and data analysis instrumentation system. This instrumentation system will be more comprehensive than any of the systems used on previous high-lift flight experiment at NASA Langley. The system will provide the researcher near-real-time information for decision making needed to modify a flight test in order to further examine unexpected flow conditions. This paper presents the research requirements and instrumentation design concept for an upcoming flight experiment for the subsonic transport high-lift research program. The flight experiment objectives, the measurement requirements, the data acquisition system, and the onboard data analysis and display capabilities are described.

  5. Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment Facilitating Active Learning of Concepts in Transport Phenomena: Experiment with a Subliming Solid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utgikar, Vivek P.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment based on the sublimation of a solid was introduced in the undergraduate Transport Phenomena course. The experiment required the students to devise their own apparatus and measurement techniques. The theoretical basis, assignment of the experiment, experimental results, and student/instructor observations are described in this paper.…

  6. Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment Facilitating Active Learning of Concepts in Transport Phenomena: Experiment with a Subliming Solid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utgikar, Vivek P.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment based on the sublimation of a solid was introduced in the undergraduate Transport Phenomena course. The experiment required the students to devise their own apparatus and measurement techniques. The theoretical basis, assignment of the experiment, experimental results, and student/instructor observations are described in this paper.…

  7. Evaluation of a BSW Research Experience: Improving Student Research Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whipple, Ellen E.; Hughes, Anne; Bowden, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the experience of 24 BSW students in a faculty-mentored undergraduate research experience (URE) over the course of 1 academic year. In particular, we sought to better understand students' self-perceived sense of competency across 15 specific research skills. In addition, we examined the URE's impact on students' knowledge…

  8. Abrasion resistance of muscovite in aeolian and subaqueous transport experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Calvin J.; Struble, Alexander; Whitmore, John H.

    2017-02-01

    Complementary aeolian and subaqueous transport experiments showed a trend in muscovite abrasion that may be useful for identifying ancient sandstones as aeolian or subaqueous in origin. We found that our experimental aeolian processes pulverized the micas quickly, while our subaqueous processes did not. In a pair of abrasion resistance experiments conducted with micaceous quartz sand, it was found that large muscovite grains were (1) reduced by aeolian processes to less than 500 μm in just 4 days, and (2) preserved by subaqueous processes to 610 ± 90 μm even after 356 days. At 20 days of aeolian transport no loose micas could be found even under the microscope, but after a year of subaqueous transport loose muscovite grains could still be seen with the naked eye. Thus, the occurrence and character of micas in a sandstone, particularly muscovite, may be helpful in determining the ancient depositional process.

  9. Manganese: brain transport and emerging research needs.

    PubMed Central

    Aschner, M

    2000-01-01

    Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) represents a common neurodegenerative disorder. An estimated 2% of the U.S. population, age 65 and older, develops IPD. The number of IPD patients will certainly increase over the next several decades as the baby-boomers gradually step into this high-risk age group, concomitant with the increase in the average life expectancy. While many studies have suggested that industrial chemicals and pesticides may underlie IPD, its etiology remains elusive. Among the toxic metals, the relationship between manganese intoxication and IPD has long been recognized. The neurological signs of manganism have received close attention because they resemble several clinical disorders collectively described as extrapyramidal motor system dysfunction, and in particular, IPD and dystonia. However, distinct dissimilarities between IPD and manganism are well established, and it remains to be determined whether Mn plays an etiologic role in IPD. It is particularly noteworthy that as a result of a recent court decision, methylcyclopentadienyl Mn tricarbonyl (MMT) is presently available in the United States and Canada for use in fuel, replacing lead as an antiknock additive. The impact of potential long-term exposure to low levels of MMT combustion products that may be present in emissions from automobiles has yet to be fully evaluated. Nevertheless, it should be pointed out that recent studies with various environmental modeling approaches in the Montreal metropolitan (where MMT has been used for more than 10 years) suggest that airborne Mn levels were quite similar to those in areas where MMT was not used. These studies also show that Mn is emitted from the tail pipe of motor vehicles primarily as a mixture of manganese phosphate and manganese sulfate. This brief review characterizes the Mn speciation in the blood and the transport kinetics of Mn into the central nervous system, a critical step in the accumulation of Mn within the brain, outlines the

  10. Change of Collision Efficiency with Distance in Bacterial Transport Experiements

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Hailiang; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Johnson, William P.; Monkman, Crystal; Fuller, Mark E.

    2006-05-01

    Previous bacterial transport studies have shown decreased bacterial adhesion with transport distance, largely based on laboratory core experiments. An inferred effect of microbial population variability is invoked to interpret experimental data, but there lacks direct measurement at field-scale, especially in correlation of transport distance with change of bacterial surface properties. This study was undertaken to determine change of collision efficiency with transport distance, taking advantage of the bacterial transport experiment in Oyster, VA in the summer of 2001. Upon injection of an adhesion deficient strain, Comamonas sp. DA001 into a up-gradient well, bacterial samples were taken from multi-level samplers along the flow path, and were injected into cores of 40 cm in length and 7.5 cm in diameter packed with homogenized sediment from the same site, South Oyster focus area (SOFA). Bacterial suspension samples were also measured for bacterial electrophoretic mobility distribution. Using filtration theory, collision efficiency, the probability of bacterial attachment to the grain surfaces upon collision and a quantitative measure of bacterial adhesion, was determined using CXTFIT model fitted attachment rate, measured grain size (10th percentile), porosity, flow velocity, and collector efficiency. Collision efficiency was also determined based on the fraction of retention in the cores. Contrary to previous results and interpretation of field-scale breakthrough curves, our experimentally determined collision efficiency increases with transport distance in the core experiments, which correlates with increasingly negative surface charge of the injected bacteria. Therefore we conclude that the apparent decrease in adhesion with transport distance in the field is strongly controlled by field-scale heterogeneity in physical and chemical aquifer properties and not by microbial population heterogeneity.

  11. Doctoral Students' Experience of Information Technology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Christine; Stoodley, Ian; Pham, Binh

    2009-01-01

    As part of their journey of learning to research, doctoral candidates need to become members of their research community. In part, this involves coming to be aware of their field in ways that are shared amongst longer-term members of the research community. One aspect of candidates' experience we need to understand, therefore, involves how they…

  12. Stochastic analysis of transport of conservative solutes in caisson experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Dagan, G.

    1995-02-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory has conducted in the past a series of experiments of transport of conservative and reactive solutes. The experimental setup and the experimental results are presented in a series of reports. The main aim of the experiments was to validate models of transport of solutes in unsaturated flow at the caisson intermediate scale, which is much larger than the one pertaining to laboratory columns. First attempts to analyze the experimental results were by one-dimensional convective-dispersion models. These models could not explain the observed solute breakthrough curves and particularly the large solute dispersion in the caisson effluent Since there were some question marks about the uniformity of water distribution at the caisson top, the transport experiments were repeated under conditions of saturated flow. In these experiments constant heads were applied at the top and the bottom of the caisson and the number of concentration monitoring stations was quadrupled. The analysis of the measurements by the same one-dimensional model indicated clearly that the fitted dispersivity is much larger than the pore-sole dispersivity and that it grows with the distance in an approximately linear fashion. This led to the conclusion, raised before, that transport in the caisson is dominated by heterogeneity effects, i.e. by spatial variability of the material Such effects cannot be captured by traditional one-dimensional models. In order to account for the effect of heterogeneity, the saturated flow experiments have been analyzed by using stochastic transport modeling. The apparent linear growth of dispersivity with distance suggested that the system behaves like a stratified one. Consequently, the model of Dagan and Bresier has been adopted in order to interpret concentration measurements. In this simple model the caisson is viewed as a bundle of columns of different permeabilities, which are characterized by a p.d.f. (probability denasity function).

  13. NASA's Subsonic Jet Transport Noise Reduction Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Clemans A.; Preisser, John S.

    2000-01-01

    Although new jet transport airplanes in today s fleet are considerably quieter than the first jet transports introduced about 40 years ago, airport community noise continues to be an important environmental issue. NASA s Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) Noise Reduction program was begun in 1994 as a seven-year effort to develop technology to reduce jet transport noise 10 dB relative to 1992 technology. This program provides for reductions in engine source noise, improvements in nacelle acoustic treatments, reductions in the noise generated by the airframe, and improvements in the way airplanes are operated in the airport environs. These noise reduction efforts will terminate at the end of 2001 and it appears that the objective will be met. However, because of an anticipated 3-8% growth in passenger and cargo operations well into the 21st Century and the slow introduction of new the noise reduction technology into the fleet, world aircraft noise impact will remain essentially constant until about 2020 to 2030 and thereafter begin to rise. Therefore NASA has begun planning with the Federal Aviation Administration, industry, universities and environmental interest groups in the USA for a new noise reduction initiative to provide technology for significant further reductions.

  14. Transport experiments on dilute, spin-polarized Fermi fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candela, D.; McAllaster, D. R.; Wei, L.-J.; Kalechofsky, N.

    1992-10-01

    A series of experiments has been carried out on very dilute3He-4He mixtures and on pure3He liquid at very high field/temperature ratios (H≤8 T, T≥4.3mK). In this regime these systems display a strong Leggett-Rice effect, weakly damped paramagnetic spin waves, and significant polarization effects on spin and momentum transport. The dilute mixture experiments used NMR to observe standing spin waves, and vibrating-wire viscometry to measure momentum transport. A very satisfactory agreement is found with the recent kinetic-equation calculations of Jeon and Mullin. The pure3He experiments may provide the first evidence for field-induced relaxation of transverse spin currents.

  15. My Rewarding Summer Research Experience at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aviles, Andres

    2007-01-01

    My summer research experience at the Kennedy Space Center has been a truly rewarding one. As an electrical engineering student at the University of South Florida, I was blessed with a beneficial opportunity to gain valuable knowledge in my career, and also apply it through working at NASA. One of my inspirations in becoming an engineer is to work at NASA someday, and I was very excited and honored to have this opportunity. My goal in this internship was to strengthen my preparation in becoming an engineer by learning new material, acquiring skills by practicing what I learned, and discovering the expectations of engineering work at NASA. Through this summer research, I was able to learn new computer programs and perform various tasks that gave me experience and skills as an engineer. My primary job was to conduct work on the Constellation Test article, which is a simulation model of the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) tanking system. This is a prototype of a launch facility and an Ares I Vehicle, which God willing will transport astronauts to the moon. Construction of the CLV is in progress and a test launch is anticipated for 2010. Moreover, the Test Article serves as a demonstration too, training test bed, and may be expanded for new simulation of launch system elements, which could be applied to real life operations. The test article is operated and run by a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), which is a digital computer that is used to control all forms of machinery such as those in manufacturing buildings and other industries. PLCs are different than other computers because of the physical protection they have against damaging environmental conditions that would destroy other computers. Also, PLCs are equipped with lots of input and output connections that allow extensive amounts of commands to be executed, which would normally require many computers to do. Therefore, PLCs are small, rugged, and extremely powerful tools that may continue to be employed at NASA

  16. Anomalous reactive transport in porous media: Experiments and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edery, Yaniv; Dror, Ishai; Scher, Harvey; Berkowitz, Brian

    2015-05-01

    We analyze dynamic behavior of chemically reactive species in a porous medium, subject to anomalous transport. In this context, we present transport experiments in a refraction-index-matched, three-dimensional, water-saturated porous medium. A pH indicator (Congo red) was used as either a conservative or a reactive tracer, depending on the tracer solution pH relative to that of the background solution. The porous medium consisted of an acrylic polymer material formed as spherical beads that have pH-buffering capacity. The magnitude of reaction during transport through the porous medium was related to the color change of the Congo red, via image analysis. Here, we focused on point injection of the tracer into a macroscopically uniform flow field containing water at a pH different from that of the injected tracer. The setup yielded measurements of the temporally evolving spatial (local-in-space) concentration field. Parallel experiments with the same tracer, but without reactions (no changes in pH), enabled identification of the transport itself to be anomalous (non-Fickian); this was quantified by a continuous time random walk (CTRW) formulation. A CTRW particle tracking model was then used to quantify the spatial and temporal migration of both the conservative and reactive tracer plumes. Model parameters related to the anomalous transport were determined from the conservative tracer experiments. An additional term accounting for chemical reaction was established solely from analysis of the reactant concentrations, and significantly, no other fitting parameters were required. The measurements and analysis emphasized the localized nature of reaction, caused by small-scale concentration fluctuations and preferential pathways. In addition, a threshold radius for pH-controlled reactive transport processes was defined under buffering conditions, which delineated the region in which reactions occurred rapidly.

  17. On the tuning of electrical and thermal transport in thermoelectrics: an integrated theory-experiment perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jiong; Xi, Lili; Qiu, Wujie; Wu, Lihua; Shi, Xun; Chen, Lidong; Yang, Jihui; Zhang, Wenqing; Uher, Ctirad; Singh, David J.

    2016-02-01

    During the last two decades, we have witnessed great progress in research on thermoelectrics. There are two primary focuses. One is the fundamental understanding of electrical and thermal transport, enabled by the interplay of theory and experiment; the other is the substantial enhancement of the performance of various thermoelectric materials, through synergistic optimisation of those intercorrelated transport parameters. Here we review some of the successful strategies for tuning electrical and thermal transport. For electrical transport, we start from the classical but still very active strategy of tuning band degeneracy (or band convergence), then discuss the engineering of carrier scattering, and finally address the concept of conduction channels and conductive networks that emerge in complex thermoelectric materials. For thermal transport, we summarise the approaches for studying thermal transport based on phonon-phonon interactions valid for conventional solids, as well as some quantitative efforts for nanostructures. We also discuss the thermal transport in complex materials with chemical-bond hierarchy, in which a portion of the atoms (or subunits) are weakly bonded to the rest of the structure, leading to an intrinsic manifestation of part-crystalline part-liquid state at elevated temperatures. In this review, we provide a summary of achievements made in recent studies of thermoelectric transport properties, and demonstrate how they have led to improvements in thermoelectric performance by the integration of modern theory and experiment, and point out some challenges and possible directions.

  18. Faculty Experiences in a Research Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Courtney M.; Kozlowski, Kelly A.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines the experiences of faculty in a research learning community developed to support new faculty in increasing scholarly productivity. A phenomenological, qualitative inquiry was used to portray the lived experiences of faculty within a learning community. Several themes were found including: accountability, belonging,…

  19. Reflection on Lived Experience in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnacle, Robyn

    2004-01-01

    While debate about the meaning of hermeneutics and phenomenology for educational research continues, the notion of lived experience, and its application to reflective practice, has become a feature of much that goes by the name of phenomenological within this area. The prevalence of the lived experience model can be attributed in large part to the…

  20. Embodied Experience in Educational Practice and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bengtsson, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The intention of this article is to make an educational analysis of Merleau-Ponty's theory of experience in order to see what it implicates for educational practice as well as educational research. In this way, we can attain an understanding what embodied experience might mean both in schools and other educational settings and in researching…

  1. Reflection on Lived Experience in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnacle, Robyn

    2004-01-01

    While debate about the meaning of hermeneutics and phenomenology for educational research continues, the notion of lived experience, and its application to reflective practice, has become a feature of much that goes by the name of phenomenological within this area. The prevalence of the lived experience model can be attributed in large part to the…

  2. Centrifuge Techniques and Apparatus for Transport Experiments in Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Earl D. Mattson; Carl D. Paler; Robert W. Smith; Markus Flury

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes experimental approaches and apparatus that we have developed to study solute and colloid transport in porous media using Idaho National Laboratory's 2-m radius centrifuge. The ex-perimental techniques include water flux scaling with applied acceleration at the top of the column and sub-atmospheric pressure control at the column base, automation of data collection, and remote experimental con-trol over the internet. These apparatus include a constant displacement piston pump, a custom designed liquid fraction collector based on switching valve technology, and modified moisture monitoring equipment. Suc-cessful development of these experimental techniques and equipment is illustrated through application to transport of a conservative tracer through unsaturated sand column, with centrifugal acceleration up to 40 gs. Development of such experimental equipment that can withstand high accelerations enhances the centrifuge technique to conduct highly controlled unsaturated solute/colloid transport experiments and allows in-flight liquid sample collection of the effluent.

  3. The high current transport experiment for heavy ion inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Prost, L.R.; Baca, D.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W.; Leitner, M.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Cohen, R.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Morse, E.

    2004-05-01

    The High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the US program to explore heavy-ion beam transport at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linac driver for fusion energy production. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high intensity (line charge density {approx} 0.2 {micro}C/m) over long pulse durations (4 {micro}s) in alternating gradient focusing lattices of electrostatic or magnetic quadrupoles. This experiment is testing transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and steering, envelope matching, image charges and focusing field nonlinearities, halo and, electron and gas cloud effects. We present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K{sup +} ion beam transported through ten electrostatic quadrupoles. The measurements cover two different fill factor studies (60% and 80% of the clear aperture radius) for which the transverse phase-space of the beam was characterized in detail, along with beam energy measurements and the first halo measurements. Electrostatic quadrupole transport at high beam fill factor ({approx}80%) is achieved with acceptable emittance growth and beam loss, even though the initial beam distribution is not ideal (but the emittance is low) nor in thermal equilibrium. We achieved good envelope control, and rematching may only be needed every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor) in a longer lattice of similar design. We also show that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics.

  4. Behavior, Experience and Expression: Some Research Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanyshyn, Robert D.

    Utilizing research conducted on nostalgia, this paper shows how a phenomenological approach assists in understanding behavior, experience and expression. Moreover, a clearer understanding of them aids one's research with and comprehension of nostalgia. Human action can be studied from the experiential, behavioral and expressive perspectives. These…

  5. Modelling of lithium erosion and transport in FTU lithium experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, R.; Maddaluno, G.; Apicella, M. L.; Mazzitelli, G.; Pericoli Ridolfini, V.; Kirschner, A.; Chen, J. L.; Li, J. G.; Luo, G.-N.

    2013-07-01

    The ERO code has been used to simulate lithium erosion, transport and re-deposition from liquid lithium limiter experiments in FTU. Two different operational cases from LLL experiments with different plasma parameters and surface temperature are modelled. According to the effective lithium sputtering yields, for both cases the lithium erosion is mainly due to physical sputtering rather than evaporation. Furthermore, the modelled re-deposition fraction of evaporated lithium is much higher than that of sputtered lithium, which is due to the shorter ionisation mean free path of thermal lithium atoms. Therefore, the evaporation erosion effect can be neglected compared to physical sputtering when the surface temperature is below 450 °C. According to the simulations, most of the lithium impurities exist in the form of Li+, and the main plasma contamination by lithium ions is low because most of eroded lithium particles are not transported into the core plasma and stay outside of the LCFS.

  6. Momentum transport experiments using NBI in an RFP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nornberg, M. D.; Sarff, J. S.; den Hartog, D. J.; Kumar, S.; Anderson, J. K.; Waksman, J.; Dobbins, T.; Craig, D.; Ding, W. X.; Lin, L.; Brower, D. L.

    2012-10-01

    The self-organization process that shapes the current density profile in an RFP discharge gives rise to large turbulent stresses that also shape the parallel flow profile. These stresses drive rapid transport during relaxation events flattening both the plasma current and parallel flow profiles. Experiments using tangential neutral beam injection to create a core-localized torque are presented for a range of equilibrium conditions in MST plasmas: from standard RFP discharges where tearing modes give rise to stochastic transport to discharges with inductive profile control (PPCD) which greatly suppress the tearing modes. Measurements of plasma spin-down after NBI turn-off are used to gauge momentum transport in plasmas with varying levels of tearing mode activity. Plasmas tending toward the quasi-single-helicity state have a dominant core mode that induces a braking torque on the plasma. This core mode is suppressed by NBI thereby reducing the braking torque on the plasma. Variation of the magnetic fluctuation level through inductive profile control shows a reduction in momentum transport consistent with stochastic transport theory.

  7. Nonlocal neoclassical transport in tokamak and spherical torus experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W. X.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W. M.; Hinton, F. L.; Manickam, J.; Zakharov, L. E.; White, R. B.; Kaye, S.

    2006-08-15

    Large ion orbits can produce nonlocal neoclassical effects on ion heat transport, the ambipolar radial electric field, and the bootstrap current in realistic toroidal plasmas. Using a global {delta}f particle simulation, it is found that the conventional local, linear gradient-flux relation is broken for the ion thermal transport near the magnetic axis. With regard to the transport level, it is found that details of the ion temperature profile determine whether the transport is higher or lower when compared with the predictions of standard neoclassical theory. Particularly, this nonlocal feature is suggested to exist in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono, S. M. Kaye, Y.-K. M. Peng et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)], being consistent with NSTX experimental evidence. It is also shown that a large ion temperature gradient can increase the bootstrap current. When the plasma rotation is taken into account, the toroidal rotation gradient can drive an additional parallel flow for the ions and then additional bootstrap current, either positive or negative, depending on the gradient direction. Compared with the carbon radial force balance estimate for the neoclassical poloidal flow, our nonlocal simulation predicts a significantly deeper radial electric field well at the location of an internal transport barrier of an NSTX discharge.

  8. Transportation and aging: a research agenda for advancing safe mobility.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Anne E; Molnar, Lisa J; Eby, David W; Adler, Geri; Bédard, Michel; Berg-Weger, Marla; Classen, Sherrilene; Foley, Daniel; Horowitz, Amy; Kerschner, Helen; Page, Oliver; Silverstein, Nina M; Staplin, Loren; Trujillo, Leonard

    2007-10-01

    We review what we currently know about older driver safety and mobility, and we highlight important research needs in a number of key areas that hold promise for achieving the safety and mobility goals for the aging baby boomers and future generations of older drivers. Through the use of a framework for transportation and safe mobility, we describe key areas of screening and assessment, remediation and rehabilitation, vehicle design and modification, technological advancements, roadway design, transitioning to nondriving, and alternative transportation to meet the goals of crash prevention and mobility maintenance for older adults. Four cross-cutting themes emerged from this review: safe transportation for older adults is important; older adults have a variety of needs, abilities, and resources; research to help meet the transportation needs of older adults may be of benefit to persons with disabilities; and transportation issues concerning older adults are multifaceted. Safe mobility is essential to continued engagement in civic, social, and community life, and to the human interactions necessary for health, well-being, and quality of life. When safe driving is no longer possible for older adults, safe and practicable alternative transportation must be available. Furthermore, older adults are individuals; they have specific needs, abilities, and resources. Not all older adults will have difficulty meeting their transportation needs and no single transportation solution will work for all people. Research and countermeasures intended to help meet the transportation needs of older adults will likely also benefit younger users of the transportation system, particularly those with disabilities. The issues surrounding the maintenance of safe transportation for older adults will require an interdisciplinary research approach if we are to make significant progress in the next decade as the baby boomers begin to reach age 70.

  9. USING SUBSURFACE TRANSPORT RESEARCH TO ACHIEVE AGENCY OUTCOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gasoline leaks from underground storage tanks can cause ground water contamination because there are a number of organic chemicals in gasoline. These chemicals have varying properties that influence how far contamination extends from the release. Research on transport of these ...

  10. USING SUBSURFACE TRANSPORT RESEARCH TO ACHIEVE AGENCY OUTCOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gasoline leaks from underground storage tanks can cause ground water contamination because there are a number of organic chemicals in gasoline. These chemicals have varying properties that influence how far contamination extends from the release. Research on transport of these ...

  11. Moral experience: a framework for bioethics research.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Matthew R; Carnevale, Franco A

    2011-11-01

    Theoretical and empirical research in bioethics frequently focuses on ethical dilemmas or problems. This paper draws on anthropological and phenomenological sources to develop an alternative framework for bioethical enquiry that allows examination of a broader range of how the moral is experienced in the everyday lives of individuals and groups. Our account of moral experience is subjective and hermeneutic. We define moral experience as "Encompassing a person's sense that values that he or she deem important are being realised or thwarted in everyday life. This includes a person's interpretations of a lived encounter, or a set of lived encounters, that fall on spectrums of right-wrong, good-bad or just-unjust". In our conceptualisation, moral experience is not limited to situations that are heavily freighted with ethically-troubling ramifications or are sources of debate and disagreement. Important aspects of moral experience are played out in mundane and everyday settings. Moral experience provides a research framework, the scope of which extends beyond the evaluation of ethical dilemmas, processes of moral justification and decision-making, and moral distress. This broad research focus is consistent with views expressed by commentators within and beyond bioethics who have called for deeper and more sustained attention in bioethics scholarship to a wider set of concerns, experiences and issues that better captures what is ethically at stake for individuals and communities. In this paper we present our conceptualisation of moral experience, articulate its epistemological and ontological foundations and discuss opportunities for empirical bioethics research using this framework.

  12. INTEX-NA: Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment - North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Hanwant B.; Jacob, D.; Pfister, L.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    characterizing Atlantic-outflow and Pacific-inflow, INTEX-NA will characterize air masses transported between the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. INTEX-NA will be the first continental scale inflow, outflow, and transformation experiment to be performed over North America. It will provide the most comprehensive observational data set to date to understand the O3/NOX/HOX/aerosol photochemical system and the carbon cycle. One of the critical needs of the carbon cycle research is to obtain large-scale vertical and horizontal concentration gradients of CO2, throughout the troposphere over continental source/sink regions. INTEX-NA is ideally suited to perform this role. Coastal and continental operational sites will allow us to develop a curtain profile of greenhouse gases (e. g. CO2,) and other key pollutants across North America. Such information is central to our quantitative understanding of chemical budgets on the continental scale. We expect to provide a number of satellite under-flights over land and water to test and validate observations from the appropriate satellite platform (e. g. Aura). We plan to develop strong collaborations with other national and international observational programs. Results from INTEX-NA should directly benefit the development of environmental policy for air quality and climate change.

  13. INTEX-NA: Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment - North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Hanwant B.; Jacob, D.; Pfister, L.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    characterizing Atlantic-outflow and Pacific-inflow, INTEX-NA will characterize air masses transported between the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. INTEX-NA will be the first continental scale inflow, outflow, and transformation experiment to be performed over North America. It will provide the most comprehensive observational data set to date to understand the O3/NOX/HOX/aerosol photochemical system and the carbon cycle. One of the critical needs of the carbon cycle research is to obtain large-scale vertical and horizontal concentration gradients of CO2, throughout the troposphere over continental source/sink regions. INTEX-NA is ideally suited to perform this role. Coastal and continental operational sites will allow us to develop a curtain profile of greenhouse gases (e. g. CO2,) and other key pollutants across North America. Such information is central to our quantitative understanding of chemical budgets on the continental scale. We expect to provide a number of satellite under-flights over land and water to test and validate observations from the appropriate satellite platform (e. g. Aura). We plan to develop strong collaborations with other national and international observational programs. Results from INTEX-NA should directly benefit the development of environmental policy for air quality and climate change.

  14. Self-pinched beam transport experiments Relevant to Heavy Ion Driven inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Bangerter, R.O.; Fessenden, T.J.; Lee, E.P.; Yu, S.S.; Olson, C.L.; Welch, D.R.; Barnard, J.J.; Friedman, A.; Logan, B.G.; Moir, R.W.; Haber, I.; Ottinger, P.F.; Young, F.C.; Peterson, R.R.; Briggs, R.J.

    1998-02-06

    An attractive feature of the inertial fusion energy (IFE) approach to commercial energy production is that the fusion driver is well separated from the fusion confinement chamber. This ''standoff'' feature means the driver is largely isolated from fusion reaction products. Further, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target ignition (with modest gain) is now scheduled to be demonstrated at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) using a laser driver system. The NIF program will, to a considerable extent, validate indirectly-driven heavy-ion fusion (HIF) target designs for IFE. However, it remains that HIF standoff between the final focus system and the fusion target needs to be seriously addressed. In fact, there now exists a timely opportunity for the Office of Fusion Energy Science (OFES) to experimentally explore the feasibility of one of the attractive final transport options in the fusion chamber: the self-pinched transport mode. Presently, there are several mainline approaches for HIF beam transport and neutralization in the fusion chamber. These range from the (conservative) vacuum ballistic focus, for which there is much experience from high energy research accelerators, to highly neutralized ballistic focus, which matches well to lower voltage acceleration with resulting lower driver costs. Alternatively, Z-discharge channel transport and self-pinched transport in gas-filled chambers may relax requirements on beam quality and final focusing systems, leading to even lower driver cost. In any case, these alternative methods of transport, especially self-pinched transport, are unusually attractive from the standpoint of chamber design and neutronics. There is no requirement for low chamber pressure. Moreover, only a minuscule fraction of the fusion neutrons can escape from the chamber. Therefore, it is relatively easy to shield sensitive components, e-g., superconducting magnets from any significant neutron flux. Indeed, self-pinched transport and liquid wall

  15. NASA Space Program experience in hydrogen transportation and handling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bain, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    This paper portrays the experience gained in the transportation and handling of hydrogen in support of the Apollo launch site at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Fla., one of NASA's prime hydrogen users in the Space Program. The objective of the paper is basically to reveal the types of systems involved in handling hydrogen, safety practices, operational techniques, other general experience information, and primarily to convey the routinism by which this potential fuel of the future has already been handled in significant quantities for a number of years.

  16. Participatory Action Research Experiences for Undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sample McMeeking, L. B.; Weinberg, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    Research experiences for undergraduates (REU) have been shown to be effective in improving undergraduate students' personal/professional development, ability to synthesize knowledge, improvement in research skills, professional advancement, and career choice. Adding to the literature on REU programs, a new conceptual model situating REU within a context of participatory action research (PAR) is presented and compared with data from a PAR-based coastal climate research experience that took place in Summer 2012. The purpose of the interdisciplinary Participatory Action Research Experiences for Undergraduates (PAREU) model is to act as an additional year to traditional, lab-based REU where undergraduate science students, social science experts, and community members collaborate to develop research with the goal of enacting change. The benefits to traditional REU's are well established and include increased content knowledge, better research skills, changes in attitudes, and greater career awareness gained by students. Additional positive outcomes are expected from undergraduate researchers (UR) who participate in PAREU, including the ability to better communicate with non-scientists. With highly politicized aspects of science, such as climate change, this becomes especially important for future scientists. Further, they will be able to articulate the relevance of science research to society, which is an important skill, especially given the funding climate where agencies require broader impacts statements. Making science relevant may also benefit URs who wish to apply their science research. Finally, URs will gain social science research skills by apprenticing in a research project that includes science and social science research components, which enables them to participate in future education and outreach. The model also positively impacts community members by elevating their voices within and outside the community, particularly in areas severely underserved

  17. Fluid Physical and Transport Phenomena Studies aboard the International Space Station: Planned Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Bhim S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the microgravity fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments planned for the International Spare Station. NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Science and Applications has established a world-class research program in fluid physics and transport phenomena. This program combines the vast expertise of the world research community with NASA's unique microgravity facilities with the objectives of gaining new insight into fluid phenomena by removing the confounding effect of gravity. Due to its criticality to many terrestrial and space-based processes and phenomena, fluid physics and transport phenomena play a central role in the NASA's Microgravity Program. Through widely publicized research announcement and well established peer-reviews, the program has been able to attract a number of world-class researchers and acquired a critical mass of investigations that is now adding rapidly to this field. Currently there arc a total of 106 ground-based and 20 candidate flight principal investigators conducting research in four major thrust areas in the program: complex flows, multiphase flow and phase change, interfacial phenomena, and dynamics and instabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) to be launched in 1998, provides the microgravity research community with a unprecedented opportunity to conduct long-duration microgravity experiments which can be controlled and operated from the Principal Investigators' own laboratory. Frequent planned shuttle flights to the Station will provide opportunities to conduct many more experiments than were previously possible. NASA Lewis Research Center is in the process of designing a Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) to be located in the Laboratory Module of the ISS that will not only accommodate multiple users but, allow a broad range of fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments to be conducted in a cost effective manner.

  18. Dredging Research Program: Hydraulically Transported Clay Balls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    0.764660 cubic meters faet 0.3048 mews inches 2.64 cemtilnw pounds (boa) 4.448222 newtons pounds (nmas) per cubic foot 16.01846 Idlorams per cubic meoer...disintegration. Research has also been done by Syncrude Ltd. (Lord and Issac 1988), an oil shale mining company in Alberta, Canada. This research was...those cut by the cultterhead (Lord and Issac 1988). kwstlgmUfon promdures Improvements in investigation procedures also need to be made. Ideally

  19. Research on centrality of urban transport network nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kui; Fu, Xiufen

    2017-05-01

    Based on the actual data of urban transport in Guangzhou, 19,150 bus stations in Guangzhou (as of 2014) are selected as nodes. Based on the theory of complex network, the network model of Guangzhou urban transport is constructed. By analyzing the degree centrality index, betweenness centrality index and closeness centrality index of nodes in the network, the level of centrality of each node in the network is studied. From a different point of view to determine the hub node of Guangzhou urban transport network, corresponding to the city's key sites and major transfer sites. The reliability of the network is determined by the stability of some key nodes (transport hub station). The research of network node centralization can provide a theoretical basis for the rational allocation of urban transport network sites and public transport system planning.

  20. Research and the planned Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Original photo and caption dated June 22, 1988: 'A dwarf wheat variety known as Yecoro Rojo flourishes in KSC's Biomass Production Chamber. Researchers are gathering information on the crop's ability to produce food, water and oxygen, and then remove carbon dioxide. The confined quarters associated with space travel require researchers to focus on smaller plants that yield proportionately large amounts of biomass. This wheat crop takes about 85 days to grow before harvest.' Plant experiments such as this are the type of life sciences research that will be conducted at the Space Experiment Research Procession Laboratory (SERPL). The SERPL is a planned 100,000-square-foot laboratory that will provide expanded and upgraded facilities for hosting International Space Station experiment processing. In addition, it will provide better support for other biological and life sciences payload processing at KSC. It will serve as a magnet facility for a planned 400-acre Space Station Commerce Park.

  1. Research and the planned Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Original photo and caption dated June 22, 1988: 'A dwarf wheat variety known as Yecoro Rojo flourishes in KSC's Biomass Production Chamber. Researchers are gathering information on the crop's ability to produce food, water and oxygen, and then remove carbon dioxide. The confined quarters associated with space travel require researchers to focus on smaller plants that yield proportionately large amounts of biomass. This wheat crop takes about 85 days to grow before harvest.' Plant experiments such as this are the type of life sciences research that will be conducted at the Space Experiment Research Procession Laboratory (SERPL). The SERPL is a planned 100,000-square-foot laboratory that will provide expanded and upgraded facilities for hosting International Space Station experiment processing. In addition, it will provide better support for other biological and life sciences payload processing at KSC. It will serve as a magnet facility for a planned 400-acre Space Station Commerce Park.

  2. Across the Arctic Teachers Experience Field Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnick, W. K.; Warburton, J.; Wiggins, H. V.; Marshall, S. A.; Darby, D. A.

    2005-12-01

    From studying snow geese on the North Slope of Alaska to sediment coring aboard the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Healy in the Arctic Ocean, K-12 teachers embark on scientific expeditions as part of a program that strives to make science in the Arctic a "virtual" reality. In the past two years, seventeen K-12 teachers have participated in Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating (TREC), a program that pairs teachers with researchers to improve science education through arctic field experiences. TREC builds on the scientific and cultural opportunities of the Arctic, linking research and education through topics that naturally engage students and the wider public. TREC includes expeditions as diverse as studying plants at Toolik Field Station, a research facility located 150 miles above the Arctic Circle; climate change studies in Norway's Svalbard archipelago; studying rivers in Siberia; or a trans-arctic expedition aboard the USCGC Healy collecting an integrated geophysical data set. Funded by the National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs, TREC offers educators experiences in scientific inquiry while encouraging the public and students to become active participants in the scientific inquiry by engaging them virtually in arctic research. TREC uses online outreach elements to convey the research experience to a broad audience. While in remote field locations, teachers and researchers interact with students and the public through online seminars and live calls from the field, online journals with accompanying photos, and online bulletin boards. Since the program's inception in 2004, numerous visitors have posted questions or interacted with teachers, researchers, and students through the TREC website (http://www.arcus.org/trec). TREC teachers are required to transfer their experience of research and current science into their classroom through the development of relevant activities and resources. Teachers and researchers are encouraged to participate

  3. European experience in transport/storage cask for vitrified residues

    SciTech Connect

    Otton, Camille; Sicard, Damien

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Because of the evolution of burnup of spent fuel to be reprocessed, the high activity vitrified residues would not be transported in the existing cask designs. Therefore, TN International has decided in the late nineties to develop a brand new design of casks with optimized capacity able to store and transport the most active and hottest canisters: the TN{sup TM}81 casks currently in use in Switzerland and the TN{sup TM}85 cask which shall permit in the near future in Germany the storage and the transport of the most active vitrified residues defining a thermal power of 56 kW (kilowatts). The challenges for the TN{sup TM}81 and TN{sup TM}85 cask designs were that the geometry entry data were very restrictive and were combined with a fairly wide range set by the AREVA NC Specification relative to vitrified residue canister. The TN{sup TM}81 and the TN{sup TM}85 casks have been designed to fully anticipate shipment constraints of the present vitrified residue production. It also used the feedback of current shipments and the operational constraints and experience of receiving and shipping facilities. The casks had to fit as much as possible in the existing procedures for the already existing flasks such as the TN{sup TM}28 cask and TS 28 V cask, all along the logistics chain of loading, unloading, transport and maintenance. (authors)

  4. Marine Transportation System Performance Measures Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    formally referred to as events) can have many contributing factors such as bad weather, mechanical failure, and human error. There are also many...continued oversight and emergency response ca- pability across the MTS. Greater understanding of the human factors that contribute to accidents is...expected to improve safety; research on this topic is being carried out through groups such as the TRB Committee on Marine Safety and Human Factors

  5. Lab- and space-based researchers discuss plasma experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D. N.; Yamada, M.

    Plasma physics provides a common language and set of approaches that tie together all scientists who study the acceleration, transport, and loss processes of the plasma state. Some years ago, researchers from the laboratory and space research communities suggested a workshop to bring together the diverse researchers in the respective fields. A series of workshops on the “Interrelationship between Plasma Experiments in the Laboratory and Space” (IPELS) was established, and the third meeting was held July 24-28, 1995, in the beautiful and historic town of Pitlochry in the Scottish Highlands.The conference reestablished the critical point that plasma physics is an important but surprisingly diversified research discipline. Meetings attendees discussed a number of new approaches to plasma research, including novel diagnostic techniques for use in space, such as active antennas and electric field sounding devices. Detailed discussions covered spacecraft-plasma environment interactions, including vehicle charging and neutral gas release; fundamental aspects of industrial application of dusty plasmas and waves in dusty plasmas; a very distinctive phase transition of coulomb crystals (from solid state to liquid state) in dusty plasmas; and terrella experiments to simulate and study chaotic transport in the ionosphere.

  6. ABC transporter research: going strong 40 years on

    PubMed Central

    Theodoulou, Frederica L.; Kerr, Ian D.

    2015-01-01

    In most organisms, ABC transporters constitute one of the largest families of membrane proteins. In humans, their functions are diverse and underpin numerous key physiological processes, as well as being causative factors in a number of clinically relevant pathologies. Advances in our understanding of these diseases have come about through combinations of genetic and protein biochemical investigations of these transporters and the power of in vitro and in vivo investigations is helping to develop genotype–phenotype understanding. However, the importance of ABC transporter research goes far beyond human biology; microbial ABC transporters are of great interest in terms of understanding virulence and drug resistance and industrial biotechnology researchers are exploring the potential of prokaryotic ABC exporters to increase the capacity of synthetic biology systems. Plant ABC transporters play important roles in transport of hormones, xenobiotics, metals and secondary metabolites, pathogen responses and numerous aspects of development, all of which are important in the global food security area. For 3 days in Chester, this Biochemical Society Focused Meeting brought together researchers with diverse experimental approaches and with different fundamental questions, all of which are linked by the commonality of ABC transporters. PMID:26517919

  7. H{sup -} beam transport experiments in a solenoid low energy beam transport

    SciTech Connect

    Gabor, C.; Back, J. J.; Faircloth, D. C.; Lawrie, S. R.; Letchford, A. P.; Izaola, Z.

    2012-02-15

    The Front End Test Stand (FETS) is located at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and aims for a high current, fast chopped 3 MeV H{sup -} ion beam suitable for future high power proton accelerators like ISIS upgrade. The main components of the front end are the Penning ion source, a low energy beam transport line, an radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and a medium energy beam transport (MEBT) providing also a chopper section and rebuncher. FETS is in the stage of commissioning its low energy beam transport (LEBT) line consisting of three solenoids. The LEBT has to transport an H{sup -} high current beam (up to 60 mA) at 65 keV. This is the injection energy of the beam into the RFQ. The main diagnostics are slit-slit emittance scanners for each transversal plane. For optimizing the matching to the RFQ, experiments have been performed with a variety of solenoid settings to better understand the actual beam transport. Occasionally, source parameters such as extractor slit width and beam energy were varied as well. The paper also discusses simulations based on these measurements.

  8. Flight research experiments on ride quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.; Kuhlthau, A. R.

    1975-01-01

    The results and analysis of several flight research experiments in ride quality are described. These tests were carried out aboard the NASA Flight Research Center, JetStar Aircraft equipped with the General Purpose Airborne Simulator; and aboard a specially instrumented Boeing 747 flown in actual commercial flight. The data was analyzed to determine appropriate models for subjective reaction to the motion environment. Specifically, vertical and transverse acceleration inputs and aircraft bank angle were studied along with duration of exposure.

  9. A candidate's experience doing research during training.

    PubMed

    Hadge, Luke

    2012-10-01

    A psychoanalytic candidate explores his experience of participating in a research project at his institute during his training. The candidate has been a member of Sabrina Cherry's prospective study of psychoanalytic practice and professional development conducted at the Columbia University Center for Psychoanalytic Training and Research. While much as been written about candidacy from numerous perspectives, there is little in the literature about how being engaged in research affects a candidate's overall training experience. In particular, attention is paid to understanding the benefits, synergies, conflicts, and tensions in combining research with such aspects of analytic training as the training analysis, control cases, supervision, classes, and institute life. A parallel is drawn between the listening and interpretive skills learned in order to practice analysis and the method of textual analysis employed in the research project. The author believes that his research training and the impact of the specific research topic have enriched and deepened his analytic training, while at the same time revealing certain anxieties in integrating research with the development of his analytic skills and identity.

  10. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A summary of the research on air transportation is addressed including navigation; guidance, control and display concepts; and hardware, with special emphasis on applications to general aviation aircraft. Completed works and status reports are presented also included are annotated bibliographies of all published research sponsored on these grants since 1972.

  11. Field experiments of nonlocal sediment transport on a steep hillslope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiBiase, R.; Booth, A. M.; Ganti, V.; Scheingross, J. S.; Lamb, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Steep rocky hillslopes dominate the areal extent of rapidly uplifting mountain ranges, and pose a significant hazard to encroaching population centers. Existing models for hillslope sediment transport developed for soil-mantled landscapes are poorly suited to explain the evolution of steep hillslopes characterized by: (1) intermittent or patchy soil cover, (2) slopes that exceed the angle of repose, and (3) transport events that often involve long travel distances. Recently, nonlocal formulations of hillslope sediment transport laws that account for long travel distances have been proposed to overcome the limitations of traditional continuum-based models. However, their application to natural landscapes has been limited owing to few field constraints on key parameters, and computational difficulties expanding the framework to two-dimensions. To address this knowledge gap, we performed a series of field experiments on natural hillslopes to inform a simple particle-based model of hillslope sediment transport. We compiled the distribution of average velocity and transport distance for over 300 stones ranging in diameter from 2-10 cm using a video camera and laser range-finder. To characterize surface roughness, we used a tripod-based laser scanner to generate a 1 cm-resolution digital elevation model of each 30 m long hillslope. We find that hillslope travel distance follows a heavy-tailed distribution that varies systematically with the ratio of particle diameter to roughness height, in general agreement to published laboratory experiments. Mean particle velocity ranges from 1-3 m/s and scales weakly with distance traveled. Our modeling exercise reveals three key effects that should be included in any treatment of steep hillslope evolution: (1) there is a strong grain-size and surface roughness dependence on sediment transport distance, (2) sediment storage on slopes steeper than the angle of repose is possible due to vegetation or topographic roughness, and (3

  12. Asphalt and asphalt additives. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Contents: use of asphalt emulsions for in-place recycling: oregon experience; gap-graded cold asphalt concrete: benefits of polymer-modified asphalt cement and fibers; cold in-place recycling for rehabilitation and widening of low-volume flexible pavements in indiana; in situ cold recycling of bituminous pavements with polymer-modified high float emulsions; evaluation of new generation of antistripping additives; correlation between performance-related characteristics of asphalt cement and its physicochemical parameters using corbett's fractions and hpgc; reaction rates and hardening susceptibilities as determined from pressure oxygen vessel aging of asphalts; evaluation of aging characteristics of asphalts by using tfot and rtfot at different temperature levels; summary of asphalt additive performance at selected sites; relating asphalt absorption to properties of asphalt cement and aggregate; study of the effectiveness of styrene-butadiene rubber latex in hot mix asphalt mixes; stability of straight and polymer-modified asphalts.

  13. Assessing research participants' perceptions of their clinical research experiences.

    PubMed

    Kost, Rhonda G; Lee, Laura M; Yessis, Jennifer; Coller, Barry S; Henderson, David K

    2011-12-01

    Participants' perceptions of their research experiences provide valuable measures of ethical treatment, yet no validated instruments exist to measure these experiences. We conducted focus groups of research participants and professionals as the initial step in developing a validated instrument. Research participants enrolled in 12 focus groups, consisting of: (1) individuals with disorders undergoing interventions; (2) in natural history studies; or (3) healthy volunteers. Research professionals participated in six separate groups of: (1) institutional review board members, ethicists, and Research Subject Advocates; (2) research nurses/coordinators; or (3) investigators. Focus groups used standard methodologies. Eighty-five participants and 29 professionals enrolled at eight academic centers. Altruism and personal relevance of the research were commonly identified motivators; financial compensation was less commonly mentioned. Participants were satisfied with informed consent processes but disappointed if not provided test results, or study outcomes. Positive relationships with research teams were valued highly. Research professionals were concerned about risks, undue influence, and informed consent. Participants join studies for varied, complex reasons, notably altruism and personal relevance. They value staff relationships, health gains, new knowledge, and compensation, and expect professionalism and good organization. On the basis of these insights, we propose specific actions to enhance participant recruitment, retention, and satisfaction. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Simulation of UCN transport in the UCN τ Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamek, Evan; Liu, Chen-Yu; Salvat, Daniel; Callahan, Nathan; UCNτ Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    The UCN τ experiment aims to measure the neutron β-decay lifetime to 1 s total uncertainty and beyond by trapping ultracold neutrons (UCN) in a magneto-gravitational trap, in which UCN undergo no material interactions with the walls of the trap. To investigate UCN transport in the experiment, we have built Monte-Carlo simulations of the full-scale experiment using GEANT4. We have modeled the delivery of UCN to the trap with a highly accurate transport geometry. The model is bench-marked against the experimental data collected in the early 2013 run. The simulation is used to compare proposed geometry upgrades to enhance the efficiency of UCN delivery (planned for the late 2013 run). In addition, work is underway to expand the scope of simulation to include β and γ detection, with the goal of modeling our in-situ UCN detector using the technique of neutron activation on a large-surface Vanadium foil. Here we present the results of this simulation effort. The work is supported by the NSF grant PHY-1068712.

  15. Research Experiences in Community College Science Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauregard, A.

    2011-12-01

    The benefits of student access to scientific research opportunities and the use of data in curriculum and student inquiry-driven approaches to teaching as effective tools in science instruction are compelling (i.e., Ledley, et al., 2008; Gawel & Greengrove, 2005; Macdonald, et al., 2005; Harnik & Ross. 2003). Unfortunately, these experiences are traditionally limited at community colleges due to heavy faculty teaching loads, a focus on teaching over research, and scarce departmental funds. Without such hands-on learning activities, instructors may find it difficult to stimulate excitement about science in their students, who are typically non-major and nontraditional. I present two different approaches for effectively incorporating research into the community college setting that each rely on partnerships with other institutions. The first of these is a more traditional approach for providing research experiences to undergraduate students, though such experiences are limited at community colleges, and involves student interns working on a research project under the supervision of a faculty member. Specifically, students participate in a water quality assessment study of two local bayous. Students work on different aspects of the project, including water sample collection, bio-assay incubation experiments, water quality sample analysis, and collection and identification of phytoplankton. Over the past four years, nine community college students, as well as two undergraduate students and four graduate students from the local four-year university have participated in this research project. Aligning student and faculty research provides community college students with the unique opportunity to participate in the process of active science and contribute to "real" scientific research. Because students are working in a local watershed, these field experiences provide a valuable "place-based" educational opportunity. The second approach links cutting-edge oceanographic

  16. Research and the planned Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Original photo and caption dated October 8, 1991: 'Plant researchers Neil Yorio and Lisa Ruffe prepare to harvest a crop of Waldann's Green Lettuce from KSC's Biomass Production Chamber (BPC). KSC researchers have grown several different crops in the BPC to determine which plants will better produce food, water and oxygen on long-duration space missions.' Their work is an example of the type of life sciences research that will be conducted at the Space Experiment Research Procession Laboratory (SERPL). The SERPL is a planned 100,000-square-foot laboratory that will provide expanded and upgraded facilities for hosting International Space Station experiment processing. In addition, it will provide better support for other biological and life sciences payload processing at KSC. It will serve as a magnet facility for a planned 400-acre Space Station Commerce Park.

  17. Research and the planned Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Original photo and caption dated October 8, 1991: 'Plant researchers Lisa Ruffe and Neil Yorio prepare to harvest a crop of Waldann's Green Lettuce from KSC's Biomass Production Chamber (BPC). KSC researchers have grown several different crops in the BPC to determine which plants will better produce food, water and oxygen on long-duration space missions.' Their work is an example of the type of life sciences research that will be conducted at the Space Experiment Research Procession Laboratory (SERPL). The SERPL is a planned 100,000-square-foot laboratory that will provide expanded and upgraded facilities for hosting International Space Station experiment processing. In addition, it will provide better support for other biological and life sciences payload processing at KSC. It will serve as a magnet facility for a planned 400-acre Space Station Commerce Park.

  18. Research and the planned Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Original photo and caption dated October 8, 1991: 'Plant researchers Neil Yorio and Lisa Ruffe prepare to harvest a crop of Waldann's Green Lettuce from KSC's Biomass Production Chamber (BPC). KSC researchers have grown several different crops in the BPC to determine which plants will better produce food, water and oxygen on long-duration space missions.' Their work is an example of the type of life sciences research that will be conducted at the Space Experiment Research Procession Laboratory (SERPL). The SERPL is a planned 100,000-square-foot laboratory that will provide expanded and upgraded facilities for hosting International Space Station experiment processing. In addition, it will provide better support for other biological and life sciences payload processing at KSC. It will serve as a magnet facility for a planned 400-acre Space Station Commerce Park.

  19. Undergraduate Research Experiences from a Longitudinal Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harsh, Joseph A.; Maltese, Adam V.; Tai, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Undergraduate research experiences (UREs) have been endorsed as a powerful instructional tool in higher education; however, relatively little is known about the long-term effects of participation in these programs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the educational enhancements of URE participation from the perspective of practicing…

  20. International Research Students' Experiences in Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeoh, Joanne Sin Wei; Terry, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    The flow of international students to study in Australia increases each year. It is a challenge for students to study abroad in a different sociocultural environment, especially for postgraduate research students, as they experience numerous difficulties in an unfamiliar and vastly different study environment. A study aimed to investigate the…

  1. Experiments on polarization-dependent transport in 3He systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candela, D.; McAllaster, D. R.; Wei, L.-J.; Kalechofsy, N.

    1994-03-01

    Spin and momentum transport experiments are described for very dilute 3He- 4He mixtures and pure 3He brute-force polarized by a static field. Spin diffusion and rotation were observed in very dilute mixtures using a spin-wave resonance technique, and the viscosity increase due to polarization was observed using a vibrating wire. The mixture results are all well fit by the recent kinetic-equation calculations of Mullin and Jeon. Spin echoes were used to study transverse spin diffusion in pure 3He, providing the first clear evidence for polarization-induced relaxation-time anisotropy in a degenerate Fermi liquid.

  2. The Microgravity Research Experiments (MICREX) Data Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, C. A.; Jones, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    An electronic data base identifying over 800 fluids and materials processing experiments performed in a low-gravity environment has been created at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The compilation, called MICREX (MICrogravity Research Experiments) was designed to document all such experimental efforts performed (1) on U.S. manned space vehicles, (2) on payloads deployed from U.S. manned space vehicles, and (3) on all domestic and international sounding rockets (excluding those of China and the former U.S.S.R.). Data available on most experiments include (1) principal and co-investigator (2) low-gravity mission, (3) processing facility, (4) experimental objectives and results, (5) identifying key words, (6) sample materials, (7) applications of the processed materials/research area, (8) experiment descriptive publications, and (9) contacts for more information concerning the experiment. This technical memorandum (1) summarizes the historical interest in reduced-gravity fluid dynamics, (2) describes the importance of a low-gravity fluids and materials processing data base, (4) describes thE MICREX data base format and computational World Wide Web access procedures, and (5) documents (in hard-copy form) the descriptions of the first 600 fluids and materials processing experiments entered into MICREX.

  3. Long range view of materials research for civil transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.; Waters, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    The impact of various material technology advancements on the economics of civil transport aircraft is investigated. Benefits of advances in both airframe and engine materials are considered. Benefits are measured primarily by improvements in return on investment for an operator. Materials research and development programs which lead to the greatest benefits are assessed with regards to cost, risk, and commonality with other programs. Emphasis of the paper is on advanced technology subsonic/transonic transports (ATT type aircraft) since these are likely to be the next generation of commercial transports.

  4. Long range view of materials research for civil transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.; Waters, M. H.

    1974-01-01

    The impact of various material technology advancements on the economics of civil transport aircraft is investigated. Benefits of advances in both airframe and engine materials are considered. Benefits are measured primarily by improvements in return on investment for an operator. Materials research and development programs which lead to the greatest benefits are assessed with regards to cost, risk, and commonality with other programs. Emphasis of the paper is on advanced technology subsonic/transonic transports (ATT type aircraft) since these are likely to be the next generation of commercial transports.

  5. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1989-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    Research conducted during the academic year 1989-90 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation research is discussed. Completed works, status reports and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, human factors, and expert systems concepts applied to airport operations. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  6. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    The research conducted under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA and the FAA, one each with the Mass. Inst. of Tech., Ohio Univ., and Princeton Univ. Completed works, status reports, and bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include computer science, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, flight dynamics, and applied experimental psychology. An overview of activities is presented.

  7. Human behavior research and the design of sustainable transport systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauer, James J.

    2011-09-01

    reduced carbon emissions are central to the design and optimization of future low carbon transport systems. Gaker et al (2011) suggest a framework, and provide insight into the willingness of transport consumers to pay for emission reductions of carbon dioxide from their personal transport choices within the context of other attributes of transport variables. The results of this study, although limited to a small demographic segment of the US population, demonstrate that people can integrate information on greenhouse gas emissions with other transport attributes including cost and time. Likewise, the research shows that the study group was willing to pay for reduction in greenhouse gas emissions associated with their transport choices. The study examined auto purchase choice, transport mode choice and transport route choice, which represent key decisions associated with transport that impact greenhouse gas emissions. Interestingly, they found that the study group was willing to pay for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions at a relatively consistent price across these transport choices. Clearly, the study results may not broadly apply to all demographics of users of transport, even in the study domain, due to the small demographic segment that was examined and the fact that the study was conducted in the laboratory. However, the methods used by Gaker et al (2011) are cause for optimism that future studies can obtain much needed mapping of transport preferences and willingness to pay for greenhouse gas emission reductions associated with personal transport choices. Although the Gaker et al (2011) study is directed at understanding the promotion of low carbon transport in the context of existing infrastructures, the ability of these studies to elucidate human behavior and preferences within the trade-offs of transport are critical to the design of future transport systems that seek to meet transport demand with constrained greenhouse gas emissions. Additional studies of

  8. Boulder transport by tsunamis: A laboratory experiment on incipient motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressan, Lidia; Antonini, Alessandro; Gaeta, Maria Gabriella; Guerrero, Massimo; Miani, Marco; Petruzzelli, Valentina; Samaras, Achilleas

    2015-04-01

    Coastal boulders transported inland by high-energy events, such as tsunamis or storms, have been found along several coastal areas worldwide. The importance of these deposits relies on their implications on coastal hazard assessment, since they contribute to the identification of past events and to the study of their magnitude and characteristics. However, the identification of the event responsible of the dislocation of the boulder (tsunami or storm) is not trivial given the complexities of the tsunami and storm phenomena, the coastal environment, the initial boulder conditions, the uncertainties of the problem, etc. The hydrodynamics methods usually adopted are 1) the use of simple hydrodynamics formulae to estimate the minimum flow velocity and height required to move a boulder, and 2) numerical simulations that model the boulder transport together with the specific tsunami (or storm) event. The main shortcomings of the first method are the simplifications adopted, while the second approach implies the simulation of the transport event, which might not be practical because of the amount of uncertainties involved. To contribute to this study field, a laboratory experiment on the flow conditions for boulder transport was carried out at the Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory (LIDR) of the University of Bologna, Italy, in a 11 m long and 0.5 m wide flume. The main objective of this experiment is to provide experimental data for the conditions of the incipient motion for boulders, i.e. to relate the threshold flow velocity and depth for transport with the characteristics of the boulders, i.e. weight and geometry. The experimental channel is divided in three parts: on one end of the channel, a water tank is closed by a gate, followed by a central flat bed and a 1:10 slope, where the boulder is located. A bore, generated by quickly opening the gate (simulating a dam-break), flows in the channel, climbs up the slope and hits the boulder. The impact of the flow on the

  9. Shaping the research experiences of graduate students using action research.

    PubMed

    Lindo, J L M; Holder-Nevins, D; Dover Roberts, D; Dawkins, P; Bennett, J

    2013-12-01

    Nursing research capacity is often not optimal in developing countries. Capacity building at the graduate nurse level presents an opportunity for improved research output. Students pursuing a research methods course at a nursing school in Jamaica expressed fear and anxiety towards the course. Action research was used to address this fear and improve learning outcomes. To determine attitudes towards research and to improve the experience of graduate students pursuing a research methods course at a nursing school in Jamaica. Students (n=44) registered in the Research Methods course of the MScN at a nursing school in Kingston, Jamaica for the academic year 2010/2011, were invited to participate. Each student was assigned a main supervisor and an alternate supervisor and all had equal access to the course leader and content. On completion of the course three focus group discussions of 10-14 students per group were conducted to determine how students felt about the course experience and their attitude towards the course. Thirty-seven students (mean age of 41.4 ± 1.5 years; 94% female) participated in the exploratory course evaluation exercise. The participants reported that they entered research methods with feelings of apprehension and anxiety. However, these fears were allayed by a combination of factors including interest in students' welfare, affirmation of students, respect for and understanding of students' needs and resourcefulness, and the use of a panel of experts. Barriers included faculty's unrealistic expectations of students' research competencies and the limited time in which to learn and apply concepts. While students thought the course as challenging they felt more confident that they could be successful on completion of the course. Significant improvement in attitudes to research was realized among graduate nursing students using action research at an urban school of nursing in Jamaica. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Multicomponent reactive transport modeling of uranium bioremediation field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yilin; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Morrison, Stan J.; Amonette, James P.; Long, Philip E.

    2009-10-01

    A reaction network integrating abiotic and microbially mediated reactions has been developed to simulate biostimulation field experiments at a former Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) site in Rifle, Colorado. The reaction network was calibrated using data from the 2002 field experiment, after which it was applied without additional calibration to field experiments performed in 2003 and 2007. The robustness of the model specification is significant in that (1) the 2003 biostimulation field experiment was performed with 3 times higher acetate concentrations than the previous biostimulation in the same field plot (i.e., the 2002 experiment), and (2) the 2007 field experiment was performed in a new unperturbed plot on the same site. The biogeochemical reactive transport simulations accounted for four terminal electron-accepting processes (TEAPs), two distinct functional microbial populations, two pools of bioavailable Fe(III) minerals (iron oxides and phyllosilicate iron), uranium aqueous and surface complexation, mineral precipitation and dissolution. The conceptual model for bioavailable iron reflects recent laboratory studies with sediments from the UMTRA site that demonstrated that the bulk (˜90%) of initial Fe(III) bioreduction is associated with phyllosilicate rather than oxide forms of iron. The uranium reaction network includes a U(VI) surface complexation model based on laboratory studies with Rifle site sediments and aqueous complexation reactions that include ternary complexes (e.g., calcium-uranyl-carbonate). The bioreduced U(IV), Fe(II), and sulfide components produced during the experiments are strongly associated with the solid phases and may play an important role in long-term uranium immobilization.

  11. A capstone research experience for physics majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, David

    2013-03-01

    Dickinson College is a small liberal arts college with a thriving physics program. For years, one of the key features of our program has been a year-long senior research project that was required for each student. Unfortunately, as our number of majors increased, it became more and more difficult to supervise such a large number of senior research projects. To deal with this growing challenge, we developed a capstone research experience that involves a larger number of students working together on an independent group project. In this talk I will give a broad overview of our new senior research model and provide a few examples of projects that have been carried out over the past few years. I will also briefly describe the positive and negative aspects of this model from the perspective of faculty and students.

  12. Vestibular Function Research (VFR) experiment. Phase B: Design definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Vestibular Functions Research (VFR) Experiment was established to investigate the neurosensory and related physiological processes believed to be associated with the space flight nausea syndrome and to develop logical means for its prediction, prevention and treatment. The VFR Project consists of ground and spaceflight experimentation using frogs as specimens. The phase B Preliminary Design Study provided for the preliminary design of the experiment hardware, preparation of performance and hardware specification and a Phase C/D development plan, establishment of STS (Space Transportation System) interfaces and mission operations, and the study of a variety of hardware, experiment and mission options. The study consist of three major tasks: (1) mission mode trade-off; (2) conceptual design; and (3) preliminary design.

  13. Uranium transport in a crushed granodiorite: experiments and reactive transport modeling.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, T M; Reimus, P W

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to develop and demonstrate an experimental method to refine and better parameterize process models for reactive contaminant transport in aqueous subsurface environments and to reduce conservatism in such models without attempting to fully describe the geochemical system. Uranium was used as an example of a moderately adsorbing contaminant because of its relevance in geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel. A fractured granodiorite from the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland was selected because this system has been studied extensively and field experiments have been conducted with radionuclides including uranium. We evaluated the role of pH, porous media size fraction, and flow interruptions on uranium transport. Rock cores drilled from the GTS were shipped to Los Alamos National Laboratory, characterized by x-ray diffraction and optical microscopy, and used in uranium batch sorption and column breakthrough experiments. A synthetic water was prepared that represented the porewater that would be present after groundwater interacts with bentonite backfill material near a nuclear waste package. Uranium was conservatively transported at pH8.8. Significant adsorption and subsequent desorption was observed at pH ~7, with long desorption tails resulting after switching the column injection solution to uranium-free groundwater. Our experiments were designed to better interrogate this slow desorption behavior. A three-site model predicted sorption rate constants for a pH7.2 solution with a 75-150 μm granodiorite fraction to be 3.5, 0.012, and 0.012 mL/g-h for the forward reactions and 0.49, 0.0025, and 0.001 h(-1) for the reverse reactions. Surface site densities were 1.3, 0.042, and 0.042 μmol/g for the first, second, and third sites, respectively. 10-year simulations show that including a slow binding site increases the arrival time of a uranium pulse by ~70%.

  14. Uranium transport in a crushed granodiorite: Experiments and reactive transport modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, T. M.; Reimus, P. W.

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to develop and demonstrate an experimental method to refine and better parameterize process models for reactive contaminant transport in aqueous subsurface environments and to reduce conservatism in such models without attempting to fully describe the geochemical system. Uranium was used as an example of a moderately adsorbing contaminant because of its relevance in geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel. A fractured granodiorite from the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland was selected because this system has been studied extensively and field experiments have been conducted with radionuclides including uranium. We evaluated the role of pH, porous media size fraction, and flow interruptions on uranium transport. Rock cores drilled from the GTS were shipped to Los Alamos National Laboratory, characterized by x-ray diffraction and optical microscopy, and used in uranium batch sorption and column breakthrough experiments. A synthetic water was prepared that represented the porewater that would be present after groundwater interacts with bentonite backfill material near a nuclear waste package. Uranium was conservatively transported at pH 8.8. Significant adsorption and subsequent desorption was observed at pH ~ 7, with long desorption tails resulting after switching the column injection solution to uranium-free groundwater. Our experiments were designed to better interrogate this slow desorption behavior. A three-site model predicted sorption rate constants for a pH 7.2 solution with a 75-150 μm granodiorite fraction to be 3.5, 0.012, and 0.012 mL/g-h for the forward reactions and 0.49, 0.0025, and 0.001 h- 1 for the reverse reactions. Surface site densities were 1.3, 0.042, and 0.042 μmol/g for the first, second, and third sites, respectively. 10-year simulations show that including a slow binding site increases the arrival time of a uranium pulse by ~ 70%.

  15. Swashzone Fellowships: a 6-month research experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raubenheimer, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Swashzone Fellowships funded by the CAREER program were designed to provide sufficient time for undergraduates with little knowledge of ocean processes and minimal prior research experience to participate in observational nearshore oceanographic studies. The fellows learned background material, developed hypotheses, planned field experiments, designed sensor arrays, tested and debugged instrumentation, collected and analyzed data, and communicated the results through oral and written presentations. The program funded 12 undergraduate student fellows (4 male and 8 female), with backgrounds in math (3 students), physics (4), geology (1), and environmental sciences (4). Preference was given to applicants who had not taken oceanography classes and who were unsure of career plans. All the students presented their results at department seminars, and most presented their results at a professional conference (eg, AGU or Ocean Sciences). The results often were incorporated in peer-reviewed manuscripts. Evaluations conducted following the fellowships and again several years after each fellowship indicated that many of the students pursued STEM careers: 5 are pursuing PhD degrees, including bio-mathematics, physics, atmospheric physics, and ocean physics; 2 are employed at environmental engineering and consulting firms; 4 are employed as research technicians at WHOI; and 1 is a lawyer (currently being considered as a clerk for the Supreme Court). Many of the students were excited to learn about the range of oceanographic career options, including engineering and technical staff, as well as science research. The graduating seniors expressed their appreciation for the fellowship opportunity, stating that there were few science positions available to students without significant prior research experience. Several students noted that the fellowships were critical to their later employment and to their decisions to pursue careers in science. In particular, the students noted

  16. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1988-1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The research conducted during 1988 to 1989 under the NASA/FAA-sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ohio University, and Princeton University. Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include computer science, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, flight dynamics, and applied experimental psychology. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  17. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    The research conducted during 1983 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The material was presented at a conference held at the Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center, Altantic City, New Jersey, December 16, 1983. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ohio University, and Princeton University. Completed works, status reports, and bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance, control, and display concepts. An overview of the year's activities for each of the universities is also presented.

  18. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    The research conducted during 1984 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ohio University, and Princeton University. Completed works, status reports, and bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance, control and display concepts. An overview of the year's activities for each of the schools is also presented.

  19. Column experiments to investigate transport of colloidal humic acid through porous media during managed aquifer recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dan; Zhou, Jingjing; Zhang, Wenjing; Huan, Ying; Yu, Xipeng; Li, Fulin; Chen, Xuequn

    2016-09-01

    Colloids act as vectors for pollutants in groundwater, thereby creating a series of environmental problems. While managed aquifer recharge plays an important role in protecting groundwater resources and controlling land subsidence, it has a significant effect on the transport of colloids. In this study, particle size and zeta potential of colloidal humic acid (HA) have been measured to determine the effects of different hydrochemistry conditions. Column experiments were conducted to examine the effects on the transport of colloidal HA under varying conditions of pH (5, 7, 9), ionic strength (<0.0005, 0.02, 0.05 M), cation valence (Na+, Ca2+) and flow rate (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 ml/min) through collectors (glass beads) to model the properties and quality of artificial recharge water and changes in the hydrodynamic field. Breakthrough curves showed that the behavior of colloidal HA being transported varied depending on the conditions. Colloid transport was strongly influenced by hydrochemical and hydrodynamic conditions. With decreasing pH or increasing ionic strength, a decrease in the peak effluent concentration of colloidal HA and increase in deposition could be clearly seen. Comparison of different cation valence tests indicated that changes in transport and deposition were more pronounced with divalent Ca2+ than with monovalent Na+. Changes in hydrodynamic field (flow rate) also had an impact on transportation of colloidal HA. The results of this study highlight the need for further research in this area.

  20. Neutron Transport Simulations for NIST Neutron Lifetime Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fangchen; BL2 Collaboration Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    Neutrons in stable nuclei can exist forever; a free neutron lasts for about 15 minutes on average before it beta decays to a proton, an electron, and an antineutrino. Precision measurements of the neutron lifetime test the validity of weak interaction theory and provide input into the theory of the evolution of light elements in the early universe. There are two predominant ways of measuring the neutron lifetime: the bottle method and the beam method. The bottle method measures decays of ultracold neutrons that are stored in a bottle. The beam method measures decay protons in a beam of cold neutrons of known flux. An improved beam experiment is being prepared at the National Institute of Science and Technology (Gaithersburg, MD) with the goal of reducing statistical and systematic uncertainties to the level of 1 s. The purpose of my studies was to develop computer simulations of neutron transport to determine the beam collimation and study the neutron distribution's effect on systematic effects for the experiment, such as the solid angle of the neutron flux monitor. The motivation for the experiment and the results of this work will be presented. This work was supported, in part, by a Grant to Gettysburg College from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute through the Precollege and Undergraduate Science Education Program.

  1. Space Transportation Technology Workshop: Propulsion Research and Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the Space Transportation Technology Workshop topics, including Propulsion Research and Technology (PR&T) project level organization, FY 2001 - 2006 project roadmap, points of contact, foundation technologies, auxiliary propulsion technology, PR&T Low Cost Turbo Rocket, and PR&T advanced reusable technologies RBCC test bed.

  2. Research results and utility experience workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This workshop was sponsored by the Distributed Utility Valuation (DUV) Project-a joint effort of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Department of Energy (DOE), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) Department of Energy (DOE), and Pacific Gas & Electric Company (PG&E). The purpose of the workshop is to provide a forum for utilities, other research organizations, and regulatory agencies to share results and data on Distributed Utility (DU)-related research and applications. Up-to-date information provided insight into the various technologies available to utilities, the methods used to select the technologies, and case study results. The workshop was divided into three sessions: Planning Tools; Utility Experience; and Policy and Technology Implications. Brief summaries of the individual presentations from each session are attached as appendices.

  3. Transport with reversed shear in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Levinton, F. M.; Yuh, H.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gates, D. A.; Kaye, S. M.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Menard, J. E.; Mikkelsen, D.; Mueller, D.; Rewoldt, G.; Wang, W.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Finkenthal, M.; Stutman, D.; Tritz, K.; Maingi, R.; Raman, R.; Sabbagh, S. A.

    2007-05-15

    In the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)], plasmas with strongly reversed magnetic shear, s{identical_to}(r/q)(dq/dr)<0, in the plasma core exhibit a marked improvement in electron confinement compared to otherwise similar plasmas with positive or only weakly reversed magnetic shear. The q profile itself is determined by the early evolution of the plasma current, the plasma cross section, and the neutral-beam heating power. In the region of shear reversal, the electron thermal diffusivity can be significantly reduced. Detailed experimental investigation of this phenomenon has been made possible by the successful development of a motional Stark effect (MSE) polarimetry diagnostic suitable for the low magnetic field in NSTX, typically 0.35-0.55 T. Measurements of the electron and ion temperature, density, and plasma toroidal rotation profiles are also available with high spatial and temporal resolution for analysis of the plasma transport properties.

  4. Research and the planned Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Original photo and caption dated August 14, 1995: 'KSC plant physiologist Dr. Gary Stutte harvests a potato grown in the Biomass Production Chamber of the Controlled environment Life Support system (CELSS) in Hangar L at Cape Canaveral Air Station. During a 418-day 'human rated' experiment, potato crops grown in the chamber provided the equivalent of a continuous supply of the oxygen for one astronaut, along with 55 percent of that long-duration space flight crew member's caloric food requirements and enough purified water for four astronauts while absorbing their expelled carbon dioxide. The experiment provided data that will help demonstarte the feasibility of the CELSS operating as a bioregenerative life support system for lunar and deep-space missions that can operate independently without the need to carry consumables such as air, water and food, while not requiring the expendable air and water system filters necessary on today's human-piloted spacecraft.' His work is an example of the type of life sciences research that will be conducted at the Space Experiment Research Procession Laboratory (SERPL). The SERPL is a planned 100,000-square-foot laboratory that will provide expanded and upgraded facilities for hosting International Space Station experiment processing. In addition, it will provide better support for other biological and life sciences payload processing at KSC. It will serve as a magnet facility for a planned 400-acre Space Station Commerce Park.

  5. Research and the planned Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Original photo and caption dated August 14, 1995: 'KSC plant physiologist Dr. Gary Stutte (right) and Cheryl Mackowiak harvest potatoes grown in the Biomass Production Chamber of the Controlled Enviornment Life Support System (CELSS in Hangar L at Cape Canaveral Air Station. During a 418-day 'human rated' experiment, potato crops grown in the chamber provided the equivalent of a continuous supply of the oxygen for one astronaut, along with 55 percent of that long-duration space flight crew member's caloric food requirements and enough purified water for four astronauts while absorbing their expelled carbon dioxide. The experiment provided data that will help demonstarte the feasibility of the CELSS operating as a bioregenerative life support system for lunar and deep-space missions that can operate independently without the need to carry consumables such as air, water and food, while not requiring the expendable air and water system filters necessary on today's human-piloted spacecraft.' Their work is an example of the type of life sciences research that will be conducted at the Space Experiment Research Procession Laboratory (SERPL). The SERPL is a planned 100,000-square-foot laboratory that will provide expanded and upgraded facilities for hosting International Space Station experiment processing. In addition, it will provide better support for other biological and life sciences payload processing at KSC. It will serve as a magnet facility for a planned 400-acre Space Station Commerce Park.

  6. Research and the planned Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Original photo and caption dated August 14, 1995: 'KSC plant physiologist Dr. Gary Stutte (right) and Cheryl Mackowiak harvest potatoes grown in the Biomass Production Chamber of the Controlled Enviornment Life Support System (CELSS in Hangar L at Cape Canaveral Air Station. During a 418-day 'human rated' experiment, potato crops grown in the chamber provided the equivalent of a continuous supply of the oxygen for one astronaut, along with 55 percent of that long-duration space flight crew member's caloric food requirements and enough purified water for four astronauts while absorbing their expelled carbon dioxide. The experiment provided data that will help demonstarte the feasibility of the CELSS operating as a bioregenerative life support system for lunar and deep-space missions that can operate independently without the need to carry consumables such as air, water and food, while not requiring the expendable air and water system filters necessary on today's human-piloted spacecraft.' Their work is an example of the type of life sciences research that will be conducted at the Space Experiment Research Procession Laboratory (SERPL). The SERPL is a planned 100,000-square-foot laboratory that will provide expanded and upgraded facilities for hosting International Space Station experiment processing. In addition, it will provide better support for other biological and life sciences payload processing at KSC. It will serve as a magnet facility for a planned 400-acre Space Station Commerce Park.

  7. Research and the planned Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Original photo and caption dated August 14, 1995: 'KSC plant physiologist Dr. Gary Stutte harvests a potato grown in the Biomass Production Chamber of the Controlled environment Life Support system (CELSS) in Hangar L at Cape Canaveral Air Station. During a 418-day 'human rated' experiment, potato crops grown in the chamber provided the equivalent of a continuous supply of the oxygen for one astronaut, along with 55 percent of that long-duration space flight crew member's caloric food requirements and enough purified water for four astronauts while absorbing their expelled carbon dioxide. The experiment provided data that will help demonstarte the feasibility of the CELSS operating as a bioregenerative life support system for lunar and deep-space missions that can operate independently without the need to carry consumables such as air, water and food, while not requiring the expendable air and water system filters necessary on today's human-piloted spacecraft.' His work is an example of the type of life sciences research that will be conducted at the Space Experiment Research Procession Laboratory (SERPL). The SERPL is a planned 100,000-square-foot laboratory that will provide expanded and upgraded facilities for hosting International Space Station experiment processing. In addition, it will provide better support for other biological and life sciences payload processing at KSC. It will serve as a magnet facility for a planned 400-acre Space Station Commerce Park.

  8. Rapid transport from the surface to wells in fractured rock: a unique infiltration tracer experiment.

    PubMed

    Levison, Jana K; Novakowski, Kent S

    2012-04-01

    A unique infiltration tracer experiment was performed whereby a fluorescent dye was applied to the land surface in an agricultural field, near Perth, Ontario, Canada, to simulate the transport of solutes to two pumped monitoring wells drilled into the granitic gneiss aquifer. This experiment, interpreted using the discrete-fracture capability of the numerical model HydroGeoSphere, showed that solute transport from the surface through thin soil (less than 2m) to wells in fractured bedrock can be extremely rapid (on the order of hours). Also, it was demonstrated that maximum concentrations of contaminants originating from the ground surface will not necessarily be the highest in the shallow aquifer horizon. These are important considerations for both private and government-owned drinking water systems that draw water from shallow fractured bedrock aquifers. This research illustrates the extreme importance of protecting drinking water at the source.

  9. Quantifying the transport properties of lipid mesophases by theoretical modelling of diffusion experiments.

    PubMed

    Antognini, Luca M; Assenza, Salvatore; Speziale, Chiara; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2016-08-28

    Lyotropic Liquid Crystals (LLCs) are a class of lipid-based membranes with a strong potential for drug-delivery employment. The characterization and control of their transport properties is a central issue in this regard, and has recently prompted a notable volume of research on the topic. A promising experimental approach is provided by the so-called diffusion setup, where the drug molecules diffuse from a feeding chamber filled with water to a receiving one passing through a LLC. In the present work we provide a theoretical framework for the proper description of this setup, and validate it by means of targeted experiments. Due to the inhomogeneity of the system, a rich palette of different diffusion dynamics emerges from the interplay of the different time- and lengthscales thereby present. Our work paves the way to the employment of diffusion experiments to quantitatively characterize the transport properties of LLCs, and provides the basic tools for device diffusion setups with controlled kinetic properties.

  10. Anomalous transport in fracture networks: field scale experiments and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, P. K.; Le Borgne, T.; Bour, O.; Dentz, M.; Juanes, R.

    2012-12-01

    Anomalous transport is widely observed in different settings and scales of transport through porous and fractured geologic media. A common signature of anomalous transport is the late-time power law tailing in breakthrough curves (BTCs) during tracer tests. Various conceptual models of anomalous transport have been proposed, including multirate mass transfer, continuous time random walk, and stream tube models. Since different conceptual models can produce equally good fits to a single BTC, tracer test interpretation has been plagued with ambiguity. Here, we propose to resolve such ambiguity by analyzing BTCs obtained from both convergent and push-pull flow configurations at two different fracture planes. We conducted field tracer tests in a fractured granite formation close to Ploemeur, France. We observe that BTC tailing depends on the flow configuration and the injection fracture. Specifically the tailing disappears under push-pull geometry, and when we injected at a fracture with high flux (Figure 1). This indicates that for this fractured granite, BTC tailing is controlled by heterogeneous advection and not by matrix diffusion. To explain the change in tailing behavior for different flow configurations, we employ a simple lattice network model with heterogeneous conductivity distribution. The model assigns random conductivities to the fractures and solves the Darcy equation for an incompressible fluid, enforcing mass conservation at fracture intersections. The mass conservation constraint yields a correlated random flow through the fracture system. We investigate whether BTC tailing can be explained by the spatial distribution of preferential flow paths and stagnation zones, which is controlled by the conductivity variance and correlation length. By combining the results from the field tests and numerical modeling, we show that the reversibility of spreading is a key mechanism that needs to be captured. We also demonstrate the dominant role of the injection

  11. Reservoir transport and poroelastic properties from oscillating pore pressure experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasanov, Azar K.

    Hydraulic transport properties of reservoir rocks, permeability and storage capacity are traditionally defined as rock properties, responsible for the passage of fluids through the porous rock sample, as well as their storage. The evaluation of both is an important part of any reservoir characterization workflow. Moreover, permeability and storage capacity are main inputs into any reservoir simulation study, routinely performed by reservoir engineers on almost any major oil and gas field in the world. An accurate reservoir simulation is essential for production forecast and economic analysis, hence the transport properties directly control the profitability of the petroleum reservoir and their estimation is vital for oil and gas industry. This thesis is devoted to an integrated study of reservoir rocks' hydraulic, streaming potential and poroelastic properties as measured with the oscillating pore pressure experiment. The oscillating pore pressure method is traditionally used to measure hydraulic transport properties. We modified the method and built an experimental setup, capable of measuring all aforementioned rock properties simultaneously. The measurements were carried out for four conventional reservoir-rock quality samples at a range of oscillation frequencies and effective stresses. An apparent frequency dependence of permeability and streaming potential coupling coefficient was observed. Measured frequency dispersion of drained poroelastic properties indicates an intrinsically inelastic nature of the porous mineral rock frame. Standard Linear Model demonstrated the best fit to the experimental dispersion data. Pore collapse and grain crushing effects took place during hydrostatic loading of the dolomitic sample and were observed in permeability, coupling coefficient and poroelastic measurements simultaneously. I established that hydraulically-measured storage capacities are overestimated by almost one order of magnitude when compared to elastically

  12. Experiences performing conceptual design optimization of transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbuckle, P. D.; Sliwa, S. M.

    1984-01-01

    Optimum Preliminary Design of Transports (OPDOT) is a computer program developed at NASA Langley Research Center for evaluating the impact of new technologies upon transport aircraft. For example, it provides the capability to look at configurations which have been resized to take advantage of active controls and provide and indication of economic sensitivity to its use. Although this tool returns a conceptual design configuration as its output, it does not have the accuracy, in absolute terms, to yield satisfactory point designs for immediate use by aircraft manufacturers. However, the relative accuracy of comparing OPDOT-generated configurations while varying technological assumptions has been demonstrated to be highly reliable. Hence, OPDOT is a useful tool for ascertaining the synergistic benefits of active controls, composite structures, improved engine efficiencies and other advanced technological developments. The approach used by OPDOT is a direct numerical optimization of an economic performance index. A set of independent design variables is iterated, given a set of design constants and data. The design variables include wing geometry, tail geometry, fuselage size, and engine size. This iteration continues until the optimum performance index is found which satisfies all the constraint functions. The analyst interacts with OPDOT by varying the input parameters to either the constraint functions or the design constants. Note that the optimization of aircraft geometry parameters is equivalent to finding the ideal aircraft size, but with more degrees of freedom than classical design procedures will allow.

  13. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1989-01-01

    The research conducted during 1987 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of 3 grants sponsored by NASA-Langley and the FAA, one each with the MIT, Ohio Univ., and Princeton Univ. Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include computer science, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, flight dynamics, and applied experimental psychology. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  14. Research accomplishments for wood transportation structures based on a national research needs assessment

    Treesearch

    M. A. Ritter; S. R. Duwadi

    1998-01-01

    In 1991, the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) formed a joint cooperative research program for wood transportation structures. Development and execution of this program was based on a national assessment of research needs and priorities. In the 5 years since completion of the research needs assessment,...

  15. Engaging Students in Authentic Astronomy Research Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spuck, Timothy; Boocks, C.; Coogan, N.; Culbertson, E.; Davis, J.; Reinsel, N.; Saathoff, I.; Sampsell, D.; Yashinski, N.

    2010-05-01

    According to the National Science Standards science is something you do, not something that is done to you. The presentation explores citizen science projects such as GalaxyZoo and Citizen Sky-epsilon Aurigae, a search for young stellar objects, asteroid hunting with the International Astronomical Search Collaboration, a Cepheid variable study, and a local light pollution project; all taking place at the Oil City Area Sr. High School in Northwestern Pennsylvania. Students will be presenting their research and discuss the value of these real science experiences.

  16. Experiments on hydrodynamic transport in ultra-cold bose gasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koller, S. B.

    2012-09-01

    At temperatures near the absolut zero, a gas, here atomic sodium vapour, with high enough density cannot be described as tiny balls moving around as in classical physics. Since the temperature is low, the atoms are so slow that the matterwave of each atom starts to extend over the size of the atom and even over the interatomic distance. Therefore, they start to interfere like waves. Quantum mechanics start to dominate the physics in this regime. Further, depending on the sort of atoms (bosons or fermions) the atoms prefer to be in the same state or avoid to be in the same state. In the case of bosons as in the thesis, if the temperature is lowered to sub micro Kelvin temperature, a new state of matter appears after a phase transition - a macroscopic, standing wave, the Bose-Einstein condensate. This leads to a new phenomena: superfluidity - frictionless flow, second sound, vorticity and coherent scattering effects to name a few. The atoms are trapped in a elongated trap as in most of the experiments in ultra cold gasses. Usually experiments are done in a regime where the atoms seldomly collide with each other while travelling from one end to the other end of the cloud. In this experiment, however, the atoms collide many times with each other when they oscillate in the trap. This means that the cloud is hydrodynamic and leads to a very different behaviour. Two different sound waves (first and second sound), heat conduction, and collisional dominated transport can be observed in this case. The fact that the gas is weakly interacting allows comparison with current theory. At very low temperatures as in the experiments described in the thesis, the Bose character strongly alters the collisions of the atoms. The outcome of the collision does not only depend on the colliding atoms, but also on the atoms near by in phase space. The experiments outlined in this thesis cover some aspects of physics involved. Vortices have been created and observed in the Bose

  17. Double Transport Barrier Experiments on Alcator C-Mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wukitch, S. J.

    2001-10-01

    Double transport barrier modes (core and edge barrier) have been observed with intense, off-axis ICRF heating in Alcator C-Mod. An internal transport barrier (ITB) is routinely produced in enhanced D_α H-mode, 4.5 T, sawtoothing discharges with the minority resonance layer r/a ~ -0.5 to the high field side of the magnetic axis during current flat top. The measured density and calculated \\chi_eff (from TRANSP) profiles suggest the central particle and thermal barriers are formed less than one energy confinement time after the H-mode develops. The density, radiation and \\chi_eff profiles indicate that the foot of the barrier is r/a ~ 0.5. Furthermore, the thermal and particle confinement are improved across the entire region inside the barrier. Interestingly, the central toroidal rotation reverses from co-current direction, typical of H-mode plasmas, to the counter-current direction as the density profile becomes more peaked. Typically, increased core impurity radiation, presumably due to improved particle confinement, leads to a barrier collapse after ~ 10 energy confinement times. A BT scan showed that the double barrier mode was accessed for B_T=4.1-4.5 T with the foot of the ITB remaining at r/a ~ 0.5. Importantly, experiments with additional central ICRF heating maintained the double barrier mode for as long as the ICRF was applied ( ~ 6 confinement times). With the application of central heating, the central rotation reversed back to the co-current direction. In addition, the density peaking and impurity accumulation were arrested with the application of the central heating. Thus, the additional central heating appears to provide a means for controlling this mode.

  18. Recent Progress in the Research on Ion and Electron Transport in Gases at Swarm Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Urquijo, Jaime de

    2004-12-01

    This paper deals with the presentation and discussion of recent research on the transport of electrons and ions in gases at low energies. Particular emphasis is placed on electron swarm experiments related with the negative differential conductivity of electrons in some gas mixtures, and with secondary ionisation processes due to the impact of metastables with neutrals (Penning ionisation). Ion transport is firstly addressed through some recent measurements on atomic and molecular systems for which both theory and experiment have reached a high degree of agreement, and also on those in which the ranges of the density-normalized electric field intensity E/N have been increased substantiality. Also, the recent advances on the application of transport theories dealing with inelastic collisions are presented, as well as some recent measurements of negative ions and charged clusters in gaseous mixtures, leading to the successful test of Blanc's law at low fields, to the experimental mobilities.

  19. Atmospheric Transport During the Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific TRACE-P Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, Henry E.; Kiley, C. M.; Hannan, J. R.; Westberg, D. J.; Avery, M. A.; Newell, R. E.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric transport over the Pacific Basin is described during NASA's Transport and Chemical Evolution Over the Pacific Experiment (TRACE-P) that was conducted between February - April 2001. The mission included extensive chemical sampling from two aircraft based primarily in Hong Kong and Yokota Air Base, Japan. Meteorological conditions during TRACE-P changed rapidly due to the seasonal winter/spring transition and the decay of prolonged ENSO cold phase (La Nina) conditions. To document these changes, TRACE-P was divided into two halves, and mean flow patterns during each half are presented and discussed. Important circulation features are the semi-permanent Siberian anticyclone and transient middle latitude cyclones that form near eastern Asia and then move eastward over the northern Pacific. Five-day backward trajectories from the various flight tracks show that air sampled by the aircraft had been transported from a variety of locations. Some parcels remained over the tropical western North Pacific during the entire period, while other important origins were Southeast Asia, Africa, and central Asia. Patterns of satellite-derived precipitation and lightning are described. TRACE-P occurs during a neutral to weak La Nina period of relatively cold sea surface temperatures in the tropical Pacific. Compared to climatology, the TRACE-P period exhibits deep convection located west of its typical position; however, tropospheric flow patterns do not exhibit a strong La Nina signal. Circulation patterns during TRACE-P are found to be generally similar to those during NASA's PEM WEST-B mission that occurred in the same region during February - March 1994.

  20. Atmospheric Transport During the Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific TRACE-P Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, Henry E.; Kiley, C. M.; Hannan, J. R.; Westberg, D. J.; Avery, M. A.; Newell, R. E.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric transport over the Pacific Basin is described during NASA's Transport and Chemical Evolution Over the Pacific Experiment (TRACE-P) that was conducted between February - April 2001. The mission included extensive chemical sampling from two aircraft based primarily in Hong Kong and Yokota Air Base, Japan. Meteorological conditions during TRACE-P changed rapidly due to the seasonal winter/spring transition and the decay of prolonged ENSO cold phase (La Nina) conditions. To document these changes, TRACE-P was divided into two halves, and mean flow patterns during each half are presented and discussed. Important circulation features are the semi-permanent Siberian anticyclone and transient middle latitude cyclones that form near eastern Asia and then move eastward over the northern Pacific. Five-day backward trajectories from the various flight tracks show that air sampled by the aircraft had been transported from a variety of locations. Some parcels remained over the tropical western North Pacific during the entire period, while other important origins were Southeast Asia, Africa, and central Asia. Patterns of satellite-derived precipitation and lightning are described. TRACE-P occurs during a neutral to weak La Nina period of relatively cold sea surface temperatures in the tropical Pacific. Compared to climatology, the TRACE-P period exhibits deep convection located west of its typical position; however, tropospheric flow patterns do not exhibit a strong La Nina signal. Circulation patterns during TRACE-P are found to be generally similar to those during NASA's PEM WEST-B mission that occurred in the same region during February - March 1994.

  1. Cultural adaptation in translational research: field experiences.

    PubMed

    Dévieux, Jessy G; Malow, Robert M; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Samuels, Deanne; Ergon-Pérez, Emma; Jacobs, Robin

    2005-06-01

    The increase in the incidence of HIV/AIDS among minorities in the United States and in certain developing nations has prompted new intervention priorities, stressing the adaptation of efficacious interventions for diverse and marginalized groups. The experiences of Florida International University's AIDS Prevention Program in translating HIV primary and secondary prevention interventions among these multicultural populations provide insight into the process of cultural adaptations and address the new scientific emphasis on ecological validity. An iterative process involving forward and backward translation, a cultural linguistic committee, focus group discussions, documentation of project procedures, and consultations with other researchers in the field was used to modify interventions. This article presents strategies used to ensure fidelity in implementing the efficacious core components of evidence-based interventions for reducing HIV transmission and drug use behaviors and the challenges posed by making cultural adaptation for participants with low literacy. This experience demonstrates the importance of integrating culturally relevant material in the translation process with intense focus on language and nuance. The process must ensure that the level of intervention is appropriate for the educational level of participants. Furthermore, the rights of participants must be protected during consenting procedures by instituting policies that recognize the socioeconomic, educational, and systemic pressures to participate in research.

  2. Light transport and general aviation aircraft icing research requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breeze, R. K.; Clark, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    A short term and a long term icing research and technology program plan was drafted for NASA LeRC based on 33 separate research items. The specific items listed resulted from a comprehensive literature search, organized and assisted by a computer management file and an industry/Government agency survey. Assessment of the current facilities and icing technology was accomplished by presenting summaries of ice sensitive components and protection methods; and assessments of penalty evaluation, the experimental data base, ice accretion prediction methods, research facilities, new protection methods, ice protection requirements, and icing instrumentation. The intent of the research plan was to determine what icing research NASA LeRC must do or sponsor to ultimately provide for increased utilization and safety of light transport and general aviation aircraft.

  3. Translational research in child and adolescent transportation safety.

    PubMed

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Winston, Flaura Koplin

    2006-03-01

    Motor vehicle crash (MVC)-related injury is the leading cause of death among youths age 1 to 19 years. Advances in MVC and injury prevention depend on interrelated combinations of technology, policy, and education, and research on these topics can inform policy and lead to improvement in safety. This article presents two examples of translational research in transportation injury prevention. In the first example of child passenger protection, the authors describe a program of research designed to reduce the gap between the theoretical and practical effectiveness of safety methods. In the second example of novice teen drivers, the authors examine translational research related to two complementary approaches to reducing the exposure of novice teen drivers to high-risk driving conditions-graduated driver licensing policy and parental management of novice teen drivers. The examples suggest the utility of systematic programs of research designed to improve the translation into practice of MVC and injury prevention technology and policy.

  4. 76 FR 50312 - Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program (STEP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... Federal Highway Administration Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research...-LU) established the Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program... research on issues related to planning, environment, and realty will be included in future surface...

  5. 75 FR 38605 - Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program (STEP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... to implement this cooperative research program. Due to obligation limitations, recissions, and... Federal Highway Administration Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research...-LU) established the Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program...

  6. Unique research challenges for high-speed civil transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Charlie M., Jr.; Morris, E. K., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Market growth and technological advances are expected to lead to a generation of long-range transports that cruise at supersonic or even hypersonic speeds. Current NASA/industry studies will define the market windows in terms of time frame, Mach number, and technology requirements for these aircraft. Initial results indicate that, for the years 2000 to 2020, economically attractive vehicles could have a cruise speed up to Mach 6. The resulting research challenges are unique. They must be met with technologies that will produce commercially successful and environmentally compatible vehicles where none have existed. Several important areas of research were identified for the high-speed civil transports. Among these are sonic boom, takeoff noise, thermal management, lightweight structures with long life, unique propulsion concepts, unconventional fuels, and supersonic laminar flow.

  7. Unique research challenges for high-speed civil transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Charlie M., Jr.; Morris, Charles E. K., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Market growth and technological advances are expected to lead to a generation of long-range transports that cruise at supersonic or even hypersonic speeds. Current NASA/industry studies will define the market windows in terms of time frame, Mach number, and technology requirements for these aircraft. Initial results indicate that, for the years 2000 to 2020, economically attractive vehicles could have a cruise speed up to Mach 6. The resulting research challenges are unique. They must be met with technologies that will produce commercially successful and environmentally compatible vehicles where none have existed. Several important areas of research were identified for the high-speed civil transports. Among these are sonic boom, takeoff noise, thermal management, lightweight structures with long life, unique propulsion concepts, unconventional fuels, and supersonic laminar flow.

  8. Research Coordinators Experiences with Scientific Misconduct and Research Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Habermann, Barbara; Broome, Marion; Pryor, Erica R.; Ziner, Kim Wagler

    2010-01-01

    Background Most reports of scientific misconduct have been focused on principal investigators and other scientists (e.g., biostatisticians) involved in the research enterprise. However, by virtue of their position, research coordinators are often closest to the research field where much of misconduct occurs. Objective To describe research coordinators’ experiences with scientific misconduct in their clinical environment. Design The descriptive design was embedded in a larger, cross-sectional national survey. A total of 266 respondents, predominately registered nurses, who answered yes to having first hand knowledge of scientific misconduct in the past year provided open-ended question responses. Methods Content analysis was conducted by the research team, ensuring agreement of core categories and subcategories of misconduct. Findings Research coordinators most commonly learned about misconduct via first-hand witness of the event, with the principal investigator being the person most commonly identified as the responsible party. Five major categories of misconduct were identified: protocol violations, consent violations, fabrication, falsification, and financial conflict of interest. In 70% of cases, the misconduct was reported. In the majority of instances where misconduct was reported, some action was taken. However, in approximately 14% of cases, no action or investigation ensued; in 6.5% of cases the coordinator was either fired or resigned. Conclusions The study demonstrates the need to expand definitions of scientific misconduct beyond fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism to include other practices. The importance of the ethical climate in the institution in ensuring a safe environment to report and an environment where evidence is reviewed cannot be overlooked. PMID:20010045

  9. Simulation and modeling of the Gamble II self-pinched ion beam transport experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, D.V.; Ottinger, P.F.; Hinshelwood, D.D.

    1999-07-01

    Progress in numerical simulations and modeling of the self-pinched ion beam transport experiment at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is reviewed. In the experiment, a 1.2-MeV, 100-kA proton beam enters a 1-m long, transport region filled with a low pressure gas (30--250 mTorr helium, or 1 Torr air). The time-dependent velocity distribution function of the injected ion beam is determined from an orbit code that uses a pinch-reflex ion diode model and the measured voltage and current from this diode on the Gamble II generator at NRL. This distribution function is used as the beam input condition for numerical simulations carried out using the hybrid particle-in-cell code IPROP. Results of the simulations will be described, and detailed comparisons will be made with various measurements, including line-integrated electron-density, proton-fluence, and beam radial-profile measurements. As observed in the experiment, the simulations show evidence of self-pinching for helium pressures between 35 and 80 mTorr. Simulations and measurements in 1 Torr air show ballistic transport. The relevance of these results to ion-driven inertial confinement fusion will be discussed.

  10. Computer-assisted comparison of analysis and test results in transportation experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.D.; Ammerman, D.J.; Koski, J.A.

    1998-05-10

    As a part of its ongoing research efforts, Sandia National Laboratories` Transportation Surety Center investigates the integrity of various containment methods for hazardous materials transport, subject to anomalous structural and thermal events such as free-fall impacts, collisions, and fires in both open and confined areas. Since it is not possible to conduct field experiments for every set of possible conditions under which an actual transportation accident might occur, accurate modeling methods must be developed which will yield reliable simulations of the effects of accident events under various scenarios. This requires computer software which is capable of assimilating and processing data from experiments performed as benchmarks, as well as data obtained from numerical models that simulate the experiment. Software tools which can present all of these results in a meaningful and useful way to the analyst are a critical aspect of this process. The purpose of this work is to provide software resources on a long term basis, and to ensure that the data visualization capabilities of the Center keep pace with advancing technology. This will provide leverage for its modeling and analysis abilities in a rapidly evolving hardware/software environment.

  11. Research and development of electric vehicles for clean transportation.

    PubMed

    Wada, Masayoshi

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the research and development of an electric vehicle (EV) in Department of Human-Robotics Saitama Institute of Technology, Japan. Electric mobile systems developed in our laboratory include a converted electric automobile, electric wheelchair and personal mobile robot. These mobile systems contribute to realize clean transportation since energy sources and devices from all vehicles, i.e., batteries and electric motors, does not deteriorate the environment. To drive motors for vehicle traveling, robotic technologies were applied.

  12. Transient Transport Experiments in the CDX-U Spherical Torus

    SciTech Connect

    T. Munsat; P.C. Efthimion; B. Jones; R. Kaita; R. Majeski; D. Stutman; and G. Taylor

    2001-06-12

    Electron transport has been measured in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) using two separate perturbative techniques. Gas modulation at the plasma edge was used to introduce cold-pulses which propagate towards the plasma center, providing time-of-flight information leading to a determination of chi(subscript e) as a function of radius. Sawteeth at the q=1 radius (r/a {approx} 0.15) induced heat-pulses which propagated outward towards the plasma edge, providing a complementary time-of-flight based chi(subscript e) profile measurement. This work represents the first localized measurement of chi(subscript e) in a spherical torus. It is found that chi(subscript e) = 1-2 meters squared per second in the plasma core (r/a < 1/3), increasing by an order of magnitude or more outside of this region. Furthermore, the chi(subscript e) profile exhibits a sharp transition near r/a = 1/3. Spectral and profile analyses of the soft X-rays, scanning interferometer, and edge probe data show no evidence of a significant magnetic island causing the high chi(subscript e) region.

  13. Aerothermodynamic Analysis of Commercial Experiment Transporter (COMET) Reentry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, William A.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Rault, Didier F. G.

    1996-01-01

    An aerothermodynamic analysis of the Commercial Experiment Transporter (COMET) reentry capsule has been performed using the laminar thin-layer Navier-Stokes solver Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm. Flowfield solutions were obtained at Mach numbers 1.5, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 27.5. Axisymmetric and 5, 10, and 20 degree angles of attack were considered across the Mach-number range, with the Mach 25 conditions taken to 90 degrees angle of attack and the Mach 27.5 cases taken to 60 degrees angle of attack. Detailed surface heat-transfer rates were computed at Mach 20 and 25, revealing that heating rates on the heat-shield shoulder ,can exceed the stagnation-point heating by 230 percent. Finite-rate chemistry solutions were performed above Mach 10, otherwise perfect gas computations were made. Drag, lift, and pitching moment coefficients are computed and details of a wake flow are presented. The effect of including the wake in the solution domain was investigated and base pressure corrections to forebody drag coefficients were numerically determined for the lower Mach numbers. Pitching moment comparisons are made with direct simulation Monte Carlo results in the more rarefied flow at the highest Mach numbers, showing agreement within two-percent. Thin-layer Navier-Stokes computations of the axial force are found to be 15 percent higher across the speed range than the empirical/Newtonian based results used during the initial trajectory analyses.

  14. Research on gas transport in chimneys: a progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Hearst, J.R.

    1986-03-18

    The results of the AGRINI and TIERRA experiments have led us to study three general topics: collapse phenomenology, CO/sub 2/ content measurement, and gas transport in chimneys. Our results so far are fragmentary, but we have been able to come to some tentative conclusions: (1) a layer of strong material between depths of 24 and 32 m, and perhaps some relatively strong material deeper, may have caused the AGRINI crater shape. This layer was absent at the nearby LABAN and CROWDIE events. We were unable to locate the layer with a surface penetrometer or surface seismic methods, but it may be possible to measure strength vs depth in situ by examining the penetration depth of a projectile. (2) We can probably improve our knowledge of the in situ CO/sub 2/ content by calibrating a commercial carbon/oxygen logging system for NTS conditions. (3) It is possible to measure the response of the gas in a chimney to changes in atmospheric pressure. There can be significantly different gas transport in chimneys with the same pressure response, depending on the porosity and the distribution of the porosity. It is possible to perform an inexpensive experiment to study the gas transport in an existing chimney.

  15. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1991-1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the research conducted during the academic year 1991-1992 under the FAA/NASA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research. The year end review was held at Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, June 18-19, 1992. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration and NASA Langley Research Center, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (NGL-22-009-640), Ohio University (NGR-36-009-017), and Princeton University (NGL-31-001-252). Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance and control theory and practice, intelligent flight control, flight dynamics, human factors, and air traffic control processes. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  16. Transition from avalanche dominated transport to drift-wave dominated transport in a basic laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Compernolle, Bart; Morales, George; Maggs, James; Sydora, Richard

    2016-10-01

    Results of a basic heat transport experiment involving an off-axis heat source are presented. Experiments are performed in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA. A ring-shaped electron beam source injects low energy electrons (below ionization energy) along a strong magnetic field into a preexisting, large and cold plasma. The injected electrons are thermalized by Coulomb collisions within a short distance and provide an off-axis heat source that results in a long, hollow, cylindrical region of elevated plasma pressure embedded in a colder plasma, and far from the machine walls. The off-axis source is active for a period long compared to the density decay time, i.e. as time progresses the power per particle increases. Two distinct regimes are observed to take place, an initial regime dominated by avalanches, identified as sudden intermittent rearrangements of the pressure profile, and a second regime dominated by sustained drift-Alfvén wave activity. The transition between the two regimes is sudden, affects the full radial profile and is preceded by the growth of drift Alfvén waves. Langmuir probe data will be shown on the evolution of the density, temperature and flow profiles during the transition. The character of the sustained drift wave activity will also be presented. Work supported by NSF/DOE Grant 1619505, and performed at the Basic Plasma Science Facility, sponsored jointly by DOE and NSF.

  17. Experiences with remote collaborations in fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Wurden, G.A.; Davis, S.; Barnes, D.

    1998-03-01

    The magnetic fusion research community has considerable experience in placing remote collaboration tools in the hands of real user. The ability to remotely view operations and to control selected instrumentation and analysis tasks has been demonstrated. University of Wisconsin scientists making turbulence measurements on TFTR: (1) were provided with a remote control room from which they could operate their diagnostic, while keeping in close contact with their colleagues in Princeton. LLNL has assembled a remote control room in Livermore in support of a large, long term collaboration on the DIII-D tokamak in San Diego. (2) From the same control room, a joint team of MIT and LLNL scientists has conducted full functional operation of the Alcator C-Mod tokamak located 3,000 miles away in Cambridge Massachusetts. (3) These early efforts have been highly successful, but are only the first steps needed to demonstrate the technical feasibility of a complete facilities on line environment. These efforts have provided a proof of principle for the collaboratory concept and they have also pointed out shortcomings in current generation tools and approaches. Current experiences and future directions will be discussed.

  18. Automatic braking system modification for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Transportation Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coogan, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Modifications were designed for the B-737-100 Research Aircraft autobrake system hardware of the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Program at Langley Research Center. These modifications will allow the on-board flight control computer to control the aircraft deceleration after landing to a continuously variable level for the purpose of executing automatic high speed turn-offs from the runway. A bread board version of the proposed modifications was built and tested in simulated stopping conditions. Test results, for various aircraft weights, turnoff speed, winds, and runway conditions show that the turnoff speeds are achieved generally with errors less than 1 ft/sec.

  19. Mass and momentum turbulent transport experiments with confined coaxial jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. V.; Bennett, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental study of mixing downstream of coaxial jets discharging into an expanded circular duct was conducted to obtain data for the evaluation and improvement of turbulent transport models. A combination of turbulent momentum transport rate and two components of velocity data were obtained from simultaneous measurements with a two-color LV system. A combination of turbulent mass transport rate, concentration and velocity data were obtained from simultaneous measurements with laser velocimeter (LV) and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) systems.

  20. The relationship between manual handling performance and recent flying experience in air transport pilots.

    PubMed

    Ebbatson, Matt; Harris, Don; Huddlestone, John; Sears, Rodney

    2010-02-01

    Modern jet transport aircraft are typically flown using the on-board automation by the pilot programming commands into the auto-flight systems. Anecdotal evidence exists suggesting that pilots of highly automated aircraft experience manual flying skills decay as a result of a lack of opportunity to practise hand-flying during line operations. The ability of a pilot to revert to basic manual control is essential, for example, in cases where the aircraft's automatic capability is diminished or when reconfiguring the automatics is an ineffective use of crew capacity. However, there is a paucity of objective data to substantiate this perceived threat to flight safety. Furthermore, traditional performance measurement techniques may lack the ability to identify subtle but significant differences in pilots' manual handling ability in large transport aircraft. This study examines the relationship between pilot manual handling performance and their recent flying experience using both traditional flight path tracking measures and frequency-based control strategy measures. Significant relationships are identified between pilots' very recent flying experience and their manual control strategy. Statement of Relevance: The study demonstrates a novel application of frequency analysis, which produces a broader and more sensitive analysis of pilot performance than has been offered in previous research. Additionally, the relationships that are found to exist between recent flying experience and manual flying performance will help to guide future pilot assessment and training.

  1. Progress in Heavy Ion Driven Inertial Fusion Energy: From Scaled Experiments to the Integrated Research Experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, J J; Ahle, L E; Baca, D; Bangerter, R O; Bieniosek, F M; Celata, C M; Chacon-Golcher, E; Davidson, R C; Faltens, A; Friedman, A; Franks, R M; Grote, D P; Haber, I; Henestroza, E; de Hoon, M J; Kaganovich, I; Karpenko, V P; Kishek, R A; Kwan, J W; Lee, E P; Logan, B G; Lund, S M; Meier, W R; Molvik, W; Olson, C; Prost, L R; Qin, H; Rose, D; Sabbi, G L; Sangster, T C; Seidl, P A; Sharp, W M; Shuman, D; Vay, J L; Waldron, W L; Welch, D; Yu, S S

    2001-07-10

    The promise of inertial fusion energy driven by heavy ion beams requires the development of accelerators that produce ion currents (approx 100's Amperes/beam) and ion energies ({approx} 1 - 10 GeV) that have not been achieved simultaneously in any existing accelerator. The high currents imply high generalized perveances, large tun depressions, and high space charge potentials of the beam center relative to the beam pipe. Many of the scientific issues associated with ion beams of high perveance and large tune depression have been addressed over the last two decades on scaled experiments at Lawrence Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, the University of Maryland, and elsewhere. The additional requirement of high space charge potential (or equivalently high line charge density) gives rise to effects (particularly the role of electrons in beam transport) which must be understood before proceeding to a large scale accelerator. The first phase of a new series of experiments in the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF VNL), the High Current Experiments (HCX), is now beginning at LBNL. The mission of the HCX is to transport beams with driver line charge density so as to investigate the physics of this regime, including constraints on the maximum radial filling factor of the beam through the pipe. This factor is important for determining both cost and reliability of a driver scale accelerator. The HCX will provide data for design of the next steps in the sequence of experiments leading to an inertial fusion energy power plant. The focus of the program after the HCX will be on integration of all of the manipulations required for a driver. In the near term following HCX, an Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) of the same general scale as the HCX is envisioned. The step which bridges the gap between the IBX and an engineering test facility for fusion has been designated the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE). The IRE (like the IBX) will provide an

  2. Challenges and perspectives of transport cargo vehicles utilization for performing research in free flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveeva, T. V.; Belyaev, M. Yu.; Tsvetkov, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    Russian Progress transport cargo vehicles have successfully been used in different space station programs since 1978. At present time, they play an important role in the International Space Station (ISS) project. Main tasks performed by the transport cargo vehicle (TCV) in the station program are the following: refueling of the station, delivery of consumables and equipment, waste removal, station attitude control and orbit correction maneuver execution. At the same time, the cargo vehicle basic systems still retain unused resources after the vehicle finishes its work with the station. It makes sense to use these resources to perform research in free flight of TCV after departure from the ISS when possible. The fields of research can be determined not only on the basis of the vehicle capabilities as a research platform but also taking into account needs of the research community. Possible fields could be the following: experiments on the Earth or other objects remote sensing using additional equipment, Microgravity research aboard TCV, Launch of small satellites and probes after TCV undocking from the station and transfer to the specified orbit, etc. Solution of research tasks using the Progress TCV resources helps to increase efficiency of the ISS research program performance. The paper considers the TCV flight control features and the methods of the solution of the problems arising when various experiments are performed aboard the vehicle.

  3. Multidisciplinary Education in Transportation. Proceedings of a Conference conducted by the Highway Research Board (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, September 7 and 8, 1973).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Transportation Research Board.

    A discussion of the problem of providing multidisciplinary education in transportation and a means for educators to communicate their approaches and experiences provided the purpose of the conference. Among the areas discussed were the comprehensiveness of transportation education, societal issues, systems aspects, transportation research,…

  4. Investigation of River Seismic Signal Induced by Sediment Transport and Water Flow: Controlled Dam Breaking Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. Y.; Chen, S. C.; Chao, W. A.

    2015-12-01

    Natural river's bedload often hard to measure, which leads numerous uncertainties for us to predict the landscape evolution. However, the measurement of bedload flux has its certain importance to estimate the river hazard. Thus, we use seismometer to receive the seismic signal induced by bedload for partially fill the gap of field measurement capabilities. Our research conducted a controlled dam breaking experiments at Landao River, Huisun Forest since it has advantage to well constraining the spatial and temporal variation of bedload transport. We set continuous bedload trap at downstream riverbed of dam to trap the transport bedload after dam breaking so as to analyze its grain size distribution and transport behavior. In the meantime we cooperate with two portable velocity seismometers (Guralp CMG6TD) along the river to explore the relationship between bedload transport and seismic signal. Bedload trap was divided into three layers, bottom, middle, and top respectively. After the experiment, we analyzed the grain size and found out the median particle size from bottom to top is 88.664mm, 129.601mm, and 214.801mm individually. The median particle size of top layer is similar with the upstream riverbed before the experiment which median particle size is 230.683mm. This phenomena indicated that as the river flow become stronger after dam breaking, the sediment size will thereupon become larger, which meant the sediment from upstream will be carried down by the water flow and turned into bedload. Furthermore, we may tell apart the seismic signal induced by water flow and bedload by means of two different position seismometers. Eventually, we may estimate the probable error band of bedload quantity via accurately control of water depth, time-lapse photography, 3D LiDAR and other hydrology parameters.

  5. Evaluation of the MOCAGE chemistry transport model during the ICARTT/ITOP experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousserez, N.; Attié, J. L.; Peuch, V. H.; Michou, M.; Pfister, G.; Edwards, D.; Emmons, L.; Mari, C.; Barret, B.; Arnold, S. R.; Heckel, A.; Richter, A.; Schlager, H.; Lewis, A.; Avery, M.; Sachse, G.; Browell, E. V.; Hair, J. W.

    2007-05-01

    Intercontinental Transport of Ozone and Precursors (ITOP), part of International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT), was a large experimental campaign designed to improve our understanding of the chemical transformations within plumes during long-range transport (LRT) of pollution from North America to Europe. This campaign took place in July and August 2004, when a strong fire season occurred in North America. Burning by-products were transported over large distances, sometimes reaching Europe. A chemical transport model, Modélisation de la Chimie Atmosphérique Grande Echelle (MOCAGE), with a high grid resolution (0.5° × 0.5°) over the North Atlantic area and a daily inventory of biomass burning emissions over the United States, has been used to simulate the period. By comparing our results with available aircraft in situ measurements and satellite data (MOPITT CO and SCIAMACHY NO2), we show that MOCAGE is capable of representing the main characteristics of the tropospheric ozone-NOx-hydrocarbon chemistry during the ITOP experiment. In particular, high resolution allows the accurate representation of the pathway of exported pollution over the Atlantic, where plumes were transported preferentially at 6 km altitude. The model overestimates OH mixing ratios up to a factor of 2 in the lower troposphere, which results in a global overestimation of hydrocarbons oxidation by-products (PAN and ketones) and an excess of O3 (30-50 ppbv) in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) over the continental United States. Sensitivity study revealed that lightning NO emissions contributed significantly to the NOx budget in the upper troposphere of northeast America during the summer 2004.

  6. Aeolian transport of biota with dust: A wind tunnel experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas, J. A., Jr.; Gill, T. E.; Van Pelt, R. S.; Walsh, E.

    2015-12-01

    Ephemeral wetlands are ideal sources for dust emission, as well as repositories for dormant stages of aquatic invertebrates. An important component of invertebrate dispersal and colonization to new areas is the ability to be entrained into the atmosphere. Aquatic invertebrate eggs fall within the size of dust and sand grains (30-600μm), are less dense and aerodynamically shaped. We have shown previously that aquatic invertebrates can be dispersed long distances in dust storms but the extent of transport of taxa based on diapausing egg size/morphology has not been investigated. Here, we control the wind erosion process in a wind tunnel to test entrainment of diapausing stages of brine shrimp, clam shrimp, tadpole shrimp, fairy shrimp, Daphnia, and the rotifers Brachionus plicatilis and B. calyciflorus into the air by saltation. Diapausing eggs were mixed with sterilized wind-erodible soil. The soil/egg mixture was moistened with distilled water and air dried to form a crust. Dust was generated in a wind tunnel by releasing sand grains that act as saltator material similar to wind-entrained natural sands. Maximum wind velocity was 10m/s and entrained particles were sampled through an isokinetic horizontal intake opening. Aeolian sediment was collected from three points in the system; transfer section for coarse sediment, the pan subtending a settling chamber for finer saltation-sized sediment, and two paper filters for suspension-sized sediment. Samples were then passed through 250 and 350 μm sieves to remove abrader sand and rehydrated with various sterile media depending on the type of organism. We retrieved viable brine, fairy, and tadpole shrimp, ostracods, Daphnia, and diapausing eggs of the rotifers after hydration. This experiment demonstrates that resting stages of many invertebrates can be wind-eroded due to size and egg morphology and remain viable under controlled conditions mimicking dust emission.

  7. A Tumbler Experiment as Introduction to Scientific Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, Brian Keith

    1989-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which a tumbler is used to simulate the changes that pebbles undergo during stream transport. Provides information on a discussion of results, equipment needed, an additional assignment, and a list of references. (RT)

  8. Experiments on viscous transport in pure-electron plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriesel, Jason M.; Driscoll, C. Fred

    1999-12-01

    Viscous transport in pure-electron plasmas is a rearrangement of particles due to like-particle interactions, eventually leading to a confined global thermal equilibrium state. The measured transport is observed to be proportional to the shear in the total (E×B+diamagnetic) fluid rotation of the plasma, for both hollow and monotonic rotation profiles. We determine the local kinematic viscosity, κ, from measurements of the local flux of electrons. The measured viscosity is 50-104 times larger than expected from classical transport due to short-range velocity-scattering collisions, but is within a factor of 10 of recent theories by O'Neil and Dubin of transport due to long-range drift collisions. The measured viscosity scales with magnetic field and plasma length roughly as κ∝B/L. This scaling suggests a finite-length transport enhancement caused by particles interacting multiple times as they bounce axially between the ends of the plasma.

  9. 75 FR 24773 - Research and Innovative Technology Administration Advisory Council on Transportation Statistics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Bureau of Transportation Statistics Research and Innovative Technology Administration Advisory Council on Transportation Statistics; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation....

  10. Today`s research development on the application of the superconductivity transport system in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Kyotani, Y.

    1995-04-01

    At the Miyazaki test track today, the new test vehicle, MLU002N, is under test run to obtain necessary data for Yamanashi test track where the construction is underway, the test vehicle has been ordered and the first tunnel was completed in December 1993. Superconducting magnetohydrodynamic drive ship, MHDS, `Yamato 1` has completed its experiment in 1992 and it is now under preparation to exhibit to the public in 1994. Furthermore, to promote the research development of MHDS, the detailed discussion is underway on the magnetohydrodynamic drive equipment as well as the research on the future scheme. Neither an automobile nor railway but a new transport system called EQUOS LIM CAR(ELC) has been proposed. By using the rotating magnetic field, it will levitate on the aluminum like reaction plate. On the normal road, it will run by rolling the wheels like an electric car but on the highway, it will levitate on the guideway resulting to less noise, less vibration and pollution free drive. To understand the concept of the ELC, the model was built and experimented by using permanent magnet. The same model was donated to the MUSEUM OF SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY in Chicago and was displayed to the public. Today, the trial superconducting magnet has been made and the research development of the subsystem is underway. Research development of superconducting elevator, equipment for the launching of spaceship, tube transportation system and others are in progress for the superconducting applied transportation system.

  11. Today's research development on the application of the superconductivity transport system in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyotani, Yoshihiro

    1995-01-01

    At the Miyazaki test track today, the new test vehicle, MLU002N, is under test run to obtain necessary data for Yamanashi test track where the construction is underway, the test vehicle has been ordered and the first tunnel was completed in December 1993. Superconducting magnetohydrodynamic drive ship, MHDS, 'Yamato 1' has completed its experiment in 1992 and it is now under preparation to exhibit to the public in___1994. Furthermore, to promote the research development of MHDS, the detailed discussion is underway on the magnetohydrodynamic drive equipment as well as the research on the future scheme. Neither an automobile nor railway but a new transport system called EQUOS LIM CAR(ELC) has been proposed. By using the rotating magnetic field, it will levitate on the aluminum like reaction plate. On the normal road, it will run by rolling the wheels like an electric car but on the highway, it will levitate on the guideway resulting to less noise, less vibration and pollution free drive. To understand the concept of the ELC, the model was built and experimented by using permanent magnet. The same model was donated to the MUSEUM OF SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY in Chicago and was displayed to the public. Today, the trial superconducting magnet has been made and the research development of the subsystem is underway. Research development of superconducting elevator, equipment for the launching of spaceship, tube transportation system and others are in progress for the superconducting applied transportation system.

  12. Today's research development on the application of the superconductivity transport system in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyotani, Yoshihiro

    1995-04-01

    At the Miyazaki test track today, the new test vehicle, MLU002N, is under test run to obtain necessary data for Yamanashi test track where the construction is underway, the test vehicle has been ordered and the first tunnel was completed in December 1993. Superconducting magnetohydrodynamic drive ship, MHDS, 'Yamato 1' has completed its experiment in 1992 and it is now under preparation to exhibit to the public in___1994. Furthermore, to promote the research development of MHDS, the detailed discussion is underway on the magnetohydrodynamic drive equipment as well as the research on the future scheme. Neither an automobile nor railway but a new transport system called EQUOS LIM CAR(ELC) has been proposed. By using the rotating magnetic field, it will levitate on the aluminum like reaction plate. On the normal road, it will run by rolling the wheels like an electric car but on the highway, it will levitate on the guideway resulting to less noise, less vibration and pollution free drive. To understand the concept of the ELC, the model was built and experimented by using permanent magnet. The same model was donated to the MUSEUM OF SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY in Chicago and was displayed to the public. Today, the trial superconducting magnet has been made and the research development of the subsystem is underway. Research development of superconducting elevator, equipment for the launching of spaceship, tube transportation system and others are in progress for the superconducting applied transportation system.

  13. Research Status of IEC Experiments at NASA Marshall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobson, Chris; Hrbud, Ivana; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of IEC (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement) research and experiments at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. Topics covered include: apparatus involvement, iec schematics, iec plasma images, iec deuterium experiments, thomson scattering, detector options and experiment results.

  14. Uncovering Students' Preconceptions of Undergraduate Research Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adedokun, Omolola A.; Burgess, Wilella D.

    2011-01-01

    Like all learners, undergraduate research interns bring to their research internships a variety of initial ideas, opinions, expectations, beliefs and attitudes about research internships. However, there is little published research on students' preconceptions about research internships and the relationships of these preconceptions to actual…

  15. Uncovering Students' Preconceptions of Undergraduate Research Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adedokun, Omolola A.; Burgess, Wilella D.

    2011-01-01

    Like all learners, undergraduate research interns bring to their research internships a variety of initial ideas, opinions, expectations, beliefs and attitudes about research internships. However, there is little published research on students' preconceptions about research internships and the relationships of these preconceptions to actual…

  16. Transport simulations of ohmic pellet experiments on the TFTR, ASDEX, and ALCATOR-C tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Redi, M.H.; Tang, W.M.; Owens, D.K.; Greenwald, M.; Gruber, O.; Kaufmann, M.

    1988-07-01

    Transport simulations of ohmic gas-fuelled and pellet-fuelled experiments have been carried out to test a microinstability-based, profile-consistent model of anomalous transport in tokamaks. Predictions for experiments on the TFTR, ASDEX, and ALCATOR-C tokamaks were found consistent with the observed confinement and temperature measurements. 26 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Passepartout Sherpa - A low-cost, reusable transportation system into the stratosphere for small experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taraba, M.; Fauland, H.; Turetschek, T.; Stumptner, W.; Kudielka, V.; Scheer, D.; Sattler, B.; Fritz, A.; Stingl, B.; Fuchs, H.; Gubo, B.; Hettrich, S.; Hirtl, A.; Unger, E.; Soucek, A.; Frischauf, N.; Grömer, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Passepartout sounding balloon transportation system for low-mass (< 1200 g) experiments or hardware for validation to an altitude of 35 km is described. We present the general flight configuration, set-up of the flight control system, environmental and position sensors, power system, buoyancy considerations as well as the ground control infrastructure including recovery operations. In the telemetry and command module the integrated airborne computer is able to control the experiment, transmit telemetry and environmental data and allows for a duplex communication to a control centre for tele-commanding. The experiment module is mounted below the telemetry and command module and can either work as a standalone system or be controlled by the airborne computer. This spacing between experiment- and control unit allows for a high flexibility in the experiment design. After a parachute landing, the on-board satellite based recovery subsystems allow for a rapid tracking and recovery of the telemetry and command module and the experiment. We discuss flight data and lessons learned from two representative flights with research payloads.

  18. Neonatal Transport - Experience of a Tertiary Care Hospital of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Dey, S K; Sharker, S; Jahan, I; Moni, S C; Shabuj, K H; Chisti, M J; Mannan, M A; Shahidullah, M

    2017-01-01

    Safe transportation is mostly an unnoticed neonatal health issue in Bangladesh and no documentation is available regarding the existing practices. So this study was intended to document transport status of the referred newborn to a tertiary care hospital. This observational study included 150 out born neonates over 12 months period transported from various places to NICU, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) from May 2015 to April 2016. A structured data collection form was used to record information categorized into pre-transport, during transport and at admission. At admission detailed clinical assessment of the baby was done and recorded. Outcome was determined as discharge or death. Of 150 transported neonates, two-third were preterm 115(77%) & LBW 113(75%). Common indications for referral were prematurity and sepsis. Most of the patients were referred from private hospital 107(71%). Majority of newborns (86%) were referred from hospitals of Dhaka city while only 14% were referred from outside Dhaka. Referral notes were supplied in most of the cases 134(89%) but comprehensive information was obtainable only in 3 cases. Although main transport vehicle was ambulance 130(87%), medical personnel accompanied the sick baby only in 6(4%) of cases. The distance traveled was less than 10 kilometers (kms) in 95(63%) and more than 100 km in 10(7%) of enrolled neonates. Transport time was less than 1 hour in 72(48%), 1-6 hours in 66(44%) and more than 6 hours in 12(8%) of cases. Nearly two third of newborn were transported after office period, 107(72%). At admission 21(14%) babies had hypothermia, 8(7.62%) hypoglycemia, 16(11%), poor perfusion 28(19%), low saturation 27(18%). Hyperthermia & hyperglycemia were observed in 8(5%) & 7(5%) cases respectively. Of the total 150 babies referred, 17(11%) died. While comparing with discharged newborn, died newborn were more frequent sufferer of hypothermia (p value 0.007) and low saturation (p value 0.049) at

  19. NASA Langley Research Center's Simulation-To-Flight Concept Accomplished through the Integration Laboratories of the Transport Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Debbie; Davidson, Paul C.; Kenney, P. Sean; Hutchinson, Brian K.

    2004-01-01

    The Flight Simulation and Software Branch (FSSB) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) maintains the unique national asset identified as the Transport Research Facility (TRF). The TRF is a group of facilities and integration laboratories utilized to support the LaRC's simulation-to-flight concept. This concept incorporates common software, hardware, and processes for both groundbased flight simulators and LaRC s B-757-200 flying laboratory identified as the Airborne Research Integrated Experiments System (ARIES). These assets provide Government, industry, and academia with an efficient way to develop and test new technology concepts to enhance the capacity, safety, and operational needs of the ever-changing national airspace system. The integration of the TRF enables a smooth continuous flow of the research from simulation to actual flight test.

  20. Mass and Momentum Turbulent Transport Experiments with Confined Coaxial Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. V.; Bennett, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Downstream mixing of coaxial jets discharging in an expanded duct was studied to obtain data for the evaluation and improvement of turbulent transport models currently used in a variety of computational procedures throughout the propulsion community for combustor flow modeling. Flow visualization studies showed four major shear regions occurring; a wake region immediately downstream of the inlet jet inlet duct; a shear region further downstream between the inner and annular jets; a recirculation zone; and a reattachment zone. A combination of turbulent momentum transport rate and two velocity component data were obtained from simultaneous measurements with a two color laser velocimeter (LV) system. Axial, radial and azimuthal velocities and turbulent momentum transport rate measurements in the r-z and r-theta planes were used to determine the mean value, second central moment (or rms fluctuation from mean), skewness and kurtosis for each data set probability density function (p.d.f.). A combination of turbulent mass transport rate, concentration and velocity data were obtained system. Velocity and mass transport in all three directions as well as concentration distributions were used to obtain the mean, second central moments, skewness and kurtosis for each p.d.f. These LV/LIF measurements also exposed the existence of a large region of countergradient turbulent axial mass transport in the region where the annular jet fluid was accelerating the inner jet fluid.

  1. RESEARCH ON THE MEASURES IN PASSENGER RAILWAY TRANSPORT AGAINST TSUNAMI - TAKING INTO ACCOUNT OF THE EXPERIENCES OF TSUNAMI CAUSED BY THE 2010 CHILE EARTHQUAKE AS WELL AS THAT CAUSED BY THE 2011 TOHOKU-PACIFIC OCEAN EARTHQUAKE -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujisaki, Koichi; Kajitani, Toshio; Yokota, Shigeru; Morita, Yasutomo; Okuyama, Tadahiro; Muroi, Toshiaki; Hori, Muneo

    It is indispensable for passenger railways to prepare countermeasures against tsunami from the standpoint of both ensuring safety and maintaining public transport service that underpins the social life. In order to grasp the validity and limitation of the current measures, firstly, the examples of damages and responses in the field of railways in the case of some historical tsunamis and the tsunami caused by the 2010 Chile Earthquake as well as that caused by the 2011 Tohoku-Pacific Ocean Earthquake were surveyed. Secondly, elements of the complicated relevant legislations were put in order. Based on those steps, the details in the comprehensive measures against tsunami in the railways operation with the surrounding measures by the government and the municipalities, including the practices in the latest two tsunamis, were further analyzed by means of hearing as well as questionnaire survey conducted among many railway operators. The result indicated that there were some points to be improved in projection of inundation, passenger evacuation, acquiring tsunami information as well as communication and judgment in halting or restarting the operation of trains. Lastly, the desirable policies and technologies to be developed in the future in order to prepare for the possible East-Sea-Earthquake or Southeast-Sea & South-Sea Earthquake were extracted.

  2. Overview of NASA's Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Harry N.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation is an overview of the research for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Included is a review of the current air transportation system and the challenges of air transportation research. Also included is a review of the current research highlights and significant accomplishments.

  3. The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS): Research Collaborations with the NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarry, Scott E.; Bowen, Brent D.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.

    2002-01-01

    The aviation industry is an integral part of the world s economy. Travelers have consistently chosen aviation as their mode of transportation as it is reliable, time efficient and safe. The out- dated Hub and Spoke system, coupled with high demand, has led to delays, cancellations and gridlock. NASA is developing innovative solutions to these and other air transportation problems. This research is being conducted through partnerships with federal agencies, industry stakeholders, and academia, specifically the University of Nebraska at Omaha. Each collaborator is pursuing the NASA General Aviation Roadmap through their involvement in the expansion of the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS). SATS will utilize technologically advanced small aircraft to transport travelers to and from rural and isolated communities. Additionally, this system will provide a safe alternative to the hub and spoke system, giving more time to more people through high-speed mobility and increased accessibility.

  4. Asphalt pavement surfaces and asphalt mixtures. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The papers in this volume, which deal with asphalt pavement surfaces and asphalt mixtures, should be of interest to state and local construction, design, materials, and research engineers as well as contractors and material producers. The papers in Part 1 include discussions of pavement smoothness specifications and skidding characteristics. The first four papers in Part 2 were submitted in response to a call for papers for a session at the 75th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board on low-temperature properties of hot-mix asphalt. The next eight are on the influence of volumetric and strength properties on the performance of hot-mix asphalt. In the following three papers, the topics covered are the complex modulus of asphalt concrete, cold in-place asphalt recycling, and polymer modification of asphalt pavements in Ontario. The last two papers were presented in a session on relationship of materials characterization to accelerated pavement performance testing.

  5. Connecting Arctic/Antarctic Researchers and Educators (CARE): Supporting Teachers and Researchers Beyond the Research Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warburton, J.; Warnick, W. K.; Breen, K.; Fischer, K.; Wiggins, H.

    2007-12-01

    Teacher research experiences (TREs) require long-term sustained support for successful transfer of research experiences into the classroom. Specifically, a support mechanism that facilitates focused discussion and collaboration among teachers and researchers is critical to improve science content and pedagogical approaches in science education. Connecting Arctic/Antarctic Researchers and Educators (CARE) is a professional development network that utilizes online web meetings to support the integration of science research experiences into classroom curriculum. CARE brings together teachers and researchers to discuss field experiences, current science issues, content, technology resources, and pedagogy. CARE is a component of the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS) education program PolarTREC--Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating. PolarTREC is a three-year (2007-2009) teacher professional development program celebrating the International Polar Year (IPY) that advances polar science education by bringing K-12 educators and polar researchers together in hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctic. Currently in its second year, the program fosters the integration of research and education to produce a legacy of long-term teacher-researcher collaborations, improved teacher content knowledge through experiences in scientific inquiry, and broad public interest and engagement in polar science. The CARE network was established to develop a sustainable learning community through which teachers and researchers will further their work to bring polar research into classrooms. Through CARE, small groups of educators are formed on the basis of grade-level and geographic region; each group also contains a teacher facilitator. Although CARE targets educators with previous polar research experiences, it is also open to those who have not participated in a TRE but who are interested in bringing real-world polar science to the classroom

  6. 25 CFR 170.941 - May tribes become involved in transportation research?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Research Board meetings, committees, and workshops sponsored by the National Science Foundation; (b) Participate in and coordinate the development of tribal and IRR transportation research needs; (c) Submit...

  7. Conceptual Design of Tail-Research EXperiment (T-REX) on Space Plasma Environment Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Qingmei; Wang, Xiaogang; E, Peng; Shen, Chao; Wang, Zhibin; Mao, Aohua; Xiao, Chijie; Ding, Weixing; Ji, Hantao; Ren, Yang

    2016-10-01

    Space Environment Simulation Research Infrastructure (SESRI), a scientific project for a major national facility of fundamental researches, has recently been launched at Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT). The Space Plasma Environment Research Facility (SPERF) for simulation of space plasma environment is one of the components of SESRI. It is designed to investigate fundamental issues in space plasma environment, such as energetic particles transportation and the interaction with waves in magnetosphere, magnetic reconnection at magnetopause and magnetotail, etc. Tail-Research Experiment (T-REX) is part of the SPERF for laboratory studies of space physics relevant to tail reconnection and dipolarization process. T-REX is designed to carry out two kinds of experiments: the tail plasmamoid for magnetic reconnection and magnetohydrodynamic waves excited by high speed plasma jet. In this presentation, the scientific goals and experimental plans for T-REX together with the means applied to generate the plasma with desired parameters are reviewed. Two typical scenarios of T-REX with operations of plasma sources and various magnetic configurations to study specific physical processes in space plasmas will also be presented.

  8. COLLOID MOBILIZATION AND TRANSPORT IN CONTAMINANT PLUMES: FIELD EXPERIMENTS, LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS, AND MODELING (EPA/600/S-99/001)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The major hypothesis driving this research, that the transport of colloids in a contaminant plume is limited by the advance of the chemical agent causing colloid mobilization, was tested by (1) examining the dependence of colloid transport and mobilization on chemical perturbatio...

  9. COLLOID MOBILIZATION AND TRANSPORT IN CONTAMINANT PLUMES: FIELD EXPERIMENTS, LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS, AND MODELING (EPA/600/S-99/001)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The major hypothesis driving this research, that the transport of colloids in a contaminant plume is limited by the advance of the chemical agent causing colloid mobilization, was tested by (1) examining the dependence of colloid transport and mobilization on chemical perturbatio...

  10. Medical School Research Pipeline: Medical Student Research Experience in Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balon, Richard; Heninger, George; Belitsky, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors discuss the importance of introducing research training in psychiatry and neurosciences to medical students. Methods: A review of existing models of research training in psychiatry with focus on those providing research training to medical students is presented. Results: Two research-training models for medical students that…

  11. Medical School Research Pipeline: Medical Student Research Experience in Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balon, Richard; Heninger, George; Belitsky, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors discuss the importance of introducing research training in psychiatry and neurosciences to medical students. Methods: A review of existing models of research training in psychiatry with focus on those providing research training to medical students is presented. Results: Two research-training models for medical students that…

  12. Near-field radiative thermal transport: From theory to experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Bai Fiorino, Anthony; Meyhofer, Edgar; Reddy, Pramod

    2015-05-15

    Radiative thermal transport via the fluctuating electromagnetic near-field has recently attracted increasing attention due to its fundamental importance and its impact on a range of applications from data storage to thermal management and energy conversion. After a brief historical account of radiative thermal transport, we summarize the basics of fluctuational electrodynamics, a theoretical framework for the study of radiative heat transfer in terms of thermally excited propagating and evanescent electromagnetic waves. Various approaches to modeling near-field thermal transport are briefly discussed, together with key results and proposals for manipulation and utilization of radiative heat flow. Subsequently, we review the experimental advances in the characterization of both near-field heat flow and energy density. We conclude with remarks on the opportunities and challenges for future explorations of radiative heat transfer at the nanoscale.

  13. A preliminary assessment of field transport experiments using encapsulated cells

    SciTech Connect

    Petrich, C.R.; Knaebel, D.B.; Ralston, D.R.; Crawford, R.L.; Stormo, K.E.

    1995-12-31

    Microencapsulation of nonindigenous degradative organisms is a technique that enhances microorganism survival. An intermediate-scale field tracer test was conducted to evaluate the transport of encapsulated-cell microbeads and other particles in a shallow, confined, heterogeneous aquifer consisting of unconsolidated silts, sands, and gravels under induced-gradient, uniform flow conditions. Tracers included bromide; 2-, 5-, and 15-{micro}m-diameter polystyrene microspheres; and encapsulated Flavobacterium microbeads ranging in diameter from approximately 2 to 80 {micro}m. Results suggest that aquifer heterogeneity was a dominant factor in bromide- and particle-transport patterns. Encapsulated-cell migration appeared to be retarded with respect to the bromide and microsphere tracers. Results of this study also indicate that encapsulated-cell particle sizes and encapsulation material characteristics may be important factors affecting the transport of encapsulated cells in a subsurface environment.

  14. Modelling reactive CAH transport using batch experiment degradation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Haest, Pieter J; Springael, Dirk; Smolders, Erik

    2010-05-01

    Models describing transport of degradable organic substances in a porous medium require parameters of the biodegradation kinetics that can be obtained from batch degradation assays. It is rarely assessed if liquid batch biodegradation rates allow extrapolation to reactive transport in a porous medium, i.e. if the cell specific activity in a porous medium with flow-through is identical to that of pelagic cells in liquid cultures. Failure of model predictions can be used to identify the rate-limiting processes in the reactive transport. Column data of anaerobic trichloroethene (TCE) transport and degradation at three flow rates were predicted with a model using biodegradation kinetics derived from a liquid culture. The extent of dechlorination at the column outlet was very well predicted within a factor 1.4 if the specific microbial biomass in the columns was used as an input parameter. This suggests that potential mass transfer limitations in biofilms or differences in microbial ecology between batch and column had minor effects on dechlorination. The model was subsequently extended with Monod kinetics to predict both biomass growth and chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon (CAH) degradation in the columns using liquid batch data. These models largely overestimated CAH dechlorination unless microbial transport with cell elution was included and unless a slight batch to column adjustment was made to better predict microbial biomass. With 4 adjustable parameters the model succeeded in predicting the microbial numbers within a factor 4.3 and the extent of dechlorination within a factor 1.2. Our analysis validates the batch to column extrapolation for this dedicated set-up provided that the microbial biomass in columns is well predicted. The sensitivity analysis shows that the extent of dechlorination in the reactive transport is most sensitive to the parameters of TCE degradation kinetics, including microbial growth followed by the residence time. Copyright (c) 2010

  15. Environmental futures research: experiences, approaches, and opportunities

    Treesearch

    David N., comp. Bengston

    2012-01-01

    These papers, presented in a special session at the International Symposium on Society and Resource Management in June 2011, explore the transdisciplinary field of futures research and its application to long-range environmental analysis, planning, and policy. Futures research began in the post-World War II era and has emerged as a mature research field. Although the...

  16. A radio frequency tracing experiment of bedload transport in a small braided mountain stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebault, F.; Chapuis, M.; Bellot, H.; Deschatres, M.

    2009-04-01

    Radio frequency identification technology is used for monitoring the displacement of coarse particles in streams since the beginning of the 2000s. Passive integrated transponders (PIT tags) are small, cheap and long-lasting electronic tags that can be programmed with their own identification code. Initially used in environmental research for animal tracking, they have been deployed successfully in a variety of fluvial environments for coarse sediment tracing. Pioneering studies conducted in both semiarid and humid small upland streams with low intensity bedload transport gave recovery rates above 85% (Nichols 2004; Lamarre et al. 2005). Here we present an experiment of radio frequency sediment tracing implemented on a small braided mountain stream with a high intensity bedload transport and a wide active channel (mean active channel width: about 20 m). The study site is the Bouinenc Torrent, a tributary to the Bléone River in SE France that drains a 39 km² mountainous drainage basin of the Southern Prealps. In spring 2008, we deployed 451 tracers with b-axis ranging from 23 to 520 mm. Tracers were deployed along 8 cross sections located in the upstream part of the lowest 2.3 km of the stream. We developed a RFID detection system composed of an antenna and a reader unit; this system is characterized by a range of detection of 80 cm in optimal configuration. Two small intensity flow events occurred in June 2008 and entrained the tracers deployed in the most active part of the active channel. We mapped the position of the displaced tracers with a dGPS in July 2008. We obtained an overall recovery rate of 88%. The recovery rate calculated for the active tracers (those that were displaced after the flow events) was 76%. The projection of the tracer dispersion cloud on high resolution aerial photographs obtained with a drone allows us to calculate the distance of transport for each tracer. Mean and maximal distances of transport were respectively 796 m (+/- 53 m) and 2

  17. Perioperative Research Fellowship: Planning, Implementation, Experience

    PubMed Central

    Memtsoudis, Stavros G; Mazumdar, Madhu; Stundner, Ottokar; Hargett, Mary J.

    2014-01-01

    Perioperative outcomes research has gained widespread interest and is viewed as increasingly important among different specialties, including anesthesiology. Outcome research studies serve to help in the adjustment of risk, allocation of resources, and formulation of hypotheses to guide future research. Pursuing high quality research projects requires familiarity with a wide range of research methodologies, and concepts are ideally learned in a dedicated setting. Skills associated with the use of these methodologies as well as with scientific publishing in general, however, are increasingly challenging to acquire. This article is intended to describe the curriculum and implementation of the Perioperative Medicine and Regional Anesthesia Research Fellowship at the Hospital for Special Surgery. We also propose a methodology to evaluate the success of a research fellowship curriculum. PMID:24942850

  18. Bicycle boulevards and changes in physical activity and active transportation: findings from a natural experiment.

    PubMed

    Dill, Jennifer; McNeil, Nathan; Broach, Joseph; Ma, Liang

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluates changes in physical activity and active transportation associated with installation of new bicycle boulevards. This natural experiment study uses data from a longitudinal panel of adults with children (n=353) in Portland, OR. Activity and active transportation outcomes were measured with GPS and accelerometers worn for up to 5 days in 2010-11 and 2012-13. The effect of the treatment was estimated using difference in differences estimation and multivariate regression models. In five of the seven models, the interaction term was not significant, indicating that after controlling for the main effects of time and exposure separately, there was no correlation between being in a treatment area and minutes of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day, bicycling >10 min, walking >20 min, minutes of walking (if >20), or making a bike trip. Significant covariates included rain, being female, living closer to downtown, and attitudes towards bicycling, walking, and car safety. This study could not confirm an increase in physical activity or active transportation among adults with children living near newly installed bicycle boulevards. Additional pre/post studies are encouraged, as well as research on the length of time after installation that behavior change is likely to occur. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Work Experience Education; Research for Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Polytechnic Coll., San Luis Obispo.

    This extensive color-keyed program guide for general, exploratory, and vocational work experience education programs in California was developed by work experience coordinators, professors, state and local administrators, and various district teams to pilot test at the secondary and university levels. General, exploratory, and vocational goals are…

  20. Including health in transport policy agendas: the role of health impact assessment analyses and procedures in the European experience.

    PubMed Central

    Dora, Carlos; Racioppi, Francesca

    2003-01-01

    From the mid-1990s, research began to highlight the importance of a wide range of health impacts of transport policy decisions. The Third Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health adopted a Charter on Transport, Environment and Health based on four main components: bringing awareness of the nature, magnitude and costs of the health impacts of transport into intergovernmental processes; strengthening the arguments for integration of health into transport policies by developing in-depth analysis of the evidence; developing national case studies; and engaging ministries of environment, health and transport as well as intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations. Negotiation of the Charter was based on two converging processes: the political process involved the interaction of stakeholders in transport, health and environment in Europe, which helped to frame the issues and the approaches to respond to them; the scientific process involved an international group of experts who produced state-of- the-art reviews of the health impacts resulting from transportation activities, identifying gaps in existing knowledge and methodological tools, specifying the policy implications of their findings, and suggesting possible targets for health improvements. Health arguments were used to strengthen environmental ones, clarify costs and benefits, and raise issues of health equity. The European experience shows that HIA can fulfil the need for simple procedures to be systematically applied to decisions regarding transport strategies at national, regional and local levels. Gaps were identified concerning models for quantifying health impacts and capacity building on how to use such tools. PMID:12894322

  1. Transport in nanoporous carbon membranes: Experiments and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Acharya, M.; Foley, H.C.

    2000-05-01

    Single-component permeances of six gases were measured on three different supported nanoporous carbon membranes prepared by spray coating and pyrolysis of poly(furfuryl alcohol) on porous stainless-steel disks. Global activation energies were regressed from data collected as a function of temperature. Permeances and global activation energies were correlated to molecular size, assuming that entropic affects dominated the transport. The permeance was best correlated to the minimum projected area of the molecule computed from first principles. The free-energy barriers to transport within the membranes were derived from the temperature dependence of the permeance data, after accounting for porosity differences between the membranes and differences in molecular adsorption. Using transition-state theory and an entropic model derived, the free energy, enthalpy, and entropic barriers to transport within the membrane were examined as a function of molecular size. Computed on the basis of size, the entropic component of this barrier did not account for the large differences in the transition-state free energies. However, when these entropic barrier values were used to compute the enthalpic portion of the barrier free energies, the minimum projected area of each molecule correlated strongly. Furthermore, these enthalpic components of the barriers were fitted nicely by the Everett-Powl mean field potential, using only the pore size as the adjustable parameter. These results shed light on the underlying mechanism by which shape-selective transport takes place in the NPC membranes and small molecules are separated.

  2. "Transport distraction osteogenesis for reconstruction of mandibular defects": our experience.

    PubMed

    Nanjappa, Madan; Natashekara, M; Sendil Kumar, C; Kumaraswamy, S V; Keerthi, R; Ashwin, D P; Gopinath, A L

    2011-06-01

    Mandibular defects usually involve a combination of osseous and soft tissue deficiency and are among the most challenging problems in maxillofacial surgery, many options are available for mandibular reconstruction. One of the options discussed in literature recently being distraction osteogenesis. The aims and objectives of the study were to evaluate clinically the technique of distraction osteogenesis to reconstruct mandibular defects, using indigenous transport distractors, and to evaluate the efficacy of Indigenous transport distraction osteogenesis device. A prospective, experimental study was designed to examine the use of transport distraction osteogenesis in the treatment of defects of the mandible. Four patients with defects of the mandible were subjected to distraction osteogenesis with indigenously manufactured distraction device. The regenerate was assessed clinically and radiographically. The results showed that the regenerate was clinically as hard as the adjacent unaffected mandible and radiologic evidence of bone regeneration was observed. The major advantage being regeneration of hard tissue and soft tissue components without the morbidity of donor site, so that functional rehabilitation of the patient is possible. Thus from our study it is shown that transport distraction osteogenesis using indigenous distractors is a reliable yet affordable option for reconstruction of mandibular defects.

  3. Experiments on Viscous Transport in Pure-Electron Plasmas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriesel, J. M.; Driscoll, C. F.

    1999-11-01

    Viscous transport in pure-electron plasmas is a rearrangement of particles due to like-particle interactions, leading to the confined global thermal equilibrium state. The measured transport is observed to be proportional to the shear in the total (E × B + diamagnetic) fluid rotation of the plasma for both hollow and monotonic rotation profiles. We determine the local viscosity coefficient η in the plasma from measurements of the local flux of particles. The measured viscosity is 50-10^4 times larger than expected from classical transport due to short-range velocity-scattering collisions, but is within a factor of 10 agreement with recent theories by O'Neil and Dubin of transport due to long-range drift collisions. The measured viscosity scales with magnetic field B and length L roughly as η ∝ B/L. This scaling suggests a finite length enhancement of the viscosity, which occurs because particles interact many times as they bounce axially before they are sheared apart azimuthally.

  4. Integrating Research into LIS Field Experiences in Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Selinda Adelle; Hoffmann, Kristin; Dawson, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Field experiences function as a link between LIS theory and practice. Students should be provided with an experience that is a true reflection of the professional environment. The increasing focus on research by academic librarians provides an opportunity and responsibility to integrate research into the field experiences of LIS students.…

  5. Wilderness visitor experiences: Lessons from 50 years of research

    Treesearch

    David N. Cole; Daniel R. Williams

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews 50 years of research on the experiences of wilderness visitors. Research on the nature of experiences began with an emphasis on motivations for taking wilderness trips and a focus on the experiential outcomes of wilderness visits. This perspective has been complemented by recent work that more deeply explores the lived experience in wilderness, its...

  6. Management of historical waste from research reactors: the Dutch experience

    SciTech Connect

    Van Heek, Aliki; Metz, Bert; Janssen, Bas; Groothuis, Ron

    2013-07-01

    Most radioactive waste emerges as well-defined waste streams from operating power reactors. The management of this is an on-going practice, based on comprehensive (IAEA) guidelines. A special waste category however consists of the historical waste from research reactors, mostly originating from various experiments in the early years of the nuclear era. Removal of the waste from the research site, often required by law, raises challenges: the waste packages must fulfill the acceptance criteria from the receiving storage site as well as the criteria for nuclear transports. Often the aged waste containers do not fulfill today's requirements anymore, and their contents are not well documented. Therefore removal of historical waste requires advanced characterization, sorting, sustainable repackaging and sometimes conditioning of the waste. This paper describes the Dutch experience of a historical waste removal campaign from the Petten High Flux research reactor. The reactor is still in operation, but Dutch legislation asks for central storage of all radioactive waste at the COVRA site in Vlissingen since the availability of the high- and intermediate-level waste storage facility HABOG in 2004. In order to comply with COVRA's acceptance criteria, the complex and mixed inventory of intermediate and low level waste must be characterized and conditioned, identifying the relevant nuclides and their activities. Sorting and segregation of the waste in a Hot Cell offers the possibility to reduce the environmental footprint of the historical waste, by repackaging it into different classes of intermediate and low level waste. In this way, most of the waste volume can be separated into lower level categories not needing to be stored in the HABOG, but in the less demanding LOG facility for low-level waste instead. The characterization and sorting is done on the basis of a combination of gamma scanning with high energy resolution of the closed waste canister and low

  7. Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratory and Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    David Lyons

    2008-03-31

    The objective of this program was to quantify the emissions from heavy-duty vehicles operating on alternative fuels or advanced fuel blends, often with novel engine technology or aftertreatment. In the first year of the program West Virginia University (WVU) researchers determined that a transportable chassis dynamometer emissions measurement approach was required so that fleets of trucks and buses did not need to be ferried across the nation to a fixed facility. A Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratory (Translab) was designed, constructed and verified. This laboratory consisted of a chassis dynamometer semi-trailer and an analytic trailer housing a full scale exhaust dilution tunnel and sampling system which mimicked closely the system described in the Code of Federal Regulations for engine certification. The Translab was first used to quantify emissions from natural gas and methanol fueled transit buses, and a second Translab unit was constructed to satisfy research demand. Subsequent emissions measurement was performed on trucks and buses using ethanol, Fischer-Tropsch fuel, and biodiesel. A medium-duty chassis dynamometer was also designed and constructed to facilitate research on delivery vehicles in the 10,000 to 20,000lb range. The Translab participated in major programs to evaluate low-sulfur diesel in conjunction with passively regenerating exhaust particulate filtration technology, and substantial reductions in particulate matter were recorded. The researchers also participated in programs to evaluate emissions from advanced natural gas engines with closed loop feedback control. These natural gas engines showed substantially reduced levels of oxides of nitrogen. For all of the trucks and buses characterized, the levels of carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide and particulate matter were quantified, and in many cases non-regulated species such as aldehydes were also sampled. Particle size was also

  8. Modeling Polymer Stabilized Nano-scale Zero Valent Iron Transport Experiments in Porous Media to Understand the Transport Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, P.; Krol, M.; Sleep, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    A wide variety of groundwater contaminants can be treated with nano-scale zero valent iron (nZVI). However, delivery of nZVI in the subsurface to the treatment zones is challenging as the bare nZVI particles have a higher tendency to agglomerate. The subsurface mobility of nZVI can be enhanced by stabilizing nZVI with polymer, such as carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). In this study, numerical simulations were conducted to evaluate CMC stabilized nZVI transport behavior in porous media. The numerical simulations were based on a set of laboratory-scale transport experiments that were conducted in a two-dimensional water-saturated glass-walled sandbox (length - 55 cm; height - 45 cm; width - 1.4 cm), uniformly packed with silica sand. In the transport experiments: CMC stabilized nZVI and a non-reactive dye tracer Lissamine Green B (LGB) were used; water specific discharge and CMC concentration were varied; movements of LGB, and CMC-nZVI in the sandbox were tracked using a camera, a light source and a dark box. The concentrations of LGB, CMC, and CMC-nZVI at the sandbox outlet were analyzed. A 2D multiphase flow and transport model was applied to simulate experimental results. The images from LGB dye transport experiments were used to determine the pore water velocities and media permeabilities in various layers in the sand box. These permeability values were used in the subsequent simulations of CMC-nZVI transport. The 2D compositional simulator, modified to include colloid filtration theory (CFT), treated CMC as a solute and nZVI as a colloid. The simulator included composition dependent viscosity to account for CMC injection and mixing, and attachment efficiency as a fitting parameter for nZVI transport modeling. In the experiments, LGB and CMC recoveries were greater than 95%; however, CMC residence time was significantly higher than the LGB residence time and the higher CMC concentration caused higher pressure drops in the sandbox. The nZVI recovery was lower than 40

  9. Partnering the University Field Experience Research Model with Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnorr, Donna; Painter, Diane D.

    This paper presents a collaborative action research partnership model that involved participation by graduate school of education preservice students, school and university teachers, and administrators. An elementary teacher-research group investigated what would happen when fourth graders worked in teams to research and produce a multimedia…

  10. Alumni Perceptions Used To Assess Undergraduate Research Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Karen W.; Bennett, Joan S.

    2003-01-01

    On a survey of 986 alumni from a research-extensive university, respondents with undergraduate research experience, when compared to those with no research experience, reported greater enhancement of important cognitive and personal skills as well as higher satisfaction with their undergraduate education. They were also more likely to pursue…

  11. Chamber transport

    SciTech Connect

    OLSON,CRAIG L.

    2000-05-17

    Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system.

  12. The solenoidal transport option: IFE drivers, near term research facilities, and beam dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.P.; Briggs, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    Solenoidal magnets have been used as the beam transport system in all the high current electron induction accelerators that have been built in the past several decades. They have also been considered for the front end transport system for heavy ion accelerators for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) drivers, but this option has received very little attention in recent years. The analysis reported here was stimulated mainly by the recent effort to define an affordable {open_quotes}Integrated Research Experiment{close_quotes} (IRE) that can meet the near term needs of the IFE program. The 1996 FESAC IFE review panel agreed that an integrated experiment is needed to fully resolve IFE heavy ion driver science and technology issues; specifically, {open_quotes}the basic beam dynamics issues in the accelerator, the final focusing and transport issues in a reactor-relevant beam parameter regime, and the target heating phenomenology{close_quotes}. The development of concepts that can meet these technical objectives and still stay within the severe cost constraints all new fusion proposals will encounter is a formidable challenge. Solenoidal transport has a very favorable scaling as the particle mass is decreased (the main reason why it is preferred for electrons in the region below 50 MeV). This was recognized in a recent conceptual study of high intensity induction linac-based proton accelerators for Accelerator Driven Transmutation Technologies, where solenoidal transport was chosen for the front end. Reducing the ion mass is an obvious scaling to exploit in an IRE design, since the output beam voltage will necessarily be much lower than that of a full scale driver, so solenoids should certainly be considered as one option for this experiment as well.

  13. HSCT research defines weight, fuel issues. [High Speed Civil Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, J.

    1988-03-01

    The most recent research aims of the final stage of the NASA Langley High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) studies program involve the definition of obstables to the commercial development of aircraft employing kerosene-based fuels for Mach 2-3 cruise. One of the manufacturers participating in the HSCT program finds maximum potential for initial operations of a Mach 2-2.4 SST in the 2000-2010 period; another manufacturer has extended the speed range to Mach 5, on the basis of cryogenic fuels. Attention has been given to the economics of operations between Pacific basin city pairs, such as Los Angeles-Sydney and Los Angeles-Tokyo, as well as between New York-Paris and New York-Tokyo.

  14. Secondary light-ion transport from intermediate-energy hadron experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srikrishna, Ashwin P.; Castellanos, Luis A.; McGirl, Natalie A.; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Tessas, Chiara La; Rusek, Adam; Sivertz, Michael; Blattnig, Steve; Clowdsley, Martha; Slaba, Tony; Zeitlin, Cary

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this research is to produce double differential thick target yields, angular distributions and integrated yields for the inclusive production of neutrons, protons, deuterons, tritons, 3He, and 4He from intermediate heavy-ion interactions on thick targets of aluminium, polyethylene and other targets of interest to the radiation shielding program as specified by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). In tandem with the experimental research, transport model calculations of these thick target yields were also performed. The first such experimental run was conducted in May 2015, with the expectation of improved experimental results at a following March 2016 run at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) on the campus of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The May 2015 commissioning run served to test the electronics of the experimental setup, as well as the various detectors and other equipment under the conditions in which the following measurements will be run. The series of future accelerator-based experiments will rely on the inclusion of two separate upstream and downstream targets. Analysis of the data from both sets of detectors - liquid scintillator and sodium iodide - using both pulse height and time-of-flight methods will allow NASA to perform uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis on their transport codes and future shielding studies.

  15. [Benchmark experiment to verify radiation transport calculations for dosimetry in radiation therapy].

    PubMed

    Renner, Franziska

    2016-09-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are regarded as the most accurate method of solving complex problems in the field of dosimetry and radiation transport. In (external) radiation therapy they are increasingly used for the calculation of dose distributions during treatment planning. In comparison to other algorithms for the calculation of dose distributions, Monte Carlo methods have the capability of improving the accuracy of dose calculations - especially under complex circumstances (e.g. consideration of inhomogeneities). However, there is a lack of knowledge of how accurate the results of Monte Carlo calculations are on an absolute basis. A practical verification of the calculations can be performed by direct comparison with the results of a benchmark experiment. This work presents such a benchmark experiment and compares its results (with detailed consideration of measurement uncertainty) with the results of Monte Carlo calculations using the well-established Monte Carlo code EGSnrc. The experiment was designed to have parallels to external beam radiation therapy with respect to the type and energy of the radiation, the materials used and the kind of dose measurement. Because the properties of the beam have to be well known in order to compare the results of the experiment and the simulation on an absolute basis, the benchmark experiment was performed using the research electron accelerator of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), whose beam was accurately characterized in advance. The benchmark experiment and the corresponding Monte Carlo simulations were carried out for two different types of ionization chambers and the results were compared. Considering the uncertainty, which is about 0.7 % for the experimental values and about 1.0 % for the Monte Carlo simulation, the results of the simulation and the experiment coincide.

  16. Beam transport experiment with a new kicker control system on the HIRFL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan-Yu; Zhou, De-Tai; Luo, Jin-Fu; Zhang, Jian-Chuan; Zhou, Wen-Xiong; Ni, Fa-Fu; Yin, Jun; Yin, Jia; Yuan, You-Jin; Shang-Guan, Jing-Bin

    2016-04-01

    A kicker control system is used for beam extraction and injection between two cooling storage rings (CSRs) at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). To meet the requirements of special physics experiments, the kicker controller has been upgraded, with a new controller designed based on ARM+DSP+FPGA technology and monolithic circuit architecture, which can achieve a precision time delay of 2.5 ns. In September 2014, the new kicker control system was installed in the kicker field, and the test experiment using the system was completed. In addition, a pre-trigger signal was provided by the controller, which was designed to synchronize the beam diagnostic system and physics experiments. Experimental results indicate that the phenomena of “missed kick” and “inefficient kick” were not observed, and the multichannel trigger signal delay could be adjusted individually for kick power supplies in digitization; thus, the beam transport efficiency was improved compared with that of the original system. The fast extraction and injection experiment was successfully completed based on the new kicker control systems for HIRFL. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (U1232123)

  17. NASA Lewis Research Center combustion MHD experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. M.

    The MHD power generation experiments were conducted in a high field strength cryomagnet which was adapted from an existing facility. In its original construction, it consisted of 12 high purity aluminum coils pool cooled in a bath of liquid neon. In this configuration, a peak field of 15 tesla was produced. For the present experiments, the center four coils were removed and a 23 cm diameter transverse warm bore tube was inserted to allow the placement of the MHD experiment between the remaining eight coils. In this configuration, a peak field of 6 tesla should be obtainable. The time duration of the experiment is limited by the neon supply which allows on the order of 1 minute of total operating time followed by an 18-hour reliquefaction period. As a result, the experiments are run in a pulsed mode. The run duration for the data presented here was 5 sec. The magnetic field profile along the MHD duct is shown. Since the working fluid is in essence superheated steam, it is easily water quenched at the exit of the diffuser and the components are designed vacuum tight so that the exhaust pipe and demister an be pumped down to simulate the vacuum of outer space.

  18. Dust Transport Across the Atlantic Studied by Airborne Doppler Wind Lidar During the Saltrace Experiment in 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouza, Fernando; Reitebuch, Oliver; Rahm, Stephan; Weinzierl, Bernadett

    2016-06-01

    During the SALTRACE field experiment, conducted during June/July 2013, the Saharan dust transport across the Atlantic was analyzed by a set of ground based, in-situ and airborne instruments, including a 2-μm coherent DWL (Doppler wind lidar) mounted onboard the DLR Falcon 20 research aircraft. An overview of the measurements of aerosol backscatter and extinction, horizontal and vertical winds retrieved from the DWL are presented together with a brief description of the applied methods. The retrieved measurements provide direct observation of Saharan dust transport mechanisms across the Atlantic as well as island induced lee waves in the Barbados region.

  19. Inverse Modeling of Experiments to Support More Realistic Simulations of Sorbing Radionuclide Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, B. W.; James, S. C.; Reimus, P. W.

    2012-12-01

    A series of adsorption, desorption, and column transport experiments were conducted to evaluate the transport of uranium (U) and neptunium (Np) through saturated volcanic tuffs. For potential high-level radioactive waste sites, these experiments demonstrate that slow radionuclide desorption processes, which are typically not accounted for in transport models implementing simple partition coefficients (Kd values), may dominate field-scale transport. A complimentary interpretive numerical model couples a simplified geochemical description of the system with transport calculations where heterogeneities are represented as an ensemble of sorption sites with characteristic adsorption and desorption rate constants that have widely varying values. Adsorption and desorption rate constants were estimated through inverse modeling such that reliable upscaled predictions of reactive transport in field settings could be simulated. The inverse modeling software, PEST, was also used to perform advanced uncertainty quantification. The multicomponent model/parameters matching the combined data sets suggest that over much longer time and distance scales the transport of U and Np under the experimental conditions would result in very little transport over field scales because even a small number of strong sorption sites will have an exaggerated retarding influence on the transport of a radionuclide plume. Modeling of combined sorption/desorption experiments and column transport experiments that involve both the measurement of column effluent breakthrough curves and the distribution of radionuclides remaining in the column at the conclusion of the experiments holds significant promise for supporting an improved approach to properly account for mineralogical heterogeneity over long time and distance scales in reactive radionuclide transport models. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed

  20. Preliminary results of column experiments simulating nutrients transport in artificial recharge by treated wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal, María; Meffe, Raffaella; Lillo, Javier

    2013-04-01

    Nutrients (phosphates, nitrates, nitrites and ammonium) are very often present in treated wastewater as consequence of the inefficient removal capability during wastewater treatments. Such compounds represent an environmental concern since they are responsible for contamination and/or eutrophication problems when reaching the water bodies (groundwater, river, streams…). Therefore, when wastewater reclamation activities such as artificial recharge are planned, special attention should be paid to these compounds to avoid groundwater deterioration. In this context, we proposed the installation of a Horizontal Permeable Reactive Barrier (H-PRB) made of different reactive materials, among them zeolite and palygorskite, to remove nutrients or at least to decrease their concentrations. The overall aim of this research is to evaluate if the application of a H-PRB could represent a feasible solution for the attenuation of nutrients when unconventional water resources (i.e. treated wastewater) are used for recharge activities. Specifically, this study is intended to identify the transport processes affecting nitrates, nitrites, ammonium and phosphates when treated wastewater is infiltrated through the reactive materials of the H-PRB. Column experiments are generally suitable to examine the interactions between reactive materials and treated wastewater that affect the transport behavior of nutrients. For example, processes such as adsorption can be identified and quantified. Thus, laboratory column experiments were carried out using zeolite or palygorskite as column infilling material and synthetic treated wastewater as column influent. The experiments are closely connected to an experimental field study in Carrión de los Céspedes (Seville-Spain) where a pilot H-PRB is currently under evaluation. The columns were operated under saturated conditions applying a constant flow rate of 1.2 mL/min equivalent to the infiltration rate estimated through infiltration experiments at

  1. Dual-tracer transport experiments in a physically and chemically heterogeneous porous aquifer: effective transport parameters and spatial variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptak, T.; Schmid, G.

    1996-08-01

    In order to investigate the effects of reactive transport processes within a heterogeneous porous aquifer, two small-scale forced gradient tracer tests were conducted at the 'Horkheimer Insel' field site. During the experiments, two fluorescent tracers were injected simultaneously in the same fully penetrating groundwater monitoring well, located approximately 10 m from the pumping well. Fluoresceine and Rhodamine WT were used to represent the classes of practically non-sorbing and sorbing solutes, respectively. Multilevel breakthrough curves with a temporal resolution of 1 min were measured for both tracers at different depths within the pumping well using fibre-optic fluorimeters. This paper presents the tracer test design, the fibre-optic fluorimetry instrumentation, the experimental results and the interpretation of the measured multilevel breakthrough curves in terms of temporal moments and effective transport parameters. Significant sorption of Rhodamine WT is apparent from the effective retardation factors. Furthermore, an enhanced tailing of Rhodamine WT breakthrough curves is observed, which is possibly caused by a variability of aquifer sorption properties. The determined effective parameters are spatially variable, suggesting that a complex numerical flow and transport modelling approach within a stochastic framework will be needed to adequately describe the transport behaviour observed in the two experiments. Therefore, the tracer test results will serve in future work for the validation of numerical stochastic transport simulations taking into account the spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity and sorption-related aquifer properties.

  2. NASA Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology Summer Workshop. Executive summary. [in-space research using the Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Research and technology investigations are identified in eleven discipline technologies which require or which could significantly benefit from an in-space experiment, systems demonstrations, or component test using the Space Transportation System. Synopses of the eleven technology panels reports are presented.

  3. Colloid Facilitated Transport of Radioactive Cations in the Vadose Zone: Field Experiments Oak Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    James E. Saiers

    2012-09-20

    The overarching goal of this study was to improve understanding of colloid-facilitated transport of radioactive cations through unsaturated soils and sediments. We conducted a suite of laboratory experiments and field experiments on the vadose-zone transport of colloids, organic matter, and associated contaminants of interest to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The laboratory and field experiments, together with transport modeling, were designed to accomplish the following detailed objectives: 1. Evaluation of the relative importance of inorganic colloids and organic matter to the facilitation of radioactive cation transport in the vadose zone; 2. Assessment of the role of adsorption and desorption kinetics in the facilitated transport of radioactive cations in the vadose zone; 3. Examination of the effects of rainfall and infiltration dynamics and in the facilitated transport of radioactive cations through the vadose zone; 4. Exploration of the role of soil heterogeneity and preferential flow paths (e.g., macropores) on the facilitated transport of radioactive cations in the vadose zone; 5. Development of a mathematical model of facilitated transport of contaminants in the vadose zone that accurately incorporates pore-scale and column-scale processes with the practicality of predicting transport with readily available parameters.

  4. Experience with Mandibular Reconstruction Using Transport-Disc-Distraction Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Pingarrón-Martín, Lorena; Otero, T. González; Gallo, L.J. Arias

    2014-01-01

    The goal of transport-disc-distraction osteogenesis (TDDO) is to restore bone continuity by using in-situ bone. It may be useful following trauma, gunshot injuries, or tumor ablation, especially when there may be contraindications at the donor site or for prolonged surgery. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first time TDDO has been used for mandibular reconstruction reporting additional procedures, which include osseointegrated dental implants rehabilitation and orthognathic surgery. A retrospective study is performed analyzing all mandibular reconstruction cases that may be suitable for distraction from January 2006 to December 2011. A thorough description of the documented cases includes details about sex, gender, complications, duration of hospitalization, etiology, size, and location of the defect. Eight cases of mandibular reconstruction were included. Six cases correspond to mandibular ameloblastoma. The remaining two cases were mandibular gunshot comminuted fractures. Range of the defects was from 45 to 60 mm. Length of the transport disc was 15 to 20 mm. Protocolized technique consisted of 5 days of latency period, 19 to 45 days of activation term (average 30 days), and 8 to 12 weeks for consolidation. Mean distraction length achieved was 40.45 mm. We can conclude that TDDO is an alternative to conventional and more invasive procedures, when we face severe segmental mandibular defects reconstruction. It shows the potential to restore a better anatomical bone regeneration, also providing soft tissues and reducing donor-site morbidity. Patients' education and awareness about the proper use of the transport-disc-distraction device is important to optimize functional outcomes. PMID:26000082

  5. Replication concepts for bioenergy research experiments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    While there are some large and fundamental differences among disciplines related to the conversion of biomass to bioenergy, all scientific endeavors involve the use of biological feedstocks. As such, nearly every scientific experiment conducted in this area, regardless of the specific discipline, is...

  6. Researching Graduates' Lived Experiences of Vocational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Tony

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to exemplify the value of using a phenomenological approach when investigating graduates' lived experiences of vocational learning. For this study, qualitative data was obtained during a series of email interviews with 35 participants. As a group they are highly aspirational and, during their graduate studies, were…

  7. Postgraduate students experience in research supervision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Hazura; Judi, Hairulliza Mohamad; Mohammad, Rofizah

    2017-04-01

    The success and quality of postgraduate education depends largely on the effective and efficient supervision of postgraduate students. The role of the supervisor becomes more challenging with supervisory expectations rising high quality graduates. The main objective of this study was to examine the experiences of postgraduate students towards supervisory services for the duration of their studies. It also examines whether supervisory experience varies based on demographic variables such as level of study and nationality. This study uses a quantitative approach in the form of survey. Questionnaires were distributed to 96 postgraduate students of the Faculty of Information Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Data collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS 23.0) to get the frequency, mean and standard deviation. T-test was used to find the difference between demographic variables and supervisory experience. The findings overall showed that postgraduate students gave positive response to the supervisory services. However, there were differences supervisory experiences based on the level of study and nationality. The results of this study hope the parties involved could provide a better support to improve the quality of supervision.

  8. Researching Graduates' Lived Experiences of Vocational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Tony

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to exemplify the value of using a phenomenological approach when investigating graduates' lived experiences of vocational learning. For this study, qualitative data was obtained during a series of email interviews with 35 participants. As a group they are highly aspirational and, during their graduate studies, were…

  9. Mass and Momentum Transport Experiments with Swirling Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. V.; Roback, R.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental study of mixing downstream of axial and swirling coaxial jets is being conducted to obtain data for the evaluation and improvement of turbulent transport models currently employed in a variety of computational procedures used throughout the propulsion community. The axial coaxial jet study was completed under Phase 1. The swirling coaxial jet study, which is the subject of this paper, was conducted under Phase 2 of the contract. A TEACH code was acquired, checked out for several test cases, and is reported. A study to measure length scales and to obtain a limited number of measurements with a blunt trailing edge inlet is being conducted under Phase 3 of the contract.

  10. Lessons in collaboration and effective field research from the Appalachian Headwaters Research Experience for Undergraduates Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. L.; Fox, J.; Wilder, M. S.

    2009-12-01

    In the summer of 2009, the authors launched year one of a three-year National Science Foundation-funded Research Experience for Undergraduates entitled "Carbon Storage and Headwater Health in the Appalachian Headwaters." Eight undergraduates selected from a nationally competitive field of more than 60 applicants participated in the ten-week field- and laboratory-based program along with three middle- and high-school teachers. Each student developed and completed an independent research project related to coal mining’s impact on soil organic carbon and sediment transport processes. Specifically, they used isotope ratio mass spectrometry to measure the carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signature of soils and sediments in the Appalachian headwater landscapes and first order streams of Kentucky's southeastern coalfields. Among the program's innovative features was its fundamentally collaborative nature--which was represented in several ways. First, the background of the three program leaders was very different: an environmental planner with an academic background in land use planning and administration (Jones); a civil engineer trained in biogeochemistry and watershed modeling (Fox); and an environmental educator experienced in both formal and nonformal educator training and certification (Wilder). The program was also a collaboration between a Carnegie 1 research-oriented institution and an undergraduate/ teaching -focused regional comprehensive university. Finally, the participants themselves represented a diversity of disciplines and institutional backgrounds--including biology, geology, chemistry, environmental science and civil engineering. The Research Experience for Teachers component was another innovative program element. The teachers participated in all field and laboratory research activities during the first six weeks, then developed a unit of study for their own classrooms to be implemented during the current school year. In addition to the six

  11. Stratosphere-Troposphere Analyses of Regional Transport 2008 (START08) Experiment: an Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, L. L.; Atlas, E.; Bowman, K. P.; Wofsy, S. C.; Zhang, F.

    2009-05-01

    Stratosphere-Troposphere Analyses of Regional Transport 2008 experiment (START08) was a NSF sponsored field campaign for investigating climate relevant chemical and dynamical processes in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). Using the NSF research aircraft Gulfstream V (GV), also known as HIAPER (High-Performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research), a total of 18 research flights was conducted from April to June 2008. The flights covered a wide range of North America from the Gulf of Mexico to the Canadian Arctic, with a vertical range from the surface to lower stratosphere. Total of 19 chemical tracer and microphysics instruments were onboard, representing the most complex chemistry payload of this new research aircraft. A large suite of chemical species, dynamical and microphysical variables was measured under targeted meteorological conditions. START08 was designed to provide new and more detailed chemical and microphysical measurements in the extratropical tropopause region that will test a new generation of chemistry-climate models. An overview including observational highlights and initial results of data analyses will be presented.

  12. Microwave transport system for the MTX (Microwave Tokamak Experiment)

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, B.; Ferguson, S.W.

    1989-09-27

    This paper presents the design and construction, as well as the initial operation, of the Microwave Transmission System. The system consists of containment vessels, mirror boxes, mirrors, an alignment system, two turbo-molecular pump vacuum stations, and microwave source. Fifty-ns-length pulses of 6-MeV electrons pass through a free electron laser (FEL) wiggler. A 300 W extended interaction oscillator (EIO) of 140 GHz frequency supplies the seed signal for amplification in the wiggler. The electron beam is dumped and the microwave beam is transmitted quasi-optically 90 ft by six aluminum mirrors through an evacuated tube. Three of the mirrors are elliptical paraboloids and the others are flat. A seventh mirror is rotated into the microwave beam to divert it into a load tank. The transport vacuum vessel is 20-in.-diameter stainless steel tube with bellows and mirror boxes at each mirror. Two vacuum systems at each end of the transport tube allow a base pressure of 10{sup {minus}7} Torr to be attained by 7000 L/s of turbo-molecular pumping. Also at each mirror, at the MTX vessel, and at the two ends of the wiggler waveguide are HeNe laser detectors used for vacuum alignment. Descriptions of the major components, their requirements and system requirements will be presented, and the initial operation of the system and its performance will be described. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Solute transport in intervertebral disc: experiments and finite element modeling.

    PubMed

    Das, D B; Welling, A; Urban, J P G; Boubriak, O A

    2009-04-01

    Loss of nutrient supply to the human intervertebral disc (IVD) cells is thought to be a major cause of disc degeneration in humans. To address this issue, transport of molecules of different size have been analyzed by a combination of experimental and modeling studies. Solute transport has been compared for steady-state and transient diffusion of several different solutes with molecular masses in the range 3-70 kDa, injected into parts of the disc where degeneration is thought most likely to occur first and into the blood supply to the disc. Diffusion coefficients of fluorescently tagged dextran molecules of different molecular weights have been measured in vitro using the concentration gradient technique in thin specimens of disc outer annulus and nucleus pulposus. Diffusion coefficients were found to decrease with molecular weight following a nonlinear relationship. Diffusion coefficients changed more rapidly for solutes with molecular masses less than 10 kDa. Although unrealistic or painful, solutes injected directly into the disc achieve the largest disc coverage with concentrations that would be high enough to be of practical use. Although more practical, solutes injected into the blood supply do not penetrate to the central regions of the disc and their concentrations dissipate more rapidly. Injection into the disc would be the best method to get drugs or growth factors to regions of degeneration in IVDs quickly; else concentrations of solute must be kept at a high value for several hours in the blood supply to the discs.

  14. Uranium transport in a crushed granodiorite: Experiments and reactive transport modeling

    DOE PAGES

    Dittrich, T. M.; Reimus, P. W.

    2015-02-12

    The primary objective of this study was to develop and demonstrate an experimental method to refine and better parameterize process models for reactive contaminant transport in aqueous subsurface environments and to reduce conservatism in such models without attempting to fully describe the geochemical system.

  15. Quantum Transport.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-15

    Notre Dame was concerned with a variety of quantum transport in mesoscopic structures. This research was funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific...Research under Grant No. AFOSR-91-0211. The major issues examined included quantum transport in high magnetic fields and modulated channels, Coulomb...lifetimes in quasi-1D structures, quantum transport experiments in metals, the mesoscopic photovoltaic effect, and new techniques for fabricating quantum structures in semiconductors.

  16. Postgraduate Students' Experiences in Interdisciplinary Research Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winberg, C.; Barnes, V.; Ncube, K.; Tshinu, S.

    2011-01-01

    Many postgraduate interdisciplinary research (IDR) candidates in the applied disciplines work across two or more traditional areas of study. Such candidates often spend considerable time on knowledge-building activities outside their home (or undergraduate) disciplines; IDR candidates venture into new fields and are exposed to the cultures and…

  17. Beginning Counselor Educators' Experiences Developing a Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilde, Brandon J.

    2010-01-01

    To date, counselor education literature is narrow in the accounts of counselor educators' experiences as active scholars (Hill, 2004). Consequently, there is little research accounting for the experience of developing a research agenda for counselor educators during their initial faculty appointment. Hermeneutic, phenomenological methodology was…

  18. Culminating Experience Action Research Projects, Volume 2, Fall 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Deborah A., Ed.; Moyer, Peggy S., Ed.

    As part of the graduate teacher licensure program at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, candidates are required to complete an action research project during a course that coincides with the student teaching experience. The syllabus for the course, "Education 590 Culminating Experience," is included, followed by action research projects…

  19. WIDE Research Center as an Incubator for Graduate Student Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Heather Noel; Nguyen, Minh-Tam; Keller, Beth; Sackey, Donnie Johnson; Ridolfo, Jim; Pigg, Stacey; Lauren, Benjamin; Potts, Liza; Hart-Davidson, Bill; Grabill, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This article describes graduate mentorship experiences at the Writing, Information, and Digital Experience (WIDE) research center at Michigan State University and offers a stance on graduate student mentorship. It describes WIDE's mentorship model as feminist and inclusive and as a means to invite researchers with different backgrounds to engage…

  20. Failed Rocket Payload Included Research Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-11-01

    About an hour and a half before the launch of the Orbital Sciences Corporation's Antares rocket and Cygnus cargo spacecraft at 6:22 p.m. on 28 October, Jeff Goldstein arrived at his vantage point on Arbuckle Neck Road in Assawoman, Va. It was just 1.5 miles from launchpad 0A at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility. Goldstein, director of the National Center for Earth and Space Science Education (NCESSE) had come with about 35 elementary school through college students, as well as some parents, teachers, and school administrators, to watch the liftoff that would deliver the students' microgravity experiments to the International Space Station (ISS).

  1. Experiment research on orthogonal tilting scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Anhu; Liu, Liren; Sun, Jianfeng; Zhong, Xianghong; Luan, Zhu

    2007-09-01

    The original scanner of tilting orthogonal double prisms is studied for testing the tracking performance in inter-satellite laser communications. Two prisms respectively rotate around the horizontal axle and the vertical one within the admissible range to determine the corresponding orientation and position of the passing beam, therefore the high accuracy deviation angle of passing beam can be performed. The test experiments performed with autocollimator and interferometer, as well as the theoretical analysis, indicates that the scanner can meet the requirements of the deviation accuracy superior to 0.5 μrad with the deviation range greater than 500 μrad, which accords to our design requirements.

  2. Adequacy of transport parameters obtained in soil column experiments for selected chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymundo-Raymundo, E.; Nikolskii, Yu. N.; Guber, A. K.; Landeros-Sanchez, C.

    2012-07-01

    The transport parameters were determined for the 18O isotope (in the form of H2 18O), the Br- ion, and atrazine in intact columns of allophanic Andosol (Mexico State, Mexico). A one-dimensional model for the convective-dispersive transport of chemicals with account for the decomposition and equilibrium adsorption (HYDRUS-1D), which is widely applied for assessing the risk of the chemical and bacterial contamination of natural waters, was used. The model parameters were obtained by solving the inverse problem on the basis of laboratory experiments on the transport of the 18O isotope, the Br- ion, and atrazine in intact soil columns at a fixed filtration velocity. The hydrodynamic dispersion parameters determined for the 18O and Br- ions in one column were of the same order of magnitude, and those for atrazine were higher by 3-4 times. The obtained parameters were used to calculate the transport of these substances in another column with different values of the water content and filtration velocity. The transport process was adequately described only for the 18O isotope. In the case of the Br- ion, the model significantly underestimated the transport velocity; for atrazine, its peak concentration in the column was overestimated. The column study of the transport of the three chemical compounds showed that transport parameters could not be reliably predicted from the results of a single experiment, even when several compounds were used in this experiment.

  3. Three long-range transport models compared to the ETEX experiment. a performance study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendum, D.

    For operational or research purposes (dispersion computations of radioactive effluents during nuclear emergency situations, simulations of chemical pollution in the vicinity of thermal power plants), different models of passive dispersion in the atmosphere have been developed at the Environment Department of EDF's R and D Division. This report presents the comparison of the performances of three such models: DIFTRA (lagrangian puff model, with operational goal), DIFEUL (three dimensional eulerian) and DIFPAR (Monte Carlo particle model) for the simulation of the first ETEX release, an international tracer campaign during which a passive tracer cloud has been followed over Europe. The results obtained in this study give model vs. experience differences of the same order as the model vs. experience differences observed during an international model comparison experiment using data of the Chernobyl release, the ATMES exercise. In addition to the standard statistical scores used in the evaluation of the performances of the transport models two asymmetric scores (in contradistinction with the Figure of Merit in Space) are proposed: "efficiency" and "power". Their aim is to separate the two manners in which a model may be wrong: by predicting presence of pollutant while none is measured or conversely predicting absence when pollutant is actually detected.

  4. An Authentic Research Experience for Undergraduates on a Budget: Using Data from Simple Experiments to Develop Mini-Research Proposals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of undergraduate research are well documented, and many colleges and universities include a senior research requirement for graduation. In addition, most science curricula attempt to include discoverystyle, laboratory components to prepare students for their research experiences and to expose them to research methods in different…

  5. An Authentic Research Experience for Undergraduates on a Budget: Using Data from Simple Experiments to Develop Mini-Research Proposals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of undergraduate research are well documented, and many colleges and universities include a senior research requirement for graduation. In addition, most science curricula attempt to include discoverystyle, laboratory components to prepare students for their research experiences and to expose them to research methods in different…

  6. Linguistic analysis of project ownership for undergraduate research experiences.

    PubMed

    Hanauer, D I; Frederick, J; Fotinakes, B; Strobel, S A

    2012-01-01

    We used computational linguistic and content analyses to explore the concept of project ownership for undergraduate research. We used linguistic analysis of student interview data to develop a quantitative methodology for assessing project ownership and applied this method to measure degrees of project ownership expressed by students in relation to different types of educational research experiences. The results of the study suggest that the design of a research experience significantly influences the degree of project ownership expressed by students when they describe those experiences. The analysis identified both positive and negative aspects of project ownership and provided a working definition for how a student experiences his or her research opportunity. These elements suggest several features that could be incorporated into an undergraduate research experience to foster a student's sense of project ownership.

  7. The Student Experience of Community-Based Research: An Autoethnography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingman, Benjamin C.

    2016-01-01

    This autoethnography provides a description and thematic illustration of the student experience of a community-based research (CBR) course and partnership. Through evaluating personal experiences with CBR, the author identified three qualities of meaningful CBR experiences: trust, indeterminacy, and emotion. These qualities are explored, and…

  8. Human Nutrition Research Conducted at State Agricultural Experiment Stations and 1890/Tuskegee Agricultural Research Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driskell, Judy A.; Myers, John R.

    1989-01-01

    Cooperative State Research Service-administered and state-appropriated State Agriculture Experiment Station funds for human nutrition research increased about two-fold from FY70-FY86, while the percentage of budget expended for this research decreased. (JOW)

  9. Human Nutrition Research Conducted at State Agricultural Experiment Stations and 1890/Tuskegee Agricultural Research Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driskell, Judy A.; Myers, John R.

    1989-01-01

    Cooperative State Research Service-administered and state-appropriated State Agriculture Experiment Station funds for human nutrition research increased about two-fold from FY70-FY86, while the percentage of budget expended for this research decreased. (JOW)

  10. Educators' experience of teaching nursing research to undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Tamam B; Porter, Eileen J

    2008-11-01

    Most research pertaining to the teaching of nursing research has focused on learning outcomes and students' attitudes toward research. Few scholars have explored what it is like to teach nursing research. The purpose of this study was to describe the experience of teaching undergraduate nursing research. Data were obtained from 12 nurse educators through e-mail interviews and analyzed using Giorgi's method of descriptive phenomenology. Four meaning units describe the experience: marketing research content, introducing the research process, enhancing student abilities to learn about research, and enhancing personal abilities to teach research. The three meaning units that focus on faculty intentions toward students are somewhat consistent with prior research but include interesting new ideas. Concerning the last meaning unit, participants reported an interest in learning about teaching strategies, advanced statistics, and informational technology. Deans and directors should explore the learning needs of such faculty and offer appropriate ongoing education.

  11. Multiphase flow and multicomponent reactive transport model of the ventilation experiment in Opalinus clay

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.; Major, J.C.

    2008-10-15

    During the construction and operational phases of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository constructed in a clay formation, ventilation of underground drifts will cause desaturation and oxidation of the rock. The Ventilation Experiment (VE) was performed in a 1.3 m diameter unlined horizontal microtunnel on Opalinus clay at Mont Terri underground research laboratory in Switzerland to evaluate the impact of desaturation on rock properties. A multiphase flow and reactive transport model of VE is presented here. The model accounts for liquid, vapor and air flow, evaporation/condensation and multicomponent reactive solute transport with kinetic dissolution of pyrite and siderite and local-equilibrium dissolution/precipitation of calcite, ferrihydrite, dolomite, gypsum and quartz. Model results reproduce measured vapor flow, liquid pressure and hydrochemical data and capture the trends of measured relative humidities, although such data are slightly overestimated near the rock interface due to uncertainties in the turbulence factor. Rock desaturation allows oxygen to diffuse into the rock and triggers pyrite oxidation, dissolution of calcite and siderite, precipitation of ferrihydrite, dolomite and gypsum and cation exchange. pH in the unsaturated rock varies from 7.8 to 8 and is buffered by calcite. Computed changes in the porosity and the permeability of Opalinus clay in the unsaturated zone caused by oxidation and mineral dissolution/precipitation are smaller than 5%. Therefore, rock properties are not expected to be affected significantly by ventilation of underground drifts during construction and operational phases of a HLW repository in clay.

  12. Taking Research Experiences for Undergraduates Online

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubenthal, Michael; Judge, Jasmeet

    2013-04-01

    To today's budding scientists, the notion of sharing experiences and working collaboratively with distant peers is not a novelty. Instead, this is what most young scientists expect to achieve through the Internet portals they carry in their pockets and backpacks. They have never known a world without information and communication technologies (ICT) such as laptops, mobile phones, text messaging, and the Internet. As a result, they have grown to rely on uninterrupted access to the Internet for a range of information-gathering and communication activities. Further, this generation of students has fully embraced structured online learning opportunities. For example, in 2011 more than 6.7 million U.S. students in higher education took at least one online course [Allen and Seaman, 2013].

  13. Research program for experiment M133

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The development of the automatic data-acquisition and sleep-analysis system is reported. The purpose was consultation and evaluation in the transition of the Skylab M133 Sleep-Monitoring Experiment equipment from prototype of flight status; review of problems associated with acquisition and on-line display of data in near-real time via spacecraft telemetry; and development of laboratory facilities and design of equipment to assure reliable playback and analysis of analog data. The existing prototype system modified, and the changes improve the performance of the analysis circuitry and increase its reliability. These modifications are useful for pre- and postflight analysis, but are not now proposed for the inflight system. There were improvements in the EEG recording cap, some of which will be incorporated into the flight hardware.

  14. Method efficiency and signal quantification of bacteria for a groundwater transport experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Burlage, R.S.; Palumbo, A.V.; McCarthy, J.

    1995-04-01

    Bacterial transport is a key process in delivery of microbes to contaminated sites for bioremediation of chemicals. However, relatively little is known about the geochemical and hydrologic factors controlling the mobility of bacteria and viruses within subsurface systems. Laboratory-scale column studies have provided useful information (Harvey et al, 1989, 1993). However, successful application to in situ remediation will require that one identify and understand properties relevant to transport in aquifers. Only through field experiments can one evaluate the scales of physical and chemical heterogeneity in natural aquifers that affect the transport of microbiota in ways not predicted from experiments conducted at the laboratory-scale. Bacterial transport field experiments cannot be replicated as can column experiments. Rigorous testing of experimental hypotheses will require comparisons of the mobility of multiple strains with contrasting transport properties under identical field conditions. Consequently, a technique is needed to permit the transport of multiple strains of bacteria to be monitored simultaneously in a single field experiment. Molecular techniques can also detect very low levels of injected bacteria. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been used successfully for the detection of microorganisms. This paper explores the use of PCR for identifying and enumerating the arrival of several individual strains of bacteria at monitoring wells downgradient of an experimental tracer injection well.

  15. Robotic Scopes & Research Experiences for Secondary Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelderman, Richard; Carini, Michael T.; Barnaby, David; Walter, Donald K.

    STARBASE is being developed to connect secondary science students and teachers with cutting edge astronomical research. We regularly operate via remote control over the Internet two telescopes operating in the USA: the 0.6m in Kentucky and the 1.3m RCT in Arizona. Both observatories are being upgraded to provide robotic control executing scripted observations without real-time human oversight. This telescope network is being developed in order to support our growing network of students and teachers from rural public middle and high schools in the southeast United States. Our objective is to work with the teachers to bring to their students the adventure of directly exploring the Universe. We provide professional development workshops one at the introductory level and another in affiliation with Hands-On Universe to provide software and instruction required to introduce image-processing into the curriculum. We continue our involvement with classroom visits and the ability to request observations via our web-based interface. Most of our teachers have selected research projects involving an entire class but we have also worked closely with individual students motivated to pursue a more detailed project (e.g. eclipsing binaries or AGN variability). Our poster presents details of our efforts and results of our program evaluation

  16. Space Station Biological Research Project: Reference Experiment Book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Catherine (Editor); Wade, Charles (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP), which is the combined efforts of the Centrifuge Facility (CF) and the Gravitational Biology Facility (GBF), is responsible for the development of life sciences hardware to be used on the International Space Station to support cell, developmental, and plant biology research. The SSBRP Reference Experiment Book was developed to use as a tool for guiding this development effort. The reference experiments characterize the research interests of the international scientific community and serve to identify the hardware capabilities and support equipment needed to support such research. The reference experiments also serve as a tool for understanding the operational aspects of conducting research on board the Space Station. This material was generated by the science community by way of their responses to reference experiment solicitation packages sent to them by SSBRP scientists. The solicitation process was executed in two phases. The first phase was completed in February of 1992 and the second phase completed in November of 1995. Representing these phases, the document is subdivided into a Section 1 and a Section 2. The reference experiments contained in this document are only representative microgravity experiments. They are not intended to define actual flight experiments. Ground and flight experiments will be selected through the formal NASA Research Announcement (NRA) and Announcement of Opportunity (AO) experiment solicitation, review, and selection process.

  17. Lysosomal solute carrier transporters gain momentum in research.

    PubMed

    Bissa, B; Beedle, A M; Govindarajan, R

    2016-11-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that lysosome function extends beyond macromolecular degradation. Genetic and functional defects in components of the lysosomal transport machinery cause lysosomal storage disorders implicating the lysosomal solute carrier (SLC) transporters as essential to vital cell processes. The pathophysiology and therapeutic potential of lysosomal SLC transporters are highlighted here, focusing on recent discoveries in autophagic amino acid sensing (SLC38A9), phagocytic regulation in macrophages (SLC29A3, SLC15A3/A4), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) exocytosis in neurotransmission (SLC17A9), and lysosomal transport of maytansine catabolites into the cytoplasm (SLC46A3).

  18. Lysosomal solute carrier transporters gain momentum in research

    PubMed Central

    Beedle, AM; Govindarajan, R

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that lysosome function extends beyond macromolecular degradation. Genetic and functional defects in components of the lysosomal transport machinery cause lysosomal storage disorders implicating the lysosomal solute carrier (SLC) transporters as essential to vital cell processes. The pathophysiology and therapeutic potential of lysosomal SLC transporters are highlighted here, focusing on recent discoveries in autophagic amino acid sensing (SLC38A9), phagocytic regulation in macrophages (SLC29A3, SLC15A3/A4), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) exocytosis in neurotransmission (SLC17A9), and lysosomal transport of maytansine catabolites into the cytoplasm (SLC46A3). PMID:27530302

  19. Large wood transport and jam formation in a series of flume experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, S. L.; MacKenzie, L. G.; Eaton, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    Large wood has historically been removed from streams, resulting in the depletion of in-stream wood in waterways worldwide. As wood increases morphological and hydraulic complexity, the addition of large wood is commonly employed as a means to rehabilitate in-stream habitat. At present, however, the scientific understanding of wood mobilization and transport is incomplete. This paper presents results from a series of four flume experiments in which wood was added to a reach to investigate the piece and reach characteristics that determine wood stability and transport, as well as the time scale required for newly recruited wood to self-organize into stable jams. Our results show that wood transitions from a randomly distributed newly recruited state to a self-organized, or jam-stabilized state, over the course of a single bankfull flow event. Statistical analyses of piece mobility during this transitional period indicate that piece irregularities, especially rootwads, dictate the stability of individual wood pieces; rootwad presence or absence accounts for up to 80% of the variance explained by linear regression models for transport distance. Furthermore, small pieces containing rootwads are especially stable. Large ramped pieces provide nuclei for the formation of persistent wood jams, and the frequency of these pieces in the reach impacts the travel distance of mobile wood. This research shows that the simulation of realistic wood dynamics is possible using a simplified physical model, and also has management implications, as it suggests that randomly added wood may organize into persistent, stable jams, and characterizes the time scale for this transition.

  20. Euler and Potential Experiment/CFD Correlations for a Transport and Two Delta-Wing Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, R. M.; Cliff, S. E.; Melton, J. E.; Langhi, R. G.; Goodsell, A. M.; Robertson, D. D.; Moyer, S. A.

    1990-01-01

    A selection of successes and failures of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is discussed. Experiment/CFD correlations involving full potential and Euler computations of the aerodynamic characteristics of four commercial transport wings and two low aspect ratio, delta wing configurations are shown. The examples consist of experiment/CFD comparisons for aerodynamic forces, moments, and pressures. Navier-Stokes equations are not considered.

  1. BACTERIOPHAGE AND MICROSPHERE TRANSPORT IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA: FORCED-GRADIENT EXPERIMENT AT BORDEN, ONTARIO

    EPA Science Inventory

    A two-well forced-gradient experiment involving virus and microsphere transport was carried out in a sandy aquifer in Borden, Ontario, Canada. Virus traveled at least a few meters in the experiment, but virus concentrations at observation points 1 and 2.54 m away from the injecti...

  2. BACTERIOPHAGE AND MICROSPHERE TRANSPORT IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA: FORCED-GRADIENT EXPERIMENT AT BORDEN, ONTARIO

    EPA Science Inventory

    A two-well forced-gradient experiment involving virus and microsphere transport was carried out in a sandy aquifer in Borden, Ontario, Canada. Virus traveled at least a few meters in the experiment, but virus concentrations at observation points 1 and 2.54 m away from the injecti...

  3. Structural, magnetic, and transport properties of Permalloy for spintronic experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Nahrwold, Gesche; Scholtyssek, Jan M.; Motl-Ziegler, Sandra; Albrecht, Ole; Merkt, Ulrich; Meier, Guido

    2010-07-15

    Permalloy (Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}) is broadly used to prepare magnetic nanostructures for high-frequency experiments where the magnetization is either excited by electrical currents or magnetic fields. Detailed knowledge of the material properties is mandatory for thorough understanding its magnetization dynamics. In this work, thin Permalloy films are grown by dc-magnetron sputtering on heated substrates and by thermal evaporation with subsequent annealing. The specific resistance is determined by van der Pauw methods. Point-contact Andreev reflection is employed to determine the spin polarization of the films. The topography is imaged by atomic-force microscopy, and the magnetic microstructure by magnetic-force microscopy. Transmission-electron microscopy and transmission-electron diffraction are performed to determine atomic composition, crystal structure, and morphology. From ferromagnetic resonance absorption spectra the saturation magnetization, the anisotropy, and the Gilbert damping parameter are determined. Coercive fields and anisotropy are measured by magneto-optical Kerr magnetometry. The sum of the findings enables optimization of Permalloy for spintronic experiments.

  4. Research Administrator Salary: Association with Education, Experience, Credentials and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shambrook, Jennifer; Roberts, Thomas J.; Triscari, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 Research Administrators Stress Perception Survey (2010 RASPerS) collected data from 1,131 research administrators on salary, years experience, educational level, Certified Research Administrator (CRA) status, and gender. Using these data, comparisons were made to show how salary levels are associated with each of these variables. Using…

  5. Experience with Providing Research Opportunities for Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, James R.; Mitchell, Merlin M.

    1984-01-01

    A program to provide research training experience at the Mayo Medical School for third-year students is described. Surveys of student attitudes have shown positive feelings concerning their research accomplishments and the value of the time they spent doing the research. (Author/MLW)

  6. Reinvigorating the Undergraduate Experience with a Research-Supportive Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karukstis, Kerry K

    2004-01-01

    Educators recognize that undergraduate research programs flourish on campuses that provide a strong curricular structure to support research. Reinvigorating the undergraduate experience: successful models supported by NSF's AIRE/RAIRE program, the publication of Council on Undergraduate Research (CUR) is expressly designed to share successful…

  7. Does Early Research Experience Affect Subsequent Career Choice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pechmann, Connie A.; Pichert, James W.

    The Vanderbilt Summer Research Program in diabetes, which was designed to interest medical students in research careers and diabetes care, was evaluated. The program provides stipends to 20 sophomore and junior medical students for 12 weeks of preceptor-supervised laboratory research work, clinical experience, and classroom instruction. The…

  8. Physics Basis and Simulation of Burning Plasma Physics for the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE)

    SciTech Connect

    C.E. Kessel; D. Meade; S.C. Jardin

    2002-01-18

    The FIRE [Fusion Ignition Research Experiment] design for a burning plasma experiment is described in terms of its physics basis and engineering features. Systems analysis indicates that the device has a wide operating space to accomplish its mission, both for the ELMing H-mode reference and the high bootstrap current/high beta advanced tokamak regimes. Simulations with 1.5D transport codes reported here both confirm and constrain the systems projections. Experimental and theoretical results are used to establish the basis for successful burning plasma experiments in FIRE.

  9. Public Transport for Everyone: A Summary of the Results of Research and Development Projects Concerning Disabled People and Transport Facilities Supported by the Swedish Transport Research Board. TFB-Report 1989:1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borjesson, Mats

    This report summarizes the results of research and development concerning disabled individuals in Sweden and their use of transport facilities. The first section, "People with Impaired Mobility and Their Travel Needs," outlines Sweden's transport policy goal to adapt transport to the needs of disabled people, addresses the difficulty in…

  10. Sediment-transport (wind) experiments in zero-gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, J.; Gillette, D.; Greeley, R.; Lee, J.; Mackinnon, I.; Marshall, J.; Nickling, W.; Werner, B.; White, B.; Williams, S.

    1986-01-01

    The carousel wind tunnel (CWT) can be a significant tool for the determination of the nature and magnitude of interparticlar forces at threshold of motion. By altering particle and drum surface electrical properties and/or by applying electric potential difference across the inner and outer drums, it should be possible to separate electrostatic effects from other forces of cohesion. Besides particle trajectory and bedform analyses, suggestions for research include particle aggregation in zero and subgravity environments, effect of suspension-saltation ratio on soil abrasion, and the effects of shear and shearfree turbulence on particle aggregation as applied to evolution of solar nebula.

  11. A Distributed Simulation Facility to Support Human Factors Research in Advanced Air Transportation Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amonlirdviman, Keith; Farley, Todd C.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Ladik, John F.; Sherer, Dana Z.

    1998-01-01

    A distributed real-time simulation of the civil air traffic environment developed to support human factors research in advanced air transportation technology is presented. The distributed environment is based on a custom simulation architecture designed for simplicity and flexibility in human experiments. Standard Internet protocols are used to create the distributed environment, linking all advanced cockpit simulator, all Air Traffic Control simulator, and a pseudo-aircraft control and simulation management station. The pseudo-aircraft control station also functions as a scenario design tool for coordinating human factors experiments. This station incorporates a pseudo-pilot interface designed to reduce workload for human operators piloting multiple aircraft simultaneously in real time. The application of this distributed simulation facility to support a study of the effect of shared information (via air-ground datalink) on pilot/controller shared situation awareness and re-route negotiation is also presented.

  12. Engineering and management experience at Texas A&M Transportation Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Arif Tahjibul

    This manuscript presents the author's engineering and management experience during his internship in the Materials and Pavements (M&P) Division at the Texas A&M Transportation Institute (TTI), and is a record of study for the Doctor of Engineering at Texas A&M University. Through this internship, he met his established internship objectives of gaining technical knowledge as well as knowledge and skills in project management, organizational communication, and quality management of pavement condition data, and of attaining professional development. In meeting these objectives, the author describes the history, mission, and organizational structure of his workplace. He also presents his experience of developing and delivering a two-week training course on pavement design and construction in Kosovo. Participating in a number of professional development training courses and other activities prepared him for working as an engineering manager. These activities include Delta-T leadership training, an instructor development course, a time management and organizational skills course, and the M&P Division lecture series. Leadership and skills learned through the Delta-T program were beneficial for the employee as well as the employer. For the class project, the author and his teammates performed a study dealing with improving TTI's deliverables. The Delta-T team composed a report summarizing their efforts of examining the current state of TTI's project deliverables, the deliverables' shortcomings, and potential enhancements to expand the deliverables' appeal to additional types of potential users outside the traditional research community. The team also developed a prototype web-based model of deliverables and presented some implementation recommendations. Participating in the Texas Department of Transportation's (TxDOT's) pavement surface distress data collection program enabled the author to become familiar with pavement distress data quality management and thus attain the

  13. Gyrokinetic Simulation of Global Turbulent Transport Properties in Tokamak Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.X.; Lin, Z.; Tang, W.M.; Lee, W.W.; Ethier, S.; Lewandowski, J.L.V.; Rewoldt, G.; Hahm, T.S.; Manickam, J.

    2006-01-01

    A general geometry gyro-kinetic model for particle simulation of plasma turbulence in tokamak experiments is described. It incorporates the comprehensive influence of noncircular cross section, realistic plasma profiles, plasma rotation, neoclassical (equilibrium) electric fields, and Coulomb collisions. An interesting result of global turbulence development in a shaped tokamak plasma is presented with regard to nonlinear turbulence spreading into the linearly stable region. The mutual interaction between turbulence and zonal flows in collisionless plasmas is studied with a focus on identifying possible nonlinear saturation mechanisms for zonal flows. A bursting temporal behavior with a period longer than the geodesic acoustic oscillation period is observed even in a collisionless system. Our simulation results suggest that the zonal flows can drive turbulence. However, this process is too weak to be an effective zonal flow saturation mechanism.

  14. Transport Experiments of Topological Insulators and Dirac Semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Jun

    The progress in understanding the Berry phase of Bloch electrons in crystals has triggered tremendous interest in discovering novel topological phases of solids. The integration of the Berry curvature in the Brillouin zone can categorize solids into phases such as topological insulators (TI), Dirac semimetals (DSM) and Weyl semimetals (WSM). These new phases have unconventional electronic states at the boundaries, such as the spin polarized electrons on the surface of a three-dimensional TI. Under proper engineering, such edge states can carry a dissipationless current, leading to a great application potential in low-power devices and topological quantum computers. Besides TI, the newly discovered Dirac and Weyl semimetals represent another example in which electrons have a linear energy-momentum dispersion. The paired Weyl nodes have opposite chiralities, and can be regarded as positive and negative monopoles of the Berry flux. Under the time-reversal, inversion and certain crystal symmetries, as in the cases of Cd3As2 and Na3Bi, the Weyl nodes with different chiralities can coexist at the same point in the Brillouin zone and the crystal becomes a Dirac semimetal. Such semimetals provide platforms for some phenomena in high energy physics, such as the chiral anomaly effect. The above predictions lie at the heart of our experimental study of topological materials. We synthesized a topological insulator, Bi2Te2 Se, with a suppressed bulk carrier density. Analysis of the prominent Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in Bi2Te2Se demonstrates clear evidence for the Dirac surface electrons and their pi Berry phase. We also leveraged the ionic liquid gating technique to bring the chemical potential 50% closer to the Dirac point. Additionally, we studied two types of Na3Bi, a DSM. The first type with a high chemical potential exhibits a large and linear magnetoresistance (MR), implying a transport lifetime steeply tuned by the magnetic field. In the second type of Na3Bi with a

  15. Field-scale sulfur hexafluoride tracer experiment to understand long distance gas transport in the deep unsaturated zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walvoord, Michelle Ann; Andraski, Brian; Green, Christopher T.; Stonestrom, David A.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    A natural gradient SF6 tracer experiment provided an unprecedented evaluation of long distance gas transport in the deep unsaturated zone (UZ) under controlled (known) conditions. The field-scale gas tracer test in the 110-m-thick UZ was conducted at the U.S. Geological Survey’s Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in southwestern Nevada. A history of anomalous (theoretically unexpected) contaminant gas transport observed at the ADRS, next to the first commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in the United States, provided motivation for the SF6 tracer study. Tracer was injected into a deep UZ borehole at depths of 15 and 48 m, and plume migration was observed in a monitoring borehole 9 m away at various depths (0.5–109 m) over the course of 1 yr. Tracer results yielded useful information about gas transport as applicable to the spatial scales of interest for off-site contaminant transport in arid unsaturated zones. Modeling gas diffusion with standard empirical expressions reasonably explained SF6 plume migration, but tended to underpredict peak concentrations for the field-scale experiment given previously determined porosity information. Despite some discrepancies between observations and model results, rapid SF6 gas transport commensurate with previous contaminant migration was not observed. The results provide ancillary support for the concept that apparent anomalies in historic transport behavior at the ADRS are the result of factors other than nonreactive gas transport properties or processes currently in effect in the undisturbed UZ.

  16. High speed commercial transport fuels considerations and research needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. M.; Niedzwiecki, R. W.

    1989-01-01

    NASA is currently evaluating the potential of incorporating High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft in the commercial fleet in the beginning of the 21st century. NASA sponsored HSCT enabling studies currently underway with airframers and engine manufacturers, are addressing a broad range of technical, environmental, economic, and related issues. Supersonic cruise speeds for these aircraft were originally focused in the Mach 2 to 5 range. At these flight speeds, both jet fuels and liquid methane were considered potential fuel candidates. For the year 2000 to 2010, cruise Mach numbers of 2 to 3+ are projected for aircraft fuel with thermally stable liquid jet fuels. For 2015 and beyond, liquid methane fueled aircraft cruising at Mach numbers of 4+ may be viable candidates. Operation at supersonic speeds will be much more severe than those encountered at subsonic flight. One of the most critical problems is the potential deterioration of the fuel due to the high temperature environment. HSCT fuels will not only be required to provide the energy necessary for flight, but will also be subject to aerodynamic heating and, will be required to serve as the primary heat sink for cooling the engine and airframe. To define fuel problems for high speed flight, a fuels workshop was conducted at NASA Lewis Research Center. The purpose of the workshop was to gather experts on aviation fuels, airframe fuel systems, airport infrastructure, and combustion systems to discuss high speed fuel alternatives, fuel supply scenarios, increased thermal stability approaches and measurements, safety considerations, and to provide directional guidance for future R and D efforts. Subsequent follow-up studies defined airport infrastructure impacts of high speed fuel candidates. The results of these activities are summarized. In addition, an initial case study using modified in-house refinery simulation model Gordian code (1) is briefly discussed. This code can be used to simulate different

  17. Short-haul CTOL aircraft research. [on reduced energy for commercial air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    The results of the reduced energy for commercial air transportation studies on air transportation energy efficiency improvement alternatives are reviewed along with subsequent design studies of advanced turboprop powered transport aircraft. The application of this research to short-haul transportation is discussed. The results of several recent turboprop aircraft design are included. The potential fuel savings and cost savings for advanced turboprop aircraft appear substantial, particularly at shorter ranges.

  18. Student Experience of Final-Year Undergraduate Research Projects: An Exploration of "Research Preparedness"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Kylie; Holbrook, Allyson; Bourke, Sid

    2013-01-01

    During this past decade the level of interest in building research capacity has intensified in Australia and internationally, with a particular emphasis on the development of postgraduate research students, but also extending to undergraduate research experience. This study investigated the student experience across a diverse range of fourth-year…

  19. Student Experience of Final-Year Undergraduate Research Projects: An Exploration of "Research Preparedness"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Kylie; Holbrook, Allyson; Bourke, Sid

    2013-01-01

    During this past decade the level of interest in building research capacity has intensified in Australia and internationally, with a particular emphasis on the development of postgraduate research students, but also extending to undergraduate research experience. This study investigated the student experience across a diverse range of fourth-year…

  20. Academics' Perceptions of the Purpose of Undergraduate Research Experiences in a Research-Intensive Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Anna; Howitt, Susan; Wilson, Kate; Roberts, Pam

    2012-01-01

    The inclusion of research experiences as core components of undergraduate curricula implies that students will be exposed to and situated within the research activities of their university. Such experiences thus provide a new prism through which to view the relations between teaching, research and learning. The intentions and actions of academics…

  1. Academics' Perceptions of the Purpose of Undergraduate Research Experiences in a Research-Intensive Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Anna; Howitt, Susan; Wilson, Kate; Roberts, Pam

    2012-01-01

    The inclusion of research experiences as core components of undergraduate curricula implies that students will be exposed to and situated within the research activities of their university. Such experiences thus provide a new prism through which to view the relations between teaching, research and learning. The intentions and actions of academics…

  2. Horse Injury during Non-Commercial Transport: Findings from Researcher-Assisted Intercept Surveys at Southeastern Australian Equestrian Events

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Christopher B.; Noble, Belinda R.; Bridges, Janis; Hazel, Susan J.; Thompson, Kirrilly

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Research on the transportation of horses has largely focused on the movement of horses by commercial livestock carriers. Information on factors associated with horse injuries sustained during private (non-commercial) transportation in small horse trucks and trailers is limited. This study surveyed drivers transporting their horses to equestrian events in southeastern Australia. Information on drivers, travel practice, vehicle characteristics and horse injury was collected. A total of 55/223 (24.7%) participants reported transportation related injuries to their horses. Of these 72% were described as horse associated (scrambling, slipping and horse-horse interaction), 11% due to mechanical failure, and 6% due to driver error. The risk of horse injury was not associated with driver age or gender, or experience. Drivers that answer the telephone whilst transporting horses, were more likely to report a previous injury experience. There was a trend for participants with <8 hours sleep prior to the survey to have previously had a horse injured. There was a modest positive association between increasing trailer age and the number of injuries. The range of trailer models prevented identification of the importance of individual design features. The study highlights the potential for horses to sustain transportation injuries in privately owned vehicles and warrants further study to address this risk to their welfare. Abstract Equine transportation research has largely focused on the commercial land movement of horses. Data on the incidence and factors associated with horse injuries during non-commercial transportation (privately owned horse trucks and trailers) is scant. This study surveyed 223 drivers transporting horses to 12 equestrian events in southeastern Australia. Data collected encompassed driver demographics, travel practice, vehicle characteristics, and incidents involving horse injury. Approximately 25% (55/223) of participants reported that their

  3. Exploring perceptions and experiences of Bolivian health researchers with research ethics.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Sarah; Aalborg, Annette; Basagoitia, Armando; Cortes, Jacqueline; Lanza, Oscar; Schwind, Jessica S

    2015-04-01

    In Bolivia, there is increasing interest in incorporating research ethics into study procedures, but there have been inconsistent application of research ethics practices. Minimal data exist regarding the experiences of researchers concerning the ethical conduct of research. A cross-sectional study was administered to Bolivian health leaders with research experience (n = 82) to document their knowledge, perceptions, and experiences of research ethics committees and infrastructure support for research ethics. Results showed that 16% of respondents reported not using ethical guidelines to conduct their research and 66% indicated their institutions did not consistently require ethics approval for research. Barriers and facilitators to incorporate research ethics into practice were outlined. These findings will help inform a comprehensive rights-based research ethics education program in Bolivia.

  4. Researchers' experiences, positive and negative, in integrative landscape projects.

    PubMed

    Tress, Bärbel; Tress, Gunther; Fry, Gary

    2005-12-01

    Integrative (interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary) landscape research projects are becoming increasingly common. As a result, researchers are spending a larger proportion of their professional careers doing integrative work, participating in shifting interdisciplinary teams, and cooperating directly with non-academic participants. Despite the growing importance of integrative research, few studies have investigated researchers' experiences in these projects. How do researchers perceive the outcomes of integrative projects, or career effects? Do they view the projects generally as successes or failures? This study analyses researchers' experiences in integrative landscape studies and investigates what factors shape these experiences. The data stems from 19 semi-structured qualitative interviews and a Web-based survey among 207 participants in integrative landscape research projects. It finds that researchers experience participation in integrative projects as positive, in particular discussions among participants, networking, teamwork, and gaining new insights and skills. Furthermore, most researchers perceive the projects as successful and as having a positive effect on their careers. Less positive aspects of integration relate to publications and merit points. Factors found to contribute to positive experiences include reaching a high degree of integration amongst the involved disciplines, common definitions of integrative research concepts, and projects that include a large share of fundamental research as well as projects with many project outcomes. Based on these findings, we advise future projects to plan for integration, facilitate discussions, and reach agreement on integrative concepts. We suggest that aspects of fundamental research be included in integrative projects. We also suggest that planning be done at an early stage for peer-reviewed publications, to ensure that participants gain merit points from their participation in integrative research

  5. How one teacher research experience program is transforming STEM education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warburton, J.; Fahnestock, J.; Larson, A.

    2016-12-01

    Celebrating over 10 years of success, the PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating program, administered by the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States, is a unique professional development program for United States educators and polar researchers. Through an innovative teacher research experience, utilizing field-based experiences in the polar regions, PolarTREC provides teachers the content knowledge, pedagogical tools, confidence, understanding of science in the broader society, and experiences with scientific inquiry they need to promote authentic scientific research in their classroom. The program evaluation objectives were 1) to better understand the immediate impacts of the program on participating teachers, their students, and the researchers with whom they partnered; and 2) to explore the long-term impacts of the PolarTREC experiences on participating teachers' professional experiences, and in particular their use of authentic scientific research with their students and ongoing relationships with researcher team members and other PolarTREC teachers. In this presentation, we will share our data on how the PolarTREC model is transforming STEM educators not only how they teach science in their classroom but also how they both perceive science, a paradigm shift, that defines their careers.

  6. A Community Mentoring Model for STEM Undergraduate Research Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Dale, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a community mentoring model for UREs that avoids some of the common pitfalls of the traditional paradigm while harnessing the power of learning communities to provide young scholars a stimulating collaborative STEM research experience.

  7. Technology transfer needs and experiences: The NASA Research Center perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Anthony R.

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on technology transfer needs and experiences - the NASA Research Center perspective are provided. Topics covered include: functions of NASA, incentives and benefits, technology transfer mechanisms, economics of technology commercialization, examples, and conclusions.

  8. A Community Mentoring Model for STEM Undergraduate Research Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Dale, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a community mentoring model for UREs that avoids some of the common pitfalls of the traditional paradigm while harnessing the power of learning communities to provide young scholars a stimulating collaborative STEM research experience.

  9. Comparisons of Transport and Dispersion Model Predictions of the Joint Urban 2003 Field Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Comparisons of Transport and Dispersion Model Predictions of the Joint Urban 2003 Field Experiment I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y...T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S IDA Paper P-4195 Comparisons of Transport and Dispersion Model Predictions of the Joint Urban 2003 Field...Material Transport and Dispersion Prediction Models .” The objective of this effort was to conduct analyses and special studies associated with the

  10. Measurements of impurity concentrations and transport in the Lithium Tokamak Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, D. P.; Bell, R. E.; Kaita, R.; Lucia, M.; Schmitt, J. C.; Scotti, F.; Kubota, S.; Hansen, C.; Biewer, T. M.; Gray, T. K.

    2016-10-01

    The Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX) is a modest-sized spherical tokamak with all-metal plasma facing components (PFCs), uniquely capable of operating with large area solid and/or liquid lithium coatings essentially surrounding the entire plasma. This work presents measurements of core plasma impurity concentrations and transport in LTX. In discharges with solid Li coatings, volume averaged impurity concentrations were low but non-negligible, with 2 - 4 % Li, 0.6 - 2 % C, 0.4 - 0.7 % O, and Zeff < 1.2 . Transport was assessed using the TRANSP, NCLASS, and MIST codes. Collisions with the main H ions dominated the neoclassical impurity transport, and neoclassical transport coefficients calculated with NCLASS were similar across all impurity species and differed no more than a factor of two. However, time-independent simulations with MIST indicated that neoclassical theory did not fully capture the impurity transport and anomalous transport likely played a significant role in determining impurity profiles. Progress on additional analysis, including time-dependent impurity transport simulations and impurity measurements with liquid lithium coatings, and plans for diagnostic upgrades and future experiments in LTX- β will also be presented. This work supported by US DOE contracts DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  11. Facilities, breed and experience affect ease of sheep handling: the livestock transporter's perspective.

    PubMed

    Burnard, C L; Pitchford, W S; Hocking Edwards, J E; Hazel, S J

    2015-08-01

    An understanding of the perceived importance of a variety of factors affecting the ease of handling of sheep and the interactions between these factors is valuable in improving profitability and welfare of the livestock. Many factors may contribute to animal behaviour during handling, and traditionally these factors have been assessed in isolation under experimental conditions. A human social component to this phenomenon also exists. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the importance of a variety of factors affecting ease of handling, and the interactions between these from the perspective of the livestock transporter. Qualitative interviews were used to investigate the factors affecting sheep behaviour during handling. Interview transcripts underwent thematic analysis. Livestock transporters discussed the effects of attitudes and behaviours towards sheep, helpers, facilities, distractions, environment, dogs and a variety of sheep factors including breed, preparation, experience and sex on sheep behaviour during handling. Transporters demonstrated care and empathy and stated that patience and experience were key factors determining how a person might deal with difficult sheep. Livestock transporters strongly believed facilities (ramps and yards) had the greatest impact, followed by sheep experience (naivety of the sheep to handling and transport) and breed. Transporters also discussed the effects of distractions, time of day, weather, dogs, other people, sheep preparation, body condition and sheep sex on ease of handling. The concept of individual sheep temperament was indirectly expressed.

  12. Graduate students' teaching experiences improve their methodological research skills.

    PubMed

    Feldon, David F; Peugh, James; Timmerman, Briana E; Maher, Michelle A; Hurst, Melissa; Strickland, Denise; Gilmore, Joanna A; Stiegelmeyer, Cindy

    2011-08-19

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) graduate students are often encouraged to maximize their engagement with supervised research and minimize teaching obligations. However, the process of teaching students engaged in inquiry provides practice in the application of important research skills. Using a performance rubric, we compared the quality of methodological skills demonstrated in written research proposals for two groups of early career graduate students (those with both teaching and research responsibilities and those with only research responsibilities) at the beginning and end of an academic year. After statistically controlling for preexisting differences between groups, students who both taught and conducted research demonstrate significantly greater improvement in their abilities to generate testable hypotheses and design valid experiments. These results indicate that teaching experience can contribute substantially to the improvement of essential research skills.

  13. Research of the Remote Experiment System Based on Virtual Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Liangyu; Liu, Jianjun; Yang, Xiufang

    The remote education based on Virtual Reality technology is one of the leading developmental ways in modern education. The present researching status of VR technology's application in the remote experiment is analyzed and the characteristics are summarized in this paper. Then the remote experiment system is designed and the learning mode of the 3-D virtual experiment, the virtual experiment model based on Internet, the functional modules of virtual experiment system are studied. The network-based system of remote virtual experiment is built with the programming languages VRML and JavaScript. Furthermore, the remote experiment system on fatigue test of the drive axle is developed and some key problems in the remote virtual experiment are realized.

  14. The role of parental risk judgements, transport safety attitudes, transport priorities and accident experiences on pupils' walking to school.

    PubMed

    Mehdizadeh, Milad; Nordfjaern, Trond; Mamdoohi, Amir Reza; Shariat Mohaymany, Afshin

    2017-05-01

    Walking to school could improve pupils' health condition and might also reduce the use of motorized transport modes, which leads to both traffic congestion and air pollution. The current study aims to examine the role of parental risk judgements (i.e. risk perception and worry), transport safety attitudes, transport priorities and accident experiences on pupils' walking and mode choices on school trips in Iran, a country with poor road safety records. A total of 1078 questionnaires were randomly distributed among pupils at nine public and private schools in January 2014 in Rasht, Iran. Results from valid observations (n=711) showed that parents with high probability assessments of accidents and strong worry regarding pupils' accident risk while walking were less likely to let their children walk to school. Parents with high safety knowledge were also more likely to allow their pupils to walk to school. Parents who prioritized convenience and accessibility in transport had a stronger tendency to choose motorized modes over walking modes. Also, parents who prioritized safety and security in transport were less likely to allow pupils to walk to school. Elasticities results showed that a one percent increase in priorities of convenience and accessibility, priorities of safety and security, car ownership and walking time from home to school reduced walking among pupils by a probability of 0.62, 0.20, 0.86 and 0.57%, respectively. A one percent increase in parental safety knowledge increased the walking probability by around 0.25%. A 1 unit increase in parental probability assessment and worry towards pupils' walking, decreased the probability of choosing walking mode by 0.11 and 0.05, respectively. Policy-makers who aim to promote walking to schools should improve safety and security of the walking facilities and increase parental safety knowledge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. On Improving the Experiment Methodology in Pedagogical Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horakova, Tereza; Houska, Milan

    2014-01-01

    The paper shows how the methodology for a pedagogical experiment can be improved through including the pre-research stage. If the experiment has the form of a test procedure, an improvement of methodology can be achieved using for example the methods of statistical and didactic analysis of tests which are traditionally used in other areas, i.e.…

  16. How to Conduct Clinical Qualitative Research on the Patient's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2011-01-01

    From a perspective of patient-centered healthcare, exploring patients' (a) preconceptions, (b) treatment experiences, (c) quality of life, (d) satisfaction, (e) illness understandings, and (f) design are all critical components in improving primary health care and research. Utilizing qualitative approaches to discover patients' experiences can…

  17. The Importance of Early Experiences: Clinical, Research, and Policy Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeanah, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    The degree to which early adverse experiences exert long term effects on development and how much early adversity may be overcome through subsequent experiences are important mental health questions. The clinical, research and policy perspectives on these questions lead to different answers. From a clinical perspective, change is always possible,…

  18. Ho'okulaiwi and the Lived Experiences of Indigenous Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, K. Laiana; Maaka, Margaret J.

    2013-01-01

    Each article in this journal describes not only a unique journey, it also describes an effort to build a homeland of some form or another. The authors refer to these journeys as the "loved experiences" of indigenous peoples. The idea then, that research is a lived experience that reflects the macrocosms and microcosms of indigenous well…

  19. Daily Experience Research: Methods and Applications in Therapeutic Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voelkl, Judith E.; Baldwin, Cheryl K.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the major approaches used by social scientists to measure daily experiences, including interval-contingent, signal- contingent, and event-contingent methods. Examples of how these methods have been used in therapeutic recreation and leisure research are provided. The unique challenges and issues of measuring the daily experiences of…

  20. The Importance of Early Experiences: Clinical, Research, and Policy Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeanah, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    The degree to which early adverse experiences exert long term effects on development and how much early adversity may be overcome through subsequent experiences are important mental health questions. The clinical, research and policy perspectives on these questions lead to different answers. From a clinical perspective, change is always possible,…

  1. Research needs for a better understanding of wilderness visitor experiences

    Treesearch

    Stephen F. McCool; Chad P. Dawson

    2012-01-01

    What information is needed to facilitate enhanced management of visitor experiences in wilderness? The final session of the workshop comprised a facilitated process with the 20 participants to identify research and information needs to support wilderness visitor experience management. The Wilderness Act and the previous presentations and discussions not only provided a...

  2. When Women Are Equal: The Canada Research Chair Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Karen R.; Drakich, Janice

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the gendered nature of elite academic careers. Of interest is how similar or different the experiences are of women and men who have been appointed to Canada Research Chairs (CRCs). In particular, we examine the impacts of holding a CRC position and consider the factors that shape that experience for women and men. Based on…

  3. Embedding a Recovery Orientation into Neuroscience Research: Involving People with a Lived Experience in Research Activity.

    PubMed

    Stratford, Anthony; Brophy, Lisa; Castle, David; Harvey, Carol; Robertson, Joanne; Corlett, Philip; Davidson, Larry; Everall, Ian

    2016-03-01

    This paper highlights the importance and value of involving people with a lived experience of mental ill health and recovery in neuroscience research activity. In this era of recovery oriented service delivery, involving people with the lived experience of mental illness in neuroscience research extends beyond their participation as "subjects". The recovery paradigm reconceptualises people with the lived experience of mental ill health as experts by experience. To support this contribution, local policies and procedures, recovery-oriented training for neuroscience researchers, and dialogue about the practical applications of neuroscience research, are required.

  4. Comparison of three labeled silica nanoparticles used as tracers in transport experiments in porous media. Part II: transport experiments and modeling.

    PubMed

    Vitorge, Elsa; Szenknect, Stéphanie; Martins, Jean M-F; Barthès, Véronique; Gaudet, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Three types of labeled silica nanoparticles were used in transport experiments in saturated sand. The goal of this study was to evaluate both the efficiency of labeling techniques (fluorescence (FITC), metal (Ag(0) core) and radioactivity ((110m)Ag(0) core)) in realistic transport conditions and the reactive transport of silica nanocolloids of variable size and concentration in porous media. Experimental results obtained under contrasted experimental conditions revealed that deposition in sand is controlled by nanoparticles size and ionic strength of the solution. A mathematical model is proposed to quantitatively describe colloid transport. Fluorescent labeling is widely used to study fate of colloids in soils but was the less sensitive one. Ag(0) labeling with ICP-MS detection was found to be very sensitive to measure deposition profiles. Radiolabeled ((110m)Ag(0)) nanoparticles permitted in situ detection. Results obtained with radiolabeled nanoparticles are wholly original and might be used for improving the modeling of deposition and release dynamics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Developing Authentic Research Experiences Using EarthScope Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall-Wallace, M. K.

    2003-12-01

    EarthScope, a decade-long experiment to understand the formation, structure, and evolution of the North American continent, will carry-out active investigations in nearly every county in the US. The excitement of a huge science experiment in one's own backyard piques interest, but teachers need resources and professional development experiences to capitalize upon this excitement and create opportunities for their students' learning. The EarthScope Education and Outreach Network will provide the interface to make EarthScope science, and the advanced technology and modern approaches used to understand Earth, relevant and beneficial to K-16 educators vested in advancing Earth science education. Three obstacles must be overcome for success in carrying out authentic EarthScope research in the classroom. First, scientists and teachers must work together to identify relevant and developmentally appropriate research questions for the target audience. Second, teachers will need professional development experiences that engage them in authentic research and that provide support for introducing a similar research experience in their own classroom. Third, the outcome of the research experience must have value to the scientist, teacher and student to motivate sustained participation by all. The dense array of seismometers being deployed in the USArray component of EarthScope will permit students and the public to see first-hand Earth's dynamic response to both human and natural events in their hometown and around the country. Targeted local experiments will make EarthScope's scientific investigations and discoveries relevant for educational efforts on a region-by-region basis. Combining the real-time seismic data streams from USArray with data and instrumentation from the growing US Educational Seismic Network (USESN) opens up endless possibilities for student-centered research. In this paper, I will discuss the lessons learned from eight years of leading a high school

  6. Effect of Streambed Roughness and Topography on the Solute Transport and Hyporheic Exchanges: Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaobing; Zhao, Jian; Chen, Li

    2013-04-01

    Hyporheic zones are critical for maintaining river ecosystem as they provide hyporheic and riparian organisms critical solutes, including nutrients and dissolved gases from bedforms to watershed scales. Among the hyporheic driving factors, the streambed topogaraphy is considered as a significant driving factor for hydraulic process in hyporheic zone that has been well documented in the past few decades. Previous research has implied that the rough streambed impact the flow resistance and continuously affect the hydraulic gradient between the river and the streambed. Recent research works focused more on the realistic pressure distribution along the bedform interface (eg. triangular-shaped sand dunes) on a macro level scale, while only few works related to the hyporheic exchanges induced by pore size scaled topography. How and to what extent that pore size scaled bedform would contribute to the total hyporheic discharge is still unclear. Indeed, the mesoscopic uneven topography can disturb the flow regime that near the water-sand interface, for example, it brings turbulent eddies and fluctuating pressure distribution along a rough gravel bed. In our study, a set of flume experiments were setup to examine the pore size roughness impacts on the solute transport and hyporheic exchanges in surface-subsurface system. Six kinds of riverbed sediments with median diameter range from 1.1 mm to 50.2 mm were chosen for comparative analyses. Also, three kinds of triangular shaped bedforms represented by the ratio α (=δ/?, δ is the amplitude and ? is the wavelength) with value of 0.125, 0.17 and 0.25 were considered as the macro-topography driver variation in our experiments. Our tests revealed that under a flat riverbed condition, the vertical diffusion is the main factor for the solute transport in hyporheic zone, however, the hyporheic exchange rate (represented by the decrease rate in concentration of surface water) is significantly enhanced as the growth of gravel grain

  7. Researchers' Experiences, Positive and Negative, in Integrative Landscape Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tress, Bärbel; Tress, Gunther; Fry, Gary

    2005-12-01

    Integrative (interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary) landscape research projects are becoming increasingly common. As a result, researchers are spending a larger proportion of their professional careers doing integrative work, participating in shifting interdisciplinary teams, and cooperating directly with non-academic participants. Despite the growing importance of integrative research, few studies have investigated researchers’ experiences in these projects. How do researchers perceive the outcomes of integrative projects, or career effects? Do they view the projects generally as successes or failures? This study analyses researchers’ experiences in integrative landscape studies and investigates what factors shape these experiences. The data stems from 19 semi-structured qualitative interviews and a Web-based survey among 207 participants in integrative landscape research projects. It finds that researchers experience participation in integrative projects as positive, in particular discussions among participants, networking, teamwork, and gaining new insights and skills. Furthermore, most researchers perceive the projects as successful and as having a positive effect on their careers. Less positive aspects of integration relate to publications and merit points. Factors found to contribute to positive experiences include reaching a high degree of integration amongst the involved disciplines, common definitions of integrative research concepts, and projects that include a large share of fundamental research as well as projects with many project outcomes. Based on these findings, we advise future projects to plan for integration, facilitate discussions, and reach agreement on integrative concepts. We suggest that aspects of fundamental research be included in integrative projects. We also suggest that planning be done at an early stage for peer-reviewed publications, to ensure that participants gain merit points from their participation in integrative research

  8. The Saharan Aerosol Long-range Transport and Aerosol-Cloud Interaction Experiment (SALTRACE 2013) - An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinzierl, Bernadett; Ansmann, Albert; Reitebuch, Oliver; Freudenthaler, Volker; Müller, Thomas; Kandler, Konrad; Althausen, Dietrich; Chouza, Fernando; Dollner, Maximilian; Farrell, David; Groß, Silke; Heinold, Bernd; Kristensen, Thomas B.; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.; Omar, Ali; Prospero, Joseph; Sauer, Daniel; Schäfler, Andreas; Toledano, Carlos; Tegen, Ina

    2015-04-01

    Saharan mineral dust is regularly transported over long distances impacting air quality, health, weather and climate thousands of kilometers downwind of the Sahara. During transport, the properties of mineral dust may be modified thereby changing the associated impact on the radiation budget. Although mineral dust is of key importance for the climate system many questions such as the change of the dust size distribution during long-range transport, the role of wet and dry removal mechanisms, and the complex interaction between mineral dust and clouds remain open. To investigate the aging and modification of Saharan mineral dust during long-range transport across the Atlantic Ocean, the Saharan Aerosol Long-range Transport and Aerosol-Cloud-Interaction Experiment (SALTRACE: http://www.pa.op.dlr.de/saltrace) was conducted in June/July 2013. SALTRACE was designed as a closure experiment combining ground-based lidar, in-situ and sun photometer instruments deployed on Cape Verde, Barbados and Puerto Rico, with airborne measurements of the DLR research aircraft Falcon, satellite observations and model simulations. During SALTRACE, mineral dust from five dust outbreaks was studied under different atmospheric conditions and a unique data set on the chemical, microphysical and optical properties of aged mineral dust was gathered. For the first time, Lagrangian sampling of a dust plume in the Cape Verde area on 17 June 2013 which was again measured with the same instrumentation on 21 and 22 June 2013 near Barbados was realized. Further highlights of SALTRACE include the formation and evolution of tropical storm Chantal in a dusty environment and the interaction of dust with mixed-phase clouds. In our presentation, we give an overview of the SALTRACE study, discuss the meteorological situation and the dust transport during SALTRACE and highlight selected results from SALTRACE.

  9. Dissolution-precipitation processes in tank experiments for testing numerical models for reactive transport calculations: Experiments and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poonoosamy, Jenna; Kosakowski, Georg; Van Loon, Luc R.; Mäder, Urs

    2015-06-01

    In the context of testing reactive transport codes and their underlying conceptual models, a simple 2D reactive transport experiment was developed. The aim was to use simple chemistry and design a reproducible and fast to conduct experiment, which is flexible enough to include several process couplings: advective-diffusive transport of solutes, effect of liquid phase density on advective transport, and kinetically controlled dissolution/precipitation reactions causing porosity changes. A small tank was filled with a reactive layer of strontium sulfate (SrSO4) of two different grain sizes, sandwiched between two layers of essentially non-reacting quartz sand (SiO2). A highly concentrated solution of barium chloride was injected to create an asymmetric flow field. Once the barium chloride reached the reactive layer, it forced the transformation of strontium sulfate into barium sulfate (BaSO4). Due to the higher molar volume of barium sulfate, its precipitation caused a decrease of porosity and lowered the permeability. Changes in the flow field were observed with help of dye tracer tests. The experiments were modelled using the reactive transport code OpenGeosys-GEM. Tests with non-reactive tracers performed prior to barium chloride injection, as well as the density-driven flow (due to the high concentration of barium chloride solution), could be well reproduced by the numerical model. To reproduce the mineral bulk transformation with time, two populations of strontium sulfate grains with different kinetic rates of dissolution were applied. However, a default porosity permeability relationship was unable to account for measured pressure changes. Post mortem analysis of the strontium sulfate reactive medium provided useful information on the chemical and structural changes occurring at the pore scale at the interface that were considered in our model to reproduce the pressure evolution with time.

  10. Dissolution-precipitation processes in tank experiments for testing numerical models for reactive transport calculations: Experiments and modelling.

    PubMed

    Poonoosamy, Jenna; Kosakowski, Georg; Van Loon, Luc R; Mäder, Urs

    2015-01-01

    In the context of testing reactive transport codes and their underlying conceptual models, a simple 2D reactive transport experiment was developed. The aim was to use simple chemistry and design a reproducible and fast to conduct experiment, which is flexible enough to include several process couplings: advective-diffusive transport of solutes, effect of liquid phase density on advective transport, and kinetically controlled dissolution/precipitation reactions causing porosity changes. A small tank was filled with a reactive layer of strontium sulfate (SrSO4) of two different grain sizes, sandwiched between two layers of essentially non-reacting quartz sand (SiO2). A highly concentrated solution of barium chloride was injected to create an asymmetric flow field. Once the barium chloride reached the reactive layer, it forced the transformation of strontium sulfate into barium sulfate (BaSO4). Due to the higher molar volume of barium sulfate, its precipitation caused a decrease of porosity and lowered the permeability. Changes in the flow field were observed with help of dye tracer tests. The experiments were modelled using the reactive transport code OpenGeosys-GEM. Tests with non-reactive tracers performed prior to barium chloride injection, as well as the density-driven flow (due to the high concentration of barium chloride solution), could be well reproduced by the numerical model. To reproduce the mineral bulk transformation with time, two populations of strontium sulfate grains with different kinetic rates of dissolution were applied. However, a default porosity permeability relationship was unable to account for measured pressure changes. Post mortem analysis of the strontium sulfate reactive medium provided useful information on the chemical and structural changes occurring at the pore scale at the interface that were considered in our model to reproduce the pressure evolution with time.

  11. Mentoring Undergraduate Interdisciplinary Mathematics Research Students: Junior Faculty Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gevertz, Jana L.; Kim, Peter S.; Wares, Joanna R.

    2017-01-01

    To be successful, junior faculty must properly manage their time in the face of expanding responsibilities. One such responsibility is supervising undergraduate research projects. Student research projects (either single or multi-student) can be undertaken as a full-time summer experience, or as a part-time academic year commitment. With many…

  12. Development of a Structured Undergraduate Research Experience: Framework and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anne M.; Lewis, Stephanie N.; Bevan, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Participating in undergraduate research can be a pivotal experience for students in life science disciplines. Development of critical thinking skills, in addition to conveying scientific ideas in oral and written formats, is essential to ensuring that students develop a greater understanding of basic scientific knowledge and the research process.…

  13. Using Phenomenology to Conduct Environmental Education Research: Experience and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazir, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Recently, I applied a phenomenological methodology to study environmental education at an outdoor education center. In this article, I reflect on my experience of doing phenomenological research to highlight issues researchers may want to consider in using this type of methodology. The main premise of the article is that phenomenology, with its…

  14. PRES 2013: Results from the Postgraduate Research Experience Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Paul; Turner, Gosia

    2013-01-01

    This document outlines the results of the "2013 Postgraduate Research Experience Survey" ("PRES"), where 48,401 replies were received from 122 participating institutions. Redeveloped for 2013, our biennial survey is the only national survey to gather insight from postgraduate research students about their learning and…

  15. Using Phenomenology to Conduct Environmental Education Research: Experience and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazir, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Recently, I applied a phenomenological methodology to study environmental education at an outdoor education center. In this article, I reflect on my experience of doing phenomenological research to highlight issues researchers may want to consider in using this type of methodology. The main premise of the article is that phenomenology, with its…

  16. Faculty's Degrees, Experience and Research Vary with Specialty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedler, Fred; Counts, Tim; Carey, Arlen; Santana, Maria Cristina

    1998-01-01

    Examines issues of professional experience, degrees, research, and productivity for journalism and mass communication faculty members, separating and comparing different specialties. Finds that requirements regarding academic degrees and research vary from specialty to specialty and that 53% of those teaching in advertising, radio/television, and…

  17. [Experience of stroke prevention-Enlightenment for cancer research].

    PubMed

    You, Weicheng

    2015-08-01

    Cancer, stroke and heart diseases are most common causes of death. This paper summarized the experience of stroke prevention, which is an enlightenment for cancer research. In addition, this paper also described the progress of cancer epidemiological research, particular the primary and second preventions in China.

  18. Development of a Structured Undergraduate Research Experience: Framework and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anne M.; Lewis, Stephanie N.; Bevan, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Participating in undergraduate research can be a pivotal experience for students in life science disciplines. Development of critical thinking skills, in addition to conveying scientific ideas in oral and written formats, is essential to ensuring that students develop a greater understanding of basic scientific knowledge and the research process.…

  19. Evidence in Support of Removing Boundaries to Undergraduate Research Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haave, Neil; Audet, Doris

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate research is one of several high impact educational practices used by educational institutions to increase student engagement and success (Kuh, 2008). Many studies on the impact of undergraduate research have surveyed students or faculty on their personal experience and its influence on students' subsequent degrees and employment…

  20. A Model for an Introductory Undergraduate Research Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canaria, Jeffrey A.; Schoffstall, Allen M.; Weiss, David J.; Henry, Renee M.; Braun-Sand, Sonja B.

    2012-01-01

    An introductory, multidisciplinary lecture-laboratory course linked with a summer research experience has been established to provide undergraduate biology and chemistry majors with the skills needed to be successful in the research laboratory. This three-credit hour course was focused on laboratory skills and was designed to reinforce and develop…

  1. Rutgers University Research Experience for Teachers in Engineering: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laffey, Evelyn H.; Cook-Chennault, Kimberly; Hirsch, Linda S.

    2013-01-01

    In addressing the nation's need for a more technologically-literate society, the Rutgers University Research Experience for Teachers in Engineering (RU RET-E) is designed to: (1) engage middle and high school math and science teachers in innovative "green" engineering research during the summer, and (2) support teachers in integrating…

  2. Participation in Supervised Agricultural Experience Programs: A Synthesis of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, James E.; Osborne, Edward W.

    1995-01-01

    A research synthesis found that supervised agricultural experience programs lack definition and focus. Teacher attitudes and expectations strongly influence participation, and many teachers fail to implement it fully, limiting participation. There is a lack of empirical research supporting the benefits of participation. (SK)

  3. Developing Collaboration Skills in Team Undergraduate Research Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturner, Kelly K.; Bishop, Pamela; Lenhart, Suzanne M.

    2017-01-01

    Interdisciplinary undergraduate research experiences often require students to work in teams with other students and researchers from different disciplines, creating a need for development of new skills in interdisciplinary collaboration. In this paper, we describe our unique efforts to mentor participants in developing these skills during our…

  4. The use of synthetic colloids in tracer transport experiments in saturated rock fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, Paul William

    1995-08-01

    Studies of groundwater flow and contaminant transport in saturated, fractured geologic media are of great interest to researchers studying the potential long-term storage of hazardous wastes in or near such media. A popular technique for conducting such studies is to introduce tracers having different chemical and physical properties into a system and then observe the tracers at one or more downstream locations, inferring flow and transport mechanisms from the breakthrough characteristics of the different tracers. Many tracer studies have been conducted in saturated, fractured media to help develop and/or refine models capable of predicting contaminant transport over large scales in such media.

  5. NASA Glenn Research Center Experience with "LENR Phenomenon"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, John D.; Niedra, Janis M.

    2012-01-01

    Since 1989 NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has performed some small-scale limited experiments that show evidence of effects claimed by some to be evidence of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR). The research at GRC has involved observations and work on measurement techniques for observing the temperature effects in reactions of isotopes of hydrogen with palladium hydrides. The various experiments performed involved loading Pd with gaseous H2 and D2, and exposing Pd thin films to multi-bubble sonoluminescence in regular and deuterated water. An overview of these experiments and their results will be presented.

  6. NASA Glenn Research Center Experience with LENR Phenomenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, John D.; Niedra, Janis M.

    2012-01-01

    Since 1989 NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has performed some small-scale limited experiments that show evidence of effects claimed by some to be evidence of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR). The research at GRC has involved observations and work on measurement techniques for observing the temperature effects in reactions of isotopes of hydrogen with palladium hydrides. The various experiments performed involved loading Pd with gaseous H2 and D2, and exposing Pd thin films to multi-bubble sonoluminescence in regular and deuterated water. An overview of these experiments and their results will be presented.

  7. Diversifying Science: Underrepresented Student Experiences in Structured Research Programs

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Nolan L.; Lin, Monica H.; Arellano, Lucy; Espinosa, Lorelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Targeting four institutions with structured science research programs for undergraduates, this study focuses on how underrepresented students experience science. Several key themes emerged from focus group discussions: learning to become research scientists, experiences with the culture of science, and views on racial and social stigma. Participants spoke of essential factors for becoming a scientist, but their experiences also raised complex issues about the role of race and social stigma in scientific training. Students experienced the collaborative and empowering culture of science, exhibited strong science identities and high self-efficacy, while developing directed career goals as a result of “doing science” in these programs. PMID:23503690

  8. Comparison of flow and transport experiments on 3D printed 'rocks' with direct numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, F. E.; Geiger, S.; Mackay, E.; Singleton, M.; McGravie, T.; Anouilh, T.; Jobe, D.; Zhang, S.; Agar, S. M.; Ishutov, S.; Hasiuk, F.; Chalaturnyk, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    3D printing technology has the potential to revolutionise modelling of fluid flow and mass transport in porous media. Using 3D printing to replicate pore geometries from real rocks quickly and cheaply, and being able to assign specific properties to the samples, would enable us to repeat experiments where things such as permeability, porosity, reactivity, or wettability are known a priori. Destructive tests, such as reactive transport experiments, could then be performed using the same, realistic, initial geometry, in a repeatable fashion; in addition, specific properties of the porous media (e.g. the reactivity of individual grains) could be altered in a controlled way. Similarly, two-phase flow experiments could be carried out where relevant properties (e.g. individual grain wettability) are modified between experiments. Results from such experiments would shed new light on key physio-chemical processes occurring at the pore-scale during multi-phase reactive flow and would allow us to validate the suite of emerging direct numerical simulation techniques (e.g. Lattice Boltzman, Volume of Fluid) currently used to model pore-scale flow and transport. We have developed a novel experimental setup to investigate single-phase flow and transport through translucent 3D printed and Perspex samples and to visualise the experiments for comparison with numerical simulations. Dyed fluid is injected at one end of the sample and the behaviour of the system is recorded using a digital camera situated directly above it. Image processing techniques are employed to quantify dye concentration and location through time. We use the finite volume method to simulate the flow experiments in OpenFOAM, using the same input geometry that was used to print the sample. Comparison of experimental results with simulations enables us to identify similarities and differences between flow and transport observed in the 3D printed samples and behaviour expected from the numerical simulations.

  9. Emancipatory action research with young schoolchildren: experience report.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Elda de; Soares, Cassia Baldini; Silva, Julia de Almeida

    2016-08-25

    To report an emancipatory action research experience and discuss its potentialities as a way to problematise the realities of the young participants. The aim of the action research was to create a drug awareness media programme. Experience report of emancipatory action research with 13 young students of a public school, in São Paulo, from February to September 2014. Research was conducted by means of 13 workshops in five stages: exploratory; topic outline; theoretical and practical orientation; expression of new knowledge; and preparation and validation of scripts. It became clear that problematization, which is inherent to the action research method, allowed the young students to seize the discussion process as a right to critically reflect on the relationship between capitalism and drug use. The research enabled an emancipatory educational process and the construction of educational drug awareness media programmes, based on the way of life of young people who live in the outskirts of the city.

  10. Simulating surface oil transport during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: Experiments with the BioCast system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolliff, Jason Keith; Smith, Travis A.; Ladner, Sherwin; Arnone, Robert A.

    2014-03-01

    The U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is developing nowcast/forecast software systems designed to combine satellite ocean color data streams with physical circulation models in order to produce prognostic fields of ocean surface materials. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico provided a test case for the Bio-Optical Forecasting (BioCast) system to rapidly combine the latest satellite imagery of the oil slick distribution with surface circulation fields in order to produce oil slick transport scenarios and forecasts. In one such sequence of experiments, MODIS satellite true color images were combined with high-resolution ocean circulation forecasts from the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS®) to produce 96-h oil transport simulations. These oil forecasts predicted a major oil slick landfall at Grand Isle, Louisiana, USA that was subsequently observed. A key driver of the landfall scenario was the development of a coastal buoyancy current associated with Mississippi River Delta freshwater outflow. In another series of experiments, longer-term regional circulation model results were combined with oil slick source/sink scenarios to simulate the observed containment of surface oil within the Gulf of Mexico. Both sets of experiments underscore the importance of identifying and simulating potential hydrodynamic conduits of surface oil transport. The addition of explicit sources and sinks of surface oil concentrations provides a framework for increasingly complex oil spill modeling efforts that extend beyond horizontal trajectory analysis.

  11. Undergraduate Research Experiences Support Science Career Decisions and Active Learning

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the reliability of student evaluations of summer undergraduate research experiences using the SURE (Survey of Undergraduate Research Experiences) and a follow-up survey disseminated 9 mo later. The survey further examines the hypothesis that undergraduate research enhances the educational experience of science undergraduates, attracts and retains talented students to careers in science, and acts as a pathway for minority students into science careers. Undergraduates participated in an online survey on the benefits of undergraduate research experiences. Participants indicated gains on 20 potential benefits and reported on career plans. Most of the participants began or continued to plan for postgraduate education in the sciences. A small group of students who discontinued their plans for postgraduate science education reported significantly lower gains than continuing students. Women and men reported similar levels of benefits and similar patterns of career plans. Undergraduate researchers from underrepresented groups reported higher learning gains than comparison students. The results replicated previously reported data from this survey. The follow-up survey indicated that students reported gains in independence, intrinsic motivation to learn, and active participation in courses taken after the summer undergraduate research experience. PMID:18056301

  12. Undergraduate research experiences support science career decisions and active learning.

    PubMed

    Lopatto, David

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the reliability of student evaluations of summer undergraduate research experiences using the SURE (Survey of Undergraduate Research Experiences) and a follow-up survey disseminated 9 mo later. The survey further examines the hypothesis that undergraduate research enhances the educational experience of science undergraduates, attracts and retains talented students to careers in science, and acts as a pathway for minority students into science careers. Undergraduates participated in an online survey on the benefits of undergraduate research experiences. Participants indicated gains on 20 potential benefits and reported on career plans. Most of the participants began or continued to plan for postgraduate education in the sciences. A small group of students who discontinued their plans for postgraduate science education reported significantly lower gains than continuing students. Women and men reported similar levels of benefits and similar patterns of career plans. Undergraduate researchers from underrepresented groups reported higher learning gains than comparison students. The results replicated previously reported data from this survey. The follow-up survey indicated that students reported gains in independence, intrinsic motivation to learn, and active participation in courses taken after the summer undergraduate research experience.

  13. Designing Undergraduate Research Experiences: A Multiplicity of Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduca, C. A.

    2001-12-01

    Research experiences for undergraduate students can serve many goals including: developing student understanding of the process of science; providing opportunities for students to develop professional skills or test career plans; completing publishable research; enabling faculty professional development; or enhancing the visibility of a science program. The large range of choices made in the design of an undergraduate research program or opportunity must reflect the goals of the program, the needs and abilities of the students and faculty, and the available resources including both time and money. Effective program design, execution, and evaluation can all be enhanced if the goals of the program are clearly articulated. Student research experiences can be divided into four components: 1) defining the research problem; 2) developing the research plan or experiment design; 3) collecting and interpreting data, and 4) communicating results. In each of these components, the program can be structured in a wide variety of ways and students can be given more or less guidance or freedom. While a feeling of ownership of the research project appears to be very important, examples of successful projects displaying a wide range of design decisions are available. Work with the Keck Geology Consortium suggests that four strategies can enhance the likelihood of successful student experiences: 1) students are well-prepared for research experience (project design must match student preparation); 2) timelines and events are structured to move students through intermediate goals to project completion; 3) support for the emotional, financial, academic and technical challenges of a research project is in place; 4) strong communications between students and faculty set clear expectations and enable mid-course corrections in the program or project design. Creating a research culture for the participants or embedding a project in an existing research culture can also assist students in

  14. Transportation Requirements for Improved Racial Balance. Research Memorandum No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Howard R.; Moon, Albert E.

    This memorandum presents the costs of transporting students to achieve racial balance in the San Francisco public schools. The costs of a district owned school bus system are analyzed for a four year implementation period. Costs of different sizes and types of buses and of major operating requirements (including parking, buildings, staff, and…

  15. Improving School Bus Safety. Transportation Research Board Special Report 222.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Transportation Research Board.

    While school buses transport more passengers per trip, the rate of occupant fatalities per mile driven for school buses is one-quarter that for passenger cars. Nevertheless, the public expects school districts and other school bus operators to take all reasonable precautions to protect children as they travel to and from school. Although a variety…

  16. Yeast as a tool for plant Ca(2+) transporter research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To maintain optimal cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations, cells employ three distinct strategies: 1) tightly regulated influx of Ca(2+); 2) efficient efflux of Ca(2+) from the cell; and 3) sequestration of Ca(2+) in organelles. Ca(2+)efflux and influx are mediated by diverse transporter systems, such as ...

  17. Transportation Requirements for Improved Racial Balance. Research Memorandum No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Howard R.; Moon, Albert E.

    This memorandum presents the costs of transporting students to achieve racial balance in the San Francisco public schools. The costs of a district owned school bus system are analyzed for a four year implementation period. Costs of different sizes and types of buses and of major operating requirements (including parking, buildings, staff, and…

  18. Laboratory transport experiments with antibiotic sulfadiazine: Experimental results and parameter uncertainty analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sittig, S.; Vrugt, J. A.; Kasteel, R.; Groeneweg, J.; Vereecken, H.

    2011-12-01

    Persistent antibiotics in the soil potentially contaminate the groundwater and affect the quality of drinking water. To improve our understanding of antibiotic transport in soils, we performed laboratory transport experiments in soil columns under constant irrigation conditions with repeated applications of chloride and radio-labeled SDZ. The tracers were incorporated in the first centimeter, either with pig manure or with solution. Breakthrough curves and concentration profiles of the parent compound and the main transformation products were measured. The goal is to describe the observed nonlinear and kinetic transport behavior of SDZ. Our analysis starts with synthetic transport data for the given laboratory flow conditions for tracers which exhibit increasingly complex interactions with the solid phase. This first step is necessary to benchmark our inverse modeling approach for ideal situations. Then we analyze the transport behavior using the column experiments in the laboratory. Our analysis uses a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampler (Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis algorithm, DREAM) to efficiently search the parameter space of an advective-dispersion model. Sorption of the antibiotics to the soil was described using a model regarding reversible as well as irreversible sorption. This presentation will discuss our initial findings. We will present the data of our laboratory experiments along with an analysis of parameter uncertainty.

  19. Development of a structured undergraduate research experience: Framework and implications.

    PubMed

    Brown, Anne M; Lewis, Stephanie N; Bevan, David R

    2016-09-10

    Participating in undergraduate research can be a pivotal experience for students in life science disciplines. Development of critical thinking skills, in addition to conveying scientific ideas in oral and written formats, is essential to ensuring that students develop a greater understanding of basic scientific knowledge and the research process. Modernizing the current life sciences research environment to accommodate the growing demand by students for experiential learning is needed. By developing and implementing a structured, theory-based approach to undergraduate research in the life sciences, specifically biochemistry, it has been successfully shown that more students can be provided with a high-quality, high-impact research experience. The structure of this approach allowed students to develop novel, independent projects in a computational molecular modeling lab. Students engaged in an experience in which career goals, problem-solving skills, time management skills, and independence in a research lab were developed. After experiencing this approach to undergraduate research, students reported feeling challenged to think critically and prepared for future career paths. The approach allowed for a progressive learning environment where more undergraduate students could participate in publishable research. Future areas for development include implementation in a bench-top lab and extension to disciplines beyond biochemistry. In this study, it has been shown that utilizing the structured approach to undergraduate research could allow for more students to experience undergraduate research and develop into more confident, independent life scientists well prepared for graduate schools and professional research environments. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(5):463-474, 2016.

  20. Interdisciplinary Research to Elucidate Mechanisms Governing Silver Nanoparticle Fate and Transport in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennell, K. D.; Mittleman, A.; Taghavy, A.; Fortner, J.; Lantagne, D.; Abriola, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    Interdisciplinary Research to Elucidate Mechanisms Governing Silver Nanoparticle Fate and Transport in Porous Media Anjuliee M. Mittelman, Amir Taghavy, Yonggang Wang, John D. Fortner, Daniele S. Lantagne, Linda M. Abriola and Kurt D. Pennell* Detailed knowledge of the processes governing nanoparticle transport and reactivity in porous media is essential for accurate predictions of environmental fate, water and wastewater treatment system performance, and assessment of potential risks to ecosystems and water supplies. To address these issues, an interdisciplinary research team combined experimental and mathematical modeling studies to investigate the mobility, dissolution, and aging of silver nanoparticles (nAg) in representative aquifer materials and ceramic filters. Results of one-dimensional column studies, conducted with water-saturated sands maintained at pH 4 or 7 and three levels of dissolved oxygen (DO), revealed that fraction of silver mass eluted as Ag+ increased with increasing DO level, and that the dissolution of attached nAg decreased over time as a result of surface oxidation. A hybrid Eulerain-Lagragian nanoparticle transport model, which incorporates DO-dependent dissolution kinetics and particle aging, was able to accurately simulate nAg mobility and Ag+ release measured in the column experiments. Model sensitivity analysis indicated that as the flow velocity and particle size decrease, nAg dissolution and Ag+ transport processes increasingly govern silver mobility. Consistent results were obtained in studies of ceramic water filters treated with nAg, where silver elution was shown to be governed by nAg dissolution to form Ag+ and subsequent cation exchange reactions. Recent studies explored the effects of surface coating aging on nAg aggregation, mobility and dissolution. Following ultraviolet light, nAg retention in water saturated sand increased by 25-50%, while up to 50% of the applied mass eluted as Ag+ compared to less than 1% for un-aged n

  1. Interdisciplinary Research to Elucidate Mechanisms Governing Silver Nanoparticle Fate and Transport in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennell, K. D.; Mittleman, A.; Taghavy, A.; Fortner, J.; Lantagne, D.; Abriola, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Interdisciplinary Research to Elucidate Mechanisms Governing Silver Nanoparticle Fate and Transport in Porous Media Anjuliee M. Mittelman, Amir Taghavy, Yonggang Wang, John D. Fortner, Daniele S. Lantagne, Linda M. Abriola and Kurt D. Pennell* Detailed knowledge of the processes governing nanoparticle transport and reactivity in porous media is essential for accurate predictions of environmental fate, water and wastewater treatment system performance, and assessment of potential risks to ecosystems and water supplies. To address these issues, an interdisciplinary research team combined experimental and mathematical modeling studies to investigate the mobility, dissolution, and aging of silver nanoparticles (nAg) in representative aquifer materials and ceramic filters. Results of one-dimensional column studies, conducted with water-saturated sands maintained at pH 4 or 7 and three levels of dissolved oxygen (DO), revealed that fraction of silver mass eluted as Ag+ increased with increasing DO level, and that the dissolution of attached nAg decreased over time as a result of surface oxidation. A hybrid Eulerain-Lagragian nanoparticle transport model, which incorporates DO-dependent dissolution kinetics and particle aging, was able to accurately simulate nAg mobility and Ag+ release measured in the column experiments. Model sensitivity analysis indicated that as the flow velocity and particle size decrease, nAg dissolution and Ag+ transport processes increasingly govern silver mobility. Consistent results were obtained in studies of ceramic water filters treated with nAg, where silver elution was shown to be governed by nAg dissolution to form Ag+ and subsequent cation exchange reactions. Recent studies explored the effects of surface coating aging on nAg aggregation, mobility and dissolution. Following ultraviolet light, nAg retention in water saturated sand increased by 25-50%, while up to 50% of the applied mass eluted as Ag+ compared to less than 1% for un-aged n

  2. How Design Experiments Can Inform Teaching and Learning: Teacher-Researchers as Collaborators in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jitendra, Asha K.

    2005-01-01

    In this commentary, I summarize my own research with colleagues to affirm Dr. Gersten's call for considering design experiments prior to conducting intervention research. I describe how design experiments not only can inform teaching and the learning of innovative approaches, but also hold the promise of effectively bridging the…

  3. CSI flight experiment projects of the Naval Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Shalom

    1993-01-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is involved in an active program of CSI flight experiments. The first CSI flight experiment of the Naval Research Laboratory, the Low Power Atmospheric Compensation Experiment (LACE) dynamics experiment, has successfully measured vibrations of an orbiting satellite with a ground-based laser radar. The observations, made on January 7, 8 and 10, 1991, represent the first ever measurements of this type. In the tests, a narrowband heterodyne CO2 laser radar, operating at a wavelength of 10.6 microns, detected vibration induced differential-Doppler signatures of the LACE satellite. Power spectral densities of forced oscillations and modal frequencies and damping rates of free-damped vibrations were obtained and compared with finite element structural models of the LACE system. Another manifested flight experiment is the Advanced Controls Technology Experiment (ACTEX) designed to demonstrate active and passive damping with piezo-electric (PZT) sensors and actuators. This experiment was developed under the management of the Air Force Phillips Laboratory with integration of the experiment at NRL. It is to ride as a secondary, or 'piggyback,' experiment on a future Navy satellite.

  4. CSI flight experiment projects of the Naval Research Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Shalom

    1993-02-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is involved in an active program of CSI flight experiments. The first CSI flight experiment of the Naval Research Laboratory, the Low Power Atmospheric Compensation Experiment (LACE) dynamics experiment, has successfully measured vibrations of an orbiting satellite with a ground-based laser radar. The observations, made on January 7, 8 and 10, 1991, represent the first ever measurements of this type. In the tests, a narrowband heterodyne CO2 laser radar, operating at a wavelength of 10.6 microns, detected vibration induced differential-Doppler signatures of the LACE satellite. Power spectral densities of forced oscillations and modal frequencies and damping rates of free-damped vibrations were obtained and compared with finite element structural models of the LACE system. Another manifested flight experiment is the Advanced Controls Technology Experiment (ACTEX) designed to demonstrate active and passive damping with piezo-electric (PZT) sensors and actuators. This experiment was developed under the management of the Air Force Phillips Laboratory with integration of the experiment at NRL. It is to ride as a secondary, or 'piggyback,' experiment on a future Navy satellite.

  5. Experiments on viscous and asymmetry-induced transport in magnetized, pure-electron plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriesel, Jason Michael

    1999-11-01

    Experiments are presented on two different types of cross-magnetic-field transport in pure-electron plasma columns: ``asymmetry-induced transport'' which is a radial expansion of the plasma column due to azimuthally asymmetric electric or magnetic fields, leading to bulk expansion and particle loss; and ``viscous transport'' which is a rearrangement of particles due to internal like-particle interactions, leading to the confined global thermal equilibrium state. Experiments on asymmetry-induced transport identify two different transport regimes, ``slightly-rigid'' and ``highly-rigid''. Here the plasma rigidity, R≡fb/fE , is the ratio of the axial bounce frequency to the azimuthal E × B rotation frequency. In the slightly-rigid regime (1 < R < 10), the transport scales as VaR-2, where Va is the applied asymmetry strength. The V- 1a scaling is a direct contradiction to most current theories, which predict either a V-1/2a or V-2a scaling. The R- 2 scaling has previously been observed for the plasma loss rate due to inherent trap asymmetries (also know as anomalous transport) on 5 different machines. This ``slightly-rigid'' mechanism appears to ``turn-off'' as the rigidity is increased into the range R = 10 to 20. In the highly-rigid regime ( R > 20), the transport scales as V2aR0 . This scaling is consistent with a previously studied transport mechanism known as ``rotational- pumping'', where the axial energy is pumped due to asymmetries in the effective plasma length. The measured viscous transport is observed to be proportional to the shear in the total (E × B + diamagnetic) fluid rotation of the plasma for both hollow and monotonic rotation profiles. I determine the local viscosity coefficient η in the plasma from measurements of the local flux of electrons. The measured viscosity is 50 - 10 4 times larger than expected from classical transport due to short-range velocity- scattering collisions, but is within a factor of 10 agreement with recent theories by O

  6. Kinetic desorption of fluoride in a granitic soil column: Experiments and reactive transport modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padhi, S.; Tokunaga, T.

    2016-12-01

    The transport of fluoride or other contaminants in subsurface largely depends on their interaction with mineral surfaces of contact. Hence, the methods to evaluate and predict the extent of these interactions are of great importance. The commonly used distribution coefficient (Kd) model does not account for temporally and spatially variable geochemical conditions (Curtis et al., 2006). This study aims to investigate the reactive transport of fluoride in a natural soil column by laboratory experiments and solute transport modeling by introducing surface complexation of fluoride to the transport simulation. For our purpose, column experiments for fluoride sorption and desorption under saturated conditions were conducted in the laboratory on a granitic soil from Tsukuba, Japan. Stable isotopes of water (δ18O and δ2H) were used as conservative tracers to evaluate the flow and transport properties. Existence of physical and chemical nonequilibrium during fluoride transport was evaluated by applying stop flow events. Long tailing during fluoride desorption was observed, and the linear Kd model failed to explain this phenomenon. Hence, a geochemical model considering fluoride sorption in soil by surface complexation was developed to explain fluoride transport in the column. The intrinsic surface complexation constants for fluoride sorption reactions and surface site protonation and deprotonation reactions were corrected from that of the optimized results from batch experiments based as suggested by Sverjensky (2003). The model with fluoride sorption defined by surface complexation explained the observed fluoride desorption data quite satisfactorily, especially the long tailing. An overshoot in the breakthrough curve observed by the simulation during early period of desorption could be due to competitive desorption, which need to be further analyzed. References: (1) Curtis, JP, Davis, JA, Nafiz, DL 2006. Wat. Res. Res., 42, W04404, doi:10.1029/2005WR003979; (2

  7. The Effect of a Simulated Macropore on the Colloid-Facilitated Transport of Cesium and Strontium: Experiment and Model Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, T. M.; Ryan, J. N.; Saiers, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    The sorption of contaminants to mobile colloids has been shown to increase the transport of the contaminants in a process known as colloid-facilitated transport. Many laboratory experiments and computer model simulations have shown that enhanced transport can occur when a contaminant strongly associates with mobile colloids and release kinetics are slow relative to the rate of flow. Knowing when colloid-facilitated transport will affect field-scale situations and risk assessment decisions has been difficult. The three parts of our research were (1) conduct a set of isotherms and breakthrough curves for a well-characterized system (illite colloids, homogeneous quartz sand, saturated and unsaturated conditions), (2) conduct breakthrough experiments with the addition of a central macropore and, (3) model the results to identify and quantify the effects of desorption kinetics and unsaturated conditions on colloid-facilitated transport with a macropore. Breakthrough experiments used a 12.7 cm diameter and 33.5 cm long column packed with cleaned and sieved quartz sand. The homogeneous experiments used sand with a median grain size of 0.325 mm. For macropore experiments, a 2 cm diameter tube of 1.6 mm sand (about 5× the size of the matrix sand) was packed in the center of the column. A rainfall simulator was suspended over the column and a relative saturation of 1.0, 0.80, or 0.33 was established. Three moisture sensors and three tensiometers monitored the flow conditions. Effluent was collected with a peristaltic pump and a fraction collector and measured for total and dissolved ions, pH, and colloid concentration. Cesium and strontium were used as model contaminants because they are common contaminants found on Department of Energy sites in the United States and because they have contrasting sorption kinetics with illite. A previously developed model for saturated colloid-facilitated transport of cesium and strontium was extended to accommodate unsaturated conditions

  8. Emotionally excited eyeblink-rate variability predicts an experience of transportation into the narrative world

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Ryota; Hino, Kojun; Shimazu, Makoto; Liang, Yingzong; Okada, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Collective spectator communications such as oral presentations, movies, and storytelling performances are ubiquitous in human culture. This study investigated the effects of past viewing experiences and differences in expressive performance on an audience’s transportive experience into a created world of a storytelling performance. In the experiment, 60 participants (mean age = 34.12 years, SD = 13.18 years, range 18–63 years) were assigned to watch one of two videotaped performances that were played (1) in an orthodox way for frequent viewers and (2) in a modified way aimed at easier comprehension for first-time viewers. Eyeblink synchronization among participants was quantified by employing distance-based measurements of spike trains, Dspike and Dinterval (Victor and Purpura, 1997). The results indicated that even non-familiar participants’ eyeblinks were synchronized as the story progressed and that the effect of the viewing experience on transportation was weak. Rather, the results of a multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the degrees of transportation could be predicted by a retrospectively reported humor experience and higher real-time variability (i.e., logarithmic transformed SD) of inter blink intervals during a performance viewing. The results are discussed from the viewpoint in which the extent of eyeblink synchronization and eyeblink-rate variability acts as an index of the inner experience of audience members. PMID:26029123

  9. Intermediate-Scale Laboratory Experiments of Subsurface Flow and Transport Resulting from Tank Leaks

    SciTech Connect

    Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.

    2014-09-30

    Washington River Protection Solutions contracted with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to conduct laboratory experiments and supporting numerical simulations to improve the understanding of water flow and contaminant transport in the subsurface between waste tanks and ancillary facilities at Waste Management Area C. The work scope included two separate sets of experiments: •Small flow cell experiments to investigate the occurrence of potential unstable fingering resulting from leaks and the limitations of the STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases) simulator to predict flow patterns and solute transport behavior under these conditions. Unstable infiltration may, under certain conditions, create vertically elongated fingers potentially transporting contaminants rapidly through the unsaturated zone to groundwater. The types of leak that may create deeply penetrating fingers include slow release, long duration leaks in relatively permeable porous media. Such leaks may have occurred below waste tanks at the Hanford Site. •Large flow experiments to investigate the behavior of two types of tank leaks in a simple layered system mimicking the Waste Management Area C. The investigated leaks include a relatively large leak with a short duration from a tank and a long duration leak with a relatively small leakage rate from a cascade line.

  10. Design and Characterization of a Neutralized-Transport Experiment for Heavy-Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, E; Eylon, S; Roy, P; Yu, S S; Anders, A; Bieniosek, F M; Greenway, W G; Logan, B G; MacGill, R A; Shuman, D B; Vanecek, D L; Waldron, W L; Sharp, W M; Houck, T L; Davidson, R C; Efthimion, P C; Gilson, E P; Sefkow, A B; Welch, D R; Rose, D V; Olson, C L

    2004-05-24

    In heavy-ion inertial-confinement fusion systems, intense beams of ions must be transported from the exit of the final focus magnet system through the fusion chamber to hit millimeter-sized spots on the target. Effective plasma neutralization of intense ion beams in this final transport is essential for a heavy-ion fusion power plant to be economically competitive. The physics of neutralized drift has been studied extensively with particle-in-cell simulations. To provide quantitative comparisons of theoretical predictions with experiment, the Virtual National Laboratory for Heavy Ion Fusion has completed the construction and has begun experimentation with the Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX). The experiment consists of three main sections, each with its own physics issues. The injector is designed to generate a very high-brightness, space-charge-dominated potassium beam while still allowing variable perveance by a beam aperturing technique. The magnetic-focusing section, consisting of four pulsed magnetic quadrupoles, permits the study of beam tuning, as well as the effects of phase space dilution due to higher-order nonlinear fields. In the final section, a converging ion beam exiting the magnetic section is transported through a drift region with plasma sources for beam neutralization, and the final spot size is measured under various conditions of neutralization. In this paper, we discuss the design and characterization of the three sections in detail and present the first results from the experiment.

  11. Design and characterization of a neutralized-transport experiment for heavy-ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Henestroza, E.; Eylon, S.; Roy, P.K.; Yu, S.S.; Anders, A.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Greenway, W.G.; Logan, B.G.; MacGill, R.A.; Shuman, D.B.; Vanecek, D.L.; Waldron, W.L.; Sharp, W.M.; Houck, T.L.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Sefkow, A.B.; Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.; Olson, C.L.

    2004-03-14

    In heavy-ion inertial-confinement fusion systems, intense beams of ions must be transported from the exit of the final focus magnet system through the fusion chamber to hit millimeter-sized spots on the target. Effective plasma neutralization of intense ion beams in this final transport is essential for a heavy-ion fusion power plant to be economically competitive. The physics of neutralized drift has been studied extensively with particle-in-cell simulations. To provide quantitative comparisons of theoretical predictions with experiment, the Virtual National Laboratory for Heavy Ion Fusion has completed the construction and has begun experimentation with the Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX). The experiment consists of three main sections, each with its own physics issues. The injector is designed to generate a very high-brightness, space-charge-dominated potassium beam while still allowing variable perveance by a beam aperturing technique. The magnetic-focusing section, consisting of four pulsed magnetic quadrupoles, permits the study of beam tuning, as well as the effects of phase space dilution due to higher-order nonlinear fields. In the final section, the converging ion beam exiting the magnetic section is transported through a drift region with plasma sources for beam neutralization, and the final spot size is measured under various conditions of neutralization. In this paper, we discuss the design and characterization of the three sections in detail and present initial results from the experiment.

  12. Transient groundwater chemistry near a river: Effects on U(VI) transport in laboratory column experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Jun; Haggerty, Roy; Stoliker, Deborah L.; Kent, Douglas B.; Istok, Jonathan D.; Greskowiak, Janek; Zachara, John M.

    2011-04-05

    In the 300 Area of a U(VI)-contaminated aquifer at Hanford, Washington, USA, inorganic carbon and major cations, which have large impacts on U(VI) transport, change on an hourly and seasonal basis near the Columbia River. Batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate the factors controlling U(VI) adsorption/desorption by changing chemical conditions over time. Low alkalinity and low Ca concentrations (Columbia River water) enhanced adsorption and reduced aqueous concentrations. Conversely, high alkalinity and high Ca concentrations (Hanford groundwater) reduced adsorption and increased aqueous concentrations of U(VI). An equilibrium surface complexation model calibrated using laboratory batch experiments accounted for the decrease in U(VI) adsorption observed with increasing (bi)carbonate concentrations and other aqueous chemical conditions. In the column experiment, alternating pulses of river and groundwater caused swings in aqueous U(VI) concentration. A multispecies multirate surface complexation reactive transport model simulated most of the major U(VI) changes in two column experiments. The modeling results also indicated that U(VI) transport in the studied sediment could be simulated by using a single kinetic rate without loss of accuracy in the simulations. Moreover, the capability of the model to predict U(VI) transport in Hanford groundwater under transient chemical conditions depends significantly on the knowledge of real-time change of local groundwater chemistry.

  13. Transient groundwater chemistry near a river: Effects on U(VI) transport in laboratory column experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yin, Jun; Haggerty, Roy; Stoliker, Deborah L.; Kent, Douglas B.; Istok, Jonathan D.; Greskowiak, Janek; Zachara, John M.

    2011-01-01

    In the 300 Area of a U(VI)-contaminated aquifer at Hanford, Washington, USA, inorganic carbon and major cations, which have large impacts on U(VI) transport, change on an hourly and seasonal basis near the Columbia River. Batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate the factors controlling U(VI) adsorption/desorption by changing chemical conditions over time. Low alkalinity and low Ca concentrations (Columbia River water) enhanced adsorption and reduced aqueous concentrations. Conversely, high alkalinity and high Ca concentrations (Hanford groundwater) reduced adsorption and increased aqueous concentrations of U(VI). An equilibrium surface complexation model calibrated using laboratory batch experiments accounted for the decrease in U(VI) adsorption observed with increasing (bi)carbonate concentrations and other aqueous chemical conditions. In the column experiment, alternating pulses of river and groundwater caused swings in aqueous U(VI) concentration. A multispecies multirate surface complexation reactive transport model simulated most of the major U(VI) changes in two column experiments. The modeling results also indicated that U(VI) transport in the studied sediment could be simulated by using a single kinetic rate without loss of accuracy in the simulations. Moreover, the capability of the model to predict U(VI) transport in Hanford groundwater under transient chemical conditions depends significantly on the knowledge of real-time change of local groundwater chemistry.

  14. Transient groundwater chemistry near a river: Effects on U(VI) transport in laboratory column experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yin, J.; Haggerty, R.; Stoliker, D.L.; Kent, D.B.; Istok, J.D.; Greskowiak, J.; Zachara, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    In the 300 Area of a U(VI)-contaminated aquifer at Hanford, Washington, USA, inorganic carbon and major cations, which have large impacts on U(VI) transport, change on an hourly and seasonal basis near the Columbia River. Batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate the factors controlling U(VI) adsorption/desorption by changing chemical conditions over time. Low alkalinity and low Ca concentrations (Columbia River water) enhanced adsorption and reduced aqueous concentrations. Conversely, high alkalinity and high Ca concentrations (Hanford groundwater) reduced adsorption and increased aqueous concentrations of U(VI). An equilibrium surface complexation model calibrated using laboratory batch experiments accounted for the decrease in U(VI) adsorption observed with increasing (bi)carbonate concentrations and other aqueous chemical conditions. In the column experiment, alternating pulses of river and groundwater caused swings in aqueous U(VI) concentration. A multispecies multirate surface complexation reactive transport model simulated most of the major U(VI) changes in two column experiments. The modeling results also indicated that U(VI) transport in the studied sediment could be simulated by using a single kinetic rate without loss of accuracy in the simulations. Moreover, the capability of the model to predict U(VI) transport in Hanford groundwater under transient chemical conditions depends significantly on the knowledge of real-time change of local groundwater chemistry. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Insights into organic carbon oxidation potential during fluvial transport from controlled laboratory and natural field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheingross, Joel S.; Dellinger, Mathieu; Golombek, Nina; Hilton, Robert G.; Hovius, Niels; Sachse, Dirk; Turowski, Jens M.; Vieth-Hillebrand, Andrea; Wittmann, Hella

    2017-04-01

    Over geologic timescales, the exchange of organic carbon (OC) between the atmosphere, biosphere and geosphere is thought to be a major control on atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, and hence global climate. The carbon fluxes from the oxidation of rock-derived OC (a CO2 source) and erosion and transport of biospheric OC (a potential CO2 sink) during fluvial transit are approximately the same order of magnitude or larger than those from silicate weathering (France-Lanord and Derry, 1997; Bouchez et al., 2010). Despite field data showing oxidation of OC moving downstream in lowland rivers, it is unclear if losses occur primarily during active fluvial transport within the river, where OC is in continual motion within an aerated environment, or during longer periods when OC is temporarily stored in river floodplains which may be anoxic. This represents a major knowledge gap, as the unknown location of OC oxidation (i.e., river vs. floodplain) limits our ability to develop process-based models that can be employed to predict OC losses, constrain carbon budgets, and unravel links between climate, tectonics, and erosion. To fill this gap, we investigated the potential for OC oxidation in both controlled laboratory experiments and a simplified field setting. We consider both rock-derived and biospheric OC. Our experiments simulated fluvial transport without floodplain storage, allowing mixtures of OC-rich and siliciclastic sediment to be transported for distances of 1000 km in annular flumes while making time-series measurements of OC concentration in both the solid (POC) and dissolved (DOC) loads, as well as measurements of rhenium concentration, which serves as a proxy for the oxidation of rock-derived OC. These transport experiments were compared to static, control experiments where water and sediment in the same proportion were placed in still water. Initial results for transport of OC-rich soil show similar behavior between the transport and static

  16. Definition of experiments and instruments for a communication/navigation research laboratory. Volume 2: Experiment selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The selection and definition of candidate experiments and the associated experiment instrumentation requirements are described. Information is presented that addresses the following study objectives: (1) determine specific research and technology needs in the comm/nav field through a survey of the scientific/technical community; (2) develop manned low earth orbit space screening criteria and compile lists of potential candidate experiments; (3) in Blue Book format, define and describe selected candidate experiments in sufficient detail to develop laboratory configuration designs and layouts; and (4) develop experiment time phasing criteria and recommend a payload for sortie can/early laboratory missions.

  17. Transportation Education and Training: Meeting the Needs of the 1980s. Transportation Research Record 793.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassabian, Naomi, Ed.

    This volume consists of nine papers dealing with transportation education and training in the 1980's. Contents of the volume are the following articles: "Development of a Unique Highway Safety Curriculum," by Larry E. Jones; "Railroad Engineering Education at the Undergraduate Level," by Richard G. McGinnis; "Cooperative…

  18. Ex situ transportation of coral larvae for research, conservation, and aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, D.; Hatta, M.; Laterveer, M.; Bergen, D. Van.

    2005-11-01

    Due to the lack of appropriate methods to transport high amounts of larvae ex situ over large distances, the availability of coral larvae was so far mainly limited to their place of origin. For a research project at Rotterdam Zoo, The Netherlands, we transported several thousand larvae of three broadcast spawners ( Acropora tenuis, A. digitifera, Diploria strigosa) from the Indo Pacific and the Caribbean to Europe. Beside logistics and packing techniques, post-transport survival rates were mainly influenced by larvae density and transport duration. Our results indicate optimum survival rates of >90% at densities of 4 larvae ml-1 when not exceeding a transportation time of 4 days. The ex situ transport of coral larvae over large distances might offer new possibilities for research, conservation, and aquaculture.

  19. Air quality, environment, and energy. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Partial Contents: Part 1 -- Energy -- Estimating Automobile Fuel Consumption in Urban Traffic; Economic Evaluation of Compressed Natural Gas Fleet Conversion and Operation; Part 2 -- Environmental Analysis -- Washington State Department of Transportation Wetland Monitoring Program; Calcium Magnesium Acetate Degradation in Roadside Soil: Acetate Microcosms; Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Highway Maintenance Waste; Part 3 -- Air Quality -- Impact of Preaggregation of Highway Network Travel Data on Accuracy of MOBILE4-Based Emissions; Toll Plaza Design to Minimize Carbon Monoxide Levels at Roadway Rights-of-Way; Improving Average Travel Speeds Estimated by Planning Models; Comparison of Vehicular Emissions in Free-Flow and Congestion Using MOBILE4 and Highway Performance Monitoring System; Carbon Monoxide Emission Effects of Drive-Up Facilities; Part 4 -- Historic Preservation -- Finland's Highway and Traffic Museum: Preserving the Nation's Transportation Legacy; Part 5 -- Noise --Field Evaluation of Acoustical Performance of Parallel Highway Noise Barriers in California.

  20. The SUPER Program: A Research-based Undergraduate Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernakovich, J. G.; Boone, R. B.; Boot, C. M.; Denef, K.; Lavallee, J. M.; Moore, J. C.; Wallenstein, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Producing undergraduates capable of broad, independent thinking is one of the grand challenges in science education. Experience-based learning, specifically hands-on research, is one mechanism for increasing students' ability to think critically. With this in mind, we created a two-semester long research program called SUPER (Skills for Undergraduate Participation in Ecological Research) aimed at teaching students to think like scientists and enhancing the student research experience through instruction and active-learning about the scientific method. Our aim was for students to gain knowledge, skills, and experience, and to conduct their own research. In the first semester, we hosted active-learning workshops on "Forming Hypotheses", "Experimental Design", "Collecting and Managing Data", "Analysis of Data", "Communicating to a Scientific Audience", "Reading Literature Effectively", and "Ethical Approaches". Each lesson was taught by different scientists from one of many ecological disciplines so that students were exposed to the variation in approach that scientists have. In the second semester, students paired with a scientific mentor and began doing research. To ensure the continued growth of the undergraduate researcher, we continued the active-learning workshops and the students attended meetings with their mentors. Thus, the students gained technical and cognitive skills in parallel, enabling them to understand both "the how" and "the why" of what they were doing in their research. The program culminated with a research poster session presented by the students. The interest in the program has grown beyond our expectations, and we have now run the program successfully for two years. Many of the students have gone on to campus research jobs, internships and graduate school, and have attributed part of their success in obtaining their positions to their experience with the SUPER program. Although common in other sciences, undergraduate research experiences are

  1. Partnership and the Revitalization of Aviation: A Study of the Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments Program, 1994-2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metz, Nanette Scarpellini

    2002-01-01

    As the Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments (AGATE) program completes its eight-year plan, the outcomes and industry effects reveal its successes and problems. AGATE engaged several different types of institutions, including federal agencies, business and industry, universities, and non-profit organizations. By examining the perceptions of those intimately involved as well as periphery members, this study shows the powerful consequences of this type of combination both now and in the future. The problems are a particularly useful illustration of the interworking of a jointly funded research and development initiative. By learning how these problems are addressed, the study reveals lessons that may be applied to future government-industry partnerships.

  2. Flow and Transport in Highly Heterogeneous Porous Formations: Numerical Experiments Performed Using the Analytic Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankovic, I.

    2002-05-01

    Flow and transport in porous formations are analyzed using numerical simulations. Hydraulic conductivity is treated as a spatial random function characterized by a probability density function and a two-point covariance function. Simulations are performed for a multi-indicator conductivity structure developed by Gedeon Dagan (personal communication). This conductivity structure contains inhomogeneities (inclusions) of elliptical and ellipsoidal geometry that are embedded in a homogeneous background. By varying the distribution of sizes and conductivities of inclusions, any probability density function and two-point covariance may be reproduced. The multi-indicator structure is selected since it yields simple approximate transport solutions (Aldo Fiori, personal communication) and accurate numerical solutions (based on the Analytic Element Method). The dispersion is examined for two conceptual models. Both models are based on the multi-indicator conductivity structure. The first model is designed to examine dispersion in aquifers with continuously varying conductivity. The inclusions in this model cover as much area/volume of the porous formation as possible. The second model is designed for aquifers that contain clay/sand/gravel lenses embedded in otherwise homogeneous background. The dispersion in both aquifer types is simulated numerically. Simulation results are compared to those obtained using simple approximate solutions. In order to infer transport statistics that are representative of an infinite domain using the numerical experiments, the inclusions are placed in a domain that was shaped as a large ellipse (2D) and a large spheroid (3D) that were submerged in an unbounded homogeneous medium. On a large scale, the large body of inclusions behaves like a single large inhomogeneity. The analytic solution for a uniform flow past the single inhomogeneity of such geometry yields uniform velocity inside the domain. The velocity differs from that at infinity and

  3. Transportation Secure Data Center: Real-World Data for Value Pricing and Tolling Research (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) have launched the free, web-based Transportation Secure Data Center (TSDC). The TSDC (www.nrel.gov/tsdc) preserves respondent anonymity while making vital transportation data available to a broad group of users through secure, online access. The TSDC database provides free-of-charge web-based access to valuable transportation data that can be used for: Location and time-of-day variable tolling research, Mileage-based fee analysis, Travel demand modeling and transit planning, Congestion mitigation research, and Validating transportation data from other sources. The TSDC's two levels of access make composite data available with simple online registration, and allow researchers to use detailed spatial data after completing a straight forward application process.

  4. Air versus ground transport of the major trauma patient: a natural experiment.

    PubMed

    McVey, Jennifer; Petrie, David A; Tallon, John M

    2010-01-01

    1) To compare the outcomes of adult trauma patients transported to a level I trauma center by helicopter vs. ground ambulance. 2) To determine whether using a unique "natural experiment" design to obtain the ground comparison group will reduce potential confounders. Outcomes in adult trauma patients transported to a tertiary care trauma center by air were compared with outcomes in a group of patients who were accepted by the online medical control physician for air transport, but whose air missions were aborted for aviation reasons (weather, maintenance, out on a mission); these patients were subsequently transported by ground ambulance instead. Outcomes were also analyzed for a third ground control group composed of all other adult trauma patients transported by ground during this time period. Data were collected by retrospective database review of trauma patients transferred between July 1, 1997, and June 30, 2003. Outcomes were measured by Trauma Injury Severity Score (TRISS) analysis. Z and W scores were calculated. Three hundred ninety-seven missions were flown by LifeFlight during the study period vs. 57 in the clinical accept-aviation abort ground transport group. The mean ages, gender distributions, mechanisms of injury, and Injury Severity Scores (ISSs) were similar in the two groups. Per 100 patients transported, 5.61 more lives were saved in the air group vs. the clinical accept-aviation abort ground transport group (Z = 3.37). As per TRISS analysis, this is relative to the expected mortality seen with a similar group in the Major Trauma Outcomes Study (MTOS). The Z score for the clinical accept-aviation abort ground transport group was 0.4. The 1,195 patients in the third all-other ground control group had a higher mean age, lower mean ISS, and worse outcomes according to TRISS analysis (W = -2.02). This unique natural experiment led to better matched air vs. ground cohorts for comparison. As per TRISS analysis, air transport of the adult major trauma

  5. The Undergraduate Research Experience from a Personal Point of View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartaltepe, J. S.

    2002-12-01

    As an undergraduate at Colgate University, I have had many opportunities to get involved with research. I spent the summer after my first year on a project at Colgate that extended into a junior research course and I have also worked at two very different national programs (National Radio Astronomy Observatory at Green Bank and the Space Telescope Science Institute). As a result, I have gained research and observing experience at different observatories, including the Foggy Bottom Observatory at Colgate, Lowell Observatory, and the NRAO at Green Bank. From these diverse experiences I have learned a great deal about research in astronomy in general as well as what some aspects of the field are like specifically. For instance, I have learned about quasars, weak gravitational lensing, and HI absorption. I have come to appreciate things about astronomy that one never learns inside of a classroom. By having the chance to try out different types of research, I have gotten a better idea of what areas of research I might like to pursue in the future. These experiences have given me some highly beneficial skills for my future career in research.

  6. Romanian Experience for Enhancing Safety and Security in Transport of Radioactive Material - 12223

    SciTech Connect

    Vieru, Gheorghe

    2012-07-01

    The transport of Dangerous Goods-Class no.7 Radioactive Material (RAM), is an important part of the Romanian Radioactive Material Management. The overall aim of this activity is for enhancing operational safety and security measures during the transport of the radioactive materials, in order to ensure the protection of the people and the environment. The paper will present an overall of the safety and security measures recommended and implemented during transportation of RAM in Romania. Some aspects on the potential threat environment will be also approached with special referring to the low level radioactive material (waste) and NORM transportation either by road or by rail. A special attention is given to the assessment and evaluation of the possible radiological consequences due to RAM transportation. The paper is a part of the IAEA's Vienna Scientific Research Contract on the State Management of Nuclear Security Regime (Framework) concluded with the Institute for Nuclear Research, Romania, where the author is the CSI (Chief Scientific Investigator). The transport of RAM in Romania is a very sensible and complex problem taking into consideration the importance and the need of the security and safety for such activities. The Romanian Nuclear Regulatory Body set up strictly regulation and procedures according to the Recommendation of the IAEA Vienna and other international organizations. There were implemented the adequate regulation and procedures in order to keep the environmental impacts and the radiological consequences at the lower possible level and to assure the effectiveness of state nuclear security regime due to possible malicious acts in carrying out these activities including transport and the disposal site at the acceptable international levels. The levels of the estimated doses and risk expectation values for transport and disposal are within the acceptable limits provided by national and international regulations and recommendations but can increase

  7. Research experience in psychiatry residency programs across Canada: current status.

    PubMed

    Shanmugalingam, Arany; Ferreria, Sharon G; Norman, Ross M G; Vasudev, Kamini

    2014-11-01

    To determine the current status of research experience in psychiatry residency programs across Canada. Coordinators of Psychiatric Education (COPE) resident representatives from all 17 psychiatry residency programs in Canada were asked to complete a survey regarding research training requirements in their programs. Among the 17 COPE representatives, 15 completed the survey, representing 88% of the Canadian medical schools that have a psychiatry residency program. Among the 15 programs, 11 (73%) require residents to conduct a scholarly activity to complete residency. Some of these programs incorporated such a requirement in the past 5 years. Ten respondents (67%) reported availability of official policy and (or) guidelines on resident research requirements. Among the 11 programs that have a research requirement, 10 (91%) require residents to complete 1 scholarly activity; 1 requires completion of 2 scholarly activities. Eight (53%) residency programs reported having a separate research track. All of the programs have a research coordinator and 14 (93%) programs provide protected time to residents for conducting research. The 3 most common types of scholarly activities that qualify for the mandatory research requirement are a full independent project (10 programs), a quality improvement project (8 programs), and assisting in a faculty project (8 programs). Six programs expect their residents to present their final work in a departmental forum. None of the residency programs require publication of residents' final work. The current status of the research experience during psychiatry residency in Canada is encouraging but there is heterogeneity across the programs.

  8. Research Experience in Psychiatry Residency Programs Across Canada: Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugalingam, Arany; Ferreria, Sharon G; Norman, Ross M G; Vasudev, Kamini

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the current status of research experience in psychiatry residency programs across Canada. Method: Coordinators of Psychiatric Education (COPE) resident representatives from all 17 psychiatry residency programs in Canada were asked to complete a survey regarding research training requirements in their programs. Results: Among the 17 COPE representatives, 15 completed the survey, representing 88% of the Canadian medical schools that have a psychiatry residency program. Among the 15 programs, 11 (73%) require residents to conduct a scholarly activity to complete residency. Some of these programs incorporated such a requirement in the past 5 years. Ten respondents (67%) reported availability of official policy and (or) guidelines on resident research requirements. Among the 11 programs that have a research requirement, 10 (91%) require residents to complete 1 scholarly activity; 1 requires completion of 2 scholarly activities. Eight (53%) residency programs reported having a separate research track. All of the programs have a research coordinator and 14 (93%) programs provide protected time to residents for conducting research. The 3 most common types of scholarly activities that qualify for the mandatory research requirement are a full independent project (10 programs), a quality improvement project (8 programs), and assisting in a faculty project (8 programs). Six programs expect their residents to present their final work in a departmental forum. None of the residency programs require publication of residents’ final work. Conclusions: The current status of the research experience during psychiatry residency in Canada is encouraging but there is heterogeneity across the programs. PMID:25565474

  9. Interpretation of column experiments of transport of solutes undergoing an irreversible bimolecular reaction using a continuum approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Vila, Xavier; Fernã Ndez-Garcia, Daniel; Guadagnini, Alberto

    2010-12-01

    We provide a quantitative interpretation of the column experiment reported by Gramling et al. (2002). The experiment involves advection-dominated transport in porous media of three dissolved species, i.e., two reactants undergoing a fast irreversible reaction and the resulting product. The authors found that their observations could not be properly fitted with a model based on an advection-dispersion-reaction equation (ADRE) assuming the reaction was instantaneous, the actual measured total reaction product being lower than predictions for all times. The data have been recently well reproduced by Edery et al. (2009, 2010) by means of a particle tracking approach in a continuous time random walk framework. These and other authors have questioned the use of partial differential equation (PDE)-based approaches to quantify reactive transport because of the difficulty in capturing local-scale mixing and reaction. We take precisely this approach and interpret the experiments mentioned by means of a continuum-scale model based on the ADRE. Our approach differs from previous modeling attempts in that we imbue effects of incomplete mixing at the pore scale in a time-dependent kinetic reaction term and show that this model allows quantitative interpretation of the experiments in terms of both reaction product profiles and time-dependent global production rate. The time dependence of the kinetic term presented accounts for the progressive effects of incomplete mixing due to pore-scale rate-limited mass transfer, and follows a power law, which is consistent with the compilation of existing experiments reported by Haggerty et al. (2004). Our interpretation can form the basis for further research to assess the potential use of PDE approaches for the interpretation of reactive transport problems in moderately heterogeneous media.

  10. Advanced Tokamak Plasmas in the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    C.E. Kessel; D. Meade; D.W. Swain; P. Titus; M.A. Ulrickson

    2003-10-13

    The Advanced Tokamak (AT) capability of the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) burning plasma experiment is examined with 0-D systems analysis, equilibrium and ideal-MHD stability, radio-frequency current-drive analysis, and full discharge dynamic simulations. These analyses have identified the required parameters for attractive burning AT plasmas, and indicate that these are feasible within the engineering constraints of the device.

  11. Location for the planned Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This diagram shows the planned locations of the Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory (SERPL) and the Space Station Commerce Park at Kennedy Space Center. The SERPL is a planned 100,000-square-foot laboratory that will provide expanded and upgraded facilities for hosting International Space Station experiment processing. In addition, it will provide better support for other biological and life sciences payload processing at KSC. It will serve as a magnet facility for the planned 400- acre commerce park.

  12. Location for the planned Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This diagram shows the planned locations of the Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory (SERPL) and the Space Station Commerce Park at Kennedy Space Center. The SERPL is a planned 100,000-square-foot laboratory that will provide expanded and upgraded facilities for hosting International Space Station experiment processing. In addition, it will provide better support for other biological and life sciences payload processing at KSC. It will serve as a magnet facility for the planned 400- acre commerce park.

  13. Virginia's Smart Road: an intelligent transportation systems research facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amanna, Ashwin; Crawford, Charles

    1998-01-01

    The smart road is an experimental highway currently under construction in Virginia. It is being built from the ground up with ITS testing and evaluation in mind. Embedded research support infrastructure will include underground conduits, underground junction bunkers, power, a fiber optic data network, embedded pavement sensors, snow making capability, and experimental lighting. The facility will be utilized for a number of research areas including safety and human factors, snow and ice control, pavement research, bridge and structures research, ITS sensor development and evaluation, and roadside to vehicle communications.

  14. The simultaneous modelling of metal ion and humic substance transport in column experiments.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Nick D; Barlow, Jenny; Warwick, Peter; Stephens, Sarah; Higgo, Jenny J W; Griffin, David

    2005-03-01

    Pulsed column experiments using Co, fulvic acid and porous sediment packing, along with up/down-flooding experiments using Eu, humic acid and intact sandstone blocks have been performed. The elution of metal and humic and their distribution along the sandstone columns have been measured. A mixed equilibrium and kinetic coupled chemical transport model has been used to simulate the results. In both cases, one exchangeable and one non-exchangeable component have been used to simulate the interaction of metal and humic substance. For the pulsed experiments, a simple equilibrium approach was used to model humic sorption, while a two component, kinetic model was required for the sandstone columns.

  15. Coursework Master's Programmes: The Student's Experience of Research and Research Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drennan, Jonathan; Clarke, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Although the coursework master's degree is becoming the principal conduit for the delivery of continuing education to the professions, it is one of the least understood or researched academic levels in higher education. Furthermore, little is known of coursework master's graduates' experience of research or research supervision following the…

  16. What Knowledge of Responsible Conduct of Research Do Undergraduates Bring to Their Undergraduate Research Experiences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabrouk, Patricia Ann

    2016-01-01

    Over a three-year period, chemistry and engineering students participating in six Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) programs were surveyed before and after participating in a research ethics training workshop. The goal was to learn what undergraduate students already knew about key concepts in research ethics at the start of their…

  17. What Knowledge of Responsible Conduct of Research Do Undergraduates Bring to Their Undergraduate Research Experiences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabrouk, Patricia Ann

    2016-01-01

    Over a three-year period, chemistry and engineering students participating in six Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) programs were surveyed before and after participating in a research ethics training workshop. The goal was to learn what undergraduate students already knew about key concepts in research ethics at the start of their…

  18. Indigenous Research: Three Researchers Reflect on Their Experiences at the Interface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minniecon, Deanne; Franks, Naomi; Heffernan, Maree

    2007-01-01

    Utilising Nakata's (2007) description of the "cultural interface", two Indigenous researchers and one non-Indigenous researcher examine their development of Indigenous research in and with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities conducted from within an institution of higher education. The authors reflect on their experiences in…

  19. University of Tennessee Center for Space Transportation and Applied Research (CSTAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Center for Space Transportation and Applied Research had projects with space applications in six major areas: laser materials processing, artificial intelligence/expert systems, space transportation, computational methods, chemical propulsion, and electric propulsion. The closeout status of all these projects is addressed.

  20. TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation outline: transport principles, effective solubility; gasoline composition; and field examples (plume diving).
    Presentation conclusions: MTBE transport follows from - phyiscal and chemical properties and hydrology. Field examples show: MTBE plumes > benzene plu...

  1. Pathways to Improve Student Pharmacists’ Experience in Research

    PubMed Central

    McClendon, Katie S.; Bell, Allison M.; Ellis, Ashley; Adcock, Kim G.; Hogan, Shirley; Ross, Leigh Ann

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To describe the implementation of a student research program and to provide outcomes from the initial 4 years’ experience. Design. Students conducted individual research projects in a 4-year longitudinal program (known as Pathway), with faculty member advising and peer mentoring. A prospective assessment compared perceptions of those who completed the Pathway program with those of students who did not. Descriptive statistics, t tests, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. Assessment. The class of 2013 was the first to complete the Pathway program. In the Pathway assessment project, 59% (n=47) of students who responded reached self-set goals. Pathway students agreed that this research experience improved their ability to work/think independently, evaluate literature, and distinguish themselves from other students. Conclusion. The Pathway program helped students understand the research process and reach other self-set goals. PMID:26089567

  2. Initiation of social pharmacy research in Nepal: our experiences.

    PubMed

    Palaian, Subish; Poudel, Arjun; Alam, Kadir; Mohamed Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham; Mishra, Pranaya

    2011-08-01

    Nepal experiences several medicine-use problems like any other developing country. In the recent years, there have been initiatives to introduce the concept of social pharmacy in Nepal, and there has been only a limited research in this area. The staff members at the Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara have shown keen interest in initiating several social pharmacy-related researches in the country. The members of this institute have been collaborating with two international universities, namely Universiti Sains Malaysia located in Malaysia and Chulalongkorn University located in Thailand, to get academic and technical supports. In this manuscript, the authors share their experiences in initiating social pharmacy research in the country. Authors have also mentioned the priority areas of social pharmacy research in Nepal and the importance of initiating this concept in the country.

  3. Multi-channel transport experiments at Alcator C-Mod and comparison with gyrokinetic simulationsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, A. E.; Howard, N. T.; Greenwald, M.; Reinke, M. L.; Sung, C.; Baek, S.; Barnes, M.; Candy, J.; Dominguez, A.; Ernst, D.; Gao, C.; Hubbard, A. E.; Hughes, J. W.; Lin, Y.; Mikkelsen, D.; Parra, F.; Porkolab, M.; Rice, J. E.; Walk, J.; Wukitch, S. J.; Team, Alcator C-Mod

    2013-05-01

    Multi-channel transport experiments have been conducted in auxiliary heated (Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies) L-mode plasmas at Alcator C-Mod [Marmar and Alcator C-Mod Group, Fusion Sci. Technol. 51(3), 3261 (2007)]. These plasmas provide good diagnostic coverage for measurements of kinetic profiles, impurity transport, and turbulence (electron temperature and density fluctuations). In the experiments, a steady sawtoothing L-mode plasma with 1.2 MW of on-axis RF heating is established and density is scanned by 20%. Measured rotation profiles change from peaked to hollow in shape as density is increased, but electron density and impurity profiles remain peaked. Ion or electron heat fluxes from the two plasmas are the same. The experimental results are compared directly to nonlinear gyrokinetic theory using synthetic diagnostics and the code GYRO [Candy and Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)]. We find good agreement with experimental ion heat flux, impurity particle transport, and trends in the fluctuation level ratio (T˜e/Te)/(n ˜e/ne), but underprediction of electron heat flux. We find that changes in momentum transport (rotation profiles changing from peaked to hollow) do not correlate with changes in particle transport, and also do not correlate with changes in linear mode dominance, e.g., Ion Temperature Gradient versus Trapped Electron Mode. The new C-Mod results suggest that the drives for momentum transport differ from drives for heat and particle transport. The experimental results are inconsistent with present quasilinear models, and the strong sensitivity of core rotation to density remains unexplained.

  4. Multi-channel transport experiments at Alcator C-Mod and comparison with gyrokinetic simulations

    SciTech Connect

    White, A. E.; Howard, N. T.; Greenwald, M.; Reinke, M. L.; Sung, C.; Baek, S.; Barnes, M.; Dominguez, A.; Ernst, D.; Gao, C.; Hubbard, A. E.; Hughes, J. W.; Lin, Y.; Parra, F.; Porkolab, M.; Rice, J. E.; Walk, J.; Wukitch, S. J.; Team, Alcator C-Mod; Candy, J.; and others

    2013-05-15

    Multi-channel transport experiments have been conducted in auxiliary heated (Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies) L-mode plasmas at Alcator C-Mod [Marmar and Alcator C-Mod Group, Fusion Sci. Technol. 51(3), 3261 (2007)]. These plasmas provide good diagnostic coverage for measurements of kinetic profiles, impurity transport, and turbulence (electron temperature and density fluctuations). In the experiments, a steady sawtoothing L-mode plasma with 1.2 MW of on-axis RF heating is established and density is scanned by 20%. Measured rotation profiles change from peaked to hollow in shape as density is increased, but electron density and impurity profiles remain peaked. Ion or electron heat fluxes from the two plasmas are the same. The experimental results are compared directly to nonlinear gyrokinetic theory using synthetic diagnostics and the code GYRO [Candy and Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)]. We find good agreement with experimental ion heat flux, impurity particle transport, and trends in the fluctuation level ratio (T(tilde sign){sub e}/T{sub e})/(ñ{sub e}/n{sub e}), but underprediction of electron heat flux. We find that changes in momentum transport (rotation profiles changing from peaked to hollow) do not correlate with changes in particle transport, and also do not correlate with changes in linear mode dominance, e.g., Ion Temperature Gradient versus Trapped Electron Mode. The new C-Mod results suggest that the drives for momentum transport differ from drives for heat and particle transport. The experimental results are inconsistent with present quasilinear models, and the strong sensitivity of core rotation to density remains unexplained.

  5. Transport calculations and accelerator experiments needed for radiation risk assessment in space.

    PubMed

    Sihver, Lembit

    2008-01-01

    The major uncertainties on space radiation risk estimates in humans are associated to the poor knowledge of the biological effects of low and high LET radiation, with a smaller contribution coming from the characterization of space radiation field and its primary interactions with the shielding and the human body. However, to decrease the uncertainties on the biological effects and increase the accuracy of the risk coefficients for charged particles radiation, the initial charged-particle spectra from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and the Solar Particle Events (SPEs), and the radiation transport through the shielding material of the space vehicle and the human body, must be better estimated Since it is practically impossible to measure all primary and secondary particles from all possible position-projectile-target-energy combinations needed for a correct risk assessment in space, accurate particle and heavy ion transport codes must be used. These codes are also needed when estimating the risk for radiation induced failures in advanced microelectronics, such as single-event effects, etc., and the efficiency of different shielding materials. It is therefore important that the models and transport codes will be carefully benchmarked and validated to make sure they fulfill preset accuracy criteria, e.g. to be able to predict particle fluence, dose and energy distributions within a certain accuracy. When validating the accuracy of the transport codes, both space and ground based accelerator experiments are needed The efficiency of passive shielding and protection of electronic devices should also be tested in accelerator experiments and compared to simulations using different transport codes. In this paper different multipurpose particle and heavy ion transport codes will be presented, different concepts of shielding and protection discussed, as well as future accelerator experiments needed for testing and validating codes and shielding materials.

  6. Infiltration and Transport of Bromide and Cryptosporidium parvum in Vegetated, Tilted Soil Box Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, T.; Atwill, E. R.; Hou, L.; Carle, B. M.

    2005-12-01

    In this paper we develop a conceptual model of the physics of flow and transport in packed, tilted, and vegetated soil boxes during and immediately after simulated rainfall events and apply it to 54 experiments implemented for three different soils at three different slopes and two different rainfall rates. Using an inverse modeling procedure, we show that a significant amount of the subsurface outflow from the soil boxes is due to macropore flow. The effective hydraulic properties of the macropore space were obtained by calibration of a simple two-domain flow and transport model that accounts for coupled flow in the matrix and in the macropores of the soils. While the macropore hydraulic properties are highly variable, linear mixed effects ( LME) modeling showed significant association with soil bulk density and with the rainfall rate. Macropore flow is shown to be responsible for both, tracer (bromide) and C. parvum transport through the soil into the underlying pore space observed during the 4 hours experiments. Over a 20 cm thick soil horizon, the soil attenuation rate for C. parvum due to straining in the soil matrix and due to filtration to the macropore surfaces is 0.6 (half an order of magnitude). The LME and logistic regression models developed from the soil box experiments provide a basis for estimating macropore hydraulic properties and the risk of C. parvum transport through shallow soils from bulk density, precipitation, and total subsurface flow rate information.

  7. Determination of Transport Parameters in Unsaturated Zone by Tracer Experiment in the Porous Aquifer located at Ljubljana, Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmar, S.; Cencur Curk, B.

    2009-04-01

    The gravel sandy aquifer of Ljubljansko polje is the source of drinking water for nearly 300.000 inhabitants of the Ljubljana city and vicinity. There are two main waterworks: Kleče and Hrastje. The plain area of Ljubljansko polje is a tectonic sink and consists of river sediments that can reach in thickness more than 100 m in the deepest part. The bedrock is the impermeable permocarbonic clayey shale, mudstones and sandstones. The hydraulic conductivity of Ljubljansko polje sediments is very good, from 10-2 m/s in the central part to 3.7•10-3 m/s on the borders of the plain. The average groundwater level is 20 m below surface. A numerical groundwater flow model was established for the wider area of the Ljubljansko polje aquifer. The fore mentioned model was not calibrated on solute transport parameters but only on water levels and this lead to unreliability in the transport model and its predictions of pollution scenarios. The transport model needs to calculate reliable scenarios of pollution dispersion, which can only be achieved with the application of real transport parameters. Human activities in the area of the Hrastje waterworks of Ljubljana threaten to degrade groundwater quality. For this reason several tracer experiments were carried out in the past. Despite a great risk, the experiments were performed on the catchment area of the Hrastje waterworks, inside the second water protection zone. During the experiments the water from Hrastje waterworks was still in use for drinking water supply. The tracer experiments were carried out in order to determine the solute transport parameters such as advection, dispersion and sorption. The research proved that the tracers could be used safely on sensitive area and that the researchers are capable and qualified to carry it out with a highest level of security. Since none of the past tracer experiments, carried out in the same area, gave us any detailed information on pollutant spreading in unsaturated zone a new

  8. Public transit 1993: Bus, paratransit, and ridesharing. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    Kassabian, N.C.; Tobias, A.G.; Crayton, L.; Solomon, N.; Brown, S.E.G.

    1993-01-01

    Contents: evaluation of the operating cost consequences of signal preemption as an IVHS strategy; efficient transit priority at intersections; welfare comparison of fixed- and flexible-route bus systems; bus stop accessibility: a guide for virginia transit systems and public entities for complying with the americans with disabilities act of 1990; implications of technological developments for demand responsive transit; impact of nonresponse bias on forecasts of average passenger occupancy; what has happened to carpooling: trends in North Carolina, 1980 to 1990; ridesharing and the consumer: a tale of two marketing strategies; transportation demand management at small employer sites; and state of the commute in Southern California, 1992.

  9. Georgia Teachers in Academic Laboratories: Research Experiences in the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, D.

    2005-12-01

    The Georgia Intern-Fellowships for Teachers (GIFT) is a collaborative effort designed to enhance mathematics and science experiences of Georgia teachers and their students through summer research internships for teachers. By offering business, industry, public science institute and research summer fellowships to teachers, GIFT provides educators with first-hand exposure to the skills and knowledge necessary for the preparation of our future workforce. Since 1991, GIFT has placed middle and high school mathematics, science and technology teachers in over 1000 positions throughout the state. In these fellowships, teachers are involved in cutting edge scientific and engineering research, data analysis, curriculum development and real-world inquiry and problem solving, and create Action Plans to assist them in translating the experience into changed classroom practice. Since 2004, an increasing number of high school students have worked with their teachers in research laboratories. The GIFT program places an average of 75 teachers per summer into internship positions. In the summer of 2005, 83 teachers worked in corporate and research environments throughout the state of Georgia and six of these positions involved authentic research in geoscience related departments at the Georgia Institute of Technology, including aerospace engineering and the earth and atmospheric sciences laboratories. This presentation will review the history and the structure of the program including the support system for teachers and mentors as well as the emphasis on inquiry based learning strategies. The focus of the presentation will be a comparison of two placement models of the teachers placed in geoscience research laboratories: middle school earth science teachers placed in a 6 week research experience and high school teachers placed in 7 week internships with teams of 3 high school students. The presentation will include interviews with faculty to determine the value of these experiences

  10. How useful are olfactometer experiments in chemical ecology research?

    PubMed

    Ballhorn, Daniel J; Kautz, Stefanie

    2013-07-01

    Olfactometer experiments, in which arthropods are given the choice between two or more odor sources to test behavioral preferences, are commonly used in chemical ecology research. Results of such often lead to conclusions on behavior in an ecologically relevant setting. However, it is widely unknown how well these experiments reflect actual behavior in nature. Recently, we used natural insect herbivores of wild lima bean plants to evaluate their behavior in Y-tube olfactometer experiments compared with feeding experiments. We demonstrated that depending on volatile concentration, insect sex significantly determined preference, and that independent of sex, the actual feeding choice of insects depended on defensive short-distance cues, which did not correlate with volatile cues emitted by the plants. Thus, our study shows that olfactory decisions do not reflect actual feeding choice and that olfactometer experiments may only provide a limited and simplified picture of actual decision making by insects.

  11. Spin transport in cold Fermi gases: A pseudogap interpretation of spin diffusion experiments at unitarity

    SciTech Connect

    Wulin, Dan; Levin, K.; Guo Hao; Chien, Chih-Chun

    2011-06-15

    We address recent spin transport experiments in ultracold unitary Fermi gases. We provide a theoretical understanding for how the measured temperature dependence of the spin diffusivity at low T can disagree with the expected behavior of a Fermi liquid (FL), while the spin susceptiblity, following the experimental protocols, is consistent with a FL picture. We show that the experimental protocols for extracting the spin susceptibility implicitly reflect a FL viewpoint; relaxing this leads to consistency within but not proof of a pseudogap-based theory. Our transport calculations yield insight into the observed suppression of the spin diffusion constant at lower T.

  12. Results of recent fluid physics and transport phenomena space flight experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Singh, Bhim S.

    2000-01-01

    A number of space flight experiments in fluid physics and transport phenomena have been conducted under the auspices of NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Science and Applications. Results of these have been reported in various journals and technical society meetings. As preparations for a new generation of low gravity experiments to be conducted on ISS are well underway, it is useful to review the results of experiments conducted on the ``Shuttle.'' This paper summarizes the key findings of several recent experiments and emphasizes that such low earth orbit spacecraft should be considered as resource in which experiments can be conducted in near weightless conditions for extended time periods. It is hoped that the scientific community will realize the value of a ``microgravity laboratory'' and, stimulated by past results, will propose new experiments that take maximum advantage of the facilities and long duration microgravity conditions afforded by the ISS. The experiments described in this paper include: Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment, Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment, Pool Boiling Experiment, Thermocapillary Migration of Bubbles and Drops, Electrohydrodynamics of Liquid Bridges, Colloidal Disorder Order Transition, Critical Dynamics of Fluids, Mechanics of Granular Materials, and the Angular Liquid Bridge and Interface Configuration Experiment. .

  13. Making Tracks 1.0: Action Researching an Active Transportation Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Daniel; Foran, Andrew; Robinson, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of the first cycle of an action research project. The objective of this action research was to examine the implementation of a school-based active transportation education program (Making Tracks). A two-cycle action research design was employed in which elementary school students' (ages 7-9), middle school…

  14. Making Tracks 1.0: Action Researching an Active Transportation Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Daniel; Foran, Andrew; Robinson, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of the first cycle of an action research project. The objective of this action research was to examine the implementation of a school-based active transportation education program (Making Tracks). A two-cycle action research design was employed in which elementary school students' (ages 7-9), middle school…

  15. Experiences of mentors training underrepresented undergraduates in the research laboratory.

    PubMed

    Prunuske, Amy J; Wilson, Janelle; Walls, Melissa; Clarke, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Successfully recruiting students from underrepresented groups to pursue biomedical science research careers continues to be a challenge. Early exposure to scientific research is often cited as a powerful means to attract research scholars with the research mentor being critical in facilitating the development of an individual's science identity and career; however, most mentors in the biological sciences have had little formal training in working with research mentees. To better understand mentors' experiences working with undergraduates in the laboratory, we conducted semistructured interviews with 15 research mentors at a public university in the Midwest. The interviewed mentors were part of a program designed to increase the number of American Indians pursuing biomedical/biobehavioral research careers and represented a broad array of perspectives, including equal representation of male and female mentors, mentors from underrepresented groups, mentors at different levels of their careers, and mentors from undergraduate and professional school departments. The mentors identified benefits and challenges in being an effective mentor. We also explored what the term underrepresented means to the mentors and discovered that most of the mentors had an incomplete understanding about how differences in culture could contribute to underrepresented students' experience in the laboratory. Our interviews identify issues relevant to designing programs and courses focused on undergraduate student research.

  16. Enhancing Undergraduate Education through Mentored Research and Practical Writing Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Denise C.; Hintz, Eric G.; Joner, Michael D.; Moody, J. Ward

    2015-01-01

    Twenty years ago I attended my very first AAS meeting as a 21-year old undergraduate physics major. At that meeting I presented the light curve of a variable star I had studied as part of a mentored research program at BYU. That opportunity to do mentored research, and to attend a professional meeting of astronomers, helped to set the foundation for my success today as an associate professor of physics and astronomy. Twenty years ago I was the student, now I am the mentor! I have eight undergraduate students whom I currently supervise in active research, four of which are presenting their senior projects at the 225th meeting of the AAS.My experience has shown me that the full impact of mentored research cannot be measured by yearly numbers or statistics. When we mentor a student, we influence their career path and choices for years to come. Where feasible, every undergraduate should have the opportunity to do research if they so choose. It is a sacrifice of our time and our effort that cannot be easily measured through numbers or results, and is only visible many years down the road as these students become the future leaders in astronomy and policy. In this poster, I will discuss the benefits of mentored research, the growth we have seen at BYU over the past twenty years with the introduction of a mentored research program, and ideas for implementing mentored research and writing into course curricula to enhance the undergraduate educational experience.

  17. Basic Research Needs for Clean and Efficient Combustion of 21st Century Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    McIlroy, A.; McRae, G.; Sick, V.; Siebers, D. L.; Westbrook, C. K.; Smith, P. J.; Taatjes, C.; Trouve, A.; Wagner, A. F.; Rohlfing, E.; Manley, D.; Tully, F.; Hilderbrandt, R.; Green, W.; Marceau, D.; O'Neal, J.; Lyday, M.; Cebulski, F.; Garcia, T. R.; Strong, D.

    2006-11-01

    To identify basic research needs and opportunities underlying utilization of evolving transportation fuels, with a focus on new or emerging science challenges that have the potential for significant long-term impact on fuel efficiency and emissions.

  18. Improving travel projections for public transportation. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Perkinson, D.G.; Keitgen, B.

    1995-08-01

    Public transportation use saves energy and reduces emissions by taking people out of single passenger automobiles and putting them into high occupancy, energy efficient transit vehicles. Furthermore, public transit ridership and vehicular trip estimates are the base information required for estimating energy consumption and air pollution. Trip generation models as developed and used within Texas predict the number of trips expected to occur in a typical 24-hour day. The need to estimate peak-period trips has generated innovative techniques for estimating peak period travel from the 24 hour trip tables. Improved methods of estimating the number of trips that will generated during the peak period will potentially improve the estimation of ridership on public transportation, as well as related energy and emission forecasts. This project produced a trip generation model for predicting peak-period trips based on the travel surveys conducted in Texas during 1990 and 1991 for Amarillo, Beaumont-Port Arthur, Brownsville, San Antonio, Sherman-Denison, and Tyler.

  19. Numerical modeling of humic colloid borne americium (III) migration in column experiments using the transport/speciation code K1D and the KICAM model.

    PubMed

    Schüssler, W; Artinger, R; Kim, J I; Bryan, N D; Griffin, D

    2001-02-01

    The humic colloid borne Am(III) transport was investigated in column experiments for Gorleben groundwater/sand systems. It was found that the interaction of Am with humic colloids is kinetically controlled, which strongly influences the migration behavior of Am(III). These kinetic effects have to be taken into account for transport/speciation modeling. The kinetically controlled availability model (KICAM) was developed to describe actinide sorption and transport in laboratory batch and column experiments. Application of the KICAM requires a chemical transport/speciation code, which simultaneously models both kinetically controlled processes and equilibrium reactions. Therefore, the code K1D was developed as a flexible research code that allows the inclusion of kinetic data in addition to transport features and chemical equilibrium. This paper presents the verification of K1D and its application to model column experiments investigating unimpeded humic colloid borne Am migration. Parmeters for reactive transport simulations were determined for a Gorleben groundwater system of high humic colloid concentration (GoHy 2227). A single set of parameters was used to model a series of column experiments. Model results correspond well to experimental data for the unretarded humic borne Am breakthrough.

  20. Numerical modeling of humic colloid borne Americium (III) migration in column experiments using the transport/speciation code K1D and the KICAM model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüßler, W.; Artinger, R.; Kim, J. I.; Bryan, N. D.; Griffin, D.

    2001-02-01

    The humic colloid borne Am(III) transport was investigated in column experiments for Gorleben groundwater/sand systems. It was found that the interaction of Am with humic colloids is kinetically controlled, which strongly influences the migration behavior of Am(III). These kinetic effects have to be taken into account for transport/speciation modeling. The kinetically controlled availability model (KICAM) was developed to describe actinide sorption and transport in laboratory batch and column experiments. Application of the KICAM requires a chemical transport/speciation code, which simultaneously models both kinetically controlled processes and equilibrium reactions. Therefore, the code K1D was developed as a flexible research code that allows the inclusion of kinetic data in addition to transport features and chemical equilibrium. This paper presents the verification of K1D and its application to model column experiments investigating unimpeded humic colloid borne Am migration. Parameters for reactive transport simulations were determined for a Gorleben groundwater system of high humic colloid concentration (GoHy 2227). A single set of parameters was used to model a series of column experiments. Model results correspond well to experimental data for the unretarded humic borne Am breakthrough.

  1. Investigating minority student participation in an authentic science research experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, Stephanie Danette

    In the United States, a problem previously overlooked in increasing the total number of scientifically literate citizens is the lack of diversity in advanced science classes and in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Groups traditionally underserved in science education and thus underrepresented in the STEM fields include: low-income, racial/ethnic minorities, and females of all ethnic and racial backgrounds. Despite the number of these students who are initially interested in science very few of them thrive in the discipline. Some scholars suggest that the declining interest for students underrepresented in science is traceable to K-12th grade learning experiences and access to participating in authentic science. Consequently, the diminishing interest of minorities and women in science contributes negatively to the representation of these groups in the STEM disciplines. The purpose of this study was to investigate a summer science research experience for minority students and the nature of students' participation in scientific discourse and practices within the context of the research experience. The research questions that guided this study are: The nature of the Summer Experience in Earth and Mineral Science (SEEMS) research experience . (A) What are the SEEMS intended outcomes? (B) To what extent does SEEMS enacted curriculum align with the intended outcomes of the program? The nature of students engagement in the SEEMS research. (A) In what ways do students make sense of and apply science concepts as they engage in the research (e.g., understand problem, how they interpret data, how they construct explanations), and the extent to which they use the science content appropriately? (B) In what ways do students engage in the cultural practices of science, such as using scientific discourse, interpreting inscriptions, and constructing explanations from evidence (engaging in science practices, knowing science and doing science)? The

  2. Strategy research of harbin city green transport and sustainable development from low carbon ecological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Wang; Xiao-jie, Qi

    2017-04-01

    With quick development of urbanization and mechanization, there exist some problems in the cities, such as traffic jam, traffic safety, and traffic pollution and so on. It is extremely urgent for the city to develop green transport, in order to relieve these problems and push forward low carbon ecological construction in Harbin. Strategy research of Harbin city green transport and sustainable development is done from the eight aspects of building public transport system of integration, bicycle, walking, and slow-moving system and so on based on analyzing demands of low carbon ecology on city green transport development, and Harbin traffic development state.

  3. Center for Space Transportation and Applied Research Fifth Annual Technical Symposium Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This Fifth Annual Technical Symposium, sponsored by the UT-Calspan Center for Space Transportation and Applied Research (CSTAR), is organized to provide an overview of the technical accomplishments of the Center's five Research and Technology focus areas during the past year. These areas include chemical propulsion, electric propulsion, commerical space transportation, computational methods, and laser materials processing. Papers in the area of artificial intelligence/expert systems are also presented.

  4. Addressing transportation energy and environmental impacts: technical and policy research directions

    SciTech Connect

    Weissenberger, S.; Pasternak, A.; Smith, J.R.; Wallman, H.

    1995-08-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is establishing a local chapter of the University of California Energy Institute (UCEI). In order to most effectively contribute to the Institute, LLNL sponsored a workshop on energy and environmental issues in transportation. This workshop took place in Livermore on August 10 and brought together researchers from throughout the UC systems in order to establish a joint LLNL-UC research program in transportation, with a focus on energy and environmental impacts.

  5. SHIELD-HIT12A - a Monte Carlo particle transport program for ion therapy research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassler, N.; Hansen, D. C.; Lühr, A.; Thomsen, B.; Petersen, J. B.; Sobolevsky, N.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: The Monte Carlo (MC) code SHIELD-HIT simulates the transport of ions through matter. Since SHIELD-HIT08 we added numerous features that improves speed, usability and underlying physics and thereby the user experience. The "-A" fork of SHIELD-HIT also aims to attach SHIELD-HIT to a heavy ion dose optimization algorithm to provide MC-optimized treatment plans that include radiobiology. Methods: SHIELD-HIT12A is written in FORTRAN and carefully retains platform independence. A powerful scoring engine is implemented scoring relevant quantities such as dose and track-average LET. It supports native formats compatible with the heavy ion treatment planning system TRiP. Stopping power files follow ICRU standard and are generated using the libdEdx library, which allows the user to choose from a multitude of stopping power tables. Results: SHIELD-HIT12A runs on Linux and Windows platforms. We experienced that new users quickly learn to use SHIELD-HIT12A and setup new geometries. Contrary to previous versions of SHIELD-HIT, the 12A distribution comes along with easy-to-use example files and an English manual. A new implementation of Vavilov straggling resulted in a massive reduction of computation time. Scheduled for later release are CT import and photon-electron transport. Conclusions: SHIELD-HIT12A is an interesting alternative ion transport engine. Apart from being a flexible particle therapy research tool, it can also serve as a back end for a MC ion treatment planning system. More information about SHIELD-HIT12A and a demo version can be found on http://www.shieldhit.org.

  6. Research studies using OSO-6 zodiacal light experiment data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The results of research studies on the OSO-6 zodiacal light experiment, conducted during the period from May 1976 to October 1977 are described. A discussion is included of the instrument performance and the empirical calibrations developed. Main areas of the research performed, i.e., (1) zodiacal light variation analysis; (2) integrated starlight and diffuse galactic light; and (3) earth/moon libration region counterglow, are covered. Considerable data processing was performed during these studies and it is summarized. Recommendations for future research to complete the interim results are given.

  7. Seal coats and asphalt recycling. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The papers in this volume deal with various facets of seal coats and asphalt recycling; they should be of interest to state and local construction, design, materials, maintenance, and research engineers as well as contractors and material producers. Authors describe their work related to the design, construction, and performance of seal coats. The relationship between asphalt mixture characteristics and design and the frictional resistance of bituminous wearing course mixtures is reported, and research efforts related to asphalt recycling are explained.

  8. Culminating Experience Action Research Projects, Volume 13, Fall 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Deborah A., Ed.; Cutcher, Cortney L., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    As a part of the teacher licensure program at the graduate level at The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (UTC), the M.Ed. Licensure candidate is required to complete an action research project during a 3-semester-hour course that coincides with the 9-semester-hour student teaching experience. This course, Education 590 Culminating…

  9. Culminating Experience Action Research Projects, Volume 3, Spring 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Deborah A., Ed.; Moyer, Peggy S., Ed.

    This document presents the course syllabus for Education 590 Culminating Experience at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga's teacher licensure program. It also includes action research projects from spring 2003: "'To Track or Untrack...That Is the Question'" (Sarah Armes); "Providing Urban Students with the Motivation to…

  10. Ozone Research with Advanced Cooperative Lidar Experiment (ORACLE) Implementation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadler, John H.; Browell, Edward V.; Ismail, Syed; Dudelzak, Alexander E.; Ball, Donald J.

    1998-01-01

    New technological advances have made possible new active remote sensing capabilities from space. Utilizing these technologies, the Ozone Research with Advanced Cooperative Lidar Experiment (ORACLE) will provide high spatial resolution measurements of ozone, clouds and aerosols in the stratosphere and lower troposphere. Simultaneous measurements of ozone, clouds and aerosols will assist in the understanding of global change, atmospheric chemistry and meteorology.

  11. Ozone Research with Advanced Cooperative Lidar Experiment (ORACLE) Implementation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadler, John H.; Browell, Edward V.; Ismail, Syed; Dudelzak, Alexander E.; Ball, Donald J.

    1998-01-01

    New technological advances have made possible new active remote sensing capabilities from space. Utilizing these technologies, the Ozone Research with Advanced Cooperative Lidar Experiment (ORACLE) will provide high spatial resolution measurements of ozone, clouds and aerosols in the stratosphere and lower troposphere. Simultaneous measurements of ozone, clouds and aerosols will assist in the understanding of global change, atmospheric chemistry and meteorology.

  12. Culminating Experience Action Research Projects, Volume 7, Fall 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Deborah A., Ed.; Fritch, Sarah C., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    As a part of the teacher licensure program at the graduate level at The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (UTC), the M.Ed. Licensure candidate is required to complete an action research project during a 3-semester-hour course that coincides with the 9-semester-hour student teaching experience. This course, Education 590 Culminating…

  13. Culminating Experience Action Research Projects, Volume 17, Fall 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Deborah A., Ed.; Cutcher, Cortney L., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    As a part of the teacher licensure program at the graduate level at The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (UTC), the M.Ed. Licensure candidate is required to complete an action research project during a 3-semester-hour course that coincides with the 9-semester-hour student teaching experience. This course, Education 5900 Culminating…

  14. Workplace Mathematics Research: Reflections on Personal Practical Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naresh, Nirmala; Chahine, Iman

    2013-01-01

    This article describes our transitions through three phases of a reflective cycle as a journey from the past to the future. In the descriptive phase, we delve into our past research experiences and address questions such as: What is the role of mathematics at work? In doing so, we uncovered additional venues for exploration that called for a new…

  15. Lessons about Learning: Comparing Learner Experiences with Language Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Luke

    2011-01-01

    This is an account of how one class of English language learners compared and contrasted their language learning experiences with English language teaching (ELT) research findings during a five-week Intensive Academic Preparation course at an Australian university. It takes as its starting point the fact that learners, unlike teachers and…

  16. Culminating Experience Action Research Projects, Volume 10, Spring 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Deborah A., Ed.; Deaver, Sharon R., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    As a part of the teacher licensure program at the graduate level at The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (UTC), the M.Ed. Licensure candidate is required to complete an action research project during a 3-semester-hour course that coincides with the 9-semester-hour student teaching experience. This course, Education 590 Culminating…

  17. Research Training in Medical Informatics: The Stanford Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shortliffe, Edward H.; Fagan, Lawrence M.

    1989-01-01

    Stanford University created an interdisciplinary program to train researchers and academic leaders in the field of medical information sciences. The program is described, identifying experiences of interest to people developing such a program. The program's background and history, students, curriculum and philosophy, and lessons learned are…

  18. Benefits of Supervised Agricultural Experience Programs: A Synthesis of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David L.; Dyer, James E.

    1997-01-01

    A review of literature from 1964 to 1993 identified the benefits of supervised agricultural experience (SAE) programs, including agriculture knowledge and positive work attitudes. Classroom, SAE, and Future Farmers of America complemented each other. The research base is state specific and fragmented and lacks cohesiveness. (SK)

  19. Culminating Experience Action Research Projects, Volume 14, Spring 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Deborah A., Ed.; Cutcher, Cortney L., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    As a part of the teacher licensure program at the graduate level at The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (UTC), the M.Ed. Licensure candidate is required to complete an action research project during a 3-semester-hour course that coincides with the 9-semester-hour student teaching experience. This course, Education 590 Culminating…

  20. Culminating Experience Action Research Projects, Volume 9, Fall 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Deborah A., Ed.; Ezell, Benjamin T., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    As a part of the teacher licensure program at the graduate level at The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (UTC), the M.Ed. Licensure candidate is required to complete an action research project during a 3-semester-hour course that coincides with the 9-semester-hour student teaching experience. This course, Education 590 Culminating…

  1. Videos of Experiments from ORNL Gas Hydrate Research

    DOE Data Explorer

    Gas hydrate research performed by the Environmental Sciences Division utilizes the ORNL Seafloor Process Simulator, the Parr Vessel, the Sapphire Cell, a fiber optic distributed sensing system, and Raman spectroscopy. The group studies carbon sequestration in the ocean, desalination, gas hydrates in the solar system, and nucleation and dissociation kinetics. The videos available at the gas hydrates website are very short clips from experiments.

  2. Culminating Experience Action Research Projects, Volume 6, Fall 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Deborah A., Ed.; Bothman, Susan M., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    As a part of the teacher licensure program at the graduate level at The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (UTC), the M.Ed. Licensure candidate is required to complete an action research project during a 3-semester-hour course that coincides with the 9-semester-hour student teaching experience. This course, Education 590 Culminating…

  3. Research Methods to Investigate Significant Life Experiences: Review and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chawla, Louise

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews different research approaches to understanding the significant experiences that influence peoples environmental concern and behaviour, with an emphasis on identifying the strengths and weaknesses of existing studies. It also reviews relevant findings regarding the validity of autobiographical memory, as memory is the medium…

  4. Recreation settings, scenery, and visitor experiences: a research assessment.

    Treesearch

    Daniel R. Williams

    2007-01-01

    A core task of recreation research is to understand the relation between settings, scenery, and visitor experiences. This paper uses environmental psychology to describe four conceptual models underlying these relations: inherent/aesthetic, opportunity/goal-directed, symbolic, and expressive. The paper then describes some challenges to applying results to recreation...

  5. Benefits of Supervised Agricultural Experience Programs: A Synthesis of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David L.; Dyer, James E.

    1997-01-01

    A review of literature from 1964 to 1993 identified the benefits of supervised agricultural experience (SAE) programs, including agriculture knowledge and positive work attitudes. Classroom, SAE, and Future Farmers of America complemented each other. The research base is state specific and fragmented and lacks cohesiveness. (SK)

  6. Culminating Experience Action Research Projects, Volume 5, Spring 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Deborah A., Ed.; Bothman, Susan M., Ed

    2005-01-01

    As a part of the teacher licensure program at the graduate level at The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (UTC), the M.Ed. Licensure candidate is required to complete an action research project during a 3-semester-hour course that coincides with the 9-semester-hour student teaching experience. This course, Education 590 Culminating…

  7. Reactive transport modeling for Cs retention: from batch to field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pourcq, K.; Ayora, C.; Carrera, J.; García-Gutiérrez, M.; Missana, T.; Mingarro, M.

    2012-04-01

    A Permeable Reactive Barrier has been designed to treat 137Cs polluted groundwater. In order to check both reactivity and permeability, laboratory batch and column tests combined with reactive transport modeling have been performed. The trapping mechanism is based on the sorption of cesium mainly on illite-containing clays. Batch experiments were conducted to obtain the partition coefficients (Kd) of different clay samples in solutions with different potassium concentration. A clear correlation of Kd values with potassium content was observed. The results were modeled with a cation-exchange model. The permeability of the reactive material is provided by the dispersion of the clay on a matrix of wooden shavings. Constant head tests allowed obtaining permeability values. Several column experiments with different flow rates were conducted to confirm the 137Cs retention under different conditions. A blind 1D reactive transport model based on the cation-exchange model was able to predict reasonably well the results of column experiments. The reactive transport model, validated with the column experiments, was used to investigate the performance and duration of 1m thick barrier under different scenarios (flow, clay proportion, 137Cs and K concentration). As expected, the sensitivity tests proved that the retention capacity of dissolved 137Cs in groundwater depends linearly on the amount of clay used in the filling material. As well, the operation time increases linearly when decreasing the flow rate. Finally, the concentration of potassium in inflow water has a remarkable and non-linear influence in the retention of 137Cs. Very high concentrations of potassium are the greatest threat and can lead to the unfeasibility of a permeable reactive barrier. Due to the Cs-K competition, the barrier is comparatively more efficient to treat high concentrations of 137Cs. Up to now, preliminary results from a field scale experiment have confirmed the reactivity and permeability

  8. Teacher Research Experience Programs = Increase in Student Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubner, J.

    2010-12-01

    Columbia University's Summer Research Program for Science Teachers (SRP), founded in 1990, is one of the largest, best known university-based professional development programs for science teachers in the U.S. The program’s basic premise is simple: teachers cannot effectively teach science if they have not experienced it firsthand. For eight weeks in each of two consecutive summers, teachers participate as a member of a research team, led by a member of Columbia University’s research faculty. In addition to the laboratory experience, all teachers meet as a group one day each week during the summer for a series of pedagogical activities. A unique quality of the Summer Research Program is its focus on objective assessment of its impact on attitudes and instructional practices of participating teachers, on the performance of these teachers in their mentors’ laboratories, and most importantly, on the impact of their participation in the program on student interest and performance in science. SRP uses pass rate on the New York State Regents standardized science examinations as an objective measure of student achievement. SRP's data is the first scientific evidence of a connection between a research experience for teachers program and gains in student achievement. As a result of the research, findings were published in Science Magazine. The author will present an overview of Columbia's teacher research program and the results of the published program evaluation.

  9. Model simulation and experiments of flow and mass transport through a nano-material gas filter

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaofan; Zheng, Zhongquan C.; Winecki, Slawomir; Eckels, Steve

    2013-11-01

    A computational model for evaluating the performance of nano-material packed-bed filters was developed. The porous effects of the momentum and mass transport within the filter bed were simulated. For the momentum transport, an extended Ergun-type model was employed and the energy loss (pressure drop) along the packed-bed was simulated and compared with measurement. For the mass transport, a bulk dsorption model was developed to study the adsorption process (breakthrough behavior). Various types of porous materials and gas flows were tested in the filter system where the mathematical models used in the porous substrate were implemented and validated by comparing with experimental data and analytical solutions under similar conditions. Good agreements were obtained between experiments and model predictions.

  10. Scalar and momentum turbulent transport experiments with swirling and nonswirling flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. V.; Roback, R.; Bennett, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    Combustor models for the aircraft gas turbine industry have been obtained because of the need to reduce the costs of developing improved performance and more durable engines. A few years ago, it became apparent that the mass concentration and velocity predictions provided by the computer codes were not representing the data measured in some confined recirculating flows. It is pointed out that errors in the mass concentration distribution are an especially serious problem because of their influence on the heat release, temperature, and reactant distributions. Combined mass and momentum turbulent transport experiments with swirling and nonswirling flow have been conducted with the objective to obtain an experimental data base which can be used to evaluate and improve the turbulent transport submodes employed in the aerothermal models. The present paper is mainly concerned with the overall characteristics of the mass turbulent transport processes in complex flows with recirculation and the deficiencies of the conventional models.

  11. Preliminary characterization of materials for a reactive transport model validation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, M.D.; Ward, D.B.; Cheng, W.C.; Bryant, C.; Chocas, C.S.; Reynolds, C.G.

    1993-03-01

    The geochemical properties of a porous sand and several tracers (Ni, Br, and Li) have been characterized for use in a caisson experiment designed to validate sorption models used in models of inactive transport. The surfaces of the sand grains have been examined by a combination of techniques including potentiometric titration, acid leaching, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The surface studies indicate the presence of small amounts of carbonate, kaolinite and iron-oxyhydroxides. Adsorption of nickel, lithium and bromide by the sand was measured using batch techniques. Bromide was not sorbed by the sand. A linear (K{sub d}) or an isotherm sorption model may adequately describe transport of Li; however, a model describing the changes of pH and the concentrations of other solution species as a function of time and position within the caisson and the concomitant effects on Ni sorption may be required for accurate predictions of nickel transport.

  12. Effect of Nonlocal Thermal Electron Transport on the Symmetry of Polar-Drive Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delettrez, J. A.; Collins, T. J. B.; Radha, P. B.; Michel, D. T.; Cao, D.; Moses, G.

    2013-10-01

    A nonlocal, multigroup diffusion model for thermal electron transport has been added to the 2-D hydrodynamic code DRACO. This model has been applied to simulations of polar-drive (PD) experiments on the OMEGA Laser System and the National Ignition Facility. When compared with the simulation with flux-limited diffusion transport, the nonlocal transport under the same laser illumination pattern increases the drive at the equator, resulting in an increase of the amplitude of modes two to six at end of target acceleration. The increased drive is caused by the larger heat flux at the equator than near the pole, which results from the coronal temperature being driven purposely high to compensate for the oblique illumination when using the flux-limiter model. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  13. Experiment 2: Vapor Transport Crystal Growth of Mercury Cadmium Telluride in Microgravity- USML-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedemeier, H.; Ge, Y. R.; Hutchins, M. A.

    1998-01-01

    The new epitaxial growth experiments of Hg(l-x)Cd(x)Te on (100) CdTe substrates by chemical vapor transport (CVT), using HgI2 as a transport agent, were performed in the transient growth regime of this ternary, heteroepitaxial system at normal and reduced gravity during the USML-2 flight. The surface and interface morphology, the compositional and structural uniformity, and carrier mobility of the epitaxial layer and islands grown in microgravity are measurably improved relative to ground specimens. These observations demonstrate the effects of convective flow on the transport, deposition, and growth processes of this solid-vapor system even in the transient growth regime. The properties of the Hg(l-x)Cd(x)Te layer grown in a microgravity environment compare quite favorably to those of layers obtained by other techniques.

  14. Energy and Environmental Issues, 1991. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Partial Contents: Mitigation of Traffic Mortality of Endangered Brown Pelicans on Coastal Bridges; Cooperation Between State Highway and Environmental Agencies in Dealing With Hazardous Waste in the Right-of-Way; Comparison of Intersection Air Quality Models' Ability to Simulate Carbon Monoxide Concentrations in an Urban Area; Model Calculation of Environment-Friendly Traffic Flows in Urban Networks; Sensitivity Analysis for Land Use, Transportation, and Air Quality; Special Events and Carbon Monoxide Violations: TSM, Crowd Control, Economics, and Solutions to Adverse Air Quality Impacts; Mode Split at Large Special Events and Effects on Air Quality; Internal Consistency and Stability of Measurements of Community Reaction to Noise; Impact and Potential Use of Attitude and Other Modifying Variables in Reducing Community Reaction to Noise; Techniques for Aesthetic Design of Freeway Noise Barriers; Effects of Road Surface Texture on Traffic and Vehicle Noise; Electrokinetic Soil Processing in Waste Remediation and Treatment: Synthesis of Available Data; Site Remediation by In Situ Vitrification.

  15. Aviation safety research and transportation/hazard avoidance and elimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenschein, C. M.; Dimarzio, C.; Clippinger, D.; Toomey, D.

    1976-01-01

    Data collected by the Scanning Laser Doppler Velocimeter System (SLDVS) was analyzed to determine the feasibility of the SLDVS for monitoring aircraft wake vortices in an airport environment. Data were collected on atmospheric vortices and analyzed. Over 1600 landings were monitored at Kennedy International Airport and by the end of the test period 95 percent of the runs with large aircraft were producing usable results in real time. The transport was determined in real time and post analysis using algorithms which performed centroids on the highest amplitude in the thresholded spectrum. Making use of other parameters of the spectrum, vortex flow fields were studied along with the time histories of peak velocities and amplitudes. The post analysis of the data was accomplished with a CDC-6700 computer using several programs developed for LDV data analysis.

  16. Advances in NASA radiation transport research: 3DHZETRN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, John W.; Slaba, Tony C.; Badavi, Francis F.; Reddell, Brandon D.; Bahadori, Amir A.

    2014-07-01

    The computationally efficient HZETRN code has been used in recent trade studies for lunar and Martian exploration and is currently being used in the engineering development of the next generation of space vehicles, habitats, and extra vehicular activity equipment. Code development has been based on a progression of approximations first assuming all particles are produced in the initiator direction of incidence (straight-ahead) later improved by treating neutrons produced in the backward hemisphere as moving straight-back (bi-directional). A new version (3DHZETRN) capable of transporting High charge (Z) and Energy (HZE) and light ions (including neutrons) under space-like boundary conditions with enhanced neutron and light ion propagation in transverse directions is developed. Herein, new algorithms for light ion and neutron propagation with well defined convergence criteria in 3D objects is developed and tested against Monte Carlo simulations of 3D effects.

  17. [The use of nitric oxide during transport of newborns with critical respiratory insufficiency: own experience, preliminary report].

    PubMed

    Ziebiński, Marek; Walas, Wojciech

    2002-01-01

    This preliminary report presents author's experience with inhaled nitric oxide during transport of newborns with critical respiratory insufficiency. The theoretical basis, indications and contraindications as well as principles of administration during transport are described. The required equipment and some technical aspects are discussed. A short preview of performed transportations is given. Preliminary data show, that use of NO during transport is very helpful in children with critical respiratory insufficiency.

  18. Closed-flow column experiments: A numerical sensitivity analysis of reactive transport and parameter uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritschel, Thomas; Totsche, Kai Uwe

    2016-08-01

    The identification of transport parameters by inverse modeling often suffers from equifinality or parameter correlation when models are fitted to measurements of the solute breakthrough in column outflow experiments. This parameter uncertainty can be approached by performing multiple experiments with different sets of boundary conditions, each provoking observations that are uniquely attributable to the respective transport processes. A promising approach to further increase the information potential of the experimental outcome is the closed-flow column design. It is characterized by the recirculation of the column effluent into the solution supply vessel that feeds the inflow, which results in a damped sinusoidal oscillation in the breakthrough curve. In order to reveal the potential application of closed-flow experiments, we present a comprehensive sensitivity analysis using common models for adsorption and degradation. We show that the sensitivity of inverse parameter determination with respect to the apparent dispersion can be controlled by the experimenter. For optimal settings, a decrease in parameter uncertainty as compared to classical experiments by an order of magnitude is achieved. In addition, we show a reduced equifinality between rate-limited interactions and apparent dispersion. Furthermore, we illustrate the expected breakthrough curve for equilibrium and nonequilibrium adsorption, the latter showing strong similarities to the behavior found for completely mixed batch reactor experiments. Finally, breakthrough data from a reactive tracer experiment is evaluated using the proposed framework with excellent agreement of model and experimental results.

  19. The Microgravity Research Experiments (MICREX) Data Base. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, C. A.; Jones, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    An electronic data base identifying over 800 fluids and materials processing experiments performed in a low-gravity environment has been created at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The compilation, called MICREX (MICrogravity Research Experiments), was designed to document all such experimental efforts performed (1) on U.S. manned space vehicles, (2) on payloads deployed from U.S. manned space vehicles, and (3) on all domestic and international sounding rockets (excluding those of China and the former U.S.S.R.). Data available on most experiments include (1) principal and co-investigators, (2) low-gravity mission, (3) processing facility, (4) experimental objectives and results, (5) identifying key words, (6) sample materials, (7) applications of the processed materials/research area, (8) experiment descriptive publications, and (9) contacts for more information concerning the experiment. This technical memorandum (1) summarizes the historical interest in reduced-gravity fluid dynamics, (2) describes the experimental facilities employed to examine reduced gravity fluid flow, (3) discusses the importance of a low-gravity fluids and materials processing data base, (4) describes the MICREX data base format and computational World Wide Web access procedures, and (5) documents (in hard-copy form) the descriptions of the first 600 fluids and materials processing experiments entered into MICREX.

  20. The Microgravity Research Experiments (MICREX) Data Base, Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, C. A.; Jones, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    An electronic data base identifying over 800 fluids and materials processing experiments performed in a low-gravity environment has been created at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The compilation, called MICREX (MICrogravity Research Experiments), was designed to document all such experimental efforts performed (1) on U.S. manned space vehicles, (2) on payloads deployed from U.S. manned space vehicles, and (3) on all domestic and international sounding rockets (excluding those of China and the former U.S.S.R.). Data available on most experiments include (1) principal and co-investigators (2) low-gravity mission, (3) processing facility, (4) experimental objectives and results, (5) identifying key words, (6) sample materials, (7) applications of the processed materials/research area, (8) experiment descriptive publications, and (9) contacts for more information concerning the experiment. This technical Memorandum (1) summarizes the historical interest in reduced-gravity fluid dynamics, (2) describes the importance of a low-gravity fluids and materials processing data base, (4) describes the MICREX data base format and computational World Wide Web access procedures, and (5) documents (in hard-copy form) the descriptions of the first 600 fluids and materials processing experiments entered into MICREX.

  1. The Microgravity Research Experiments (MICREX) Data Base. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, C. A.; Jones, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    An electronic data base identifying over 800 fluids and materials processing experiments performed in a low-gravity environment has been created at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The compilation, called MICREX (MICrogravity Research Experiments), was designed to document all such experimental efforts performed (1) on U.S. manned space vehicles, (2) on payloads deployed from U.S. manned space vehicles, and (3) on all domestic and international sounding rockets (excluding those of China and the former U.S.S.R.). Data available on most experiments include (1) principal and co-investigators (2) low-gravity mission, (3) processing facility, (4) experimental objectives and results, (5) identifying key words, (6) sample materials, (7) applications of the processed materials/research area, (8) experiment descriptive publications, and (9) contacts for more information concerning the experiment. This technical memorandum (1) summarizes the historical interest in reduced-gravity fluid dynamics, (2) describes the experimental facilities employed to examine reduced gravity fluid flow, (3) discusses the importance of a low-gravity fluids and materials processing data base, (4) describes the MICREX data base format and computational World Wide Web access procedures, and (5) documents (in hard-copy form) the descriptions of the first 600 fluids and materials processing experiments entered into MICREX.

  2. Investigator Experiences and Attitudes about Research with Biospecimens

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Suzanne M.; Goldenberg, Aaron; Rosenthal, Beth; Aungst, Heide; Maschke, Karen J.; Rothwell, Erin; Anderson, Rebecca A.; Botkin, Jeffrey; Joffe, Steven

    2015-01-01

    To advance scientific knowledge about human diseases and effective therapeutic treatments, investigators need access to human biospecimens and associated data. However, regulatory and procedural requirements may impede investigators’ efforts to share biospecimens and data within and across institutions. While a number of studies have explored experiences and attitudes of study participants and others about biospecimen and data sharing, less is known about investigators’ perspectives. We conducted an electronic survey to learn about investigators’ experiences and attitudes about research with biospecimens and associated data. A total of 114 practicing scientists from a pool of 60 university medical schools with Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs) funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) participated. We found a high degree of variability in investigators’ experiences with Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) when seeking approval to conduct biospecimen research, as well as differences in approaches to informed consent for the collection of specimens. Participants also expressed concerns that the risks of biospecimen research may be overestimated by IRBs. This research suggests that the current regulatory environment for human research protections may require reconsideration with regard to standards for collection, use and sharing of biospecimens and data. PMID:26564943

  3. Mentoring health researchers globally: Diverse experiences, programmes, challenges and responses

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Donald C.; Johnson, Nancy; Mejia, Raul; McCullough, Hazel; Turcotte-Tremblay, Anne-Marie; Barnoya, Joaquin; Falabella Luco, (María) Soledad

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mentoring experiences and programmes are becoming increasingly recognised as important by those engaged in capacity strengthening in global health research. Using a primarily qualitative study design, we studied three experiences of mentorship and eight mentorship programmes for early career global health researchers based in high-income and low- and middle-income countries. For the latter, we drew upon programme materials, existing unpublished data and more formal mixed-method evaluations, supplemented by individual email questionnaire responses. Research team members wrote stories, and the team assembled and analysed them for key themes. Across the diverse experiences and programmes, key emergent themes included: great mentors inspire others in an inter-generational cascade, mentorship is transformative in personal and professional development and involves reciprocity, and finding the right balance in mentoring relationships and programmes includes responding creatively to failure. Among the challenges encountered were: struggling for more level playing fields for new health researchers globally, changing mindsets in institutions that do not have a culture of mentorship and building collaboration not competition. Mentoring networks spanning institutions and countries using multiple virtual and face-to-face methods are a potential avenue for fostering organisational cultures supporting quality mentorship in global health research. PMID:26234691

  4. Providing premedical students with quality clinical and research experience

    PubMed Central

    Davis, James; Anderson, Maggie; Stankevitz, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate premedical students face a prodigious decision as they work to determine whether to pursue a profession in medicine. Experience in clinical medicine and research is essential to inform students what it might be like to be a physician. Undergraduates, however, face a number of obstacles to obtaining the kind of quality clinical and research experience needed to best inform them on this decision. Growing regulations designed to protect patient confidentiality, though undeniably important, pose a barrier to students seeking patient contact. Traditional passive physician shadowing often does not provide ample opportunities for one-on-one patient interaction or problem solving. Finally, research opportunities available to students typically are not associated with clinical work and therefore do not provide an experiential model of how empirical evidence informs medical practice. This report provides a description of the University of Wisconsin Tobacco Science Scholars Program, a pilot program designed to grapple with some of these barriers. The program provides supervision for students so that they might fulfill institutional requirements required for patient contact, provides an active model of clinical patient interaction and problem solving, and provides access to research that is integrated into the student’s clinical experience so the student might better understand the nature of research-based evidence in medicine. Program details and limitations are discussed. PMID:24734413

  5. Mentoring health researchers globally: Diverse experiences, programmes, challenges and responses.

    PubMed

    Cole, Donald C; Johnson, Nancy; Mejia, Raul; McCullough, Hazel; Turcotte-Tremblay, Anne-Marie; Barnoya, Joaquin; Falabella Luco, María Soledad

    2016-10-01

    Mentoring experiences and programmes are becoming increasingly recognised as important by those engaged in capacity strengthening in global health research. Using a primarily qualitative study design, we studied three experiences of mentorship and eight mentorship programmes for early career global health researchers based in high-income and low- and middle-income countries. For the latter, we drew upon programme materials, existing unpublished data and more formal mixed-method evaluations, supplemented by individual email questionnaire responses. Research team members wrote stories, and the team assembled and analysed them for key themes. Across the diverse experiences and programmes, key emergent themes included: great mentors inspire others in an inter-generational cascade, mentorship is transformative in personal and professional development and involves reciprocity, and finding the right balance in mentoring relationships and programmes includes responding creatively to failure. Among the challenges encountered were: struggling for more level playing fields for new health researchers globally, changing mindsets in institutions that do not have a culture of mentorship and building collaboration not competition. Mentoring networks spanning institutions and countries using multiple virtual and face-to-face methods are a potential avenue for fostering organisational cultures supporting quality mentorship in global health research.

  6. Lived Observations: Linking the Researcher's Personal Experiences to Knowledge Development.

    PubMed

    Thoresen, Lisbeth; Öhlén, Joakim

    2015-11-01

    As researchers in palliative care, we recognize how involvement with seriously ill and dying persons has an impact on us. Using one's own senses, emotional and bodily responses in observations might open intersubjective dimensions of the research topic. The aim of the article is to highlight how phenomenological theories on intersubjectivity can be useful to develop rich and transparent data generation and analysis. We present three field note examples from observation in a hospice ward, which illuminate how researcher awareness of aspects of intersubjectivity can add valuable insights to data and analysis. Out of the examples, we elaborate on three arguments: (a) how the researcher's lived experience of time and space during fieldwork triggers new research questions, (b) how observations as an embodied activity can bring new insights and open new layers of meaning, and (c) the value of observations in gaining insight into relational aspects in a hospice. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Learning to listen: serendipitous outcomes of a research training experience.

    PubMed

    Chambers-Evans, J; Stelling, J; Godin, M

    1999-06-01

    Experience gained in a qualitative research-training project led a group of clinical nurse specialists to discover the value of using research interview strategies in their clinical work. Clinical interviews, designed to garner data sufficient to decide on interventions, narrow the focus of the interviewer to information deemed relevant to that end. Research interview strategies involve a temporary suspension of the search for intervention, encourage a full description of the respondent's story and experience, and emphasise really listening to that story. In this case it is the respondent who decides what the story is and what information is relevant. This leads the interviewer to a fuller understanding of the context and perceptions of the respondent. The understanding and knowledge thus obtained comprise a better foundation for devising interventions which are individualised and specific to the individual and family.

  8. Geographical and temporal distribution of basic research experiments in homeopathy.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Jürgen; van Wijk, Roeland; Albrecht, Henning

    2014-07-01

    The database HomBRex (Homeopathy Basic Research experiments) was established in 2002 to provide an overview of the basic research already done on homeopathy (http://www.carstens-stiftung.de/hombrex). By this means, it facilitates the exploration of the Similia Principle and the working mechanism of homeopathy. Since 2002, the total number of experiments listed has almost doubled. The current review reports the history of basic research in homeopathy as evidenced by publication dates and origin of publications. In July 2013, the database held 1868 entries. Most publications were reported from France (n = 267), followed by Germany (n = 246) and India (n = 237). In the last ten years, the number of publications from Brazil dramatically increased from n = 13 (before 2004) to n = 164 (compared to n = 251 published in France before 2004, and n = 16 between 2004 and 2013). The oldest database entry was from Germany (1832).

  9. Transport and Removal experiment of Dust (TReD) for the Dust Particle Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Hyun-Jong; Cho, Soon-Gook; Chung, Kyu-Sun; Park, Eun-Kyung; Park, Sang-Joon; Hong, Suk-Ho

    2011-10-01

    The tokamak dust might be hazardous based on the radioactive from tritium or activated metals (e.g. tritium retention), toxic and/or explosive (or chemically reactive) in steam and air conditions. Therefore, controls of dust particle inventory can be treated a critical issue for safe operation of ITER and next step fusion devices. Although the dust removal experiments for fusion reactor had been tried in 1990s, it cannot directly applied to ITER and next step fusion reactors since scale issues does not solved. In this work, one developed the dedicated plasma device for the dust particle transport and removal tests to the level required in ITER or next step fusion reactors (~1 m dust particle transportation), which is called TReD (Transport and Removal experiments of Dust). The TReD also plan to test the dust particle detectors, such as electrostatic dust detector and capacitance diaphragm microbalance (CDM) used (or will be used) in fusion plasmas. The first experimental results of dust particle transport and removal will be explained along with the design concepts, assembly structure, also collaboration plans, etc.

  10. Nondimensional transport experiments on DIII-D and projections to an ignition tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, C.C.; Luce, T.C.; Balet, B.; Christiansen, J.P.; Cordey, J.G.

    1996-07-01

    The concept of nondimensional scaling of transport makes it possible to determine the required size for an ignition device based upon data from a single machine and illuminates the underlying physics of anomalous transport. The scaling of cross-field heat transport with the relative gyroradius {rho}*, the gyroradius normalized to the plasma minor radius, is of particular interest since {rho}* is the only nondimensional parameter which will vary significantly between present day machines and an ignition device. These nondimensional scaling experiments are based upon theoretical considerations which indicate that the thermal heat diffusivity can be written in the form {chi} = {chi}{sub B}{rho}*{sup x{sub {rho}}} F({beta}, v*, q, R/a, {kappa}, T{sub e}/T{sub i},...), where {chi}{sub B} = cT/eB. As explained elsewhere, x{sub {rho}} = 1 is called gyro-Bohm scaling, x{sub {rho}} is Bohm scaling, x{sub {rho}} = {minus}1/2 is Goldston scaling, and x{sub {rho}} = {minus}1 is stochastic scaling. The DIII-D results reported in this paper cover three important aspects of nondimensional scaling experiments: the testing of the underlying assumption of the nondimensional scaling approach, the determination of the {rho}* scaling of heat transport for various plasma regimes, and the extrapolation of the energy confinement time to future ignition devices.

  11. Research and development of space transportation systems in ISAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onoda, Junjirou

    1993-03-01

    An overview of the research and development activities in the ISAS (the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science) focusing on the Mu-5 launch vehicle, the winged space vehicle, and the ATR (Air Turbo Ramjet) engine is presented. The design guidelines, characteristics, dimensions, and subsystems, such as rocket motor, nose fairing, and attitude control subsystem of the Mu-5 launch vehicle, one of the versions of Mu series rocket, which is capable of launching 1.8 tons of payload into LEO (Low Earth Orbit) are outlined. The research and development activities on winged space vehicle called the HIMES (Highly Maneuverable Experimental Space) Vehicle and the ATR propulsion system are outlined.

  12. A PC-based bus monitor program for use with the transport systems research vehicle RS-232 communication interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easley, Wesley C.

    1991-01-01

    Experiment critical use of RS-232 data busses in the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) operated by the Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program Office at the NASA Langley Research Center has recently increased. Each application utilizes a number of nonidentical computer and peripheral configurations and requires task specific software development. To aid these development tasks, an IBM PC-based RS-232 bus monitoring system was produced. It can simultaneously monitor two communication ports of a PC or clone, including the nonstandard bus expansion of the TSRV Grid laptop computers. Display occurs in a separate window for each port's input with binary display being selectable. A number of other features including binary log files, screen capture to files, and a full range of communication parameters are provided.

  13. Silica-coated titania and zirconia colloids for subsurface transport field experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryan, Joseph N.; Elimelech, Menachem; Baeseman, Jenny L.; Magelky, Robin D.

    2000-01-01

    Silica-coated titania (TiO2) and zirconia (ZrO2) colloids were synthesized in two sizes to provide easily traced mineral colloids for subsurface transport experiments. Electrophoretic mobility measurements showed that coating with silica imparted surface properties similar to pure silica to the titania and zirconia colloids. Measurements of steady electrophoretic mobility and size (by dynamic light scattering) over a 90-day period showed that the silica-coated colloids were stable to aggregation and loss of coating. A natural gradient field experiment conducted in an iron oxide-coated sand and gravel aquifer also showed that the surface properties of the silica-coated colloids were similar. Colloid transport was traced at μg L-1 concentrations by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy measurement of Ti and Zr in acidified samples.

  14. A field experiment on the controls of sediment transport on bedrock erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, A. R.; Turowski, J. M.; Fritschi, B.; Rieke-Zapp, D.; Campana, L.; Lavé, J.

    2012-12-01

    The earth`s surface is naturally shaped by interactions of physical and chemical processes. In mountainous regions with steep topography river incision fundamentally controls the geomorphic evolution of the whole landscape. There, erosion of exposed bedrock sections by fluvial sediment transport is an important mechanism forming mountain river channels. The links between bedload transport and bedrock erosion has been firmly established using laboratory experiments. However, there are only few field datasets linking discharge, sediment transport, impact energy and erosion that can be used for process understanding and model evaluation. To fill this gap, a new measuring setup has been commissioned to raise an appropriate simultaneous dataset of hydraulics, sediment transport and bedrock erosion at high temporal and spatial resolution. Two natural stone slabs were installed flush with the streambed of the Erlenbach, a gauged stream in the Swiss Pre-Alps. They are mounted upon force sensors recording vertical pressure und downstream shear caused by passing sediment particles. The sediment transport rates can be assessed using geophone plates and an automated moving basket system taking short-term sediment samples. These devices are located directly downstream of the stone slabs. Bedrock erosion rates are measured continuously with erosion sensors at sub-millimeter accuracy at three points on each slab. In addition, the whole slab topography is surveyed with photogrammetry and a structured-light 3D scanner after individual flood events. Since the installation in 2011, slab bedrock erosion has been observed during several transport events. We discuss the relation between hydraulics, bedload transport, resulting pressure forces on the stone slabs and erosion rates. The aim of the study is the derivation of an empirical process law for fluvial bedrock erosion driven by moving sediment particles.

  15. Pore-scale and continuum simulations of solute transport micromodel benchmark experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Oostrom, M.; Mehmani, Y.; Romero-Gomez, P.; ...

    2014-06-18

    Four sets of nonreactive solute transport experiments were conducted with micromodels. Three experiments with one variable, i.e., flow velocity, grain diameter, pore-aspect ratio, and flow-focusing heterogeneity were in each set. The data sets were offered to pore-scale modeling groups to test their numerical simulators. Each set consisted of two learning experiments, for which our results were made available, and one challenge experiment, for which only the experimental description and base input parameters were provided. The experimental results showed a nonlinear dependence of the transverse dispersion coefficient on the Peclet number, a negligible effect of the pore-aspect ratio on transverse mixing,more » and considerably enhanced mixing due to flow focusing. Five pore-scale models and one continuum-scale model were used to simulate the experiments. Of the pore-scale models, two used a pore-network (PN) method, two others are based on a lattice Boltzmann (LB) approach, and one used a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. Furthermore, we used the learning experiments, by the PN models, to modify the standard perfect mixing approach in pore bodies into approaches to simulate the observed incomplete mixing. The LB and CFD models used the learning experiments to appropriately discretize the spatial grid representations. For the continuum modeling, the required dispersivity input values were estimated based on published nonlinear relations between transverse dispersion coefficients and Peclet number. Comparisons between experimental and numerical results for the four challenge experiments show that all pore-scale models were all able to satisfactorily simulate the experiments. The continuum model underestimated the required dispersivity values, resulting in reduced dispersion. The PN models were able to complete the simulations in a few minutes, whereas the direct models, which account for the micromodel geometry and underlying flow and transport physics

  16. Pore-scale and continuum simulations of solute transport micromodel benchmark experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Oostrom, M.; Mehmani, Y.; Romero-Gomez, P.; Tang, Y.; Liu, H.; Yoon, H.; Kang, Q.; Joekar-Niasar, V.; Balhoff, M. T.; Dewers, T.; Tartakovsky, G. D.; Leist, E. A.; Hess, N. J.; Perkins, W. A.; Rakowski, C. L.; Richmond, M. C.; Serkowski, J. A.; Werth, C. J.; Valocchi, A. J.; Wietsma, T. W.; Zhang, C.

    2014-06-18

    Four sets of nonreactive solute transport experiments were conducted with micromodels. Three experiments with one variable, i.e., flow velocity, grain diameter, pore-aspect ratio, and flow-focusing heterogeneity were in each set. The data sets were offered to pore-scale modeling groups to test their numerical simulators. Each set consisted of two learning experiments, for which our results were made available, and one challenge experiment, for which only the experimental description and base input parameters were provided. The experimental results showed a nonlinear dependence of the transverse dispersion coefficient on the Peclet number, a negligible effect of the pore-aspect ratio on transverse mixing, and considerably enhanced mixing due to flow focusing. Five pore-scale models and one continuum-scale model were used to simulate the experiments. Of the pore-scale models, two used a pore-network (PN) method, two others are based on a lattice Boltzmann (LB) approach, and one used a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. Furthermore, we used the learning experiments, by the PN models, to modify the standard perfect mixing approach in pore bodies into approaches to simulate the observed incomplete mixing. The LB and CFD models used the learning experiments to appropriately discretize the spatial grid representations. For the continuum modeling, the required dispersivity input values were estimated based on published nonlinear relations between transverse dispersion coefficients and Peclet number. Comparisons between experimental and numerical results for the four challenge experiments show that all pore-scale models were all able to satisfactorily simulate the experiments. The continuum model underestimated the required dispersivity values, resulting in reduced dispersion. The PN models were able to complete the simulations in a few minutes, whereas the direct models, which account for the micromodel geometry and underlying flow and transport physics, needed

  17. Multiple Transportable Carbohydrates During Exercise: Current Limitations and Directions for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Patrick B

    2015-07-01

    The concept of multiple transportable carbohydrates (MTC) refers to a combination of saccharides that rely on distinct transporters for intestinal absorption. Ingestion of MTC during prolonged exercise has been purported to increase carbohydrate absorption efficiency, increase exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, reduce gastrointestinal (GI) distress, and improve athletic performance when carbohydrate intake is high (>50-60 g·h⁻¹). Although reviews of MTC research have been published previously, a comprehensive literature evaluation underscoring methodological limitations has not been conducted to guide future work. Accordingly, this review outlined the plausible mechanisms of MTC and subsequently evaluated MTC research based on several factors, including participant characteristics, exercise modality, exercise task, treatment formulation, treatment blinding, and pre-exercise nutrition status. A total of 27 articles examining MTC during exercise were identified and reviewed. Overall, ingestion of MTC led to increased exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, reduced GI distress, and improved performance during cycling lasting ≥2.5 hours, particularly when carbohydrate was ingested at ≥1.2 g·min⁻¹. Despite the apparent benefits, several limitations in the literature were apparent, including that only 3 studies used running, only 2 studies were conducted in the field, most participants were fasted, and women and adolescents were underrepresented. In addition, the majority of the studies fed carbohydrate at ≥1.2 g·min⁻¹, which may have inflated levels of GI distress and exaggerated performance decrements with single-saccharide feedings. Based on these limitations, future MTC investigations should consider focusing on running, examining team-based sports, including women and adolescents, conducting experiments under field conditions, examining the modifying effects of pre-exercise nutrition, and using modest feeding protocols (1.0-1.2 g·min⁻¹).

  18. Using full-mission simulation for human factors research in air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlady, Harry W.; Hennessy, Robert W.; Obermayer, Richard; Vreuls, Donald; Murphy, Miles R.

    1988-01-01

    This study examined state-of-the-art mission oriented simulation and its use in human factors research. Guidelines were developed for doing full-mission human factors research on crew member behavior during simulated air transport operations. The existing literature was reviewed. However, interviews with experienced investigators provided the most useful information. The fundamental scientific and practical issues of behavioral research in a simulation environment are discussed. Guidelines are presented for planning, scenario development, and the execution of behavioral research using full-mission simulation in the context of air transport flight operations . Research is recommended to enhance the validity and productivity of full-mission research by: (1) validating the need for high-fidelity simulation of all major elements in the operational environment, (2) improving methods for conducting full-mission research, and (3) examining part-task research on specific problems through the use of vehicles which contain higher levels of abstraction (and lower fidelity) of the operational environment.

  19. Research Experiences for Teachers: How professional development through directed research can revitalize your classroom teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynes, Shelly

    2008-03-01

    Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) is an NSF-funded program that provides high school teachers with the opportunity to do research at select institutions across the country in a wide variety of fields. I performed research at two institutions under this program; The National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank, WV in 2006 and Baylor University in Waco, TX in 2007. My work at NRAO utilized IDL programming to analyze the nonlinearities in the signal processing components of the GBT (Green Bank Telescope). My research at Baylor University required me to write a program in Mathematica to analyze the frequency of pulsation of variable white dwarfs, data that was taken at the Paul and Jane Meyer Observatory in Clifton, TX. I will explain how I have incorporated both research experiences into my courses and how each of these experiences has refocused my teaching.

  20. Transportation and Aging: A Research Agenda for Advancing Safe Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, Anne E.; Molnar, Lisa J.; Eby, David W.; Adler, Geri; Bedard, Michel; Berg-Weger, Marla; Classen, Sherrilene; Foley, Daniel; Horowitz, Amy; Kerschner, Helen; Page, Oliver; Silverstein, Nina M.; Staplin, Loren; Trujillo, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We review what we currently know about older driver safety and mobility, and we highlight important research needs in a number of key areas that hold promise for achieving the safety and mobility goals for the aging baby boomers and future generations of older drivers. Design and Methods: Through the use of a framework for transportation…