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Sample records for experienced intimate partner

  1. The Social Networks of Homeless Youth Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Petering, Robin; Rice, Eric; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey

    2015-01-01

    While there is a growing body of research on intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by the housed youth population, a limited amount is known about IPV experienced by homeless youth. To our knowledge, no previous studies have examined how homeless youths’ experience of IPV is related to their social network, even though the social networks of homeless youth have been shown to be significant indicators of health and mental health. The purpose of this study is to understand the relationship between IPV, gender, and social networks among a sample of 386 homeless youth in Los Angeles, California. Results revealed that one fifth of the sample experienced IPV in the past year. Stratified regression models revealed that IPV was not significantly related to any measure of male social networks; however, females who experienced IPV had more male friends (β = 2.03, SE = 0.89, p < .05) than females who did not experience IPV. Female homeless youth who witnessed family violence during childhood had more male friends (β = 2.75, SE = 1.08, p < .05), but those who experienced sexual abuse during childhood had fewer male friends (β = −2.04, SE = 0.93, p < .05). Although there was no significant difference in the rate of IPV victimization across genders, the context of this abuse appears to be drastically different. The results suggest that females with more male friendships are at greater risk for exposure to IPV. To date, there are few effective youth-targeted IPV prevention programs and none have been shown to be effective with homeless youth. These results provide insight into future program development. PMID:24421071

  2. Depressive Symptoms in Women Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houry, Debra; Kaslow, Nadine J.; Thompson, Martie P.

    2005-01-01

    The study was a cross-sectional examination of African American women positive for intimate partner violence (IPV) who presented to the medical or psychiatric emergency department (ED) for treatment. African American women with a recent history of IPV who presented following an attempted suicide (n = 100) were compared to demographically…

  3. Emotional intimate partner violence experienced by men in same-sex relationships.

    PubMed

    Woodyatt, Cory R; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-10-01

    Intimate partner violence research has focused almost exclusively on physical and sexual intimate partner violence in opposite-sex relationships, paying little attention to the intimate partner violence experienced by men in same-sex relationships. Emerging research focusing on intimate partner violence among male-male couples has focused largely on physical and sexual violence, with little consideration of the unique forms of emotional violence experienced by gay men. Ten focus-group discussions with gay and bisexual men were conducted to examine perceived typologies, antecedents and experiences of emotional violence that occur between male partners. Participants described emotional violence as the most threatening form of intimate partner violence, driven largely by factors including power differentials, gender roles and internalised homophobia. Results indicate that gay and bisexual men perceive emotional intimate partner violence to be commonplace. A better understanding of emotional violence within male-male relationships is vital to inform intimate partner violence prevention efforts and the more accurate measurement of intimate partner violence for gay men. PMID:27109769

  4. Emotional intimate partner violence experienced by men in same-sex relationships.

    PubMed

    Woodyatt, Cory R; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-10-01

    Intimate partner violence research has focused almost exclusively on physical and sexual intimate partner violence in opposite-sex relationships, paying little attention to the intimate partner violence experienced by men in same-sex relationships. Emerging research focusing on intimate partner violence among male-male couples has focused largely on physical and sexual violence, with little consideration of the unique forms of emotional violence experienced by gay men. Ten focus-group discussions with gay and bisexual men were conducted to examine perceived typologies, antecedents and experiences of emotional violence that occur between male partners. Participants described emotional violence as the most threatening form of intimate partner violence, driven largely by factors including power differentials, gender roles and internalised homophobia. Results indicate that gay and bisexual men perceive emotional intimate partner violence to be commonplace. A better understanding of emotional violence within male-male relationships is vital to inform intimate partner violence prevention efforts and the more accurate measurement of intimate partner violence for gay men.

  5. Meaning of INSIGHT participation among women who have experienced intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Zust, Barbara L

    2006-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored the meaning that women with violent partners found in participating in a 20-week group cognitive therapy program called INSIGHT. Through a two-step interview process, ten women who had experienced intimate partner violence described what it meant to them to decide to participate in INSIGHT; what was meaningful about the program; and what influence the program had on their lives. Findings indicated an overarching theme that described a process of Rescuing Self. This study adds support for the utility of interventions, such as INSIGHT, that nurture self-emergence among women who have experienced intimate partner violence. PMID:16849263

  6. Predictors of Preschoolers' Appraisals of Conflict in Families Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laura E.; Howell, Kathryn H.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    2012-01-01

    Factors that may contribute to preschool-aged children's appraisals of their parent's violent conflicts in families experiencing recent intimate partner violence (IPV) were evaluated for 116 mother-child dyads. Mothers and children were interviewed using empirically-validated measures to assess level of violence, maternal and child mental health,…

  7. Exploring Negative Emotion in Women Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence: Shame, Guilt, and PTSD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, J. Gayle; McNiff, Judiann; Clapp, Joshua D.; Olsen, Shira A.; Avery, Megan L.; Hagewood, J. Houston

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the association of shame and guilt with PTSD among women who had experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Sixty-three women were assessed by a research clinic serving the mental health needs of women IPV survivors. Results indicated that shame, guilt-related distress, and guilt-related cognitions showed significant…

  8. Subjective sleep quality in women experiencing intimate partner violence: contributions of situational, psychological, and physiological factors.

    PubMed

    Woods, Stephanie J; Kozachik, Sharon L; Hall, Rosalie J

    2010-02-01

    This study, guided by an adaptation of the theory of unpleasant symptoms, examined the complex relationships of childhood maltreatment, intimate partner violence (IPV), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and physical health symptoms with global sleep quality and disruptive nighttime behaviors. Data were analyzed using covariance structure analysis. A convenience sample of 157 women currently experiencing IPV was recruited from crisis shelters and community agencies. Findings provide empirical support that women concurrently experiencing PTSD, depression, and stress-related physical health symptoms demonstrated poor global sleep quality and frequent disruptive nighttime behaviors. Posttraumatic stress disorder and stress health symptoms functioned as mediators of childhood maltreatment and IPV effects on both global sleep quality and disruptive nighttime behaviors, but depression did not.

  9. Strengthening positive parenting through intervention: evaluating the Moms' Empowerment Program for women experiencing intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Howell, Kathryn H; Miller, Laura E; Lilly, Michelle M; Burlaka, Viktor; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew C; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an evidence-based intervention in changing the positive and negative parenting practices of 120 mothers who experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) in the last 2 years. Mothers assigned to the treatment group participated in a 10-session evidence-based intervention, known as the Moms' Empowerment Program, which targets the mental health problems of women and works to increase access to resources and improve parenting abilities of women exposed to IPV. Participants were interviewed at baseline and immediately following the intervention or waitlist period, representing an elapsed time of approximately 5 weeks. After controlling for relevant demographic variables, violence severity, and mental health, women showed significantly more change in their positive parenting scores if they were in the treatment condition. No significant differences were found between the treatment and comparison groups in their negative parenting practices change scores. These findings suggest that even short-term intervention can improve positive parenting skills and parenting knowledge for women who have experienced partner abuse. PMID:24832954

  10. Elucidating Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Profiles and Their Correlates Among Women Experiencing Bidirectional Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Hellmuth, Julianne C.; Jaquier, Véronique; Swan, Suzanne C.; Sullivan, Tami P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study employed latent class analysis to identify profiles of women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) based on the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Method Self-report data from a sample of 369 women experiencing bidirectional IPV was used. Results A 3-class solution comprising low, moderate, and high PTSD severity profiles best fit the data. Profiles were differentially related to whether IPV victimization was considered traumatic (PTSD criterion A); whether functioning was impaired as a result of PTSD symptoms (PTSD criterion F); whether the woman met full diagnostic criteria for PTSD; depression symptom severity; and severity of psychological, physical, and sexual IPV victimization and use of IPV. An extremely high percentage of women in the high (96%) and moderate (88%) severity classes experienced functional impairment, although many did not meet full diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Conclusions Findings support the need for interventions individually tailored to one’s treatment needs based on the nature of one’s traumatic stressor and the impact of PTSD on daily functioning. PMID:24752965

  11. Nurses' role in caring for women experiencing intimate partner violence in the sri lankan context.

    PubMed

    Guruge, Sepali

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence has short- and long-term physical and mental health consequences. As the largest healthcare workforce globally, nurses are well positioned to care for abused women. However, their role in this regard has not been researched in some countries. This paper is based on a qualitative study that explored how Sri Lankan nurses perceive their role in caring for women who have experienced partner violence. Interviews with 30 nurses who worked in diverse clinical and geographical settings in Sri Lanka revealed that nurses' role involved: identifying abuse, taking care of patients' physical needs, attending to their safety, providing support and advice, and making referrals. Barriers to providing care included lack of knowledge; heavy workload; language barriers; threats to personal safety; nurses' status within the healthcare hierarchy; and lack of communication and collaboration between various stakeholder groups within the healthcare system. Nurses also identified a lack of appropriate services and support within hospitals and in the community. The findings reveal an urgent need for the healthcare system to respond to nurses' educational and training needs and help them function autonomously within multidisciplinary teams when caring for abused women. The findings also point to a need to address institutional barriers including the lack of appropriate services for abused women. PMID:22848842

  12. Perceived risk, severity of abuse, expectations, and needs of women experiencing intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Neill, Karen S; Peterson, Teri

    2014-01-01

    This prospective, descriptive, correlational study examined perceived risk, severity of abuse, expectations, and needs of women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) with arrest of the offender occurring at the time of incident. This study builds on previous research completed on fear and expectations of female victims/survivors of IPV that come to the attention of police, to expand knowledge of women's experiences once they enter the criminal justice system and to create a comprehensive response to this recognized public health problem (). Forty-three women were interviewed regarding the incident, relationship, and experience. Most of the women in this study reported experiencing mild violence and varied forms of threats. There was a significant relationship between the experience of mild violence, serious violence, sexual violence, threats to victims, threats to objects, and others and nonverbal threats with fear of the offender. However, there were no significant correlations between levels of violence or threats with perceived risk of future physical abuse. As the criminal justice response to this crime has changed with the development of legislation and laws aimed at keeping women safe and holding offenders accountable, further research is needed to understand the experience of IPV victims and support an informed response. Forensic nurses are critical interdisciplinary team members in these efforts and play a significant role in providing expertise, sharing of knowledge, and application of evidence fostering victim-centered approaches to addressing IPV.

  13. Factors related to sexual abuse and forced sex in a sample of women experiencing police-involved intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Messing, Jill Theresa; Thaller, Jonel; Bagwell, Meredith

    2014-08-01

    Intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV) is a significant social problem, particularly among women who are concurrently experiencing physical violence in their intimate relationships. This research examined the prevalence and factors associated with IPSV among a sample of women recruited at the scene of police-involved intimate partner violence incidents (N = 432). Within this sample, 43.98 percent of participants reported experiencing IPSV; this includes 17.36 percent who reported sexual abuse and 26.62 percent who reported forced sex. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the factors related to sexual abuse and forced sex, controlling for victim and relationship characteristics. Compared with women not reporting IPSV, women who were sexually abused or forced into sexual intercourse were significantly more likely to experience strangulation, feelings of shame, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Women whose partners had forced sex were more likely to report that they had a child in common with their abusive partner; and that their partner was sexually jealous, had threatened to kill them, had stalked or harassed them, or caused them to have a miscarriage due to abuse. These findings can be used to better inform social work practitioners about the prevalence and nature of IPSV and the associated risk factors, and can assist in routine screening and intervention. PMID:25095631

  14. Intergenerational violence in Burundi: Experienced childhood maltreatment increases the risk of abusive child rearing and intimate partner violence

    PubMed Central

    Crombach, Anselm; Bambonyé, Manassé

    2015-01-01

    Background Experiencing abuse during childhood affects the psychological well-being of individuals throughout their lives and may even influence their offspring by enhancing the likelihood of an intergenerational transmission of violence. Understanding the effects of childhood maltreatment on child-rearing practices and intimate partner violence might be of particular importance to overcome the consequences of violent conflicts in African societies. Objective Using Burundi as an example, we aimed to explore the associations between childhood maltreatment, intimate partner violence, perceived partner intimidation, gender and the probability of violently acting out against one's own children or romantic partner. Methods Amongst a sample of 141 men and 141 women in the capital of Burundi, we identified those who had biological children and those who lived or had lived in relationships. Using culturally appropriate instruments, we enquired about their exposure to childhood maltreatment and partner violence as well as their inclinations to act out violently. Results We found that childhood maltreatment and perceived partner intimidation were strong predictors for the perpetration of violence against children. Moreover, we found that women were more likely to use violence against children if they experienced partner violence and less likely to resort to violence if they felt intimidated. Men were more likely to perpetrate violence against their partner. Childhood maltreatment was again a strong predictor. The more women experienced partner violence, the more they fought back. Conclusions Childhood maltreatment is a strong predictor for domestic violence and has to be addressed to interrupt the cycle of violence in post-conflict countries. PMID:26679146

  15. Comparative analyses of stressors experienced by rural low-income pregnant women experiencing intimate partner violence and those who are not

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Shreya; Levitch, Alison; Ellis, Kathleen; Ball, Katharine; Everett, Kevin; Geden, Elizabeth; Bullock, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Objective To describe the daily lives of rural pregnant women who smoked during pregnancy, with a focus on their sources of stress and the compounding effects of intimate partner violence (IPV). Design A qualitative study using content analysis of research nurse’s telephone logs from a large smoking cessation randomized controlled trial (N = 695) in which 33% of the sample (n = 227) experienced IPV in the past year. Participants Fifty pregnant women, 25 who had experienced IPV in the past year and 25 who had never experienced IPV, were randomly selected from those who received a nurse-delivered telephone intervention for smoking cessation (n = 345). The mean age of the sample was 22 years, and the majority were White and living in a married-like relationship. Results Women experiencing IPV discussed certain stressors significantly more often than non-abused women. These stressors included finances, lack of social support, legal issues, transportation issues, and abuse by the intimate partner and others. Conclusion Health care providers need to recognize that intimate partner violence creates a stress which can compound the stressors of pregnancy and poverty in rural areas. Offering these women a chance to talk about their lives can help them not only to locate necessary resources, but also to break down the barriers of isolation. PMID:18754988

  16. HIV sexual risk behavior among low-income women experiencing intimate partner violence: the role of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, Courtenay E; Hansen, Nathan B; Sullivan, Tami P

    2010-04-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder resulting from intimate partner violence (IPV-related PTSD), drug problems, and alcohol problems were tested as correlates of women's sexual risk behavior. Participants were 136 low-income women experiencing physical violence by a male partner during the past 6 months. Sexual risk behavior was assessed by whether women had unprotected sex with a risky primary partner (i.e., HIV-positive, injection drug user, and/or nonmonogamous), unprotected sex with a risky nonprimary partner (i.e. HIV-positive or unknown status), or traded sex during the past 6 months. Nearly one in five women engaged in these recent sexual risk behaviors. Simultaneous logistic regression results revealed IPV-related PTSD, but not drug or alcohol problems, was significantly associated with sexual risk behavior while controlling for childhood abuse and demographic covariates. Women with IPV-related PTSD had four times greater odds of recent sexual risk behavior compared to women without IPV-related PTSD. Implications for HIV prevention interventions are discussed.

  17. Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Bair-Merritt, Megan H

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: After completing this article, readers should: Know the prevalence of intimate partner violence and childhood exposure to intimate partner violenceIdentify risk factors associated with intimate partner violence.Understand that child maltreatment is significantly more likely in the setting of intimate partner violence.Recognize the impact of intimate partner violence exposure on children's social-emotional and physical health, and on their health care use.Understand strategies for screening and responding to intimate partner violence in the pediatric setting You are seeing a healthy, previously full-term 4 month old for well child care. As a part of your routine social history, you inquire about intimate partner violence (IPV). The infant's mother discloses that her partner frequently yells at her, pushes her and makes her feel afraid. Upon further questioning, you find that she describes the infant as “fussy.” His physical exam is unremarkable, but you note that he missed his two month visit and is behind on his immunizations. How do you proceed? PMID:20360408

  18. Intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Cronholm, Peter F; Fogarty, Colleen T; Ambuel, Bruce; Harrison, Suzanne Leonard

    2011-05-15

    Intimate partner violence is a common source of physical, psychological, and emotional morbidity. In the United States, approximately 1.5 million women and 834,700 men annually are raped and/or physically assaulted by an intimate partner. Women are more likely than men to be injured, sexually assaulted, or murdered by an intimate partner. Studies suggest that one in four women is at lifetime risk. Physicians can use therapeutic relationships with patients to identify intimate partner violence, make brief office interventions, offer continuity of care, and refer them for subspecialty and community-based evaluation, treatment, and advocacy. Primary care physicians are ideally positioned to work from a preventive framework and address at-risk behaviors. Strategies for identifying intimate partner violence include asking relevant questions in patient histories, screening during periodic health examinations, and case finding in patients with suggestive signs or symptoms. Discussion needs to occur confidentially. Physicians should be aware of increased child abuse risk and negative effects on children's health observed in families with intimate partner violence. Physicians also should be familiar with local and national resources available to these patients. PMID:21568249

  19. Intimate partner violence experienced by HIV-infected pregnant women in South Africa: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Molly; Phillips, Tamsin; Zerbe, Allison; McIntyre, James A; Brittain, Kirsty; Petro, Greg; Abrams, Elaine J; Myer, Landon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy may be common in settings where HIV is prevalent but there are few data on IPV in populations of HIV-infected pregnant women in Southern Africa. We examined the prevalence and correlates of IPV among HIV-infected pregnant women. Setting A primary care antenatal clinic in Cape Town, South Africa. Participants 623 consecutive HIV-infected pregnant women initiating lifelong antiretroviral therapy. Measures IPV, depression, substance use and psychological distress were assessed using the 13-item WHO Violence Against Women questionnaire, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Alcohol and Drug Use Disorders Identification Tests (AUDIT/DUDIT) and the Kessler 10 (K-10) scale, respectively. Results The median age in the sample was 28 years, 97% of women reported being in a relationship, and 70% of women reported not discussing and/or agreeing on pregnancy intentions before conception. 21% of women (n=132) reported experiencing ≥1 act of IPV in the past 12 months, including emotional (15%), physical (15%) and sexual violence (2%). Of those reporting any IPV (n=132), 48% reported experiencing 2 or more types. Emotional and physical violence was most prevalent among women aged 18–24 years, while sexual violence was most commonly reported among women aged 25–29 years. Reported IPV was less likely among married women, and women who experienced IPV were more likely to score above threshold for substance use, depression and psychological distress. In addition, women who reported not discussing and/or not agreeing on pregnancy intentions with their partner prior to conception were significantly more likely to experience violence. Conclusions HIV-infected pregnant women in the study reported experiencing multiple forms of IPV. While the impact of IPV on maternal and child health outcomes in the context of HIV infection requires further research attention, IPV screening and support services should be

  20. Subjection, subjectivity, and agency: the power, meaning, and practice of mothering among women experiencing intimate partner abuse.

    PubMed

    Semaan, Ingrid; Jasinski, Jana L; Bubriski-McKenzie, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on in-depth interviews with mothers who were abused by intimate partners, we argue that mothering can be a source of empowerment that helps battered women both care for their children and survive and assert themselves. Women in the study sample described a violation of some aspect of their mothering as the reason they left their partners. However, narrative analysis exposed contradictions in participants' stories, revealing multiple factors that shaped their decisions to leave. Although motherhood was significant for the women who participated in the study, it was not their only motivation for ending their relationships with abusive partners.

  1. The mediating role of avoidance coping between intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization, mental health, and substance abuse among women experiencing bidirectional IPV.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Julianne C; Jaquier, Véronique; Overstreet, Nicole; Swan, Suzanne C; Sullivan, Tami P

    2014-12-15

    Avoidance coping is consistently linked with negative mental health outcomes among women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). This study extended the literature examining the potentially mediating role of avoidance coping strategies on both mental health and substance use problems to a highly generalizable, yet previously unexamined population (i.e., women experiencing bidirectional IPV) and examined multiple forms of IPV (i.e., psychological, physical, and sexual) simultaneously. Among a sample of 362 women experiencing bidirectional IPV, four separate path models were examined, one for each outcome variable. Avoidance coping mediated the relationships between psychological and sexual IPV victimization and the outcomes of PTSD symptom severity, depression severity, and drug use problems. Findings indicate nuanced associations among IPV victimization, avoidance coping, and mental health and substance use outcomes.

  2. Posttraumatic stress and depression symptoms as correlates of deliberate self-harm among community women experiencing intimate partner violence

    PubMed Central

    Jaquier, Véronique; Hellmuth, Julianne C.; Sullivan, Tami P.

    2012-01-01

    Deliberate self-harm (DSH) among women in the general population is correlated separately with posttraumatic stress, depression, and abuse during childhood and adulthood. The prevalence of these DSH correlates is particularly high among women exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV), yet few studies have examined DSH among this high-risk population and none have examined these correlates simultaneously. 212 IPV-victimized women in the community participated in a 2-hour retrospective interview. One-third reported current or past DSH. Discriminant analysis was used to examine which posttraumatic stress and depression symptoms and types of current IPV and childhood abuse were uniquely associated with current DSH. Findings show that women who currently use DSH reported greater severity of posttraumatic stress numbing symptoms and more severe sexual IPV compared to women who used DSH only in the past. Examining factors that are associated with women’s current DSH in this population is critical so that a focus on DSH can be integrated into the treatment plans of women who are receiving mental health care, but also so that women who are not receiving such care can be referred to adequate mental health services PMID:23040795

  3. Increased risk of miscarriage among women experiencing physical or sexual intimate partner violence during pregnancy in Guatemala City, Guatemala: cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Violence against women by their male intimate partners (IPV) during pregnancy may lead to negative pregnancy outcomes. We examined the role of IPV as a potential risk factor for miscarriage in Guatemala. Our objectives were: (1) To describe the magnitude and pattern of verbal, physical and sexual violence by male intimate partners in the last 12 months (IPV) in a sample of pregnant Guatemalans; (2) To evaluate the influence of physical or sexual IPV on miscarriage as a pregnancy outcome. Methods All pregnant women reporting to the maternity of a major tertiary care public hospital in Guatemala City from June 1st to September 30th, 2006 were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. The admitting physician assessed occurrence of miscarriage, defined as involuntary pregnancy loss up to and including 28 weeks gestation. Data on IPV, social and demographic characteristics, risk behaviours, and medical history were collected by interviewer-administered questionnaire. Laboratory testing was performed for HIV and syphilis. The relationship between IPV and miscarriage was assessed through multivariable logistic regression. Results IPV affected 18% of the 1897 pregnant Guatemalan women aged 15-47 in this sample. Verbal IPV was most common (16%), followed by physical (10%) and sexual (3%) victimisation. Different forms of IPV were often co-prevalent. Miscarriage was experienced by 10% of the sample (n = 190). After adjustment for potentially confounding factors, physical or sexual victimisation by a male intimate partner in the last 12 months was significantly associated with miscarriage (ORadj 1.1 to 2.8). Results were robust under a range of analytic assumptions. Conclusions Physical and sexual IPV is associated with miscarriage in this Guatemalan facility-based sample. Results cohere well with findings from population-based surveys. IPV should be recognised as a potential cause of miscarriage. Reproductive health services should be used to screen

  4. Exploring risk of experiencing intimate partner violence after HIV infection: a qualitative study among women with HIV attending postnatal services in Swaziland

    PubMed Central

    Mulrenan, Claire; Colombini, Manuela; Kikuvi, Joshua; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore risks of experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) after HIV infection among women with HIV in a postnatal care setting in Swaziland. Design A qualitative semistructured in-depth interview study, using thematic analysis with deductive and inductive coding, of IPV experiences after HIV infection extracted from service-integration interview transcripts. Setting Swaziland. Participants 19 women with HIV, aged 18–44, were purposively sampled for an in-depth interview about their experiences of services, HIV and IPV from a quantitative postnatal cohort participating in an evaluation of HIV and reproductive health services integration in Swaziland. Results Results indicated that women were at risk of experiencing IPV after HIV infection, with 9 of 19 disclosing experiences of physical violence and/or coercive control post-HIV. IPV was initiated through two key pathways: (1) acute interpersonal triggers (eg, status disclosure, mother-to-child transmission of HIV) and (2) chronic normative tensions (eg, fertility intentions, initiating contraceptives). Conclusions The results highlight a need to mitigate the risk of IPV for women with HIV in shorter and longer terms in Swaziland. While broader changes are needed to resolve gender disparities, practical steps can be institutionalised within health facilities to reduce, or avoid increasing, IPV pathways for women with HIV. These might include mutual disclosure between partners, greater engagement of Swazi males with HIV services, and promoting positive masculinities that support and protect women. Trial registration number NCT01694862. PMID:25976760

  5. Intimate Partner Violence. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines intimate partner violence (IPV) as violence between two people in a close relationship, including current and former spouses and dating partners. IPV occurs on a continuum from a single episode to ongoing battering and can include physical violence, sexual violence, threats, emotional…

  6. Service Utilization, Perceived Changes of Self, and Life Satisfaction among Women Who Experienced Intimate Partner Abuse: The Mediation Effect of Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Li-yu

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the growth experiences of women abused by their intimate partner, specifically focusing on the associations between social services and empowerment, perceived changes of self, and life satisfaction. The potential effects of demographic variables, social support, coping, and experience of partner abuse were also explored. A…

  7. Community-based PTSD treatment for ethnically diverse women who experienced intimate partner violence: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ursula A; Pich, Kourou

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) Determine the feasibility of a community-based intervention for Latinas with PTSD who experienced IPV; (2) Explore the intervention effectiveness in reducing PTSD and improving quality of life, social support and self-efficacy. This was a feasibility study, using intervention pre-test/post-test qualitative and quantitative data. The experience of living through and surviving IPV was far more important than ethnicity in cultural identity. Significant reductions in PTSD and MDD and increased self-efficacy were sustained 6-months post-intervention. Culturally relevant mental health IPV interventions can be feasible and appropriate across ethnic groups. PMID:25426746

  8. Pathways and trajectories linking housing instability and poor health among low-income women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV): Toward a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Daoud, Nihaya; Matheson, Flora I; Pedersen, Cheryl; Hamilton-Wright, Sarah; Minh, Anita; Zhang, Janice; O'Campo, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    We used grounded theory to understand pathways and trajectories to housing instability (HI) and poor health among low-income women with experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV). We conducted in-depth interviews during 2010-11 with forty-one women (ages 18-45 years) living in Ontario, Canada. All women reported depressive symptoms in combination with other health problems. In addition to the direct pathway of IPV to poor health, thematic analysis revealed an indirect multi-tiered pathway with complex trajectories among IPV, HI, and poor health. These trajectories included material HI (homelessness, high mobility, evictions, problems paying rent, hiding, and landlord discrimination), psychological HI (feeling unsafe, low self-esteem, and poor control), and social trajectories (financial problems, loss of employment, income, or social networks, and leaving school). These trajectories elevated stress and decreased self-care (unhealthy behaviors, substance abuse, and reduced medical compliance) and exacerbated poor health already compromised by IPV. Depending on her specific context, each woman experienced these pathways and trajectories differently. Moreover, the women's experiences differed across three time periods: before, immediately after, and long after leaving an abusive relationship. Finally, we found that for these women, achieving stable housing was crucial for stabilizing their health. PMID:26358378

  9. ‘My husband would not help me, so I was driving over there’: older rural women experiencing breast cancer with a non-supportive intimate partner

    PubMed Central

    Sawin, EM

    2011-01-01

    Introduction This article describes the experiences of older rural women diagnosed with breast cancer while in a non-supportive, and sometimes abusive, intimate relationship. Breast cancer is primarily a disease of older women, and in the USA, a higher percentage of rural women are more than 65 years of age compared with other geographical areas. Many women identify their intimate partner as an important source of support during cancer diagnosis and recovery, but little is known about how women deal with breast cancer while in a relationship self-described as difficult. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of nine rural women from community settings in western Virginia and West Virginia. Participants ranged in age from 55 to 84 years at the time of interview (mean 69 years). Age at diagnosis ranged from 53 to 71 years (mean 59.2). Relationship length ranged from 1 to 55 years (mean 28.5). Time between interview and diagnosis ranged from 1 to 31 years (mean 9.8). All were in heterosexual relationships. Breast cancer stage ranged from I to III. Data were analyzed using hermeneutic phenomenological analysis. Results Several themes emerged related to the experience of breast cancer with a non-supportive intimate partner in a rural setting. The themes were: driving, gossip, rural location as therapeutic, and community support. Conclusions Older rural women operating without the support of their intimate partner present to oncology treatment with unique challenges, particularly related to distance, financial stress, and sometimes heightened relationship stress. Rural women also reported rural strengths that aided them in their recovery. These findings indicate a need for complete assessments of social network and quality of intimate partner support in the rural oncology care setting. PMID:21142399

  10. Intimate partner violence and mental health in Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Latin America has among the highest rates of intimate partner violence. While there is increasing evidence that intimate partner violence is associated with mental health problems, there is little such research for developing countries. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between Bolivian women’s experiences with physical, psychological, and sexual intimate partner violence and mental health outcomes. Methods This study analyzes data from the 2008 Bolivia Demographic and Health Survey. 10,119 married or cohabiting women ages 15–49 are included in the analysis. Probit regression models are used to assess the association between intimate partner violence and mental health, after controlling for other demographic factors and partner characteristics. The questionnaire uses selected questions from the SRQ-20 to measure symptoms of mental health problems. Results Intimate partner violence is common in Bolivia, with 47% of women experiencing some type of spousal abuse in the 12 months before the survey. Women exposed to physical spousal violence in the past year are more likely to experience symptoms of depression, anxiety, psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, and psychotic disorders, after controlling for other demographic and partner characteristics. Women who experienced sexual abuse by a partner are most likely to suffer from all mental health issues. Psychological abuse is also associated with an increased risk of experiencing symptoms of depression, anxiety, and psychogenic seizures. Women who experienced only psychological abuse report mental health problems similar to those who were physically abused. Conclusion This study demonstrates an urgent need for research on the prevalence and health consequences of psychological abuse in developing countries. Our findings highlight the need for mental health services for victims of intimate partner violence. Because physical and psychological violence are often experienced concurrently

  11. Help-seeking patterns among women experiencing intimate partner violence: do they forgo the criminal justice system if their adjudication wishes are not met?

    PubMed

    Cerulli, Catherine; Kothari, Catherine; Dichter, Melissa; Marcus, Steve; Kim, Tae Kuen; Wiley, Jim; Rhodes, Karin V

    2015-01-01

    Following a criminal case disposition, an intimate partner violence (IPV) victim's willingness to seek future police and prosecutorial assistance may depend on her prior experiences within the system. This longitudinal study examines the relationship between IPV victims' future help-seeking based on past experiences. We hypothesized women would return to the criminal justice system if their adjudication wishes corresponded with prosecutors' actions. Contrary to the hypothesis, results suggest women return to the criminal system and other venues even if prosecutors' actions do not correspond to their earlier stated wishes. This has important policy implications given pro-prosecution protocols that encourage adjudication regardless of a woman's participation.

  12. Putting intimate partner violence on your radar.

    PubMed

    Collett, DeShana; Bennett, Tamara

    2015-10-01

    Intimate partner violence is a preventable health problem that affects more than 12 million people in the United States each year. Those affected can be of any sex, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, religion, education level, or sexual orientation. All clinicians should screen for intimate partner violence as part of the routine history and physical examination. This article describes the dynamics of intimate partner violence and the 2013 screening guidelines from the US Preventive Services Task Force. PMID:26352870

  13. Husband/Partner Intoxication and Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Kerridge, Bradley T; Tran, Phu

    2016-09-01

    This study examined husband/partner intoxication and experience with physical, sexual, and emotional intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) using data derived from a nationally representative survey conducted in the Philippines in 2013. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between intoxication and 3 different types of intimate partner violence against women. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine intoxication and severity of violence. In this sample, 28.8% of women reported experiencing any form of intimate partner violence and 92.9% of women reported their partner being intoxicated at least sometimes. Intoxication was significantly associated with all 3 types of intimate partner violence, while the odds of experiencing one form of IPVAW versus no form of IPVAW and 2 forms of IPVAW versus 1 form of IPVAW was greater among women reporting frequency of husband/partner intoxication as often.

  14. Intimate partner violence against deaf female college students.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Melissa L; Leigh, Irene W

    2011-07-01

    It has been estimated that roughly 25% of all Deaf women in the United States are victims of intimate partner violence (Abused Deaf Women's Advocacy Services [ADWAS]), a figure similar to annual prevalence rates of 16% to 30% for intimate partners in the general population. One goal of the present study was to ascertain the prevalence of intimate partner violence victimization in a sample of Deaf female college students. When comparing the prevalence of physical assault, psychological aggression, and sexual coercion victimization to hearing female undergraduates, the current sample was approximately two times as likely to have experienced victimization in the past year. PMID:21676984

  15. Desistance From Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Erica; Brown, Sarah; Sleath, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an international issue that social and criminal justice workers will encounter regularly. It has been identified that men can, and do stop using, or desist from, IPV although it is unclear how this process of change develops. This article introduces a conceptual model to outline how the process of desistance evolves and what it encompasses. Using thematic analysis of interview data from partner-violent men, survivors, and treatment facilitators, the resulting model demonstrates that the process of change is a dynamic one where men’s use of, and cessation from, violence needs to be understood within the context of each individual’s life. Three global themes were developed: (a) lifestyle behaviors (violent): what is happening in the men’s lives when they use violence; (b) catalysts for change: the triggers and transitions required to initiate the process of change; and (c) lifestyle behaviors (non-violent): what is different in the men’s lives when they have desisted from IPV. The purpose of this model is to offer a framework for service providers to assist them to manage the process of change in partner-violent men. PMID:25315483

  16. Trauma Symptoms among Infants Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogat, G. Anne; DeJonghe, Erika; Levendosky, Alytia A.; Davidson, William S.; von Eye, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether infants have a traumatic response to intimate partner violence (male violence toward their female partner; IPV) experienced by their mothers, two questions were explored: (1) Is the number of infant trauma symptoms related to the infant's temperament and the mother's mental health? (2) Does severity of violence…

  17. Perpetration and Victimization of Intimate Partner Aggression Among Rural Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Schwab Reese, Laura M.; Harland, Karisa; Smithart, Kelsey

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intimate partner aggression is a leading cause of injury among women of child-bearing age. Research suggests that pregnancy and the postpartum period are times of increased vulnerability to aggression. Since rural women are at an increased risk of intimate partner aggression, research is needed to examine the role of pregnancy and the presence of children on intimate partner aggression among this vulnerable population. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between young children and intimate partner aggression victimization and perpetration among a rural sample. This analysis utilized data from biologic females of child-bearing age from the Keokuk County Rural Health Study, a cohort study of over 1,000 rural families conducted from 1994 to 2011. Crude and adjusted logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between having a young child and experiencing four forms of intimate partner aggression: verbal aggression perpetration, verbal aggression victimization, physical aggression perpetration, and physical aggression victimization. Having young children was significantly associated with increased odds of perpetrating verbal aggression but not victimization of verbal aggression or perpetration and victimization of physical aggression. This significant relationship persisted after adjustment for education, employment, or location of residence but not age or marital status. The increased odds of perpetrating verbal aggression among mothers in a rural area highlight the need for interventions designed for rural parents. One method of reducing intimate partner aggression may be to incorporate intimate partner aggression prevention activities into existing child abuse intervention activities.

  18. Intimate Partner Violence during Pregnancy and Mothers' Child Abuse Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casanueva, Cecilia E.; Martin, Sandra L.

    2007-01-01

    This research examines whether women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy have a higher child abuse potential than women who have not experienced IPV. Data were analyzed from a longitudinal investigation of IPV during pregnancy. This study recruited 88 pregnant women during prenatal care and followed them for 1 1/2…

  19. Service utilization, perceived changes of self, and life satisfaction among women who experienced intimate partner abuse: the mediation effect of empowerment.

    PubMed

    Song, Li-Yu

    2012-04-01

    This study explored the growth experiences of women abused by their intimate partner, specifically focusing on the associations between social services and empowerment, perceived changes of self, and life satisfaction. The potential effects of demographic variables, social support, coping, and experience of partner abuse were also explored. A survey study was conducted through the collaboration of social workers in the Centers of Prevention and Intervention for Domestic Violence and private sectors in Taiwan. Through contact by their social workers, 191 participants completed the questionnaires. The results revealed that the participants had growth mainly in their psychological and interpersonal domains. The independent variables in the regression model explained 45.3% (adjusted) variance in perceived changes of self. In addition to empowerment and negative impact of violence, intensity of contact and professional relationship were two important service variables that directly and significantly correlated with perceived changes of self. A significant amount of variance (adjusted R² = .556) in life satisfaction could be explained by the independent variables. Social support and empowerment directly correlated with life satisfaction. The findings also supported the mediation effect of empowerment. Seven variables (e.g., social support, coping method, and professional relationship) indirectly associated with perceived changes of self and life satisfaction through empowerment.

  20. Intimate partner violence in rural environments.

    PubMed

    Annan, Sandra L

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to review nursing and other research related to rural intimate partner violence. The author presents a review of research in the area of intimate partner violence in the rural setting. The findings indicate that there is limited nursing research related to intimate partner violence in rural communities. The review describes the prevalence and types of abuse, the rural service issues, and the consequences of battering. The chapter also discusses the health implications of violence in the rural setting. The author concludes with a presentation of a research agenda for nursing research in rural environments.

  1. Identifying signs of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Ali, Parveen; McGarry, Julie; Dhingra, Katie

    2016-02-01

    Intimate partner violence is a major public health and social problem that affects people everywhere. Nurses can play an important role in identifying victims who present to healthcare settings with domestic abuse-related health issues. Evidence suggests that most women who present to emergency departments have experienced domestic abuse at some point in their lives, but that only 5% are identified by healthcare professionals. To identify and respond to victims effectively, emergency nurses must understand domestic abuse and its associated complexities. This article provides an overview of these issues, including the different types of abuse, and their prevalence, causes and effects on health. The article also explores how emergency nurses can identify and manage the effects of violence at work. PMID:26853673

  2. Intimate Partner Violence in Older Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonomi, Amy E.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Reid, Robert J.; Carrell, David; Fishman, Paul A.; Rivara, Frederick P.; Thompson, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We describe the prevalence, types, duration, frequency, and severity of intimate partner violence ("partner violence") in older women. Design and Methods: We randomly sampled a total of 370 English-speaking women (65 years of age and older) from a health care system to participate in a cross-sectional telephone interview. Using 5…

  3. Childhood Bullying Involvement and Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Nerissa S.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lozano, Paula; Rivara, Frederick P.; Hill, Karl G.; Hawkins, J. David

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Our objectives with this study were to describe the prevalence of bullying involvement (ie, bullying and victimization) among children from a multigenerational study and to examine the relationship of these childhood behaviors and exposure to intimate partner violence. METHODS A community-based cohort of 112 children (aged 6 to 13 years) was asked to self-report on physical, verbal, and relational types of bullying and victimization experienced in the past year. Parents reported on their child’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors during the previous 6 months using items from Achenbach’s Child Behavior Checklist. The frequency of parental experiences of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization at 2 time points during the preceding 5 years was measured using Conflict Tactics Scale items. The association of intimate partner violence and parent-reported child behavioral problems was examined, followed by exposure to intimate partner violence and child-reported bullying or victimization. Parental risk factors (eg, race/ethnicity, education, problem drinking) that predispose to intimate partner violence were controlled for using propensity score statistical modeling. RESULTS Eighty-two (73.2%) children reported being victimized by peers, and 38 (33.9%) children reported bullying behaviors in the past year. More reports came from girls than from boys (55% for victimization and 61% for bullying). Almost all (97%) child bullies were also victims themselves. Intimate partner violence was reported by parent respondents in 53 (50.5%) households at any or both of the 2 time points. Exposure to intimate partner violence was not associated with child-reported relational bullying behaviors or victimization by peers, However, intimate partner violence–exposed children were at increased risk for problematic levels of externalizing behavior/physical aggression and internalizing behaviors. CONCLUSIONS In our sample, children who were 6 to 13

  4. Intimate Partner Violence among West African Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    AKINSULURE-SMITH, ADEYINKA M.; CHU, TRACY; KEATLEY, EVA; RASMUSSEN, ANDREW

    2013-01-01

    Although the number of African immigrants arriving to the United States has increased significantly, there has been little investigation regarding their experiences of intimate partner violence or coping strategies. This study used focus groups and individual interviews to explore intimate partner violence among 32 heterosexual West African immigrants. Results suggest that although cultural expectations influence their coping strategies, West African–born men and women face different realities, with women reporting multiple instances of abuse and a sense of frustration with the existing options for assistance. Although participants discussed multilevel support structures within the immediate West African community to address intimate partner violence, all of these options maintained a gender hierarchy, leaving women dissatisfied. Challenges and barriers to partner violence resolution and coping strategies are identified. Results are examined in terms of their implications for addressing the needs of this underserved population. Implications for future research and services are discussed and highlighted. PMID:23730146

  5. Frequency and correlates of intimate partner violence by type: physical, sexual, and psychological battering.

    PubMed Central

    Coker, A L; Smith, P H; McKeown, R E; King, M J

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study estimated the frequency and correlates of intimate partner violence by type (physical, sexual, battering, or emotional abuse) among women seeking primary health care. METHODS: Women aged 18 to 65 years who attended family practice clinics in 1997 and 1998 took part. Participation included a brief in-clinic survey assessing intimate partner violence. Multiple polytomous logistic regression was used to assess correlates of partner violence by type. RESULTS: Of 1401 eligible women surveyed, 772 (55.1%) had experienced some type of intimate partner violence in a current, most recent, or past intimate relationship with a male partner; 20.2% were currently experiencing intimate partner violence. Among those who had experienced partner violence in any relationship, 77.3% experienced physical or sexual violence, and 22.7% experienced nonphysical abuse. Alcohol and/or drug abuse by the male partner was the strongest correlate of violence. CONCLUSIONS: Partner substance abuse and intimate partner violence in the woman's family of origin were strong risk factors for experiencing violence. Efforts to universally screen for partner violence and to effectively intervene to reduce the impact of such violence on women's lives must be a public health priority. PMID:10754969

  6. [Typology of incarcerated intimate partner aggressors].

    PubMed

    Loinaz, Ismael; Echeburúa, Enrique; Torrubia, Rafael

    2010-02-01

    Typology of incarcerated intimate partner aggressors. People who engage in intimate partner violence do not constitute a homogeneous group. Many studies in the Anglo-Saxon countries back the possibility of differentiating several subtypes of aggressors, but there are differences among them. One of the main applications of these typologies is the adaptation of the treatments to the subjects' characteristics. The aim of the present pilot study was to empirically establish a typology of batterers in Spain. The sample of 50 convicted violent intimate partner offenders was obtained from the Brians-2 penitentiary (Barcelona). Self-esteem, anger, cognitive distortions, and personality disorders were evaluated, as well as the frequency and type of violence. The results suggest the existence of two subtypes, distinguishable on the basis of the predictive dimensions, and so, partially confirm the typological proposals.

  7. Intimate partner aggression and women's work outcomes.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Manon Mireille; Barling, Julian; Turner, Nick

    2014-10-01

    Using conservation of resources theory, we examined the relationship between intimate partner aggression enacted against heterosexual women and 3 types of work-related outcomes for these women: withdrawal while at work (i.e., cognitive distraction, work neglect), withdrawal from work (i.e., partial absenteeism, intentions to quit), and performance. In Study 1, we compared withdrawal both at and from work across 3 clinically categorized groups of women (n = 50), showing that experiencing physical aggression is related to higher work neglect. We replicated and extended these findings in Study 2 using a community sample of employed women (n = 249) by considering the incremental variance explained by both physical aggression and psychological aggression on these same outcomes. Results showed that physical aggression predicted higher levels of withdrawal both at and from work, with psychological aggression predicting additional variance in partial absenteeism over and above the effects of physical aggression. Study 3 extended the model to include academic performance as an outcome in a sample of female college students (n = 122) in dating relationships. Controlling for the women's conscientiousness, psychological aggression predicted lower academic performance after accounting for the effects of physical aggression. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these results, as well as directions for future research. PMID:25068818

  8. Subtyping Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Katherine A.; Westen, Drew

    2011-01-01

    Domestic violence is a serious problem with far-reaching consequences. This study applies a new methodology to derive subtypes of male perpetrators of intimate partner violence. As part of a larger National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded study, a national sample of randomly selected psychologists and psychiatrists describe 188 adult male…

  9. Gender Symmetry, Sexism, and Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Christopher T.; Swan, Suzanne C.; Raghavan, Chitra

    2009-01-01

    This study of a predominantly Hispanic sample of 92 male and 140 female college students examines both gender symmetry in intimate partner violence (IPV) and inconsistent relationships found in previous studies between sexist attitudes and IPV. Results indicate that although comparable numbers of men and women perpetrate and are victimized in…

  10. Assessing Children's Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knutson, John F.; Lawrence, Erika; Taber, Sarah M.; Bank, Lew; DeGarmo, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Child exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) is widely acknowledged as a threat to the psycho-social and academic well-being of children. Unfortunately, as reflected in the literature, the specific link between such exposure and childhood outcomes is ambiguous. Based on a review of the literature, this article suggests that this state of…

  11. Physical Health Effects of Intimate Partner Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillito, Carrie LeFevre

    2012-01-01

    Although intimate partner violence has been recognized as both a social problem and health issue, the extent to which it is a health issue for both males and females in the general population is largely unknown. This longitudinal research uses data from the National Survey of Family and Households (1987-2003). Random effects logistic regression…

  12. Partnering with Community-Based Organizations to Reduce Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Tina; Wagman, Jennifer; Hernandez, Rebecca; Yragui, Nan; Hernandez-Valdovinos, Noelia; Dahlstrom, Marie; Glass, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Latinas experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) often avoid formal resources due to fear, distrust, and cultural and language barriers, yet little research addresses culturally appropriate interventions for abused Latinas. To develop effective interventions, we must include abused Latinas' voices in research and collaborate with the…

  13. National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: 2010 Highlights

    MedlinePlus

    National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey CDC’s National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) is an ongoing, nationally-representative telephone survey that collects detailed information ...

  14. Women's expectations of healthcare professionals in case of intimate partner violence in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Djikanovic, Bosiljka; Lo Fo Wong, Sylvie; Stevanovic, Snezana; Celik, Halime; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine

    2011-11-01

    Women who have experienced intimate partner violence use health care services more often than non-abused women, but it is unclear what they expect from physicians in relation to their intimate partner violence experience. In this study the authors explored whether women in Serbia expect physicians to help them after having experienced intimate partner violence, what kind of help the women expected, and if none, why none is expected. The authors of this study conducted structured interviews with 120 women who visited six primary healthcare centres. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, while qualitative data were analyzed applying content analyses. The majority of women (81.7%) expected healthcare professionals to help them in the event of intimate partner violence, mainly through giving advice, information, contacting other institutions, services, and providing understanding and support. Fewer women expected help in the form of documenting violence and contacting police. Only a minority (8.3%) did not expect help, noting that intimate partner violence is beyond the scope of healthcare professionals' interest or competencies, and/or that violence was a private problem, while 10% were unsure about the role of physicians in the case of intimate partner violence. The majority of women in this study expected help with intimate partner violence. Physicians should be aware of these expectations and how to provide support to women experiencing intimate partner violence.

  15. Mental Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Mechanic, Mindy B.; Weaver, Terri L.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    Battered women are exposed to multiple forms of intimate partner abuse. This article explores the independent contributions of physical violence, sexual coercion, psychological abuse, and stalking on symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among a sample of 413 severely battered, help-seeking women. The authors test the unique effects of psychological abuse and stalking on mental health outcomes, after controlling for physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Mean scores for the sample fall into the moderate to severe range for PTSD and within the moderate category for depression scores. Hierarchical regressions test the unique effects of stalking and psychological abuse, after controlling for physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Psychological abuse and stalking contribute uniquely to the prediction of PTSD and depression symptoms, even after controlling for the effects of physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Results highlight the importance of examining multiple dimensions of intimate partner abuse. PMID:18535306

  16. Understanding intimate partner violence and its correlates

    PubMed Central

    Ramadugu, Shashikumar; Jayaram, Prasad V.; Srivastava, Kalpana; Chatterjee, Kaushik; Madhusudan, T.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study assessed intimate partner violence (IPV) and alcohol use in an urban population in Pune, India. The prevalence of IPV and alcohol use was assessed along with the correlation of IPV with alcohol and other variables. Materials and Methods: The study was cross-sectional, questionnaire-based. The materials used were the hurt insult threaten scream (HITS) scale, the alcohol use disorders identification test, and a brief psychosocial questionnaire. Systematic random sampling was done on the target population. Regression analysis of various factors in relation to HITS score was done. Results: Sample size (n) was 318 individuals. Prevalence of IPV was found to be 16% and the victims were mostly women. Prevalence of alcohol use was 44%, of which 8.9% were harmful users. No female subjects consumed alcohol, but 94% were aware of their husband's alcohol consumption. No significant correlation was found between IPV and education (P = 0.220) or income of women (P = 0.250). Alcohol consumption by males was a significant risk factor for women experiencing IPV (σ = +0.524; P< 0.001). Regression analysis also revealed that increasing marital age (P = 0.019) and financial support from in-laws (P = 0.040) were significantly protective. Conclusion: IPV prevalence was less than the national average for India, but the majority of victims was women. The most common type of IPV was verbal. Alcohol use prevalence was higher than the national average, but harmful use was lower. Alcohol use is a significant risk factor for IPV. Education and income of women were not significantly protective against IPV but increased age at marriage and support from in-laws were. PMID:27212823

  17. Intimate partner violence within law enforcement families.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Anita S; Lo, Celia C

    2011-04-01

    Using data from the Baltimore Police Stress and Domestic Violence study, the authors examined how exposure to stressful events on the job affects law enforcement employees' physical aggression toward domestic partners, evaluating the role of negative emotions and authoritarian spillover in mediating the impact of such task-related stress. The authors consulted general strain theory and angry aggression theory to explain domestic violence in police families. Significant positive effects on physical aggression toward an intimate partner were found for variables measuring authoritarian spillover and negative emotions. However, these effects were different for different gender and racial groups. PMID:20587471

  18. Predictors of intimate partner problem-related suicides among suicide decedents in Kentucky

    PubMed Central

    Comiford, Ashley L.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Chesnut, Lorie; Brown, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Suicide is the 10th leading cause of death in the United States. Furthermore, intimate partner problems are amid the top precipitating circumstances among suicide decedents. The aim of this study was to determine circumstantial associations of intimate partner problem-related suicides in suicide decedents in Kentucky. Methods: All suicides that were reported to the Kentucky Violent Death Reporting System between 2005 and 2012 were eligible for this study. Multiple logistic regression was used to explore predictors (precipitating health-related problems, life stressors, and criminal/legal issues) of intimate partner problem-related suicides. Results: Of the 4,754 suicides, included in this study, approximately 17% had intimate partner problems prior to suicide. In the adjusted analysis, mental health issues, alcohol problems, history of suicides attempts, suicides precipitated by another crime, and other legal problems increased the odds of having an intimate partner-related suicide. However, having physical health problems, prior to the suicide, decreased the odds of intimate partner-related suicide. Conclusions: These results provide insight for the development of suicide interventions for individuals with intimate partner problems by targeting risk factors that are prevalent among this population. Moreover, these results may help marriage/relationship and/or family/divorce court representatives identify individuals with intimate partner problems more at risk for suicide and alleviate the influence these suicide risk factors have on individuals experiencing Intimate partner problems. PMID:27092956

  19. Prevalence and correlates of intimate partner physical violence against women in Kofale District, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dibaba, Yohannes

    2008-01-01

    Using a community-based cross-sectional survey, this study attempted to determine the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner physical violence against women in Kofale District, Ethiopia. The study showed that 52.6% of the respondents had experienced intimate partner physical violence in their lifetime and 30.2% in the 12 months before the survey. Witnessing family violence as a child, education, place of residence, parity, duration of the marriage, a tradition of marriage arrangement and the partners' use of alcohol were associated with intimate partner physical violence. PMID:18302872

  20. Intimate partner violence after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Roumayne Fernandes Vieira; Araújo, Maria Alix Leite; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Reis, Cláudia Bastos Silveira; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fortaleza, CE, Northeastern Brazil, in 2012 and involved 221 individuals (40.3% male and 59.7% female) attended to at reference health care units for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Data were collected using a questionnaire applied during interviews with each participant. A multivariate analysis with a logistic regression model was conducted using the stepwise technique. Only the variables with a p value < 0.05 were included in the adjusted analysis. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used as the measure of effect. RESULTS A total of 30.3% of the participants reported experiencing some type of violence (27.6%, psychological; 5.9%, physical; and 7.2%, sexual) after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease. In the multivariate analysis adjusted to assess intimate partner violence after the revelation of the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases, the following variables remained statistically significant: extramarital relations (OR = 3.72; 95%CI 1.91;7.26; p = 0.000), alcohol consumption by the partner (OR = 2.16; 95%CI 1.08;4.33; p = 0.026), history of violence prior to diagnosis (OR = 2.87; 95%CI 1.44;5.69; p = 0.003), and fear of disclosing the diagnosis to the partner (OR = 2.66; 95%CI 1.32;5.32; p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS Individuals who had extramarital relations, experienced violence prior to the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease, feared disclosing the diagnosis to the partner, and those whose partner consumed alcohol had an increased likelihood of suffering violence. The high prevalence of intimate partner violence suggests that this population is vulnerable and therefore intervention efforts should be directed to them. Referral health care services for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases can be strategic

  1. Intimate partner violence after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Roumayne Fernandes Vieira; Araújo, Maria Alix Leite; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Reis, Cláudia Bastos Silveira; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fortaleza, CE, Northeastern Brazil, in 2012 and involved 221 individuals (40.3% male and 59.7% female) attended to at reference health care units for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Data were collected using a questionnaire applied during interviews with each participant. A multivariate analysis with a logistic regression model was conducted using the stepwise technique. Only the variables with a p value < 0.05 were included in the adjusted analysis. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used as the measure of effect. RESULTS A total of 30.3% of the participants reported experiencing some type of violence (27.6%, psychological; 5.9%, physical; and 7.2%, sexual) after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease. In the multivariate analysis adjusted to assess intimate partner violence after the revelation of the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases, the following variables remained statistically significant: extramarital relations (OR = 3.72; 95%CI 1.91;7.26; p = 0.000), alcohol consumption by the partner (OR = 2.16; 95%CI 1.08;4.33; p = 0.026), history of violence prior to diagnosis (OR = 2.87; 95%CI 1.44;5.69; p = 0.003), and fear of disclosing the diagnosis to the partner (OR = 2.66; 95%CI 1.32;5.32; p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS Individuals who had extramarital relations, experienced violence prior to the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease, feared disclosing the diagnosis to the partner, and those whose partner consumed alcohol had an increased likelihood of suffering violence. The high prevalence of intimate partner violence suggests that this population is vulnerable and therefore intervention efforts should be directed to them. Referral health care services for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases can be strategic

  2. ASSOCIATON BETWEEN INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE AND IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME: A POPULATION-BASED STUDY IN NICARAGUA

    PubMed Central

    Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Morgan, Douglas; Peña, Rodolfo; Cortes, Loreto; Martin, Christopher F.; Valladares, Eliette

    2010-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a disabling functional gastrointestinal disorder, which serves as a model for abdominal pain syndromes. An association between intimate partner violence and IBS has been shown among Caucasian women in the industrialized world. To determine whether this relationship transcends cultural boundaries, we conducted a population-based, cross-sectional survey in Nicaragua, using the innovative Health and Demographic Surveillance System in the León province. Women who had experienced physical intimate partner violence had significantly increased risk of IBS (OR 2.08, 95% CI, 1.35, 3.21), as did those who had experienced sexual intimate partner violence (OR 2.85, 95% CI 1.45, 5.59). These findings argue for intimate partner violence screening among Latina women with IBS. PMID:20558772

  3. Women’s Perceptions on how Pregnancy Influences the Context of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Stöckl, Heidi; Gardner, Frances

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence during pregnancy is receiving increased attention because of its high prevalence and health effects. Still, little is known about women’s perceptions on how their pregnancy influences the context in which intimate partner violence occurs. We conducted 19 in-depth interviews with women who experienced intimate partner violence around the time of pregnancy. Women clearly perceived pregnancy as a turning point, because it created new expectations and a feeling of being overwhelmed. This led to violence by reducing women’s acceptance of their partner’s unemployment, alcohol abuse and lack of relationship commitment or by increasing women’s vulnerability because they felt too young to raise a child alone. Pregnancy also led to violence by bringing up repressed childhood memories or by taking attention away from their partners. Understanding how pregnancy influences the context in which intimate partner violence occurs is important to provide abused, pregnant women with the services they need. PMID:23905872

  4. Campaigns targeting perpetrators of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Cismaru, Magdalena; Lavack, Anne M

    2011-10-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health concern with significant physical, emotional, and economic costs. Persuading IPV perpetrators to change their behavior could play an important role in ending violence. This article reviews and analyzes 16 campaigns targeting IPV perpetrators, created in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand. Two well-known models, the Transtheoretical (Stages of Change) model and Protection Motivation theory (PMT), are combined to create the analytical framework. For each stage of change, the most salient PMT variables are outlined, the people found in that stage are described, and the most effective strategies for persuasion are posited. Together, these two models would suggest that future campaigns targeting IPV perpetrators should place a stronger emphasis on the benefits of changing and place a greater focus on increasing perpetrators' confidence that they can abstain from violence. PMID:21908438

  5. Campaigns targeting perpetrators of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Cismaru, Magdalena; Lavack, Anne M

    2011-10-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health concern with significant physical, emotional, and economic costs. Persuading IPV perpetrators to change their behavior could play an important role in ending violence. This article reviews and analyzes 16 campaigns targeting IPV perpetrators, created in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand. Two well-known models, the Transtheoretical (Stages of Change) model and Protection Motivation theory (PMT), are combined to create the analytical framework. For each stage of change, the most salient PMT variables are outlined, the people found in that stage are described, and the most effective strategies for persuasion are posited. Together, these two models would suggest that future campaigns targeting IPV perpetrators should place a stronger emphasis on the benefits of changing and place a greater focus on increasing perpetrators' confidence that they can abstain from violence.

  6. The Experience of Resilience for Adult Female Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence: A Phenomenological Inquiry.

    PubMed

    Crann, Sara E; Barata, Paula C

    2016-06-01

    While resilience research in the context of intimate partner violence (IPV) is increasing, there remains little known about women's lived experience of resilience. Using a phenomenological approach, this study examined the experience of resilience for adult female survivors of IPV. Sixteen women who were currently experiencing or had previously experienced abuse by an intimate partner participated in semi-structured interviews. Resilience was experienced as multiple cognitive, emotional, and behavioral shifts across three theme areas: toward resistance, in the experience of control, and toward positivity. The results of this study suggest a number of applications for clinical practice and intervention.

  7. Intimate Partner Violence: Building Resilience with Families and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wortham, Thomasine T.

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence includes physical, emotional, or sexual maltreatment from an intimate partner that may include name-calling, hitting, controlling behaviors, use of weapons, rape, intimidation, and a plethora of other physical and emotional tactics (Kress, Protivnak, & Sadlak, 2008; United States Department of Justice, 2013). Such…

  8. Adult Attachment as a Risk Factor for Intimate Partner Violence : The "Mispairing" of Partners' Attachment Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doumas, Diana M.; Pearson, Christine L.; Elgin, Jenna E.; McKinley, Lisa L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence and adult attachment in a sample of 70 couples. The attachment style of each partner and the interaction of the partners' attachment styles were examined as predictors of intimate partner violence. Additional analyses were conducted to examine violence reciprocity and to…

  9. Intimate partner violence and the meaning of love.

    PubMed

    Smith, Marilyn; Nunley, Barbara; Martin, Evelyn

    2013-06-01

    Despite physical, emotional, verbal, and sexual abuse from their partner, many women remain in an abusive relationship, often proclaiming to love the one who is hurting them. Nineteen females who had experienced intimate partner violence were interviewed and asked to share their experiences and describe their meaning of love. An analysis of the transcripts was done using qualitative content analysis. With this approach, the contents of the verbal data were summarized and arranged in three major categories: (1) What love is not; (2) Attributes of a loving relationship; and (3) Attachment to the relationship. The findings demonstrate a woman's clear recognition of being in an abusive relationship, yearning to be truly loved, but often finding herself unable to detach from the relationship.

  10. The Prevalence and Characteristics of Intimate Partner Violence in a Community Study of Chinese American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei

    2006-01-01

    A community probability-sampled survey was done of 181 Chinese American women to investigate the prevalence and nature of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Chinese Americans. Of participants, 42% knew a Chinese woman who had experienced IPV. Also, 14% had experienced IPV themselves in their lifetime (8% severe and 6% minor), 3% in the previous…

  11. Acceptance of routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence: a mixed method study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence and detrimental health effects of intimate partner violence have resulted in international discussions and recommendations that health care professionals should screen women for intimate partner violence during general and antenatal health care visits. Due to the lack of discussion on routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence during antenatal care in Germany, this study seeks to explore its acceptability among pregnant German women. Methods A mixed methods approach was used, utilizing a self-administered survey on the acceptability of routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence in a university hospital’s maternity ward in Munich and in-depth interviews with seven women who experienced violence during pregnancy. Results Of the 401 women who participated in the survey, 92 percent were in favor of routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence during antenatal care. Acceptance of routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence during antenatal care was significantly associated with women’s experiences of child sexual abuse, being young, less educated, single or divorced and smoking during pregnancy. Open-ended survey questions and in-depth interviews stressed adequate training for screening, sufficient time and provision of referral information as important conditions for routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence. Conclusions Women in this study showed an overwhelming support for routine or case-based screening for intimate partner violence in antenatal care in Germany. Until adequate training is in place to allow providers to inquire for intimate partner violence in a professional manner, this study recommends that health care providers are made aware of the prevalence and health consequences of violence during pregnancy. PMID:23531127

  12. Gainful Activity and Intimate Partner Aggression in Emerging Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Alvira-Hammond, Marta; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.

    2014-01-01

    Although intimate partner aggression crosses social class boundaries, education and income are important predictors. Yet given that emerging adulthood is a transitional period, completed education and employment, as single measures, are not ideal indicators of socioeconomic status for young people. We examined associations between self-reports of gainful activity, defined as enrollment in school or full-time employment, and intimate partner aggression among young adults in dating, cohabiting, or married relationships (N=648). Both men and women's participation in gainful activity was negatively associated with aggression. We found that when neither partner was gainfully active, individuals reported higher frequency of physical aggression. In cases of gainful activity asymmetry, the gender of the gainfully active partner did not predict intimate partner aggression. Additionally, we found no evidence that the association between gainful activity and frequency of intimate partner aggression differed by union type. PMID:25309829

  13. Intimate Partner Violence. The gynaecologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Roelens, K; Verstraelen, H; Temmerman, M

    2009-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important public health problem, which has been extensively studied all over the world, yet Belgian data are limited. IPV remains a taboo resulting in denial and underreporting. For an obstetrician-gynaecologist (OB/GYN), IPV, committed by a male partner to a woman, is of particular interest, because of its negative impact on women's and children's health. In Belgium there are few data on IPV and guidelines for OB/GYN are -missing. In a multi-centered survey surveillance study which was carried out among pregnant women attending 5 large hospitals in the province of East Flanders, the lifetime prevalence of IPV was estimated to be 10.1% and the period prevalence during pregnancy and/or in the year preceding pregnancy 3.4%. In our highly medicalised society, only 19.2% and 6.6% of the victims of physical and sexual abuse respectively sought medical care. Routine screening for IPV by a general practitioner or OB/GYN was found to be largely acceptable. In a questionnaire-based Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice survey among OB/GYN in Flanders, OB/GYN prove -unfamiliar with IPV and largely underestimate the extent of the problem. Merely 6.8% of the respondents ever received any education on IPV. They refute the incentive of universal screening, even during pregnancy and one of the major barriers is fear of offending patients. Physician education was found to be the strongest predictor of a positive attitude towards screening and of current screening practices. Hence, there is a definite need to improve women's awareness regarding abuse and to endorse physician training on IPV.

  14. Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence Speak Out

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, Tracy A; Finley, Erin; Liebschutz, Jane M

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify characteristics that facilitate trust in the patient-provider relationship among survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). DESIGN Semistructured, open-ended interviews were conducted to elicit participants' beliefs and attitudes about trust in interactions with health care providers. Using grounded theory methods, the transcripts were analyzed for common themes. A community advisory group, composed of advocates, counselors and IPV survivors, helped interpret themes and interview exerpts. Together, key components of trust were identified. SETTING Eastern Massachusetts. PARTICIPANTS Twenty-seven female survivors of IPV recruited from community-based IPV organizations. MAIN RESULTS Participants' ages ranged from 18 to 56 years, 36% were African American, 32% Hispanic, and 18% white. We identified 5 dimensions of provider behavior that were uniquely important to the development of trust for these IPV survivors: 1) communication about abuse: provider was willing to openly discuss abuse; 2) professional competency: provider asked about abuse when appropriate and was familiar with medical and social histories; 3) practice style: provider was consistently accessible, respected confidentiality, and shared decision making; 4) caring: provider demonstrated personal concern beyond biomedical role through nonjudgmental and compassionate gestures, empowering statements, and persistent, committed behaviors; 5) emotional equality: provider shared personal information and feelings and was perceived by the participant as a friend. CONCLUSIONS These IPV survivors identified dimensions of provider behavior that facilitate trust in their clinical relationship. Strengthening these provider behaviors may increase trust with patients and thus improve disclosure of and referral for IPV. PMID:12911643

  15. What were they thinking? Men who murder an intimate partner.

    PubMed

    Dobash, R Emerson; Dobash, Russell P

    2011-01-01

    The focus is on cognitions of men who murder an intimate partner and includes thinking prior to and after the murder. Based on the Murder in Britain Study, the qualitative accounts of various professionals included in the case-files of 104 men convicted of murdering a woman partner are used to examine beliefs about intimate relationships, orientations toward violence and previous violence to the victim, as well as subsequent denials, rationalizations, and justifications. We conclude that these and other cognitions are important elements of intimate partner murder and must be challenged and changed in efforts to eliminate nonlethal abuse and murder.

  16. Physician practices in response to intimate partner violence in southern India: insights from a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Chibber, Karuna Sridharan; Krishnan, Suneeta; Minkler, Meredith

    2011-03-01

    Health care providers in India are often the only institutional contact for women experiencing intimate partner violence, a pervasive public health problem with adverse health outcomes. This qualitative study was among the first to examine Indian primary care physicians' intimate partner violence practices. Between July 2007 and January 2008, 30 in-depth interviews were conducted with physicians serving low-to-middle income women aged 18-30 in southern India. A modified grounded theory approach was used for data collection and analysis. Study findings revealed a distinct subset of 'physician champions' who responded to intimate partner violence more consistently, informed women of their rights, and facilitated their utilization of support services. Findings also offered insights into physicians' ability to identify indications of intimate partner violence and use of potentially culturally appropriate practices to respond to intimate partner violence, even without training. However, physician practices were mediated by individual attitudes. Although not generalizable, findings offer some useful lessons which may be transferable for adaptation to other settings. A potential starting point is to study physicians' current practices, focusing on their safety and efficacy, as well as enhancing these practices through appropriate training. Further research is also needed on women's perspectives on the appropriateness of physicians' practices, and women's recommendations for intimate partner violence intervention strategies.

  17. INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE AND INCIDENCE OF HYPERTENSION IN WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Mason, SM; Wright, RJ; Hibert, EN; D, Spiegelman; Forman, JP; Rich-Edwards, JW

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Intimate partner violence, a prevalent stressor for women, may influence cardiovascular disease risk. We estimated the association between intimate partner violence and development of hypertension, an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, using data on intimate partner violence in the Nurses’ Health Study II cohort. Methods Intimate partner violence measures included adult lifetime physical and sexual partner violence and the Women’s Experiences with Battering Scale, which ascertained women’s subjective experience of recent emotional abuse. Physician-diagnosed hypertension was self-reported on biennial questionnaires. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the association between report of intimate partner violence in 2001 and incidence of hypertension from 2001 through 2007. Results Of 51,434 included respondents, 22% reported being physically hurt and 10% reported being forced into sexual activities at some point in adulthood by an intimate partner. After adjustment for confounders, physical and sexual abuse were not associated with hypertension. However, women reporting the most severe emotional abuse had a 24% increased rate of hypertension (hazard ratio=1.24; 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 1.53) when compared to women unexposed to emotional abuse. Conclusion Hypertension risk appears to be elevated in the small number of women recently exposed to severe emotional abuse. PMID:22717307

  18. Intimate Partner Violence in an Outpatient Palliative Care Setting

    PubMed Central

    Wygant, Carmella; Bruera, Eduardo; Hui, David

    2013-01-01

    Although a few studies have evaluated intimate partner violence (IPV) in the oncology setting, to our knowledge no studies exist of IPV among palliative care patients. IPV may be exacerbated at the end of life because patients and their caregivers often experience significant stressors associated with physical, emotional, social, and financial burdens. We discuss IPV in the palliative care setting using the example of a patient with advanced cancer who experienced IPV. A better understanding and awareness of IPV at the end of life could help clinicians support and counsel patients and ameliorate the suffering caused by this “unspoken” trauma. We further discuss 1) the prevalence and indicators of IPV, 2) how to initiate conversations about IPV, 3) the resources available to clinicians, and 4) various management strategies. PMID:23948161

  19. Intersection of Intimate Partner Violence and HIV in Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... in approximately 40 to 45 percent of physically violent intimate relationships and increases a woman’s risk for ... might negotiate condom use with partners while avoiding violent reactions. For example, condom requests that describe HIV ...

  20. How Children and Their Caregivers Adjust after Intimate Partner Femicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Jennifer L.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; McFarlane, Judith M.; Lewandowski, Linda A.

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 3,300 children are affected by intimate partner femicide each year. Despite the multitude of stressors and the potential for negative outcomes, little is known about these children or their caregivers. This in-depth interview study used family stress theory to explore caregivers' and children's adjustment after intimate partner…

  1. Intimate Partner Homicide in Chicago over 29 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Carolyn Rebecca; Christakos, Antigone

    1995-01-01

    Reports rate of intimate partner homicides (married and unmarried, heterosexual and homosexual) in Chicago from 1965-1993 (2,556 in all). Identifies major trends in intimate homicide over this 29-year period; discusses the people who are most at risk and the riskiest situations. Explores implications for intervention strategies. (LKS)

  2. Intimate partner violence: IPV in the LGBT community.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping-Hsin; Jacobs, Abbie; Rovi, Susan L D

    2013-09-01

    Nationally, the rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) individuals are similar to or greater than rates for heterosexuals. Many have experienced psychological and physical abuse as sexual minorities, making it difficult for them to seek help for IPV. Physician behavior, such as not assuming that all patients are heterosexual, being nonjudgmental, and using inclusive language, can empower LGBT patients to disclose IPV. Also, physicians should ascertain the degree to which the patient is out. The threat of being outed can be an aspect of the power and control exerted by an abusive partner and a significant barrier to seeking help. Physicians should screen for IPV and intervene in a similar manner with LGBT and non-LGBT patients, but they should be aware of potential limitations in resources for LGBT patients, such as shelters. As sexual minorities experiencing IPV, LGBT individuals are at greater risk of depression and substance abuse than are non-LGBT individuals. Minority stress, resulting from stigmatization and discrimination, can be exacerbated by IPV. Physicians should learn about legal issues for LGBT individuals and the availability of community or advocacy programs for LGBT perpetrators or victims of IPV.

  3. Intimate partner violence: IPV in the LGBT community.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping-Hsin; Jacobs, Abbie; Rovi, Susan L D

    2013-09-01

    Nationally, the rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) individuals are similar to or greater than rates for heterosexuals. Many have experienced psychological and physical abuse as sexual minorities, making it difficult for them to seek help for IPV. Physician behavior, such as not assuming that all patients are heterosexual, being nonjudgmental, and using inclusive language, can empower LGBT patients to disclose IPV. Also, physicians should ascertain the degree to which the patient is out. The threat of being outed can be an aspect of the power and control exerted by an abusive partner and a significant barrier to seeking help. Physicians should screen for IPV and intervene in a similar manner with LGBT and non-LGBT patients, but they should be aware of potential limitations in resources for LGBT patients, such as shelters. As sexual minorities experiencing IPV, LGBT individuals are at greater risk of depression and substance abuse than are non-LGBT individuals. Minority stress, resulting from stigmatization and discrimination, can be exacerbated by IPV. Physicians should learn about legal issues for LGBT individuals and the availability of community or advocacy programs for LGBT perpetrators or victims of IPV. PMID:24053263

  4. Rates of intimate partner violence in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, J; Caetano, R; Clark, C L

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Estimates of intimate partner violence in the United States based on representative samples have relied on data from one person per household or limited numbers of indicators from both partners. The purpose of this study was to estimate nationwide rates of intimate partner violence with data from both couple members by using a standardized survey instrument, the Conflict Tactics Scale. METHODS: A multistage probability sampling design was used to conduct separate face-to-face interviews in respondents' homes with both members of 1635 representative couples living in the 48 contiguous states. RESULTS: Both partners' reports were used to estimate the following lower- and upper-bound rates: 5.21% and 13.61% for male-to-female partner violence, 6.22% and 18.21% for female-to-male partner violence, and 7.84% to 21.48% for any partner-to-partner violence. CONCLUSIONS: High rates of intimate partner violence in the United States corroborate previous claims that the amount of intimate partner violence is substantial. PMID:9807541

  5. Factors Discriminating among Profiles of Resilience and Psychopathology in Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.; Gruber, Gabrielle; Howell, Kathryn H.; Girz, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the social and emotional adjustment of 219 children in families with varying levels of intimate partner violence (IPV) using a model of risk and protection. To explore factors that differentiate children with poor adjustment from those with resilience. Methodology: Mothers who experienced IPV in the past year and their…

  6. The Effects of Change in Spousal Power on Intimate Partner Violence among Chinese Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Xiaochun; Keat, Jane E.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored how changes in power relations within couples after immigrating from more patriarchal societies contribute to intimate partner violence (IPV). Both subjective decision-making power and objective power bases were examined in Chinese immigrant couples. Batterers and nonviolent men both experienced loss of decision-making power in…

  7. The Roles of Victim and Perpetrator Alcohol Use in Intimate Partner Violence Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Martie P.; Kingree, J. B.

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol use increases the risk of intimate partner violence (IPV), yet little research has examined its role in victimization outcomes (e.g., physical injury, police reporting). This study examined the roles of perpetrator and victim incident-specific alcohol use in IPV outcomes. The sample included 501 men and 1,756 women who had experienced an…

  8. Concurrent and Long-Term Impact of Intimate Partner Violence on Employment Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowne, Sarah Shea; Juon, Hee-Soon; Ensminger, Margaret; Burrell, Lori; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Duggan, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) may negatively affect employment outcomes. This study explores the relationship between IPV and employment stability both concurrently and longitudinally among a sample of 512 predominantly Asian American and Pacific Islander young women living in Hawaii. Women in this…

  9. Intimate Partner Survivors' Help-Seeking and Protection Efforts: A Person-Oriented Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurius, Paula S.; Macy, Rebecca J.; Nwabuzor, Ijeoma; Holt, Victoria L.

    2011-01-01

    Domestic violence advocates and researchers advocate for a survivor-centered approach for assisting women experiencing intimate partner violence (IV), with individualized safety plans and services; yet little empirical work has been done to determine IV survivors' specific combinations of vulnerabilities and assets that might inform such an…

  10. Female Intimate Partner Violence Survivors' Experiences with Accessing Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Amy L.; Hays, Danica G.; Chang, Catherine Y.

    2010-01-01

    This phenomenological study investigates the types of personal and community resources that female intimate partner violence (IPV) survivors used when leaving an abusive male partner. Three African American and 2 European American IPV survivors, ages 24 to 38 years, described positive and negative experiences with social support, personal…

  11. Parenting and Women Arrested for Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Catherine A.; Lehmann, Peter; Dia, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Exploring the relationship between parenting and women's use of violence the current study surveyed 106 mothers arrested for intimate partner violence (IPV) related crimes on parenting styles and attitudes toward when using violence against their partner is justified. Findings indicate parenting styles indicative of low belief in using physical…

  12. Urban adolescent girls' perspectives on multiple partners in the context of the sexual double standard and intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Teitelman, Anne M; Tennille, Julie; Bohinski, Julia; Jemmott, Loretta S; Jemmott, John B

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the influence of abusive and nonabusive relationship dynamics on the number of sex partners among urban adolescent girls. Focus groups were conducted with 64 sexually active adolescent girls ages 14 to 17 years. General coding and content analyses identified patterns, themes, and salient beliefs. More than one third (37.5%) reported having experienced physical, intimate partner violence; 32.8% had two or more recent sex partners, and 37.5% had ever had a sexually transmitted infection (STI) or HIV. Although some girls in abusive relationships feared retribution if they had more than one partner, others sought additional partners for solace or as an act of resistance. Adolescent HIV/STI prevention programs need to address the influence of gender norms such as the sexual double standard, as well as partner pressure and partner abuse on adolescent decision-making about safer sex, and also promote healthy relationships as integral to advancing HIV/STI risk reduction.

  13. Daily associations among anger experience and intimate partner aggression within aggressive and nonaggressive community couples.

    PubMed

    Crane, Cory A; Testa, Maria

    2014-10-01

    Anger is an empirically established precipitant to aggressive responding toward intimate partners. The current investigation examined the effects of anger, as experienced by both partners, as well as gender and previous aggression, on in vivo intimate-partner aggression (IPA) using a prospective daily diary methodology. Participants (N = 118 couples) individually provided 56 consecutive, daily reports of affective experience and partner aggression. Multilevel models were estimated using the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) framework to analyze the daily associations between anger and partner-aggression perpetration among participating men and women, as moderated by aggression history. Results revealed that both actor and partner anger were generally associated with subsequently reported daily conflict. Further, increases in daily partner anger were associated with corresponding increases in partner aggression among both women who reported high levels of anger and men, regardless of their own anger experience. Increases in actor anger were associated with increases in daily partner aggression only among previously aggressive women. Previously aggressive men and women consistently reported greater perpetration than their nonaggressive counterparts on days of high levels of actors' anger experiences. Results emphasize the importance of both actor and partner factors in partner aggression and suggest that female anger may be a stronger predictor of both female-to-male and male-to-female partner aggression than male anger, when measured at the daily level.

  14. Does alcohol involvement increase the severity of intimate partner violence?

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, Christy M.; Caetano, Raul; Rodriguez, Lori A.; Okoro, Ngozi

    2012-01-01

    Background Most studies that have examined alcohol use immediately prior to intimate partner violence (IPV) have been limited to male-to-female partner violence (MFPV) and are subject to a number of methodological limitations. We add new information concerning the relationship between alcohol involvement and severity of IPV, MFPV, and female-to-male partner violence (FMPV). Methods We analyzed data from a 1995 US national population-based survey of couples ≥18 years old. We examined 436 couples who reported IPV and had information on alcohol involvement with IPV. We measured IPV using a revised Conflict Tactics Scale, Form R that asked respondents about 11 violent behaviors in the past year. Respondents were classified into mutually exclusive categories as having experienced mild only or mild+severe (‘severe’) IPV, MFPV or FMPV. Respondents were also asked if they or their partner were drinking at the time the violent behavior occurred and were classified as exposed to IPV with or without alcohol involvement. We estimated proportions, odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals and p-values of the proposed associations, accounting for the complex survey design. Results Overall, 30.2% of couples who reported IPV reported alcohol involved IPV; 69.8% reported no alcohol involvement. In adjusted analyses, those reporting severe (vs. mild only) IPV were more than twice as likely to report alcohol involvement. In adjusted analyses, those reporting severe (vs. mild) MFPV or FMPV were more likely to report female but not male alcohol involvement. Though estimates were positive and strong, most confidence intervals were compatible with a wide range of estimates including no association. Conclusions Our findings suggest alcohol involvement of either or both in the couple increases the risk of severe IPV. Our findings also suggest female alcohol use may play an important role in determining the severity of IPV, MFPV or FMPV. PMID:20102574

  15. Intimate partner violence against female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Pack, Allison P; L'engle, Kelly; Mwarogo, Peter; Kingola, Nzioki

    2013-12-11

    Female sex workers are known to be at risk of intimate partner violence (IPV) from numerous sources including clients, pimps, boyfriends and husbands. Better understanding the factors associated with IPV in this population will enhance prevention efforts. This work examines baseline survey data collected as part of a randomised controlled trial for an alcohol-harm reduction intervention. The study sample included 619 sex workers. IPV was common in this sample, with 78.7% of women reporting any IPV in the last 30 days. Multivariate logistic regression results indicated that supporting one to two other people, experiencing child abuse, witnessing mother abuse, and greater alcohol consumption were risk factors for IPV in our sample. Women who frequented Population, Health and Integrated Assistance (APHIA) II drop-in centres located along transport corridors were also at greater risk of recent IPV, as compared with those who frequented other drop-in centres. Only one protective effect was identified in this study: condom use at last sex with a non-paying partner was associated with less recent IPV. Health programmes for women sex workers in Mombasa and elsewhere need to expand beyond HIV prevention - they need to incorporate information on violence prevention and treatment referrals, as well as information on alcohol harm reduction.

  16. Understanding adolescent and family influences on intimate partner psychological violence during emerging adulthood and adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lohman, Brenda J; Neppl, Tricia K; Senia, Jennifer M; Schofield, Thomas J

    2013-04-01

    The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross-sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self-selection, endogeneity, and reporter biases as it has not been able to assess how individual and family behaviors simultaneously experienced during adolescence influence intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. The present study used data from the Iowa Youth and Families Project (IYFP; N = 392; 52 % Female), a multi-method, multi-trait prospective approach, to overcome this limitation. We focused on psychological intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood (19-23 years) and adulthood (27-31 years), and include self and partner ratings of violence as well as observational data in a sample of rural non-Hispanic white families. Controlling for a host of individual risk factors as well as interparental psychological violence from adolescence (14-15 years), the results show that exposure to parent-to-child psychological violence during adolescence is a key predictor of intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. In addition, negative emotionality and the number of sexual partners in adolescence predicted intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood and adulthood. Exposure to family stress was associated positively with intimate partner violence in adulthood but not in emerging adulthood, whereas academic difficulties were found to increase violence in emerging adulthood only. Unlike previous research, results did not support a direct effect of interparental psychological violence on psychological violence in the next generation. Gender differences were found only in emerging adulthood. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of the current literature and future directions. PMID:23430562

  17. Intimate partner violence and suicidal ideation in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Frohman, N.; Purcell, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is a major public health issue with significant implications for maternal mental health. Less studied is the association between IPV during pregnancy and suicidal ideation. This study reports the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation among low-income pregnant women receiving prenatal care at a university obstetrical clinic from February 2009 to March 2010. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 166 women surveyed between 24 – 28 weeks gestation using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS). Multiple logistic regression identified factors associated with antenatal suicidal ideation. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 22.89%. In the fully adjusted model antenatal depressive symptomatology (OR = 17.04; 95% CI 2.10 – 38.27) and experiencing IPV (OR = 9.37; 95% CI 3.41 – 25.75) were significantly associated with an increased risk of antenatal suicidal ideation. The prevalence of antenatal suicidal ideation in the current study was higher than other population-based samples though this sample was predominantly single, low-income, and 19% experienced IPV during pregnancy. Given the strong association of antenatal suicidal ideation, depressive symptomatology, and IPV, health care providers are urged to identify those women at risk so that antenatal care can be tailored to best support optimal maternal and neonatal outcomes. PMID:25753680

  18. Intimate partner violence and suicidal ideation in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Frohman, N; Purcell, Genevieve

    2015-08-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is a major public health issue with significant implications for maternal mental health. Less studied is the association between IPV during pregnancy and suicidal ideation. This study reports the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation among low-income pregnant women receiving prenatal care at a university obstetrical clinic from February 2009 to March 2010. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 166 women surveyed between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS). Multiple logistic regression identified factors associated with antenatal suicidal ideation. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 22.89 %. In the fully adjusted model, antenatal depressive symptomatology (OR = 17.04; 95 % CI 2.10-38.27) and experiencing IPV (OR = 9.37; 95 % CI 3.41-25.75) were significantly associated with an increased risk of antenatal suicidal ideation. The prevalence of antenatal suicidal ideation in the current study was higher than other population-based samples though this sample was predominantly single, low-income, and 19 % experienced IPV during pregnancy. Given the strong association of antenatal suicidal ideation, depressive symptomatology, and IPV, health care providers are urged to identify those women at risk so that antenatal care can be tailored to best support optimal maternal and neonatal outcomes. PMID:25753680

  19. Intimate partner violence, substance use, and adverse neonatal outcomes among urban women

    PubMed Central

    Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Lucea, Marguerite B.; Bullock, Linda; Sharps, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of intimate partner violence, substance use, and their co-occurrence during pregnancy and examines their associations with adverse neonatal outcomes. Study design Between February 2009 and February 2010, pregnant women receiving obstetrical care at three urban clinics were screened for intimate partner violence and substance use between 24-28 weeks gestation. A chart review was conducted upon delivery to assess for adverse neonatal outcomes of low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth, and small for gestational age (SGA). Results Maternal and neonatal data were collected on 166 mothers and their neonates. Overall, 19% of the sample reported intimate partner violence during their pregnancies. Of the study's neonates 41% had at least one adverse neonatal outcome. Nearly half of the mothers reported using at least one substance during pregnancy. Women experiencing intimate partner violence had a higher prevalence of marijuana use than their non-abused counterparts (p < 0.01). Experiencing intimate partner violence was associated with a fourfold increase in having a SGA neonate (aOR = 4.00; 95% CI 1.58 – 9.97). Women who reported marijuana use had five times the odds of having a neonate classified as SGA (aOR = 5.16, 95% CI 2.24 – 11.89) or LBW (aOR 5.00; 95% CI 1.98 – 12.65). Conclusions The prevalence of intimate partner violence during pregnancy and substance use is high in urban mothers, the risks of which extend to their neonates. Pediatric providers are urged to routinely screen for both issues and recognize the impact of co-occurrence of these risk factors on poor neonatal and childhood outcomes. PMID:23485028

  20. Experience of Hurricane Katrina and reported intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Harville, Emily W; Taylor, Catherine A; Tesfai, Helen; Xu Xiong; Buekens, Pierre

    2011-03-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with stress, but few studies have examined the effect of natural disaster on IPV. In this study, the authors examine the relationship between experience of Hurricane Katrina and reported relationship aggression and violence in a cohort of 123 postpartum women. Hurricane experience is measured using a series of questions about damage, injury, and danger during the storm; IPV was measured using the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS-2). Multiple log-poisson regression was used to calculate relative risks (RRs), adjusted for potential confounders. Most participants report that they and their partners had explained themselves to each other, showed each other respect, and also insulted, swore, or shouted during conflicts with each other. A few participants report physical violence, sexual force, or destroying property, though in each case at least 5% endorse that it had happened at least once in the last 6 months. Another few report that they and their partners had carried out these actions. Experiencing damage due to the storm is associated with increased likelihood of most conflict tactics. Strong RRs are seen for the relationship between damage due to the storm and aggression or violence, especially being insulted, sworn, shouted, or yelled at (adjusted relative risk [aRR] = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.02-1.48); pushed, shoved, or slapped (aRR = 5.28, 95% CI = 1.93-14.45); or being punched, kicked, or beat up (aRR = 8.25, 95% CI = 1.68-40.47). Results suggest that certain experiences of the hurricane are associated with an increased likelihood of violent methods of conflict resolution. Relief and medical workers may need to be aware of the possibility of increased IPV after disaster.

  1. Teen Mothers' Experience of Intimate Partner Violence: A Metasynthesis.

    PubMed

    Bekaert, Sarah; SmithBattle, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Pregnant and parenting teens suffer higher rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) than older mothers. This qualitative metasynthesis explores teen mothers' experience with IPV during pregnancy and postpartum. Organized by the metaphor of a web, findings highlight how pervasive violence during childhood contributes to teen pregnancy and the risk of IPV as violence is normalized. The web constricts through the partner's control as violence emerges or worsens with pregnancy. Young mothers become increasingly isolated, and live with the physical and psychological consequences of IPV. Trauma-informed nursing practice is needed to support teen mothers in violent intimate relationships to spin a new web. PMID:27490882

  2. DOES NEIGHBORHOOD ENVIRONMENT DIFFERENTIATE INTIMATE PARTNER FEMICIDES FROM OTHER FEMICIDES?

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Kirsten M. M.; Layde, Peter M.; Hamberger, L. Kevin; Laud, Purushottam W.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association between neighborhood-level factors and intimate partner femicide (IPF) using Wisconsin Violent Death Reporting System (WVDRS) data and Wisconsin Coalition Against Domestic Violence (WCADV) reports, in concert with neighborhood-level information. After controlling for individual characteristics, neighborhood-level disadvantage was associated with a decreased likelihood of IPF status, as compared to other femicides, while neighborhood-level residential instability was associated with an increased likelihood of IPF status. Neighborhood plays a role in differentiating IPFs from other femicides in our study area. Our findings demonstrate the importance of multilevel strategies for understanding and reducing the burden of intimate partner violence. PMID:25540251

  3. Strengthening resources for midlife and older rural women who experience intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Lori E; Macquarrie, Colleen; Begley, Lorraine; Gill, Carmen; Leblanc, Kristal D

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about midlife and older women who experience intimate partner violence living in rural places and their resource needs. Guided by a strengths perspective, we provided insights into resources that midlife and older women use, or would like to use, in their journey in leaving an abusive partner. Eight women who had left an abusive partner participated in a face-to-face interview. They drew on a wide variety of paid and unpaid resources, while each woman had a unique set of resources that contributed to her being able to make such a significant life transition. It is clear that we need to have a variety of formal and informal resources available to older women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) in rural places, and new forms of resources need to be developed. Our results also indicate that increased efforts are needed in improving both public and professional education regarding older rural women and IPV. PMID:26798951

  4. Strengthening resources for midlife and older rural women who experience intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Lori E; Macquarrie, Colleen; Begley, Lorraine; Gill, Carmen; Leblanc, Kristal D

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about midlife and older women who experience intimate partner violence living in rural places and their resource needs. Guided by a strengths perspective, we provided insights into resources that midlife and older women use, or would like to use, in their journey in leaving an abusive partner. Eight women who had left an abusive partner participated in a face-to-face interview. They drew on a wide variety of paid and unpaid resources, while each woman had a unique set of resources that contributed to her being able to make such a significant life transition. It is clear that we need to have a variety of formal and informal resources available to older women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) in rural places, and new forms of resources need to be developed. Our results also indicate that increased efforts are needed in improving both public and professional education regarding older rural women and IPV.

  5. Intimate partner violence against women in the Erbil city of the Kurdistan region, Iraq

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Violence against women is a worldwide problem and serious human rights abuse that occurs among all social, cultural, economic and religious groups. There is a paucity of research on intimate partner violence against women in Iraq, particularly in the Kurdistan region. This study assessed the prevalence of emotional, physical and sexual intimate partner violence against women and the impact of physical violence in Erbil, the main city of the Iraqi Kurdistan region. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on a convenience sample of 800 Kurdish ever married women. Women (aged 16 to 65 years) attending two public hospitals in Erbil city for reproductive health problems were included in the study. The study was conducted between 1st of October 2009 and 30th of March 2011. Each woman was seen only once. Intimate partner violence was assessed by administering a modified version of the World Health Organization’s domestic violence questionnaire through direct interview by a female doctor. Prevalence of intimate partner violence was assessed by timing (lifetime or past year), frequency (once, 2–5 times, > 5 times), and type (emotional, physical, and sexual violence). Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted with calculation of frequencies and percentages of women who reported different types, severities and impact of intimate partner violence. Results The prevalence of the overall lifetime and the overall past year intimate partner violence against women was 58.6% and 45.3%, respectively. The proportions of women experienced at least one form of lifetime intimate partner violence were: 52.6% for emotional abuse; 38.9% for physical violence; and 21.1% for sexual violence, while 43.3%, 15.1%, and 12.1% of women experienced at least one form of past year emotional, physical and sexual violence, respectively. Among those with lifetime physical violence, 11.6% were subjected to more serious injuries like stab wound, broken teeth or broken bones

  6. Education and Income Imbalances Among Married Couples in Malawi as Predictors for Likelihood of Physical and Emotional Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Bonnes, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is a social and public health problem that is prevalent across the world. In many societies, power differentials in relationships, often supported by social norms that promote gender inequality, lead to incidents of intimate partner violence. Among other factors, both a woman's years of education and educational differences between a woman and her partner have been shown to have an effect on her likelihood of experiencing intimate partner abuse. Using the 2010 Malawian Demographic and Health Survey data to analyze intimate partner violence among 3,893 married Malawian women and their husbands, this article focuses on understanding the effect of educational differences between husband and wife on the likelihood of physical and emotional abuse within a marriage. The results from logistic regression models show that a woman's level of education is a significant predictor of her likelihood of experiencing intimate partner violence by her current husband, but that this effect is contingent on her husband's level of education. This study demonstrates the need to educate men alongside of women in Malawi to help decrease women's risk of physical and emotional intimate partner violence.

  7. A Systematic Review of Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Capaldi, Deborah M.; Knoble, Naomi B.; Shortt, Joann Wu; Kim, Hyoun K.

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review of risk factors for intimate partner violence was conducted. Inclusion criteria included publication in a peer-reviewed journal, a representative community sample or a clinical sample with a control-group comparison, a response rate of at least 50%, use of a physical or sexual violence outcome measure, and control of confounding factors in the analyses. A total of 228 articles were included (170 articles with adult and 58 with adolescent samples). Organized by levels of a dynamic developmental systems perspective, risk factors included: (a) contextual characteristics of partners (demographic, neighborhood, community and school factors), (b) developmental characteristics and behaviors of the partners (e.g., family, peer, psychological/behavioral, and cognitive factors), and (c) relationship influences and interactional patterns. Comparisons to a prior review highlight developments in the field in the past 10 years. Recommendations for intervention and policy along with future directions for intimate partner violence (IPV) risk factor research are presented. PMID:22754606

  8. Intimate Partner Violence within Law Enforcement Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Anita S.; Lo, Celia C.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Baltimore Police Stress and Domestic Violence study, the authors examined how exposure to stressful events on the job affects law enforcement employees' physical aggression toward domestic partners, evaluating the role of negative emotions and authoritarian spillover in mediating the impact of such task-related stress. The…

  9. Gender, Psychopathy Factors and Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Mager, Kenna L.; Bresin, Konrad; Verona, Edelyn

    2014-01-01

    The present study sheds light on relationships between distinct psychopathic traits and perpetration of IPV in women versus men. Men and women with recent drug and/or violence histories (N = 250) were assessed for psychopathic traits using the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version and for their and their partner's use of IPV with the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale. The first goal was to examine the moderating role of gender in psychopathy factor relationships to IPV. Although both the interpersonal-affective traits (Factor1) and the impulsive-antisocial traits (Factor 2) of psychopathy were related to higher frequency of IPV perpetration, the relationship between Factor 1 and IPV was stronger in men. Our second goal examined the moderating role of psychopathy traits in the relationship between partner's perpetration of IPV and participant perpetration (mutual violence) in the two genders. Relationships between partner- and self-IPV were similar at both low and high levels of Factor 1 in men, although the partner- and self-IPV relationship was significantly stronger among women at low relative to high levels of Factor 1. The relationship between partner- and self-IPV was stronger at high levels of Factor 2 in men, whereas Factor 2 did not moderate mutual violence in women. These results indicate that relationships between psychopathy factors and IPV differ by gender, with psychopathy generally exacerbating IPV perpetration in men and Factor 1 traits playing a unique role in mutual violence in women. These findings add to the literature on female psychopathy and have important implications for future research on gender and IPV. PMID:25020252

  10. Men who batter intimate partners: a grounded theory study of the development of male violence in intimate partner relationships.

    PubMed

    Tilley, Donna Scott; Brackley, Margaret

    2005-04-01

    Intimate partner violence is a serious and pervasive problem in U.S. society, with 25% of women and 7.6% of men reporting physical abuse by an intimate partner each year. Understanding the risk factors for development of violence is essential toward the development of interventions to reduce partner violence. Much of the understanding about the development of partner violence is based on research with victims rather than perpetrators. The study was conducted with men convicted of assault on an intimate female partner. Grounded theory was the method used to analyze data from interviews with 16 men participating in a batterers' intervention and prevention program. From the data, the Violent Couples Model was developed. The primary elements of the Violent Couples Model are justifying violence, minimizing violence, childhood exposure to violence, ineffective anger management, childhood experience of violence, and ineffective conflict resolution. Social and familial factors serve as moderating elements. Contextual elements of the model include power and control, social isolation, desensitization, insecure maternal relationships, the view of violence as a private problem, ambivalent intimate relationships, objectification of women, immaturity, lack of awareness about what constitutes violence, mistrust, traditional views of the roles of women, financial issues, and jealousy. Interventions indicated in the model are primary, or preventive, in nature. The model focuses on prevention efforts with the family as a whole, rather than on batterers alone. PMID:16020047

  11. Men who batter intimate partners: a grounded theory study of the development of male violence in intimate partner relationships.

    PubMed

    Tilley, Donna Scott; Brackley, Margaret

    2005-04-01

    Intimate partner violence is a serious and pervasive problem in U.S. society, with 25% of women and 7.6% of men reporting physical abuse by an intimate partner each year. Understanding the risk factors for development of violence is essential toward the development of interventions to reduce partner violence. Much of the understanding about the development of partner violence is based on research with victims rather than perpetrators. The study was conducted with men convicted of assault on an intimate female partner. Grounded theory was the method used to analyze data from interviews with 16 men participating in a batterers' intervention and prevention program. From the data, the Violent Couples Model was developed. The primary elements of the Violent Couples Model are justifying violence, minimizing violence, childhood exposure to violence, ineffective anger management, childhood experience of violence, and ineffective conflict resolution. Social and familial factors serve as moderating elements. Contextual elements of the model include power and control, social isolation, desensitization, insecure maternal relationships, the view of violence as a private problem, ambivalent intimate relationships, objectification of women, immaturity, lack of awareness about what constitutes violence, mistrust, traditional views of the roles of women, financial issues, and jealousy. Interventions indicated in the model are primary, or preventive, in nature. The model focuses on prevention efforts with the family as a whole, rather than on batterers alone.

  12. Experiences of being exposed to intimate partner violence during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Lidén, Eva; Lundgren, Ingela

    2012-01-01

    In this study a phenomenological approach was used in order to enter deeply into the experience of living with violence during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of women's experiences of being exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy. The data were collected through in-depth interviews with five Norwegian women; two during pregnancy and three after the birth. The women were between the age of 20 and 38 years. All women had received support from a professional research and treatment centre. The essential structure shows that IPV during pregnancy is characterized by difficult existential choices related to ambivalence. Existential choices mean questioning one's existence, the meaning of life as well as one's responsibility for oneself and others. Five constituents further explain the essential structure: Living in unpredictability, the violence is living in the body, losing oneself, feeling lonely and being pregnant leads to change. Future life with the child is experienced as a possibility for existential change. It is important for health professionals to recognize and support pregnant women who are exposed to violence as well as treating their bodies with care and respect. PMID:22468147

  13. Older women and intimate partner violence: effective interventions.

    PubMed

    Tetterton, Summer; Farnsworth, Elizabeth

    2011-09-01

    Women above the age of 60 who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) have specific needs compared with younger victims. More research is emerging that assists counselors and other helping professionals with identification of these needs and aids to promote the mental health and well-being of this population. Professionals must consider the generational values held by older IPV victims and understand how values may impact decision making. Integrating safety planning and risk assessment into the counseling process is vital. Older IPV victims may seek counseling for posttraumatic stress or depressive symptoms as a result of the abuse. Others may participate in counseling for issues unrelated to IPV. Therefore, a thorough assessment process should include questions related to relationship dynamics so that the counselor has a complete understanding of all factors impacting the client's functioning. Helping professionals must also have an understanding of available community resources, as well as barriers that these clients face as they take steps toward recovery from trauma. This research uses qualitative analysis of case studies to assist helping professionals in understanding the most effective interventions when working with this population.We found that a contextual approach focusing on the restoration of self-confidence is a constructive means of initiating recovery from trauma.

  14. Dyadic Patterns of Intimate Partner Violence in Early Marriage

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Kenneth E.; Winters, Jamie J.; Kearns-Bodkin, Jill N.; Homish, Gregory G.; Kubiak, Audrey J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Research examining dyadic patterns of intimate partner violence (IPV) often focuses on static conceptions based on whether either the husband or wife has exhibited any violence. This study examined the dyadic patterns of IPV empirically and traced how these groups change over time. Method Couples (N=634) were assessed with respect to IPV and relationship satisfaction at the time of marriage, and at their first and second anniversaries. Cluster analysis was conducted on Total Aggression, Differential Aggression, and the Aggression Ratio prior to marriage for couples with any violence. Results This analysis revealed 5 clusters; Very High-Husband to Wife, (High:H>W); Very High-Wife to Husband (High-W>H); Low to Moderate, Husband to Wife (Low:H>W); Low to Moderate, Wife to Husband (Low-W>H); Low to Moderate, Both Aggressive (Low:H=W). The majority (57%) of the aggressive couples were classified in the gender asymmetric groups. Most asymmetric clusters became symmetric over time, but the High:H>W cluster became more asymmetric. By the 2nd anniversary, all clusters were characterized by higher injuries experienced by wives than by husbands. Conclusion These results demonstrate that a considerable amount of IPV that is typically classified as “bidirectional” is gender asymmetric and that these asymmetric patterns tend to converge into more symmetric patterns over time. PMID:25506502

  15. Intimate Partner Violence and Unintended Pregnancy among Bangladeshi Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Mosfequr; Sasagawa, Toshiyuki; Fujii, Ryota; Tomizawa, Hideki; Makinoda, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and unintended pregnancy using data from women reporting IPV in the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey. The analysis included 4,695 married women, aged 15 to 40 years, who had at least one birth in the last 5 years. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression…

  16. Intimate Partner Violence during Pregnancy: Best Practices for Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Sarah; Armstrong, D'edra Y.

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is a major problem in the United States, with estimates that 3 percent to 17 percent of women experience violence during the perinatal period. Research indicates that IPV during pregnancy is associated with serious, negative health outcomes for the mother and her unborn child. As such, many…

  17. The Role of Gender in Officially Reported Intimate Partner Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Heather C.; Sillito, Carrie Lefeve

    2012-01-01

    The role of gender in intimate partner abuse (IPA) perpetration and victimization has been debated for the last several decades. Two perspectives have emerged regarding this debate. Researchers from the family violence perspective argue that men and women are violent at near equal rates and call for a reframing of the issue from one of woman…

  18. Gender and Intimate Partner Violence: Evaluating the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilfus, Mary E.; Trabold, Nicole; O'Brien, Patricia; Fleck-Henderson, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a complex social problem that social workers must be trained to address, using the best available evidence. In this article we review divergent theories, research findings, and methods that underpin debates about the role of gender in IPV perpetration and victimization. We examine the literature that…

  19. Characteristics of Victims Coarrested for Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houry, Debra; Reddy, Sudha; Parramore, Constance

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the frequency of coarrest in female victims who utilized 911 for intimate partner violence (IPV) and any patterns or circumstances that increased the likelihood of coarrest. All cases of police-documented IPV where a female IPV victim was arrested in conjunction with the perpetrator were included. Each incident report was…

  20. Age, puberty, and exposure to intimate partner violence in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Foster, Holly; Hagan, John; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2004-12-01

    This paper links sociological and epidemiologic research on violence and the life course to biosocial perspectives on pubertal maturation to examine risk factors associated with exposure to intimate partner violence in adolescence. While prior research has established early puberty as a risk factor for delinquent behavior, studies to date have not yet investigated whether early puberty is also linked to intimate partner violence in adolescence. Prior epidemiologic research has found that increasing age in adolescence is a risk factor for dating violence, but this work has not yet incorporated the element of pubertal maturation. The present study examines the relative effects of chronological age and maturational age in a biosocial model predicting risk for intimate partner violence among adolescent females, net of established control variables, using three waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. These findings indicate that early maturation in females is an additional risk factor for exposure to intimate partner violence in adolescence. The importance of disentangling types of age effects as raised in the developmental literature and as supported by these findings is discussed in relation to the prevention of youth violence.

  1. Intimate Partner Violence in Interracial and Monoracial Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Brittny A.; Cui, Ming; Ueno, Koji; Fincham, Frank D.

    2013-01-01

    This study, using a nationally representative sample, investigated intimate partner violence (IPV) in interracial and monoracial relationships. Regression analyses indicated that interracial couples demonstrated a higher level of mutual IPV than monoracial White couples but a level similar to monoracial Black couples. There were significant gender…

  2. Risky Business: An Ecological Analysis of Intimate Partner Violence Disclosure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaggia, Ramona; Regehr, Cheryl; Jenney, Angelique

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A multistage, mixed-methods study using grounded theory with descriptive data was conducted to examine factors in disclosure of intimate partner violence (IPV). Method: In-depth interviews with individuals and focus groups were undertaken to collect data from 98 IPV survivors and service providers to identify influential factors.…

  3. Intimate Partner Violence in Colombia: Who Is at Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedemann-Sanchez, Greta; Lovaton, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    The role that domestic violence plays in perpetuating poverty is often overlooked as a development issue. Using data from the 2005 Demographic Health Survey, this paper examines the prevalence of intimate partner violence in Colombia. Employing an intrahousehold bargaining framework and a bivariate probit model, it assesses the prevalence of and…

  4. Impact of Emergency Department Intimate Partner Violence Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Jayne; Pelucio, Maria Tereza; Casaletto, Jennifer; Thompson, Karen Parker; Barnes, Sherry; Pettit, Erin; Aldrich, Mae

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study is to assess the impact of emergency department (ED) intimate partner violence (IPV) counseling and resource referrals on patient-perceived safety and safety planning. ED patients with risk factors were offered consultation with trained IPV advocacy counselors who completed safety assessments, provided resource…

  5. Child and Adolescent Predictors of Male Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Delphine; Farrington, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study addresses to what extent child and adolescent explanatory factors predict male perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood. Methods: We use prospective longitudinal data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD). The CSDD is a survey of 411 male born in the 1950s in an inner London area. The men…

  6. Intimate Partner Violence and Welfare Participation: A Longitudinal Causal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Tyrone C.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the temporal-ordered causal relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV), five mental disorders (depression, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic attack, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]), alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/ dependence, treatment seeking (from physician, counselor, and…

  7. Perceptions of Help Resources for Victims of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krugman, Scott D.; Witting, Michael D.; Furuno, Jon P.; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Limcangco, Rhona; Perisse, Andre R. S.; Rasch, Elizabeth K.

    2004-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) constitutes a major public health problem in the United States. This cross-sectional survey of 108 emergency department (ED) care providers and 146 ED visitors at three metropolitan EDs compared the beliefs of ED health care providers with those of community members about the relative benefits of the helpfulness of…

  8. Intimate Partner Violence and Coparenting across the Transition to Parenthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Marni L.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Solmeyer, Anna R.

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) between parents has been linked to negative parenting and child maladjustment, yet the mechanisms underlying this association are not fully understood. Based on a theory that violence among parents disrupts the coparental alliance--which has been linked to parenting quality and child adjustment--the authors examined…

  9. Experience of Hurricane Katrina and Reported Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harville, Emily W.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Tesfai, Helen; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with stress, but few studies have examined the effect of natural disaster on IPV. In this study, the authors examine the relationship between experience of Hurricane Katrina and reported relationship aggression and violence in a cohort of 123 postpartum women. Hurricane experience is measured…

  10. Methods for Estimating Medical Expenditures Attributable to Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Derek S.; Finkelstein, Eric A.; Mercy, James A.

    2008-01-01

    This article compares three methods for estimating the medical cost burden of intimate partner violence against U.S. adult women (18 years and older), 1 year postvictimization. To compute the estimates, prevalence data from the National Violence Against Women Survey are combined with cost data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, the…

  11. The intergenerational transmission of intimate partner violence in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Towfiqua Mahfuza; Tareque, Md. Ismail; Tiedt, Andrew D.; Hoque, Nazrul

    2014-01-01

    Background A number of individual risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) have been identified in Bangladesh. However, the etiology of IPV, intergenerational transmission, has never been tested in Bangladesh. Objective We examined whether witnessing inter-parental physical violence (IPPV) was associated with IPV to identify whether IPV passes across generations in Bangladesh. Methods We used nationally representative data of currently married women from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey-2007. Variations in experiencing IPV were assessed by Chi-square tests. Logistic regression models were fit to determine the association between witnessing IPPV and different types of IPV against women. Results One-fourth of women witnessed IPPV and experienced IPV. After adjusting for the covariates, women who witnessed IPPV were 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0–2.8) times more likely to experience any kind of IPV, 2.5 (95% CI: 2.0–3.0) times more likely to experience moderate physical IPV, 2.3 (95% CI: 1.8–3.0) times more likely to experience severe physical IPV, and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.4–2.3) times more likely to experience sexual IPV. Age, age at first marriage, literacy, work status, wealth, justified wife beating, and women's autonomy were also identified as significant correlates of IPV. Conclusions This study's results indicate that IPV passes from one generation to another. We make recommendations for preventing IPPV so that subsequent generations can enjoy healthy, respectful, nonviolent relationships in married life without exposure to IPV in Bangladesh. PMID:24861340

  12. College students' perceptions of intimate partner cyber harassment.

    PubMed

    Melander, Lisa A

    2010-06-01

    Little is known about cyber harassment in general, and in order to understand more about online harassment among intimate partners, it is important to examine people's perceptions of this new form of aggression. Using Johnson's typology of relationship violence as a guiding framework, the role of technology in partner violence was explored using data from five focus group interviews. Six themes emerged from the analyses, four of which revealed that this partner violence typology accounted for the aggressive use of technology in dating relationships. The remaining themes centered on the ways in which online harassment differs from offline violence. These findings have important theoretical implications and may inform future prevention and intervention efforts.

  13. Common mental disorders and intimate partner violence in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ludermir, Ana Bernarda; Valongueiro, Sandra; de Araújo, Thália Velho Barreto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between common mental disorders and intimate partner violence during pregnancy. METHODS A cross sectional study was carried out with 1,120 pregnant women aged 18-49 years old, who were registered in the Family Health Program in the city of Recife, Northeastern Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. Common mental disorders were assessed using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Intimate partner violence was defined as psychologically, physically and sexually abusive acts committed against women by their partners. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were estimated for the association studied utilizing logistic regression analysis. RESULTS The most common form of partner violence was psychological. The prevalence of common mental disorders was 71.0% among women who reported all form of violence in pregnancy and 33.8% among those who did not report intimate partner violence. Common mental disorders were associated with psychological violence (OR 2.49, 95%CI 1.8;3.5), even without physical or sexual violence. When psychological violence was combined with physical or sexual violence, the risk of common mental disorders was even higher (OR 3.45; 95%CI 2.3;5.2). CONCLUSIONS Being assaulted by someone with whom you are emotionally involved can trigger feelings of helplessness, low self-esteem and depression. The pregnancy probably increased women`s vulnerability to common mental disorders PMID:24789634

  14. Between the professional and the private: the meaning of working with intimate partner violence in social workers' private lives.

    PubMed

    Goldblatt, Hadass; Buchbinder, Eli; Eisikovits, Zvi; Arizon-Mesinger, Ilana

    2009-03-01

    This qualitative study examines the impact of working with intimate partner violence on therapists' marital relationships and gender identity. Data were collected by in-depth semistructured interviews with 14 experienced women social workers working in domestic violence treatment centers in Israel. Findings indicate that the boundaries between workers' private and professional lives are blurred and work experiences influence their intimate relationships and gender role identities, leading to overall questioning of their relationships. This newly rediscovered consciousness reshapes the meaning of workers' couple relationships. Such shift between private and professional should be considered when training workers to intervene with intimate partner violence.

  15. Sex Differences in Intimate Partner Violence and the Use of Coercive Control as a Motivational Factor for Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanha, Marieh; Beck, Connie J. A.; Figueredo, Aurelio Jose; Raghavan, Chitra

    2010-01-01

    Research argues that coercive control (CC) is a special case of intimate partner violence (IPV). The present study hypothesized that instead CC is the "motivator" for other types of IPV, with control of the victim as the goal. When CC fails, physical types of IPV are used. This hypothesized relationship was tested using a large matched sample of…

  16. Intimate Partner Violence in the Great Recession.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Daniel; Harknett, Kristen; McLanahan, Sara

    2016-04-01

    In the United States, the Great Recession was marked by severe negative shocks to labor market conditions. In this study, we combine longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study with U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics data on local area unemployment rates to examine the relationship between adverse labor market conditions and mothers' experiences of abusive behavior between 2001 and 2010. Unemployment and economic hardship at the household level were positively related to abusive behavior. Further, rapid increases in the unemployment rate increased men's controlling behavior toward romantic partners even after we adjust for unemployment and economic distress at the household level. We interpret these findings as demonstrating that the uncertainty and anticipatory anxiety that go along with sudden macroeconomic downturns have negative effects on relationship quality, above and beyond the effects of job loss and material hardship. PMID:27003136

  17. Who died? The murder of collaterals related to intimate partner conflict.

    PubMed

    Dobash, Russell P; Dobash, R Emerson

    2012-06-01

    Using data from the Murder in Britain Study, the authors focus on murders that are related to intimate partner conflict but involve the killing of a person other than the intimate partner. Intimate partner collateral murders (IPCM) include children, allies, and new partners. The findings expand the number and types of murder associated with intimate partner conflict, characterize the three main types of collaterals, compare the childhood and adulthood of the perpetrators of intimate partner murder [IPM] (n = 104) and IPCM (n = 62), and reflect similarities and differences. Various disciplinary approaches are reflected in the research design, data collection, findings, and conclusions.

  18. Intimate partner violence against women in Maputo city, Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is limited research about IPV against women and associated factors in Sub-Saharan Africa, not least Mozambique. The objective of this study was to examine the occurrence, severity, chronicity and “predictors” of IPV against women in Maputo City (Mozambique). Methods Data were collected during a 12 month-period (consecutive cases, with each woman seen only once) from 1,442 women aged 15–49 years old seeking help for abuse by an intimate partner at the Forensic Services at the Maputo Central Hospital, Maputo City, Mozambique. Interviews were conducted by trained female interviewers, and data collected included demographics and lifestyle variables, violence (using the previously validated Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2), and control (using the Controlling Behaviour Scale Revised (CBS-R). The data were analysed using bivariate and multivariate methods. Results The overall experienced IPV during the past 12 months across severity (one or more types, minor and severe) was 70.2% (chronicity, 85.8 ± 120.9).a Severe IPV varied between 26.3-45.9% and chronicity between 3.1 ± 9.1-12.8 ± 26.9, depending on IPV type. Severity and chronicity figures were higher in psychological aggression than in the other IPV types. Further, 26.8% (chronicity, 55.3 ± 117.6) of women experienced all IPV types across severity. The experience of other composite IPV types across severity (4 combinations of 3 types of IPV) varied between 27.1-42.6% and chronicity between 35.7 ± 80.3-64.9 ± 110.9, depending on the type of combination. The combination psychological aggression, physical assault and sexual coercion had the highest figures compared with the other combinations. The multiple regressions showed that controlling behaviours, own perpetration and co-occurring victimization were more important in “explaining” the experience of IPV than other variables (e.g. abuse as a child). Conclusions In our study, controlling behaviours

  19. Intimate partner violence. The gynaecologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Roelens, K

    2010-01-01

    From a questionnaire-based surveillance study among pregnant women constituting a regional probability sample of East-Flanders, we estimated that IPV occurred overall with one in ten women (10.1%, 95% CI 7.7-13.0%) and with about one in 30 women (3.4%, 95% CI 2.1-5.4%) during pregnancy and/or in the year preceding pregnancy. We also revealed that women experiencing IPV rarely disclose abuse spontaneously to the widely available health care services and providers, but in general approve routine questioning by their GP or gynaecologist. The crux of IPV is that most victims will not present with overt signs of abuse, but rather with a wide variety of vague and non-specific symptoms, if any. Hence there seems to exist a window of opportunities to detect women suffering from IPV through screening in the health care sector. From a questionnaire based Knowledge-Practice and Attitude Survey among OB/GYN in Flanders, it appeared that OB/GYN feel uncomfortable with a routine screening policy. They underestimate the prevalence and perceive a lack of self-efficacy in dealing with the problem and properly referring patients, they lack time and perceive it as inappropriate to question patients about IPV. On the other hand they acknowledge that there is a need for training on violence. It therefore appears that most barriers should be remediable through proper OB/GYN training and education, together with enabling strategies such as screening tools and formal referral pathways. In concordance with the National Action Plan to combat IPV, health care workers, including gynaecologists, need to develop guidelines, in order to deal with this important public health problem.

  20. The impact of neighborhoods on intimate partner violence and victimization.

    PubMed

    Pinchevsky, Gillian M; Wright, Emily M

    2012-04-01

    Research on intimate partner violence (IPV) and victimization is widespread across disciplines. To date, the majority of research underscores the importance of individual-level factors to explain IPV, thereby neglecting the significance of macro-level elements. Nevertheless, research suggests that the characteristics of the neighborhood where an individual lives are important for fully understanding IPV. This review focuses on the effects of neighborhoods and macro-level context on violence between intimate partners, specifically identifying empirical studies that have examined contextual predictors of IPV utilizing the major tenets of social disorganization theory. The authors note consistencies and differences across research results and describe study features that may influence the patterns of these findings. Finally, the authors provide both theoretical and methodological recommendations for future research.

  1. Intimate Partner Violence and Children’s Memory

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Harris, Latonya S.; Langley, Hillary A.; Ornstein, Peter A.; Cox, Martha J.

    2014-01-01

    The current study was designed to examine the relation between intimate partner violence (IPV) and children’s memory and drew from a socioeconomically and racially diverse sample of children living in and around a midsized southeastern city (n = 140). Mother-reported IPV when the children were 30 months old was a significant predictor of children’s short-term, working, and deliberate memory at 60 months of age, even after controlling for the children’s sex and race, the families’ income-to-needs ratio, the children’s expressive vocabulary, and maternal harsh-intrusive parenting behaviors. These findings add to the limited extant literature that finds linkages between IPV and children’s cognitive functioning and suggest that living in households in which physical violence is perpetrated among intimate partners may have a negative effect on multiple domains of children’s memory development. PMID:24188084

  2. Risks and Targeted Interventions: Firearms in Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Zeoli, April M; Malinski, Rebecca; Turchan, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    The use of firearms in intimate partner violence (IPV) is widely recognized as an important public health threat. However, what we know about the risks of firearm access on IPV outcomes is limited. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to determine the state of knowledge on 1) the risks of firearm access and use in IPV and 2) the effectiveness of interventions designed specifically to reduce firearm violence in intimate relationships. Only studies published in English in peer-reviewed journals from 1990 through 2014 were included. Results of the review suggest that, when violent intimates have access to firearms, IPV increases in severity and deadliness; however, increases in severity may not be due to firearm use. Additionally, statutes prohibiting persons under domestic violence restraining orders from accessing firearms are associated with reductions in intimate partner homicide, but certain provisions of these laws and their enforcement may impact their effectiveness. Future research should focus on elucidating the link between firearm access and increased IPV severity and on investigating whether and which specific provisions of domestic violence restraining order laws impact the laws' effectiveness. Additionally, more evaluations of initiatives designed to improve the enforcement of domestic violence restraining order firearm prohibitions are needed.

  3. Health sector responses to intimate partner violence: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Zweigenthal, Virginia; Joyner, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a common and serious public health concern, particularly in South Africa, but it is not well managed in primary care. Aim This review aims to summarise the current state of knowledge regarding health sector-based interventions for IPV, their integration into health systems and services and the perspectives of service users and healthcare workers on IPV care, focusing on the South African context. Method PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Google Scholar were searched between January 2012 and May 2014. All types of study design were included, critically appraised and summarised. Results Exposure to IPV leads to wide-ranging and serious health effects. There is sufficient evidence that intervening in IPV in primary care can improve outcomes. Women who have experienced IPV have described an appropriate response by healthcare providers to be non-judgmental, understanding and empathetic. IPV interventions that are complex, comprehensive and utilise systems-wide approaches have been most effective, but system- and society-level barriers hamper implementation. Gender inequities should not be overlooked when responding to IPV. Conclusion Further evaluations of health sector responses to IPV are needed, in order to assist health services to determine the most appropriate models of care, how these can be integrated into current systems and how they can be supported in managing IPV. The need for this research should not prevent health services and healthcare providers from implementing IPV care, but rather should guide the development of rigorous contextually-appropriate evaluations. PMID:26245388

  4. Normative Misperceptions of Abuse Among Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Neighbors, Clayton; Walker, Denise D.; Mbilinyi, Lyungai F.; O’Rourke, Allison; Edleson, Jeffrey L.; Zegree, Joan; Roffman, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    This research was designed to evaluate the applicability of social norms approaches to interventions with male perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV). Participants included 124 nonadjudicated IPV perpetrating men recruited from the general population who completed assessment of their own IPV behaviors via telephone interviews and estimated the prevalence of behaviors in other men. Results indicated that IPV perpetrators consistently overestimated the percentage of men who engaged in IPV and that their estimates were associated with violence toward their partner over the past 90 days. Findings provide preliminary support for incorporating social norms approaches into clinical applications. PMID:20200408

  5. Intimate Partner Femicide in South Africa in 1999 and 2009

    PubMed Central

    Abrahams, Naeemah; Mathews, Shanaaz; Martin, Lorna J.; Lombard, Carl; Jewkes, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Background Death is the most extreme consequence of intimate partner violence. Female homicide studies with data on the perpetrator–victim relationship can provide insights. We compare the results of two South African national studies of female homicide with similar sampling done 10 y apart. Methods and Findings We conducted a retrospective national survey using a weighted cluster design of a proportionate random sample of 38 mortuaries to identify homicides committed in 2009. We abstracted victim data from mortuary and autopsy reports, and perpetrator data from police interviews. We compared homicides of women 14 y and older in 2009 with previously published data collected with the same methodology for homicides committed in 1999. The study found that the rate of female homicide per 100,000 female population in 2009 was 12.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.3, 16.5), compared to 24.7 (95% CI: 17.7, 31.6) in 1999. The incidence rate ratio of 0.54 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.84) reflects a significantly lower rate in 2009. The rate of intimate partner femicide was 5.6/100,000 in 2009 versus 8.8/100,000 in 1999, with an incidence rate ratio of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.24, 1.02), indicating no difference between rates. Logistic regression analysis of homicide characteristics showed that the odds ratio of suspected rape among non-intimate femicides in 2009 compared to 1999 was 2.61 (95% CI: 1.23, 4.08) and among intimate partner femicides it was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.50, 1.42). The OR of homicide by gunshot was 0.54 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.99) in 2009 versus 1999. There was a significant drop in convictions of perpetrators of non-intimate femicide in 2009 versus 1999 (OR = 0.32 [95% CI: 0.19, 0.53]). Limitations of the study include the relatively small sample size and having only two time points. Conclusions Female homicide in South Africa was lower in 2009 than 1999, but intimate partner femicide and suspected rape homicide rates were not statistically different. The cause of the difference is

  6. Sexual relationship power and intimate partner violence among sex workers with non-commercial intimate partners in a Canadian setting.

    PubMed

    Muldoon, Katherine A; Deering, Kathleen N; Feng, Cindy X; Shoveller, Jean A; Shannon, Kate

    2015-01-01

    There is little information on the private lives of women engaged in sex work, particularly how power dynamics within intimate relationships may affect intimate partner violence (IPV). Using baseline data of sex workers enrolled in a longitudinal cohort, "An Evaluation of Sex Workers' Health Access" (AESHA), the present study examined the association between sexual relationship power and IPV among sex workers in non-commercial partnerships in Vancouver, Canada. Pulweritz's Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS) and The World Health Organization (WHO) Intimate Partner Violence against Women Scale (Version9.9) were used. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression techniques were used to investigate the potential confounding effect of sexual relationship power on IPV among sex workers. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Of 510 sex workers, 257 (50.4%) reported having an non-commercial intimate partner and were included in this analysis. In the past 6 months, 84 (32.7%) sex workers reported IPV (physical, sexual or emotional). The median age was 32 years, 39.3% were of Aboriginal ancestry, and 27.6% were migrants. After controlling for known confounders (e.g., age, Aboriginal ancestry, migrant status, childhood trauma, non-injection drug use), low relationship power was independently associated with 4.19 increased odds (95% CI: 1.93-9.10) and medium relationship power was associated 1.95 increased odds (95% CI: 0.89-4.25) of IPV. This analysis highlights how reduced control over sexual-decision making is plays a critical role in IPV among sex workers, and calls for innovation and inclusive programming tailored to sex workers and their non-commercial intimate partnerships.

  7. Typology of intimate partner homicide: personal, interpersonal, and environmental characteristics of men who murdered their female intimate partner.

    PubMed

    Elisha, Ety; Idisis, Yael; Timor, Uri; Addad, Moshe

    2010-08-01

    Fifteen inmates from Ayalon prison, a maximum-security prison in Israel, who were convicted of murder, attempted murder, or manslaughter of their female intimate partner, have participated in a study designed to examine integrated variables-personal, interpersonal, and environmental-familial-connected with this phenomenon. Analyses of the in-depth interviews demonstrate that despite the different motivations the perpetrators displayed with regard to the murder, they share some common themes. On the basis of these themes, three primary types of female intimate partner murderers have been identified; each of them represents a personal narrative as follows: the betrayed, the abandoned, and the tyrant. The proposed typology might be used for establishing a common language among researchers, scholars, and workers in this field. It can also contribute to the existing clinical tools in terms of prediction, prevention, and treatment initiatives that currently focus on violence.

  8. The relationship between anger, childhood maltreatment, and emotion regulation difficulties in intimate partner and non-intimate partner violent offenders.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Frank L; Moore, Zella E; Dettore, Melissa

    2014-11-01

    Violence is a significant public health problem, which has been linked to the primary emotion of anger. While several theoretical models have attempted to understand the relationship between anger and violence, empirical evidence to support these models and the psychological treatments that follow from them have been lacking. A newer model for understanding the relationship between anger and violence emphasizes the dual diatheses of childhood maltreatment and difficulties in emotion regulation as central to understanding the anger-violence relationship. Investigating the relationship between childhood maltreatment and anger experience and expression among 88 violent offenders referred for intimate partner or non-intimate partner violent offenses, results herein confirm that substantial childhood maltreatment is found among violent offenders, with differing patterns of abuse noted across groups. Furthermore, mediational analyses indicate that difficulties in emotion regulation mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and various aspects of anger experience and expression among both types of offenders.

  9. The Impact of Intimate Partner Violence on Women's Condom Negotiation Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Holly; O'Connell, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    HIV prevention efforts promote the use of condoms to prevent the spread of HIV and other STDs. Thus, a woman's agency to practice healthy sexual behaviors necessarily involves negotiation with another person. This poses unique challenges for women who have limited power in relationships. The current study explores how the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) impacts a woman's confidence in her ability to negotiate condom use with a sexual partner (i.e., condom use self-efficacy), using data from incarcerated females in three states, who were interviewed just prior to release back into the community. The direct effect of experiencing IPV as an adult, controlling for other risk factors, on condom use self-efficacy has not previously been empirically tested. Results show that IPV experiences among women significantly decreases their confidence in negotiating condom use with a partner, putting them at a higher risk of HIV infection than women who do not report having recently experienced IPV. PMID:21987514

  10. Iranian Women’s Experiences with Intimate Partner Violence: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Taherkhani, Sakineh; Negarandeh, Reza; Simbar, Masomeh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Violence against women has been identified as a public health problem, which has fundamental consequences on women's physical, mental, and reproductive health. To understand abused women and provide support for them, it is necessary to enter the world in which the victims of intimate partner violence live. This study was designed to investigate experiences of abused Iranian women of intimate partner violence. Methods: Content analysis approach was used to design this qualitative study. Participants were 11 married women, selected from two health centers and one park located in the south of Tehran, Iran. Purposive sampling method was applied to recruit the study participants and continued until data saturation was reached. Semi-structured interviews were employed to collect data. Results: During the data analysis, 650 initial codes were clustered in six subcategories and two categories. “Neglect or covert violence” and “overt violence” were two categories emerged through data analysis, both having physical, sexual, and emotional dimensions. Emotional violence was the most prevalent in both cases and had more significance for the women. Neglect was much more common than overt violence. It was the precursor for overt violence. Conclusion: Although participants had experienced both neglect and overt violence, the major part of experienced violence was neglect. This type of violence usually is not addressed or recognized and is difficult to identify, but it is damaging to women. Knowledge of women‟s experiences of intimate partner violence makes the health staff provide better care for abused women. PMID:25649136

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of Suicidal Ideation among Court-Referred Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Febres, Jeniimarie; Elmquist, JoAnna; Zapor, Heather; Brasfield, Hope; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the documented association between intimate partner violence perpetration and suicidal ideation, few studies have examined the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation in men attending batterer intervention programs. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation in 294 males court-ordered to a batterer intervention program. Twenty-two percent of the sample reported experiencing suicidal ideation within the two weeks prior to entering the batterer intervention program. Multiple linear regression indicated that depression and borderline personality disorder symptoms, but not intimate partner violence perpetration, victimization, or antisocial personality disorder symptoms, accounted for significant variance in suicidal ideation. These results suggest that symptoms of depression and borderline personality disorder observed in males attending batterer intervention programs should warrant thorough suicide risk assessment. Implications of the findings and limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:24979071

  12. Intimate Partner Violence among California Couples: Multilevel Analysis of Environmental and Partner Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Cunradi, Carol B.; Todd, Michael; Mair, Christina; Remer, Lillian

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the extent to which environmental (Census block-group alcohol outlet density, neighborhood demographic characteristics) and partner risk factors (e.g., hazardous drinking, psychosocial characteristics) contribute to the likelihood of intimate partner violence among 1,753 couples residing in 50 medium-to-large California cities. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the role of alcohol outlets (off-premise outlets, bars/pubs and restaurants), neighborhood demographic characteristics, and partner risk factors in relation to male-to-female partner violence (MFPV) and female-to-male partner violence (FMPV) risk. Approximately 12% of couples reported past-year partner violence. Results showed that none of the environmental measures were related to MFPV or FMPV. Male partner's impulsivity and each partner's adverse childhood experiences were associated with MFPV risk. Risk factors for FMPV were male partner's impulsivity and frequency of intoxication and female partner's adverse childhood experiences. Individual/couple characteristics appear to be the most salient IPV risk factors. The male partner's heavy drinking may lead to negative partner/spousal interactions that result in FMPV. The male partner's impulsivity, and each partner's adverse childhood experiences, may potentiate couple conflict and result in aggression. Interventions that target prevention of family dysfunction during childhood may help reduce interpersonal violence in adulthood. PMID:24812578

  13. Intimate partner aggression-related shame and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: The moderating role of substance use problems.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Nicole H; Duke, Aaron A; Overstreet, Nicole M; Swan, Suzanne C; Sullivan, Tami P

    2016-09-01

    A dearth of literature has examined the consequences of women's use of aggression in intimate relationships. Women's use of aggression against their intimate partners, regardless of their motivation (e.g., self-defense, retaliation), may elicit shame. Shame, in turn, may contribute to the maintenance and/or exacerbation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, which are commonly experienced in this population. Further, emerging research suggests that emotionally avoidant coping strategies, such as substance use, may strengthen the relation between shame and PTSD symptoms. The goal of the present study was to examine whether women's shame concerning their use of intimate partner aggression is associated with their PTSD symptoms, and whether drug and alcohol use problems moderate this association. Participants were 369 community women who had used and been victimized by physical aggression in an intimate relationship with a male partner in the past six months. The intimate partner aggression-related shame × drug (but not alcohol) use problems interaction on PTSD symptom severity was significant. Analysis of simple slopes revealed that women's intimate partner aggression-related shame was positively associated with their PTSD symptoms when drug use problems were high, but not when drug use problems were low. Findings have implications for the potential utility of PTSD treatments targeting a reduction in shame and maladaptive shame regulation strategies (i.e., drug use) in this population. Aggr. Behav. 42:427-440, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26699821

  14. Intimate partner physical violence among women in Shimelba refugee camp, northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Domestic violence has unwanted effects on the physical and psychological well-being of women, which have been recognized globally as an important public health problem. Violence perpetrated by intimate partner is one form of domestic violence, a serious human rights abuse and a public health issue, among refugees owing to its substantial consequences for women's physical, mental and reproductive health problems. Because the incidents are under-reported, the true scale of the problem is unknown and unexamined among refugee women in Ethiopia. Thus, this study aim to assess the magnitude of intimate partner physical violence and associated factors among women in Shimelba refugee camp, Northern Ethiopia. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among a sample of 422 refugee women from March to April 2011. A simple random sampling method was used to select the study subjects from seven zones of the refugee camp. Census was done to identify all households with women having an intimate partner. A pre-tested interviewer guided structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS software version 16.0. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were done where applicable. A p-value less than 0.05 with 95% CI were set and used as a cut-off point to examine the statistical association between the explanatory and outcome variables. Results The prevalence of physical violence in the last 12 months and lifetime were 107(25.5%) and 131(31.0%) respectively. The commonest forms of physical violence reported included slapping 101(61.6%) and throwing objects 32(19.5%). Significant risk factors associated with experiencing physical violence were being a farmer (AOR = 3.0[95%CI: 1.7, 5.5]), knowing women in neighborhood whose husband to beat them (AOR = 1.87[95%CI: 1.0, 3.5]), being a Muslim (AOR = 2.4 [95%C.I: 1.107, 5.5]), and having a drunkard partner (AOR = 2.1[95%C.I:1

  15. Reconceptualizing and Operationalizing Context in Survey Research on Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindhorst, Taryn; Tajima, Emiko

    2008-01-01

    Survey research in the field of intimate partner violence is notably lacking in its attention to contextual factors. Early measures of intimate partner violence focused on simple counts of behaviors, yet attention to broader contextual factors remains limited. Contextual factors not only shape what behaviors are defined as intimate partner…

  16. Intimate Partner Violence and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Women: What We Know and Need to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Stephanie J.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a review of knowledge regarding post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women experiencing intimate partner violence. Knowledge related to the prevalence and predictors of PTSD in battered women, the association between PTSD and physical health, and the emerging science regarding PTSD and physiological and immune parameters…

  17. Service Providers' Reactions to Intimate Partner Violence as a Function of Victim Sexual Orientation and Type of Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basow, Susan A.; Thompson, Janelle

    2012-01-01

    In this online vignette study, a national sample of domestic violence shelter service providers (N = 282) completed a 10-item questionnaire about a woman experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). Scenarios varied in terms of couple sexual orientation (heterosexual or lesbian) and type of abuse (physical or nonphysical). Results indicate that…

  18. A Qualitative Study of Intimate Partner Violence Universal Screening by Family Therapy Interns: Implications for Practice, Research, Training, and Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todahl, Jeffrey L.; Linville, Deanna; Chou, Liang-Ying; Maher-Cosenza, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Although a few family therapy researchers and clinicians have urged universal screening for intimate partner violence (IPV), how screening is implemented--and, in particular, client and therapist response to screening--is vaguely defined and largely untested. This qualitative study examined the dilemmas experienced by couples and family therapy…

  19. Mental Health Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence in Marital Relationships in a Nationally Representative Sample of Males and Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afifi, Tracie O.; MacMillan, Harriet; Cox, Brian J.; Asmundson, Gordon J. G.; Stein, Murray B.; Sareen, Jitender

    2009-01-01

    It is important to understand the epidemiology of intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by both males and females. Data were drawn from the U.S. National Comorbidity Survey Replication. The relationships between physical IPV and child abuse, mental disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts among males and females were examined. The…

  20. Reducing Intimate and Paying Partner Violence against Women Who Exchange Sex in Mongolia: Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Catherine E.; Chen, Jiehua; Chang, Mingway; Batsukh, Altantsetseg; Toivgoo, Aira; Riedel, Marion; Witte, Susan S.

    2012-01-01

    Women who exchange sex for money or other goods, that is, female sex workers, are at increased risk of experiencing physical and sexual violence from both paying and intimate partners. Exposure to violence can be exacerbated by alcohol use and HIV/STI risk. The purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy of a HIV/STI risk reduction and…

  1. Relative Importance of Emotional Dysregulation, Hostility, and Impulsiveness in Predicting Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrated by Men in Alcohol Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharp, Andra Teten; Schumacher, Julie A.; Samper, Rita E.; McLeish, Alison C.; Coffey, Scott F.

    2013-01-01

    The current study employs dominance analysis to assess the relative importance of three constructs--hostility, impulsiveness, and emotional dysregulation (difficulties managing one's emotions when experiencing negative emotion or distress)--in explaining psychological, physical, and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration by men…

  2. Urban Adolescent Girls’ Perspectives on Multiple Partners in the Context of the Sexual Double Standard and Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Teitelman, Anne M.; Tennille, Julie; Bohinski, Julia; Jemmott, Loretta S.; Jemmott, John B.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the influence of abusive and non-abusive relationship dynamics on the number of sex partners among urban adolescent girls. Focus groups were conducted with 64 sexually active adolescent girls ages 14 to 17 years. General coding and content analyses identified patterns, themes, and salient beliefs. More than one third (37.5%) reported having experienced physical, intimate partner violence; 32.8% had 2 or more recent sex partners, and 37.5% had ever had a sexually transmitted infection (STI) or HIV. Although some girls in abusive relationships feared retribution if they had more than one partner, others sought additional partners for solace or as an act of resistance. Adolescent HIV/STI prevention programs need to address the influence of gender norms such as the sexual double standard as well as partner pressure and partner abuse on adolescent decision-making about safer sex, and also promote healthy relationships as integral to advancing HIV/STI risk reduction. PMID:23790274

  3. Intimate partner violence against women in western Ethiopia: prevalence, patterns, and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence against women is the psychological, physical, and sexual abuse directed to spouses. Globally it is the most pervasive yet underestimated human rights violation. This study was aimed at investigating the prevalence, patterns and associated factors of intimate partner violence against women in Western Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional, population based household survey was conducted from January to April, 2011 using standard WHO multi-country study questionnaire. A sample of 1540 ever married/cohabited women aged 15-49 years was randomly selected from urban and rural settings of East Wollega Zone, Western Ethiopia. Data were principally analyzed using logistic regression. Results Lifetime and past 12 months prevalence of intimate partner violence against women showed 76.5% (95% CI: 74.4-78.6%) and 72.5% (95% CI: 70.3-74.7%), respectively. The overlap of psychological, physical, and sexual violence was 56.9%. The patterns of the three forms of violence are similar across the time periods. Rural residents (AOR 0.58, 95% CI 0.34-0.98), literates (AOR 0.65, 95% CI 0.48-0.88), female headed households (AOR 0.46, 95% CI 0.27-0.76) were at decreased likelihood to have lifetime intimate partner violence. Yet, older women were nearly four times (AOR 3.36, 95% CI 1.27-8.89) more likely to report the incident. On the other hand, abduction (AOR 3.71, 95% CI 1.01-13.63), polygamy (AOR 3.79, 95% CI 1.64-0.73), spousal alcoholic consumption (AOR 1.98, 95% CI 1.21-3.22), spousal hostility (AOR 3.96, 95% CI 2.52-6.20), and previous witnesses of parental violence (AOR 2.00, 95% CI 1.54-2.56) were factors associated with an increased likelihood of lifetime intimate partner violence against women. Conclusion In their lifetime, three out of four women experienced at least one incident of intimate partner violence. This needs an urgent attention at all levels of societal hierarchy including policymakers, stakeholders and professionals to alleviate

  4. Intimate partner homicide: new insights for understanding lethality and risks.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Brynn E; Murphy, Sharon B; Moynihan, Mary M; Dudley-Fennessey, Erin; Stapleton, Jane G

    2015-02-01

    Research on covictims, family members, and close friends who have lost loved ones to intimate partner homicide (IPH) is a neglected area of study. We conducted phenomenological interviews with covictims to gain insights into risk and lethality, examined affidavits from criminal case files, and reviewed news releases. The data uncovered acute risk factors prior to the homicide, identified changes in the perpetrators' behavior and the perpetrators' perceived loss of control over the victim, and described barriers that victims faced when attempting to gain safety. Findings suggest that recognizing acute risk factors is an important area for future IPH research.

  5. Intimate Partner Violence in Interracial and Monoracial Couples

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Brittny A.; Cui, Ming; Ueno, Koji; Fincham, Frank D.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated intimate partner violence in interracial and monoracial relationships. Using a nationally representative sample, regression analyses indicated that interracial couples demonstrated a higher level of mutual IPV than monoracial white couples but a level similar to monoracial black couples. There were significant gender differences in IPV, with women reporting lower levels of victimization than men. Regarding relationship status, cohabiting couples demonstrated the highest levels of IPV and dating couples reported the lowest levels. Regarding interactions among couple racial composition, relationship status, and respondents’ gender, an interaction between racial composition and relationship status was found. Implications for practitioners and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:23554541

  6. POLICYMAKING UNDER UNCERTAINTY: ROUTINE SCREENING FOR INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE

    PubMed Central

    Dagher, Rada K.; Garza, Mary A.; Kozhimannil, Katy Backes

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health issue affecting around 3 million U.S. women during their lifetimes; this paper provides guidance to policymakers on addressing IPV. In 2011, an Institute of Medicine panel recommended routine IPV screening for women and adolescents as part of comprehensive preventive care services, which is in conflict with the 2004 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendations. The current evidence base for policymaking suffers weaknesses related to study design which should be addressed in future research. Meanwhile, policymakers should consider available evidence in their settings, assess local needs, and make recommendations where appropriate. PMID:25011677

  7. Relations Between Intimate Partner Violence and Forgiveness Among College Women.

    PubMed

    Davidson, M Meghan; Lozano, Nicole M; Cole, Brian P; Gervais, Sarah J

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to examine forgiveness and intimate partner violence (IPV) among college women. Undergraduate women (N = 502) participated in an online study in which overall experiences of IPV, as well as experiences of psychological and physical IPV, were investigated with respect to transgression-specific and dispositional forgiveness. Simultaneous multivariate regressions revealed that (a) the experience of IPV was associated with higher levels of avoidance and revenge, and lower levels of benevolence, forgiveness of self, forgiveness of others, and forgiveness of uncontrollable situations; (b) types of IPV demonstrated differing impacts on forgiveness; and (c) the mere experience of IPV is more salient than its frequency. PMID:25392378

  8. Antecedents of Intimate Partner Violence Among Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Finneran, Catherine; Stephenson, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Examinations of gay and bisexual men’s (GBM) perceptions of intimate partner violence (IPV), including their perceptions of events likely to precipitate IPV, are lacking. Focus group discussions with GBM (n = 83) yielded 24 unique antecedents, or triggers, of IPV in male–male relationships. Venue-recruited survey participants (n = 700) identified antecedents that were likely to cause partner violence in male–male relationships, including antecedents GBM-specific currently absent from the literature. Chi-square tests found significant variations in antecedent endorsement when tested against recent receipt of IPV. Linear regression confirmed that men reporting recent IPV endorsed significantly more IPV antecedents than men without recent IPV (β = 1.8155, p < .012). A better understanding of the IPV event itself in male–male couples versus heterosexual couples, including its antecedents, can inform and strengthen IPV prevention efforts. PMID:25069147

  9. Complex Personhood as the Context for Intimate Partner Victimization: One American Indian Woman's Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Sharon; Lemire, Lynne; Wisman, Mindi

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative case study explores one American Indian (AI) woman's experience of intimate partner violence and the subsequent murder of her abusive partner. The lens of complex personhood (Gordon, 1997) has been applied as a method for understanding "Annie's" multiple identities of AI woman, victim of intimate partner violence, mother, and…

  10. Trauma-Informed Approach to Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Anyikwa, Victoria A

    2016-01-01

    Trauma leads to deleterious effects on individuals and families causing many to seek treatment from social work practitioners across systems of care. Trauma comes in all forms, from community violence to domestic violence, including physical and sexual abuse of children and violence among intimate partners that leaves its victims devastatingly impacted. Women make up the majority of survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV) with studies revealing significant associated mental health problems. Social workers are bound to work with survivors of IPV and must be prepared to deliver effective trauma-informed services. While trauma-specific services exist for specific populations, researchers are finding that negative events in childhood and in family functioning can impact individuals' lives in negative ways thus having implications for treatment across systems. For women survivors of IPV, the traumatic stress may be cumulative with varied emotional and mental health impacts that may force them to seek services across systems, not just domestic violence specific systems. As such it is imperative that social workers increase awareness of trauma, its impact on women, and the importance of the approach and environment in which they provide services. In this article the author aims to broaden social workers knowledge of the use of a TIC approach developed by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration that's applicable across systems of care, particularly when working with women survivors of IPV. PMID:27142906

  11. [Severe intimate partner violence risk prediction scale-revised].

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique; Amor, Pedro Javier; Loinaz, Ismael; de Corral, Paz

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the psychometric properties of the Severe Intimate Partner Violence Risk Prediction Scale and to revise it in order to ponderate the 20 items according to their discriminant capacity and to solve the missing item problem. The sample for this study consisted of 450 male batterers who were reported to the police station. The victims were classified as high-risk (18.2%), moderate-risk (45.8%) and low-risk (36%), depending on the cutoff scores in the original scale. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=.72) and interrater reliability (r=.73) were acceptable. The point biserial correlation coefficient between each item and the corrected total score of the 20-item scale was calculated to determine the most discriminative items, which were associated with the context of intimate partner violence in the last month, with the male batterer's profile and with the victim's vulnerability. A revised scale (EPV-R) with new cutoff scores and indications on how to deal with the missing items were proposed in accordance with these results. This easy-to-use tool appears to be suitable to the requirements of criminal justice professionals and is intended for use in safety planning. Implications of these results for further research are discussed.

  12. Employers' Perceptions of Intimate Partner Violence among a Diverse Workforce

    PubMed Central

    Tudor, Carrie; Weinstein, Marc; Moss, Helen; Glass, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant global public health concern, affecting 5.3 million US individuals annually. An estimated 1 in 3 women globally are abused by an intimate partner in their lifetime, and the effects carry over into the workplace. This article examines employers' perceptions of IPV in the workplace, targeting supervisors of Latina employees. Methods Fourteen employers and supervisors of small service-sector companies in Oregon were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. Interpretive description was used to identify themes. These qualitative interviews preceded and helped to formulate a larger workplace intervention study. Results The following themes were found and are detailed: (1) factors associated with recognizing IPV in the workplace, (2) effects of IPV on the work environment and (3) supervisors' responses to IPV-active vs. passive involvement. Also, supervisors' suggestions for addressing IPV in the workplace are summarized. Conclusion These findings demonstrate the need for more IPV-related resources in the workplace to be available to supervisors as well as survivors and their coworkers. The needs of supervisors and workplaces vary by site, demonstrating the need for tailored interventions, and culturally appropriate workplace interventions are needed for Latinas and other racially and ethnically diverse populations. PMID:22953209

  13. Impact of intimate partner violence on pregnant women's mental health: mental distress and mental strength.

    PubMed

    Rose, Linda; Alhusen, Jeanne; Bhandari, Shreya; Soeken, Karen; Marcantonio, Kristen; Bullock, Linda; Sharps, Phyllis

    2010-02-01

    The mental health consequences of living with intimate partner violence (IPV) are substantial. Despite the growing awareness of the incidence of depression and PTSD in women experiencing IPV, few studies have examined prospectively the experience of IPV during pregnancy and the impact of the abuse on women's mental health. As a component of a larger clinical trial of an intervention for pregnant abused women, 27 women participated in a qualitative study of their responses to the abuse in the context of pregnancy and parenting. Results indicate that women's changing perceptions of self was related to mental distress, mental health, or both mental distress and mental health. PMID:20070224

  14. Pregnancy and Intimate Partner Violence: How do Rural, Low-Income Women Cope?

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F.; Anderson, Kim M.; Danis, Fran S.; Sharps, Phyllis W.

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted thirty-two in-depth interviews with 20 rural, low-income, women residing in the United States, who were pregnant (n =12) or three months postpartum (n =8) and had experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Using purposive sampling and the grounded theory method, the authors generated a conceptual model of coping. The urge to protect the unborn baby was the primary influence for participants’ decisions about separating from or permanently leaving an abusive relationship. Implications include universal screening for IPV in child-bearing women, inquiry into maternal identity development during pregnancy, and improved resource access for rural, low-income women. PMID:21834721

  15. A Methodological Review of Intimate Partner Violence in the Military: Where Do We Go From Here?

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Amy E; Funderburk, Jennifer S; Keating, Niki L; Maisto, Stephen A

    2015-07-01

    A significant number of military personnel report engaging in or experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). To advance current research and understanding of this behavior, we conducted a methodological review of the literature on IPV in military personnel and veterans. Research from 1980 to the present, which consisted of 63 empirical studies, was objectively coded by two independent raters on a number of variables important to the methodological quality of research on IPV in the military. In addition, areas of importance to the future of IPV research are presented.

  16. The relationship between intimate partner violence and children's asthma in 10 US states/territories.

    PubMed

    Breiding, Matthew J; Ziembroski, Jessica S

    2011-02-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been shown to negatively impact the health of both the adults who experience IPV and the children who are exposed to IPV. Although IPV experienced by women has been linked to children's asthma, this study is the first to examine this question among both women and men, and the first study in the United States to examine this question as part of a population-based data set. In 2005, ten US states/territories administered an IPV module and a children's asthma module within the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Lifetime IPV was assessed by four questions that asked about threatened, attempted, or completed physical violence, as well as unwanted sex, by a current or former intimate partner. The children's asthma module asked respondents to report whether a randomly selected child in their household had ever been diagnosed with asthma and whether the same child currently had asthma. Women who experienced lifetime IPV, in contrast to women who never experienced IPV, were significantly more likely to report that their children had ever had asthma and currently have asthma. Among men, significant differences were not found when comparing men who reported lifetime IPV to those that did not report lifetime IPV. The results highlight the importance of primary prevention of IPV, as reducing the occurrence of IPV could improve not only the long-term health of those who experience IPV but also the health of their children.

  17. Gender differences in risk for intimate partner violence among South African adults.

    PubMed

    Gass, Jesse D; Stein, Dan J; Williams, David R; Seedat, Soraya

    2011-09-01

    Despite a high prevalence of intimate partner violence in South Africa, few epidemiological studies have assessed individual risk factors and differential vulnerability by gender. This study seeks to analyze gender differences in risk for intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration according to childhood and adult risk factors in a national sample of South African men and women. Using data from the cross-sectional, nationally representative South Africa Stress and Health Study, the authors examine data from 1,715 currently married or cohabiting adults on reporting of intimate partner violence. Our analysis include (a) demographic factors, (b) early life risk factors (including exposure to childhood physical abuse, witnessing parental violence, parental closeness, and early onset DSM-IV disorders), and (c) adult risk factors (including experiencing the death of a child and episodes of DSM-IV disorders after age 20). Although prevalence rates of intimate partner violence are high among both genders, women are significantly more likely than men to report being victimized (29.3% vs. 20.9%). Rates of perpetrating violence are similar for women and men (25.2% and 26.5%, respectively). Men are more likely to report predictive factors for perpetration, whereas women are more likely to report predictors for victimization. Common risk factors among men and women reporting perpetration include exposure to childhood physical abuse, witnessing parental violence, and adult onset alcohol abuse/dependence. However, risk factors in male perpetrators are more likely to include cohabitation, low income, and early and adult-onset mood disorders, whereas risk factors in female perpetrators include low educational attainment and early onset alcohol abuse/dependence. The single common risk factor for male and female victims of partner violence is witnessing parental violence. Additional risk factors for male victims are low income and lack of closeness to a primary female

  18. Gender Differences in Risk for Intimate Partner Violence Among South African Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gass, Jesse D.; Stein, Dan J.; Williams, David R.; Seedat, Soraya

    2012-01-01

    Despite a high prevalence of intimate partner violence in South Africa, few epidemiological studies have assessed individual risk factors and differential vulnerability by gender. This study sought to analyze gender differences in risk for intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration according to childhood and adult risk factors in a national sample of South African men and women. Using data from the cross-sectional, nationally representative South Africa Stress and Health Study, we examined data from 1,715 currently married or cohabiting adults on reporting of intimate partner violence. Our analysis included (i) demographic factors; (ii) early life risk factors (including exposure to childhood physical abuse, witnessing parental violence, parental closeness, and early onset DSM-IV disorders); and (iii) adult risk factors (including experiencing the death of a child and episodes of DSM-IV disorders after age 20). Although prevalence rates of intimate partner violence were high among both genders, women were significantly more likely than men to report being victimized (29.3% vs. 20.9%). Rates of perpetrating violence were similar for women and men (25.2% and 26.5%, respectively). Men were more likely to report predictive factors for perpetration, whereas women were more likely to report predictors for victimization. Common risk factors among men and women reporting perpetration included exposure to childhood physical abuse, witnessing parental violence, and adult onset alcohol abuse/dependence. However, risk factors in male perpetrators were more likely to include cohabitation, low income, and early and adult onset mood disorders, whereas risk factors in female perpetrators included low educational attainment and early onset alcohol abuse/dependence. The single common risk factor for male and female victims of partner violence was witnessing parental violence. Additional risk factors for male victims were low income and lack of closeness to a primary

  19. Patterns of intimate partner violence and associated risk factors among married enlisted female soldiers.

    PubMed

    Forgey, Mary Ann; Badger, Lee

    2010-01-01

    A sample of 248 enlisted active duty females married to civilian spouses completed a self-report survey that asked about their own and their spouse's violence. The survey also asked about their sex-role attitudes, marital satisfaction, alcohol use, childhood trauma, and depression. Results identified patterns of intimate partner violence and their relationship to the psychosocial risk factors. Females experiencing severe bidirectional violence were likely to be the most depressed and to have a history of child sexual abuse. Females experiencing minor bidirectional violence did not share any of the psychosocial risk factors found for severe bidirectional violence. Females perpetrating unilateral violence toward their spouses were found to be as satisfied in their marriages as nonviolent couples and less depressed than the females experiencing bidirectional violence.

  20. An updated feminist view of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    George, Jayashree; Stith, Sandra M

    2014-06-01

    In this article, we explore intimate partner violence (IPV) from an intersectional, feminist perspective. We describe how an updated feminist view guides us to a perspective on IPV that is more strongly grounded in an antioppressive, nonviolent, socially just feminist stance than a second-wave gender-essential feminist stance that suggests that patriarchy is the cause of IPV. At the time we began to work together it seemed that a researcher had to be identified as a "family violence" researcher or a "feminist" researcher of violence against women, and that it wasn't possible to be a feminist researcher who looked beyond patriarchy as the cause of IPV. We advocate critically thinking about essentialist practices in clinical work so that we can maintain an antioppressive, socially just, nonviolent approach to working with clients who experience IPV. PMID:24749960

  1. Qualitative Systematic Review of Intimate Partner Violence among Native Americans.

    PubMed

    Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among Native Americans is high, and a full understanding of how to prevent it is unclear. Based on this qualitative systematic review of 13 research reports, a model of IPV among Native Americans was developed. IPV appears to be grounded within a history of upheaval and loss, and is entrenched and repressed within families. Victims are reluctant to seek assistance, and when they do, they often experience barriers within the service system. To prevent and resolve IPV, service providers are urged to establish trust with individuals who seek assistance and to leverage cultural strengths. They also are encouraged to adapt theoretical models to optimize care. PMID:26514253

  2. Intimate partner violence: the role of the pediatrician.

    PubMed

    Thackeray, Jonathan D; Hibbard, Roberta; Dowd, M Denise

    2010-05-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics and its members recognize the importance of improving the physician's ability to recognize intimate partner violence (IPV) and understand its effects on child health and development and its role in the continuum of family violence. Pediatricians are in a unique position to identify abused caregivers in pediatric settings and to evaluate and treat children raised in homes in which IPV may occur. Children exposed to IPV are at increased risk of being abused and neglected and are more likely to develop adverse health, behavioral, psychological, and social disorders later in life. Identifying IPV, therefore, may be one of the most effective means of preventing child abuse and identifying caregivers and children who may be in need of treatment and/or therapy. Pediatricians should be aware of the profound effects of exposure to IPV on children. PMID:20421260

  3. Intimate partner violence and diurnal cortisol patterns in couples

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoun K.; Tiberio, Stacey S.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Shortt, Joann Wu; Squires, Erica C.; Snodgrass, J. Josh

    2014-01-01

    Summary This study examined whether physical intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization was associated with diurnal patterns of salivary cortisol in a community sample of 122 couples in their 30s from predominantly lower socioeconomic status backgrounds. Findings indicate that women with higher levels of victimization exhibited flatter patterns of diurnal cortisol characterized by both higher midday levels and more attenuated decreases in cortisol levels across the day, compared to women with lower levels of victimization. However, men's victimization was not associated with their diurnal cortisol levels. This study advances our understanding of the association between physical IPV victimization and dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning in women, which is likely to have further implications for their subsequent mental and physical health. PMID:25286224

  4. An updated feminist view of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    George, Jayashree; Stith, Sandra M

    2014-06-01

    In this article, we explore intimate partner violence (IPV) from an intersectional, feminist perspective. We describe how an updated feminist view guides us to a perspective on IPV that is more strongly grounded in an antioppressive, nonviolent, socially just feminist stance than a second-wave gender-essential feminist stance that suggests that patriarchy is the cause of IPV. At the time we began to work together it seemed that a researcher had to be identified as a "family violence" researcher or a "feminist" researcher of violence against women, and that it wasn't possible to be a feminist researcher who looked beyond patriarchy as the cause of IPV. We advocate critically thinking about essentialist practices in clinical work so that we can maintain an antioppressive, socially just, nonviolent approach to working with clients who experience IPV.

  5. Intimate partner violence against women and the Nordic paradox.

    PubMed

    Gracia, Enrique; Merlo, Juan

    2016-05-01

    Nordic countries are the most gender equal countries in the world, but at the same time they have disproportionally high prevalence rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. High prevalence of IPV against women, and high levels of gender equality would appear contradictory, but these apparently opposite statements appear to be true in Nordic countries, producing what could be called the 'Nordic paradox'. Despite this paradox being one of the most puzzling issues in the field, this is a research question rarely asked, and one that remains unanswered. This paper explores a number of theoretical and methodological issues that may help to understand this paradox. Efforts to understand the Nordic paradox may provide an avenue to guide new research on IPV and to respond to this major public health problem in a more effective way.

  6. Negotiating agency in cases of intimate partner violence in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Pells, Kirrily; Wilson, Emma; Thi Thu Hang, Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Understandings of women's agency in cases of intimate partner violence (IPV) have been dominated by an individualistic focus on help-seeking behaviour. The role of children in influencing, enabling and restricting the decision-making processes of their mothers has been largely ignored. We adopt biographical analytical approaches to qualitative longitudinal data collected as part of the Young Lives study to highlight the interdependency of women's and children's agency in contexts of IPV in Vietnam. We illustrate how women's agency is both enabled and constrained by their relationships with their children, as well as by wider structural processes, and examine how gender and generation intersect. In marginalised settings where few formal services exist or strong social norms preclude women from accessing support, understanding these informal coping strategies and the processes by which these are negotiated is essential for developing more effective policy responses.

  7. Portrayal of women as intimate partner domestic violence perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Hester, Marianne

    2012-09-01

    The article explores some of the ways heterosexual women are portrayed as perpetrators of intimate partner domestic violence (IPV) in police domestic violence records in England and is the first study in the United Kingdom to examine the issue of gender and domestic violence perpetrators in any detail and over time. The article is based on a study of 128 IPV cases tracked longitudinally over 6 years, including 32 cases where women were the sole perpetrators and a further 32 cases where women were "dual" perpetrators alongside men. Women were 3 times more likely than men to be arrested when they were construed as the perpetrator. However, Pence and Dasgupta's category of "pathological violence" appeared more useful as an analytical category in the construction of women as "perpetrators" and men as "victims" than the notion of "battering."

  8. Employment status and intimate partner violence among Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Terrazas-Carrillo, Elizabeth C; McWhirter, Paula T

    2015-04-01

    Exploring risk factors and profiles of intimate partner violence in other countries provides information about whether existing theories of this phenomenon hold consistent in different cultural settings. This study will present results of a regression analysis involving domestic violence among Mexican women (n = 83,159). Significant predictors of domestic violence among Mexican women included age, number of children in the household, income, education, self-esteem, family history of abuse, and controlling behavior of the husband. Women's employment status was not a significant predictor when all variables were included in the model; however, when controlling behavior of the husband was withdrawn from the model, women's employment status was a significant predictor of domestic violence toward women. Results from this research indicate that spousal controlling behavior may serve as a mediator of the predictive relationship between women's employment status and domestic violence among Mexican women. Findings provide support for continued exploration of the factors that mediate experiences of domestic violence among women worldwide.

  9. Psychosocial Challenges Experienced by Partners of People With Parkinson Disease.

    PubMed

    Martin, Summer Carnett

    2015-08-01

    Although researchers have examined issues related to partners providing care for a person with Parkinson disease (PWP), few have explored partners' broader psychosocial experiences. To investigate this underexplored area, individual, in-depth interviews with 23 partners of PWPs were conducted. Participants reported significant psychosocial challenges, including having the PWP withdraw from communication, being unable to "rescue" the PWP, being the recipient of the PWP's frustration, expressing impatience with the PWP, shouldering increased responsibility, being confronted with possibly losing the PWP, losing valued activities, feeling housebound, being unable to predict the PWP's daily well-being, and experiencing uncertainty about future caregiving and disease progression. These results indicate that being the partner of a PWP involves serious, complex psychosocial challenges related to both caregiving and noncaregiving issues. This research highlights the need for a family-centered approach to Parkinson care and provides valuable insight that can inform interventions and nursing practice for this population.

  10. Problem drinking and physical intimate partner violence against women: evidence from a national survey in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Problem drinking has been identified as a major risk factor for physical intimate partner violence (PIPV) in many studies. However, few studies have been carried on the subject in developing countries and even fewer have a nationwide perspective. This paper assesses the patterns and levels of PIPV against women and its association with problem drinking of their sexual partners in a nationwide survey in Uganda. Methods The data came from the women’s dataset in the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey of 2006. Problem drinking among sexual partners was defined by women’s reports that their partner got drunk sometimes or often and served as the main independent variable while experience of PIPV by the women was the main dependent variable. In another aspect problem drinking was treated an ordinal variable with levels ranging from not drinking to getting drunk often. A woman was classified as experiencing PIPV if her partner pushed or shook her; threw something at her; slapped her; pushed her with a fist or a harmful object; kicked or dragged her, tried to strangle or burn her; threatened/attacked her with a knife/gun or other weapon. General chi-square and chi-square for trend analyses were used to assess the significance of the relationship between PIPV and problem drinking. Multivariate analysis was applied to establish the significance of the relationship of the two after controlling for key independent factors. Results Results show that 48% of the women had experienced PIPV while 49.5% reported that their partners got drunk at least sometimes. The prevalence of both PIPV and problem drinking significantly varied by age group, education level, wealth status, and region and to a less extent by occupation, type of residence, education level and occupation of the partner. Women whose partners got drunk often were 6 times more likely to report PIPV (95% CI: 4.6-8.3) compared to those whose partners never drank alcohol. The higher the education level of

  11. Intimate partner violence among rural South African men: alcohol use, sexual decision-making, and partner communication.

    PubMed

    Hatcher, Abigail M; Colvin, Christopher J; Ndlovu, Nkuli; Dworkin, Shari L

    2014-01-01

    Nearly one-third of South African men report enacting intimate partner violence. Beyond the direct health consequences for women, intimate partner violence is also linked to varied risk behaviours among men who enact it, including alcohol abuse, risky sex, and poor healthcare uptake. Little is known about how to reduce violence perpetration among men. We conducted retrospective, in-depth interviews with men (n = 53) who participated in a rural South African programme that targeted masculinities, HIV risk, and intimate partner violence. We conducted computer-assisted thematic qualitative coding alongside a simple rubric to understand how the programme may lead to changes in men's use of intimate partner violence. Many men described new patterns of reduced alcohol intake and improved partner communication, allowing them to respond in ways that did not lead to the escalation of violence. Sexual decision-making changed via reduced sexual entitlement and increased mutuality about whether to have sex. Men articulated the intertwined nature of each of these topics, suggesting that a syndemic lens may be useful for understanding intimate partner violence. These data suggest that alcohol and sexual relationship skills may be useful levers for future violence prevention efforts, and that intimate partner violence may be a tractable issue as men learn new skills for enacting masculinities in their household and in intimate relationships.

  12. Intimate Partner Violence and Child Maltreatment: Understanding Intra- and Intergenerational Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Lynette M.; Slack, Kristen Shook

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to assess the extent to which intimate partner violence and different forms of child maltreatment occur within and across childhood and adulthood for a high-risk group of women. Method: Low-income adult women were interviewed, retrospectively, regarding their experiences with intimate partner violence and…

  13. Parenting in Females Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence and Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Anna E.; Cranston, Christopher C.; Shadlow, Joanna O.

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was…

  14. Gender Differences in Risk for Intimate Partner Violence among South African Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Jesse D.; Stein, Dan J.; Williams, David R.; Seedat, Soraya

    2011-01-01

    Despite a high prevalence of intimate partner violence in South Africa, few epidemiological studies have assessed individual risk factors and differential vulnerability by gender. This study seeks to analyze gender differences in risk for intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration according to childhood and adult risk factors in a…

  15. Violence Education: An Analysis of Instructional Methods Used to Teach Nursing Students about Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Cara L.

    2013-01-01

    Nurses in all areas of healthcare are exposed to patients who are suspected or actual victims of intimate partner violence. Many times nurses report a general lack of knowledge in regard to the topic. Therefore, it is paramount for nursing educators to identify effective methods to teach their students about intimate partner violence in an effort…

  16. Racializing Intimate Partner Violence among Black, Native American, Asian American and Latina Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) continues to attract much attention and awareness as an increasing social problem in the U.S. While intimate partner violence scholars and experts have developed an inclusive conceptualization of IPV, research highlights the need to construct a framework of IPV incorporating the sociocultural and sociohistorical…

  17. Utility of Hospital Emergency Department Data for Studying Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltzman, Linda E.; Mahendra, Reshma R.; Ikeda, Robin M.; Ingram, Eben M.

    2005-01-01

    The authors examine 12 months of emergency department visit data (N = 2,521) from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System All Injury Program and explore its utility for measuring and studying intimate partner violence. Given the dearth of national data on intimate partner violence-related injury and its potential value for public health…

  18. Intimate Partner Violence in the U.S. General Population: Progress and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Craig A.; Caetano, Raul

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews survey research on intimate partner violence (IPV) in the U.S. general population. Results from survey research conducted over the past quarter century are briefly summarized. Three additional national studies related to injuries, crime victimization, and homicide among intimate partners in the United States are also…

  19. Does Powerlessness Explain the Relationship between Intimate Partner Violence and Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filson, Jennifer; Ulloa, Emilio; Runfola, Cristin; Hokoda, Audrey

    2010-01-01

    The current study aimed to test whether relationship power could act as a mediator of the relationship between intimate partner violence and depression. The proposed mediation model was based on the theory of gender and power and on previous research of intimate partner violence and depression. Survey results from a sample of 327 single…

  20. Strategies Pregnant Rural Women Employ to Deal with Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F. C.; Sharps, Phyllis W.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored strategies from the Intimate Partner Violence Strategy Index (IPVSI) that a sub-set of 20 rural, low-income, abused women of a larger, multi-site, mixed-method study employed to deal with Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) during the perinatal period. We conducted 32 in-depth interviews with women who were pregnant (N = 12) and/or…

  1. The Danger Assessment: Validation of a Lethality Risk Assessment Instrument for Intimate Partner Femicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Webster, Daniel W.; Glass, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    The Danger Assessment (DA) is an instrument designed to assess the likelihood of lethality or near lethality occurring in a case of intimate partner violence. This article describes the development, psychometric validation, and suggestions for use of the DA. An 11-city study of intimate partner femicide used multivariate analysis to test the…

  2. Propensity for intimate partner abuse and workplace productivity: why employers should care.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Emily F; Corso, Phaedra S

    2008-09-01

    It has been demonstrated that intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is costly to employers, but little is known about the economic consequences associated with employing perpetrators. This study investigated propensity for partner abuse as a predictor of missed work time and on-the-job decreases in productivity among a small sample of male employees at a state agency (N=61). Results suggest that greater propensity for abusiveness is positively associated with missing work and experiencing worse productivity on the job, controlling for level of education, income, marital status, age, and part-time versus full-time employment status. Additional research could clarify whether IPV perpetration is a predictor of decreased productivity among larger samples and a wider variety of workplace settings. Employers and IPV advocates should consider responding to potential IPV perpetrators through the workplace in addition to developing victim-oriented policies and prevention initiatives.

  3. Intimate partner violence among individuals in methadone maintenance treatment

    PubMed Central

    de Dios, Marcel A.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Caviness, Celeste M.; Stein, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a highly prevalent and concerning problem among methadone maintenance populations, and previous studies have shown a relationship between a history of IPV and increased substance use and affective disturbances. Methods The current study examined 1) the association between recent IPV victimization and alcohol and cocaine use and 2) the relationship between recent IPV victimization and depression in a sample of smokers (n=203) in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Participants in this study completed a battery of assessments that included standard questionnaires of trauma, alcohol and substance use, and depression. Parallel logistic and linear regression models were used to estimate the adjusted association of IPV victimization and depressive symptoms and evaluate the adjusted association of victimization with recent substance use. Results Participants recently victimized by partners were shown to have significantly higher mean CES-D scores (b = 0.54, 95%CI 0.07; 1.02, p < .05) and were found to have a 6 times greater likelihood of cocaine use (OR = 6.65, 95%CI 1.61; 27.46, p < .01) after controlling for age, gender, education, opiate use and ethnicity. Conclusions These findings support the notion that IPV victimization can potentially increase depression and other substance use among MMT patients, which can have a deleterious impact on treatment. PMID:24821357

  4. Intimate Partner Violence and HIV Risk Behaviors Among Socially Disadvantaged Chilean Women

    PubMed Central

    Miner, Sarah; Ferrer, Lilian; Cianelli, Rosina; Bernales, Margarita; Cabieses, Báltica

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV risk among socioeconomically disadvantaged Chilean women. A correlational analysis with data from the NIH-funded project, “Testing an HIV/AIDS Prevention Intervention for Chilean Women,” was conducted. Two hundred and sixtyone women were included in this analysis (n = 261). Those women who had experienced any type of IPV in the past 3 months had significantly higher risk for HIV than those who had not (t = −2.016, p < .05). Also a linear trend was found among those women who had experienced more than one type of IPV in the past 3 months and HIV risk. PMID:21486859

  5. Childhood betrayal trauma and self-blame appraisals among survivors of intimate partner abuse.

    PubMed

    Babcock, Rebecca L; DePrince, Anne P

    2012-01-01

    Child abuse perpetrated by a close other, such as a parent, is linked to a wide range of detrimental effects, including an increased risk of self-blame. The current study evaluated whether experiences of childhood betrayal trauma were linked to self-blame following victimization in adulthood. A diverse sample of women (n = 230) from an urban city were recruited based on having experienced an incident of intimate partner abuse (IPA) reported to the local police. Women reported on their trauma histories and levels of self-blame for the target IPA incident. Results showed that a history of childhood betrayal trauma exposure predicted the degree of self-blame for the IPA incident. Women who experienced severe IPA during the target incident also indicated higher levels of self-blame. Findings from this study suggest that it may be important to target self-blame appraisals in interventions with adults exposed to abuse in childhood. PMID:22989241

  6. Intimate Partner Violence among Adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Marcia; Cupp, Pamela K.; Jewkes, Rachel K.; Gevers, Anik; Mathews, Catherine; LeFleur-Bellerose, Chantel; Small, Jeon

    2013-01-01

    GOAL To describe potentially preventable factors in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization among South African 8th grade students. METHOD Data were collected during a pilot evaluation of a classroom 8th grade curriculum on gender-based violence prevention in 9 public schools in Cape Town through self-completed interviews with 549 8th grade students, 238 boys and 311 girls. Structural equation models (SEM) predicting IPV were constructed with variables a priori hypothesized to be associated. RESULTS The majority of students (78.5%) had had a partner in the past three months, and they reported high rates of IPV during that period (e.g., over 10% of boys reported forcing a partner to have sex, and 39% of girls reported physical IPV victimization). A trimmed version of the hypothesized SEM (CFI =.966; RMSEA=.051) indicated that disagreement with the ideology of male superiority and violence predicted lower risk of IPV (p<.001), whereas the frequency of using negative conflict resolution styles (e.g., walking off angrily, sending angry text messages, or refusing to talk to them) predicted high IPV risk (p<.001) and mediated the impact of heavy alcohol drinking on IPV (Sobel test, z=3.16; p<.001). The model fit both girls and boys, but heavy drinking influenced negative styles of resolving conflict more strongly among girls than boys. CONCLUSIONS Findings suggest that interventions to reduce IPV among South African adolescents should challenge attitudes supportive of male superiority and violence; encourage use of positive conflict resolution styles; and discourage heavy alcohol use among both boys and girls. PMID:23743796

  7. Intimate Partner Violence during Pregnancy: Victim or Perpetrator? Does it make a difference?

    PubMed Central

    Shneyderman, Yuliya; Kiely, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To differentiate between forms of intimate partner violence (IPV) (victim only, perpetrator only, or participating in reciprocal violence) and examine risk profiles and pregnancy outcomes. Design Prospective Setting Washington, DC, July 2001 to October 2003 Sample 1044 high-risk African-American pregnant women who participated in a randomized controlled trial to address IPV, depression, smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Methods Multivariable linear and logistic regression Main outcome measures Low and very low birth weight, preterm and very preterm birth Results 5% of women were victims only, 12% were perpetrators only, 27% participated in reciprocal violence, and 55% reported no IPV. Women reporting reciprocal violence in the past year were more likely to drink, use illicit drugs, and experience environmental tobacco smoke exposure and were less likely to be very happy about their pregnancies. Women reporting any type of IPVwere more likely to be depressed than those reporting no IPV. Women experiencing reciprocal violence reported highest levels of depression. Women who were victims of IPV were more likely to give birth prior prematurely and deliver low and very low birth weight infants. Conclusions We conclude that women were at highest risk for pregnancy risk factors when they participated in reciprocal violence and thus might be at higher risk for long-term consequences, but women who were victims of intimate partner violence were more likely to show proximal negative outcomes like preterm birth and low birth weight. Different types of interventions may be needed for these two forms of intimate partner violence. PMID:23786367

  8. Informal support for women and intimate partner violence: the crucial yet ambivalent role of neighbours in urban India.

    PubMed

    Snell-Rood, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Women who experience intimate partner violence often rely on informal support to mitigate intimate partner violence's health effects. Yet there is little known about who gives the support and how it is provided. This paper explores from whom and how low-income women experiencing domestic violence in urban India seek informal support. In South Asia, women's reliance on kin for support is culturally valued, yet the urban social context makes it more likely that they will access such support from non-kin when they experience intimate partner violence. The paper draws on observations and interviews with 10 families collected over 14 months of in-depth ethnographic research in one Delhi slum community. Using a case study approach to explore women's responses to violence longitudinally, it was possible to track how women drew on support. Results show that even as women sought emotional support and direct intervention from their neighbours to deal with their domestic violence, they restricted these relationships, faced stigma, and emphasised the need to protect their families. Understanding the informal, but deeply ambivalent, systems of social support that women engage to deal with intimate partner violence is a first step toward strengthening such networks, a key recommendation to stem the health impacts of domestic violence.

  9. Dyadic Characteristics and Intimate Partner Violence among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rob; Rentsch, Christopher; Salazar, Laura F; Sullivan, Patrick S

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Although the research community has begun to recognize intimate partner violence (IPV) as an important issue in same-sex relationships, there has been a lack of attention to characteristics of these relationships that may be associated with IPV. In particular, there has been a lack of attention paid to the associations between dyadic characteristics and IPV in same-sex relationships. This paper examined associations between dyadic characteristics, including relationship satisfaction, communal coping and efficacy, and perpetrating and experiencing IPV among a sample of United States men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods: We collected data via an online survey with 528 MSM, who were greater than 18 years of age and reported at least one male sex partner in the last 12 months. The analysis examined dyadic factors associated with reporting of experiencing and perpetrating emotional violence, physical violence, and sexual violence. Results: The prevalence of violence in the sample ranged from nine percent reporting perpetrating sexual violence to 33% of men reporting experiencing emotional violence. MSM who reported greater satisfaction with their relationship or who reported a higher degree of concordance with their partner on lifestyle choices were less likely to report experiencing or perpetrating emotional violence. MSM who perceived a stigma to being in a male same-sex couple were less likely to report experiencing or perpetrating sexual violence. Conclusion: The results presented here demonstrate high levels of IPV among MSM and that dyadic characteristics are associated with the occurrence of IPV. Understanding relationship characteristics associated with increased IPV among same-sex male couples can contribute to the development of more accurate IPV screening tools, and more sensitively and appropriately designed intervention messages. PMID:21731790

  10. Dyadic, Partner, and Social Network Influences on Intimate Partner Violence among Male-Male Couples

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rob; Sato, Kimi N.; Finneran, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Despite a recent focus on intimate partner violence (IPV) among men who have sex with men (MSM), the male-male couple is largely absent from the IPV literature. Specifically, research on dyadic factors shaping IPV in male-male couples is lacking. Methods: We took a subsample of 403 gay/bisexual men with main partners from a 2011 survey of approximately 1,000 gay and bisexual men from Atlanta. Logistic regression models of recent (<12 month) experience and perpetration of physical and sexual IPV examined dyadic factors, including racial differences, age differences, and social network characteristics of couples as key covariates shaping the reporting of IPV. Results: Findings indicate that men were more likely to report perpetration of physical violence if they were a different race to their main partner, whereas main partner age was associated with decreased reporting of physical violence. Having social networks that contained more gay friends was associated with significant reductions in the reporting of IPV, whereas having social networks comprised of sex partners or closeted gay friends was associated with increased reporting of IPV victimization and perpetration. Conclusion: The results point to several unique factors shaping the reporting of IPV within male-male couples and highlight the need for intervention efforts and prevention programs that focus on male couples, a group largely absent from both research and prevention efforts. PMID:23930144

  11. Intimate partner violence among midlife and older women: a descriptive analysis of women seeking medical services.

    PubMed

    Sormanti, Mary; Shibusawa, Tazuko

    2008-02-01

    Although intimate partner violence (IPV) may occur throughout a woman's life course, there has been a paucity of research on the experiences of victimization among midlife and older women. This article examines both the prevalence of IPV among a sample of women ages 50 to 64 (N=620), who were recruited at an emergency department and primary care clinics in an urban setting, and the associated factors for the subsample of these women who reported IPV (n=34). More than 5 percent of the women reported experiencing some form of abuse by their partners within the past two years. Bivariate analyses comparing victims and nonvictims indicate that higher proportions of women who reported abuse had received public assistance and had a recent history of homelessness. In addition, victims of IPV reported higher frequencies of HIV risk factors than did nonvictims, including having a partner who insisted on sex without a condom, having sex with a man they knew or suspected was an IV drug user, and experiencing symptoms or receiving a diagnosis or treatment for a sexually transmitted infection. Significantly higher percentages of abused women reported being tested for HIV and being HIV seropositive. Implications of the findings for social workers are discussed.

  12. Intimate Partner Violence and Pregnancy: A Systematic Review of Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Van Parys, An-Sofie; Verhamme, Annelien; Temmerman, Marleen; Verstraelen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) around the time of pregnancy is a widespread global health problem with many negative consequences. Nevertheless, a lot remains unclear about which interventions are effective and might be adopted in the perinatal care context. Objective The objective is to provide a clear overview of the existing evidence on effectiveness of interventions for IPV around the time of pregnancy. Methods Following databases PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched and expanded by hand search. The search was limited to English peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials published from 2000 to 2013. This review includes all types of interventions aiming to reduce IPV around the time of pregnancy as a primary outcome, and as secondary outcomes to enhance physical and/or mental health, quality of life, safety behavior, help seeking behavior, and/or social support. Results We found few randomized controlled trials evaluating interventions for IPV around the time of pregnancy. Moreover, the nine studies identified did not produce strong evidence that certain interventions are effective. Nonetheless, home visitation programs and some multifaceted counseling interventions did produce promising results. Five studies reported a statistically significant decrease in physical, sexual and/or psychological partner violence (odds ratios from 0.47 to 0.92). Limited evidence was found for improved mental health, less postnatal depression, improved quality of life, fewer subsequent miscarriages, and less low birth weight/prematurity. None of the studies reported any evidence of a negative or harmful effect of the interventions. Conclusions and implications Strong evidence of effective interventions for IPV during the perinatal period is lacking, but some interventions show promising results. Additional large-scale, high-quality research is essential to provide further evidence about the effect of certain

  13. Intimate Partner Violence. The gynaecologist’s perspective

    PubMed Central

    Roelens, K.; Verstraelen, H.; Temmerman, M.

    2009-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important public health problem, which has been extensively studied all over the world, yet Belgian data are limited. IPV remains a taboo resulting in denial and underreporting. For an obstetrician-gynaecologist (OB/GYN), IPV, committed by a male partner to a woman, is of particular interest, because of its negative impact on women’s and children’s health. In Belgium there are few data on IPV and guidelines for OB/GYN are missing. In a multi-centered survey surveillance study which was carried out among pregnant women attending 5 large hospitals in the province of East Flanders, the lifetime prevalence of IPV was estimated to be 10.1% and the period prevalence during pregnancy and/or in the year preceding pregnancy 3.4%. In our highly medicalised society, only 19.2% and 6.6% of the victims of physical and sexual abuse respectively sought medical care. Routine screening for IPV by a general practitioner or OB/GYN was found to be largely acceptable. In a questionnaire-based Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice survey among OB/GYN in Flanders, OB/GYN prove unfamiliar with IPV and largely underestimate the extent of the problem. Merely 6.8% of the respondents ever received any education on IPV. They refute the incentive of universal screening, even during pregnancy and one of the major barriers is fear of offending patients. Physician education was found to be the strongest predictor of a positive attitude towards screening and of current screening practices. Hence, there is a definite need to improve women’s awareness regarding abuse and to endorse physician training on IPV. PMID:25478074

  14. Intimate partner violence theoretical considerations: moving towards a contextual framework.

    PubMed

    Bell, Kathryn M; Naugle, Amy E

    2008-10-01

    Several theories have been developed to provide a conceptual understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV) episodes. Although each of these theories has found some degree of empirical support, they are limited in their explanatory power of IPV episodes and their ability to significantly impact the efficacy of IPV prevention and treatment programs. The current paper provides a review and critique of current IPV theories and highlights strategies for improving upon these theories. An alternative theoretical conceptualization is introduced that incorporates existing IPV and functional analytic literature into a contextual framework for conceptualizing IPV episodes. Components of the IPV contextual framework include distal, static and proximal antecedents; motivating factors; behavioral repertoire; discriminative stimuli (i.e. environmental cues/signals); verbal rules; and IPV consequences. The proposed theoretical framework offers two primary advantages over former IPV theories. First, it provides a comprehensive conceptualization of IPV by integrating components of previous IPV theories and their related empirical findings into one, cohesive conceptual framework. Additionally, it allows for a more fine-grained analysis of more proximal variables potentially related to discrete IPV episodes. A discussion of how the proposed theoretical framework may influence future IPV research and clinical practice is provided.

  15. Media Portrayals of Female Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Carlyle, Kellie E; Scarduzio, Jennifer A; Slater, Michael D

    2014-02-01

    Preventing intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health priority. An important component of designing prevention programs is developing an understanding of how media portrayals of health issues influence public opinion and policy. To better understand the ways in which media images may be informing our understanding of IPV, this study content analyzed portrayals of IPV in news media articles. Stratified media outlets were used to obtain a representative sample of daily newspapers based on their designated market areas. Researchers created constructed months using weeks from each season across a 2-year period. The first part of the study investigated quantitative differences in the coverage of female and male perpetrators (n = 395) and identified several areas where coverage differed. The second part of the study qualitatively examined coverage of female perpetrators (n = 61) to provide a richer description of such coverage. This study contributes to our understanding of female perpetrators and how these portrayals may contribute to the larger gender symmetry debate surrounding female aggressors. Implications for public health policy and research are discussed. PMID:24505087

  16. Employment status and intimate partner violence among Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Terrazas-Carrillo, Elizabeth C; McWhirter, Paula T

    2015-04-01

    Exploring risk factors and profiles of intimate partner violence in other countries provides information about whether existing theories of this phenomenon hold consistent in different cultural settings. This study will present results of a regression analysis involving domestic violence among Mexican women (n = 83,159). Significant predictors of domestic violence among Mexican women included age, number of children in the household, income, education, self-esteem, family history of abuse, and controlling behavior of the husband. Women's employment status was not a significant predictor when all variables were included in the model; however, when controlling behavior of the husband was withdrawn from the model, women's employment status was a significant predictor of domestic violence toward women. Results from this research indicate that spousal controlling behavior may serve as a mediator of the predictive relationship between women's employment status and domestic violence among Mexican women. Findings provide support for continued exploration of the factors that mediate experiences of domestic violence among women worldwide. PMID:25031103

  17. Community matters: intimate partner violence among rural young adults.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Katie M; Mattingly, Marybeth J; Dixon, Kristiana J; Banyard, Victoria L

    2014-03-01

    Drawing on social disorganization theory, the current study examined the extent to which community-level poverty rates and collective efficacy influenced individual reports of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, victimization, and bystander intervention among a sample of 178 young adults (18-24; 67.4% women) from 16 rural counties across the eastern US who completed an online survey that assessed demographic information, IPV perpetration, victimization, bystander intervention, and collective efficacy. We computed each county's poverty rate from the 2007-2011 American Community Survey. Generalized estimating equations demonstrated that after controlling for individual-level income status, community-level poverty positively predicted IPV victimization and perpetration for both men and women. Collective efficacy was inversely related to IPV victimization and perpetration for men; however, collective efficacy was unrelated to IPV victimization and perpetration for women. Whereas IPV bystander intervention was positively related to collective efficacy and inversely related to individual-level income status for both men and women, community-level poverty was unrelated to IPV bystander intervention for both men and women. Overall, these findings provide some support for social disorganization theory in explaining IPV among rural young adults, and underscore the importance of multi-level IPV prevention and intervention efforts focused around community-capacity building and enhancement of collective efficacy.

  18. Further Investigation of Genetics and Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Gregory L.; McGeary, John; Shorey, Ryan C.; Knopik, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    We thank Drs. Abbey, Bennett, DeWall, and Way for making truly outstanding points in their thoughtful commentaries. We agree with the feedback and advice from all of these distinguished scientists. Future work on genetics and intimate partner violence (IPV) should, when possible, include a larger number of genetic variants, closely examine gene by environment interactions, and study potential mechanisms explaining the connection between genetics and IPV. As with any research, but particularly with respect to studies on a controversial topic such as genetic correlates of IPV, extreme caution should be taken prior to generalizing results or deriving any practical applications from the data. Clearly, replication and extension of the findings in other populations is essential. Ultimately, we believe that it is worth pursuing this line of work given the possible contributions it may make to understand the etiology, prevention, and treatment of IPV in the future. Finding solutions to IPV will require the collaboration of a diverse group of constituents from many disciplines. PMID:24759926

  19. Intimate partner violence: childhood exposure to domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping-Hsin; Jacobs, Abbie; Rovi, Susan L D

    2013-09-01

    Children who are exposed to domestic violence (DV) may experience many short- and long-term negative effects. They are up to 3.8 times more likely to become perpetrators or victims in adulthood than are children not exposed to DV. They also are at high risk of health problems, risky health behaviors, violence, and social functioning problems. Girls who witness intimate partner violence (IPV) are more likely to experience depression, anxiety, and trauma symptoms, and boys exposed to IPV are more likely to exhibit aggression and delinquent behaviors. To prepare the practice to identify and assist children exposed to DV, physicians should undergo training, implement screening protocols, use caution when documenting findings, collaborate with local agencies, and learn about the state's reporting laws. State and local DV service programs or other community resources can provide assessment and intervention assistance. Social workers, mental health professionals, and child and DV advocates can assist in providing treatment for children exposed to violence. Physicians should schedule follow-up appointments for children who need treatment, monitor behavior, and coordinate intervention services. PMID:24053262

  20. Coordinated Community Response Components for Victims of Intimate Partner Violence: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Tirone, Vanessa; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a serious problem throughout the world. Each year a substantial number of women experience psychological, physical, and sexual aggression from an intimate partner, with many women experiencing serious mental and physical health outcomes as a result of their victimization. A number of services are available to women who sustain IPV (e.g., shelters, advocacy, legal protection), and the combination of these services has been termed a Coordinated Community Response (CCR) to IPV. The purpose of the present manuscript is to review the individual components of CCRs for IPV victims, examine the extant literature on a number of the individual CCR components, and suggest directions for future research on CCRs for IPV victims. Our review demonstrates that there is a significant lack of research on various CCR components, that research on the integration of CCR services is limited, and that theoretical guidance for CCR programs is almost non-existent. Directions for improving research on CCR components are suggested. PMID:25089115

  1. Intimate partner violence, depression, and barriers to service utilization in Arab American women.

    PubMed

    Kulwicki, Anahid; Ballout, Suha; Kilgore, Colleen; Hammad, Adnan; Dervartanian, Hermine

    2015-01-01

    How intimate partner violence (IPV), depression, and barriers to services affect Arab American women in the United States is not very well documented. This cross-sectional exploratory descriptive study examines (a) the relationship between depression and IPV and (b) whether living in the United States 10 or more years decreases barriers to reporting intimate partner violence and depression in a sample (N = 312) of Arab American women 19 years and older. Findings demonstrate significant relationships between women who were at risk for IPV and depression scores (r = .44, p < .001), and number of years living in the United States and barriers to service (r = .25, p < .001). There was a significant negative relationship between barriers to service and depression (r = -.30, p < .001), and barriers to service and IPV (r = -.23, p < .001), and number of years living in the United States and depression (r = .25, p < .001). Findings underscore the importance of screening referral and follow-up for Arab American women experiencing IPV and depression. PMID:24626281

  2. BIRTHPLACE, CULTURE, SELF-ESTEEM AND INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE AMONG COMMUNITY DWELLING HISPANIC WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M.; Vermeesch, Amber L.; Florom-Smith, Aubrey L.; McCabe, Brian E.; Peragallo, Nilda P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore variations in demographics, culture, self-esteem and intimate partner violence among Hispanic women according to birthplace, and to identify factors that are associated with these differences in intimate partner violence. Baseline data from a randomized control trial testing the efficacy of an HIV prevention program was used. Path analyses identified differences in intimate partner violence between Colombian women and women from other Central/South American. Self-esteem was the only factor that was associated with these differences. Interventions that address the unique needs of Hispanic women from different subgroups are needed. PMID:23363655

  3. Beyond "Do you feel safe at home?" The physician's role in reducing intimate partner homicide.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Amy

    2009-08-01

    Each year, more than a thousand women in the United States die as a result of intimate partner homicide. Firearms are involved in 60 percent of these murders. This article reviews the role firearms play in domestic violence and suggests actions physicians can take to reduce intimate partner homicide involving them. In addition to screening patients for domestic abuse, physicians can strive to improve data collection on intimate partner violence, foster better communication between victims and the police, and support policies that hold police officers and prosecutors accountable for taking guns out of the hands of abusers. PMID:19772053

  4. Agreement on Intimate Partner Violence among a Sample of Blue-Collar Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunradi, Carol B.; Bersamin, Melina; Ames, Genevieve

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed agreement level about the occurrence of past-year male-to-female partner violence (MFPV) and female-to-male partner violence (FMPV) among a sample of 897 blue-collar couples. Intimate partner violence (IPV) was measured with the Physical Assault subscale of the revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2). Agreement level was…

  5. Identifying unique and shared risk factors for physical intimate partner violence and clinically-significant physical intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Slep, Amy M Smith; Foran, Heather M; Heyman, Richard E; Snarr, Jeffery D; Usaf Family Advocacy Research Program

    2014-12-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health concern. To date, risk factor research has not differentiated physical violence that leads to injury and/or fear (i.e., clinically significant IPV; CS-IPV) from general physical IPV. Isolating risk relations is necessary to best inform prevention and treatment efforts. The current study used an ecological framework and evaluated relations of likely risk factors within individual, family, workplace, and community levels with both CS-IPV and general IPV to determine whether they were related to one type of IPV, both, or neither for both men and women. Probable risk and promotive factors from multiple ecological levels of influence were selected from the literature and assessed, along with CS-IPV and general IPV, via an anonymous, web-based survey. The sample comprised US Air Force (AF) active duty members and civilian spouses (total N = 36,861 men; 24,331 women) from 82 sites worldwide. Relationship satisfaction, age, and alcohol problems were identified as unique risk factors (in the context of the 23 other risk factors examined) across IPV and CS-IPV for men and women. Other unique risk factors were identified that differed in prediction of IPV and CS-IPV. The results suggest a variety of both established and novel potential foci for indirectly targeting partner aggression and clinically-significant IPV by improving people's risk profiles at the individual, family, workplace, and community levels. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX-XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25474230

  6. Identifying unique and shared risk factors for physical intimate partner violence and clinically-significant physical intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Slep, Amy M Smith; Foran, Heather M; Heyman, Richard E; Snarr, Jeffery D; Usaf Family Advocacy Research Program

    2015-05-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health concern. To date, risk factor research has not differentiated physical violence that leads to injury and/or fear (i.e., clinically significant IPV; CS-IPV) from general physical IPV. Isolating risk relations is necessary to best inform prevention and treatment efforts. The current study used an ecological framework and evaluated relations of likely risk factors within individual, family, workplace, and community levels with both CS-IPV and general IPV to determine whether they were related to one type of IPV, both, or neither for both men and women. Probable risk and promotive factors from multiple ecological levels of influence were selected from the literature and assessed, along with CS-IPV and general IPV, via an anonymous, web-based survey. The sample comprised US Air Force (AF) active duty members and civilian spouses (total N = 36,861 men; 24,331 women) from 82 sites worldwide. Relationship satisfaction, age, and alcohol problems were identified as unique risk factors (in the context of the 23 other risk factors examined) across IPV and CS-IPV for men and women. Other unique risk factors were identified that differed in prediction of IPV and CS-IPV. The results suggest a variety of both established and novel potential foci for indirectly targeting partner aggression and clinically-significant IPV by improving people's risk profiles at the individual, family, workplace, and community levels. Aggr. Behav. 41:227-241, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27541201

  7. Timing of Intimate Partner Violence in Relationship to Military Service Among Women Veterans.

    PubMed

    Dichter, Melissa E; Wagner, Clara; True, Gala

    2015-11-01

    Women U.S. military veterans report higher rates of lifetime intimate partner violence (IPV) compared with women who have never served in the military. However, we know little about the timing of IPV exposure relative to military service. To begin to understand the relationship between military service and IPV experience, we conducted surveys with 249 women military veterans seeking care at a Veterans Affairs medical center about experiences of physical, psychological, and sexual IPV before, during, and after military service. Additionally, we examined the association between deployment and IPV experience during and after military service. Findings indicated that women experienced IPV during each time period (before/during/after military service), with significant overlap of experiencing IPV during more than one time period and one-third (34.6%) experiencing IPV during all three time periods. Compared to those who were not deployed, women who had been deployed reported increased odds of experiencing psychological, but not physical or sexual, IPV during (but not after) military service. Implications of study findings for theory, research, and practice are discussed. PMID:26540701

  8. Assessing the Danger: Validation of Taiwan Intimate Partner Violence Danger Assessment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei-ling

    2015-09-01

    The Taiwan Intimate Partner Violence Danger Assessment (TIPVDA) is an IPV risk assessment instrument developed to assist front-line professionals with assessing victim's likelihood of experiencing lethal danger, and is also used to identify intervention strategies. The validation of TIPVDA with an independent sample of 543 female IPV victims in a program was examined in this study. The analysis results revealed the discriminant power of the TIPVDA. In addition, the area under the curve for the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was strongly supportive of predictive effects of the TIPVDA. And the findings suggest that the TIPVDA had stronger predictive power for high dangerousness. Implications for future research and utilization of the TIPVDA are discussed.

  9. Intimate partner violence among Iraqi immigrant women in Metro Detroit: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Barkho, Evone; Fakhouri, Monty; Arnetz, Judith E

    2011-08-01

    Violence against women is an important public health problem. The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among immigrant Iraqi women, and to explore the association between IPV and self-rated health. A pilot study using a previously published, self-report questionnaire was carried out among a convenience sampling of 55 Iraqi women in greater Detroit. The overall prevalence of controlling behavior, threatening behavior, and physical violence was 93, 76, and 80%, respectively. Approximately 40% of the women reported having poor or fair health, and 90% reported experiencing one or more types of psychosomatic symptoms. Self-rated health was inversely related to exposure to threatening behavior and physical violence, and positively related to knowledge of one's legal rights. The prevalence of IPV in this sample was high. Results indicated a significant association between exposure to IPV and women's physical health and psychosomatic symptoms.

  10. Neighborhood Environment and Intimate Partner Violence: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Kirsten; Wallis, Anne Baber; Hamberger, L. Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important global public health problem, affecting women across the lifespan and increasing risk for a number of unfavorable health outcomes. Typically conceptualized as a private form of violence, most research has focused on individual-level risk markers. Recently, more scholarly attention has been paid to the role that the residential neighborhood environment may play in influencing the occurrence of IPV. With research accumulating since the 1990s, increasing prominence of the topic, and no comprehensive literature reviews yet undertaken, it is time to take stock of what is known, what remains unknown, and the methods and concepts investigators have considered. In this paper, we undertake a comprehensive, systematic review of the literature to date on the relationship between neighborhood environment and IPV, asking: “What is the status of scholarship related to the association between neighborhood environment and IPV occurrence?” Although the literature is young, it is receiving increasing attention from researchers in sociology, public health, criminology, and other fields. Obvious gaps in the literature include limited consideration of non-urban areas, limited theoretical motivation, and limited consideration of the range of potential contributors to environmental effects on IPV – such as built environmental factors or access to services. In addition, explanations of the pathways by which place influences the occurrence of IPV draw mainly from social disorganization theory, which was developed in urban settings in the United States and may need to be adapted, especially to be useful in explaining residential environmental correlates of IPV in rural or non-US settings. A more complete theoretical understanding of the relationship between neighborhood environment and IPV, especially considering differences among urban, semi-urban and rural settings, and developed and developing country settings, will be necessary to

  11. Intimate Partner Violence During Pregnancy: Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Ellen; Sharps, Phyllis; Bullock, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) on maternal and neonatal outcomes are multifaceted and largely preventable. During pregnancy, there are many opportunities within the current health care system for screening and early intervention during routine prenatal care or during episodic care in a hospital setting. This article describes the effects of IPV on maternal health (e.g., insufficient or inconsistent prenatal care, poor nutrition, inadequate weight gain, substance use, increased prevalence of depression), as well as adverse neonatal outcomes (e.g., low birth weight [LBW]), preterm birth [PTB], and small for gestational age [SGA]) and maternal and neonatal death. Discussion of the mechanisms of action are explored and include: maternal engagement in health behaviors that are considered “risky,” including smoking and alcohol and substance use, and new evidence regarding the alteration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and resulting changes in hormones that may affect LBW and SGA infants and PTB. Clinical recommendations include a commitment for routine screening of IPV in all pregnant women who present for care using validated screening instruments. In addition, the provision of readily accessible prenatal care and the development of a trusting patient–provider relationship are first steps in addressing the problem of IPV in pregnancy. Early trials of targeted interventions such as a nurse-led home visitation program and the Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation Program show promising results. Brief psychobehavioral interventions are also being explored. The approach of universal screening, patient engagement in prenatal care, and targeted individualized interventions has the ability to reduce the adverse effects of IPV and highlight the importance of this complex social disorder as a top priority in maternal and neonatal health. PMID:25265285

  12. Neighborhood environment and intimate partner violence: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Kirsten; Wallis, Anne Baber; Hamberger, L Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important global public health problem, affecting women across the life span and increasing risk for a number of unfavorable health outcomes. Typically conceptualized as a private form of violence, most research has focused on individual-level risk markers. Recently, more scholarly attention has been paid to the role that the residential neighborhood environment may play in influencing the occurrence of IPV. With research accumulating since the 1990s, increasing prominence of the topic, and no comprehensive literature reviews yet undertaken, it is time to take stock of what is known, what remains unknown, and the methods and concepts investigators have considered. In this article, we undertake a comprehensive, systematic review of the literature to date on the relationship between neighborhood environment and IPV, asking, "what is the status of scholarship related to the association between neighborhood environment and IPV occurrence?" Although the literature is young, it is receiving increasing attention from researchers in sociology, public health, criminology, and other fields. Obvious gaps in the literature include limited consideration of nonurban areas, limited theoretical motivation, and limited consideration of the range of potential contributors to environmental effects on IPV--such as built environmental factors or access to services. In addition, explanations of the pathways by which place influences the occurrence of IPV draw mainly from social disorganization theory that was developed in urban settings in the United States and may need to be adapted, especially to be useful in explaining residential environmental correlates of IPV in rural or non-U.S. settings. A more complete theoretical understanding of the relationship between neighborhood environment and IPV, especially considering differences among urban, semiurban, and rural settings and developed and developing country settings, will be necessary to advance

  13. Intimate partner violence during pregnancy: maternal and neonatal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Ray, Ellen; Sharps, Phyllis; Bullock, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) on maternal and neonatal outcomes are multifaceted and largely preventable. During pregnancy, there are many opportunities within the current health care system for screening and early intervention during routine prenatal care or during episodic care in a hospital setting. This article describes the effects of IPV on maternal health (e.g., insufficient or inconsistent prenatal care, poor nutrition, inadequate weight gain, substance use, increased prevalence of depression), as well as adverse neonatal outcomes (e.g., low birth weight [LBW]), preterm birth [PTB], and small for gestational age [SGA]) and maternal and neonatal death. Discussion of the mechanisms of action are explored and include: maternal engagement in health behaviors that are considered "risky," including smoking and alcohol and substance use, and new evidence regarding the alteration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and resulting changes in hormones that may affect LBW and SGA infants and PTB. Clinical recommendations include a commitment for routine screening of IPV in all pregnant women who present for care using validated screening instruments. In addition, the provision of readily accessible prenatal care and the development of a trusting patient-provider relationship are first steps in addressing the problem of IPV in pregnancy. Early trials of targeted interventions such as a nurse-led home visitation program and the Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation Program show promising results. Brief psychobehavioral interventions are also being explored. The approach of universal screening, patient engagement in prenatal care, and targeted individualized interventions has the ability to reduce the adverse effects of IPV and highlight the importance of this complex social disorder as a top priority in maternal and neonatal health. PMID:25265285

  14. Neighborhood environment and intimate partner violence: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Kirsten; Wallis, Anne Baber; Hamberger, L Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important global public health problem, affecting women across the life span and increasing risk for a number of unfavorable health outcomes. Typically conceptualized as a private form of violence, most research has focused on individual-level risk markers. Recently, more scholarly attention has been paid to the role that the residential neighborhood environment may play in influencing the occurrence of IPV. With research accumulating since the 1990s, increasing prominence of the topic, and no comprehensive literature reviews yet undertaken, it is time to take stock of what is known, what remains unknown, and the methods and concepts investigators have considered. In this article, we undertake a comprehensive, systematic review of the literature to date on the relationship between neighborhood environment and IPV, asking, "what is the status of scholarship related to the association between neighborhood environment and IPV occurrence?" Although the literature is young, it is receiving increasing attention from researchers in sociology, public health, criminology, and other fields. Obvious gaps in the literature include limited consideration of nonurban areas, limited theoretical motivation, and limited consideration of the range of potential contributors to environmental effects on IPV--such as built environmental factors or access to services. In addition, explanations of the pathways by which place influences the occurrence of IPV draw mainly from social disorganization theory that was developed in urban settings in the United States and may need to be adapted, especially to be useful in explaining residential environmental correlates of IPV in rural or non-U.S. settings. A more complete theoretical understanding of the relationship between neighborhood environment and IPV, especially considering differences among urban, semiurban, and rural settings and developed and developing country settings, will be necessary to advance

  15. Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrated by College Women within the Context of a History of Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Kelly N.; Sechrist, Stacy M.; White, Jacquelyn W.; Paradise, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    Using a longitudinal design, the current study explored intimate partner violence perpetration among 1,300 college women within the context of one's history of physical and sexual victimization across 4 years of college. Structural equation modeling indicated that sexual victimization does not predict concurrent use of women's intimate partner…

  16. Views of Intimate Partner Violence in Same- and Opposite-Sex Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Susan B.; Thomas, Kristie A.

    2009-01-01

    Attitudes toward same-sex intimate relationships and intimate partner violence (IPV) are changing. Little research, however, has examined norms about IPV in same-sex relationships. Using a fractional factorial (experimental vignette) design, we conducted random-digit-dialed interviews in four languages with 3,679 community-residing adults.…

  17. Children’s exposure to intimate partner violence: Impacts and interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wathen, C Nadine; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to intimate partner violence is increasingly being recognized as a form of child maltreatment; it is prevalent, and is associated with significant mental health impairment and other important consequences. The present article provides an evidence-based overview regarding children’s exposure to intimate partner violence, including epidemiology, risks, consequences, assessment and interventions to identify and prevent both initial exposure and impairment after exposure. It concludes with specific guidance for the clinician. PMID:24426794

  18. Association between intimate partner violence and poor child growth: results from 42 demographic and health surveys

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Günther; Kaaya, Sylvia; Danaei, Goodarz; Fawzi, Wafaie; Ezzati, Majid; Lienert, Jeffrey; Smith Fawzi, Mary C

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the impact of intimate partner violence against women on children’s growth and nutritional status in low- and middle-income countries. Methods We pooled records from 42 demographic and health surveys in 29 countries. Data on maternal lifetime exposure to physical or sexual violence by an intimate partner, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics were collected. We used logistic regression models to determine the association between intimate partner violence and child stunting and wasting. Findings Prior exposure to intimate partner violence was reported by 69 652 (34.1%) of the 204 159 ever-married women included in our analysis. After adjusting for a range of characteristics, stunting in children was found to be positively associated with maternal lifetime exposure to only physical (adjusted odds ratio, aOR: 1.11; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.09–1.14) or sexual intimate partner violence (aOR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.05–1.13) and to both forms of such violence (aOR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.05–1.14). The associations between stunting and intimate partner violence were stronger in urban areas than in rural ones, for mothers who had low levels of education than for women with higher levels of education, and in middle-income countries than in low-income countries. We also found a small negative association between wasting and intimate partner violence (aOR: 0.94; 95%CI: 0.90–0.98). Conclusion Intimate partner violence against women remains common in low- and middle-income countries and is highly detrimental to women and to the growth of the affected women’s children. Policy and programme efforts are needed to reduce the prevalence and impact of such violence. PMID:27147763

  19. [A forensic medicine perspective on recurring episodes of intimate partner violence].

    PubMed

    Seifert, Dragana; Heinemann, Axel; Anders, Sven; Schröer, Judith; Sperhake, Jan; Glet, Alke; Püschel, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    During a three year period, 418 victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) were examined and their injuries documented at the Center for Victims of Violence (CVV) in Hamburg, Germany. All victims were questioned if their acute injuries were attributable to recurring acts of violence by the same intimate partner. The victims' experiences with recurring IPV were analyzed and associated risk factors as well as findings of acute physical injuries were integrated into the assesment. Overall, women were significantly more often victims of recurring episodes of IPV than men. In 35.4% of cases, victims of recurring IPV sustained injuries to three or more body regions. However, women who were victimized during a single act of violence, presented with the same distribution of injuries in only 21.1% of cases (p = 0.01). The results emphasize the fact that IPV often manifests itself in a spiraling escalation of physical violence. Furthermore, blunt force trauma to the head was diagnosed significantly more often (p = 0.05). The risk of sustaining a head injury was equally high for women who experienced a first-time violent episode by their ex-partner as it was for married women or women living in a non-marital partnership during recurring episodes of IPV. In an effort to reduce the increased risk for victims of IPV, health care personnel are highly encouraged to partake in forensic medicine based continuing education. This preventative measure may prepare clinicians to recognize IPV earlier as well as to treat and advise clients appropriately.

  20. Intimate Partner Sexual Violence: A Review of Terms, Definitions, and Prevalence.

    PubMed

    Bagwell-Gray, Meredith E; Messing, Jill Theresa; Baldwin-White, Adrienne

    2015-07-01

    Intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV) is a significant aspect of intimate partner violence (IPV). While intimate partners commit one third of sexual assaults, IPSV is often overlooked in studies about IPV and in research on sexual violence. There are difficulties identifying, defining, and measuring IPSV, and research lacks consistency in terminology and measurement. The purpose of this article is to review the terms, definitions, and measurements associated with IPSV. Academic journals and nonscholarly documents from the United States were searched for articles and reports associated with the study of sexual violence and IPV. Forty-nine documents met the criteria for inclusion. A four-part taxonomy defining IPSV was developed, which included IPSV, intimate partner sexual coercion, intimate partner sexual abuse, and intimate partner forced sexual activity. The average weighted prevalence rates of these various forms of IPSV were calculated across included research studies. However, the measurements generally used to assess IPV do not adequately measure IPSV. Future research should consist terms to ensure consistent conceptualization and measurement of IPSV and to inform practice with survivors.

  1. [Addressing intimate partner violence in substance-abuse treatment programmes: a challenge for the future].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; López-Goñi, José Javier

    2011-01-01

    There is a close relationship between substance abuse (alcohol and other drugs) and intimate partner violence. Studies carried out with male offenders and with addicted patients show a high comorbidity rate between these two phenomena. However, few batterer intervention programmes have been implemented to date in the field of drug addiction. This paper proposes, first, the need to detect cases of intimate partner violence that are camouflaged beneath a drug problem. Thus, it is important to determine the prevalence rate of intimate partner aggressors among users of drug-addiction treatment programmes, as well as identifying the specific characteristics of these patients. Second, once aggressors are identified, it would be possible to develop specific programmes for the simultaneous treatment of the two problems (addiction and intimate partner violence). Some studies have already been carried with joint treatments for addiction and intimate partner violence. The results obtained are encouraging, and show that intervention programs with addictions can be a useful framework for applying also, where necessary, specific treatments for those addicted patients with an associated problem of intimate partner violence. Finally, implications for clinical practice and future research in this field are discussed.

  2. [Addressing intimate partner violence in substance-abuse treatment programmes: a challenge for the future].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; López-Goñi, José Javier

    2011-01-01

    There is a close relationship between substance abuse (alcohol and other drugs) and intimate partner violence. Studies carried out with male offenders and with addicted patients show a high comorbidity rate between these two phenomena. However, few batterer intervention programmes have been implemented to date in the field of drug addiction. This paper proposes, first, the need to detect cases of intimate partner violence that are camouflaged beneath a drug problem. Thus, it is important to determine the prevalence rate of intimate partner aggressors among users of drug-addiction treatment programmes, as well as identifying the specific characteristics of these patients. Second, once aggressors are identified, it would be possible to develop specific programmes for the simultaneous treatment of the two problems (addiction and intimate partner violence). Some studies have already been carried with joint treatments for addiction and intimate partner violence. The results obtained are encouraging, and show that intervention programs with addictions can be a useful framework for applying also, where necessary, specific treatments for those addicted patients with an associated problem of intimate partner violence. Finally, implications for clinical practice and future research in this field are discussed. PMID:21503558

  3. Relationship Factors and Condom Use Among Women with a History of Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    McGrane Minton, Heather A; Mittal, Mona; Elder, Heather; Carey, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) are at increased risk for HIV infection. To further the understanding of the dyadic factors that impact condom use among women, we investigated the impact of three relationship factors (i.e., power, fear, and dependence) on the association between HIV-related information, motivation, and behavioral skills [constructs from the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model] and condom use among abused women. Data from 133 urban, low-income women recruited from several community-based agencies (e.g., domestic violence agencies, women's health organizations, hospitals, Department of Health and Human Services, and Family Court) showed that these women experienced high levels of IPV and that relationship power, fear of abuse, and partner dependence were all associated with condom use. Multivariable models revealed that fear of abuse and partner dependence moderated the association between IMB constructs and condom use but relationship power did not. Results highlight the critical need to incorporate strategies to address relationship factors in HIV prevention programs with abused women. PMID:26354519

  4. Relationship Factors and Condom Use Among Women with a History of Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    McGrane Minton, Heather A; Mittal, Mona; Elder, Heather; Carey, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) are at increased risk for HIV infection. To further the understanding of the dyadic factors that impact condom use among women, we investigated the impact of three relationship factors (i.e., power, fear, and dependence) on the association between HIV-related information, motivation, and behavioral skills [constructs from the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model] and condom use among abused women. Data from 133 urban, low-income women recruited from several community-based agencies (e.g., domestic violence agencies, women's health organizations, hospitals, Department of Health and Human Services, and Family Court) showed that these women experienced high levels of IPV and that relationship power, fear of abuse, and partner dependence were all associated with condom use. Multivariable models revealed that fear of abuse and partner dependence moderated the association between IMB constructs and condom use but relationship power did not. Results highlight the critical need to incorporate strategies to address relationship factors in HIV prevention programs with abused women.

  5. Rural Australian Women's Legal Help Seeking for Intimate Partner Violence: Women Intimate Partner Violence Victim Survivors' Perceptions of Criminal Justice Support Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragusa, Angela T.

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a widespread, ongoing, and complex global social problem, whose victims continue to be largely women. Women often prefer to rely on friends and family for IPV help, yet when informal support is unavailable they remain hesitant to contact formal services, particularly legal support for many reasons. This study…

  6. Pregnant Mothers’ Perceptions of how Intimate Partner Violence affects Their Unborn Children

    PubMed Central

    Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Rahman, Damali

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the perceptions of pregnant women on the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) as it affects maternal and fetal health. Design Secondary qualitative content analysis. Setting Individual interviews conducted within three urban obstetric and gynecologic clinics Participants Our sample included a subset of eight pregnant women experiencing IPV during the current pregnancy. Participants were selected from a larger parent study that included qualitative data from 13 women. Methods We analyzed in-depth individual interview transcripts in which participants discussed how they perceived IPV to affect their health as well as the health of their unborn children. Constant comparative techniques and conventional content analysis methodology were used in analysis. Results Three themes emerged to illustrate mothers’ perceptions of how IPV influenced maternal and fetal outcomes: protection, fetal awareness, and fetal well-being. Conclusions This analysis provides important insights into concerns that pregnant women experiencing IPV shared about maternal attachment and fetal well-being. Health care providers can use these findings to better assess the physical and psychological concerns of pregnant women experiencing IPV. Further research is needed to better understand how IPV contributes to adverse neonatal outcomes, particularly from a biological perspective. PMID:25651808

  7. The interplay between interpersonal stress and psychological intimate partner violence over time for young at-risk couples.

    PubMed

    Shortt, Joann Wu; Capaldi, Deborah M; Kim, Hyoun K; Tiberio, Stacey S

    2013-04-01

    The substantial number of young people in romantic relationships that involve intimate partner violence, a situation deleterious to physical and mental health, has resulted in increased attention to understanding the links between risk factors and course of violence. The current study examined couples' interpersonal stress related to not liking partners' friends and not getting along with parents as contextual factors associated with couples' psychological partner violence and determined whether and when couples' friend and parent stress increased the likelihood of couples' psychological partner violence. A linear latent growth curve modeling approach was used with multiwave measures of psychological partner violence, friend stress, parent stress, and relationship satisfaction obtained from 196 men at risk for delinquency and their women partners over a 12-year period. At the initial assessment, on average, the men were age 21.5 years and the women were age 21 years. Findings indicated that couples experiencing high levels of friend and parent stress were more likely to engage in high levels of psychological partner violence and that increases in couples' friend stress predicted increases in couples' partner violence over time, even when accounting for the couples' relationship satisfaction, marital status, children in the home, and financial strain. Interactive effects were at play when the couples were in their early 20s, with couples being most at risk for increases in psychological partner violence if they experienced both high friend stress and low relationship satisfaction. Couples' friend stress had the greatest effect on psychological partner violence when the couples were in their early to mid 20s when levels of friend stress were high. As the couples reached their 30s, low relationship satisfaction became the leading predictor of couples' psychological partner violence.

  8. Longitudinal Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence among Men in Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Casey T.; O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Doron-Lamarca, Susan; Panuzio, Jillian; Suvak, Michael K.; Gagnon, David R.; Murphy, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined static and time-varying risk factors for perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) among men in treatment for alcohol use disorders. Method: Participants were 178 men diagnosed with alcohol abuse or dependence and their partners. Most (85%) of the men were European American; their average age was 41.0 years.…

  9. Who Is Most at Risk for Intimate Partner Violence? A Canadian Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romans, Sarah; Forte, Tonia; Cohen, Marsha M.; Du Mont, Janice; Hyman, Ilene

    2007-01-01

    Whole population studies on intimate partner violence (IPV) have given contradictory information about prevalence and risk factors, especially concerning gender. The authors examined the 1999 Canadian General Social Survey data for gender patterns of physical, sexual, emotional, or financial IPV from a current or ex-partner. More women (8.6%) than…

  10. Intimate Partner Violence within a Cohort of Pacific Mothers Living in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Janis; Feehan, Michael; Butler, Sarnia; Williams, Maynard; Cowley-Malcolm, Esther Tumama

    2007-01-01

    Maternal reports of intimate partner violence (IPV) were obtained from a cohort of Pacific mothers living in New Zealand. The Conflict Tactics Scale was completed by 1,095 women who had given birth in the past 12 months, and who were married or living with a partner as married. The 12-month prevalence of "victimization" through verbal aggression…

  11. Perceptions of Service Providers and Community Members on Intimate Partner Violence within a Latino Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, M. Jane; West, Bernadette; Bautista, Leyna; Greenberg, Alexandra M.; Done-Perez, Iris

    2005-01-01

    This study examined perceptions regarding intimate partner abuse (IPV) in a largely Latino community in New Jersey through focus groups with Latino community members and key informant interviews with providers of services to this population. Questions examined definitions of partner abuse; perceptions of factors contributing to, or protecting…

  12. Screening for Intimate Partner Violence in Orthopedic Patients: A Comparison of Three Screening Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, Sheila; Madden, Kim; Dosanjh, Sonia; Petrisor, Brad; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Bhandari, Mohit

    2012-01-01

    Accurately identifying victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) can be a challenge for clinicians and clinical researchers. Multiple instruments have been developed and validated to identify IPV in patients presenting to health care practitioners, including the Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) and the Partner Violence Screen (PVS). The purpose…

  13. Correlates of Violent Response among Peruvian Women Abused by an Intimate Partner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelaye, Bizu; Lam, Nelly; Cripe, Swee May; Sanchez, Sixto E.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors sought to identify correlates of violent response among women exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) in Lima, Peru. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on exposure to IPV and women's physical violent reaction towards their abuser. Women who were sexually abused by their partners, as compared with women who…

  14. Intergenerational Continuities and Discontinuities in Intimate Partner Violence: A Two-Generational Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carolyn A.; Ireland, Timothy O.; Park, Aely; Elwyn, Laura; Thornberry, Terence P.

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on intergenerational continuity in violent partner relationships. We investigate whether exposure to caregiver intimate partner violence (IPV) during adolescence leads to increased involvement in IPV during early adulthood (age 21-23) and adulthood (age 29-31). We also investigate whether this relationship differs by gender.…

  15. Disaster Down East: Using Participatory Action Research to Explore Intimate Partner Violence in Eastern North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Pamela York; Belton, Leigh; Hooten, Elizabeth; Campbell, Marci Kramish; DeVellis, Brenda; Benedict, Salli; Carrillo, Carla; Gonzalez, Pam; Kelsey, Kristine; Meier, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    In the aftermath of Hurricane Floyd in 1999, a Community Advisory Committee requested assistance from its university partners (University of North Carolina) to address stress and increased risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). Collected from 12 study work sites, baseline data indicated that IPV rates were higher among blue-collar women in…

  16. An Examination of Intimate Partner Violence and Psychological Stressors in Adult Abortion Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ely, Gretchen E.; Otis, Melanie D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe an exploratory study examining the relationship between intimate partner violence and psychological stressors in a sample of 188 adult abortion patients. Results indicate the almost 15% of respondents report a history of abuse by the coconceiving partner. In addition, women who reported having had one or…

  17. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN INTIMATE PARTNER HOMICIDES AMONG ETHNIC SUBGROUPS OF ASIANS

    PubMed Central

    SABRI, BUSHRA; CAMPBELL, JACQUELYN C.; DABBY, FIROZA CHIC

    2013-01-01

    This study explored differences in intimate partner homicides (IPHs) among Asian Americans. Data from newspapers and femicide reports by different state coalitions on 125 intimate partner killings occurring between 2000 and 2005 was analyzed. Men were the perpetrators in nearly nine out of ten cases of Asian IPHs. Gender differences were found in ages of victims and perpetrators, types of relationship between partners, and methods of killing. Most homicides occurred among South-east Asians, and East Asians had the highest within group proportion of suicides. The findings call for culturally competent risk assessment and intervention strategies to prevent IPHs among at-risk Asian Americans. PMID:26391620

  18. Intimate Partner Violence among Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico-U.S. Border Cities: Partner Characteristics and HIV Risk-behaviors as Correlates of Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Amaro, Hortensia; O’Campo, Patricia; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with greater vulnerability to HIV infection among women. We examined prevalence and correlates of IPV among female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, two large Mexico-U.S. border cities where HIV prevalence is rising. Participants were 300 FSWs with a current spouse or a steady partner. Participants’ mean age was 33 years, and mean number of years as a sex worker was 6 years. The prevalence of IPV in the past 6 months among participants was 35%. Using multivariate logistic regression, factors independently associated with IPV included having experienced abuse as a child, a partner who had sex with someone else, and lower sexual relationship power. Our findings suggest the need for previous abuse screening and violence prevention services for FSWs in the Mexico-U.S. border region. Careful consideration of relationship dynamics such as infidelity and relationship power is warranted when assessing for IPV risk. PMID:21532933

  19. Intimate partner violence affects skilled attendance at most recent delivery among women in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Goo, Leslie; Harlow, Siobán D

    2012-07-01

    Delivery assistance by skilled health personnel is a key progress indicator for Millennium Development Goal 5, which aims to reduce the worldwide maternal mortality ratio by 75% between 1990 and 2015. The role of socio-demographic factors in determining skilled attendance at delivery has been widely explored, but relatively little attention has been paid to the effect of gender power relations on delivery care. This analysis investigated whether women's status in the household, as measured by their experience of intimate partner violence (IPV), affected skilled attendance at most recent delivery among women in Kenya. Cross-sectional data were obtained from the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys (KDHS). 975 ever-married women who had given birth in the past year and completed the KDHS domestic violence module were included in the analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between skilled attendance and IPV. In this sample, 46% reported having experienced any type of IPV, with 39% reporting physical violence, 21% emotional violence, and 13% sexual violence. After adjusting for demographic characteristics and number of antenatal visits, lifetime experience of emotional violence was found to decrease the odds of skilled attendance at most recent delivery by 40%, while lifetime experience of physical violence reduced the odds by 29%. Women's experience of IPV may influence receipt of skilled attendance during parturition, and should be addressed as national programs and their international partners align efforts to contribute to the achievement of Millennium Development Goal 5.

  20. The Influence of Interpersonal Style on the Appraisal of Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Yalch, Matthew M; Levendosky, Alytia A

    2016-09-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a common type of violence that is associated with a number of psychological problems among women who experience it. Recent research suggests that interpersonal style may influence the degree to which women exhibit psychological problems following IPV exposure. One possible mechanism through which interpersonal style may exert its effects is by influencing appraisals of the violence they experience, although this has not yet been tested empirically. In this study, we examined the effects of dimensions of interpersonal style (dominance and warmth) on IPV appraisals in a sample of young adult women (N = 219) who reported experiencing physical and/or sexual violence from their romantic partner in the past year using a Bayesian approach to multiple linear regression. Our results indicated that both dominance and warmth were associated with less negative (i.e., less betrayed, self-blaming, fearful, alienated, angry, and shameful) appraisals of IPV, exhibiting small- to medium-sized effects when controlling for severity of violence. However, this effect was more prominent for dominance than for warmth. These findings shed light on the role of interpersonal style in the response to IPV and indicate directions for future research.

  1. The Influence of Interpersonal Style on the Appraisal of Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Yalch, Matthew M; Levendosky, Alytia A

    2016-09-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a common type of violence that is associated with a number of psychological problems among women who experience it. Recent research suggests that interpersonal style may influence the degree to which women exhibit psychological problems following IPV exposure. One possible mechanism through which interpersonal style may exert its effects is by influencing appraisals of the violence they experience, although this has not yet been tested empirically. In this study, we examined the effects of dimensions of interpersonal style (dominance and warmth) on IPV appraisals in a sample of young adult women (N = 219) who reported experiencing physical and/or sexual violence from their romantic partner in the past year using a Bayesian approach to multiple linear regression. Our results indicated that both dominance and warmth were associated with less negative (i.e., less betrayed, self-blaming, fearful, alienated, angry, and shameful) appraisals of IPV, exhibiting small- to medium-sized effects when controlling for severity of violence. However, this effect was more prominent for dominance than for warmth. These findings shed light on the role of interpersonal style in the response to IPV and indicate directions for future research. PMID:25814504

  2. Workplace Homicides Among U.S. Women: The Role of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Tiesman, Hope M.; Gurka, Kelly K.; Konda, Srinivas; Coben, Jeffrey H.; Amandus, Harlan E.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important public health issue with serious consequences for the workplace. Workplace homicides occurring to U.S. women over a 6-year period, including those perpetrated by an intimate partner, are described. METHODS Workplace homicides among U.S. women from 2003 to 2008 were categorized into type I (criminal intent), type II (customer/client), type III (co-worker), or type IV (personal relations) events using the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries. Fatality rates were calculated and compared among workplace violence (WPV) types, occupations, and characteristics including location of homicide, type of workplace, time of day, and weapon used. RESULTS Between 2003 and 2008, 648 women were feloniously killed on the job. The leading cause of workplace homicide for U.S. women was criminal intent, such as robbing a store (n = 212; 39%), followed by homicides perpetrated by a personal relation (n= 181; 33%). The majority of these personal relations were intimate partners (n = 142; 78%). Over half of workplace homicides perpetrated by intimate partners occurred in parking lots and public buildings (n = 91; 51%). CONCLUSIONS A large percentage of homicides occurring to women at work are perpetrated by intimate partners. WPV prevention programs should incorporate strategies to prevent and respond to IPV. PMID:22463843

  3. Intimate partner violence and utilization of prenatal care in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cha, Susan; Masho, Saba W

    2014-03-01

    Over 1.5 million women are victims of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse by former or present intimate partners. Intimate partner violence (IPV) around pregnancy can lead to devastating health consequences to mothers and infants. While some research suggests that IPV negatively affects the utilization of health services like prenatal care (PNC), inconsistencies in the assessment of PNC utilization, timing of partner violence, and definitions of IPV yield conflicting results. The objective for the present study is to evaluate whether preconception IPV, prenatal IPV, or IPV in the preconception and/or prenatal period affects PNC utilization. This study analyzed the 2004-2008 national Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), which included 202,367 women who delivered a live birth in the United States. IPV victimization was measured using four items that addressed physical abuse by a current or former husband/partner in the 12 months before (preconception) and during (prenatal) pregnancy. Responses were categorized as preconception, prenatal, and preconception and/or prenatal IPV. The outcome was PNC adequacy categorized as inadequate, intermediate, adequate, and adequate plus based on the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization index. Separate logistic regression models provided crude and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Over 6% of women reported preconception and/or prenatal IPV and 26% had less than adequate PNC. Women who reported abuse before and/or during pregnancy were more likely to have inadequate PNC (odds ratio [OR] = 1.4, 95% CI = [1.3, 1.6]). Similarly, women who experienced preconception or prenatal IPV were 30% more likely to have inadequate PNC (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = [1.2, 1.5]; OR = 1.3, 95% CI = [1.1, 1.7], respectively). Adequate PNC is essential in improving pregnancy outcomes; however, women in abusive relationships may face ongoing challenges and difficulties with obtaining appropriate care. Findings underscore a

  4. Patterns of intimate partner violence in a large, epidemiological sample of divorcing couples.

    PubMed

    Beck, Connie J A; Anderson, Edward R; O'Hara, Karey L; Benjamin, G Andrew H

    2013-10-01

    In many jurisdictions divorcing couples are court-ordered to participate in divorce mediation to resolve parenting plan disputes prior to a court allowing a case to proceed to trial. Historically, a significant number (40-80%) of these divorcing couples enter this highly stressful legal process having experienced violence and abuse within the relationship (Pearson, 1997). Several researchers have developed typologies that describe couple-level patterns of Intimate Partner Violence and Abuse (IPV/A) behaviors; one research team suggested their typology could apply specifically to such divorcing people (Kelly & Johnson, 2008). In this context, identification and accurate classification of IPV/A can lead to better decisions as long-term, difficult to modify custody orders concerning the children are made during divorce mediation. Accurate identification and classification of IPV/A can also assist clinical researchers designing specialized interventions for couples and individuals experiencing IPV/A, mental health practitioners who may treat these families, and custody evaluators who may make recommendations to the courts. The current study includes a large epidemiological sample of divorcing couples and provides a robust statistical solution with five distinct categories of IPV/A. Two of the five categories were similar to those proposed by Johnson (2006c). The current study also provides descriptions and frequencies of each type of IPV/A, and discusses implications for court personnel, researchers and practitioners.

  5. Intimate partner violence, modern contraceptive use and conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Kidman, Rachel; Palermo, Tia; Bertrand, Jane

    2015-05-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been found to be negatively associated with contraceptive use in developing countries, but evidence from Africa is mixed. This study examines whether the above association differs in conflict settings, which have the potential for both higher levels of violence and more limited access to family planning. We use nationally representative data from the Democratic Republic of the Congo to examine the relationship between individual- and community-level IPV and modern contraceptive use, and to explore whether conflict modifies the relationship between IPV and contraceptive use. Nationally, only 6% of women reported current modern contraceptive use, while 53% reported experiencing physical IPV and 32% reported experiencing sexual IPV. In multivariate models, we found that individual-level sexual IPV was positively associated with current using modern contraceptive use, but that a combined measure of physical and sexual IPV did not demonstrate a similar association. Community-level IPV was not associated with individual-level contraceptive use. Conflict exposure was neither an independent predictor nor modifier of contraceptive use. Results suggest improved access to family planning should be a priority for programming in DRC, and efforts should ensure that sufficient resources are allocated towards the reproductive health needs of women in both conflict and non-conflict regions.

  6. Interrupting Intimate Partner Violence During Pregnancy With an Effective Screening and Assessment Program.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Ann L; Cesario, Sandra K; McFarlane, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is a public health problem that affects many women during pregnancy and can compromise the health and safety of mothers and infants. Identification and routine assessment of intimate partner violence during pregnancy is essential, and health care providers must be afforded training and resources that support an effective screening and assessment program. The essential components of an intimate partner violence assessment program for women who are abused during pregnancy are explored. PMID:27234157

  7. Intimate Partner Violence During Pregnancy and Adverse Neonatal Outcomes in Low-Income Women

    PubMed Central

    Bullock, Linda; Sharps, Phyllis; Schminkey, Donna; Comstock, Emily; Campbell, Jacquelyn

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) affects an estimated 1.5 million U.S. women annually. IPV impacts maternal and neonatal health with higher rates of depression and low birth weight (LBW). Less studied is experiencing IPV and delivering a small for gestational age (SGA) baby. SGA neonates are at increased risk of developmental and behavioral problems. The negative sequelae persist into adulthood with increased rates of diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease. Methods: In a sample of 239 pregnant women experiencing IPV, in urban and rural settings, we examined cross-sectional associations of severity of IPV and neonatal outcomes (i.e., birth weight and gestational age). Severity of IPV was measured by the Conflict Tactics Scale 2 and neonatal outcomes were collected at the time of delivery. Results: Outcomes were collected on 194 neonates; 14.9% (n=29) were classified as LBW, 19.1% (n=37) classified as SGA, and 9.8% (n=19) as LBW and SGA. Women reporting higher severity of IPV during pregnancy had a greater likelihood of delivering an SGA neonate (odds ratio [OR] 4.81; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.86–12.47), and LBW neonate (OR 4.20; 95% CI 1.46–12.10). Conclusions: In a sample of pregnant women experiencing perinatal IPV, women experiencing greater severities of IPV were more likely to deliver a neonate with an adverse outcome. Early recognition and intervention of IPV is essential to reduce disparities in birth outcomes and long-term health outcomes for these neonates. PMID:25290007

  8. A Systematic Review of the Relationships between Intimate Partner Violence and HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Kouyoumdjian, Fiona G.; Findlay, Nicole; Schwandt, Michael; Calzavara, Liviana M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant health problem that has been associated with HIV infection in numerous studies. We aimed to systematically review the literature on relationships between IPV and HIV in order to describe the prevalence of IPV in people with HIV, the prevalence of HIV in people experiencing IPV, the association between IPV and HIV, and evidence regarding mechanisms of risk and interventions. Methods Data sources were 10 electronic databases and reference lists. Studies were included if they reported data on the relationship between IPV and HIV. All records were independently reviewed by two authors at the stages of title and abstract review and full text review. Any abstract considered eligible by either reviewer was reviewed in full, and any disagreement regarding eligibility of full texts or data extracted was resolved by discussion. Results 101 articles were included. Experiencing IPV and HIV infection were associated in unadjusted analyses in most studies, as well as in adjusted analyses in many studies. The findings of qualitative and quantitative studies assessing potential mechanisms linking IPV and HIV were variable. Few interventions have been assessed, but two identified in this review were promising in terms of preventing IPV, though not HIV infection. Conclusions Experiencing IPV and HIV infection tend to be associated in unadjusted analyses, suggesting that IPV screening and linkage with relevant programs and services may be valuable. It is unclear whether there is a causal association between experiencing IPV and HIV infection. Research should focus on defining parameters of IPV which are relevant to HIV infection, including type of IPV and period of exposure and risk, on assessing potential mechanisms, and on developing and assessing interventions which build on the strengths of existing studies. PMID:24282566

  9. Intimate partner violence in Mexican-American women with disabilities: a secondary data analysis of cross-language research.

    PubMed

    Divin, Chris; Volker, Deborah L; Harrison, Tracie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative descriptive study, guided by Antonovsky's salutogenic model, was to explore the manifestations of strength within the interviews of Spanish-speaking Mexican-American women aging with mobility impairments who also experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). IPV events gleaned from 26 audiotaped interviews from 7 Spanish-speaking Mexican-American women, who ranged in age from 55 to 75 years, constituted the sample for this secondary analysis. Five categories were identified: abuse from early on that shaped sense of coherence; violencia tan cruel--threatened sense of coherence; "salutogenic" choices within the context of IPV; a quest for peace; and strength amid struggle.

  10. Intimate partner violence in Mexican-American women with disabilities: a secondary data analysis of cross-language research.

    PubMed

    Divin, Chris; Volker, Deborah L; Harrison, Tracie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative descriptive study, guided by Antonovsky's salutogenic model, was to explore the manifestations of strength within the interviews of Spanish-speaking Mexican-American women aging with mobility impairments who also experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). IPV events gleaned from 26 audiotaped interviews from 7 Spanish-speaking Mexican-American women, who ranged in age from 55 to 75 years, constituted the sample for this secondary analysis. Five categories were identified: abuse from early on that shaped sense of coherence; violencia tan cruel--threatened sense of coherence; "salutogenic" choices within the context of IPV; a quest for peace; and strength amid struggle. PMID:23907305

  11. Impact of Intimate Partner Violence on Pregnant Women’s Mental Health: Mental Distress and Mental Strength

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Linda; Alhusen, Jeanne; Bhandari, Shreya; Soeken, Karen; Marcantonio, Kristen; Bullock, Linda; Sharps, Phyllis

    2011-01-01

    The mental health consequences of living with intimate partner violence (IPV) are substantial. Despite the growing awareness of the incidence of depression and PTSD in women experiencing IPV, few studies have examined prospectively the experience of IPV during pregnancy and the impact of the abuse on women’s mental health. As a component of a larger clinical trial of an intervention for pregnant abused women, 27 women participated in a qualitative study of their responses to the abuse in the context of pregnancy and parenting. Results indicate that women’s changing perceptions of self was related to mental distress, mental health, or both mental distress and mental health. PMID:20070224

  12. Intimate Partner Homicide and Corollary Victims in 16 States: National Violent Death Reporting System, 2003–2009

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Katherine A.; Niolon, Phyllis H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the frequency and examined the characteristics of intimate partner homicide and related deaths in 16 US states participating in the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), a state-based surveillance system. Methods. We used a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods to analyze NVDRS data from 2003 to 2009. We selected deaths linked to intimate partner violence for analysis. Results. Our sample comprised 4470 persons who died in the course of 3350 intimate partner violence–related homicide incidents. Intimate partners and corollary victims represented 80% and 20% of homicide victims, respectively. Corollary homicide victims included family members, new intimate partners, friends, acquaintances, police officers, and strangers. Conclusions. Our findings, from the first multiple-state study of intimate partner homicide and corollary homicides, demonstrate that the burden of intimate partner violence extends beyond the couple involved. Systems (e.g., criminal justice, medical care, and shelters) whose representatives routinely interact with victims of intimate partner violence can help assess the potential for lethal danger, which may prevent intimate partner and corollary victims from harm. PMID:24432943

  13. "Are we Facebook official?" Implications of dating partners' Facebook use and profiles for intimate relationship satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Papp, Lauren M; Danielewicz, Jennifer; Cayemberg, Crystal

    2012-02-01

    Extending previous research on positive and negative correlates of Facebook use for individuals' outcomes, this study examined male and female dating partners' (n=58 couples) Facebook use and portrayals of their intimate relationship on the Facebook profile. Confirming hypotheses from compatibility theories of mate selection, partners demonstrated similar Facebook intensity (e.g., usage, connection to Facebook), and were highly likely to portray their relationship on their Facebook profiles in similar ways (i.e., display partnered status and show their partner in profile picture). These Facebook profile choices played a role in the overall functioning of the relationship, with males' indications of a partnered status linked with higher levels of their own and their partners' (marginal) relationship satisfaction, and females' displays of their partner in their profile picture linked with higher levels of their own and their partners' relationship satisfaction. Finally, male and female reports of having had disagreements over the Facebook relationship status was associated with lower level of females' but not males' relationship satisfaction, after accounting for global verbal conflict. Thus, the findings point to the unique contribution of Facebook disagreements to intimate relationship functioning. Results from this study encourage continued examination of technology use and behaviors in contexts of intimate relationships.

  14. "Are we Facebook official?" Implications of dating partners' Facebook use and profiles for intimate relationship satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Papp, Lauren M; Danielewicz, Jennifer; Cayemberg, Crystal

    2012-02-01

    Extending previous research on positive and negative correlates of Facebook use for individuals' outcomes, this study examined male and female dating partners' (n=58 couples) Facebook use and portrayals of their intimate relationship on the Facebook profile. Confirming hypotheses from compatibility theories of mate selection, partners demonstrated similar Facebook intensity (e.g., usage, connection to Facebook), and were highly likely to portray their relationship on their Facebook profiles in similar ways (i.e., display partnered status and show their partner in profile picture). These Facebook profile choices played a role in the overall functioning of the relationship, with males' indications of a partnered status linked with higher levels of their own and their partners' (marginal) relationship satisfaction, and females' displays of their partner in their profile picture linked with higher levels of their own and their partners' relationship satisfaction. Finally, male and female reports of having had disagreements over the Facebook relationship status was associated with lower level of females' but not males' relationship satisfaction, after accounting for global verbal conflict. Thus, the findings point to the unique contribution of Facebook disagreements to intimate relationship functioning. Results from this study encourage continued examination of technology use and behaviors in contexts of intimate relationships. PMID:21988733

  15. Intimate partner femicide-suicides in Ghana: victims, offenders, and incident characteristics.

    PubMed

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2014-09-01

    The present study investigated the scope, nature, and determinants of intimate partner femicide-suicides (IPFS) that occurred in Ghana during 1990 to 2009. All 35 reported cases of intimate partner homicide-suicides with female homicide victims that occurred during the study period were extracted from a major Ghanaian daily newspaper. Findings indicate that offenders were of lower socioeconomic background and tended to be older than their victims. The results further show that shooting with a firearm and hacking with a machete were the primary homicide methods, whereas self-inflicted gunshots and hanging were the dominant suicide methods. Results showed that suspicion of infidelity and sexual jealousy were core contributing factors in arguments, disputes, and altercations that preceded the femicide-suicides. Furthermore, estrangement and threatened divorce or separation by the female intimate partner was a major precipitant of femicide-suicides. PMID:25261436

  16. Social context and drivers of intimate partner violence in rural Kenya: Implications for the health of pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Hatcher, Abigail M.; Romito, Patrizia; Odero, Merab; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Onono, Maricianah; Turan, Janet M.

    2013-01-01

    More than half of rural Kenyan women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) in their lifetime. Beyond physical consequences, IPV indirectly worsens maternal health because pregnant women avoid antenatal care or HIV testing when they fear violent reprisal from partners. To develop an intervention to mitigate violence towards pregnant women, we conducted qualitative research in rural Kenya. Through eight focus group discussions, four with pregnant women (n=29), four with male partners (n=32), and in-depth interviews with service providers (n=20), we explored the social context of IPV using an ecological model. We found that women experienced physical and sexual IPV, but also economic violence like forced exile from the marital home or losing material support. Relationship triggers of IPV included perceived sexual infidelity or transgressing gender norms. Women described hiding antenatal HIV testing from partners, as testing was perceived as a sign of infidelity. Extended families were sometimes supportive, but often encouraged silence to protect the family image. The broader community viewed IPV as an intractable, common issue, which seemed to normalise its use. These results resonate with global IPV research showing that factors beyond the individual – gender roles in intimate partnerships, family dynamics, and community norms – shape high rates of violence. PMID:23387300

  17. Sexual risk, serostatus and intimate partner violence among couples during pregnancy in rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Jones, Deborah; Weiss, Stephen M; Villar-Loubet, Olga; Shikwane, Elisa

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to describe sexual risk behavior among 239 couples during pregnancy and to examine the relationship of sexual risk behavior with HIV serostatus and intimate partner violence. One-third (31.8 %) of pregnant women and 20.9 % of male partners were HIV positive. HIV risk factors included lack of knowledge of partners' HIV serostatus, unprotected sexual intercourse and multiple sexual partners. Among men, multivariate logistic regression identified awareness of HIV negative partner status, multiple sexual partners and low levels of partner violence and among women Zulu or Swati ethnicity were associated with unprotected intercourse. HIV positive concordance was associated with protected sex and in multilevel analysis of couples HIV positive status and awareness of the partner's HIV positive status were associated with protected sex. High levels of HIV risk behaviour was found among couples during pregnancy calling for HIV risk reduction interventions.

  18. Family and community driven response to intimate partner violence in post-conflict settings.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Anjalee; Perrin, Nancy; Mpanano, Remy Mitima; Banywesize, Luhazi; Mirindi, Alfred Bacikenge; Banywesize, Jean Heri; Mitima, Clovis Murhula; Binkurhorhwa, Arsène Kajabika; Bufole, Nadine Mwinja; Glass, Nancy

    2015-12-01

    This study explores risk factors, individual and family consequences and community-driven responses to intimate partner violence (IPV) in post-conflict eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This qualitative study was conducted in 3 rural villages in South Kivu Province of DRC, an area that has experienced prolonged conflict. Participants included 13 female survivors and 5 male perpetrators of IPV as reported during baseline data collection for the parent study, an impact evaluation of the Congolese-led livestock microfinance program, Pigs for Peace. Participants described social and behavioral circumstances that increase risk for IPV; social, health and economic consequences on women and their families; and resources to protect women and their families. Social and behavioral factors reported by survivors and perpetrators indicate that IPV was linked to husband's alcohol consumption, household economic instability, male desire to maintain his position as head of family and perceived disrespect of husband by wife. In addition to well-known health consequences of IPV, women reported negative social consequences, such as stigma, resulting in barriers for the well-being of the family. Survivors and perpetrators described the impact of IPV on their children, specifically the lack of proper parental guidance and lack of safety and stability that could result in the child(ren) misbehaving and using violence in their relationships resulting in further stigma towards the child and family. Strategies employed by survivors to protect themselves and family, include placating male behaviors (e.g., not responding to insults, trying to meet household demands). Perpetrators that tried to reduce the impact of IPV reported a preference for social and financial control of their partner rather than physical violence, believing this to be less severe. Participants described community and family based social support systems including couple's mediation, responsible partner and

  19. Family and community driven response to intimate partner violence in post-conflict settings.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Anjalee; Perrin, Nancy; Mpanano, Remy Mitima; Banywesize, Luhazi; Mirindi, Alfred Bacikenge; Banywesize, Jean Heri; Mitima, Clovis Murhula; Binkurhorhwa, Arsène Kajabika; Bufole, Nadine Mwinja; Glass, Nancy

    2015-12-01

    This study explores risk factors, individual and family consequences and community-driven responses to intimate partner violence (IPV) in post-conflict eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This qualitative study was conducted in 3 rural villages in South Kivu Province of DRC, an area that has experienced prolonged conflict. Participants included 13 female survivors and 5 male perpetrators of IPV as reported during baseline data collection for the parent study, an impact evaluation of the Congolese-led livestock microfinance program, Pigs for Peace. Participants described social and behavioral circumstances that increase risk for IPV; social, health and economic consequences on women and their families; and resources to protect women and their families. Social and behavioral factors reported by survivors and perpetrators indicate that IPV was linked to husband's alcohol consumption, household economic instability, male desire to maintain his position as head of family and perceived disrespect of husband by wife. In addition to well-known health consequences of IPV, women reported negative social consequences, such as stigma, resulting in barriers for the well-being of the family. Survivors and perpetrators described the impact of IPV on their children, specifically the lack of proper parental guidance and lack of safety and stability that could result in the child(ren) misbehaving and using violence in their relationships resulting in further stigma towards the child and family. Strategies employed by survivors to protect themselves and family, include placating male behaviors (e.g., not responding to insults, trying to meet household demands). Perpetrators that tried to reduce the impact of IPV reported a preference for social and financial control of their partner rather than physical violence, believing this to be less severe. Participants described community and family based social support systems including couple's mediation, responsible partner and

  20. Intimate Partner Violence in the United States - 2010

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partner Violence in the United States—2010 • An estimated 16.9% of women and 8.0% of ... proportion of the unknowns that are eligible is estimated. The weighted cooperation rate was 81.3%. A ...

  1. Birthplace, culture, self-esteem, and intimate partner violence among community-dwelling Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Vermeesch, Amber L; Florom-Smith, Aubrey L; McCabe, Brian E; Peragallo, Nilda P

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore variations in demographics, culture, self-esteem, and intimate partner violence among Hispanic women according to birthplace, and to identify factors associated with these differences in intimate partner violence (IPV). Baseline data from a randomized control trial testing the efficacy of an HIV prevention program were used. Path analyses identified differences in IPV between Colombian women and women from other Central/South American countries. Self-esteem was the only factor associated with these differences. Interventions addressing the unique needs of Hispanic women from different subgroups are needed.

  2. Do laws restricting access to firearms by domestic violence offenders prevent intimate partner homicide?

    PubMed

    Vigdor, Elizabeth Richardson; Mercy, James A

    2006-06-01

    Domestic violence imposes a large cost on society. The authors exploit state variation in timing to examine the impact of three types of law on intimate partner homicides. These laws restrict access to firearms by individuals who are subject to a restraining order or have been convicted of a domestic violence misdemeanor or allow law enforcement officers to confiscate firearms at a domestic violence scene. The authors find that female intimate partner homicide rates decline 7% after a state passes a restraining order law. They find no effect from the domestic violence misdemeanor or confiscation laws. PMID:16679499

  3. Israeli Arab Muslim women's willingness to be screened for intimate partner violence: A survey.

    PubMed

    Ben Natan, Merav; Muasi, Hiba; Farhan, Fidaa; Shhada, Miada; Masarwa, Gada

    2014-03-17

    In the present study, we explored whether the research model based on the Theory of Reasoned Action predicts Israeli Arab Muslim women's willingness to be screened for intimate partner violence at healthcare facilities. Three hundred women completed a questionnaire. Most women (68.4%) expressed willingness to be screened, however, only 16% of them had been screened over the past year. Women's beliefs about screening for intimate partner violence and the support of significant others were found to predict this willingness. The study may constitute an initial foundation for determining national policy with the aim of detecting and eradicating the phenomenon among this unique population. PMID:24636365

  4. Intimate partner violence and mental health symptoms in African American female ED patients#

    PubMed Central

    Houry, Debra; Kemball, Robin; Rhodes, Karin V.; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2006-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) victims often seek care in the ED, whether for an injury from abuse or other sequelae such as mental health symptoms. Objectives The objective of the study was to assess whether depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and suicidality were associated with physical, sexual, or emotional IPV in African American female ED patients and to determine if experiencing multiple types of abuse was associated with increased mental health symptoms. Methods All eligible African American female patients were approached in the ED waiting room during study periods. Patients participated in the screening process via a computer kiosk. Questions regarding IPV and mental health symptoms were asked using validated tools. Results In this prospective cohort, 569 participated and 36% of those in a relationship in the past year (n = 461) disclosed that there were victims of IPV in the past year. In the past year, 22% experienced recent physical abuse, 9% recent sexual abuse, and 32% recent emotional abuse. A Pearson correlation was conducted and showed that all mental health symptoms were positively correlated with each type of IPV and each type of mental health symptom category. Mental health symptoms increased significantly with amount of abuse: depression (odds ratio [OR], 5.9 for 3 types of abuse), PTSD (OR, 9.4 for 3), and suicidality (OR, 17.5 for 3). Conclusions Emotional, sexual, and physical IPV were significantly associated with mental health symptoms. Each type of abuse was independently associated with depression, suicidality, and PTSD. Experiencing more than 1 type of abuse was also correlated with increased mental health symptoms. PMID:16787803

  5. Maternal Intimate Partner Violence: Relationships with Language and Neurological Development of Infants and Toddlers.

    PubMed

    Udo, Ifeyinwa E; Sharps, Phyllis; Bronner, Yvonne; Hossain, Mian B

    2016-07-01

    Objectives This longitudinal study examined the influence of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) experience of pregnant women participating in the Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation Program on the language and neurological development of infants and toddlers. Methods A total of 210 infants and toddlers born to women reporting low, moderate, and high levels of IPV were included in the analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the bivariate association between maternal IPV and risk of language and neurological delay of infants and toddlers and between covariates and language and neurological delay. Generalized estimating equation models with logit link was used to predict the risk of language and neurological delay of infants and toddlers as a result of maternal IPV. Results Infants and toddlers born to women exposed to moderate levels of IPV had increased odds of language delay compared to infants and toddlers of women who experienced low levels of violence (OR 5.31, 95 % CI 2.94, 9.50, p < 0.001). Infants and toddlers born to women who experienced moderate and high levels of IPV were at higher risk of neurological delay respectively, compared to infants and toddlers of women who experienced low levels of IPV (OR 5.42, 95 % CI 2.99, 9.82, p < 0.001 and OR 2.57, 95 % CI 1.11, 5.61, p = 0.026). Conclusions for Practice Maternal IPV is associated with increased risk of language and neurological delay of infants and toddlers. These findings have implications for health care for women and infants exposed to IPV. Clinicians including pediatricians working with pregnant women should screen for IPV throughout pregnancy to identify women and children at risk. Interventions to reduce maternal IPV and early intervention services for infants and toddlers exposed to IPV are necessary for optimal maternal and child health.

  6. [Alcohol consumption in men punished for intimate partner violence: individual and contextual factors].

    PubMed

    Catalá-Miñana, Alba; Lila, Marisol; Oliver, Amparo

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is often associated with violence against women. The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between alcohol and other relevant variables in the intervention with men convicted of intimate partner violence, both at the individual and contextual spheres. Clinical symptomatology, Drug abuse, Impulsivity, Self-esteem, Assumption of responsibility, Intimate support perception, Social rejection perception, Accumulation of stressful life events, Income perception and Social support in community are assessed in a sample of 291 participants in an intervention program for men condemned for intimate partner violence. Data were analyzed using bivariate correlations and ANOVAs. Statistically significant differences were obtained among Risk consumers and Not risk consumers in Clinical symptomatology, Drug abuse, Impulsivity, Self-esteem and Attribution of blame to personal context as individual variables and Intimate support perception, Social rejection and Accumulation of stressful life events as contextual variables. Results of previous work are confirmed and the importance of considering social factors in the participants' environment when considering decreasing alcohol consumption and intimate partner violence is demonstrated. New tools for enhancing interventions in rehabilitation programs with men convicted for violence against women is provided.

  7. Intimate Partner Physical and Sexual Violence and Outcomes of Unintended Pregnancy Among National Samples of Women From Three Former Soviet Union Countries.

    PubMed

    Ismayilova, Leyla; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2014-06-01

    The article examines the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and unintended pregnancy among nationally representative samples of women in three former Soviet Union countries. Women who experienced physical and/or sexual IPV from their current or most recent husband or living together partner demonstrated higher risks of unintended last pregnancy, either terminated through abortion (in Azerbaijan, Moldova, and Ukraine) or resulting in unintended live birth (in Ukraine). IPV prevention components should be integrated into reproductive health programs to reduce the risk of unintended births and abortions among women living with abusive partners in these former Soviet Union countries.

  8. NEIGHBORHOOD CHARACTERISTICS AND SEXUAL INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN AMONG LOW-INCOME, DRUG-INVOLVED NEW YORK CITY RESIDENTS: RESULTS FROM THE IMPACT STUDIES

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Victoria; Blaney, Shannon; Cerda, Magdalena; Vlahov, David; Galea, Sandro; Ompad, Danielle C.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed relations among neighborhood characteristics and sexual intimate partner violence against women (SIPVAW), among low-income, drug-involved, women (N=360) and men (N=670) in New York City between 2005 and 2009. Six percent of women (n=22) and 5% of men (n=33) reported experiencing and perpetrating SIPVAW in the past year with a main partner. In adjusted mixed models among women, neighborhood ethnic heterogeneity was significantly, negatively associated with SIPVAW victimization. In adjusted logistic models among men, neighborhood collective efficacy was significantly, positively associated with SIPVAW perpetration. Novel theoretical frameworks are needed to guide research on neighborhoods and partner violence. PMID:25062819

  9. Intimate Partner Violence Resource Materials: Assessment of Information Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwardsen, Elizabeth A.; Morse, Diane

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the educational impact of placing partner violence resource information in a medical setting. Method: A cross-sectional study with a structured interview. Setting: Emergency department (ED) in an urban academic medical center. Participants: adult patients and visitors. Interventions: Educational materials and community…

  10. Intimate Partner Violence among Pregnant and Parenting Latina Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Bernie Sue; Campbell, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the nature and extent of mutual violence among a sample of pregnant and parenting Latina adolescent females and their partners. The sample consisted of 73 Latina adolescent females between the ages of 14 and 20 who were referred to a community-based organization for case management, education, and…

  11. Leave or Stay? Battered Women's Decision after Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinseok; Gray, Karen A.

    2008-01-01

    Battered women's reasons for staying with or leaving their male partners are varied and complex. Using data from the Domestic Violence Experience in Omaha, Nebraska, a discrete-time hazard model was employed to examine a woman's decision based on four factors: financial independence, witness of parental violence, psychological factors, and the…

  12. Prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence by type and severity: population-based studies in Azerbaijan, Moldova, and Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Ismayilova, Leyla; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2013-08-01

    The article estimates the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) by type and severity in population-based samples from three countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU). The article utilized nationally representative data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in Azerbaijan (2006), Moldova (2005), and Ukraine (2007). Respondents were selected using stratified multistage cluster sampling. The sample included ever-married (or cohabitating) females of reproductive age (15-49 years old); weighted sample n = 3,847 in Azerbaijan, n = 4,321 in Moldova, and n = 2,355 in Ukraine. The analysis used multinomial survey logistic regression adjusting for the sampling design and sampling weights. Ten percent of ever-partnered women in Azerbaijan and Ukraine and 20% in Moldova ever experienced physical IPV (without sexual) from their most recent husband or cohabitating partner; 3% of women in Azerbaijan and Ukraine and 5% in Moldova experienced sexual IPV (with or without physical), and 2% of women in Azerbaijan, 3% in Ukraine, and 6% in Moldova experienced violence resulting in severe physical injuries from their most recent partner. In all three countries physical, sexual, and injurious IPV was higher among formerly married women. Compared to women with above secondary education, women with secondary education or below demonstrated higher risk for physical IPV (in Moldova and Ukraine), sexual IPV in Moldova, and injurious IPV in all three countries. Poor socioeconomic status-as indicated by low household wealth status in Azerbaijan and partner's unemployment in Moldova and Ukraine-was significantly associated with higher risk for physical and injurious IPV. In Moldova and Ukraine partners' low level of education was associated with higher risk for sexual IPV. The article demonstrates that experiences and factors associated with IPV are diverse and context specific. The findings may be helpful in targeting interventions to

  13. Does the Life History Calendar Method Facilitate the Recall of Intimate Partner Violence? Comparison of Two Methods of Data Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshihama, Mieko; Gillespie, Brenda; Hammock, Amy C.; Belli, Robert F.; Tolman, Richard M.

    2005-01-01

    Violence perpetrated by intimate partners (intimate partner violence, IPV hereinafter) is prevalent, and often recurrent, in women's lives (Straus & Gelles, 1990; Tjaden & Thoennes, 2000). Gaining information about lifetime IPV is crucial to assess the cumulative effects of IPV on women's well-being over the life course. This study compared two…

  14. Intimate partner violence among women veterans: previous interpersonal violence as a risk factor.

    PubMed

    Iverson, Katherine M; Mercado, Rowena; Carpenter, Sarah L; Street, Amy E

    2013-12-01

    Experiences of abuse during childhood or military service may increase women veterans' risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization. This study examined the relative impact of 3 forms of interpersonal violence exposure (childhood physical abuse [CPA], childhood sexual abuse [CSA], and unwanted sexual experiences during military service) and demographic and military characteristics on past-year IPV among women veterans. Participants were 160 female veteran patients at Veterans Afffairs hospitals in New England who completed a paper-and-pencil mail survey that included validated assessments of past-year IPV and previous interpersonal violence exposures. Women who reported CSA were 3.06 times, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.14, 8.23], more likely to report past-year IPV relative to women who did not experience CSA. Similarly, women who reported unwanted sexual experiences during military service were 2.33 times, 95% CI [1.02, 5.35], more likely to report past-year IPV compared to women who did not report such experiences. CPA was not associated with IPV risk. Having less education and having served in the Army (vs. other branches) were also associated with greater risk of experiencing IPV in the past year. Findings have implications for assisting at risk women veterans in reducing their risk for IPV through detection and intervention efforts.

  15. Disclosure experiences of sexual minority college student victims of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Sylaska, Kateryna M; Edwards, Katie M

    2015-06-01

    Although research on disclosure following intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is burgeoning, sexual minority young adults' (lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, questioning, etc.; LGBQ+) experiences have not received equal attention. The current study employed the minority stress framework to examine disclosure experiences of LGBQ+ college students across the United States reporting physical IPV victimization within their current relationship (n = 77). Participants completed measures assessing minority stress and IPV disclosure, and answered open-ended questions regarding the most and least helpful persons/responses to disclosure or reasons for non-disclosure. Results indicated that approximately one-third (35 %) of victims disclosed to at least one person, with friends being the most common recipients. Thematic analyses indicated that talking or listening to the victim was considered the most helpful response and not understanding the situation least helpful. Reasons for non-disclosure centered on themes of the victims' perception that the IPV was not a big deal. Quantitative findings regarding physical IPV disclosure indicated that non-disclosers experienced greater minority stress than disclosers. The current study suggests the presence of differences between sexual minority (i.e., LGBQ +persons) and non-sexual minority persons, as well as between LGBQ+ young adults/college students and older adults and presents a theoretical structure (i.e., minority stress framework) through which these differences may be understood.

  16. Drowning the pain: Intimate partner violence, and drinking to cope prospectively predict problem drinking

    PubMed Central

    Øverup, Camilla S.; DiBello, Angelo M.; Brunson, Julie A.; Acitelli, Linda K.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the longitudinal association among drinking problems, drinking to cope, and degree of intimate partner violence (IPV). Two competing models were tested; the first model posited that drinking to cope leads to greater drinking problems and this subsequently leads to more violence in the relationship (an intoxication-violence model). The second model speculated that violence in the relationship leads to drinking to cope, which in turn leads to greater drinking problems (a self-medication model). Eight hundred and eighteen undergraduate students at a large north-western university participated in the study over a two year period, completing assessments of IPV, alcohol related problems and drinking to cope at five time points over a two year period as part of a larger social norms intervention study. Analyses examined two competing models; Analyses indicated there was support for the self-mediation model, whereby people who have experienced violence have more drinking problems later, and this association is temporally mediated by drinking to cope. PMID:25452060

  17. In person versus Computer Screening for Intimate Partner Violence Among Pregnant Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dado, Diane; Schussler, Sara; Hawker, Lynn; Holland, Cynthia L.; Burke, Jessica G.; Cluss, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare in person versus computerized screening for intimate partner violence (IPV) in a hospital-based prenatal clinic and explore women’s assessment of the screening methods. Methods We compared patient IPV disclosures on a computerized questionnaire to audio-taped first obstetric visits with an obstetric care provider and performed semi-structured interviews with patient participants who reported experiencing IPV. Results Two-hundred and fifty patient participants and 52 provider participants were in the study. Ninety-one (36%) patients disclosed IPV either via computer or in person. Of those who disclosed IPV, 60 (66%) disclosed via both methods, but 31 (34%) disclosed IPV via only one of the two methods. Twenty-three women returned for interviews. They recommended using both types together. While computerized screening was felt to be non-judgmental and more anonymous, in person screening allowed for tailored questioning and more emotional connection with the provider. Conclusion Computerized screening allowed disclosure without fear of immediate judgment. In person screening allows more flexibility in wording of questions regarding IPV and opportunity for interpersonal rapport. Practice Implications Both computerized or self-completed screening and in person screening is recommended. Providers should address IPV using non-judgmental, descriptive language, include assessments for psychological IPV, and repeat screening in person, even if no patient disclosure occurs via computer. PMID:22770815

  18. Dissimilarity in vulnerability: self-reported symptoms among children with experiences of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Georgsson, Anna; Almqvist, Kjerstin; Broberg, Anders G

    2011-10-01

    Children with experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV) are at risk. Not all children, however, display symptoms, and differences connected to gender and age have been demonstrated. In this exploratory study, children's own reports of symptoms were used. The 41 recruited children, between 7 and 19 years old, were entered into a group program specially directed toward children with experiences of IPV. These children reported experiencing more symptoms overall when compared with non-exposed children. The relationship to the abuser and children's symptoms related differently for boys and for girls. Girls who had continued contact with the abusive father described more mental health problems than did other girls exposed to IPV and more than did boys with continued contact. Among children with experiences of custody disputes or other judicial processes, age rather than gender was connected to differences in self-reported symptoms. Younger children with experiences of judicial processes reported more mental health problems than did those with no experience.

  19. Prevalence and Determinants of Sexual Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the City of Marivan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Yari, Arezoo; Nouri, Roonama; Rashidian, Hamideh

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of sexual intimate partner violence (SIPV) and to investigate its associated factors among women attending public obstetrics, genecology, and family planning health services of the city of Marivan, Iran. Materials and methods This multistage cluster sampling study recruited 770 women attending the public obstetrics, gynecology and family planning health services of the city of Marivan from May to November, 2009. Results Our findings confirmed that about one-third of the women experienced SIPV (32.9%). Statistically significant differences were found (p < .001) in SIPV by almost all demographic and characteristic variables. Woman's circumcision, forced marriage, spouse's infidelity, level of sexual desire, woman's pleasure from intercourse, and spouse's inattention to woman's sexual satisfaction during intercourse were statistically significant predictors of SIPV, and also, were accounted for 61.8% of the participants. Conclusion Public health centers and health-care providers should focus on both women and their spouses in order to participate in both national and community level of educational and promotional intervention programs. Without their participation, the likelihood of success in decreasing SIPV against women would be low. PMID:24971119

  20. Risk factors for severe intimate partner violence and violence-related injuries among women in India.

    PubMed

    Sabri, Bushra; Renner, Lynette M; Stockman, Jamila K; Mittal, Mona; Decker, Michele R

    2014-01-01

    Relying on an ecological framework, we examined risk factors for severe physical intimate partner violence (IPV) and related injuries among a nationally representative sample of women (N = 67,226) in India. Data for this cross-sectional study were derived from the 2005-2006 India National Family Health Survey, a nationally representative household-based health surveillance system. Logistic regression analyses were used to generate the study findings. We found that factors related to severe physical IPV and injuries included low or no education, low socioeconomic status, rural residence, greater number of children, and separated or divorced marital status. Husbands' problem drinking, jealousy, suspicion, control, and emotionally and sexually abusive behaviors were also related to an increased likelihood of women experiencing severe IPV and injuries. Other factors included women's exposure to domestic violence in childhood, perpetration of IPV, and adherence to social norms that accept husbands' violence. Practitioners may use these findings to identify women at high risk of being victimized by severe IPV or injuries for prevention and intervention strategies. Policies and programs that focus on empowering abused women and holding perpetrators accountable may protect women at risk for severe IPV or injuries that may result in death.

  1. Interventions targeting substance abuse among women survivors of intimate partner abuse: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Dawnovise N; Faulkner, Monica

    2011-12-01

    In this article, meta-analytic techniques are used to examine existing intervention studies (n = 11) to determine their effects on substance abuse among female samples of intimate partner abuse (IPA) survivors. This research serves as a starting point for greater attention in research and practice to the implementation of evidence-based, integrated services to address co-occurring substance abuse and IPA victimization among women as major intersecting public health problems. The results show greater effects in three main areas. First, greater effect sizes exist in studies where larger numbers of women experienced current IPA. Second, studies with a lower mean age also showed greater effect sizes than studies with a higher mean age. Lastly, studies with smaller sample sizes have greater effects. This research helps to facilitate cohesion in the knowledge base on this topic, and the findings of this meta-analysis, in particular, contribute needed information to gaps in the literature on the level of promise of existing interventions to impact substance abuse in this underserved population.

  2. Association of exposure to intimate-partner physical violence and potentially traumatic war-related events with mental health in Liberia.

    PubMed

    Vinck, Patrick; Pham, Phuong N

    2013-01-01

    Liberia's wars between 1989 and 2003 resulted in hundreds of thousands of casualties and millions of victims. Gender-based violence was widespread during the conflict. Since the end of the war, however, little attention has been paid to ongoing violence against women, especially within the household. This research examines the relationships between intimate-partner physical violence, war experiences, and mental health nearly ten years after the end of the war. The study is based on a nationwide cross-sectional, multistage stratified cluster random survey of 4501 adults using structured interviews during a six-week period in November and December 2010. The main outcome measures are prevalence of intimate-partner physical violence, exposure to potentially traumatic war-related events, symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and depression. Among adult women, 37.7% (95%CI, 34.9-40.5; n = 852/2196) reported lifetime exposure to intimate-partner physical violence and 24.4% (95%CI, 22.1-26.9; n = 544/2196) reported incidence of intimate-partner physical violence over a one-year recall period. Among men, 23.2% (95%CI, 20.8-25.9, n = 475/2094) reported having severely beaten their spouse or partner over their lifetime; the incidence over the one-year recall was 12.2% (95%CI, 10.4-14.2, n = 259/2094). Among adult residents in Liberia, 10.6% (95%CI, 9.5-11.7, n = 546/4496) met the criteria for symptoms of depression, and 12.6% (95% CI, 11.5-13.9, n = 608/4496) met the criteria for symptoms of PTSD. Intimate-partner physical violence as a victim and as a perpetrator was significantly associated with exposure to potentially traumatic war-related events, especially among men. Among women, experiencing intimate-partner physical violence was associated with symptoms of PTSD and depression. Among men, perpetrating intimate-partner physical violence was associated with symptoms of PTSD and depression after adjusting for exposure to potentially traumatic war-related events

  3. Genetic and environmental influences on intimate partner aggression: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Hines, Denise A; Saudino, Kimberly J

    2004-12-01

    Social learning theory posits that, because aggression against intimates runs in families, children learn how to behave aggressively through watching their parents and being reinforced for their own aggression. This theory considers only environmental influences on familial resemblance; however, familial resemblance could also be due to genetic factors. The current study uses a twin design (134 monozygotic, 41 dizygotic) to examine the extent to which genetic and environmental factors contribute to individual differences in intimate aggression. Model-fitting analyses consistently showed that shared genes explained the familial resemblance in psychological and physical intimate partner aggression; the remaining variance was explained by unique environments. Multivariate model-fitting analyses showed that most of the genetic influences responsible for the receipt of aggression were also responsible for its use, suggesting that there is a genetic predisposition to get involved in aggressive relationships. These results challenge the prevailing theory to explain familial resemblance in intimate aggression.

  4. Social Norms for Intimate Partner Violence in Situations Involving Victim Infidelity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, Tricia H.; Mulla, Mazheruddin M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated perceived descriptive norms (i.e., perceived prevalence) for male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) following victim infidelity (i.e., girlfriend had sex with another man). While watching a video-taped vignette of a young, dating couple in an argument that escalated to male-to-female violence, male…

  5. Intimate Partner Violence Attitudes and Experience among Women and Men in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speizer, Ilene S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines intimate partner violence (IPV) attitudes and experience among women and men in Uganda to inform IPV-prevention programs in the region. Nationally representative population-based data from women aged 15 to 49 and men aged 15 to 54 were collected between May and October 2006 as part of the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey.…

  6. The Relationship of Intimate Partner Aggression to Head Injury, Executive Functioning, and Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Sherry M.; Meehan, Jeffrey C.; Marshall, Amy D.; Holtzworth-Munroe, Amy; Taft, Casey T.

    2012-01-01

    Measures of head injury, executive functioning, and intelligence were given to a community sample composed of 102 male perpetrators of intimate partner aggression (IPA) and 62 nonaggressive men. A history of head injury and lower mean score on a measure of verbal intelligence were associated with the frequency of male-perpetrated physical IPA as…

  7. Predictors of Attitudes toward Intimate Partner Violence: A Comparative Study of Men in Zambia and Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawoko, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Attitudes toward intimate partner violence (IPV) were compared between Zambian and Kenyan men on sociodemographic, attitudinal, and structural predictors of such attitudes. Data were retrieved from the latest Demographic and Health Surveys in each country. The results showed that many men in Zambia (71%) and Kenya (68%) justified IPV to punish a…

  8. Associations between Intimate Partner Violence and Emotional Distress among Pregnant Women in Durban, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Allison K.; Kagee, Ashraf; Maman, Suzanne; Moodley, Dhayendre; Rouse, Petrica

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy has been associated with multiple negative health outcomes including emotional distress during pregnancy. However, little is known about IPV during pregnancy and its association with emotional distress among South African women. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of both…

  9. Career Decision Self-Efficacy, Career Barriers, and College Women's Experiences of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albaugh, Lisa M.; Nauta, Margaret M.

    2005-01-01

    Relationships between college women's experiences of violence from intimate partners, career decision self-efficacy, and perceived career barriers were assessed using social cognitive career theory as a theoretical guide. Among 129 students, sexual coercion was negatively associated with three aspects of career decision self-efficacy…

  10. Psychosocial Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence for Women and Men in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansara, Donna L.; Hindin, Michelle J.

    2011-01-01

    Although the negative health consequences of intimate partner violence (IPV) are well documented, most research has conceptualized IPV as a unitary construct and has primarily focused on the impact of physical violence. However, recent theoretical and empirical work suggests that IPV may be heterogeneous, with different consequences associated…

  11. Understanding Crisis Information Needs in Context: The Case of Intimate Partner Violence Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westbrook, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    The pervasive, personal crisis of intimate partner violence (IPV) demands community information resources in workforce, health care, mental health, public housing, criminal justice, and social service arenas. Although generally underutilized, public libraries have a pivotal role to play as the only public institution specifically structured to…

  12. Assessing Risk Markers in Intimate Partner Femicide and Severe Violence: A New Assessment Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echeburua, Enrique; Fernandez-Montalvo, Javier; de Corral, Paz; Lopez-Goni, Jose J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a scale to predict intimate partner femicide and severe violence. The sample consists of 1,081 batterer men who were reported to the police station. First, the most significant differences between the severe violence group (n = 269) and the less severe violence group (n = 812) in sociodemographic variables are…

  13. Enhancing Safety-Planning through Evidence-Based Interventions with Preschoolers Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laura E.; Howell, Kathryn H.; Hunter, Erin C.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    2012-01-01

    Preschool children who witness severe intimate partner violence (IPV) are at increased risk for a wide range of emotional, behavioural, cognitive, and health problems. Although much of intervention research has focused on alleviating their psychological symptoms, we know little about efforts to provide these children with preventative safety…

  14. Factors Impacting Counselor Competency When Counseling Sexual Minority Intimate Partner Violence Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    A queer theory perspective and grounded theory techniques were used to examine perceptions of counselor competency with sexual minority intimate partner violence victims. Ten counselors participated in two rounds of individual interviews. Results indicate that beneficial aspects of competency development occurred prior to, during, and after their…

  15. Intimate Partner Violence and Physical Health Consequences: Policy and Practice Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plichta, Stacey B.

    2004-01-01

    Extensive research indicates that intimate partner violence (IPV) poses a significant risk to the physical health of women. IPV is associated with increased mortality, injury and disability, worse general health, chronic pain, substance abuse, reproductive disorders, and poorer pregnancy outcomes. IPV is also associated with an overuse of health…

  16. The Relationship between Marijuana Use and Intimate Partner Violence in a Nationally Representative, Longitudinal Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reingle, Jennifer M.; Staras, Stephanie A. S.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Branchini, Jennifer; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is a significant public health problem, as these behaviors have been associated with a number of negative health outcomes including illicit drug use, physical injury, chronic pain, sexually transmitted diseases, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The current study examined the association between marijuana use…

  17. Feminist Group Counseling with South Asian Women Who Have Survived Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Anneliese A.; Hays, Danica G.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines how to use a feminist approach in group counseling with South Asian women who have survived intimate partner violence (IPV). South Asian culture, including gender-role expectations and attitudes about family violence, is discussed. A case study detailing a feminist counseling group conducted with this population is presented.…

  18. Client Narratives about Experiences with a Multicouple Treatment Program for Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todahl, Jeff; Linville, Deanna; Tuttle Shamblin, Abby F.; Ball, David

    2012-01-01

    A handful of clinical trials have concluded that conjoint couples treatment for intimate partner violence is safe and at least as effective as conventional batterer intervention programs, yet very few researchers have explored couples' perspectives on conjoint treatment. Using qualitative narrative analysis methodology, the researchers conducted…

  19. Results of a Multifaceted Intimate Partner Violence Training Program for Pediatric Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McColgan, Maria D.; Cruz, Mario; McKee, Jessica; Dempsey, Sandra H.; Davis, Martha B.; Barry, Patricia; Yoder, Ana Lisa; Giardino, Angelo P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a multifaceted Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) intervention on knowledge, attitudes, and screening practices of pediatric residents. Methods: The intervention included: an on-site IPV counselor, IPV training for attending physicians, residents and social workers, and screening prompts. Evaluation included…

  20. Examining Gender Differences in the Nature and Context of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Hyunkag

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted on gender differences in intimate partner violence (IPV), producing inconsistent results. Some studies report that men were victimized by IPV as much as women were, whereas others find that IPV was predominantly perpetrated by men against women. The nature and context of IPV may be crucial to understanding gender…

  1. Women's Employment Status, Coercive Control, and Intimate Partner Violence in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villarreal, Andres

    2007-01-01

    Findings from previous studies examining the relation between women's employment and the risk of intimate partner violence have been mixed. Some studies find greater violence toward women who are employed, whereas others find the opposite relation or no relation at all. I propose a new framework in which a woman's employment status and her risk of…

  2. Intimate Partner Maltreatment Recidivism in U.S. Air Force Families.

    PubMed

    Coley, Sarah L; McCarthy, Randy J; Milner, Joel S; Ormsby, LaJuana; Travis, Wendy J

    2016-08-01

    Research has demonstrated that perpetrator characteristics (gender, age, and military status) and incident characteristics (perpetrator substance use and initial incident severity) are associated with intimate partner maltreatment recidivism. This study assessed whether these variables were associated with intimate partner maltreatment recidivism in U.S. Air Force families during a 16-yr period (1997-2013). During the study period, 21% of the intimate partner maltreatment perpetrators in the U.S. Air Force committed more than one incident of maltreatment. In terms of perpetrator characteristics, male perpetrators reoffended more than female perpetrators, younger perpetrators reoffended more than older perpetrators, and active duty perpetrators reoffended more than civilians. Whether a perpetrator was enlisted or an officer was not associated with the likelihood of recidivism. In terms of incident characteristics, substance use (which was mainly alcohol use) during an initial maltreatment incident was associated with recidivism, but the severity of perpetrators' initial maltreatment incident was not. However, for perpetrators who reoffended, the severity of their initial incident was associated with the severity of subsequent incidents. On the basis of these findings, the need for targeted interventions to reduce intimate partner maltreatment recidivism is discussed.

  3. An Evaluation of Healthy Relationship Education to Reduce Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antle, Becky F.; Karam, Eli; Christensen, Dana N.; Barbee, Anita P.; Sar, Bibhuti K.

    2011-01-01

    This research evaluated the impact of the Within My Reach healthy relationship education program on intimate partner violence for 419 high-risk adults in an urban area. Key outcomes such as relationship knowledge, communication/conflict resolution skills, relationship quality, and physical and emotional abuse were evaluated through survey research…

  4. Avoidance Symptom Presentation of Preschoolers Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence in a Group Therapy Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galano, Maria M.; Miller, Laura E.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious problem for children exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV). Recent changes to diagnostic criteria for PTSD include a reduction in avoidance symptom criteria from three to one and the separation of emotional numbing from avoidance symptoms, thus creating a need to better understand how…

  5. The Role of Adolescent Physical Abuse in Adult Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunday, Suzanne; Kline, Myriam; Labruna, Victor; Pelcovitz, David; Salzinger, Suzanne; Kaplan, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    This study's primary aims were to examine whether a sample of young adults, aged 23 to 31, who had been documented as physically abused by their parent(s) during adolescence would be more likely to aggress, both physically and verbally, against their intimate partners compared with nonabused young adults and whether abuse history was (along with…

  6. Psychometric Properties of an Intimate Partner Violence Tool for Health Care Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Pamela D.; Nouer, Simonne S.; Mackey, See Trail N.; Tipton, Nathan G.; Lloyd, Angela K.

    2011-01-01

    Health care professionals have acknowledged intimate partner violence (IPV) as a highly prevalent public health problem necessitating the creation of standardized education programs, survey tools, and well-defined outcome measures. Testing and evaluation of these measures, however, has been limited to specific populations of health care…

  7. Promoting Free Online CME for Intimate Partner Violence: What Works at What Cost?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, John M., Jr.; Novalis-Marine, Cheryl; Amend, Robert W.; Surprenant, Zita J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: There is a need to provide practicing physicians with training on the recognition and management of intimate partner violence (IPV). Online continuing medical education (CME) could help meet this need, but there is little information on the costs and effectiveness of promoting online CME to physicians. This lack of information may…

  8. Using Standardized Clients to Train Social Workers in Intimate Partner Violence Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgey, Mary Ann; Badger, Lee; Gilbert, Tracey; Hansen, Johna

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based assessment in intimate partner violence (IPV) is critical to the accurate understanding of risk and to the development of interventions that increase safety. In this study standardized clients (actors) were used to train Army civilian social workers in evidence-based assessment of IPV and in the evaluation of the curriculum's…

  9. Enhancing Employment Outcomes for Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence: A Developmental Work Personality Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keim, Jeanmarie; Strauser, David R.; Olguin, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) are high. Many survivors elect to leave abusive relationships and seek treatment to address the abusive cycle and psychiatric symptoms that may result. Programs to assist survivors often include an employment component. This article discusses the use of the Developmental Work Personality Scale (D. R.…

  10. Intimate Partner Violence among Female Caregivers of Children Reported for Child Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazen, Andrea L.; Connelly, Cynthia D.; Kelleher, Kelly; Landsverk, John; Barth, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence among female caregivers of children reported to child protective services. Method: Data were derived from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a national probability study of children investigated for child abuse and…

  11. Interventions to Improve Responses of Helping Professionals to Intimate Partner Violence: A Quick Scoping Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Y. Joon; An, Soonok

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study is to systematically review the available evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to improve the response of various helping professionals who come into contact with female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). Methods: Several databases were searched, and N = 38 studies met the inclusion criteria…

  12. Maternal Exposure to Intimate Partner Abuse before Birth Is Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Offspring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Andrea L.; Lyall, Kristen; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Ascherio, Alberto; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2016-01-01

    We sought to determine whether maternal (a) physical harm from intimate partner abuse during pregnancy or (b) sexual, emotional, or physical abuse before birth increased risk of autism spectrum disorder. We calculated risk ratios for autism spectrum disorder associated with abuse in a population-based cohort of women and their children (54,512…

  13. Intimate Partner Violence among General and Urban Poor Populations in Kathmandu, Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshiro, Azusa; Poudyal, Amod K.; Poudel, Krishna C.; Jimba, Masamine; Hokama, Tomiko

    2011-01-01

    Comparative studies are lacking on intimate partner violence (IPV) between urban poor and general populations. The objective of this study is to identify the prevalence and risk factors of physical IPV among the general and poor populations in urban Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted by structured questionnaire interview. Participants…

  14. Traumatic Stress Symptoms of Women Exposed to Different Forms of Childhood Victimization and Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Kimberly D.; Stuewig, Jeffrey; McCloskey, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    Interviews of women with (n = 193) and without (n = 170) recent exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) were used to examine how IPV and past exposure to child abuse influence self-reports of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The measurement of IPV included assessing psychological, physical, escalated physical, and sexual abuse.…

  15. Risk Factors for Unidirectional and Bidirectional Intimate Partner Violence among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Lynette M.; Whitney, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify common and unique risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) among young adults in relationships. Guided by two models of IPV, the same set of risk factors was used to examine outcomes of unidirectional (perpetration or victimization) and bidirectional (reciprocal) IPV separately for males…

  16. Intimate Partner Violence against Older Women in Germany: Prevalence and Associated Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockl, Heidi; Watts, Charlotte; Penhale, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    Violence against women is a recognized human rights and public health issue, with significant impacts on women's life and health. Until now, several studies, most of them relying on small scale samples, have explored the prevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence against older women, whereas few have examined what actually puts…

  17. Risk of Intimate Partner Violence among Young Adult Males with Childhood ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wymbs, Brian; Molina, Brooke; Pelham, William; Cheong, JeeWon; Gnagy, Elizabeth; Belendiuk, Kat; Walther, Christine; Babinski, Dara; Waschbusch, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research has clearly documented the social dysfunction of youth with ADHD. However, little is known about the interpersonal relationships of adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood, including rates of intimate partner violence (IPV). Method: Using data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study, analyses compared the level of IPV…

  18. Parental Intimate Partner Violence, Parenting Practices, and Adolescent Peer Bullying: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knous-Westfall, Heather M.; Ehrensaft, Miriam K.; MacDonell, Kathleen Watson; Cohen, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognized as a major public health concern, with millions of children exposed to parental violence each year. Childhood exposure to parental violence has been linked to both maladaptive parenting practices and a host of adjustment difficulties in the exposed children. The Children in the Community Study…

  19. Sexual Relationship Power, Intimate Partner Violence, and Condom Use among Minority Urban Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teitelman, Anne M.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Morales-Aleman, Mercedes M.; Sullivan, Cris M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, and condom use among African American and Hispanic urban girls. In this sample of 56 sexually active girls, 50% did not use condoms consistently and therefore were at higher risk for acquiring HIV or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Teens who…

  20. Prevalences of Intimate Partner Violence in a Representative U.S. Air Force Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foran, Heather M.; Smith Slep, Amy M.; Heyman, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious health concern, but little is known about prevalence of IPV in the armed forces, as military members cope with the pressures of long-standing operations. Furthermore, previous prevalence studies have been plagued by definitional issues; most studies have focused on acts of aggression without…

  1. Alcohol Outlet Density, Drinking Contexts and Intimate Partner Violence: A Review of Environmental Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunradi, Carol B.; Mair, Christina; Todd, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use is a robust predictor of intimate partner violence (IPV). A critical barrier to progress in preventing alcohol-related IPV is that little is known about how an individual's specific drinking contexts (where, how often, and with whom one drinks) are related to IPV, or how these contexts are affected by environmental characteristics,…

  2. Intimate Partner Violence and Contribution of Drinking and Sociodemographics: The Brazilian National Alcohol Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaleski, Marcos; Pinsky, Ilana; Laranjeira, Ronaldo; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Caetano, Raul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate prevalence rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among Brazilian couples and to assess the contribution of drinking and sociodemographic factors to the risk of IPV. Methods: A sample consisting of 1,445 married or cohabitating males and females in the Brazilian population was interviewed. The survey response rate was 66%.…

  3. Risk Factors for Clinically Significant Intimate Partner Violence among Active-Duty Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith Slep, Amy M.; Foran, Heather M.; Heyman, Richard E.; Snarr, Jeffery D.

    2011-01-01

    Hypothesized risk factors for men's and women's clinically significant intimate partner violence (CS-IPV) from four ecological levels (i.e., individual, family, workplace, community) were tested in a representative sample of active-duty U.S. Air Force members (N = 42,744). When considered together, we expected only individual and family factors to…

  4. Changes in Intimate Partner Violence among Women Mandated to Community Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macy, Rebecca J.; Rizo, Cynthia F.; Guo, Shenyang; Ermentrout, Dania M.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) are charged with IPV perpetration and mandated by courts or child protective services to receive domestic violence services. A critical need exists for evidence-based interventions targeting the needs of this unique population, but such research is scarce. To address this gap, we…

  5. Using Indirect Questions to Detect Intimate Partner Violence: The SAFE-T Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulfer, Jamie L.; Tyler, Jillian J.; Choi, Natalie J. S.; Young, Jill A.; Verhulst, Steven J.; Kovach, Regina; Dorsey, J. Kevin

    2007-01-01

    A screening instrument for detecting intimate partner violence (IPV) was developed using indirect questions. The authors identified 5 of 18 items studied that clearly distinguished victims of IPV from a random group of health conference attendees with a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 87%. This 5-item instrument (SAFE-T) was then tested on…

  6. Support for Emergency Department Screening for Intimate Partner Violence Depends on Perceived Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witting, Michael D.; Furuno, Jon P.; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Krugman, Scott D.; Perisse, Andre R. S.; Limcangco, Rhona

    2006-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) screening for intimate partner violence (IPV) faces logistic difficulties and has uncertain efficacy. We surveyed 146 ED visitors and 108 ED care providers to compare their support for ED IPV screening in three hypothetical scenarios of varying IPV risk. Visitor support for screening was 5 times higher for the high-risk…

  7. Understanding Adolescent and Family Influences on Intimate Partner Psychological Violence during Emerging Adulthood and Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, Brenda J.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Senia, Jennifer M.; Schofield, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross-sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self-selection,…

  8. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Police-Reported Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration: A Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsky, Sherry; Cristofalo, Meg; Reed, Sarah; Caetano, Raul; Roy-Byrne, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine racial and ethnic disparities in perpetrator and incident characteristics and discrepancies between police charges and reported perpetrator behaviors in police-reported intimate partner violence (IPV). This cross-sectional study used standardized police data and victim narratives of IPV incidents…

  9. Intimate Partner Violence and Alcohol Problems in Interethnic and Intraethnic Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chartier, Karen G.; Caetano, Raul

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing number of interethnic marriages in the United States, few studies have examined intimate partner violence (IPV) in interethnic couples. This article examined past-year occurrences of IPV across interethnic and intraethnic couples and tested correlates of IPV specifically in interethnic couples. Data were from a national survey…

  10. Acculturation Stress, Drinking, and Intimate Partner Violence among Hispanic Couples in the U.S

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caetano, Raul; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Caetano Vaeth, Patrice A.; Harris, T. Robert

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the cross-sectional association between acculturation, acculturation stress, drinking, and intimate partner violence (IPV) among Hispanic couples in the U.S. The data being analyzed come from a multi-cluster random household sample of couples interviewed as part of the second wave of a 5-year national longitudinal study. The…

  11. Making Sense of Intimate Partner Violence in Late Life: Comments from Online News Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brossoie, Nancy; Roberto, Karen A.; Barrow, Katie M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to gain insight into public awareness of intimate partner violence (IPV) in late life by how individuals respond to incidents of IPV reported in the newspaper. Design and Methods: Using grounded theory techniques, online news items covering 24 incidents of IPV in late life, and the reader comments posted to…

  12. The Protective Effects of Intimate Partner Relationships on Depressive Symptomatology among Adult Parents Maltreated as Children

    PubMed Central

    Thornberry, Terence P.; Lee, Rosalyn D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We examined whether intimate partner relationships in general, and satisfying and stable intimate partner relationships in particular, protect victims of child maltreatment from depressive symptoms during young adulthood. Methods Prospective, longitudinal data on 485 parents, 99 maltreated during childhood, were used. Longitudinal multilevel models (12 annual interviews, conducted from 1999 to 2010, nested in individuals) were specified to estimate the effects of relationship characteristics on depressive symptomatology by maltreatment status. Results Relationship characteristics operated as direct protective factors for maltreated and not maltreated individuals. Higher relationship satisfaction and stability were prospectively predictive of less depressive symptomatology. Models of inter and intra-individual variability were also consistent with significant direct protective effects. Between persons, a more satisfying and stable relationship was associated with fewer depressive symptoms. Within person, periods when an individual moved into a relationship, and periods of enhanced satisfaction and stability were associated with fewer depressive symptoms. Relationship satisfaction and stability operated as significant buffering protective factors for the effect of maltreatment on depressive symptoms in most models, suggesting that positive intimate partner relationships may reduce the risk that childhood maltreatment poses for adult depressive symptoms. Conclusions The CDC identifies safe, stable, and nurturing relationships (SSNRs) as key in preventing maltreatment and its consequences. This study adds to the evidence on the protective role of SSNRs by identifying intimate partner relationship factors that may protect parents who were maltreated during childhood from depressive symptoms. PMID:25912653

  13. Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence, Peer Relations, and Risk for Internalizing Behaviors: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho, Kathleen; Ehrensaft, Miriam K.; Cohen, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the quality of peer relations as a mediator between exposure to IPV (intimate partner violence) and internalizing behaviors in a sample of 129 preadolescents and adolescents (ages 10-18), who were interviewed via telephone as part of a multigenerational, prospective, longitudinal study. Relational victimization is also…

  14. An Examination of Whether Coordinated Community Responses Affect Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Lori Ann; Klevens, Joanne; Maxwell, Christopher D.; Shelley, Gene A.; Ingram, Eben

    2010-01-01

    This study tests the impact of coordinated community response (CCR) on reducing intimate partner violence (IPV) and on modifying knowledge and attitudes. The authors conduct hierarchical linear modeling of data from a stratified random-digit dial telephone survey (n = 12,039) in 10 test and 10 control sites, which include 23 counties from…

  15. Depression among Couples in the United States in the Context of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaeth, Patrice A. C.; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Caetano, Raul

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between intimate partner violence and depression. A multicluster random household sample of U.S. couples was interviewed as part of a five-year national longitudinal study (response rate = 72%). Depression was assessed with the CES-D. The multivariate analyses for men showed that the odds of depression did not…

  16. A Telephone Intervention for Substance-Using Adult Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbilinyi, Lyungai F.; Neighbors, Clayton; Walker, Denise D.; Roffman, Roger A.; Zegree, Joan; Edleson, Jeffrey; O'Rourke, Allison

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To preliminarily evaluate telephone-delivered motivational enhancement therapy (MET) in motivating unadjudicated and nontreatment seeking intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators, who also use substances, to self-refer into treatment. Method: 124 adult men were recruited via a multimedia marketing campaign and were randomly assigned…

  17. Helping Students to Understand the Link between Substance Use and Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallow, Alissa; Ward, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Students studying addictive diseases must come to understand, among other issues, the interplay between intimate partner violence (IPV) and substance abuse. Statistics are important, but case examples elucidate for the students what to "listen" for in their meetings with clients. The purpose of this article is to provide several case examples of…

  18. The Assessment of Intimate Partner Violence in Spanish Women: The Index of Spouse Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plazaola-Castano, Juncal; Ruiz-Perez, Isabel; Escriba-Aguir, Vicenta; Montero-Pinar, Isabel; Vives-Cases, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to analyze the internal consistency and construct validity of the Spanish version of the Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA) in a representative sample of 8,995 women attending general practice in Spain in 2006-2007. The factor structure analysis shows that the ISA measures four intimate partner violence (IPV) dimensions: emotional, physical, and…

  19. Implicit Attitudes toward Violence among Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckhardt, Christopher I.; Samper, Rita; Suhr, Laura; Holtzworth-Munroe, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Whereas cognitive variables are hypothesized to play an important role in intimate partner violence (IPV) etiology and intervention, cognitive assessment methods have largely targeted offenders' explicit, controlled cognitive processing using paper-and-pencil questionnaires prone to social desirability biases. Using an implicit measure of…

  20. Intimate Partner Violence in Young Adult Dating, Cohabitating, and Married Drinking Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiersma, Jacquelyn D.; Cleveland, H. Harrington; Herrera, Veronica; Fischer, Judith L.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined intimate partner violence (IPV) and drinking partnerships in 741 young adults in male-female dating, cohabitating, and married relationships. Cluster analyses revealed four similar kinds of drinking partnerships: (a) congruent light and infrequent, (b)…

  1. Community Violence, Social Support Networks, Ethnic Group Differences, and Male Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raghavan, Chitra; Rajah, Valli; Gentile, Katie; Collado, Lillian; Kavanagh, Ann Marie

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined how witnessing community violence influenced social support networks and how these networks were associated with male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) in ethnically diverse male college students. The authors assessed whether male social support members themselves had perpetrated IPV (male network violence) and whether…

  2. Exploring the Literature on Relationships between Gender Roles, Intimate Partner Violence, Occupational Status, and Organizational Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwesiga, Eileen; Bell, Myrtle P.; Pattie, Marshall; Moe, Angela M.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of intimate partner violence (IPV) and work have been primarily conducted with women in low-wage low-status (LWLS) positions, as much of this research has focused on poverty, welfare, and homelessness. Although women in LWLS positions represent a large percentage of working women in the United States, it is also important to investigate…

  3. Co-Occurrence of Intimate Partner Violence and Child Abuse in Hong Kong Chinese Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of co-occurrence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and child abuse and neglect (CAN) in a cohort of Chinese parents drawn from a large representative sample in Hong Kong. It also investigates the risk factors for CAN with a special emphasis on the role of IPV. A subsample of 2,363 parents was invited to complete…

  4. Adverse Childhood Experiences of Referred Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence: Consequences for their Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamers-Winkelman, Francien; Willemen, Agnes M.; Visser, Margreet

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the relationships among Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) in a high risk clinical sample of Dutch children whose mothers were abused by an intimate partner, and the severity of behavioral and emotional problems and trauma symptoms. Methods: The study population comprised 208 children (M = 7.81 years, SD =…

  5. Lesbian Mothers' Counseling Experiences in the Context of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, Ramona F.; Fonseca, Carol A.; Hardesty, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant concern for some lesbian households with children. Yet we know of only one study that has examined lesbian mothers' experiences with IPV. In the current study we analyzed the counseling experiences of participants in our prior study. Interviews with 24 lesbian mothers (12 Black, 9 White, and 3…

  6. Personality Profiles of Intimate Partner Violence Offenders with and without PTSD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Tim; Wray, Alisha M.; Wiggins, Kathryn T.; Gerstle, Melissa; Maclean, Peggy C.

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious forensic and clinical problem throughout the United States. Research aimed at defining and differentiating subgroups of IPV offenders using standardized personality instruments may eventually help with matching treatments to specific individuals to reduce recidivism. The current study used a convenience…

  7. Community-Based Career Counseling for Women Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence: A Collaborative Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronister, Krista M.; Harley, Eliza; Aranda, Christina L.; Barr, Leah; Luginbuhl, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) costs women nearly 8 million days of paid work annually. Greater attention to violence survivors' employment and career development can facilitate women escaping abusive relationships and promotes their overall rehabilitation and healing. A first step to increasing attention to survivors' career development includes…

  8. Racial Differences in the Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence against Women and Associated Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Hyunkag

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence against women (IPV) affects all populations, but significant variations among these groups have been suggested. However, research results on racial differences in IPV are not only inconclusive, they are also limited--particularly with regard to racial minorities. As a result, it has been challenging for practitioners and…

  9. Intimate Partner Maltreatment Recidivism in U.S. Air Force Families.

    PubMed

    Coley, Sarah L; McCarthy, Randy J; Milner, Joel S; Ormsby, LaJuana; Travis, Wendy J

    2016-08-01

    Research has demonstrated that perpetrator characteristics (gender, age, and military status) and incident characteristics (perpetrator substance use and initial incident severity) are associated with intimate partner maltreatment recidivism. This study assessed whether these variables were associated with intimate partner maltreatment recidivism in U.S. Air Force families during a 16-yr period (1997-2013). During the study period, 21% of the intimate partner maltreatment perpetrators in the U.S. Air Force committed more than one incident of maltreatment. In terms of perpetrator characteristics, male perpetrators reoffended more than female perpetrators, younger perpetrators reoffended more than older perpetrators, and active duty perpetrators reoffended more than civilians. Whether a perpetrator was enlisted or an officer was not associated with the likelihood of recidivism. In terms of incident characteristics, substance use (which was mainly alcohol use) during an initial maltreatment incident was associated with recidivism, but the severity of perpetrators' initial maltreatment incident was not. However, for perpetrators who reoffended, the severity of their initial incident was associated with the severity of subsequent incidents. On the basis of these findings, the need for targeted interventions to reduce intimate partner maltreatment recidivism is discussed. PMID:27483535

  10. Intimate Partner Violence among Midlife and Older Women: A Descriptive Analysis of Women Seeking Medical Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sormanti, Mary; Shibusawa, Tazuko

    2008-01-01

    Although intimate partner violence (IPV) may occur throughout a woman's life course, there has been a paucity of research on the experiences of victimization among midlife and older women. This article examines both the prevalence of IPV among a sample of women ages 50 to 64 (N = 620), who were recruited at an emergency department and primary care…

  11. Intimate Partner Violence at the Scene: Incident Characteristics and Implications for Public Health Surveillance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joshi, Manisha; Sorenson, Susan B.

    2010-01-01

    Using data that, to our knowledge, have not been used before for this purpose, we examined 9,231 opposite-sex intimate partner violence (IPV) calls for law enforcement assistance recorded in the Compstat system of a large U.S. city. Although women were the predominant victims, injuries were documented more often for men. Only about 1% of incidents…

  12. Mediators and Moderators of Change in Adjustment Following Intervention for Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.; Howell, Kathryn H.; Lilly, Michelle; DeVoe, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Children aged 6 to 12 who were exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) within the last year participated in an intervention program found to be successful in reducing their internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. However, little is known about factors that may contribute to this efficacy. Both fixed and modifiable risk factors that…

  13. Intimate Partner Violence and HIV/STD Risk among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heintz, Adam Jackson; Melendez, Rita M.

    2006-01-01

    To date, there has been little research examining HIV/STD risk among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals who are in abusive relationships. This article uses data collected from a community-based organization that provides counseling for LGBT victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). A total of 58 clients completed the…

  14. Illinois Trauma Centers and Intimate Partner Violence: Are We Doing Our Share?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crandall, Marie; Schwab, Jennifer; Sheehan, Karen; Esposito, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major source of morbidity and mortality nationally. Trauma Centers can be very helpful for victims of IPV but there may be variability in IPV resource provision. A survey was mailed to each of the 65 Trauma Centers in Illinois. Stata and EZ-Text statistical software were used for analysis. Eighty-three percent…

  15. Do Laws Restricting Access to Firearms by Domestic Violence Offenders Prevent Intimate Partner Homicide?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigdor, Elizabeth Richardson; Mercy, James A.

    2006-01-01

    Domestic violence imposes a large cost on society. The authors exploit state variation in timing to examine the impact of three types of law on intimate partner homicides. These laws restrict access to firearms by individuals who are subject to a restraining order or have been convicted of a domestic violence misdemeanor or allow law enforcement…

  16. The Effects and Costs of Intimate Partner Violence for Work Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Carol; OLeary-Kelly, Anne M.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the productivity-related effects and costs of intimate partner violence (IPV) on the workplace. Specifically, it explores whether IPV victims and nonvictims differ in the number of work hours missed due to absenteeism, tardiness, and work distraction and the costs for employers from these missed work hours. The research…

  17. Intimate Partner Violence and Long-Term Psychosocial Functioning in a National Sample of American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zlotnick, Caron; Johnson, Dawn M.; Kohn, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of American married or cohabiting women, this prospective study examined women who reported or denied intimate partner violence (IPV) at wave 1 and compared them on a range of psychosocial outcomes at a 5-year follow-up. This study also examined the rate of divorce or separation during the 5-year interval…

  18. Using Action Planning to Build Organizational Capacity for the Prevention of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    The DELTA PREP Project aims to reduce risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). It engaged leadership and staff from 19 statewide domestic violence coalitions in building capacity to prevent IPV before it occurs (rather than solely responding to IPV). This article describes the process and outcomes associated with action planning to create…

  19. College Men's Intimate Partner Violence Attitudes: Contributions of Adult Attachment and Gender Role Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mcdermott, Ryon C.; Lopez, Frederick G.

    2013-01-01

    Primary prevention of men's intimate partner violence (IPV) toward women in dating relationships is an important area of psychological inquiry and a significant concern for counselors working with college student populations. Previous research has identified that certain beliefs condoning or accepting physical, sexual, and psychological violence…

  20. Engaging Intercollegiate Athletes in Preventing and Intervening in Sexual and Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moynihan, Mary M.; Banyard, Victoria L.; Arnold, Julie S.; Eckstein, Robert P.; Stapleton, Jane G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The object of this exploratory evaluation was to evaluate the "Bringing in the Bystander" sexual and intimate partner violence prevention program with a new sample of intercollegiate athletes. Participants and Methods: Fifty-three male and female athletes participated in the program (experimental group), and 86 were in the control…

  1. Adult Psychopathology and Intimate Partner Violence among Survivors of Childhood Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Ariel J.; Stein, Murray B.; Kennedy, Colleen M.; Foy, David W.

    2004-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment is associated with psychopathology and revictimization in adulthood. Whether different types of childhood maltreatment have different long-term consequences, however, is largely unknown. The participants in this study included 42 female victims of intimate partner violence and 30 women with no history of serious trauma.…

  2. Intimate partner violence and condom use among women: does the information-motivation-behavioral skills model explain sexual risk behavior?

    PubMed

    Mittal, Mona; Senn, Theresa E; Carey, Michael P

    2012-05-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) undermines women's ability to enact safer sex and increases their vulnerability to HIV and other STDs. To better understand the relationship between IPV and sexual risk behavior, we investigated whether the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model differentially predicted risk behavior among women who had and had not recently experienced IPV. Data from 717 women who were recruited from a public health clinic showed that 18% reported IPV by a sexual partner in the past 3 months, 28% in the past year, and 57% lifetime. Women who experienced IPV in the last 3 months reported more episodes of unprotected sex and more episodes of unprotected sex with a steady partner in the past 3 months. Multi-group path analyses provided mixed evidence regarding the associations hypothesized by the IMB model; the strength of these associations varied as a function of IPV history. Thus, although information did not predict risk behavior for either group, motivation was associated with condom use only for women with no history of IPV. Behavioral skills were associated with more condom use for both groups. Overall, the IMB model is useful for predicting sexual risk behavior; however, for women with partner violence histories a broader model that includes other contextual factors may be needed. These findings can help to inform the development of more effective sexual risk reduction interventions.

  3. “Demonstrating Masculinity” Via Intimate Partner Aggression: The Moderating Effect of Heavy Episodic Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Lisco, Claire G.; Leone, Ruschelle M.; Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the mediational effect of masculine gender role stress on the relation between adherence to dimensions of a hegemonic masculinity and male-to-female intimate partner physical aggression. Men’s history of heavy episodic drinking was also examined as a moderator of the proposed mediation effect. A sample of 392 heterosexual men from the southeastern United States who had been in an intimate relationship within the past year completed measures of hegemonic masculine norms (i.e., status, toughness, and antifemininity), masculine gender role stress, alcohol use patterns, and intimate partner physical aggression. Results indicated that the indirect effects of adherence to the antifemininity and toughness norms on physical aggression toward female intimate partners via masculine gender role stress were significant and marginal, respectively. A significant indirect effect of status was not detected. Moreover, subsequent analyses revealed that the indirect effects of antifemininity and toughness were significant only among men with a history of heavy episodic drinking. These findings suggest that heavy episodic drinking exacerbates a gender-relevant stress pathway for intimate partner aggression among men who adhere to specific norms of masculinity. Overall, results suggest that the proximal effect of heavy episodic drinking focuses men’s attention on gender-based schemas associated with antifemininity and toughness, which facilitates partner-directed aggression as a means to demonstrate these aspects of their masculinity. Implications for the intersection between men’s adherence to specific norms of hegemonic masculinity, cognitive appraisal of gender relevant situations, and characteristic patterns of alcohol consumption are discussed. PMID:26456996

  4. Association between early marriage and intimate partner violence in India: a focus on youth from Bihar and Rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Speizer, Ilene S; Pearson, Erin

    2011-07-01

    The relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and early marriage is explored using the 2005-2006 India National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3). The NFHS-3 collected data from a representative sample of women and men in India with a large enough sample size to have a representative sample at the state level. The focus is on youth from Bihar and Rajasthan, two states with high IPV and early marriage. Multivariate logistic regression analyses demonstrate that women aged 20 to 24 who married before age eighteen, the legal age at marriage in India, are more likely to have ever experienced IPV in their lifetime and recently experienced IPV (in the last 12 months) than their counterparts who married later. The results were significant in Rajasthan but not in Bihar. To reduce IPV, targeted efforts must be made to decrease the proportion of India's girls who are married under the legal age of marriage.

  5. Association between Early Marriage and Intimate Partner Violence in India: A Focus on Youth from Bihar and Rajasthan

    PubMed Central

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Pearson, Erin

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and early marriage is explored using the 2005-2006 India National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3). The NFHS-3 collected data from a representative sample of women and men in India with a large enough sample size to have a representative sample at the state level. The focus is on youth from Bihar and Rajasthan, two states with high IPV and early marriage. Multivariate logistic regression analyses demonstrate that women ages 20-24 who married before age eighteen, the legal age at marriage in India, are more likely to have ever experienced IPV in their lifetime and recently experienced IPV (in the last 12 months) than their counterparts who married later. The results were significant in Rajasthan but not in Bihar. To reduce IPV, targeted efforts must be made to decrease the proportion of India’s girls who are married under the legal age of marriage. PMID:20587462

  6. Intimate Partner Violence and Health Care-Seeking Patterns Among Female Users of Urban Adolescent Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Michele R.; Raj, Anita; Reed, Elizabeth; Marable, Danelle; Silverman, Jay G.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and associations with health care-seeking patterns among female patients of adolescent clinics, and to examine screening for IPV and IPV disclosure patterns within these clinics. A self-administered, anonymous, computerized survey was administered to female clients ages 14–20 years (N = 448) seeking care in five urban adolescent clinics, inquiring about IPV history, reasons for seeking care, and IPV screening by and IPV disclosure to providers. Two in five (40%) female urban adolescent clinic patients had experienced IPV, with 32% reporting physical and 21% reporting sexual victimization. Among IPV survivors, 45% reported abuse in their current or most recent relationship. IPV prevalence was equally high among those visiting clinics for reproductive health concerns as among those seeking care for other reasons. IPV victimization was associated with both poor current health status (AOR 1.57, 95% CI 1.03–2.40) and having foregone care in the past year (AOR 2.59, 95% CI 1.20–5.58). Recent IPV victimization was associated only with past 12 month foregone care (AOR 2.02, 95% CI 1.18–3.46). A minority (30%) reported ever being screened for IPV in a clinical setting. IPV victimization is pervasive among female adolescent clinic attendees regardless of visit type, yet IPV screening by providers appears low. Patients reporting poor health status and foregone care are more likely to have experienced IPV. IPV screening and interventions tailored for female patients of adolescent clinics are needed. PMID:19760162

  7. Parenting in females exposed to intimate partner violence and childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Anna E; Cranston, Christopher C; Shadlow, Joanna O

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was related to lower parenting self-efficacy and more permissive parenting. In women at a domestic violence shelter (n = 45), child sexual abuse was related to current sexual coercion of the partner, and authoritative parenting was related to higher parenting self-efficacy. These results indicate that having a history of child sexual abuse should be taken into consideration when dealing with mothers in violent relationships.

  8. Intimate Partner Violence and Its Association With Physical and Mental Health Symptoms Among Older Women in Germany.

    PubMed

    Stöckl, Heidi; Penhale, Bridget

    2015-10-01

    Intimate partner violence is a commonly acknowledged health care issue. While numerous studies established the health implications of physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence among women of reproductive age, the evidence is scarce for older women and for other forms of intimate partner violence. This study, therefore, investigates the prevalence of intimate partner violence in its different forms and its association with physical and mental health symptoms of older women, using women of reproductive age as a reference group. This study is a cross-sectional study, utilizing data from a national representative survey of 10,264 German women aged 16 to 86 years. Rates of physical and sexual intimate partner violence in the last year decreased from 8% to 3% and 1% among women aged 16 to 49 years, 50 to 65 years, and 66 to 86 years, respectively. The prevalence of emotional and economic abuse and controlling behavior by partners remained nearly the same. All forms of intimate partner violence had significant associations with women's health symptoms, such as gastrointestinal, psychosomatic and psychological symptoms, and pelvic problems. Controlling behavior was most consistently associated with most health symptoms. Health and care professionals who screen women for intimate partner violence should, therefore, consider incorporating questions about controlling behavior as well, because this form of violence is not only frequent but also has multiple health outcomes among women across all ages.

  9. Reducing intimate and paying partner violence against women who exchange sex in Mongolia: results from a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Catherine E; Chen, Jiehua; Chang, Mingway; Batsukh, Altantsetseg; Toivgoo, Aira; Riedel, Marion; Witte, Susan S

    2012-07-01

    Women who exchange sex for money or other goods, that is, female sex workers, are at increased risk of experiencing physical and sexual violence from both paying and intimate partners. Exposure to violence can be exacerbated by alcohol use and HIV/STI risk. The purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy of a HIV/STI risk reduction and enhanced HIV/STI risk reduction intervention at decreasing paying and intimate partner violence against Mongolian women who exchange sex and engage in harmful alcohol use. Women are recruited and randomized to either (a) four sessions of a relationship-based HIV/STI risk reduction intervention (n = 49), (b) the same HIV/STI risk reduction intervention plus two additional motivational interviewing sessions (n = 58), or (c) a four session control condition focused on wellness promotion (n = 59). All the respondents complete assessments at baseline (preintervention) as well as at immediate posttest, 3 and 6 months postintervention. A multilevel logistic model finds that women who participated in the HIV/STI risk reduction group (OR = 0.14, p < .00), HIV/STI risk reduction and motivational interview group (OR = 0.46, p = .02), and wellness (OR = 0.20, p < .00) group reduced their exposure to physical and sexual violence in the past 90 days. No significant differences in effects are observed between conditions. This study demonstrates the efficacy of a relationship-based HIV/STI risk reduction intervention, a relationship-based HIV/STI risk reduction intervention combined with motivational interviewing, and a wellness promotion intervention in reducing intimate and paying partner violence against women who exchange sex in Mongolia. The findings have significant implications for the impact of minimal intervention and the potential role of peer networks and social support in reducing women's experiences of violence in resource poor settings.

  10. Community perceptions of intimate partner violence - a qualitative study from urban Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence against women is a prevailing public health problem in Tanzania, where four of ten women have a lifetime exposure to physical or sexual violence by their male partners. To be able to suggest relevant and feasible community and health care based interventions, we explored community members' understanding and their responses to intimate partner violence. Methods A qualitative study using focus group discussions with 75 men and women was conducted in a community setting of urban Tanzania. We analysed data using a grounded theory approach and relate our findings to the ecological framework of intimate partner violence. Results The analysis resulted in one core category, "Moving from frustration to questioning traditional gender norms", that denoted a community in transition where the effects of intimate partner violence had started to fuel a wish for change. At the societal level, the category "Justified as part of male prestige" illustrates how masculinity prevails to justify violence. At the community level, the category "Viewed as discreditable and unfair" indicates community recognition of intimate partner violence as a human rights concern. At the relationship level, the category "Results in emotional entrapment" shows the shame and self-blame that is often the result of a violent relationship. At the individual level, the risk factors for intimate partner violence were primarily associated with male characteristics; the category "Fed up with passivity" emerged as an indication that community members also acknowledge their own responsibility for change in actions. Conclusions Prevailing gender norms in Tanzania accept women's subordination and justify male violence towards women. At the individual level, an increasing openness makes it possible for women to report, ask for help, and become proactive in suggesting preventive measures. At the community level, there is an increased willingness to intervene but further

  11. What's age got to do with it? Partner age difference, power, intimate partner violence, and sexual risk in urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Ellen M; Hardie, Thomas L; Cerulli, Catherine; Sommers, Marilyn S; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne

    2013-07-01

    Adolescent girls with older male main partners are at greater risk for adverse sexual health outcomes than other adolescent girls. One explanation for this finding is that low relationship power occurs with partner age difference. Using a cross-sectional, descriptive design, we investigated the effect of partner age difference between an adolescent girl and her male partner on sexual risk behavior through the mediators of sexual relationship power, and physical intimate partner violence (IPV), and psychological IPV severity. We chose Blanc's framework to guide this study as it depicts the links among demographic, social, economic, relationship, family and community characteristics, and reproductive health outcomes with gender-based relationship power and violence. Urban adolescent girls (N = 155) completed an anonymous computer-assisted self-interview survey to examine partner and relationship factors' effect on consistent condom use. Our sample had an average age of 16.1 years with a mean partner age of 17.8 years. Partners were predominantly African American (75%), non-Hispanic (74%), and low-income (81%); 24% of participants reported consistent condom use in the last 3 months. Descriptive, correlation, and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. Partner age difference was negatively associated with consistent condom use (-.4292, p < .01); however, the indirect effects through three proposed mediators (relationship power, physical IPV, or psychological IPV severity) were not statistically significant. Further studies are needed to explore alternative rationale explaining the relationship between partner age differences and sexual risk factors within adolescent sexual relationships. Nonetheless, for clinicians and researchers, these findings underscore the heightened risk associated with partner age differences and impact of relationship dynamics on sexual risk behavior.

  12. Age Got to Do With It? Partner Age Difference, Power, Intimate Partner Violence, and Sexual Risk in Urban Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, Ellen M.; Hardie, Thomas L.; Cerulli, Catherine; Sommers, Marilynn S.; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent girls with older male main partners are at greater risk for adverse sexual health outcomes than other adolescent girls. One explanation for this finding is that low relationship power occurs with partner age difference. Using a cross-sectional, descriptive design, we investigated the effect of partner age difference between an adolescent girl and her male partner on sexual risk behavior through the mediators of sexual relationship power, and physical intimate partner violence (IPV), and psychological IPV severity. We chose Blanc’s framework to guide this study as it depicts the links among demographic, social, economic, relationship, family and community characteristics, and reproductive health outcomes with gender-based relationship power and violence. Urban adolescent girls (N = 155) completed an anonymous computer-assisted self-interview survey to examine partner and relationship factors’ effect on consistent condom use. Our sample had an average age of 16.1 years with a mean partner age of 17.8 years. Partners were predominantly African American (75%), non-Hispanic (74%), and low-income (81%); 24% of participants reported consistent condom use in the last 3 months. Descriptive, correlation, and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. Partner age difference was negatively associated with consistent condom use (−.4292, p < .01); however, the indirect effects through three proposed mediators (relationship power, physical IPV, or psychological IPV severity) were not statistically significant. Further studies are needed to explore alternative rationale explaining the relationship between partner age differences and sexual risk factors within adolescent sexual relationships. Nonetheless, for clinicians and researchers, these findings underscore the heightened risk associated with partner age differences and impact of relationship dynamics on sexual risk behavior. PMID:23345572

  13. Marital infidelity and intimate partner violence in rural Malawi: a dyadic investigation.

    PubMed

    Conroy, Amy A

    2014-10-01

    Extramarital sexual partnerships are a common reason for intimate partner violence (IPV) in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the fact that IPV requires an interaction between two partners, the majority of the research focuses on individuals rather than the broader relationship context where such violence takes place. Using a sample of 422 married couples from rural Malawi, this study examined the dyadic environment of marital infidelity and two types of IPV victimization: sexual coercion and physical abuse. We considered both self-reported marital infidelity and perceived partner infidelity to assess how well partners knew each other and to compare their respective associations with IPV. Logistic regression was used to test for associations between self-reported marital infidelity and IPV. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine actor and partner effects of perceived partner infidelity on an individual's and their partner's experience of IPV. The results show that self-reported marital infidelity was not significantly associated with IPV for men or women. However, the perception of a partner's infidelity was significantly associated with both an individual's and their partner's risk for sexual coercion and physical abuse. Contrary to the "sexual double standard" hypothesis, women were not significantly more likely than men to report being physically abused when their partners suspected infidelity. Future studies should continue to explore the relationship context of IPV in sub-Saharan Africa in order to understand how spouses mutually shape each other's experience of IPV and subsequent health outcomes.

  14. Perceptions of intimate partner violence, age, and self-enhancement bias.

    PubMed

    Kane, Michael N; Green, Diane; Jacobs, Robin J

    2011-01-01

    Educational programs in human service professions such as social work, criminal justice, psychology, and public administration stress the importance of recognizing domestic/intimate partner violence as well as elder abuse. Students' abilities to recognize domestic violence in older couples have not been well-investigated. In this study, three vignettes were developed (Pat and Lee at age 75, Pat and Lee at age 30, Imagine yourself with Lee at age 75) in which intimate partner violence was perpetrated by the character Lee. Twenty-five items followed each vignette. When the variables of educational standing (graduate/undergraduate), ethnicity, and academic major were controlled, there were significant differences between the vignettes in 14 of 25 items (General Linear Model, F = 1.552, df = 50, p = .012). More than three out of four respondents for each vignette identified this as domestic violence and believed there was potential for serious harm. However, respondents were less likely to believe that a 75-year-old partner would know when to terminate a relationship in which there was intimate partner violence. Respondents who were asked to imagine themselves with Lee at 75 were likely to perceive Lee as more dangerous than respondents for the other vignettes. Implications are considered for educators.

  15. Incidence and risk factors for intimate partner violence during the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Elisabete Pereira; Valongueiro, Sandra; de Araújo, Thália Velho Barreto; Ludermir, Ana Bernarda

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the incidence and identify risk factors for intimate partner violence during postpartum. METHODS This prospective cohort study was conducted with women, aged between 18-49 years, enrolled in the Brazilian Family Health Strategy in Recife, Northeastern Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. Of the 1.057 women interviewed during pregnancy and postpartum, 539 women, who did not report violence before or during pregnancy, were evaluated. A theoretical-conceptual framework was built with three levels of factors hierarchically ordered: women’s and partners’ sociodemografic and behavioral characteristics, and relationship dynamics. Incidence and risk factors of intimate partner violence were estimated by Poisson Regression. RESULTS The incidence of violence during postpartum was 9.3% (95%CI 7.0;12.0). Isolated psychological violence was the most common (4.3%; 95%CI 2.8;6.4). The overlapping of psychological with physical violence occurred at 3.3% (95%CI 2.0;5.3) and with physical and/or sexual in almost 2.0% (95%CI 0.8;3.0) of cases. The risk of partner violence during postpartum was increased for women with a low level of education (RR = 2.6; 95%CI 1.3;5.4), without own income (RR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.0;2.9) and those who perpetrated physical violence against their partner without being assaulted first (RR = 2.0; 95%CI 1.2;3.4), had a very controlling partner (RR = 2.5; 95%CI 1.1;5.8), and had frequent fights with their partner (RR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.0;2.9). CONCLUSIONS The high incidence of intimate partner violence during postpartum and its association with aspects of the relationship’s quality between the couple, demonstrated the need for public policies that promote conflict mediation and enable forms of empowerment for women to address the cycle of violence. PMID:26270012

  16. Associations between Intimate Partner Violence and Termination of Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Megan; Chappell, Lucy C.; Parnell, Bethany L.; Seed, Paul T.; Bewley, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) and termination of pregnancy (TOP) are global health concerns, but their interaction is undetermined. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between IPV and TOP. Methods and Findings A systematic review based on a search of Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and Ovid Maternity and Infant Care from each database's inception to 21 September 2013 for peer-reviewed articles of any design and language found 74 studies regarding women who had undergone TOP and had experienced at least one domain (physical, sexual, or emotional) of IPV. Prevalence of IPV and association between IPV and TOP were meta-analysed. Sample sizes ranged from eight to 33,385 participants. Worldwide, rates of IPV in the preceding year in women undergoing TOP ranged from 2.5% to 30%. Lifetime prevalence by meta-analysis was shown to be 24.9% (95% CI 19.9% to 30.6%); heterogeneity was high (I2>90%), and variation was not explained by study design, quality, or size, or country gross national income per capita. IPV, including history of rape, sexual assault, contraceptive sabotage, and coerced decision-making, was associated with TOP, and with repeat TOPs. By meta-analysis, partner not knowing about the TOP was shown to be significantly associated with IPV (pooled odds ratio 2.97, 95% CI 2.39 to 3.69). Women in violent relationships were more likely to have concealed the TOP from their partner than those who were not. Demographic factors including age, ethnicity, education, marital status, income, employment, and drug and alcohol use showed no strong or consistent mediating effect. Few long-term outcomes were studied. Women welcomed the opportunity to disclose IPV and be offered help. Limitations include study heterogeneity, potential underreporting of both IPV and TOP in primary data sources, and inherent difficulties in validation. Conclusions IPV is associated with TOP. Novel public health approaches are required to prevent IPV. TOP

  17. Intimate partner sexual violence: a comparison of foreign- versus US-born physically abused Latinas.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, Courtenay E; Messing, Jill T; Amanor-Boadu, Yvonne; O'Sullivan, Chris O; Webster, Daniel; Campbell, Jacquelyn

    2014-02-01

    Men's violence against women-particularly intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV)-is associated with the transmission of HIV. Men who physically abuse their female intimate partners often also sexually abuse them. Latinas are one of the fastest growing populations in the USA and at high-risk for contracting HIV, though little is known about IPSV against physically abused Latinas, including whether there is an association between nativity of the victim and the likelihood of sexual violence by intimate partners. This study examined the (1) prevalence of recent (past 6 months) IPSV against 555 physically abused, help-seeking Latinas and (2) relationship of nativity to recent IPSV. This study used data collected in 2002–2003 from participants in one major city on the East Coast and one West Coast county, who were involved in the Risk Assessment Validation (RAVE) Study. The RAVE Study assessed the accuracy of four different methods for predicting risk of future intimate partner violence. IPSV was defined as an abusive male partner physically forcing sex (rape) or making the woman have sex without a condom. Recent IPSV was reported by 38 % of the sample. Among those reporting recent IPSV, multiple assaults were common: 30%of women were raped and 51%were made to have unprotected sex six or more times during the past 6 months. IPSV was significantly associated with nativity. Physically abused Latinas who were foreign born had two times greater odds of reporting recent IPSV than physically abused Latinas born in the USA, after controlling for other demographic covariates. Exploratory post hoc analyses examining all pairwise comparisons of IPSV against Latinas born in the USA, Mexico, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean also revealed some significant differences that warrant further study with larger samples. HIV prevention efforts aimed at reducing IPSV in this population are needed.

  18. Intimate partner sexual violence: a comparison of foreign- versus US-born physically abused Latinas.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, Courtenay E; Messing, Jill T; Amanor-Boadu, Yvonne; O'Sullivan, Chris O; Webster, Daniel; Campbell, Jacquelyn

    2014-02-01

    Men's violence against women-particularly intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV)-is associated with the transmission of HIV. Men who physically abuse their female intimate partners often also sexually abuse them. Latinas are one of the fastest growing populations in the USA and at high-risk for contracting HIV, though little is known about IPSV against physically abused Latinas, including whether there is an association between nativity of the victim and the likelihood of sexual violence by intimate partners. This study examined the (1) prevalence of recent (past 6 months) IPSV against 555 physically abused, help-seeking Latinas and (2) relationship of nativity to recent IPSV. This study used data collected in 2002–2003 from participants in one major city on the East Coast and one West Coast county, who were involved in the Risk Assessment Validation (RAVE) Study. The RAVE Study assessed the accuracy of four different methods for predicting risk of future intimate partner violence. IPSV was defined as an abusive male partner physically forcing sex (rape) or making the woman have sex without a condom. Recent IPSV was reported by 38 % of the sample. Among those reporting recent IPSV, multiple assaults were common: 30%of women were raped and 51%were made to have unprotected sex six or more times during the past 6 months. IPSV was significantly associated with nativity. Physically abused Latinas who were foreign born had two times greater odds of reporting recent IPSV than physically abused Latinas born in the USA, after controlling for other demographic covariates. Exploratory post hoc analyses examining all pairwise comparisons of IPSV against Latinas born in the USA, Mexico, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean also revealed some significant differences that warrant further study with larger samples. HIV prevention efforts aimed at reducing IPSV in this population are needed. PMID:23959640

  19. The IPV-GBM Scale: A New Scale to Measure Intimate Partner Violence among Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rob; Finneran, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The paper describes the creation of a new scale to measure intimate partner violence (IPV) among gay and bisexual men. Methods Seven focus group discussions were held with gay and bisexual men, focusing on defining intimate partner violence: 30 forms of IPV were identified. A venue-recruited sample of 912 gay and bisexual men was surveyed, examining definitional understanding and recent experiences of each of the 30 forms of IPV. Participants were also asked questions from the CDC definition of intimate partner violence and the short-form of the Conflicts Tactics Scale (CTS2S). Factor analysis of responses to the definitional questions was used to create the IPV-GBM scale, and the prevalence of intimate partner violence was compared with that identified by the CDC and CTS2S measures of intimate partner violence. Results A 23-item scale, with 5 unique domains, was created, with strong internal reliability (Cronbach Alpha >.90). The IPV-GBM scale mirrored both the CDC and CTS2S definitions of intimate partner violence, but contained additional domains such as controlling violence, monitoring behaviors, emotional violence, and HIV-related violence. The new scale identified a significantly higher prevalence of IPV than either of the more commonly used measures. Conclusions The results presented here provide encouraging evidence for a new, more accurate measure of intimate partner violence among gay and bisexual men in the U.S. PMID:23755098

  20. Emergency nurses’ ways of coping influence their ability to empower women to move beyond the oppression of intimate partner violence

    PubMed Central

    van Wyk, Neltjie; van Rensburg, Elsie Janse

    2016-01-01

    Background Millennium Developmental Goal 3 (MDG 3) aims at enhancing gender equity and empowerment of women. Emergency nurses who often encounter women injured by their intimate partners are at risk of developing vicarious traumatisation, which may influence their ability to empower women to move beyond the oppression of intimate partner violence. Aim This article aims to, (1) describe emergency nurses’ ways of coping with the exposure to survivors of intimate partner violence, and (2) recommend a way towards effective coping that will enhance emergency nurses’ abilities to empower women to move beyond the oppression of intimate partner violence to contribute to the achievement of MDG 3. Setting The study was conducted in emergency units of two public hospitals in an urban setting in South Africa. Method A qualitative design and descriptive phenomenological method was used. Emergency nurses working in the setting were purposively sampled and interviewed. The data were analysed by searching for the essence and meaning attached to the exposure of emergency nurses to survivors of intimate partner violence. Results Emergency nurses’ coping responses were either aimed at avoiding or dealing with their exposure to survivors of intimate partner violence. Coping aimed at dealing with the exposure included seeking support, emotion regulation and accommodative coping. Conclusion Emergency nurses employ either effective or ineffective ways of coping. Less effective ways of coping may increase their risk of vicarious and secondary traumatisation, which in turn may influence their ability to empower women to move beyond the oppression of intimate partner violence. PMID:27380838

  1. Experiences of Intimate Partner Violence and Subsequent Police Reporting Among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Adults in Colorado: Comparing Rates of Cisgender and Transgender Victimization.

    PubMed

    Langenderfer-Magruder, Lisa; Whitfield, Darren L; Walls, N Eugene; Kattari, Shanna K; Ramos, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Research indicates that lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals are at high risk of victimization by others and that transgender individuals may be at even higher risk than their cisgender LGBQ peers. In examining partner violence in particular, extant literature suggests that LGBTQ individuals are at equal or higher risk of partner violence victimization compared with their heterosexual peers. As opposed to sexual orientation, there is little research on gender identity and partner violence within the LGBTQ literature. In the current study, the authors investigated intimate partner violence (IPV) in a large sample of LGBTQ adults (N = 1,139) to determine lifetime prevalence and police reporting in both cisgender and transgender individuals. Results show that more than one fifth of all participants ever experienced partner violence, with transgender participants demonstrating significantly higher rates than their cisgender peers. Implications focus on the use of inclusive language as well as future research and practice with LGBTQ IPV victims. PMID:25392392

  2. Experiences of Intimate Partner Violence and Subsequent Police Reporting Among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Adults in Colorado: Comparing Rates of Cisgender and Transgender Victimization.

    PubMed

    Langenderfer-Magruder, Lisa; Whitfield, Darren L; Walls, N Eugene; Kattari, Shanna K; Ramos, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Research indicates that lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals are at high risk of victimization by others and that transgender individuals may be at even higher risk than their cisgender LGBQ peers. In examining partner violence in particular, extant literature suggests that LGBTQ individuals are at equal or higher risk of partner violence victimization compared with their heterosexual peers. As opposed to sexual orientation, there is little research on gender identity and partner violence within the LGBTQ literature. In the current study, the authors investigated intimate partner violence (IPV) in a large sample of LGBTQ adults (N = 1,139) to determine lifetime prevalence and police reporting in both cisgender and transgender individuals. Results show that more than one fifth of all participants ever experienced partner violence, with transgender participants demonstrating significantly higher rates than their cisgender peers. Implications focus on the use of inclusive language as well as future research and practice with LGBTQ IPV victims.

  3. Social desirability and partner agreement of men's reporting of intimate partner violence in substance abuse treatment settings.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Andrew J; Schumacher, Julie A; Coffey, Scott F

    2015-02-01

    Estimates indicate that intimate partner violence (IPV) occurs in approximately 30% of relationships and up to 85% of the relationships of men in substance abuse treatment. However, partners consistently display poor agreement in reporting the presence of IPV. Social desirability is frequently offered as the primary reason for under-reporting of IPV by perpetrators. The goal of the current study was to explicitly test the social desirability hypothesis using both partners' reports of negotiation, psychological aggression, physical aggression, sexual aggression, and injuries in a substance abuse treatment sample. A total of 54 males and their female partners were recruited from a residential adult substance use treatment facility. Consistent with prior literature, partners displayed poor agreement about the presence of different types of IPV. The male partner's social desirability was not associated with his reporting of male-to-female physical aggression, psychological aggression, or injuries. Men who engaged in higher levels of self-deceptive enhancement and lower levels of impression management were more likely to under-report male-to-female sexual coercion. Overall, the findings question the generalized importance of social desirability in IPV reporting in substance abuse treatment populations. PMID:24923888

  4. Assessing risk markers in intimate partner femicide and severe violence: a new assessment instrument.

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique; Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; de Corral, Paz; López-Goñi, José J

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a scale to predict intimate partner femicide and severe violence. The sample consists of 1,081 batterer men who were reported to the police station. First, the most significant differences between the severe violence group (n = 269) and the less severe violence group (n = 812) in sociodemographic variables are determined. Both aggressors and victims of the severe violence group have a higher rate of immigration. Second, the proposed 20-item scale is derived from a larger 58-item scale, where only the most discriminative items between severe and nonsevere intimate partner violence are taken into account. Psychometric properties of reliability and validity are rather good. Cutoff scores have been proposed according to sensitivity and specificity. This easy-to-use tool appears to be suitable to the requirements of criminal justice professionals and is intended for use in safety planning. Implications of these results for further research are discussed.

  5. Setting the Stage for Social Change: Using Live Theater to Dispel Myths About Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Dill-Shackleford, Karen E; Green, Melanie C; Scharrer, Erica; Wetterer, Craig; Shackleford, Lee E

    2015-08-01

    Research has demonstrated the ability of fictional narratives to educate about social and health issues. Although some entertainment-education efforts have used live theater as a mechanism for social change, very few use social science methods to demonstrate exposure effects. This project used live theater to increase understanding and knowledge about intimate partner violence, a pervasive and costly social and health problem. Audiences watched either a play about abusive relationships-emphasizing psychological abuse and the role of coercion and control-or a control play. Compared with controls, those who watched the abuse play were more knowledgeable and less accepting of myths about abusive relationships in a way that mirrored play content. Although both plays were highly transporting, transportation did not explain a significant amount of variance in the attitudes toward intimate partner violence. These results provide rare evidence for theater as a tool for social change. PMID:26086987

  6. Prevalence and demographic correlates of intimate partner violence in Asian Americans

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Doris F.; Shen, Biing-Jiun; Takeuchi, David T.

    2015-01-01

    This study provides the first national estimates of the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among Asian Americans. Population estimates are based on data from 1470 Asian Americans interviewed for the National Latino and Asian American Study. Interviews were conducted in English, Chinese, Tagalog, or Vietnamese. Results suggest that rates of IPV among Asian Americans are low compared to the general U.S. population. Minor violence victimization by a current intimate partner was reported by 10.2% of women and 12.0% of Asian American men. Notably, a greater proportion of participants admitted having perpetrated IPV than having been a victim. Predictors of IPV included younger age, higher SES, alcohol- and substance-use disorders, depression, ethnicity, and being U.S.-born. Results suggest the need for additional research to examine the interactions between gender, ethnicity, and acculturation to develop group-specific models of IPV risk and resilience within diverse Asian American groups. PMID:19303638

  7. Area Disadvantage and Intimate Partner Homicide: An Ecological Analysis of North Carolina Counties, 2004–2006

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Martin, Sandra L.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Schoenbach, Victor J.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the North Carolina Violent Death Reporting System and other sources, we examined ecologic relationships between county (n=100) disadvantage and intimate partner homicide (IPH), variability by victim gender and county urbanicity, and potential mediators. County disadvantage was related to female-victim homicide only in metropolitan counties (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.25); however, disadvantage was associated with male-victim IPH regardless of county urbanicity (IRR 1.17). None of the potential intervening variables examined (shelter availability, intimate partner violence services’ funding), was supported as a mediator. Results suggest disparities across North Carolina counties in IPH according to county disadvantage. Future research should explore other potential mediators (i.e., service accessibility and law enforcement responses), as well as test the robustness of findings using additional years of data. PMID:20565007

  8. Area disadvantage and intimate partner homicide: an ecological analysis of North Carolina counties, 2004-2006.

    PubMed

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Martin, Sandra L; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Schoenbach, Victor J

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the North Carolina Violent Death Reporting System and other sources, we examined ecologic relationships between county (n = 100) disadvantage and intimate partner homicide (IPH), variability by victim gender and county urbanicity, and potential mediators. County disadvantage was related to female-victim homicide only in metropolitan counties (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.25); however, disadvantage was associated with male-victim IPH regardless of county urbanicity (IRR 1.17). None of the potential intervening variables examined (shelter availability, intimate partner violence services' funding) was supported as a mediator. Results suggest disparities across North Carolina counties in IPH according to county disadvantage. Future research should explore other potential mediators (i.e., service accessibility and law enforcement responses), as well as test the robustness of findings using additional years of data.

  9. Co-occurring intimate partner violence, mental health, and substance use problems: a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Robin; O'Rinn, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a pervasive, serious problem detrimental to the health of untold numbers of women. In addition to physical injuries that may be sustained, IPV has been significantly associated with mental health challenges including substance use problems. The problems are complex, highly correlated with each other, and bidirectional in nature. Although as many as 50% of women in mental health and between 25% and 50% of women in substance abuse treatment programs report IPV, frontline workers in all three sectors state they lack the training to address these co-occurring problems. Objective To determine what frontline IPV, mental health, and substance use workers need to know in order to provide appropriate care to women experiencing co-occurring IPV, mental health and/or substance use problems. Design Using Scholars Portal OVID, Medline and OVID PsycINFO and combinations of significant terms, we conducted a scoping review of articles published between 2005 and 2014. Results An initial 4017 records were retrieved (3484 from Scholars Portal, 272 from Medline, 261 from PsycINFO). After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 35 articles were reviewed. Of these, 14 examined the relationships among IPV, mental health, and substance use; 7 focused on IPV and mental health; 14 looked at IPV and substance use. Conclusions Although education and training frequently figured among the recommendations in the reviewed articles, specific content for proposed education or training was lacking. The most frequently occurring recommendations focused on the need to develop better collaboration, coordination, and integration across IPV, mental health and addiction treatment services. PMID:25416321

  10. Testing the woman abuse screening tool to identify intimate partner violence in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Livia; Braun, Kathryn L; Katz, Alan R

    2015-04-01

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a global public health problem. IPV prevalence in Indonesia has been estimated to be less than 1%, based on reported cases. It is likely that IPV prevalence is underreported in Indonesia, as it is in many other countries. Screening for IPV has been found to increase IPV identification, but no screening tools are in use in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to test the translated Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) for detecting IPV in Indonesia. The WAST was tested against a diagnostic interview by a trained psychologist on 240 women attending two Primary Health Centers in Jakarta. IPV prevalence and the reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of the WAST were estimated. Prevalence of IPV by diagnostic interview was 36.3%, much higher than published estimates. The most common forms of IPV identified were psychological (85%) and physical abuse (24%). Internal reliability of the WAST was high (α = .801). A WAST score of 13 (out of 24) is the recommended cutoff for identifying IPV, but only 17% of the Indonesian sample scored 13 or higher. Test sensitivity of the WAST with a cutoff score of 13 was only 41.9%, with a specificity of 96.8%. With a cutoff score of 10, the sensitivity improved to 84.9%, while the specificity decreased to 61.0%. Use of the WAST with a cutoff score of 10 provides good sensitivity and reasonable specificity and would provide a much-needed screening tool for use in Indonesia. Although a lower cutoff would yield a greater proportion of false positives, most of the true cases would be identified, increasing the possibility that women experiencing abuse would receive needed assistance.

  11. Risk Factors Associated with Different Types of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV): An Emergency Department Study

    PubMed Central

    Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Kim, Eunjin; Lin, Johnny; Ahmadi, Alireza; Khamesi, Mojdeh T; Teruya, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    Background Domestic intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious healthcare concern, which may be mitigated by early detection, screening and intervention. Objectives We examine posited predictors in IPV and non-IPV groups, and in four different IPV profiles. Possible factors include a) alcohol use, b) drug use, d) depression, e) impulsivity, f) age, and g) any childhood experience in observing parental violence. We also introduce a new “Five Steps in Screening for IPV” quick reference tool, which may assist ED physicians in detection and treatment. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using survey data from 412 inner-city ED patients. Associations were explored using a chi-squared test of independence, independent-samples t-tests, and a one way analysis of variance. Results Nearly 16% had experienced IPV. As a group, they were younger, and more depressed and impulsive than the non-IPV group. They were more likely to engage in binge drinking, use drugs, and had more childhood exposure to violence. In the IPV group, 31% were perpetrators, 20% victims, and 49% both victims and perpetrators. The latter group was younger, more impulsive and depressed, used drugs, and was more likely to have observed parental violence as a child. Conclusion Correlates in groups affected by IPV indicate the same general risk factors, which appear to more acutely affect those who are both perpetrators and victims. Alcohol and drug use, depressive symptoms and childhood exposure to violence may be factors and signs for which emergency physicians should screen in the context of IPV. PMID:25281170

  12. Urban Young Women’s Experiences of Discrimination and Community Violence and Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, Lydia

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the interrelationships between urban young adult women’s experiences of discrimination and community violence and their reports of involvement in intimate partner violence (IPV). We explore whether such experiences are independent risk factors for IPV victimization and perpetration, even when accounting for aggressive behaviors and related risk taking, including drinking and sexual initiation, during early adolescence. We use data from the Reach for Health study, in which a sample of 550 urban African American and Latina women was followed from recruitment in economically distressed middle schools into young adulthood, over approximately 7 years. At the last wave, respondents were 19–20 years old; 28% were raising children. More than 40% reported experiencing at least one form of racial/ethnic discrimination sometimes or often over the past year. About 75% heard guns being shot, saw someone being arrested, or witnessed drug deals within this time period; 66% had seen someone beaten up, 26% had seen someone get killed, and 40% knew someone who was killed. Concurrent reports of lifetime IPV were also high: about a third reported being a victim of physical violence; a similar proportion reported perpetration. Results of multivariate regression analyses indicate that discrimination is significantly associated with physical and emotional IPV victimization and perpetration, controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, including ethnic identity formation, and early adolescent risk behaviors. Community violence is correlated with victimization, but the relationship remains significant only for emotional IPV victimization once early behaviors are controlled. Implications for violence prevention are discussed, including the importance of addressing community health, as well as individual patterns of behavior, associated with multiple forms of violence victimization and perpetration. PMID:18347993

  13. Testing the Woman Abuse Screening Tool to Identify Intimate Partner Violence in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Iskandar, Livia; Braun, Kathryn L.; Katz, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a global public health problem. IPV prevalence in Indonesia has been estimated to be less than 1%, based on reported cases. It is likely that IPV prevalence is underreported in Indonesia, as it is in many other countries. Screening for IPV has been found to increase IPV identification, but no screening tools are in use in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to test the translated Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) for detecting IPV in Indonesia. The WAST was tested against a diagnostic interview by a trained psychologist on 240 women attending two Primary Health Centers in Jakarta. IPV prevalence and the reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of the WAST were estimated. Prevalence of IPV by diagnostic interview was 36.3%, much higher than published estimates. The most common forms of IPV identified were psychological (85%) and physical abuse (24%). Internal reliability of the WAST was high (α = .801). A WAST score of 13 (out of 24) is the recommended cutoff for identifying IPV, but only 17% of the Indonesian sample scored 13 or higher. Test sensitivity of the WAST with a cutoff score of 13 was only 41.9%, with a specificity of 96.8%. With a cutoff score of 10, the sensitivity improved to 84.9%, while the specificity decreased to 61.0%. Use of the WAST with a cutoff score of 10 provides good sensitivity and reasonable specificity and would provide a much-needed screening tool for use in Indonesia. Although a lower cutoff would yield a greater proportion of false positives, most of the true cases would be identified, increasing the possibility that women experiencing abuse would receive needed assistance. PMID:25012952

  14. Fatal intimate partner violence against women in Portugal: a forensic medical national study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana Rita; Vieira, Duarte Nuno; Magalhães, Teresa

    2013-11-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important cause of women's health and socio-familial severe problems, the most extreme being the victims' homicide. This is the first nationwide Portuguese autopsy-based and judicial-proven study about female intimate partner homicide. At least 62 women over 15 years old were killed by current or former men-intimate partners, corresponding to an IPV-related female mortality rate of 0.44/100.000 women; intimate partner violence was the reason of homicide in 60.8% of all autopsied women. The typical Portuguese victim showed to be a young adult woman, employed, killed by a current husband in a long-term relationship, usually with children in common and with a history of previous IPV. The typical Portuguese perpetrator showed to be older than the victim, employed, owning a firearm and without criminal records. At the time of the fatal event 59.7% of the relationships were current. In 57.9% of the former relationships women were killed during the 1st year after its terminus. Near half of the perpetrators attempted or committed suicide afterward. Most women were killed by gunshot wounds (45.2%), especially in the thorax (48.4%), with multiple fatal injuries; 56.5% also presented non-fatal injuries. The detection of prior IPV and the risk evaluation seems to be fundamental to decrease these fatal outcomes, but also, the prevention of perpetrators' alcohol abuse and carrying weapons. This work emphasizes the need to deepen the research on this issue, aiming to contribute to prevent both fatal and non-fatal IPV-related cases.

  15. Fatal intimate partner violence against women in Portugal: a forensic medical national study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana Rita; Vieira, Duarte Nuno; Magalhães, Teresa

    2013-11-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important cause of women's health and socio-familial severe problems, the most extreme being the victims' homicide. This is the first nationwide Portuguese autopsy-based and judicial-proven study about female intimate partner homicide. At least 62 women over 15 years old were killed by current or former men-intimate partners, corresponding to an IPV-related female mortality rate of 0.44/100.000 women; intimate partner violence was the reason of homicide in 60.8% of all autopsied women. The typical Portuguese victim showed to be a young adult woman, employed, killed by a current husband in a long-term relationship, usually with children in common and with a history of previous IPV. The typical Portuguese perpetrator showed to be older than the victim, employed, owning a firearm and without criminal records. At the time of the fatal event 59.7% of the relationships were current. In 57.9% of the former relationships women were killed during the 1st year after its terminus. Near half of the perpetrators attempted or committed suicide afterward. Most women were killed by gunshot wounds (45.2%), especially in the thorax (48.4%), with multiple fatal injuries; 56.5% also presented non-fatal injuries. The detection of prior IPV and the risk evaluation seems to be fundamental to decrease these fatal outcomes, but also, the prevention of perpetrators' alcohol abuse and carrying weapons. This work emphasizes the need to deepen the research on this issue, aiming to contribute to prevent both fatal and non-fatal IPV-related cases. PMID:24237830

  16. Intimate partner violence, depression, and resource availability among a community sample of Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    González-Guarda, Rosa M; Peragallo, Nilda; Vasquez, Elias P; Urrutia, Maria T; Mitrani, Victoria B

    2009-04-01

    This study investigated the relationships among resource availability, IPV, and depression among Hispanic community-dwelling women. The Vulnerable Population's Conceptual Framework (Flaskerud & Winslow, 1998) was used to conceptualize and test relationships among these variables. Cross-sectional questionnaires assessed resource availability (i.e., income, education, employment, insurance status, and self-esteem), depressive symptoms (CES-D), and intimate partner violence (IPV) by a current/recent partner. Linear and logistic regressions were conducted to explore relationship among variables. Although most of the relationships among resource availability, IPV, and depression supported the conceptual framework, the importance of incorporating additional cultural, relationship, and social factors are stressed. PMID:19363727

  17. Intimate Partner Victimization, Poor Relationship Quality, and Depressive Symptoms during Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Copp, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    Examining longitudinal data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) (n = 927), we assessed associations between physical victimization by an intimate partner, indicators of poor relationship quality, and depressive symptoms among young adult men and women in casually dating, exclusively dating, cohabiting, and marital relationships. In zero-order models, we found that physical victimization increased depressive symptoms. In multivariate models, victimization was a risk factor for depressive symptoms with the inclusion of prior depressive symptoms, family factors reflecting the intergenerational transmission of violence, sociodemographic background, and relationship characteristics including union status. Yet with the additional inclusion of indicators of poor relational quality, victimization was not a significant predictor of depressive symptoms. Arguing and poor communication influenced victimization and depressive symptoms. The associations between victimization and depressive symptoms did not differ by gender, nor were the effects of poor relationship quality on depressive symptoms conditional on gender. Thus, depressive symptoms are similarly responsive to intimate partner victimization, and for both women and men these associations were not significant with the inclusion of indicators of poor relationship quality. Findings underscored that victimization often occurs within relationship contexts characterized by a range of negative dynamics; thus multifaceted relationship-centered prevention and intervention efforts are likely to be more useful than those focusing only on negative messages about the use of aggression with an intimate partner. PMID:25131276

  18. The role of Violence Against Women Act in addressing intimate partner violence: a public health issue.

    PubMed

    Modi, Monica N; Palmer, Sheallah; Armstrong, Alicia

    2014-03-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is defined as violence committed by a current or former boyfriend or girlfriend, spouse or ex-spouse. Each year, 1.3 to 5.3 million women in the United States experience IPV. The large number of individuals affected, the enormous healthcare costs, and the need for a multidisciplinary approach make IPV an important healthcare issue. The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) addresses domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking. It emphasizes development of coordinated community care among law enforcement, prosecutors, victim services, and attorneys. VAWA was not reauthorized in 2012 because it lacked bipartisan support. VAWA 2013 contains much needed new provisions for Native Americans; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, gay, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals; and victims of human trafficking but does not address the large amount of intimate partner violence in America's immigrant population. There are important remaining issues regarding intimate partner violence that need to be addressed by future legislation. This review examines the role of legislation and addresses proposals for helping victims of IPV. PMID:24299159

  19. The risk of return: intimate partner violence in northern Uganda's armed conflict.

    PubMed

    Annan, Jeannie; Brier, Moriah

    2010-01-01

    The physical and psychological consequences of armed conflict and intimate partner violence are well documented. Less research focuses on their intersection and the linkages between domestic violence, gender-based discrimination, and the structural violence of poverty in armed conflict. This paper describes emerging themes from qualitative interviews with young women who have returned from abduction into the Lord's Resistance Army in northern Uganda, many of whom were forcibly given as "wives" to commanders. Their interviews reveal multiple levels of violence that some women experience in war, including physical and sexual violence in an armed group, verbal and physical abuse from extended family members, and intimate partner violence. Striking is the violence they describe after escaping from the rebels, when they are back with their families. The interviews point to how abduction into the armed group may exacerbate problems but highlight the structural factors that permit and sustain intimate partner violence, including gender inequalities, corruption in the police system, and devastating poverty. Findings suggest that decreasing household violence will depend on the strength of interventions to address all levels, including increasing educational and economic opportunities, increasing accountability of the criminal justice system, minimizing substance abuse, and improving the coping mechanisms of families and individuals exposed to extreme violence. PMID:19853985

  20. The Role of Violence Against Women Act in Addressing Intimate Partner Violence: A Public Health Issue

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Monica N.; Palmer, Sheallah

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Intimate partner violence (IPV) is defined as violence committed by a current or former boyfriend or girlfriend, spouse or ex-spouse. Each year, 1.3 to 5.3 million women in the United States experience IPV. The large number of individuals affected, the enormous healthcare costs, and the need for a multidisciplinary approach make IPV an important healthcare issue. The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) addresses domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking. It emphasizes development of coordinated community care among law enforcement, prosecutors, victim services, and attorneys. VAWA was not reauthorized in 2012 because it lacked bipartisan support. VAWA 2013 contains much needed new provisions for Native Americans; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, gay, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals; and victims of human trafficking but does not address the large amount of intimate partner violence in America's immigrant population. There are important remaining issues regarding intimate partner violence that need to be addressed by future legislation. This review examines the role of legislation and addresses proposals for helping victims of IPV. PMID:24299159

  1. Intimate partner violence against women and its related immigration stressors in Pakistani immigrant families in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of intimate partner violence against women and its related immigration stressors in Pakistani immigrant families in Germany. Drawing on 32 in-depth interviews with Pakistani women in three cities in Germany, we found that psychological violence was the commonly reported violence among the study participants. The data showed that the process of immigration exacerbated tensions between spouses because of various immigration stressors such as threats to cultural identity, children’s socialization, and social isolation. In order to cope with the stressful spousal relations, women applied various indigenous strategies, but avoided seeking help from the host country’s formal care-providing institutions. This study also debunks some stereotypes and popular media clichés about the “victimhood of women from conservative developing countries” and provides an understanding of the issue of intimate partner violence within an immigration context. Further research with a larger sample will be helpful to understand immigration-induced stress and intimate partner violence in immigrant families. PMID:23984223

  2. Factors affecting the compliance of Israeli women with screening for intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Ben Natan, Merav; Abramov, Luda; Dhokarker, Avigail; Israelov, Etery

    2013-04-01

    Violence against women has become a frequent occurrence. In Israel, some 200,000 women are subjected to various types of violence by their intimate partners annually. Routine screening for intimate partner violence is endorsed by the Ministry of Health in Israel; however, screening rates in health-care settings remain problematic. This study aimed to examine whether the model based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) succeeds in predicting women's intention to comply with screening for intimate partner violence. A questionnaire based on the literature review and research model was administered to a convenience sample of 200 married women. Although only 4.5% (n = 9) of respondents were screened for violence at various health-care institutions over the past year, 75% (n = 150) of women declared that they intend to cooperate with screening. A positive correlation was found between women's marriage duration, beliefs concerning violence, attitudes towards screening, family member support for compliance with screening-and women's intention to comply with screening. The TRA succeeds in partially predicting women's intention to comply with screening. PMID:23577975

  3. Clinical perception: a study of intimate partner violence versus methamphetamine use as presenting problems.

    PubMed

    Fussell, Holly; Haaken, Janice; Lewy, Colleen S; McFarland, Bentson H

    2009-01-01

    This study draws on theory by Solomon Asch (1946, 1952) to examine how presenting with intimate partner violence versus methamphetamine use shapes characteristics of substance abuse assessment interviews. When responding to an initial open-ended question from a substance abuse counselor, the methamphetamine user and intimate partner violence survivor may elicit very different reactions from the counselor. We predicted that these differing presenting problems would initiate different trajectories for overall impression formation. To test this hypothesis, 18 substance abuse practitioners interviewed one standardized patient (an actor portraying a substance abuse client) who alternated her presenting problem between a) violence in a domestic setting and b) methamphetamine use. The remainder of her story was identical for counselors in either presenting problem group. Results included differences between the two groups in median length of the interviews and failure of both groups to explore domestic violence as a cooccurring problem. Clinical practices related to substance abuse counseling and intimate partner violence are discussed in light of these findings.

  4. The risk of return: intimate partner violence in northern Uganda's armed conflict.

    PubMed

    Annan, Jeannie; Brier, Moriah

    2010-01-01

    The physical and psychological consequences of armed conflict and intimate partner violence are well documented. Less research focuses on their intersection and the linkages between domestic violence, gender-based discrimination, and the structural violence of poverty in armed conflict. This paper describes emerging themes from qualitative interviews with young women who have returned from abduction into the Lord's Resistance Army in northern Uganda, many of whom were forcibly given as "wives" to commanders. Their interviews reveal multiple levels of violence that some women experience in war, including physical and sexual violence in an armed group, verbal and physical abuse from extended family members, and intimate partner violence. Striking is the violence they describe after escaping from the rebels, when they are back with their families. The interviews point to how abduction into the armed group may exacerbate problems but highlight the structural factors that permit and sustain intimate partner violence, including gender inequalities, corruption in the police system, and devastating poverty. Findings suggest that decreasing household violence will depend on the strength of interventions to address all levels, including increasing educational and economic opportunities, increasing accountability of the criminal justice system, minimizing substance abuse, and improving the coping mechanisms of families and individuals exposed to extreme violence.

  5. Elements of Effective Interventions for Addressing Intimate Partner Violence in Latina Women: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Carmen P.; Davidson, Patricia M.; Fleming, Christina; Glass, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence remains a global problem and is of particular concern in Latina diasporas. Aim To identify effective elements of interventions to address intimate partner violence in Latina women. Method The systematic review was undertaken according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We focused the search on intervention studies assessing intimate partner violence as an outcome measure and on publications in English and Spanish from the last 11 years (2004–2015). Results Despite the scope of the problem, from the 1,274 studies screened only four met the search criteria and only a single study included an exclusive Latino population. Of the four interventions, one was only as effective as the control treatment. Heterogeneity of study populations and designs prohibited meta-analytic methods. Conclusions Theoretically derived interventions that are gender specific, culturally appropriate, target mutual aid through group dynamics, and that are developed collaboratively with the target population are likely to be most effective. PMID:27504833

  6. Comparative analysis of prevalence of intimate partner violence against women in military and civilian communities in Abuja, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Chimah, Carol Uzoamaka; Adogu, Prosper Obunikem Uche; Odeyemi, Kofoworola; Ilika, Amobi Linus

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intimate partner violence (IPV) occurs across the world, in various cultures, and affects people across societies irrespective of economic status or gender. Most data on IPV before World Health Organization multicountry study (WHOMCS) usually came from sources other than the military. Result of this study will contribute to the existing body of knowledge and may serve as a baseline for future studies in military populations. This study compares the prevalence of the different types of IPV against women in military and civilian communities in Abuja, Nigeria. Methods Using a multistage sampling technique, 260 women who had intimate male partners were selected from military and civilian communities of Abuja. Collected data on personal characteristics and different types of IPV experienced were analyzed to demonstrate comparison of the association between the different forms of IPV and the respondents’ sociodemographic and partner characteristics in the two study populations using percentages and χ-square statistics, and P-value was assumed to be significant at ≤0.05. Results The prevalence of the four major types of IPV was higher among the military respondents than among civilians: controlling behavior, 37.1% versus 29.1%; emotional/psychological abuse, 42.4% versus 13.4%; physical abuse, 19.7% versus 5.9%, and sexual abuse, 9.2% versus 8.8%. Significantly more respondents from the military population (59 [45.4%]) compared to civilians (21 [19.4%]) were prevented by their partners from seeing their friends (P=0.000). The situation is reversed with regard to permission to seek health care for self, with civilians reporting a significantly higher prevalence (35 [32.4%]) than did military respondents (20 [15.4%]) (P=0.002). The military respondents were clearly at a higher risk of experiencing all the variants of emotional violence than the civilians (P=0.00). The commonest form of physical violence against women was “being slapped or having

  7. CONCOMITANT FORMS OF ABUSE AND HELP-SEEKING BEHAVIOR AMONG WHITE, AFRICAN AMERICAN, AND LATINA WOMEN WHO EXPERIENCE INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE

    PubMed Central

    Flicker, Sharon M.; Cerulli, Catherine; Zhao, Xi; Tang, Wan; Watts, Arthur; Xia, Yinglin; Talbot, Nancy L.

    2014-01-01

    This study uses National Violence against Women Survey data to investigate the differential impact of concomitant forms of violence (sexual abuse, stalking, and psychological abuse) and ethnicity on help-seeking behaviors of women physically abused by an intimate partner (n=1,756). Controlling for severity of the physical abuse, women who experienced concomitant sexual abuse were less likely to seek help, women who experienced concomitant stalking were more likely to seek help, whereas concomitant psychological abuse was not associated with help-seeking. Ethnic differences were found in help-seeking from friends, mental health professionals, police and orders of protection. Implications for service outreach are discussed. PMID:21821618

  8. The Cycle of Violence Revisited: Distinguishing Intimate Partner Violence Offenders Only, Victims Only, and Victim-Offenders.

    PubMed

    Richards, Tara N; Tomsich, Elizabeth; Gover, Angela R; Jennings, Wesley G

    2016-01-01

    Using a cycle of violence framework, we investigated experiences with physical intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization, perpetration, and both IPV victimization and perpetration (IPV overlap). Data included the U.S. subsample of college students in the International Dating Violence Study (n = 4,162). Findings indicated that 40% of participants reported lifetime IPV, with 28% reporting membership in the overlap group. Cycle of violence variables including child sexual abuse, witnessing violence inside the home during childhood, and witnessing violence outside the home during childhood were uniquely related to membership in the overlap group. No relationship between cycle of violence variables and IPV victimization only or IPV perpetration only was identified. Results suggested the cycle of violence might predominantly operate among individuals who are both IPV victims and offenders, rather than among individuals experiencing IPV victimization or perpetrate IPV exclusively. PMID:27302305

  9. Prevalence of intimate partner violence and associated risk factors among Latinos/as: an exploratory study with three Latino subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyunkag; Velez-Ortiz, Daniel; Parra-Cardona, José Rubén

    2014-09-01

    This study seeks to contribute to the limited literature on intimate partner violence (IPV) with Latino populations by analyzing national estimates of prevalence of and risk factors for IPV across the three largest Latino subgroups: Cuban-Origin, Mexican-Origin, and Puerto Ricans. Results showed that foreign-born Mexicans reported the highest rates of IPV compared with foreign-born Cubans and Puerto Ricans; Latinas with higher levels of education and employment reported higher levels of IPV; and foreign-born Mexicans reported a higher rate of less injurious IPV than their U.S.-born counterparts. These findings highlight the need to inform programs of varying nature of Latinas experiencing IPV. PMID:25261437

  10. Intimate Partner Violence and Children’s Reaction to Peer Provocation: The Moderating Role of Emotion Coaching

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Hunter, Erin; Klowden, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the relation between intimate partner violence (IPV) and children’s reactions to a stressful peer interaction in a community-based sample. The moderating role of parental emotion coaching in buffering children from negative reactions to a peer was also examined. Children participated in a peer provocation paradigm and mothers completed the Parent Meta-Emotion Interview. Both adaptive (i.e., laughing, ignoring) and maladaptive (i.e., hostile/challenging, odd behaviors) reactions to the provocative peer were examined. IPV was positively related to children’s laughing and odd behaviors but was unrelated to ignoring and hostile/challenging behaviors. Additionally, emotion coaching was found to moderate relations between IPV and children’s laughing and odd behaviors. The importance of understanding protective factors in families experiencing IPV and of developing emotion coaching parenting programs is discussed. PMID:18729675

  11. Testing Posttraumatic Stress as a Mediator of Physical, Sexual, and Psychological Intimate Partner Violence and Substance Problems Among Women

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Tami P.; Cavanaugh, Courtenay E.; Buckner, Julia D.; Edmondson, Donald

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether posttraumatic stress specifically resulting from intimate partner violence (IPV-related posttraumatic stress) mediated relationships between types of IPV and drug and alcohol problems among 212 women currently experiencing IPV. Six-month prevalence was high for drug use (48%) and alcohol use (59%). Structural equation modeling revealed that the frequency of physical, sexual, and psychological IPV were significantly and positively related to greater IPV-related posttraumatic stress, and IPV-related posttraumatic stress was significantly and positively related to drug problems. Further, IPV-related posttraumatic stress mediated the relationships between physical IPV and drug problems and psychological IPV and drug problems. Findings suggest that prevention and intervention efforts targeting posttraumatic stress among IPV-exposed women may reduce drug problems in this population. PMID:19960546

  12. Intimate Partner Violence in Mexican-American Women with Disabilities: A Secondary Data Analysis of Cross-Language Research

    PubMed Central

    Divin, Chris; Volker, Deborah L.; Harrison, Tracie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative descriptive study, guided by Antonovosky’s Salutogenic model, was to explore the manifestations of strength within the interviews of Spanish-speaking Mexican-American women aging with mobility impairments who also experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). IPV events gleaned from 26 audiotaped interviews from 7 Spanish-speaking Mexican-American women, who ranged in age from 55–75, constituted the sample for this secondary analysis. Five categories were identified: Abuse from early on that shaped sense of coherence; “Violencia tan cruel”: Threatened sense of coherence; “Salutogenic” choices within the context of IPV; A quest for peace; and Strength amidst struggle. PMID:23907305

  13. Prevalence and severity of intimate partner violence in women living in eight indigenous regions of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Valdez-Santiago, Rosario; Híjar, Martha; Rojas Martínez, Rosalba; Avila Burgos, Leticia; Arenas Monreal, María de la Luz

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence and severity of intimate partner violence (IPV) in eight indigenous regions of Mexico, as well as the socioeconomic and demographic variables that are associated with this phenomenon. A cross-sectional study was conducted in indigenous regions that have a greater availability of government medical services than other indigenous regions. Interviews were conducted with female patients (n = 3287) seeking medical care in either of the two public health institutions in these regions. The severity of intimate partner violence (SIPV) during the previous 12 months was measured using a 33-item scale. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the factors associated with SIPV. Intimate partner violence prevalence was 25.5% (95%CI 24.93-25.26). Female partner variables such as personal history of child abuse (ORA 3.48; 95%CI 2.48-4.89) and work outside the home (ORA 1.74; 95%CI 1.22-2.49) and male partner variables such as unemployment (ORA 2.31; 95%CI 1.34-3.97) and a high frequency of alcohol use (ORA 13.35; 95%CI 7.02-25.39) were the main predictors for IPV. We found a three-fold higher risk of IPV for women living in the Los Altos de Chiapas region (ORA 3.01; 95%CI 1.88-4.79) compared with women in the Mayan region (reference category). Such results should aid decision makers in the development of extended public policies and interventions to address violence against women in the indigenous populations of Mexico.

  14. Prevalence and severity of intimate partner violence in women living in eight indigenous regions of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Valdez-Santiago, Rosario; Híjar, Martha; Rojas Martínez, Rosalba; Avila Burgos, Leticia; Arenas Monreal, María de la Luz

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence and severity of intimate partner violence (IPV) in eight indigenous regions of Mexico, as well as the socioeconomic and demographic variables that are associated with this phenomenon. A cross-sectional study was conducted in indigenous regions that have a greater availability of government medical services than other indigenous regions. Interviews were conducted with female patients (n = 3287) seeking medical care in either of the two public health institutions in these regions. The severity of intimate partner violence (SIPV) during the previous 12 months was measured using a 33-item scale. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the factors associated with SIPV. Intimate partner violence prevalence was 25.5% (95%CI 24.93-25.26). Female partner variables such as personal history of child abuse (ORA 3.48; 95%CI 2.48-4.89) and work outside the home (ORA 1.74; 95%CI 1.22-2.49) and male partner variables such as unemployment (ORA 2.31; 95%CI 1.34-3.97) and a high frequency of alcohol use (ORA 13.35; 95%CI 7.02-25.39) were the main predictors for IPV. We found a three-fold higher risk of IPV for women living in the Los Altos de Chiapas region (ORA 3.01; 95%CI 1.88-4.79) compared with women in the Mayan region (reference category). Such results should aid decision makers in the development of extended public policies and interventions to address violence against women in the indigenous populations of Mexico. PMID:23453317

  15. Intimate partner violence and the relation between help-seeking behavior and the severity and frequency of physical violence among women in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ergöçmen, Banu Akadli; Yüksel-Kaptanoğlu, İlknur; Jansen, Henrica A F M Henriette

    2013-09-01

    This study explores the severity and frequency of physical violence from an intimate partner experienced by 15- to 59-year-old women and their help-seeking behavior by using data from the "National Research on Domestic Violence Against Women in Turkey." Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were conducted to compare the relationship between severity and frequency of violence and women's characteristics. Of all ever-partnered women, 36% have been exposed to partner violence; almost half of these experienced severe types of violence. Women used informal strategies to manage the violence instead of seeking help from formal institutions. Help-seeking behavior increases with increased severity and frequency of violence.

  16. Alcohol Outlet Density and Intimate Partner Violence in a Nonmetropolitan College Town: Accounting for Neighborhood Characteristics and Alcohol Outlet Types.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Aleksandra J

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing evidence of an ecological association between alcohol outlet density and intimate partner violence. It is reasonable to assume, however, that not all types of alcohol outlets contribute equally to criminal behavior, and to date, most ecological studies have been of large urban cities. Using Bloomington, Indiana, block groups as units of analysis and controlling for several structural characteristics associated with violence rates, I estimated spatially lagged regression models to determine if the variation in alcohol outlet density, including total outlets and disaggregating by on- and off-premise outlets, is related to intimate partner violence density. Results suggested that total alcohol outlet density and off-premise alcohol outlet density were significantly associated with intimate partner violence density. On-premise alcohol outlet density was not significantly associated with intimate partner violence density. These results not only extend the geographic scope of this relationship beyond large metropolitan areas but also have important policy implications.

  17. The Influence of Romantic Attachment and Intimate Partner Violence on Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levesque, Christine; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Cloutier, Paula; Dandurand, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Several theoretical models for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) have been proposed. Despite an abundance of theoretical speculation, few empirical studies have examined the impact of intimate relationship functioning on NSSI. The present study examines the influence of romantic attachment and received intimate partner violence (physical,…

  18. The sensitivity and specificity of four questions (HARK) to identify intimate partner violence: a diagnostic accuracy study in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Sohal, Hardip; Eldridge, Sandra; Feder, Gene

    2007-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) including physical, sexual and emotional violence, causes short and long term ill-health. Brief questions that reliably identify women experiencing IPV who present in clinical settings are a pre-requisite for an appropriate response from health services to this substantial public health problem. We estimated the sensitivity and specificity of four questions (HARK) developed from the Abuse Assessment screen, compared to a 30-item abuse questionnaire, the Composite Abuse Scale (CAS). Methods We administered the four HARK questions and the CAS to women approached by two researchers in general practice waiting rooms in Newham, east London. Inclusions: women aged more than 17 years waiting to see a doctor or nurse, who had been in an intimate relationship in the last year. Exclusions: women who were accompanied by children over four years of age or another adult, too unwell to complete the questionnaires, unable to understand English or unable to give informed consent. Results Two hundred and thirty two women were recruited. The response rate was 54%. The prevalence of current intimate partner violence, within the last 12 months, using the CAS cut off score of ≥3, was 23% (95% C.I. 17% to 28%) with pre-test odds of 0.3 (95% C.I. 0.2 to 0.4). The receiver operator characteristic curve demonstrated that a HARK cut off score of ≥1 maximises the true positives whilst minimising the false positives. The sensitivity of the optimal HARK cut-off score of ≥1 was 81% (95% C.I. 69% to 90%), specificity 95% (95% C.I. 91% to 98%), positive predictive value 83% (95% C.I. 70% to 91%), negative predictive value 94% (95% C.I. 90% to 97%), likelihood ratio 16 (95% C.I. 8 to 31) and post-test odds 5. Conclusion The four HARK questions accurately identify women experiencing IPV in the past year and may help women disclose abuse in general practice. The HARK questions could be incorporated into the electronic medical record in primary care to

  19. Awareness and beliefs regarding intimate partner violence among first-year dental students.

    PubMed

    Everett, Rhonda J; Kingsley, Karl; Demopoulos, Christina A; Herschaft, Edward E; Lamun, Christine; Moonie, Sheniz; Bungum, Timothy J; Chino, Michelle

    2013-03-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) may affect one to four million individuals per year in the United States, with women accounting for the majority of both reported and unreported cases. Dental professionals are in a unique position to identify many types of IPV because injuries to the head and neck may be indicators or predictors of IPV abuse. Fewer than half of dental programs surveyed have reported having IPV-specific curricula, and most dental students surveyed have reported having little experience or training to recognize IPV. Based on this information, this pilot study sought to assess the awareness and beliefs regarding IPV among first-year dental students at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Using a voluntary survey, followed by a one-hour educational seminar facilitated by an experienced IPV/domestic violence advocate, a post-seminar survey was administered to assess changes in student perceptions and beliefs and to determine the magnitude and direction of any changes. The survey had an 81.25 percent response rate (65/80). The results demonstrated that more than two-thirds of the students had no previous IPV-specific education. In addition, approximately half of these students began the educational session reporting they did not believe IPV was a health care issue, although the overwhelming majority had decided it was when surveyed after the seminar. Moreover, their perceptions and beliefs about the responsibilities of the dental professional, as well as knowledge about resources and available support services, were significantly changed. These results suggest that targeted, information-specific seminars may be sufficient to provide dental students with an understanding of the key issues regarding IPV. With this knowledge, they can better provide specific information about resources and referrals for services to their patients who have experienced IPV. Recommendations based on these findings are being used to develop and refine IPV-specific curricula at

  20. Men's hostile sexism and biased perceptions of intimate partners: fostering dissatisfaction and negative behavior in close relationships.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Matthew D; Overall, Nickola C

    2013-12-01

    Hostile sexism (HS) expresses attitudes that characterize women who challenge men's power as manipulative and subversive. Does endorsing HS negatively bias perceptions of women's behavior and, in turn, create animosity within intimate relationships? Committed heterosexual couples reported on their own behavior and perceptions of their partner's behavior five times across a year (Study 1) and daily for 3 weeks (Study 2). Men who more strongly endorsed HS perceived their partner's behavior as more negative than was justified by their partner's reports. Furthermore, more negative perceptions of the partner's behavior mediated the links between men's HS and feeling more manipulated by their partners, behaving more negatively toward their partners, and lower relationship quality. This indicates that men who endorse HS behave more negatively toward intimate partners and experience lower relationship satisfaction because their antagonistic attitudes toward women in general permeate the way they perceive those partners.

  1. Intimate partner violence among married couples in India and contraceptive use reported by women but not husbands

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Elizabeth; Saggurti, Niranjan; Donta, Balaiah; Ritter, Julie; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusudana; Nair, Saritha; Silverman, Jay G.; Jadhav, Arun; Palaye, Prajakta; Raj, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess whether intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with discordant reports of contraceptive use (whereby wives but not husbands report such use) among married couples in Maharashtra, India. Methods The present cross-sectional study in rural Maharashtra, India, analyzed survey data collected in 2012 among husbands and wives aged 18–30 years, fluent in Marathi, with no prior sterilization, and with no current pregnancy or plans to conceive. Crude and adjusted logistic regression models assessed husbands’ perpetration of IPV in relation to discordant reports of contraceptive use. Results Among 577 couples meeting the eligibility criteria, 207 (35.9%) women reported ever experiencing physical IPV from their husbands, and 183 (31.7%) reported ever experiencing sexual IPV from their husbands. In adjusted logistic regression models, discordant contraceptive use was significantly associated with wives’ experiences of physical IPV (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15–4.42) and sexual IPV (AOR 1.95, 95% CI 1.08–4.82). Conclusion Women who reported IPV from their husbands might be more likely to use contraceptives without informing their husbands, possibly to redress the reproductive control often exerted by abusive male partners. PMID:26873122

  2. Abuse impedes prevention: The intersection of intimate partner violence and HIV/STI risk among young African American women

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Puja; Wingood, Gina M.; Robinson, LaShun S.; Raiford, Jerris L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with risky sexual behavior and STIs among diverse groups of women. IPV was examined as a moderator of efficacy for an HIV/STI intervention. Methods 848 African American women, 18-29, were randomly assigned to an HIV/STI intervention or control condition. Participants completed measures on sociodemographics, IPV, risky sexual behavior and received STI testing. Results IPV predicted inconsistent condom use and a risky sexual partner over 12-month follow-up. A significant interaction indicated that among women who experienced IPV, those in the intervention were more likely to test positive for Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). Among intervention participants, those who experienced IPV were more likely to test TV-positive than those who did not. Discussion In an HIV intervention that did not specifically address IPV, women in the control were less likely to acquire TV than those in the intervention. Consideration of contextual/interpersonal factors is essential when developing HIV intervention programs. PMID:25399033

  3. The relationship between physical intimate partner violence and sexually transmitted infection among women in India and the United States.

    PubMed

    Spiwak, Rae; Afifi, Tracie O; Halli, Shiva; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia; Sareen, Jitender

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the association between physical intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) in two national samples. Data came from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Wave 2 (n=34,653) and the National Family Health Survey-3 (n=124 385). Ever-married women between the ages of 20 and 49 were asked if they had experienced physical violence by their partner in the past year. Outcomes were presence of doctor confirmed HIV and self-reported STI. Age at first intercourse was examined as a mediator of the relationship between IPV and STI. Logistic regression examined associations between IPV, age at first intercourse and STI. Compared to individuals with no physical IPV, risk for STI was higher for individuals who experienced past year IPV living in the United States and India, however once controlling for age at first intercourse, age, education, household wealth/income and past year sexual violence, the relationship between IPV, and STI was significant in the American sample [(AOR)=1.65, 95% (CI)=1.21-2.26], however not for individuals living in India [(AOR)=1.75, 95% (CI)=0.84-3.65]. Individuals with exposure to physical IPV are at increased odds for STI. Age at first intercourse although a marker of risk, may not be an accurate marker of risky sexual behavior in both samples.

  4. Patterns of Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Heterosexually Active Men.

    PubMed

    Casey, Erin A; Querna, Katherine; Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk-related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners.

  5. Troubled times, troubled relationships: how economic resources, gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Golden, Shelley D; Perreira, Krista M; Durrance, Christine Piette

    2013-07-01

    We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV) and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N = 1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mothers' reports of physical assault, emotional abuse, and coercion. When their children were age 3, more than one in five mothers were living with a partner who abused them. The prevalence of any IPV was highest among Hispanic (26%) and foreign-born (35%) mothers. Economic hardship, economic dependency on a romantic partner, and traditional gender beliefs each increased women's risk for exposure to one or more types of IPV, whereas neighborhood conditions were not significantly related to IPV in adjusted models. These factors also explained most of the racial/ethnic and nativity disparities in IPV. Policies and programs that reduce economic hardship among women with young children, promote women's economic independence, and foster gender equity in romantic partnerships can potentially reduce multiple forms of IPV.

  6. Patterns of Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Heterosexually Active Men

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Erin A.; Querna, Katherine; Masters, N. Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk–related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners. PMID:26158212

  7. Love, Trust, and HIV Risk Among Female Sex Workers and Their Intimate Male Partners

    PubMed Central

    Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Fergus, Kirkpatrick B.; Amaro, Hortensia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined correlates of love and trust among female sex workers and their noncommercial male partners along the Mexico–US border. Methods. From 2011 to 2012, 322 partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, completed assessments of love and trust. Cross-sectional dyadic regression analyses identified associations of relationship characteristics and HIV risk behaviors with love and trust. Results. Within 161 couples, love and trust scores were moderately high (median 70/95 and 29/40 points, respectively) and correlated with relationship satisfaction. In regression analyses of HIV risk factors, men and women who used methamphetamine reported lower love scores, whereas women who used heroin reported slightly higher love. In an alternate model, men with concurrent sexual partners had lower love scores. For both partners, relationship conflict was associated with lower trust. Conclusions. Love and trust are associated with relationship quality, sexual risk, and drug use patterns that shape intimate partners’ HIV risk. HIV interventions should consider the emotional quality of sex workers’ intimate relationships. PMID:26066947

  8. Hidden harms: women's narratives of intimate partner violence in a microbicide trial, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Jonathan; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Palanee, Thesla; Rees, Helen

    2014-06-01

    In a context of high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV), trials of female-controlled technologies for HIV prevention such as microbicides may increase the possibility of social harms. Seeking to explore the relationship between IPV and microbicide use further, this paper documents women's narratives of participating in the Microbicide Development Program (MDP) trial in Johannesburg, South Africa, and experiences of partner violence and conflict. A social science sub-study, nested within the trial, was conducted between September 2005 and August 2009, and 401 serial in-depth-interviews were undertaken with 150 women. Using coded interview transcripts, we describe the distribution of IPV and the possible association thereof with microbicide gel use and trial participation. More than a third of these 150 women reported IPV, of which half the cases were related to involvement in the trial. In their narratives, those women reporting IPV cast their partners as authoritarian, controlling and suspicious and reported verbal abuse, abandonment, and in some cases, beatings. Shared experiences of everyday violence shaped women's feelings of unease about revealing their participation in the trial to intimate partners and attempted concealment further contributed to strains and conflict within relationships. Our findings point to the role of social scientific enquiry in identifying the less obvious, hidden negative impacts of participation in a clinical trial therefore exposing limitations in the biomedical construction of 'social harms', as well as the implications thereof for potential future use outside the clinical trial setting. PMID:24721447

  9. Troubled Times, Troubled Relationships: How Economic Resources, Gender Beliefs, and Neighborhood Disadvantage Influence Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Shelley D.; Perreira, Krista M.; Durrance, Christine Piette

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV), and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N=1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mother’s reports of physical assault, emotional abuse, and coercion. When their children were age three, more than one in five mothers were living with a partner who abused them. The prevalence of any IPV was highest among Hispanic (26%) and foreign-born (35%) mothers. Economic hardship, economic dependency on a romantic partner, and traditional gender beliefs each increased women’s risk for exposure to one or more types of IPV, whereas neighborhood conditions were not significantly related to IPV in adjusted models. These factors also explained most of the race/ethnic and nativity disparities in IPV. Policies and programs that reduce economic hardship among women with young children, promote women’s economic independence, and foster gender equity in romantic partnerships can potentially reduce multiple forms of IPV. PMID:23300198

  10. Women's perspectives on the context of violence and role of police in their intimate partner violence arrest experiences.

    PubMed

    Li, Simiao; Levick, Ani; Eichman, Adelaide; Chang, Judy C

    2015-02-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) accounts for up to 50% of all calls to police. In an effort to standardize arrest criteria, mandatory arrest laws were established. It is unclear whether subsequent increased rates of female arrest are due to greater recognition of female IPV perpetrators or of women acting in self-defense. This study aims to understand the context and consequences of IPV-related arrest from perspectives of women arrested in a single metropolitan area. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with women arrested and court-ordered to attend IPV education groups at a women's shelter in the Northeast United States. Interviews addressed circumstances surrounding arrest, experience with past violence, and reasoning regarding use of partner violence. Two researchers independently coded transcripts and met to iteratively refine the code and review transcripts for themes. Eighteen women were interviewed. Major themes that emerged were as follows: (a) Women's use of violence occurred within the context of their own victimization; (b) the arrest included a complex interplay between subject, partner, and police; (c) women perceived police arrest decisions to be based on a limited understanding of context; and (d) women experienced both positive and negative consequences of arrest. Many relationships did not fall under the traditional victim/perpetrator construct. Rather, women's use of violence evolved, influenced by prior experiences with violence. More appropriate methods must be developed for making arrest decisions, guiding justice system responses, and developing interventions for couples experiencing IPV. Recognition that women's use of partner violence often represented either a retaliatory or self-defensive gesture within the context of prior victimization suggests that victims' interventions should not only focus on empowerment but also provide skills and strategies to avoid temptation to adopt aggression as a primary method of self-protection.

  11. Intimate partner violence perpetrated by young adult women against men in Ukraine: Examining individual, familial, and cultural factors.

    PubMed

    Balabukha, Iryna; Krishnakumar, Ambika; Narine, Lutchmie

    2016-07-01

    We examined the role of financial strain, parent-to-parent violence, parent-to-child violence, emotional distress, and alcohol use in intimate partner violence perpetrated by young adult women against men in Ukraine. The moderating role of acceptability of intimate partner violence and violence-related laws and regulations was also examined. Four hundred and six full-time female university students from four universities in Ukraine participated in the study. We found that emotional distress, parent-to-parent, and parent-to-child violence mediated the link between financial strain and intimate partner violence perpetrated by women on men. However, we found limited support for the moderating role of acceptability of intimate partner violence and violence-related laws and regulations in the relationship between individual and familial factors on intimate partner violence. The findings from this investigation suggest that there is a distinct need for supporting families and individuals in dealing with issues of intimate partner violence directed by women against men in Ukraine. Aggr. Behav. 42:380-393, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Adverse childhood experiences and intimate partner aggression in the US: Sex differences and similarities in psychosocial mediation

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Monique J.; Perera, Robert A.; Masho, Saba W.; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Six in ten people in the general population have been exposed to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem in the US. The main objective of this study was to assess sex differences in the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance abuse, and depression as mediators in the association between ACEs and intimate partner aggression. Data were obtained from Wave 2 (2004–2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the mediational role of PTSD, substance abuse and depression in the association between ACE constructs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration/psychopathology) and intimate partner aggression. Among men, PTSD mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and intimate partner aggression. However, among men and women, substance abuse mediated the relationship between physical and psychological abuse and intimate partner aggression. IPV programs geared towards aggressors should address abuse (sexual, physical and psychological), which occurred during childhood and recent substance abuse and PTSD. These programs should be implemented for men and women. Programs aimed at preventing abuse of children may help to reduce rates of depression and PTSD in adulthood, and subsequent intimate partner aggression. PMID:25753285

  13. Adverse childhood experiences and intimate partner aggression in the US: sex differences and similarities in psychosocial mediation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Monique J; Perera, Robert A; Masho, Saba W; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A

    2015-04-01

    Six in ten people in the general population have been exposed to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem in the US. The main objective of this study was to assess sex differences in the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance abuse, and depression as mediators in the association between ACEs and intimate partner aggression. Data were obtained from Wave 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the mediational role of PTSD, substance abuse and depression in the association between ACE constructs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration/psychopathology) and intimate partner aggression. Among men, PTSD mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and intimate partner aggression. However, among men and women, substance abuse mediated the relationship between physical and psychological abuse and intimate partner aggression. IPV programs geared towards aggressors should address abuse (sexual, physical and psychological), which occurred during childhood and recent substance abuse and PTSD. These programs should be implemented for men and women. Programs aimed at preventing abuse of children may help to reduce rates of depression and PTSD in adulthood, and subsequent intimate partner aggression.

  14. Intimate partner violence perpetrated by young adult women against men in Ukraine: Examining individual, familial, and cultural factors.

    PubMed

    Balabukha, Iryna; Krishnakumar, Ambika; Narine, Lutchmie

    2016-07-01

    We examined the role of financial strain, parent-to-parent violence, parent-to-child violence, emotional distress, and alcohol use in intimate partner violence perpetrated by young adult women against men in Ukraine. The moderating role of acceptability of intimate partner violence and violence-related laws and regulations was also examined. Four hundred and six full-time female university students from four universities in Ukraine participated in the study. We found that emotional distress, parent-to-parent, and parent-to-child violence mediated the link between financial strain and intimate partner violence perpetrated by women on men. However, we found limited support for the moderating role of acceptability of intimate partner violence and violence-related laws and regulations in the relationship between individual and familial factors on intimate partner violence. The findings from this investigation suggest that there is a distinct need for supporting families and individuals in dealing with issues of intimate partner violence directed by women against men in Ukraine. Aggr. Behav. 42:380-393, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26541646

  15. Intimate partner violence among rural South African men: Alcohol use, sexual decision-making, and partner communication

    PubMed Central

    Hatcher, Abigail M.; Colvin, Christopher J.; Ndlovu, Nkuli; Dworkin, Shari L.

    2014-01-01

    Nearly one-third of South African men report enacting intimate partner violence (IPV). Beyond direct health consequences for women, IPV is also linked to varied risk behaviours among men who enact it, including alcohol abuse, risky sex, and poor health care uptake. Little is known about how to reduce IPV perpetration among men. We conducted retrospective, in-depth interviews with men (n=53) who participated in a rural South African program that targeted masculinities, HIV risk, and IPV. We conducted computer-assisted thematic qualitative coding alongside a simple rubric to understand how the program may lead to changes in IPV perpetration. Many men described new patterns of reduced alcohol intake and improved partner communication, allowing them to respond in ways that did not lead to the escalation of violence. Sexual decision-making changed via reduced sexual entitlement and increased mutuality about whether to have sex. Men articulated the intertwined nature of each of these topics, suggesting a syndemic lens may be useful for understanding IPV. These data suggest that alcohol and sexual relationship skills may be useful levers for future IPV programming, and that IPV may be a tractable issue as men learn new skills for enacting masculinities in their household and in intimate relationships. PMID:24939358

  16. Why I Hit Him: Women’s Reasons for Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Jennifer E.; Swan, Suzanne C.; Allen, Christopher T.; Sullivan, Tami P.; Snow, David L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines motives for intimate partner violence (IPV) among a community sample of 412 women who used IPV against male partners. A “Motives and Reasons for IPV scale” is proposed, and exploratory factor analyses identified five factors: expression of negative emotions, self-defense, control, jealousy, and tough guise. To our knowledge, the study is the first to investigate the relationship between women’s motives for IPV and their perpetration of physical, psychological, and sexual aggression, as well as coercive control, toward partners. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed participants’ aggression was driven by complex, multiple motives. All five motives were related to a greater frequency of perpetrating IPV. Treatment programs focusing on women’s IPV perpetration should address both defensive and proactive motives. PMID:21072136

  17. Intimate Partner Victimization Among College Students With and Without Disabilities: Prevalence of and Relationship to Emotional Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Heidi L; Snyder, Jamie A; Fisher, Bonnie S

    2016-01-01

    Prior research indicates that both college students and individuals with disabilities are at an increased risk of experiencing intimate partner victimization (IPV). However, little is known about IPV risk and its relationship to emotional well-being among the intersection of these two populations. Utilizing a sample of approximately 20,000 college students from the American College Health Association's (ACHA) National College Health Assessment II (NCHA II), this study focuses on this overlooked intersection by examining IPV among college students with disabilities. Multivariate binary logistic regression models were used to estimate the relationship among disability, IPV, and emotional well-being. College students with disabilities were approximately twice as likely to experience IPV than their counterparts without disabilities. Students with mental disabilities and multiple disability types were found to have the greatest likelihood of experiencing IPV. Victims with disabilities were more likely than victims without disabilities to report experiencing depression symptoms, self-harm behavior, and stress. Recommendations for reducing and preventing IPV among a college student population are discussed.

  18. Adult experience of mental health outcomes as a result of intimate partner violence victimisation: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lagdon, Susan; Armour, Cherie; Stringer, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been known to adversely affect the mental health of victims. Research has tended to focus on the mental health impact of physical violence rather than considering other forms of violence. Objective To systematically review the literature in order to identify the impact of all types of IPV victimisation on various mental health outcomes. Method A systematic review of 11 electronic databases (2004–2014) was conducted. Fifty eight papers were identified and later described and reviewed in relation to the main objective. Results Main findings suggest that IPV can have increasing adverse effects on the mental health of victims in comparison with those who have never experienced IPV or those experiencing other traumatic events. The most significant outcomes were associations between IPV experiences with depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and anxiety. Findings confirm previous observations that the severity and extent of IPV exposure can increase mental health symptoms. The effect of psychological violence on mental health is more prominent than originally thought. Individual differences such as gender and childhood experience of violence also increase IPV risk and affect mental health outcomes in diverse ways. Conclusions Psychological violence should be considered as a more serious form of IPV which can affect the mental health of victims. Experiencing more than one form of IPV can increase severity of outcomes. Researchers should look at IPV as a multi-dimensional experience. A uniformed definition and measure of IPV could help advance knowledge and understanding of this disparaging global issue. PMID:25279103

  19. The Risk Environment of Heroin Use Initiation: Young Women, Intimate Partners, and "Drug Relationships".

    PubMed

    Mayock, Paula; Cronly, Jennifer; Clatts, Michael C

    2015-05-01

    This paper examines young women's initiation to heroin use in the context of an intimate relationship based on data from a small-scale ethno-epidemiology of heroin use in Ireland, 2007-2009. The epidemiological sample included 120 young people, and life history interviews were conducted with a sub-sample of 40 youth aged 16-25 years. A detailed analysis of the "risk environment" of young women's heroin initiation highlights a complex interplay between women's agency and intimate partner influence. It is argued that dichotomous representations of women as victims or emancipated consumers do not adequately capture the complexity of women's initiation journeys. The study's limitations are noted and implications for drug use prevention and harm reduction strategies are discussed.

  20. [Intimate partner violence against women and physical and mental health consequences].

    PubMed

    Plazaola-Castaño, Juncal; Ruiz Pérez, Isabel

    2004-04-01

    Intimate partner violence is currently a public health issue of great relevance. The aim of this article is to present through a literature review, the physical and psychological health problems that, beyond physical injuries, can alert health care professionals of the presence of spouse abuse in their care centers. Literature consistently shows that victims of the so called domestic violence present, compared with no victims, more chronic health problems like fibromyalgia, gastrointestinal disorders like irritable bowel syndrome, and gynaecological signs including sexually transmitted diseases, as well as post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression among others. The broad range of pathologies associated with the abuse of a sexual intimate suggests that victims will attend different health care services. These could play a key role to help these women and refer them to the appropriate legal, social and/or community services.

  1. Children's experiences of companion animal maltreatment in households characterized by intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Shelby Elaine; Collins, Elizabeth A; Nicotera, Nicole; Hageman, Tina O; Ascione, Frank R; Williams, James Herbert; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A

    2015-12-01

    Cruelty toward companion animals is a well-documented, coercive tactic used by abusive partners to intimidate and control their intimate partners. Experiences of co-occurring violence are common for children living in families with intimate partner violence (IPV) and surveys show that more than half are also exposed to abuse of their pets. Given children's relationships with their pets, witnessing such abuse may be traumatic for them. Yet little is known about the prevalence and significance of this issue for children. The present study examines the experiences of children in families with co-occurring pet abuse and IPV. Using qualitative methods, 58 children ages 7-12 who were exposed to IPV were asked to describe their experiences of threats to and harm of their companion animals. Following the interviews, template analysis was employed to systematically develop codes and themes. Coding reliability was assessed using Randolph's free-marginal multirater kappa (kfree=.90). Five themes emerged from the qualitative data, the most common being children's exposure to pet abuse as a power and control tactic against their mother in the context of IPV. Other themes were animal maltreatment to discipline or punish the pet, animal cruelty by a sibling, children intervening to prevent pet abuse, and children intervening to protect the pet during a violent episode. Results indicate that children's experiences of pet abuse are multifaceted, potentially traumatic, and may involve multiple family members with diverse motives.

  2. Evidence for biological roots in the transgenerational transmission of intimate partner violence

    PubMed Central

    Cordero, M I; Poirier, G L; Marquez, C; Veenit, V; Fontana, X; Salehi, B; Ansermet, F; Sandi, C

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is a ubiquitous and devastating phenomenon for which effective interventions and a clear etiological understanding are still lacking. A major risk factor for violence perpetration is childhood exposure to violence, prompting the proposal that social learning is a major contributor to the transgenerational transmission of violence. Using an animal model devoid of human cultural factors, we showed that male rats became highly aggressive against their female partners as adults after exposure to non-social stressful experiences in their youth. Their offspring also showed increased aggression toward females in the absence of postnatal father–offspring interaction or any other exposure to violence. Both the females that cohabited with the stressed males and those that cohabited with their male offspring showed behavioral (including anxiety- and depression-like behaviors), physiological (decreased body weight and basal corticosterone levels) and neurobiological symptoms (increased activity in dorsal raphe serotonergic neurons in response to an unfamiliar male) resembling the alterations described in abused and depressed women. With the caution required when translating animal work to humans, our findings extend current psychosocial explanations of the transgenerational transmission of intimate partner violence by strongly suggesting an important role for biological factors. PMID:22832906

  3. Maternal exposure to intimate partner abuse before birth is associated with autism spectrum disorder in offspring.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Andrea L; Lyall, Kristen; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Ascherio, Alberto; Weisskopf, Marc G

    2016-01-01

    We sought to determine whether maternal (a) physical harm from intimate partner abuse during pregnancy or (b) sexual, emotional, or physical abuse before birth increased risk of autism spectrum disorder. We calculated risk ratios for autism spectrum disorder associated with abuse in a population-based cohort of women and their children (54,512 controls, 451 cases). Physical harm from abuse during pregnancy was not associated with autism spectrum disorder. However, autism spectrum disorder risk was increased in children of women who reported fear of partner or sexual, emotional, or physical abuse in the 2 years before the birth year (abuse in the year before the birth year: risk ratio = 1.58, 95% confidence interval = 1.04, 2.40; abuse in both of the 2 years before the birth year: risk ratio = 2.16, 95% confidence interval = 1.33, 3.50). Within-family results were similar, although did not reach statistical significance. Association of intimate partner abuse before the child's birth year with autism spectrum disorder in the child was not accounted for by gestation length, birth weight, maternal smoking or alcohol consumption during pregnancy, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, or history of induced abortion.

  4. Children's experiences of companion animal maltreatment in households characterized by intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Shelby Elaine; Collins, Elizabeth A; Nicotera, Nicole; Hageman, Tina O; Ascione, Frank R; Williams, James Herbert; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A

    2015-12-01

    Cruelty toward companion animals is a well-documented, coercive tactic used by abusive partners to intimidate and control their intimate partners. Experiences of co-occurring violence are common for children living in families with intimate partner violence (IPV) and surveys show that more than half are also exposed to abuse of their pets. Given children's relationships with their pets, witnessing such abuse may be traumatic for them. Yet little is known about the prevalence and significance of this issue for children. The present study examines the experiences of children in families with co-occurring pet abuse and IPV. Using qualitative methods, 58 children ages 7-12 who were exposed to IPV were asked to describe their experiences of threats to and harm of their companion animals. Following the interviews, template analysis was employed to systematically develop codes and themes. Coding reliability was assessed using Randolph's free-marginal multirater kappa (kfree=.90). Five themes emerged from the qualitative data, the most common being children's exposure to pet abuse as a power and control tactic against their mother in the context of IPV. Other themes were animal maltreatment to discipline or punish the pet, animal cruelty by a sibling, children intervening to prevent pet abuse, and children intervening to protect the pet during a violent episode. Results indicate that children's experiences of pet abuse are multifaceted, potentially traumatic, and may involve multiple family members with diverse motives. PMID:26520828

  5. Intimate Partner Aggression Perpetrated and Sustained by Male Afghanistan, Iraq, and Vietnam Veterans with and without Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teten, Andra L.; Schumacher, Julie A.; Taft, Casey T.; Stanley, Melinda A.; Kent, Thomas A.; Bailey, Sara D.; Dunn, Nancy Jo; White, Donna L.

    2010-01-01

    Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) consistently evidence higher rates of intimate partner aggression perpetration than veterans without PTSD, but most studies have examined rates of aggression among Vietnam veterans several years after their deployment. The primary aim of this study was to examine partner aggression among male…

  6. Informal Social Control of Intimate Partner Violence against Women: Results from a Concept Mapping Study of Urban Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Victoria; Paul, Margaret M.; Todd, Mary-Justine; Lewis, Veronica; Cupid, Malik; Coleman, Jane; Salmon, Christina; O'Campo, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    How the neighborhood environment relates to intimate partner violence against women has been studied using theories applied originally to general violence. Extending social disorganization and collective efficacy theories, they apply a traditional measure informal social control that does not reflect behaviors specific to partner violence. We…

  7. Racial Disparities in Intimate Partner Violence Examined Through the Multiple Disadvantage Model.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tyrone C; Lo, Celia C

    2016-07-01

    This research adopted the perspective of the multiple disadvantage model to explore racial disparities in intimate partner violence (IPV) against women and IPV's links to social structural factors, social relationships, substance use, and health/mental health and access to related services. The study used data from 6,588 women who completed the National Violence Against Women Survey; linear regression was conducted separately for four ethnic groups. Results consistently showed physical assaults to increase with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. For African Americans, increases in assaults were linked to injury, disclosing IPV to friends/family as well as medical professionals, Medicaid use, and drug use; decreases, in turn, were linked to past assault by ex-partners. For Latinas, increases in assaults were associated with eight factors: being married, number of ex-partners, depression, disclosing IPV to friends/family and disclosing to mental-health professionals, drug use, alcohol abstinence, and partner's frequent alcohol use. For European Americans, increases in assaults were linked to number of ex-partners, injury, low income, Medicaid use, disclosing IPV to friends/family as well as mental-health professionals, and alcohol abstinence; decreases were associated with age and with other health insurance coverages. For women of other ethnicity, increases were linked to number of ex-partners, disclosing IPV to mental-health professionals, Medicaid use, drug use, and woman's own as well as partner's alcohol abstinence; decreases in this ethnicity category were linked to past assault by ex-partners. Intervention and policy implications are discussed. PMID:25716196

  8. The training needs of Turkish emergency department personnel regarding intimate partner violence

    PubMed Central

    Aksan, H Asli Davas; Aksu, Feride

    2007-01-01

    Background Violence against females is a widespread public health problem in Turkey and the lifetime prevalence of IPV ranges between 34 and 58.7%. Health care workers (HCW) sometimes have the unique opportunity and obligation to identify, treat, and educate females who are abused. The objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes, and experiences of the emergency department (ED) staff regarding intimate partner violence (IPV) at a large university hospital in Turkey. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a large university hospital via questionnaire. The study population consisted of all the nurses and physicians who worked in the ED during a two month period (n = 215). The questionnaire response rate was 80.5% (41 nurses and 132 physicians). The main domains of the questionnaire were knowledge regarding the definition of IPV, clinical findings in victims of IPV, legal aspects of IPV, attitudes towards IPV, knowledge about the characteristics of IPV victims and abusers, and professional and personal experiences and training with respect to IPV. Results One-half of the study group were females, 76.3% were physicians, and 89.8% had no training on IPV. The majority of the nurses (89.5%) and physicians (71.1%) declared that they were aware of the clinical appearance of IPV. The mean of the knowledge scores on clinical knowledge were 8.84 ± 1.73 (range, 0–10) for acute conditions, and 4.51 ± 3.32 for chronic conditions. The mean of the knowledge score on legal procedures and the legal rights of the victims was 4.33 ± 1.66 (range, 0–7). At least one reason to justify physical violence was accepted by 69.0% of females and 84.7% of males, but more males than females tended to justify violence (chi square = 5.96; p = 0.015). However, both genders accepted that females who experienced physical violence should seek professional medical help. Conclusion The study participants' knowledge about IPV was rather low and a training program is

  9. Responses to and Resources for Intimate Partner Violence: Qualitative Findings from Women, Men, and Service Providers in Rural Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Odero, Merab; Hatcher, Abigail M; Bryant, Chenoia; Onono, Maricianah; Romito, Patrizia; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Turan, Janet M.

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is reported by one in five women globally, but the prevalence is much higher in East Africa. Though some formal and informal resources do exist for women experiencing IPV, data suggest that disclosure, help seeking, and subsequent utilization of these resources are often hindered by socio-cultural, economic, and institutional factors. This paper explores actions taken by victims, available support services, and barriers to utilization of available IPV resources by pregnant women in rural Nyanza, Kenya. Qualitative data were collected through 9 focus group discussions and 20 in-depth interviews with pregnant women, partners or male relatives of pregnant women, and service providers. Data were managed in NVivo 8 using a descriptive analytical approach that harnessed thematic content coding and in-depth grounded analysis. We found that while formal resources for IPV were scarce, women utilized many informal resources (family, pastors, local leaders) as well as the health facility. In rare occasions, women escalated their response to formal services (police, judiciary). The community was sometimes responsive to women experiencing IPV, but often viewed it as a “normal” part of local culture. Further barriers to women accessing services included logistical challenges and providers who were under-trained or uncommitted to responding to IPV appropriately. Moreover, the very sanctions meant to address violence (such as fines or jail) were often inhibiting for women who depended on their partners for financial resources. The results suggest that future IPV interventions should address community views around IPV and build upon locally available resources – including the health clinic - to address violence among women of child-bearing age. PMID:24255067

  10. Responses to and resources for intimate partner violence: qualitative findings from women, men, and service providers in rural Kenya.

    PubMed

    Odero, Merab; Hatcher, Abigail M; Bryant, Chenoia; Onono, Maricianah; Romito, Patrizia; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Turan, Janet M

    2014-03-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is reported by one in three women globally, but the prevalence is much higher in East Africa. Though some formal and informal resources do exist for women experiencing IPV, data suggest that disclosure, help seeking, and subsequent utilization of these resources are often hindered by sociocultural, economic, and institutional factors. This article explores actions taken by victims, available support services, and barriers to the utilization of available IPV resources by pregnant women in rural Nyanza, Kenya. Qualitative data were collected through nine focus group discussions and 20 in-depth interviews with pregnant women, partners or male relatives of pregnant women, and service providers. Data were managed in NVivo 8 using a descriptive analytical approach that harnessed thematic content coding and in-depth grounded analysis. We found that while formal resources for IPV were scarce, women utilized many informal resources (family, pastors, local leaders) as well as the health facility. In rare occasions, women escalated their response to formal services (police, judiciary). The community was sometimes responsive to women experiencing IPV but often viewed it as a "normal" part of local culture. Further barriers to women accessing services included logistical challenges and providers who were undertrained or uncommitted to responding to IPV appropriately. Moreover, the very sanctions meant to address violence (such as fines or jail) were often inhibiting for women who depended on their partners for financial resources. The results suggest that future IPV interventions should address community views around IPV and build upon locally available resources-including the health clinic-to address violence among women of childbearing age.

  11. A Trial of Telephone Support Services to Prevent Further Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Jack; Scribano, Philip V; Marshall, Jessica; Nadkarni, Radha; Hayes, John; Kelleher, Kelly J

    2015-12-01

    We conducted a randomized-controlled trial of telephone support services (TSS) versus enhanced usual care (EUC) for women who had reported intimate partner violence (IPV) within the past year during a visit to a pediatric emergency department. TSS nurse interventionists identified appropriate referrals to community programs, helped participants by problem-solving barriers to obtaining these local services, and provided social support. Three hundred women, ages 18 years and above were recruited. The TSS and EUC groups did not differ on any outcome variable, including IPV victimization, feelings of chronic vulnerability to a perpetrator, depressive symptoms, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.

  12. Association between intimate partner violence and child maltreatment in a representative student sample in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2015-04-01

    The study examined the prevalence of the co-occurrence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment (CM) to determine whether IPV is a factor associated with the latter. A total of 5,841 students from a representative sample of schools in Hong Kong were surveyed. The results show that the lifetime and preceding-year co-occurrence rates of IPV and CM were 12.3% and 3.6%, respectively. IPV and parents' use of psychological aggression and corporal punishment led to increased odds of physical violence. This study suggests a need for the comprehensive assessment of IPV and CM.

  13. An integrative feminist model: the evolving feminist perspective on intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    McPhail, Beverly A; Busch, Noël Bridget; Kulkarni, Shanti; Rice, Gail

    2007-08-01

    The feminist perspective on intimate partner violence is a predominant model in the field, although not immune to criticism. In this research, frontline workers in the violence against women movement responded to critiques of the feminist model. The project used a focus group and a modified grounded theory analysis. Participants agreed with some criticisms, including an overreliance on a punitive criminal justice system, but reported skepticism toward proposed alternatives. Findings led to the development of the Integrative Feminist Model, which expands the feminist perspective in response to critiques, new research, and alternative theories while retaining a gendered analysis of violence.

  14. Familial Power and Women's Contradictory Responses to Attitudinal Questions About Intimate Partner Violence in Rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kimi N; Yount, Kathryn M; Schuler, Sidney Ruth

    2015-10-01

    Research is lacking on how power processes can influence women's reporting of their attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. Structural elements of textual data were investigated as potential evidence of latent power. Overall, the majority of the women switched their response at least once throughout the interview, and the context of these contradictory responses provide evidence that women's reporting of attitudes about IPV against women may be understood as arising in part from latent power processes. New methodological tools are needed to better understand women's personal attitudes about IPV against women.

  15. The phenomenology of meditation for female survivors of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Kane, Kathleen E

    2006-05-01

    An existential-phenomenological methodology was utilized to investigate the experience of meditation for female survivors of intimate partner violence. Six coresearchers were taught a form of concentrative meditation and were asked to meditate daily and to attend a weekly group meditation for 6 weeks. Semistructured interviews were utilized to gather the data. The essence of the experience that was revealed was the emergence of a centered awareness that is distinctly different from the usual mode of being in the world. Findings suggest the value of meditation as an intervention strategy with survivors and demonstrate the need for further research in this area.

  16. Black women's health: the effect of perceived racism and intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Waltermaurer, Eve; Watson, Carole-Ann; McNutt, Louise-Anne

    2006-12-01

    This study provides preliminary evidence of the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and intimate partner violence (IPV) and how these exposures interact to affect the mental and physical health of Black women. The exposures of lifetime perceived racial discrimination and IPV were found to be highly associated. Furthermore, women who reported both exposures showed a notably higher prevalence of anxiety and nonspecific physical health symptoms compared with women who reported either or neither exposure. To appropriately respond to the health needs of Black women, it is essential that women's many stressors be considered simultaneously.

  17. Motivational Interviewing at the Intersections of Depression and Intimate Partner Violence among African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Wahab, Stéphanie; Trimble, Jammie; Mejia, Angie; Mitchell, S. Renee; Thomas, Mary Jo; Timmons, Vanessa; Waters, A. Star; Raymaker, Dora; Nicolaidis, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on design, training, and delivery of a culturally-tailored, multi-faceted intervention which used motivational interviewing (MI) and case management to reduce depression severity among African American survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). We present the details of the intervention and discuss its implementation as a means of creating and providing culturally appropriate depression and violence services to African American women. We used a CBPR approach to develop and evaluate the multi-faceted intervention. As part of the evaluation, we collected process measures about the use of MI, assessed MI fidelity, and interviewed participants about their experiences with the program. PMID:24857557

  18. Intimate partner violence and mental health among Italian adolescents: gender similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Romito, Patrizia; Beltramini, Lucia; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta

    2013-01-01

    Only a few studies have analyzed the health impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) on male and female adolescents, taking into account other kinds of violence that can affect their health. In this study, 43.7% of female adolescents and 34.8% of males reported IPV; females reported more psychological and sexual IPV, with no differences for physical IPV. Controlling for family and sexual violence and other confounding factors, female adolescents exposed to IPV had significantly higher adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for depression, panic attacks, eating problems, and suicidal ideation. For male adolescents, only the OR of eating problems almost reached statistical significance.

  19. Feminism, status inconsistency, and women's intimate partner victimization in heterosexual relationships.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Cortney A; Menaker, Tasha A

    2014-07-01

    This study used a random community sample of 303 women in romantic relationships to investigate the role of educational and employment status inconsistency and patriarchal family ideology as risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization, while considering demographic factors and relationship context variables. Sequential multivariate logistic regression models demonstrated a decrease in the odds of IPV victimization for Hispanic women and women who were older as compared with their counterparts. In addition, increased relationship distress, family-of-origin violence, and employment status inconsistency significantly increased the odds of IPV. Clinical intervention strategies and future research directions are discussed.

  20. Does Marijuana Use Contribute to Intimate Partner Aggression? A Brief Review and Directions for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Maria; Brown, Whitney C.

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana users are more likely to perpetrate intimate partner aggression (IPA) than non-users, yet the mechanism responsible for this association is unknown. Recent studies considering the association between episodes of marijuana use and episodes of IPA have failed to find evidence consistent with an acute effect of marijuana. Research gaps are highlighted and a heuristic model of marijuana’s potential effects on IPA is presented. Research priorities include consideration of mediating mechanisms, moderating variables at the individual and couple level, and examination of acute effects of marijuana using daily report and EMA designs. PMID:25839050

  1. Use of mental health services among Asian and Latino victims of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyunkag

    2012-04-01

    Asian and Latino Americans are two of the fastest growing populations in the United States, but have been underrepresented in literature on intimate partner violence (IPV), especially in relation to mental health care. This study used the National Latino and Asian American Study to examine differences in use of mental health services between Asian and Latino victims of IPV. The results show that Asian victims used mental health services less than Latinos, controlling for education, English proficiency, family values, the type of IPV, and perceived mental health status, and that help seeking of those victims was affected by various individual and social factors. PMID:22700680

  2. Characteristics related to protection order use among victims of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Durfee, Alesha; Messing, Jill Theresa

    2012-06-01

    One increasingly important resource for victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) is domestic violence civil protection orders (POs). Using a transdisciplinary framework, this article critically examines the use of POs by IPV victims seeking shelter services. Previous contact with police and medical professionals are the strongest predictors of having obtained a PO; education level, income, age, race, and having children in the shelter are also significant predictors of having obtained a PO. These findings are discussed in the context of previous research on help-seeking behaviors and the growing body of transdisciplinary research on violence against women. PMID:22831846

  3. Happiness among poor women victims of intimate partner violence in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, José Juan; Panadero, Sonia; Rivas, Esther

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes various aspects of overall happiness expressed by 136 women in poverty who are victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Nicaragua, a country with low levels of development. The information was gathered using a structured interview. Results obtained show that despite the hardships they face, one half of the women in poverty who are victims of IPV say they are happy, and the vast majority are optimistic about their future. The main sources of happiness among the interviewees are in areas outside their economic life and are mainly associated with social relations.

  4. Prosecuting Intimate Partner Sexual Assault: Legal and Extra-Legal Factors That Influence Charging Decisions.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Eryn Nicole; Tellis, Katharine; Spohn, Cassia

    2015-10-01

    Prosecutors play a crucial role in determining whether persons who are accused of intimate partner sexual assault (IPSA) will be sanctioned by the criminal justice system. Prosecutors have unconditional discretion at the initial charging stage because a case rejection decision is typically immune to review. Using qualitative data from 47 IPSA complaints that were referred to Los Angeles County or City prosecution in 2008, this study examines the factors that influence charging decisions. Findings suggest that prosecutors consider both legal and extralegal factors when making charging decisions and that various cultural, legal, and rape myths surrounding IPSA influence these decisions.

  5. Perceptions of options available for victims of physical intimate partner violence in northern India.

    PubMed

    Ragavan, Maya; Iyengar, Kirti; Wurtz, Rebecca

    2015-05-01

    We used qualitative methodologies to understand perceptions regarding options available for victims of physical intimate partner violence (IPV) in northern India. We interviewed male and female community members along with IPV experts. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed using grounded theory. Participants emphasized that a victim of physical IPV should bear the violence, modify her husband's behaviors, or seek help from her natal family. Accessing external resources such as the police or nongovernmental organizations was viewed as both socially inappropriate and infeasible. These results have widespread implications and lay the foundation for the development of IPV prevention initiatives in India. PMID:25780061

  6. Collective violence and attitudes of women toward intimate partner violence: Evidence from the Niger Delta

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The Niger Delta region of Nigeria has been undergoing collective violence for over 25 years, which has constituted a major public health problem. The objectives of this study were to investigate the predictors of women's attitudes toward intimate partner violence in the Niger Delta in comparison to that of women in other parts of Nigeria. Methods The 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey was used for this study. Respondents were selected using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling procedure through which 3725 women were selected and interviewed. These women contributed 6029 live born children born to the survey. Internal consistency of the measure of the women's attitudes towards intimate partner violence against a woman was assessed using Cronbach's alpha (α). Percentage distributions of the relevant characteristics of the respondents were carried out, and multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to measure the magnitude and direction of the relationship between the outcome and predictor variables were expressed as odds ratios (OR) and statistical significance was determined at the 95 percent confident interval level (CI). Results Tolerance for intimate partner violence among the women in the Niger delta (47 percent) was higher than that of women from the rest of the country (42 percent). Rural residence, lower household wealth, lower status occupations, and media access (newspaper and radio) were associated with higher risk of justifying IPV among the women in the Niger Delta. In contrast full or partial autonomy in household decisions regarding food to be cooked, and access to television were associated with a lower risk of justifying violence. Conclusion The increased justification of intimate partner violence among the women in the Niger Delta could be explained by a combination of factors, among which are cognitive dissonance theory (attitudes that do not fit with other opinions they hold as a means of coping with their situation

  7. Mini review: psychosocial stress such as violence against their partners could benefit general immunity in intimate partner violence perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Romero-Martínez, A; Lila, M; Vitoria-Estruch; Moya-Albiol, L

    2014-01-01

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) perpetrators use physical and/or psychological abuse to control their partners and achieve a dominant status. As dominance is associated with low disease risk and fast quick illness recovery from an illness, such behaviors may contribute to improving their health at the expense of that of the battered women. Studies with immunological and hormonal parameters have recently revealed that IPV perpetrators present higher general immunocompetence (salivary IgA levels) in response to acute stress, especially during the preparation/anticipation period and when externalizing their anger. Salivary IgA levels have been proved to be increased by hormones, specifically by high testosterone and low cortisol characteristic in IPV perpetrators. Moreover, a high proneness to express anger (defined by high T/C ratio) supposes an increase in self-esteem and mental health. Thus, the use of violence against partners could reinforce their dominant status and, consequently, may serve to indirectly promote IPV perpetrators' immunity. PMID:25585489

  8. Interpersonal problems and personality features as mediators between attachment and intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Lawson, David M; Brossart, Daniel F

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether hostile dominant interpersonal problems (HDIP), antisocial features, and borderline features mediated the relationship between attachment (anxiety or avoidance) and intimate partner violence (IPV) with a sample of 132 male partner abusers. We conducted two path analyses with avoidant attachment as the predictor in one model and anxious attachment as the predictor in a second model. In both models, HDIP, antisocial features, and borderline features were the mediators with IPV as the criterion. For both models, the attachment variable had statistically significant path values to the mediating variables. However, neither antisocial nor borderline features had statistically significant path values from the mediating variable to the criterion variable (IPV). Only HDIP had a statistically significant path value from the mediating variable to the criterion variable in both models. However, only the avoidant model produced a statistically significant specific indirect effect indicating that HDIP clearly mediated the relationship between attachment and IPV. Results suggest that partner abusive men with predominantly avoidant and, to a lesser degree, anxious attachment may be at increased risk for addressing conflicts in a coercive, controlling, and vengeful manner that is manifested in physical aggression toward a partner. Further, interpersonal constructs may be better measures of psychopathology and provide more relevant clinical targets than personality constructs with male partner abusers.

  9. The impact of intimate partner violence, substance use, and HIV on depressive symptoms among abused low-income urban women.

    PubMed

    Illangasekare, Samantha L; Burke, Jessica G; McDonnell, Karen A; Gielen, Andrea C

    2013-09-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV), substance use, and HIV are often co-occuring health problems affecting low-income urban women, and have been described as connected epidemics making up a "syndemic." Research suggests that each issue separately is associated with depressive symptoms, but no studies have examined the combined effect of IPV, substance use and HIV on women's depression. Interviews were conducted with 96 women recruited from community health clinics serving low-income women in an urban U.S. city. All women were over 17, not pregnant, English-speaking, without private insurance and had experienced physical IPV in the past year. Women were primarily African American (82%) and 82% were receiving income assistance. Twenty seven percent were HIV-positive, and 27% had used heroin or cocaine in the past 6 months. Based on the Centers for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D ), 73% were depressed. Women who experienced severe IPV in the past 6 months were compared to women who experienced no IPV or psychological IPV only in the past 6 months; those who experienced severe IPV were 5.3 times more likely to be depressed, controlling for HIV status, drug use, age, and relationship status. Women who experienced severe IPV, were HIV-positive, and used drugs (7.3% of sample) were 7.98 times as likely to be depressed as women without these characteristics. These findings confirm that severe IPV is significantly associated with depression among urban abused women. Furthermore, this research suggests that the syndemic effect of IPV, substance use, and HIV could be even more detrimental to women's mental health. Health practitioners and researchers should be aware of the combined impact of the IPV, substance use, and HIV syndemic and consider how they can address the mental health needs of urban women.

  10. Association of Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse with Intimate Partner Violence, Poor General Health and Depressive Symptoms among Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Barrios, Yasmin V.; Gelaye, Bizu; Zhong, Qiuyue; Nicolaidis, Christina; Rondon, Marta B.; Garcia, Pedro J.; Sanchez, Pedro A. Mascaro; Sanchez, Sixto E.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined associations of childhood physical and sexual abuse with risk of intimate partner violence (IPV). We also evaluated the extent to which childhood abuse was associated with self-reported general health status and symptoms of antepartum depression in a cohort of pregnant Peruvian women. Methods In-person interviews were conducted to collect information regarding history of childhood abuse and IPV from 1,521 women during early pregnancy. Antepartum depressive symptomatology was evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results Any childhood abuse was associated with 2.2-fold increased odds of lifetime IPV (95%CI: 1.72–2.83). Compared with women who reported no childhood abuse, those who reported both, childhood physical and sexual abuse had a 7.14-fold lifetime risk of physical and sexual IPV (95%CI: 4.15–12.26). The odds of experiencing physical and sexual abuse by an intimate partner in the past year was 3.33-fold higher among women with a history of childhood physical and sexual abuse as compared to women who were not abused as children (95%CI 1.60–6.89). Childhood abuse was associated with higher odds of self-reported poor health status during early pregnancy (aOR = 1.32, 95%CI: 1.04–1.68) and with symptoms of antepartum depression (aOR = 2.07, 95%CI: 1.58–2.71). Conclusion These data indicate that childhood sexual and physical abuse is associated with IPV, poor general health and depressive symptoms in early pregnancy. The high prevalence of childhood trauma and its enduring effects of on women’s health warrant concerted global health efforts in preventing violence. PMID:25635902

  11. Formal and informal help-seeking associated with women's and men's experiences of intimate partner violence in Canada.

    PubMed

    Ansara, Donna L; Hindin, Michelle J

    2010-04-01

    While numerous studies have documented the prevalence, correlates, and consequences of intimate partner violence (IPV); most of this research has used a criminal justice framework that has focused on acts of physical violence. However, critics argue that this narrow conceptualization of IPV belies the heterogeneity in this experience with respect to the nature of coercive control in the relationship. Moreover, they contend that the different types of abusive and controlling relationships not only have a different etiology, health consequences, and help-seeking characteristics, they also have a different relationship by gender. This study examined the extent to which different patterns of violence, abuse, and control were differentially associated with formal and informal help-seeking in a national Canadian sample. Data from the 2004 General Social Survey were analyzed, which included 696 women and 471 men who reported physical or sexual violence by a current or ex-spouse or common-law partner. The most commonly reported formal sources for women and men were health professionals (i.e., doctors, nurses, counselors, psychologists) and the police. For women, informal sources (i.e., family, friends, neighbors) were commonly reported across all IPV subgroups. However, the importance of almost all of the formal sources (e.g., health professionals, police, lawyers, shelters, crisis centers) increased as the severity of the violence and control increased. Shelters and crisis centers were also reported by a notable proportion of women who experienced the most severe pattern of violence and control. For men, both formal and informal sources were more commonly reported by those who experienced moderate violence and control compared with those who experienced relatively less severe acts of physical aggression. The results suggest that research that more sensitively examines people's experiences of violence and control can help identify their health, social, and safety needs

  12. Threats and Acts of Intimate Partner Violence Reported by Users at Norwegian Women's Shelters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsaker, Kjersti; Kristoffersen, Kjell; Moen, Bente E.; Baste, Valborg

    2011-01-01

    Women (n = 87) at women's shelters in Norway, a country of high welfare and gender equality, reported a multitude of severe threats and actual acts of physical, sexual and psychological violence. An individual threatening to kill his partner represented a significant increased risk for experiencing serious acts of violence, especially when the…

  13. The Continuation of Intimate Partner Violence from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ming; Ueno, Koji; Gordon, Mellissa; Fincham, Frank D.

    2012-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to whether violence in adolescent romantic relationships is associated with relationship violence later in young adulthood. This study examined the continuation of intimate partner violence (IPV) from adolescence to young adulthood. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, results from negative binomial models and propensity score models showed that being victimized by relationship partners in adolescence was significantly associated with both perpetration and victimization in romantic relationships in young adulthood. Women reported higher levels of perpetration and lower levels of victimization than men did. Those who were living together (married or cohabiting) reported higher levels of victimization and perpetration than those who were dating. Further, such associations existed beyond the effects of parent–child violence and general aggression tendencies, suggesting the continuation of relationship-specific violence. Finally, these patterns persisted after controlling for participants’ age, race and ethnicity, parental education, and family structure. PMID:23687386

  14. Exploring Mexican-origin intimate partner abuse survivors' help-seeking within their sociocultural contexts.

    PubMed

    Brabeck, Kalina M; Guzmán, Michele R

    2009-01-01

    Women's responses to partner abuse are shaped by their particular sociocultural contexts. In this study, quantitative data were collected from 75 Mexican-origin women who survived intimate partner abuse, to identify variables associated with help-seeking to survive relationship abuse. Help-seeking was defined as use of formal (e.g., shelter) and informal (e.g., family) sources. Variables included two cultural variables: machismo (i.e., adherence to traditional gender roles) and familismo (i.e., valuing family cohesion and reciprocity), and four sociostructural variables: income, education, English proficiency, and immigrant status. Results indicated participants with higher levels of familismo sought informal help more frequently than those with lower levels. Women with grade school education, no English proficiency, and undocumented status sought formal help less frequently than those not constrained by these barriers.

  15. Intimate partner stalking victimization and posttraumatic stress symptoms in post-abuse women.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Kimberly N; Newton, Tamara L; Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Miller, James J; Ellison Burns, Vicki

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to further understanding of intimate partner stalking victimization in post-abuse women, with particular attention to the definition of stalking (with or without fear and threat) most predictive of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. In community midlife women with histories of divorce (N = 192), a history of stalking victimization accompanied by fear and threat was positively correlated with PTS symptom severity, after accounting for other partner abuse. The presence, compared with absence, of fear-and-threat stalking history doubled the odds of symptomatic levels of hyperarousal. Greater physical assault and injury chronicity differentiated fear-and-threat stalked women from other stalked women. Stalking contributed to a fuller understanding of PTS symptoms in women, showing particular relevance for hyperarousal. PMID:23419275

  16. Intimate partner stalking victimization and posttraumatic stress symptoms in post-abuse women.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Kimberly N; Newton, Tamara L; Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Miller, James J; Ellison Burns, Vicki

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to further understanding of intimate partner stalking victimization in post-abuse women, with particular attention to the definition of stalking (with or without fear and threat) most predictive of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. In community midlife women with histories of divorce (N = 192), a history of stalking victimization accompanied by fear and threat was positively correlated with PTS symptom severity, after accounting for other partner abuse. The presence, compared with absence, of fear-and-threat stalking history doubled the odds of symptomatic levels of hyperarousal. Greater physical assault and injury chronicity differentiated fear-and-threat stalked women from other stalked women. Stalking contributed to a fuller understanding of PTS symptoms in women, showing particular relevance for hyperarousal.

  17. Child abuse and neglect and intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration: a prospective investigation.

    PubMed

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally; Dutton, Mary Ann

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes the extent to which abused and neglected children report intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and perpetration when followed up into middle adulthood. Using data from a prospective cohort design study, children (ages 0-11) with documented histories of physical and sexual abuse and/or neglect (n=497) were matched with children without such histories (n=395) and assessed in adulthood (Mage=39.5). Prevalence, number, and variety of four types of IPV (psychological abuse, physical violence, sexual violence, and injury) were measured. Over 80% of both groups - childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) and controls - reported some form of IPV victimization during the past year (most commonly psychological abuse) and about 75% of both groups reported perpetration of IPV toward their partner. Controlling for age, sex, and race, overall CAN [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.60, 95% CI [1.03, 2.49

  18. Child Custody Determinations in Cases Involving Intimate Partner Violence: a Human Rights Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Jay G.; Mesh, Cynthia M.; Cuthbert, Carrie V.; Slote, Kim; Bancroft, Lundy

    2004-01-01

    Intimate partner violence and child abuse are recognized both as public health concerns and as violations of human rights, but related government actions and inactions are rarely documented as human rights violations in the United States. Men who abuse female partners are also highly likely to abuse the children of these women. However, family courts are reported to often ignore risks posed by abusive men in awarding child custody and visitation. Battered women involved in child custody litigation in Massachusetts (n = 39) were interviewed. A recurring pattern of potential human rights violations by the state was documented, corresponding to rights guaranteed in multiple internationally accepted human rights covenants and treaties. The human rights framework is a powerful tool for demonstrating the need for legal, social, and political reform regarding public health concerns. PMID:15249297

  19. Preliminary evaluation of an analog procedure to assess acceptability of intimate partner violence against women: the Partner Violence Acceptability Movie Task

    PubMed Central

    Gracia, Enrique; Rodriguez, Christina M.; Lila, Marisol

    2015-01-01

    Acceptability of partner violence against women is a risk factor linked to its perpetration, and to public, professionals’ and victims’ responses to this behavior. Research on the acceptability of violence in intimate partner relationships is, however, limited by reliance solely on self-reports that often provide distorted or socially desirable accounts that may misrepresent respondents’ attitudes. This study presents data on the development and initial validation of a new analog task assessing respondents’ acceptability of physical violence toward women in intimate relationships: the Partner Violence Acceptability Movie Task (PVAM). This new analog task is intended to provide a more implicit measure of the acceptability of partner violence against women. For this analog task, clips were extracted from commercially available films (90-s segments) portraying partner violence. Two independent samples were used to develop and evaluate the PVAM: a sample of 245 undergraduate students and a sample of 94 male intimate partner violence offenders. This new analog task demonstrated acceptable internal consistency. Results also indicated adequate construct validity. Both perpetrators and undergraduates scoring high in the PVAM also scored higher in self-reported justifications of partner abuse. Perpetrators of partner violence scored significantly higher in acceptability of partner violence than the undergraduate sample (both male and female students), and male students scored higher than females. These preliminary results suggest that the PVAM may be a promising tool to assess the acceptability of violence in intimate partner relationships, highlighting the need to consider alternatives to self-report to evaluate potential beliefs about partner violence. PMID:26528220

  20. Strategies and help-seeking behavior among Mexican women experiencing partner violence.

    PubMed

    Frías, Sonia M

    2013-01-01

    According to a recent Mexican survey, 10.72% of women have at some point experienced sexual partner violence, and 23.71% physical violence at the hands of their current or last partner. Using this survey and a series of semi-structured interviews with experts, this study used a mixed-methods approach to examine, first, whether women who experienced violence turned to law enforcement agencies for help, and the characteristics of these women. Second, the research examined what type of service and treatment they reported receiving from these agencies. Finally, the research examined reasons women did not request help from police and law enforcement agencies.