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Sample records for experienced intimate partner

  1. Dissociation in families experiencing Intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Miller, Alison

    2017-02-16

    This paper, using an illustrative case study, presents the hypothesis that cyclical spouse abusers suffer from a dissociative condition (or perhaps a personality disorder in which dissociation is a prominent feature) that results from disorganized attachment. The partner of the spouse abuser tries various unsuccessful strategies to appease her spouse in order to change his behavior. If the relationship lasts for years, she adapts by developing a milder but parallel dissociative process, developing chains of state-dependent memory and resultant ego states for the different phases of the domestic abuse cycle. The children suffer from attachment disruption which can potentially continue the process to the next generation.

  2. Survival of intimate partner violence as experienced by women.

    PubMed

    Flinck, Aune; Paavilainen, Eija; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2005-03-01

    The study set out to describe women's experiences of intimate partner violence, the consequences of such violence, the help they received and women's experiences of their survival. Social and health professionals do not have sufficient ability to identify and help families who suffer from intimate partner violence. Methods for identifying and treating partner violence not have been developed adequately. The study was conducted in Finland by loosely formulated open-ended interviews with seven battered women. The data were analysed by inductive qualitative content analysis. Women had past experience of maltreatment and a distressing climate at their parental home. Women experienced both themselves and their spouse as having weak identities; their ideals, patterns of marriage and sexuality were different. Violence occurred in situations of disagreement. Women tried to strike a balance between independence and dependence in the relationship. The different forms of couple violence were interlinked. The women sought help when their health and social relationships got worse. An awareness of the problem, taking action, counselling and social relationships helped them survive. Religiousness was a factor that involved commitment to the couple relationship, made religious demands on women and promoted the recovery of integrity. Intimate partner violence was associated with the family model, childhood experience of maltreatment, the partners' weak identity and conflicts between individualism and familism. Social and healthcare professionals need competence in early intervention and skills to discuss moral principles, sexuality, and violence in a way that is free of prejudice and condemning attitudes. Spiritual approaches in the context of interventions should be taken into consideration. In a clinical context, nurses should be aware of the symptoms of violence, and they should have skills in dealing with intimate moral and spiritual issues.

  3. Depressive Symptoms in Women Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houry, Debra; Kaslow, Nadine J.; Thompson, Martie P.

    2005-01-01

    The study was a cross-sectional examination of African American women positive for intimate partner violence (IPV) who presented to the medical or psychiatric emergency department (ED) for treatment. African American women with a recent history of IPV who presented following an attempted suicide (n = 100) were compared to demographically…

  4. Predicting shelter residence in women experiencing recent intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Galano, Maria M; Hunter, Erin C; Howell, Kathryn H; Miller, Laura E; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A

    2013-04-01

    This study sought to determine factors associated with shelter residence in women with recent histories of intimate partner violence (IPV). The sample included 113 women, approximately half of whom resided in a shelter over the past year. Participating women provided demographic information and completed standardized measures of IPV, trauma, and depression. Ethnicity, income, housing stability, and mental health, but not violence exposure, differentiated the shelter and community groups. Trauma symptoms, housing instability, and ethnicity best predicted shelter residence. Future research should focus on determining what types of services and interventions will best address the unique needs of each population.

  5. Emotional intimate partner violence experienced by men in same-sex relationships.

    PubMed

    Woodyatt, Cory R; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-10-01

    Intimate partner violence research has focused almost exclusively on physical and sexual intimate partner violence in opposite-sex relationships, paying little attention to the intimate partner violence experienced by men in same-sex relationships. Emerging research focusing on intimate partner violence among male-male couples has focused largely on physical and sexual violence, with little consideration of the unique forms of emotional violence experienced by gay men. Ten focus-group discussions with gay and bisexual men were conducted to examine perceived typologies, antecedents and experiences of emotional violence that occur between male partners. Participants described emotional violence as the most threatening form of intimate partner violence, driven largely by factors including power differentials, gender roles and internalised homophobia. Results indicate that gay and bisexual men perceive emotional intimate partner violence to be commonplace. A better understanding of emotional violence within male-male relationships is vital to inform intimate partner violence prevention efforts and the more accurate measurement of intimate partner violence for gay men.

  6. Between rigidity and chaos: worldviews of partners experiencing intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Enosh, Guy; Eisikovits, Zvi; Gross, Chen

    2013-09-01

    The goal of this article was to examine the worldviews of cohabiting or married men and women who experienced domestic violence in their relationships. The study was based on content analysis of in-depth interviews with 48 men and women (24 couples), who were living together after experiencing at least one violent event in their relationships over the previous 12 months. Using constructivist grounded theory, the authors examined the deep structure of the ways by which partners living with intimate partner violence constructed their world. The men and women under study constructed heuristic models in two major life domains-psychological processes and how the world works overall. The analysis has revealed two axes resulting in four worldviews. The two axes were the construction of the world and the construction of the mind. Constructions of the mind ranged from chaotic to deterministic. Constructions of external reality ranged from static to fluid and uncontrollable. The theoretical model developed suggested four different types of basic worldviews. The suggested typology was examined in relation to existing typologies in the field of intimate partner violence and in relation to future research and interventions.

  7. Meaning of INSIGHT participation among women who have experienced intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Zust, Barbara L

    2006-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored the meaning that women with violent partners found in participating in a 20-week group cognitive therapy program called INSIGHT. Through a two-step interview process, ten women who had experienced intimate partner violence described what it meant to them to decide to participate in INSIGHT; what was meaningful about the program; and what influence the program had on their lives. Findings indicated an overarching theme that described a process of Rescuing Self. This study adds support for the utility of interventions, such as INSIGHT, that nurture self-emergence among women who have experienced intimate partner violence.

  8. Relationships of Depression to Child and Adult Abuse and Bodily Pain among Women Who Have Experienced Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koopman, Cheryl; Ismailji, Tasneem; Palesh, Oxana; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Narayanan, Amrita; Saltzman, Kasey M.; Holmes, Danielle; McGarvey, Elizabeth L.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates whether depression in women who experienced intimate partner violence is associated with having also experienced childhood sexual and physical abuse, psychological abuse by an intimate partner, recent involvement with the abusive partner, and bodily pain. Fifty-seven women who had left a violent relationship with an…

  9. Relationships of Depression to Child and Adult Abuse and Bodily Pain among Women Who Have Experienced Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koopman, Cheryl; Ismailji, Tasneem; Palesh, Oxana; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Narayanan, Amrita; Saltzman, Kasey M.; Holmes, Danielle; McGarvey, Elizabeth L.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates whether depression in women who experienced intimate partner violence is associated with having also experienced childhood sexual and physical abuse, psychological abuse by an intimate partner, recent involvement with the abusive partner, and bodily pain. Fifty-seven women who had left a violent relationship with an…

  10. What do Australian Women Experiencing Intimate Partner Abuse Want From Family and Friends?

    PubMed

    Taket, Ann; O'Doherty, Lorna; Valpied, Jodie; Hegarty, Kelsey

    2014-07-01

    We analyzed the views of a diverse sample of women (N = 254) living in the state of Victoria, Australia, who were experiencing fear of an intimate partner. We explored the women's views about their interactions with their family and friends to examine what women who have experienced fear of a partner or ex-partner want from their family and friends. The themes identified provide potentially useful guidance for what might be helpful and unhelpful communication strategies and behaviors for families and friends. Women experiencing intimate partner abuse find informal support invaluable, provided it is delivered in a helpful fashion. Helpful support is affirming, encouraging, validating, and understanding, and delivered with positive regard, empathy, and respect. Social contact and interaction are particularly appreciated, as is instrumental support such as financial help, housing, and child care. Women value both support that is directly related to abuse and support related to other areas of life. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Predictors of Preschoolers' Appraisals of Conflict in Families Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laura E.; Howell, Kathryn H.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    2012-01-01

    Factors that may contribute to preschool-aged children's appraisals of their parent's violent conflicts in families experiencing recent intimate partner violence (IPV) were evaluated for 116 mother-child dyads. Mothers and children were interviewed using empirically-validated measures to assess level of violence, maternal and child mental health,…

  12. Predictors of Preschoolers' Appraisals of Conflict in Families Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laura E.; Howell, Kathryn H.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    2012-01-01

    Factors that may contribute to preschool-aged children's appraisals of their parent's violent conflicts in families experiencing recent intimate partner violence (IPV) were evaluated for 116 mother-child dyads. Mothers and children were interviewed using empirically-validated measures to assess level of violence, maternal and child mental health,…

  13. Exploring Negative Emotion in Women Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence: Shame, Guilt, and PTSD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, J. Gayle; McNiff, Judiann; Clapp, Joshua D.; Olsen, Shira A.; Avery, Megan L.; Hagewood, J. Houston

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the association of shame and guilt with PTSD among women who had experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Sixty-three women were assessed by a research clinic serving the mental health needs of women IPV survivors. Results indicated that shame, guilt-related distress, and guilt-related cognitions showed significant…

  14. Exploring Negative Emotion in Women Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence: Shame, Guilt, and PTSD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, J. Gayle; McNiff, Judiann; Clapp, Joshua D.; Olsen, Shira A.; Avery, Megan L.; Hagewood, J. Houston

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the association of shame and guilt with PTSD among women who had experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Sixty-three women were assessed by a research clinic serving the mental health needs of women IPV survivors. Results indicated that shame, guilt-related distress, and guilt-related cognitions showed significant…

  15. Physical Health and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Women Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Stephanie J.; Hall, Rosalie J.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Angott, Danielle M.

    2009-01-01

    This correlational-predictive study addresses the associations between intimate partner violence (IPV) and physical health and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, including: 1) detailed physical health symptoms reported and health care sought by women in intimate abusive relationships, 2) relationships between physical health symptoms, IPV, and PTSD, and 3) unique predictors of physical health symptoms. An ethnically diverse sample of 157 abused women was recruited from crisis shelters and the community. The women averaged almost 34 years of age and had been in the abusive relationship for slightly more than 5 years. The women experienced physical health symptoms falling into 4 groups: neuromuscular, stress, sleep, and gynecologic symptoms. Women experiencing more severe IPV reported more physical health and PTSD symptomatology. PTSD avoidance and threats of violence or risk of homicide uniquely predicted physical health. More than 75% of the women had sought treatment from a health care professional in the previous 9 months. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:18984510

  16. HIV/AIDS Risk Reduction Intervention for Women who have Experienced Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Rountree, Michele A

    2010-06-01

    A growing body of literature highlights the association between women who have experienced intimate partner abuse (IPA) and their heightened risk for HIV/AIDS (human immune deficiency syndrome/ acquired immune deficiency syndrome) infection. Finding HIV risk reduction strategies that are contextually relevant for this population is an important public policy priority. This qualitative study researched women who have experienced intimate partner abuse in order to develop a HIV/AIDS risk reduction intervention unique to their circumstances. This pilot study explored the critical components of such an intervention among a racially/ethnically stratified (African-American, Mexican-American and Anglo) sample of women (n=43) who have experienced IPA. Focus groups were conducted and transcribed, and a content analysis was used to identify major themes. In all five focus groups, participants viewed the research as interesting, good, beneficial, and/or important based on their perceptions of risk for infection. Respondents felt that they knew of ways to protect themselves from infection in non-abusive relationships; however, acknowledged the difficulties of doing so given the context of their abusive relationships. Examining the racial/ethnic differences across focus groups showed that the language used by women is quite variable. The ways in which survivors define rape, sexual abuse, and their own experiences are all unique; however, their actual experiences have many similarities. Discussed at length are the topics participants shared as critical in informing the design of an intervention and the relevance of the findings to social work clinical practice is explained.

  17. Comparative analyses of stressors experienced by rural low-income pregnant women experiencing intimate partner violence and those who are not.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Shreya; Levitch, Alison H; Ellis, Kathleen K; Ball, Katharine; Everett, Kevin; Geden, Elizabeth; Bullock, Linda

    2008-01-01

    To describe the daily lives of rural pregnant women who smoked during pregnancy, with a focus on their sources of stress and the compounding effects of intimate partner violence. A qualitative study using content analysis of research nurses' telephone logs from a large smoking cessation randomized controlled trial (N=695) in which 33% of the sample (n=227) experienced intimate partner violence in the past year. Fifty pregnant women, 25 who had experienced intimate partner violence in the past year and 25 who had never experienced intimate partner violence, were randomly selected from those who received a nurse-delivered telephone intervention for smoking cessation (n=345). The mean age of the sample was 22 years, and the majority were White and living in a married-like relationship. Women experiencing intimate partner violence discussed certain stressors significantly more often than nonabused women. These stressors included finances, lack of social support, legal issues, transportation issues, and abuse by the intimate partner and others. Health care providers need to recognize that intimate partner violence creates a stress, which can compound the stressors of pregnancy and poverty in rural areas. Offering these women a chance to talk about their lives can help them not only to locate necessary resources, but also to break down the barriers of isolation.

  18. Women's perceptions of their community's social norms towards assisting women who have experienced intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Karen Ann; Burke, Jessica G; Gielen, Andrea C; O'Campo, Patricia; Weidl, Meghan

    2011-04-01

    The role of social norms has played an often unrecognized role in the perception of and action to assist low-income urban women who are in violent relationships. Two forms of social norms will be assessed, including descriptive norms--what people typically do to assist women in a violent relationship--and injunctive norms--defined as what people should do to assist women. This study will present our initial findings into the development of measures to assess women's perception of their community's social norms toward assisting women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) and how these norms are related to women's perception of the community, reasons for community assistance toward women experiencing IPV, and women's own experience of IPV. Systematic measurement development processes were applied to reliably and validly develop the social norms measures. A three-phase approach was used to develop eight paired items measuring descriptive and injunctive norms. A total of 176 low-income urban women were interviewed and the scale responses were compared to length of time at the residence, perceptions of their neighborhood, perceived reasons for community involvement and non-involvement in assisting women experiencing IPV, and IPV experienced as an adult. The two developed social norms scales were found to have high internal consistency alpha coefficients of 0.84 for descriptive norms and 0.93 for injunctive norms. Paired t tests were statistically significant, denoting higher injunctive than descriptive social norms. Lowered descriptive norms were found among younger women, women who reported that they did not think their neighborhood was a good place to live, women who had ever experienced intimate partner violence as an adult, and perceived lower reasons for neighbor involvement and higher reasons for neighbor non-involvement toward assisting women experiencing IPV. Higher levels of injunctive social norms were statistically associated with living in a

  19. HIV/AIDS Risk Reduction Intervention for Women who have Experienced Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Rountree, Michele A.

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of literature highlights the association between women who have experienced intimate partner abuse (IPA) and their heightened risk for HIV/AIDS (human immune deficiency syndrome/ acquired immune deficiency syndrome) infection. Finding HIV risk reduction strategies that are contextually relevant for this population is an important public policy priority. This qualitative study researched women who have experienced intimate partner abuse in order to develop a HIV/AIDS risk reduction intervention unique to their circumstances. This pilot study explored the critical components of such an intervention among a racially/ethnically stratified (African-American, Mexican-American and Anglo) sample of women (n=43) who have experienced IPA. Focus groups were conducted and transcribed, and a content analysis was used to identify major themes. In all five focus groups, participants viewed the research as interesting, good, beneficial, and/or important based on their perceptions of risk for infection. Respondents felt that they knew of ways to protect themselves from infection in non-abusive relationships; however, acknowledged the difficulties of doing so given the context of their abusive relationships. Examining the racial/ethnic differences across focus groups showed that the language used by women is quite variable. The ways in which survivors define rape, sexual abuse, and their own experiences are all unique; however, their actual experiences have many similarities. Discussed at length are the topics participants shared as critical in informing the design of an intervention and the relevance of the findings to social work clinical practice is explained. PMID:21170178

  20. Protective factors against suicide attempt risk among African American women experiencing intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Meadows, Lindi A; Kaslow, Nadine J; Thompson, Martie P; Jurkovic, Gregory J

    2005-09-01

    Protective factors (hope, spirituality, self-efficacy, coping, social support-family, social support-friends, and effectiveness of obtaining resources) against suicide attempts were examined in economically, educationally, and socially disadvantaged African American women (100 suicide attempters, 100 nonattempters) who had experienced recent intimate partner violence. Significant positive associations were found between all possible pairs of protective factors. Bivariate logistic regressions revealed that higher scores on each of the seven protective factors predicted nonattempter status; multivariate logistic regressions indicated that higher scores on measures of hope or social support-family showed unique predictive value for nonattempter status. Further, the multivariate model accurately predicted suicide attempt status 69.5% of the time. Partial support was found for a cumulative protective model hypothesizing a linear relationship between the number of protective factors endorsed and decreased risk for suicide attempts. Implications of these findings for community-based preventive intervention efforts and future research are discussed.

  1. Sources and Components of Stigma Experienced by Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Murray, Christine E; Crowe, Allison; Overstreet, Nicole M

    2015-10-14

    Previous research suggests that survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV) experience stigma, which may affect their willingness to seek help and their recovery process following the end of the abusive relationship. This article presents the Integrated IPV Stigmatization Model, which integrates previous research on the components and sources of the stigma surrounding IPV. Content analysis procedures were used to examine the applicability of the model to qualitative data from an electronic survey with 279 survivors of past abusive relationships. The results demonstrated the most common components and sources of stigma experienced by the participants, as well as the patterns of which components were most common among the various sources of stigma. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Strengthening positive parenting through intervention: evaluating the Moms' Empowerment Program for women experiencing intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Howell, Kathryn H; Miller, Laura E; Lilly, Michelle M; Burlaka, Viktor; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew C; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an evidence-based intervention in changing the positive and negative parenting practices of 120 mothers who experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) in the last 2 years. Mothers assigned to the treatment group participated in a 10-session evidence-based intervention, known as the Moms' Empowerment Program, which targets the mental health problems of women and works to increase access to resources and improve parenting abilities of women exposed to IPV. Participants were interviewed at baseline and immediately following the intervention or waitlist period, representing an elapsed time of approximately 5 weeks. After controlling for relevant demographic variables, violence severity, and mental health, women showed significantly more change in their positive parenting scores if they were in the treatment condition. No significant differences were found between the treatment and comparison groups in their negative parenting practices change scores. These findings suggest that even short-term intervention can improve positive parenting skills and parenting knowledge for women who have experienced partner abuse.

  3. Health needs and barriers to healthcare of women who have experienced intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kate S; Silberberg, Mina R; Brown, Ann J; Yaggy, Susan D

    2007-12-01

    This study assessed the health needs and barriers to healthcare among women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV) as told by women themselves. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 25 women clients and 10 staff members at a crisis center in metropolitan North Carolina. Clients also completed a structured survey. Eleven shelter clients and 14 walk-ins completed the survey and interview. Client participants were demographically mixed, and 20% were Spanish-speaking immigrants. Most clients were unemployed and uninsured. Women reported worse health in the interviews than on the surveys; clients' major health needs were chronic pain, chronic diseases, and mental illness. Reported barriers to healthcare were cost, psychological control by the abuser, and low self-esteem and self-efficacy. Staff's perceptions of clients health needs differed from clients,' focusing on reproductive health, HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI), mental illness, and inadequate preventive healthcare. Staff and clients' perceptions of barriers to healthcare were more congruent. Suggestions for improving the center's response were to offer more health education groups and more health-related staff trainings. Agency barriers to implementing these changes were limited funding, focus on crisis management, and perceived disconnect with the healthcare system. Health needs of women who have experienced IPV are significant and include physical and mental concerns. IPV creates unique barriers to accessing healthcare, which can be addressed only partially by a crisis center. Greater coordination with the healthcare system is needed to respond more appropriately to the health needs of women who have experienced IPV.

  4. Phenotypes of intimate partner violence among women experiencing infertility in Kano, Northwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iliyasu, Zubairu; Galadanci, Hadiza S; Abubakar, Sanusi; Auwal, Maryam S; Odoh, Chisom; Salihu, Hamisu M; Aliyu, Muktar H

    2016-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of and risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) among women attending a large urban fertility clinic in Kano, Nigeria. Interviewers administered questionnaires to a cross-section of women attending an infertility clinic in Northwest Nigeria, regarding their experience of IPV and associated factors. In total, 373 individuals were interviewed. Of the individuals interviewed, 134 (35.9%; 95% confidence Interval [CI] 31.1%-41.0%) had experienced at least one form of IPV in the preceding year. Of the 134 patients who had encountered violence, 126 (94.0%), 111 (82.8%), 47 (35.1%), and 25 (18.7%) had experienced psychological, sexual, verbal, and physical forms of violence, respectively. Of the affected individuals, 34 (25.4%) experienced multiple forms of violence, with spouses being the main perpetrators. A lack of formal education (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.21; 95%CI 1.21-7.43), employment in the informal sector (OR 2.01; 95%C: 1.02-4.52), and having an unemployed spouse (OR 1.56; 95%CI 1.02-3.15) or one with low level of education (OR 2.32; 95%CI 1.87-4.21) were independently associated with IPV. In this setting, women who were infertile experienced a high incidence of IPV. Women presenting at fertility clinics should be screened for IPV and provided with links to appropriate support services. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors influencing disclosure among women experiencing intimate partner violence during pregnancy in Moshi Municipality, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Katiti, Victor; Sigalla, Geofrey Nimrod; Rogathi, Jane; Manongi, Rachel; Mushi, Declare

    2016-08-04

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) has serious negative health effects to millions of women around the globe. While disclosing IPV could open doors for support and eventually prevent partner abuse, the factors associated with IPV disclosure during pregnancy are not well known. The aim of this study was to examine factors influencing IPV disclosure to any person of interest or organization supporting women during pregnancy in Moshi Municipality, Tanzania. Data were from a prospective cohort study of 1123 pregnant women followed-up by the project aiming to assess the impact of violence in the reproductive health conducted in Moshi Municipality, Tanzania from March 2014 to May 2015. Inclusion criteria to the current analysis were all 339 pregnant women who reported to have experienced physical, sexual and/or emotional violence during the index pregnancy. Data analysis used SPSS Version 20. Odds ratio with 95 % Confidence Interval (CI) for factors associated with IPV disclosure was estimated using multivariate logistic regression models while controlling for age, education and parity. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered for a statistically significant difference. IPV disclosure was found to be 23.3 % (n = 79). Disclosure of IPV was less likely among unemployed (OR = 0.5, 95 % CI 0.30-0.90) and women whose index pregnancy was unplanned (OR = 0.53, 95 % CI 0.29-0.98). Women who regularly participated in women's or community groups, religious groups or political associations at least once a month had 2 times higher odds of IPV disclosure compared to those who did not attend regularly (OR = 2.12, 95 % CI 1.13-3.95). Most of the abused women during pregnancy who disclosed their experience of IPV (69 %) disclosed to a member of the family of birth followed by friends (14 %) and a member of family of the partner (11 %). Most of the women who experienced IPV during pregnancy kept suffering in silence while less than a quarter of all the abused (23.3

  6. Intergenerational violence in Burundi: Experienced childhood maltreatment increases the risk of abusive child rearing and intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Crombach, Anselm; Bambonyé, Manassé

    2015-01-01

    Experiencing abuse during childhood affects the psychological well-being of individuals throughout their lives and may even influence their offspring by enhancing the likelihood of an intergenerational transmission of violence. Understanding the effects of childhood maltreatment on child-rearing practices and intimate partner violence might be of particular importance to overcome the consequences of violent conflicts in African societies. Using Burundi as an example, we aimed to explore the associations between childhood maltreatment, intimate partner violence, perceived partner intimidation, gender and the probability of violently acting out against one's own children or romantic partner. Amongst a sample of 141 men and 141 women in the capital of Burundi, we identified those who had biological children and those who lived or had lived in relationships. Using culturally appropriate instruments, we enquired about their exposure to childhood maltreatment and partner violence as well as their inclinations to act out violently. We found that childhood maltreatment and perceived partner intimidation were strong predictors for the perpetration of violence against children. Moreover, we found that women were more likely to use violence against children if they experienced partner violence and less likely to resort to violence if they felt intimidated. Men were more likely to perpetrate violence against their partner. Childhood maltreatment was again a strong predictor. The more women experienced partner violence, the more they fought back. Childhood maltreatment is a strong predictor for domestic violence and has to be addressed to interrupt the cycle of violence in post-conflict countries.

  7. Risk factors of anxiety and depressive symptoms in female patients experiencing intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Karakuła Juchnowicz, Hanna; Łukasik, Paulina; Morylowska-Topolska, Justyna; Krukow, Paweł

    2017-02-26

    The aim of the study was to find factors associated with higher severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms in female patients experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). The study was conducted in six randomly selected primary healthcare centers in Lublin province. The HADS (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and a structured questionnaire designed by the authors were administered to a total of 350 consecutive female patients visiting a GP. Fully completed questionnaire forms were obtained from 200 women. 102 (51%) participants who confirmed experiencing IPV ultimately made up the study cohort. Sequential models were created using backward stepwise multiple regression to investigate the potential risk and the protective factors associated with higher severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms in the study group. 68% and 56% of the participants respectively had positive scores on the HADS anxiety and depression subscales. Living in a small town or in the countryside was associated with higher scores on the anxiety subscale (b = -1.18, p = 0.003), but not on the depression subscale. Chronic physical illness (b = 2.42, p = 0.013; b = 2.86, p = 0.015), being unemployed (b = 0.58, p = 0.024; b = 0.69, p = 0.008), and exposure to economic violence (b = 3.97, p < 0.001; b = 3.88, p = 0.001) were associated with higher scores on both subscales of the HADS. The fact of receiving financial support (b = 2.67, p = 0.002; b = 2.68, p = 0.003) was a protective factor against both kinds of symptoms. Exposure to physical violence was associated with higher scores on the depression subscale (b = 3.09, p = 0.005), but not on anxiety subscale. The type of violence and socioeconomic characteristics were more strongly associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms in women experiencing IPV than demographic variables.

  8. Intergenerational violence in Burundi: Experienced childhood maltreatment increases the risk of abusive child rearing and intimate partner violence

    PubMed Central

    Crombach, Anselm; Bambonyé, Manassé

    2015-01-01

    Background Experiencing abuse during childhood affects the psychological well-being of individuals throughout their lives and may even influence their offspring by enhancing the likelihood of an intergenerational transmission of violence. Understanding the effects of childhood maltreatment on child-rearing practices and intimate partner violence might be of particular importance to overcome the consequences of violent conflicts in African societies. Objective Using Burundi as an example, we aimed to explore the associations between childhood maltreatment, intimate partner violence, perceived partner intimidation, gender and the probability of violently acting out against one's own children or romantic partner. Methods Amongst a sample of 141 men and 141 women in the capital of Burundi, we identified those who had biological children and those who lived or had lived in relationships. Using culturally appropriate instruments, we enquired about their exposure to childhood maltreatment and partner violence as well as their inclinations to act out violently. Results We found that childhood maltreatment and perceived partner intimidation were strong predictors for the perpetration of violence against children. Moreover, we found that women were more likely to use violence against children if they experienced partner violence and less likely to resort to violence if they felt intimidated. Men were more likely to perpetrate violence against their partner. Childhood maltreatment was again a strong predictor. The more women experienced partner violence, the more they fought back. Conclusions Childhood maltreatment is a strong predictor for domestic violence and has to be addressed to interrupt the cycle of violence in post-conflict countries. PMID:26679146

  9. Accounting for Intimate Partner Violence: A Biographical Analysis of Narrative Strategies Used by Men Experiencing IPV From Their Female Partners.

    PubMed

    Corbally, Melissa

    2015-10-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious social issue which affects the medium- and long-term health outcomes of many individuals worldwide. The cost of IPV on the physical and psychological well-being of individuals, in addition to its wider economic costs in responding to abused persons, is significant. Presently, there is a lack of understanding about the nature of female-initiated IPV and how men account for their experiences of it. This study examined male victims' life stories of their IPV experiences from their intimate partners. Using the biographical narrative interpretive method, three cases were analyzed from a social constructionist perspective to examine what narrative strategies men used to account for their experiences of being abused by their female partners. Three dominant narrative strategies were used by respondents: the fatherhood narrative, the good husband narrative, and the abuse narrative. The abuse narrative had a unique narrative form, which reflected respondents' disassociation between their identities as men and also as abused persons. Dominant conflicting discourses of masculinity and intimate partner abuse disadvantaged men in identifying IPV and secondly in responding appropriately. This study found that men prefer to use dominant discursive identities as legitimate means from which to disclose IPV experiences. The findings from this study illustrate that broad questioning by professionals regarding fatherhood may be most helpful in promoting disclosures of IPV if this is suspected.

  10. Comparative analyses of stressors experienced by rural low-income pregnant women experiencing intimate partner violence and those who are not

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Shreya; Levitch, Alison; Ellis, Kathleen; Ball, Katharine; Everett, Kevin; Geden, Elizabeth; Bullock, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Objective To describe the daily lives of rural pregnant women who smoked during pregnancy, with a focus on their sources of stress and the compounding effects of intimate partner violence (IPV). Design A qualitative study using content analysis of research nurse’s telephone logs from a large smoking cessation randomized controlled trial (N = 695) in which 33% of the sample (n = 227) experienced IPV in the past year. Participants Fifty pregnant women, 25 who had experienced IPV in the past year and 25 who had never experienced IPV, were randomly selected from those who received a nurse-delivered telephone intervention for smoking cessation (n = 345). The mean age of the sample was 22 years, and the majority were White and living in a married-like relationship. Results Women experiencing IPV discussed certain stressors significantly more often than non-abused women. These stressors included finances, lack of social support, legal issues, transportation issues, and abuse by the intimate partner and others. Conclusion Health care providers need to recognize that intimate partner violence creates a stress which can compound the stressors of pregnancy and poverty in rural areas. Offering these women a chance to talk about their lives can help them not only to locate necessary resources, but also to break down the barriers of isolation. PMID:18754988

  11. Safe mom, safe baby: a collaborative model of care for pregnant women experiencing intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Alice; Nosbusch, Jane Morgan; Rice, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Violence during pregnancy is a national and global health-related problem. Intimate partner violence significantly increases the risk of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Abused pregnant women are 1.4 times more likely to deliver a preterm or low-birth-weight infant requiring extended and resource-intense care in tertiary settings. Despite the prevalence of intimate partner violence during pregnancy, very little is written about established clinical programs designed to address this problem. This article presents the design, implementation, and evaluation of a nurse-led, evidence-based initiative respected for enhancing the health and safety of abused pregnant women. This interdisciplinary program combines registered nurse case management, the advocacy services of a community-based domestic violence agency, and perinatal care into a seamless continuum of professional services. Program interventions focus on helping clients navigate (1) their perinatal experiences across healthcare settings and (2) the complexities of criminal justice, legal, and social service systems within the community. Program-related data collected and evaluated for performance improvement purposes are discussed, and innovative educational programming is described.

  12. PTSD and Daily Co-Occurrence of Drug and Alcohol Use Among Women Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Tami P.; Weiss, Nicole H.; Flanagan, Julianne C.; Willie, Tiara C.; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Objective Women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at high risk for substance use and intimate partner violence. Considering the effects of both PTSD and substance use such as poorer treatment outcomes and greater health/behavior problems, women experiencing intimate partner violence are a high-risk, under-researched group. Methods We utilized a micro-longitudinal study design to assess daily drug and alcohol use over 21 days among 41 women experiencing intimate partner violence recruited from the community. Results Participants were about 45 years old (M = 45.1, SD = 8.5) and mostly African American (n = 32, 78%). Co-occurrence of drug and alcohol use was reported on 19.0% of days, while drug use alone occurred on 13.4% of days and alcohol use on 12.1%. Fifteen percent of participants met current PTSD criteria, with a mean symptom severity rating of 15.90 (SD = 10.94, range 0 – 47). Women with PTSD, compared to those without, were nearly 15 times more likely to have days of co-occurrence of drug and alcohol use (p = .037), and nearly 7 times more likely to have days of drug use alone (p = .044). Conclusions These findings indicate that the combination of intimate partner violence and PTSD may make women especially prone to daily combined drug and alcohol use or drug use alone. Further research is needed to explore this association and examine the need for integrated programs to support victims’ health, prevent the development of substance use problems, and facilitate recovery from PTSD and substance use. PMID:26828635

  13. The Mediating Role of Empowerment for African American Women Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Caroline Vaile; Perez, Sara; Johnson, Dawn M.

    2010-01-01

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a significant societal problem associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and depression, which in turn can cause impairment in a variety of areas. Previous research suggests that African American women experience more frequent and severe IPV than White women, yet report fewer PTSD symptoms related to their abuse. One proposed explanation for this relationship is that African American women are more resilient due to internal coping methods such as empowerment; however, this relationship has yet to be empirically tested. The current study investigates the role of empowerment in mediating IPV-related psychological distress in a sample of African American and White battered women (N = 204). As hypothesized, personal empowerment mediated the relationships between race and PTSD and race and depression, suggesting that empowered African American women may demonstrate greater resiliency when faced with IPV. Results are discussed in terms of their implication for developing culturally-sensitive empowerment-based interventions for battered women. PMID:21331291

  14. Actor-partner effects associated with experiencing intimate partner violence or coercion among male couples enrolled in an HIV prevention trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) and coercion have been associated with negative health outcomes, including increased HIV risk behaviors, among men who have sex with men (MSM). This is the first study to describe the prevalence and factors associated with experiencing IPV or coercion among US MSM dyads using the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM), an analytic framework to describe interdependent outcomes within dyads. Methods Among MSM couples enrolled as dyads in an HIV prevention randomized controlled trial (RCT), two outcomes are examined in this cross-sectional analysis: 1) the actor experiencing physical or sexual IPV from the study partner in the past 3-months and 2) the actor feeling coerced to participate in the RCT by the study partner. Two multilevel APIM logistic regression models evaluated the association between each outcome and actor, partner, and dyad-level factors. Results Of 190 individuals (95 MSM couples), 14 reported experiencing physical or sexual IPV from their study partner in the past 3 months (7.3%) and 12 reported feeling coerced to participate in the RCT by their study partner (6.3%). Results of multivariate APIM analyses indicated that reporting experienced IPV was associated (p < 0.1) with non-Black/African American actor race, lower actor education, and lower partner education. Reporting experienced coercion was associated (p < 0.1) with younger actor age and lower partner education. Conclusions These findings from an HIV prevention RCT for MSM show considerable levels of IPV experienced in the past 3-months and coercion to participate in the research study, indicating the need for screening tools and support services for these behaviors. The identification of factors associated with IPV and coercion demonstrate the importance of considering actor and partner effects, as well as dyadic-level effects, to improve development of screening tools and support services for these outcomes. PMID:24580732

  15. HIV sexual risk behavior among low-income women experiencing intimate partner violence: the role of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, Courtenay E; Hansen, Nathan B; Sullivan, Tami P

    2010-04-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder resulting from intimate partner violence (IPV-related PTSD), drug problems, and alcohol problems were tested as correlates of women's sexual risk behavior. Participants were 136 low-income women experiencing physical violence by a male partner during the past 6 months. Sexual risk behavior was assessed by whether women had unprotected sex with a risky primary partner (i.e., HIV-positive, injection drug user, and/or nonmonogamous), unprotected sex with a risky nonprimary partner (i.e. HIV-positive or unknown status), or traded sex during the past 6 months. Nearly one in five women engaged in these recent sexual risk behaviors. Simultaneous logistic regression results revealed IPV-related PTSD, but not drug or alcohol problems, was significantly associated with sexual risk behavior while controlling for childhood abuse and demographic covariates. Women with IPV-related PTSD had four times greater odds of recent sexual risk behavior compared to women without IPV-related PTSD. Implications for HIV prevention interventions are discussed.

  16. Intimate partner homicide.

    PubMed

    Leth, Peter Mygind

    2009-01-01

    Intimate partner homicides represent the most severe outcome of intimate partner violence, and constitute more than a quarter (26%) of all homicides in adults over 15 years of age in Southern Denmark. In our experience the victims of partner homicides are primarily women, often from socially disadvantaged families, and that these homicides usually are the result of an impulsive act, with the perpetrator often committing suicide after the act. The aim of this study was to investigate these hypotheses further, and to provide an up-to-date overview of intimate partner homicides in Southern Denmark.

  17. National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: 2010 Highlights

    MedlinePlus

    ... an intimate partner. • 81% of women who experienced rape, stalking or physical violence by an intimate partner ... their experiences. IPV-Related Impacts Among Victims of Rape, Physical Violence, and/ or Stalking by an Intimate ...

  18. Understanding behavior change for women experiencing intimate partner violence: mapping the ups and downs using the stages of change.

    PubMed

    Chang, Judy C; Dado, Diane; Ashton, Susan; Hawker, Lynn; Cluss, Patricia A; Buranosky, Raquel; Scholle, Sarah Hudson

    2006-09-01

    For women who are experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV), making changes toward safety is often a gradual process. When providing counseling and support, health care providers may benefit from better understanding of where women are in their readiness to change. Our objective was to apply the transtheoretical model's stages of change to the experiences of women who experienced IPV and map their experiences of change as they moved toward increased safety. A multi-disciplinary team designed a qualitative interview process with 20 women who had current or past histories of IPV in order to explore their experiences. The women in our study (1) moved through stages of readiness generally in a nonlinear fashion, with varying rates of progression between safe and nonsafe situations, (2) were able to identify a "turning-point" in their situations, (3) attempted multiple "action" steps and (4) were influenced by internal and external factors. Our study suggests that focusing on the transtheoretical model to develop stage-based interventions for IPV may not be the most appropriate given the nonsequential movement between stages and influence of external factors. The "change mapping" technique can be used as an educational and counseling tool with patients, as well as a training tool for health care providers.

  19. Intimate partner violence experienced by HIV-infected pregnant women in South Africa: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Molly; Phillips, Tamsin; Zerbe, Allison; McIntyre, James A; Brittain, Kirsty; Petro, Greg; Abrams, Elaine J; Myer, Landon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy may be common in settings where HIV is prevalent but there are few data on IPV in populations of HIV-infected pregnant women in Southern Africa. We examined the prevalence and correlates of IPV among HIV-infected pregnant women. Setting A primary care antenatal clinic in Cape Town, South Africa. Participants 623 consecutive HIV-infected pregnant women initiating lifelong antiretroviral therapy. Measures IPV, depression, substance use and psychological distress were assessed using the 13-item WHO Violence Against Women questionnaire, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Alcohol and Drug Use Disorders Identification Tests (AUDIT/DUDIT) and the Kessler 10 (K-10) scale, respectively. Results The median age in the sample was 28 years, 97% of women reported being in a relationship, and 70% of women reported not discussing and/or agreeing on pregnancy intentions before conception. 21% of women (n=132) reported experiencing ≥1 act of IPV in the past 12 months, including emotional (15%), physical (15%) and sexual violence (2%). Of those reporting any IPV (n=132), 48% reported experiencing 2 or more types. Emotional and physical violence was most prevalent among women aged 18–24 years, while sexual violence was most commonly reported among women aged 25–29 years. Reported IPV was less likely among married women, and women who experienced IPV were more likely to score above threshold for substance use, depression and psychological distress. In addition, women who reported not discussing and/or not agreeing on pregnancy intentions with their partner prior to conception were significantly more likely to experience violence. Conclusions HIV-infected pregnant women in the study reported experiencing multiple forms of IPV. While the impact of IPV on maternal and child health outcomes in the context of HIV infection requires further research attention, IPV screening and support services should be

  20. Subjection, subjectivity, and agency: the power, meaning, and practice of mothering among women experiencing intimate partner abuse.

    PubMed

    Semaan, Ingrid; Jasinski, Jana L; Bubriski-McKenzie, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on in-depth interviews with mothers who were abused by intimate partners, we argue that mothering can be a source of empowerment that helps battered women both care for their children and survive and assert themselves. Women in the study sample described a violation of some aspect of their mothering as the reason they left their partners. However, narrative analysis exposed contradictions in participants' stories, revealing multiple factors that shaped their decisions to leave. Although motherhood was significant for the women who participated in the study, it was not their only motivation for ending their relationships with abusive partners.

  1. Screening for Intimate Partner Violence During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Neha A; Lewis-O’Connor, Annie

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is defined as an actual or threatened abuse by an intimate partner that may be physical, sexual, psychological, or emotional in nature. Each year approximately 1.5 million women in the United States report some form of sexual or physical assault by an intimate partner; it is estimated that approximately 324,000 women are pregnant when violence occurs. Pregnancy may present a unique opportunity to identify and screen for patients experiencing IPV. This article provides health care practitioners and clinicians with the most current valid assessment and screening tools for evaluating pregnant women for IPV. PMID:24920977

  2. The mediating role of avoidance coping between intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization, mental health, and substance abuse among women experiencing bidirectional IPV.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Julianne C; Jaquier, Véronique; Overstreet, Nicole; Swan, Suzanne C; Sullivan, Tami P

    2014-12-15

    Avoidance coping is consistently linked with negative mental health outcomes among women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). This study extended the literature examining the potentially mediating role of avoidance coping strategies on both mental health and substance use problems to a highly generalizable, yet previously unexamined population (i.e., women experiencing bidirectional IPV) and examined multiple forms of IPV (i.e., psychological, physical, and sexual) simultaneously. Among a sample of 362 women experiencing bidirectional IPV, four separate path models were examined, one for each outcome variable. Avoidance coping mediated the relationships between psychological and sexual IPV victimization and the outcomes of PTSD symptom severity, depression severity, and drug use problems. Findings indicate nuanced associations among IPV victimization, avoidance coping, and mental health and substance use outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluating intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Valente, Sharon M

    2002-11-01

    To describe the incidence, assessment, and management of intimate partner violence (IPV) from a cultural perspective emphasizing the values, strengths, and health care needs of African-American women. Review of the published scientific literature, U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics and the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) supplemented with hypothetical cases. Violence is a social and public health emergency affecting over 10% of the population during their lives and 22% of women who are physically assaulted by an intimate. Roughly 3 million to 4.4 million women report being battered annually, although this is a low estimate. Neither gender nor age nor sexual orientation protects one from IPV. Violent crime causes 2.2 million known injuries with a huge cost in hospital days and other expenses. Women often hesitate to report violence; health care professionals detect as few as 5% of battered women. Women suffer for months and years before accurate diagnosis. Clinicians need to be vigilant in case finding, education, prevention, and treatment. Cultural differences in values and beliefs, and behavioral norms influence evaluation, treatment, and referral.

  4. Anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptom pathways to substance use problems among community women experiencing intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Jaquier, Véronique; Flanagan, Julianne C; Sullivan, Tami P

    2015-01-01

    Although intimate partner violence (IPV) has demonstrated strong associations with anxiety and posttraumatic stress, these constructs have rarely been examined simultaneously in IPV research. Gaps in knowledge remain as to their differential associations to substance use problems among IPV-victimized women. A sample of 143 community women self-reported on their current IPV victimization, mental health and substance use problems. Hierarchical entry multiple regressions were used to test for the direct and indirect effects of psychological, physical, and sexual IPV to alcohol and drug problems through anxiety and posttraumatic stress. Higher anxiety symptom severity and higher physical IPV severity were associated with greater alcohol and drug problems. Higher posttraumatic stress symptom severity was associated with greater alcohol and drug problems. Mediation analyses indicated (i) significant indirect pathways of IPV types to alcohol problems through posttraumatic stress symptom severity controlling for anxiety symptom severity and (ii) significant indirect pathways of IPV types to drug problems through anxiety symptom severity controlling for posttraumatic stress symptom severity. In examining the indirect pathways of psychological, physical, and sexual IPV to substance use problems this study highlights that anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptom severity have unique effects on alcohol and drug problems among IPV-victimized women.

  5. Posttraumatic stress and depression symptoms as correlates of deliberate self-harm among community women experiencing intimate partner violence

    PubMed Central

    Jaquier, Véronique; Hellmuth, Julianne C.; Sullivan, Tami P.

    2012-01-01

    Deliberate self-harm (DSH) among women in the general population is correlated separately with posttraumatic stress, depression, and abuse during childhood and adulthood. The prevalence of these DSH correlates is particularly high among women exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV), yet few studies have examined DSH among this high-risk population and none have examined these correlates simultaneously. 212 IPV-victimized women in the community participated in a 2-hour retrospective interview. One-third reported current or past DSH. Discriminant analysis was used to examine which posttraumatic stress and depression symptoms and types of current IPV and childhood abuse were uniquely associated with current DSH. Findings show that women who currently use DSH reported greater severity of posttraumatic stress numbing symptoms and more severe sexual IPV compared to women who used DSH only in the past. Examining factors that are associated with women’s current DSH in this population is critical so that a focus on DSH can be integrated into the treatment plans of women who are receiving mental health care, but also so that women who are not receiving such care can be referred to adequate mental health services PMID:23040795

  6. Mentor mother support for mothers experiencing intimate partner violence in family practice: A qualitative study of three different perspectives on the facilitators and barriers of implementation.

    PubMed

    Loeffen, Maartje J W; Daemen, Jasper; Wester, Fred P J F; Laurant, Miranda G H; Lo Fo Wong, Sylvie H; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M

    2017-12-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is highly prevalent and associated with physical and mental health problems. Mentor mother support is a low threshold intervention in family practice consisting of support by non-professionals trained to support mothers experiencing IPV. A mentor mother support study showed reduced exposure to IPV and decreased symptoms of depression. Identify factors determining implementation success of mentor mother support in family practice. Individual interviews were conducted with 12 family physicians, 16 abused mothers and three mentor mothers. Four mentor mothers participated in a focus group. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data. The identification and discussion of abuse is hindered by family physicians' attitudes because they considered mothers experiencing IPV as a difficult target group with a responsibility of their own to break out of their violent situation. Some family physicians doubted the partner's violence because he was known as a patient as well. Acceptance of mentor mother support is related to the readiness for change of mothers experiencing IPV. Mentor mothers facilitate acceptance and completion of their support by connecting as a friend who is equal and less threatening than professionals. To improve successful implementation of mentor mother support in primary care, we should focus on family physicians' attitudes towards IPV. To change these attitudes, we recommend continuous training of family physicians. By being paraprofessional friends, mentor mothers offer low threshold support that is complementary to professional support and should be embedded more widely in primary care. [Box: see text].

  7. Exploring risk of experiencing intimate partner violence after HIV infection: a qualitative study among women with HIV attending postnatal services in Swaziland

    PubMed Central

    Mulrenan, Claire; Colombini, Manuela; Kikuvi, Joshua; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore risks of experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) after HIV infection among women with HIV in a postnatal care setting in Swaziland. Design A qualitative semistructured in-depth interview study, using thematic analysis with deductive and inductive coding, of IPV experiences after HIV infection extracted from service-integration interview transcripts. Setting Swaziland. Participants 19 women with HIV, aged 18–44, were purposively sampled for an in-depth interview about their experiences of services, HIV and IPV from a quantitative postnatal cohort participating in an evaluation of HIV and reproductive health services integration in Swaziland. Results Results indicated that women were at risk of experiencing IPV after HIV infection, with 9 of 19 disclosing experiences of physical violence and/or coercive control post-HIV. IPV was initiated through two key pathways: (1) acute interpersonal triggers (eg, status disclosure, mother-to-child transmission of HIV) and (2) chronic normative tensions (eg, fertility intentions, initiating contraceptives). Conclusions The results highlight a need to mitigate the risk of IPV for women with HIV in shorter and longer terms in Swaziland. While broader changes are needed to resolve gender disparities, practical steps can be institutionalised within health facilities to reduce, or avoid increasing, IPV pathways for women with HIV. These might include mutual disclosure between partners, greater engagement of Swazi males with HIV services, and promoting positive masculinities that support and protect women. Trial registration number NCT01694862. PMID:25976760

  8. Intimate Partner Violence. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines intimate partner violence (IPV) as violence between two people in a close relationship, including current and former spouses and dating partners. IPV occurs on a continuum from a single episode to ongoing battering and can include physical violence, sexual violence, threats, emotional…

  9. Women's journey to safety - the Transtheoretical model in clinical practice when working with women experiencing Intimate Partner Violence: a scientific review and clinical guidance.

    PubMed

    Reisenhofer, Sonia; Taft, Angela

    2013-12-01

    Review the applicability of the Transtheoretical model and provide updated guidance for clinicians working with women experiencing intimate partner violence. Critical review of related primary research conducted from 1990 to March 2013. Women's experiences of creating change within abusive relationships can be located within a stages of change continuum by identifying dominant behavioral clusters. The processes of change and constructs of decisional-balance and turning-points are evident in women's decision-making when they engage in change. Clinicians can use the stages of change to provide a means of assessing women's movement toward their nominated outcomes, and the processes of change, decisional-balance and turning-points, to enhance understanding of, and promote women's movement across stages in their journey to safety. Clinicians should assess women individually for immediate and ongoing safety and well-being, and identify their overarching stage of change. Clinicians can support women in identifying and implementing their personal objectives to enhance self-efficacy and create positive change movement across stages. The three primary objectives identified for clinician support are: 1. Minimizing harm and promoting well-being within an abusive relationship, 2. Achieving safety and well-being within the relationship; halting the abuse, or 3. Achieving safety by ending/leaving intimate relationships. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Service Utilization, Perceived Changes of Self, and Life Satisfaction among Women Who Experienced Intimate Partner Abuse: The Mediation Effect of Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Li-yu

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the growth experiences of women abused by their intimate partner, specifically focusing on the associations between social services and empowerment, perceived changes of self, and life satisfaction. The potential effects of demographic variables, social support, coping, and experience of partner abuse were also explored. A…

  11. A rural shelter in Ontario adapting to address the changing needs of women who have experienced intimate partner violence: a qualitative case study.

    PubMed

    Mantler, Tara; Wolfe, Barat

    2017-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is a significant public health problem, with shelters offering the predominant community-based solution. Shelters in Canada are mandated to provide a safe place, protection planning, advocacy and counseling among other services. Recently it has been noted the role of the shelter was shifting from an inpatient to outpatient model with a focus on increased integration of health and social services. This changing role of the shelter is amplified within the rural context where resources and cultural norms may be limited or incompatible with help-seeking behaviors. Women's shelters located in rural settings provide services within a specific cultural context that can be at odds with the needs of women who have experienced abuse, because cultural values such as rural pride, lack of anonymity, and lack of services may inhibit access to health and social services. The purpose of this in-depth qualitative case study was to examine and explore how one rural Canadian women's shelter role was changing and how the shelter was adapting to achieve the changing role. The theoretical framework utilized was a feminist intersectional lens. Qualitative interviews (averaging 60 minutes) were conducted with shelter service providers (n=6) and women staying in the shelter or utilizing shelter services (n=4). Throughout semi-structured interviews, data-trustworthy steps were taken including member-checking and paraphrasing to ensure data were an accurate representation of participants' experiences. Inductive content analysis of all interviews and field notes was conducted independently by two researchers. Analysis revealed the shelter's role was changing to include filling gaps, case management, and system navigation. To achieve the changing role, relationship building, community mobilization (both education and empowerment), and redesigning delivery were implemented as adaptation strategies. Together both the changing role of the shelter and the

  12. Intimate partner violence among stigmatized Latina workers.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Esquer, Maria Eugenia; Diamond, Pamela M

    2013-09-01

    Latinas recently immigrated to the United States who work in bars or cantinas are at risk of experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) due to the heavy drinking and sex-related expectations associated with their work and the stigmatized nature of their occupation. We explored the influence of demographic characteristics, substance abuse, and sexual risk behaviors on IPV reported by cantineras for primary and nonprimary sexual partners. Results based on interviews conducted with 669 cantineras indicate that length of residency in the United States and current sexual practices predict IPV perpetrated by both their primary and nonprimary sexual partners. There were also partner-specific predictors of violence related to the substance use and working practices of cantineras. Our findings have implications for understanding the partner violence experienced by this subgroup of stigmatized Latina immigrants and for the ability of current IPV research to capture their experience.

  13. Community-based PTSD treatment for ethnically diverse women who experienced intimate partner violence: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ursula A; Pich, Kourou

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) Determine the feasibility of a community-based intervention for Latinas with PTSD who experienced IPV; (2) Explore the intervention effectiveness in reducing PTSD and improving quality of life, social support and self-efficacy. This was a feasibility study, using intervention pre-test/post-test qualitative and quantitative data. The experience of living through and surviving IPV was far more important than ethnicity in cultural identity. Significant reductions in PTSD and MDD and increased self-efficacy were sustained 6-months post-intervention. Culturally relevant mental health IPV interventions can be feasible and appropriate across ethnic groups.

  14. Where Did She Go? The Transformation of Self-Esteem, Self-Identity, and Mental Well-Being among Women Who Have Experienced Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Flora I; Daoud, Nihaya; Hamilton-Wright, Sarah; Borenstein, Heidi; Pedersen, Cheryl; O'Campo, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Discussions on intimate partner violence (IPV) often focus on physical abuse, ignoring psychological and sexual abuse and controlling behaviors. The damage of varied forms of IPV on mental well-being in its broader form have been far less explored, especially among low-income women. Our aim was to improve our understanding of self-perceptions of mental well-being among low-income women who have experienced IPV by considering a broader definition of mental well-being that includes self-esteem and self-identity as core components. Using qualitative methods, we present findings from in-depth interviews with 41 low-income women currently or recently experiencing abuse and housing instability. Women experienced varied types of violence (physical, sexual, emotional, psychological, social isolation, and controlling behaviors). Injuries resulting from physical abuse were viewed differently from those arising from emotional and psychological control. Physical injuries healed faster, whereas damage to self-esteem and identity lingered. The journey through and out of IPV is often marked by an initial erosion of sense of self (identity deconstruction) followed by the identity reconstruction through an extended process of change aimed at rebuilding self-esteem, mental well-being, self-efficacy, and ultimately self-identity. IPV-related training for physicians and allied health professionals should emphasize the varied nature of IPV and its impact on identity, self-esteem, and self-efficacy. Treatment should be holistic to address comorbid needs, including physical injury, mental health, and addiction problems. Consider supportive programs that integrate those living with or leaving IPV with women with past lived experience who can help women to understand the process of change and support this change in a nurturing setting. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pathways and trajectories linking housing instability and poor health among low-income women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV): Toward a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Daoud, Nihaya; Matheson, Flora I; Pedersen, Cheryl; Hamilton-Wright, Sarah; Minh, Anita; Zhang, Janice; O'Campo, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    We used grounded theory to understand pathways and trajectories to housing instability (HI) and poor health among low-income women with experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV). We conducted in-depth interviews during 2010-11 with forty-one women (ages 18-45 years) living in Ontario, Canada. All women reported depressive symptoms in combination with other health problems. In addition to the direct pathway of IPV to poor health, thematic analysis revealed an indirect multi-tiered pathway with complex trajectories among IPV, HI, and poor health. These trajectories included material HI (homelessness, high mobility, evictions, problems paying rent, hiding, and landlord discrimination), psychological HI (feeling unsafe, low self-esteem, and poor control), and social trajectories (financial problems, loss of employment, income, or social networks, and leaving school). These trajectories elevated stress and decreased self-care (unhealthy behaviors, substance abuse, and reduced medical compliance) and exacerbated poor health already compromised by IPV. Depending on her specific context, each woman experienced these pathways and trajectories differently. Moreover, the women's experiences differed across three time periods: before, immediately after, and long after leaving an abusive relationship. Finally, we found that for these women, achieving stable housing was crucial for stabilizing their health.

  16. The role of socioeconomic status in helpseeking from hotlines, shelters, and police among a national sample of women experiencing intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Lauren Bennett; DeLoveh, Heidi L M

    2008-10-01

    The role of socioeconomic status (SES) in the prevalence and course of intimate partner violence (IPV) has been established, but mechanisms of this role are less clear. An untested assumption has been that women of greater resources are better able to seek help. This study used a national sample of 1,077 women who had experienced IPV to explore the role of income and education in helpseeking from hotlines, shelters, and police. The authors found that SES did not play a large role in the use of hotlines, the least often used service in this study. Women with more income were less likely to use shelters and were less likely to feel they should have used them. There was an interaction between income and severity of violence in predicting police use, such that severity of violence only predicted calling police among higher income women. This finding suggests the possibility of a lower threshold for reporting violence among the lowest income women. The authors discuss the need for research using a more diverse sample of women, and the need to fine tune services according to our emerging understanding of social context.

  17. Screening and counselling in the primary care setting for women who have experienced intimate partner violence (WEAVE): a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hegarty, Kelsey; O'Doherty, Lorna; Taft, Angela; Chondros, Patty; Brown, Stephanie; Valpied, Jodie; Astbury, Jill; Taket, Ann; Gold, Lisa; Feder, Gene; Gunn, Jane

    2013-07-20

    allocated 52 doctors (and 272 women who were eligible for inclusion and returned their baseline survey) to either intervention (25 doctors, 137 women) or control (27 doctors, 135 women). 96 (70%) of 137 women in the intervention group (seeing 23 doctors) and 100 (74%) of 135 women in the control group (seeing 26 doctors) completed 12 month follow-up. We detected no difference in quality of life, safety planning and behaviour, or mental health SF-12 at 12 months. For secondary outcomes, we detected no between-group difference in anxiety at 12 months or comfort to discuss fear at 6 months, but depressiveness caseness at 12 months was improved in the intervention group compared with the control group (odds ratio 0·3, 0·1-0·7; p=0·005), as was doctor enquiry at 6 months about women's safety (5·1, 1·9-14·0; p=0·002) and children's safety (5·5, 1·6-19·0; p=0·008). We recorded no adverse events. Our findings can inform further research on brief counselling for women disclosing intimate partner violence in primary care settings, but do not lend support to the use of postal screening in the identification of those patients. However, we suggest that family doctors should be trained to ask about the safety of women and children, and to provide supportive counselling for women experiencing abuse, because our findings suggest that, although we detected no improvement in quality of life, counselling can reduce depressive symptoms. Australian National Health and Medical Research Council. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A tailored online safety and health intervention for women experiencing intimate partner violence: the iCAN Plan 4 Safety randomized controlled trial protocol.

    PubMed

    Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Varcoe, Colleen; Scott-Storey, Kelly; Wuest, Judith; Case, James; Currie, Leanne M; Glass, Nancy; Hodgins, Marilyn; MacMillan, Harriet; Perrin, Nancy; Wathen, C Nadine

    2017-03-21

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) threatens the safety and health of women worldwide. Safety planning is a widely recommended, evidence-based intervention for women experiencing IPV, yet fewer than 1 in 5 Canadian women access safety planning through domestic violence services. Rural, Indigenous, racialized, and immigrant women, those who prioritize their privacy, and/or women who have partners other than men, face unique safety risks and access barriers. Online IPV interventions tailored to the unique features of women's lives, and to maximize choice and control, have potential to reduce access barriers, and improve fit and inclusiveness, maximizing effectiveness of these interventions for diverse groups. In this double blind randomized controlled trial, 450 Canadian women who have experienced IPV in the previous 6 months will be randomized to either a tailored, interactive online safety and health intervention (iCAN Plan 4 Safety) or general online safety information (usual care). iCAN engages women in activities designed to increase their awareness of safety risks, reflect on their plans for their relationships and priorities, and create a personalize action plan of strategies and resources for addressing their safety and health concerns. Self-reported outcome measures will be collected at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months post-baseline. Primary outcomes are depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, Revised) and PTSD Symptoms (PTSD Checklist, Civilian Version). Secondary outcomes include helpful safety actions, safety planning self-efficacy, mastery, and decisional conflict. In-depth qualitative interviews with approximately 60 women who have completed the trial and website utilization data will be used to explore women's engagement with the intervention and processes of change. This trial will contribute timely evidence about the effectiveness of online safety and health interventions appropriate for diverse life contexts. If

  19. Intimate partner violence and mental health in Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Latin America has among the highest rates of intimate partner violence. While there is increasing evidence that intimate partner violence is associated with mental health problems, there is little such research for developing countries. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between Bolivian women’s experiences with physical, psychological, and sexual intimate partner violence and mental health outcomes. Methods This study analyzes data from the 2008 Bolivia Demographic and Health Survey. 10,119 married or cohabiting women ages 15–49 are included in the analysis. Probit regression models are used to assess the association between intimate partner violence and mental health, after controlling for other demographic factors and partner characteristics. The questionnaire uses selected questions from the SRQ-20 to measure symptoms of mental health problems. Results Intimate partner violence is common in Bolivia, with 47% of women experiencing some type of spousal abuse in the 12 months before the survey. Women exposed to physical spousal violence in the past year are more likely to experience symptoms of depression, anxiety, psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, and psychotic disorders, after controlling for other demographic and partner characteristics. Women who experienced sexual abuse by a partner are most likely to suffer from all mental health issues. Psychological abuse is also associated with an increased risk of experiencing symptoms of depression, anxiety, and psychogenic seizures. Women who experienced only psychological abuse report mental health problems similar to those who were physically abused. Conclusion This study demonstrates an urgent need for research on the prevalence and health consequences of psychological abuse in developing countries. Our findings highlight the need for mental health services for victims of intimate partner violence. Because physical and psychological violence are often experienced concurrently

  20. Employment Maintenance and Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Andrea; Lee, Rebecca C; Martsolf, Donna S; Maler, Jeff

    2016-05-18

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem in the United States. Negative outcomes of IPV affect women's attainment and maintenance of employment. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical framework that described and explained the process by which women who have experienced IPV attain and maintain employment. Grounded theory methodology was used to analyze interviews of 34 women who had experienced IPV. Analysis suggested that women who had experienced IPV could attain employment; however, they had difficulty maintaining employment. Entanglement of work and IPV was experienced by all 34 participants because of the perpetrator controlling their appearance, sabotaging their work, interfering with their work, or controlling their finances. Some women described ways in which they disentangled work from IPV through a dynamic unraveling process, with periods of re-entanglement, resulting in job security and satisfaction.

  1. Husband/Partner Intoxication and Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Kerridge, Bradley T; Tran, Phu

    2016-09-01

    This study examined husband/partner intoxication and experience with physical, sexual, and emotional intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) using data derived from a nationally representative survey conducted in the Philippines in 2013. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between intoxication and 3 different types of intimate partner violence against women. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine intoxication and severity of violence. In this sample, 28.8% of women reported experiencing any form of intimate partner violence and 92.9% of women reported their partner being intoxicated at least sometimes. Intoxication was significantly associated with all 3 types of intimate partner violence, while the odds of experiencing one form of IPVAW versus no form of IPVAW and 2 forms of IPVAW versus 1 form of IPVAW was greater among women reporting frequency of husband/partner intoxication as often. © 2016 APJPH.

  2. Intimate partner violence in African American women.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Doris Williams; Sharps, Phyllis W; Gary, Faye A; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Lopez, Loretta M

    2002-01-01

    Violence against African American women, specifically intimate partner abuse, has a significant impact on their health and well being. Intimate partner femicide and near fatal intimate partner femicide are the major causes of premature death and disabling injuries for African American women. Yet, despite this, there is a paucity of research and interventions specific and culturally relevant for these women. This article focuses on issues relevant to intimate partner violence and abuse against African American women by examining existing empirical studies of prevalence and health outcomes of intimate partner violence against women in general, plus what limited research there is about African American women, specifically. It includes a discussion of specific recommendations for research, practice, education, and policy to reduce and prevent intimate partner violence against African American women.

  3. Intimate partner violence against deaf female college students.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Melissa L; Leigh, Irene W

    2011-07-01

    It has been estimated that roughly 25% of all Deaf women in the United States are victims of intimate partner violence (Abused Deaf Women's Advocacy Services [ADWAS]), a figure similar to annual prevalence rates of 16% to 30% for intimate partners in the general population. One goal of the present study was to ascertain the prevalence of intimate partner violence victimization in a sample of Deaf female college students. When comparing the prevalence of physical assault, psychological aggression, and sexual coercion victimization to hearing female undergraduates, the current sample was approximately two times as likely to have experienced victimization in the past year.

  4. Dilemmas in intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Cook, Rebecca J; Dickens, Bernard M

    2009-07-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV), usually men's violence against women, appears universal. It may be associated with pregnancy, but this may be because pregnant women receive more medical attention. Violence may cause bruises, abrasions, and cuts, but its extremes include hospitalization, death, and suicide. IPV is often disclosed when women are asked why they feel in poor health or depressed. A legal dilemma arises when healthcare providers consider that intervention such as law-enforcement is appropriate, but patients refuse approval. Patients may fatalistically accept violence, or fear loss of support for their children and themselves if their partners are held in custody. Legal reforms, such as punishing spousal rape, may provide some protection of women's autonomy. Ethical dilemmas concern intervention without patients' approval, and whether treating violent injuries without taking preventive action breaches the principle to Do No Harm. Professional advocacy and social action have been urged to expose and reduce IPV.

  5. Help-seeking patterns among women experiencing intimate partner violence: do they forgo the criminal justice system if their adjudication wishes are not met?

    PubMed

    Cerulli, Catherine; Kothari, Catherine; Dichter, Melissa; Marcus, Steve; Kim, Tae Kuen; Wiley, Jim; Rhodes, Karin V

    2015-01-01

    Following a criminal case disposition, an intimate partner violence (IPV) victim's willingness to seek future police and prosecutorial assistance may depend on her prior experiences within the system. This longitudinal study examines the relationship between IPV victims' future help-seeking based on past experiences. We hypothesized women would return to the criminal justice system if their adjudication wishes corresponded with prosecutors' actions. Contrary to the hypothesis, results suggest women return to the criminal system and other venues even if prosecutors' actions do not correspond to their earlier stated wishes. This has important policy implications given pro-prosecution protocols that encourage adjudication regardless of a woman's participation.

  6. Intimate partner violence and pregnancy: screening and intervention.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Christian A; Bullock, Linda; Ferguson, James E Jef

    2017-08-01

    outcomes of pregnancy. Although there remains a lack of consensus regarding which screening tool may be the most effective, we exhort all obstetrician-gynecologists to screen all women for intimate partner violence at regular intervals and to familiarize themselves with available community resources to assist those women who have been identified as experiencing intimate partner violence through screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Trauma Symptoms among Infants Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogat, G. Anne; DeJonghe, Erika; Levendosky, Alytia A.; Davidson, William S.; von Eye, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether infants have a traumatic response to intimate partner violence (male violence toward their female partner; IPV) experienced by their mothers, two questions were explored: (1) Is the number of infant trauma symptoms related to the infant's temperament and the mother's mental health? (2) Does severity of violence…

  8. Desistance From Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Erica; Brown, Sarah; Sleath, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an international issue that social and criminal justice workers will encounter regularly. It has been identified that men can, and do stop using, or desist from, IPV although it is unclear how this process of change develops. This article introduces a conceptual model to outline how the process of desistance evolves and what it encompasses. Using thematic analysis of interview data from partner-violent men, survivors, and treatment facilitators, the resulting model demonstrates that the process of change is a dynamic one where men’s use of, and cessation from, violence needs to be understood within the context of each individual’s life. Three global themes were developed: (a) lifestyle behaviors (violent): what is happening in the men’s lives when they use violence; (b) catalysts for change: the triggers and transitions required to initiate the process of change; and (c) lifestyle behaviors (non-violent): what is different in the men’s lives when they have desisted from IPV. The purpose of this model is to offer a framework for service providers to assist them to manage the process of change in partner-violent men. PMID:25315483

  9. Perpetration and Victimization of Intimate Partner Aggression Among Rural Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Schwab Reese, Laura M.; Harland, Karisa; Smithart, Kelsey

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intimate partner aggression is a leading cause of injury among women of child-bearing age. Research suggests that pregnancy and the postpartum period are times of increased vulnerability to aggression. Since rural women are at an increased risk of intimate partner aggression, research is needed to examine the role of pregnancy and the presence of children on intimate partner aggression among this vulnerable population. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between young children and intimate partner aggression victimization and perpetration among a rural sample. This analysis utilized data from biologic females of child-bearing age from the Keokuk County Rural Health Study, a cohort study of over 1,000 rural families conducted from 1994 to 2011. Crude and adjusted logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between having a young child and experiencing four forms of intimate partner aggression: verbal aggression perpetration, verbal aggression victimization, physical aggression perpetration, and physical aggression victimization. Having young children was significantly associated with increased odds of perpetrating verbal aggression but not victimization of verbal aggression or perpetration and victimization of physical aggression. This significant relationship persisted after adjustment for education, employment, or location of residence but not age or marital status. The increased odds of perpetrating verbal aggression among mothers in a rural area highlight the need for interventions designed for rural parents. One method of reducing intimate partner aggression may be to incorporate intimate partner aggression prevention activities into existing child abuse intervention activities. PMID:27626037

  10. Screening for Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Paterno, Mary T; Draughon, Jessica E

    2016-05-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious concern for women that is associated with significant adverse health effects. Routine screening for IPV is recommended, but there are many barriers to screening that have been identified by providers, including discomfort, lack of training, and not knowing how to respond to a positive screen. This article reviews IPV screening and appropriate techniques for responding to a positive screen. IPV screening best practices include using a systematic protocol, developing a screening script, using a validated screening tool, and considerations for privacy and mandatory reporting. Responding to a positive screen should include acknowledging the experience, asking if the woman desires help, offering support and referrals, encouraging safety planning, and completing additional assessments to determine level of danger and to identify any comorbidities. Using these techniques along with therapeutic communication may increase IPV identification and create an environment in which women feel empowered to get help. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  11. Intimate Partner Violence during Pregnancy and Mothers' Child Abuse Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casanueva, Cecilia E.; Martin, Sandra L.

    2007-01-01

    This research examines whether women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy have a higher child abuse potential than women who have not experienced IPV. Data were analyzed from a longitudinal investigation of IPV during pregnancy. This study recruited 88 pregnant women during prenatal care and followed them for 1 1/2…

  12. Intimate Partner Violence during Pregnancy and Mothers' Child Abuse Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casanueva, Cecilia E.; Martin, Sandra L.

    2007-01-01

    This research examines whether women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy have a higher child abuse potential than women who have not experienced IPV. Data were analyzed from a longitudinal investigation of IPV during pregnancy. This study recruited 88 pregnant women during prenatal care and followed them for 1 1/2…

  13. Service utilization, perceived changes of self, and life satisfaction among women who experienced intimate partner abuse: the mediation effect of empowerment.

    PubMed

    Song, Li-Yu

    2012-04-01

    This study explored the growth experiences of women abused by their intimate partner, specifically focusing on the associations between social services and empowerment, perceived changes of self, and life satisfaction. The potential effects of demographic variables, social support, coping, and experience of partner abuse were also explored. A survey study was conducted through the collaboration of social workers in the Centers of Prevention and Intervention for Domestic Violence and private sectors in Taiwan. Through contact by their social workers, 191 participants completed the questionnaires. The results revealed that the participants had growth mainly in their psychological and interpersonal domains. The independent variables in the regression model explained 45.3% (adjusted) variance in perceived changes of self. In addition to empowerment and negative impact of violence, intensity of contact and professional relationship were two important service variables that directly and significantly correlated with perceived changes of self. A significant amount of variance (adjusted R² = .556) in life satisfaction could be explained by the independent variables. Social support and empowerment directly correlated with life satisfaction. The findings also supported the mediation effect of empowerment. Seven variables (e.g., social support, coping method, and professional relationship) indirectly associated with perceived changes of self and life satisfaction through empowerment.

  14. Women's experience of intimate partner violence in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Gage, Anastasia J

    2005-07-01

    This study examined individual, partner, and community characteristics associated with the occurrence of intimate partner violence among ever-married women of reproductive age, using data from the 2000 Haiti Demographic and Health Survey. Separate logistic regressions were analyzed to assess women's risks of experiencing emotional, physical and sexual violence and multiple forms of intimate partner violence in the past 12 months. Twenty-nine percent of women in the sample experienced some form of intimate partner violence in the past 12 months, with 13 percent having experienced at least two different forms of violence. Significant positive associations with all forms of violence were found for lack of completion of primary school, history of violence exposure in women's families of origin either through witnessing violence between parents while growing up or direct experience of physical violence perpetrated by family members, partner's jealousy, partner's need for control, partner's history of drunkenness, and female-dominated financial decision-making. Significant positive associations were found between men's physical abuse of children at the community level and women's risk of experiencing emotional and physical violence. Neighborhood poverty and male unemployment, number of children living at home, women's attitudinal acceptance of wife beating, and male-dominated financial decision-making were additional risk factors for sexual violence. Women's economic independence was a protective factor for emotional and physical violence, while relationship quality was protective for all forms of violence and multiple victimizations.

  15. 'Difficulties come to humans and not trees and they need to be faced': a study on resilience among Indian women experiencing intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Shanthakumari, R Shobitha; Chandra, Prabha S; Riazantseva, Ekaterina; Stewart, Donna E

    2014-11-01

    Not much is known about factors that contribute to resilience among women facing intimate partner violence (IPV), particularly from countries where patriarchy predominates. This qualitative study aimed to gather the perspectives of Indian women self-identified as resilient in the face of IPV and tried to understand the strategies and resources that helped them to maintain or regain resilience. Data were collected from 16 consenting women who reported IPV and whose husbands were being treated for alcohol problems at a psychiatric centre in Bangalore, India. A semi-structured guided interview format that aimed at understanding factors that enabled them to feel resilient despite IPV in their challenging circumstances was used to gather narratives from the participants. Six themes were identified using QSR NVivo software. They were as follows: the support of women, men and family; personal attributes; dignity and work; being strong for the children; and faith in God. Among these women, supportive social networks, personal attributes and aspirations were major clusters contributing to resilience. Attention to these factors may provide an important, strengths-based perspective for interventions to enhance women's resilience when facing IPV. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. The global prevalence of intimate partner homicide: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stöckl, Heidi; Devries, Karen; Rotstein, Alexandra; Abrahams, Naeemah; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Watts, Charlotte; Moreno, Claudia Garcia

    2013-09-07

    . Strategies to reduce homicide risk include increased investment in intimate partner violence prevention, risk assessments at different points of care, support for women experiencing intimate partner violence, and control of gun ownership for people with a history of violence. Improvements in country-level data collection and monitoring systems are also essential, because data availability and quality varied strongly across regions. WHO, Sigrid Rausing Trust, and the UK Economic and Social Research Council. Copyright © 2013 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd/Inc/BV. All rights reserved. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Identifying signs of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Ali, Parveen; McGarry, Julie; Dhingra, Katie

    2016-02-01

    Intimate partner violence is a major public health and social problem that affects people everywhere. Nurses can play an important role in identifying victims who present to healthcare settings with domestic abuse-related health issues. Evidence suggests that most women who present to emergency departments have experienced domestic abuse at some point in their lives, but that only 5% are identified by healthcare professionals. To identify and respond to victims effectively, emergency nurses must understand domestic abuse and its associated complexities. This article provides an overview of these issues, including the different types of abuse, and their prevalence, causes and effects on health. The article also explores how emergency nurses can identify and manage the effects of violence at work.

  18. Reclaiming Our Spirits: Development and Pilot Testing of a Health Promotion Intervention for Indigenous Women Who Have Experienced Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Varcoe, Colleen; Browne, Annette J; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Dion Stout, Madeleine; McKenzie, Holly; Price, Roberta; Bungay, Victoria; Smye, Victoria; Inyallie, Jane; Day, Linda; Khan, Koushambhi; Heino, Angela; Merritt-Gray, Marilyn

    2017-06-01

    Indigenous women are subjected to high rates of multiple forms of violence, including intimate partner violence (IPV), in the context of ongoing colonization and neo-colonization. Health promotion interventions for women who experience violence have not been tailored specifically for Indigenous women. Reclaiming Our Spirits (ROS) is a health promotion intervention designed for Indigenous women living in an urban context in Canada. In this paper, we describe the development of the intervention, results of a pilot study, and the revised subsequent intervention. Building on a theory-based health promotion intervention (iHEAL) showing promising results in feasibility studies, ROS was developed using a series of related approaches including (a) guidance from Indigenous women with research expertise specific to IPV and Indigenous women's experiences; (b) articulation of an Indigenous lens, including using Cree (one of the largest Indigenous language groups in North America) concepts to identify key aspects; and (c) interviews with Elders (n = 10) living in the study setting. Offered over 6-8 months, ROS consists of a Circle, led by an Indigenous Elder, and 1:1 visits with a Registered Nurse, focused on six areas for health promotion derived from previous research. Pilot testing with Indigenous women (n = 21) produced signs of improvement in most measures of health from pre- to post-intervention. Women found the pilot intervention acceptable and helpful but also offered valuable suggestions for improvement. A revised intervention, with greater structure within the Circle and nurses with stronger knowledge of Indigenous women's experience and community health, is currently undergoing testing. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Older Women and Intimate Partner Violence: Effective Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetterton, Summer; Farnsworth, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Women above the age of 60 who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) have specific needs compared with younger victims. More research is emerging that assists counselors and other helping professionals with identification of these needs and aids to promote the mental health and well-being of this population. Professionals must consider…

  20. A Content Analysis of Intimate Partner Violence Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Danica G.; Emelianchik, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    With approximately 30% of individuals of various cultural identities experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) in their lifetimes, it is imperative that professional counselors engage in effective assessment practices and be aware of the limitations of available IPV assessments. A content analysis of 38 IPV assessments was conducted, yielding…

  1. A Content Analysis of Intimate Partner Violence Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Danica G.; Emelianchik, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    With approximately 30% of individuals of various cultural identities experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) in their lifetimes, it is imperative that professional counselors engage in effective assessment practices and be aware of the limitations of available IPV assessments. A content analysis of 38 IPV assessments was conducted, yielding…

  2. Older Women and Intimate Partner Violence: Effective Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetterton, Summer; Farnsworth, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Women above the age of 60 who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) have specific needs compared with younger victims. More research is emerging that assists counselors and other helping professionals with identification of these needs and aids to promote the mental health and well-being of this population. Professionals must consider…

  3. Intimate partner violence - identification and response in general practice.

    PubMed

    Hegarty, Kelsey; O'Doherty, Lorna

    2011-11-01

    Intimate partner violence is a common problem among women attending general practice, with around one in 10 women currently experiencing physical, sexual or emotional abuse by a partner. Abused women frequently present with physical and psychosocial issues. Yet intimate partner violence often remains concealed and addressing it poses challenges for the clinician and patient alike. Although some of the general recommendations in this review may also apply to same-sex relationships and to women who abuse men, this article discusses identifying intimate partner violence in women who present to general practice. Identifying intimate partner violence is important in clinical practice as it underlies many common physical and mental health presentations. Facilitating disclosure and responding effectively requires good communication skills. Safety assessment of women and their families, pinpointing level of readiness to contemplate action, and providing appropriate referral options and ongoing nonjudgmental support are elements of an effective response. General practitioners have the potential to identify women and support them safely on a pathway to recovery, thereby avoiding the long term impacts of intimate partner violence.

  4. Intimate partner violence: psychological and verbal abuse during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Debono, Christie; Borg Xuereb, Rita; Scerri, Josianne; Camilleri, Liberato

    2017-08-01

    To examine the association between sociodemographic, pregnancy-related variables and psychological and verbal intimate partner abuse, as well as to determine which of these variables are predictors of psychological and verbal intimate partner abuse during pregnancy. Intimate partner violence is a significant health issue, with severe implications to both mother and foetus. However, much of the research to date focuses on the outcomes of physical abuse. This article addresses the dearth in the literature by examining the association between sociodemographic, pregnancy-related variables and psychological and verbal intimate partner abuse during pregnancy. A survey research design was used. Three hundred postnatal women were recruited by convenience, nonproportional quota sampling technique. The WHO Violence Against Women Instrument was self-administered by participants. The association between categorical variables was assessed using Pearson's chi-square test, the strength of association using Cramer's V and the phi coefficient, and the identification of predictor variables for psychological and verbal abuse using logistic regression analysis. Four predictors were identified for psychological abuse, namely low education level in women, an unplanned pregnancy, experiencing two or more pregnancy-related health problems and living with an unemployed partner. However, unemployment in women, an unplanned pregnancy, fear of partner and a low education level of partner were identified as the predictors of verbal abuse. This study identified a number of variables that strongly predict psychological and verbal intimate partner abuse during pregnancy; however, it extends the available literature by identifying a low standard of education in males, unemployment and fear of the intimate partner as the significant predictors of psychological and verbal intimate partner abuse. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the predictors predisposing pregnant women to abuse. This

  5. Intimate Partner Violence in Older Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonomi, Amy E.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Reid, Robert J.; Carrell, David; Fishman, Paul A.; Rivara, Frederick P.; Thompson, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We describe the prevalence, types, duration, frequency, and severity of intimate partner violence ("partner violence") in older women. Design and Methods: We randomly sampled a total of 370 English-speaking women (65 years of age and older) from a health care system to participate in a cross-sectional telephone interview. Using 5…

  6. Coping styles used by sexual minority men who experience intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Goldberg-Looney, Lisa D; Perrin, Paul B; Snipes, Daniel J; Calton, Jenna M

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the coping styles used by sexual minority men who have experienced intimate partner violence, including sexual, emotional and physical victimisation, as well as physical injury. Although sexual minority men experience intimate partner violence at least as often as do heterosexuals, there is currently limited knowledge of intimate partner violence in this community or resources for sexual minority men who experience intimate partner violence. Cross-sectional design. Sexual minority men (N = 89) were recruited as part of a national online survey and completed questionnaires assessing lifetime experiences of intimate partner violence as well as various coping strategies. In terms of intimate partner violence, 34·8% of participants reported having been targets of sexual abuse, 38·2% targets of physical abuse, 69·7% targets of psychological abuse and 28·1% had experienced an injury as a result of intimate partner violence during their lifetime. Canonical correlation analyses found that intimate partner violence victimisation explained 32·5% of the variance in adaptive and 31·4% of the variance in maladaptive coping behaviours. In the adaptive coping canonical correlation, standardised loadings suggested that sexual minority men who experienced intimate partner violence resulting in injury were more likely to use religious coping, but less likely to use planning coping. In the maladaptive coping canonical correlation, sexual minority men who had been targets of intimate partner sexual victimisation and intimate partner violence resulting in injury tended to engage in increased behavioural disengagement coping. This study revealed several coping behaviours that are more or less likely as the severity of different forms of intimate partner violence increases. The identification of these coping styles could be applied to the development and modification of evidence-based interventions to foster effective and discourage ineffective coping styles

  7. [Health status and intimate partner violence].

    PubMed

    Sanz-Barbero, Belén; Rey, Lourdes; Otero-García, Laura

    2014-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Spain in the last year and at some point during the lifetime, to determine health status in women according to whether they had experienced IPV or not, and to analyze the individual variables associated with IPV in Spain. A cross-sectional study was performed of the database, Macrosurvey on Gender Violence in Spain 2011. This database includes data on 7,898 women older than 18 years old. The dependent variables were IPV-last year, IPV-ever in life. Covariates consisted of sociodemographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, maternal experience of IPV, social support, and self-care. The measure of association used was the OR with its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). A total of 3.6% of women had experienced IPV-last year and 12.2% ever in life. Female victims of IPV had poorer health than women who had not experienced IPV. Immigrant women living in Spain for 6 years or more were more likely to experience IPV-ever in life than Spanish women [OR (95% CI): 1.95 (1.50, 2.53)]. An interaction was found between nationality and the existence of children under 18 years old. Among women with children under 18 years old, immigrant women were more likely to experience IPV-last year than Spanish women [OR (95% CI): 1.99 (1.25, 3.17)]. Other variables associated with IPV were age, low socioeconomic status, low social support and having a mother who had experienced IPV. In Spain, some women have a higher probability of experiencing IPV. The variables associated with greater vulnerability to IPV should be taken into account when implementing measures to prevent or alleviate IPV. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Witness of Intimate Partner Violence in Childhood and Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Andrea L.; Gilman, Stephen E.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett; Decker, Michele R.; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2011-01-01

    Background At least half a million women are victims of intimate partner violence in the United States annually, resulting in substantial harm. However, the etiology of violence to intimate partners is not well understood. Witnessing such violence in childhood has been proposed as a principal cause of adulthood perpetration, yet it remains unknown whether the association between witnessing intimate partner violence and adulthood perpetration is causal. Method We conducted a propensity-score analysis of intimate partner violence perpetration to determine whether childhood witnessing is associated with perpetration in adulthood, independent of a wide range of potential confounding variables, and therefore might be a causal factor. We used data from 14,564 U.S. men ages 20 and older from the 2004–2005 wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Results Nearly 4% of men reported violent behavior toward an intimate partner in the past year. In unadjusted models, we found a strong association between childhood witnessing of intimate partner violence and adulthood perpetration (for witnessing any intimate partner violence, risk ratio [RR] = 2.6 [95% confidence interval = 2.1–3.2]; for witnessing frequent or serious violence, 3.0 [2.3–3.9]). In propensity-score models, the association was substantially attenuated (for witnessing any intimate partner violence, adjusted RR = 1.6 [1.2–2.0]; for witnessing frequent or serious violence, 1.6 [1.2–2.3]). Conclusions Men who witness intimate partner violence in childhood are more likely to commit such acts in adulthood, compared with men who are otherwise similar with respect to a large range of potential confounders. Etiological models of intimate partner violence perpetration should consider a constellation of childhood factors. PMID:20811285

  9. Intimate partner violence and pregnancy intentions: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Baird, Kathleen; Creedy, Debra; Mitchell, Theresa

    2017-08-01

    In this qualitative study, we explored women's pregnancy intentions and experiences of intimate partner violence before, during and after pregnancy. Unintended pregnancies in the context of intimate partner violence can have serious health, social and economic consequences for women and their children. Feminist and phenomenological philosophies underpinned the study to gain a richer understanding of women's experiences. Eleven women who had been pregnant in the previous two years were recruited from community-based women's refuges in one region of the UK. Of the 11 women, eight had unplanned pregnancies, two reported being coerced into early motherhood, and only one woman had purposively planned her pregnancy. Multiple in-depth interviews focused on participants' accounts of living with intimate partner violence. Experiential data analysis was used to identify, analyse and highlight themes. Three major themes were identified: men's control of contraception, partner's indiscriminate response to the pregnancy and women's mixed feelings about the pregnancy. Participants reported limited influence over their sexual relationship and birth control. Feelings of vulnerability about themselves and fear for their unborn babies' safety were intensified by their partners' continued violence during pregnancy. Women experiencing intimate partner violence were more likely to have an unintended pregnancy. This could be attributed to male dominance and fear, which impacts on a woman's ability to manage her birth control options. The women's initial excitement about their pregnancy diminished in the face of uncertainty and ongoing violence within their relationship. Women experiencing violence lack choice in relation to birth control options leading to unintended pregnancies. Interpreting the findings from the victim-perpetrator interactive spin theory of intimate partner violence provides a possible framework for midwives and nurses to better understand and respond to women

  10. Intimate partner violence and health care costs and utilization for children living in the home.

    PubMed

    Rivara, Frederick P; Anderson, Melissa L; Fishman, Paul; Bonomi, Amy E; Reid, Robert J; Carrell, David; Thompson, Robert S

    2007-12-01

    The goal was to determine whether differences in health care costs and utilization exist for children whose mothers experienced intimate partner violence versus those who did not. A longitudinal cohort study was performed in an integrated health care delivery organization with 760 children of mothers with no history of intimate partner violence and 631 children of mothers with a history of intimate partner violence since age 18. Health care utilization and costs for children before, during, and after intimate partner violence exposure were compared with utilization and costs for children with nonabused mothers. Health care utilization and health care costs were higher in most categories of care for children of mothers with a history of intimate partner violence, with significantly higher values for mental health services, primary care visits, primary care costs, and laboratory costs. Children of mothers with a history of intimate partner violence that ended before the child was born had significantly greater utilization of mental health, primary care, specialty care, and pharmacy services than did children of mothers who reported no intimate partner violence. Children exposed directly to intimate partner violence (after birth) had greater emergency department and primary care use during the intimate partner violence and were 3 times as likely to use mental health services after the intimate partner violence ended. Children whose mothers experienced intimate partner violence have higher health care utilization and costs, even if their mothers' abuse stopped before they were born. Screening of women for intimate partner violence should be a routine part of their health care, and interventions for both the women and their children are likely necessary to minimize the effects of intimate partner violence in the family.

  11. Infusing Technology Into Perinatal Home Visitation in the United States for Women Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence: Exploring the Interpretive Flexibility of an mHealth Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Bullock, Linda; Sharps, Phyllis; Burnett, Camille; Schminkey, Donna L; Buller, Ana Maria; Campbell, Jacquelyn

    2016-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is common during pregnancy and the postpartum. Perinatal home visitation provides favorable conditions in which to identify and support women affected by IPV. However, the use of mHealth for delivering IPV interventions in perinatal home visiting has not been explored. Objective Our objective was to conduct a nested qualitative interpretive study to explore perinatal home visitors’ and women’s perceptions and experiences of the Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation Program (DOVE) using mHealth technology (ie, a computer tablet) or a home visitor-administered, paper-based method. Methods We used purposive sampling, using maximum variation, to select women enrolled in a US-based randomized controlled trial of the DOVE intervention for semistructured interviews. Selection criteria were discussed with the trial research team and 32 women were invited to participate. We invited 45 home visitors at the 8 study sites to participate in an interview, along with the 2 DOVE program designers. Nonparticipant observations of home visits with trial participants who chose not to participate in semistructured interviews were undertaken. Results We conducted 51 interviews with 26 women, 23 home visiting staff at rural and urban sites, and the 2 DOVE program designers. We conducted 4 nonparticipant observations. Among 18 IPV-positive women, 7 used the computer tablet and 11 used the home visitor method. Among 8 IPV-negative women, 7 used the home visitor method. The computer tablet was viewed as a safe and confidential way for abused women to disclose their experiences without fear of being judged. The meanings that the DOVE technology held for home visitors and women led to its construction as either an impersonal artifact that was an impediment to discussion of IPV or a conduit through which interpersonal connection could be deepened, thereby facilitating discussion about IPV. Women’s and home visitors’ comfort with either

  12. Infusing Technology Into Perinatal Home Visitation in the United States for Women Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence: Exploring the Interpretive Flexibility of an mHealth Intervention.

    PubMed

    Bacchus, Loraine J; Bullock, Linda; Sharps, Phyllis; Burnett, Camille; Schminkey, Donna L; Buller, Ana Maria; Campbell, Jacquelyn

    2016-11-17

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is common during pregnancy and the postpartum. Perinatal home visitation provides favorable conditions in which to identify and support women affected by IPV. However, the use of mHealth for delivering IPV interventions in perinatal home visiting has not been explored. Our objective was to conduct a nested qualitative interpretive study to explore perinatal home visitors' and women's perceptions and experiences of the Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation Program (DOVE) using mHealth technology (ie, a computer tablet) or a home visitor-administered, paper-based method. We used purposive sampling, using maximum variation, to select women enrolled in a US-based randomized controlled trial of the DOVE intervention for semistructured interviews. Selection criteria were discussed with the trial research team and 32 women were invited to participate. We invited 45 home visitors at the 8 study sites to participate in an interview, along with the 2 DOVE program designers. Nonparticipant observations of home visits with trial participants who chose not to participate in semistructured interviews were undertaken. We conducted 51 interviews with 26 women, 23 home visiting staff at rural and urban sites, and the 2 DOVE program designers. We conducted 4 nonparticipant observations. Among 18 IPV-positive women, 7 used the computer tablet and 11 used the home visitor method. Among 8 IPV-negative women, 7 used the home visitor method. The computer tablet was viewed as a safe and confidential way for abused women to disclose their experiences without fear of being judged. The meanings that the DOVE technology held for home visitors and women led to its construction as either an impersonal artifact that was an impediment to discussion of IPV or a conduit through which interpersonal connection could be deepened, thereby facilitating discussion about IPV. Women's and home visitors' comfort with either method of screening was positively influenced

  13. Gender symmetry, sexism, and intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Allen, Christopher T; Swan, Suzanne C; Raghavan, Chitra

    2009-11-01

    This study of a predominantly Hispanic sample of 92 male and 140 female college students examines both gender symmetry in intimate partner violence (IPV) and inconsistent relationships found in previous studies between sexist attitudes and IPV. Results indicate that although comparable numbers of men and women perpetrate and are victimized in their relationships with intimate partners, the path models suggest that women's violence tends to be in reaction to male violence, whereas men tend to initiate violence and then their partners respond with violence. Benevolent sexism was shown to have a protective effect against men's violence toward partners. Findings highlight the importance of studying women's violence not only in the context of men's violence but also within a broader sociocultural context.

  14. Promoting Distributive Justice for Intimate Partner Violence Survivors with Group Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronister, Krista M.; Davidson, M. Meghan

    2010-01-01

    Advancing Career Counseling and Employment Support for Survivors (ACCESS; Chronister, 2006) is a group intervention designed to foster the career development of women who have experienced intimate partner violence. The ACCESS curriculum is based on theory and research from multiple disciplines including intimate partner violence, counseling, and…

  15. Adolescent Risk for Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration.

    PubMed

    Smith, Carolyn A; Greenman, Sarah J; Thornberry, Terence P; Henry, Kimberly L; Ireland, Timothy O

    2015-08-01

    The prevention of intimate partner violence is a desirable individual and public health goal for society. The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive assessment of adolescent risk factors for partner violence in order to inform the development of evidence-based prevention strategies. We utilize data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a two decade long prospective study of a representative community sample of 1000 participants that has extensive measures of adolescent characteristics, contexts, and behaviors that are potential precursors of partner violence. Using a developmental psychopathology framework, we assess self-reported partner violence perpetration in emerging adulthood (ages 20-22) and in adulthood (ages 29-30) utilizing the Conflict Tactics Scale. Our results indicate that risk factors for intimate partner violence span several developmental domains and are substantially similar for both genders. Internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors as well as early intimate relationships are especially salient for both genders. Additionally, cumulative risk across a number of developmental domains places adolescents at particularly high risk of perpetrating partner violence. Implications for prevention include extending existing prevention programs that focus on high risk groups with multiple risks for developmental disruption, as well as focusing on preventing or mitigating identified risk factors across both genders.

  16. Risk Recognition and Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, Tricia H.; Kendra, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether female victims of physical forms of intimate partner violence (IPV) displayed deficits in risk recognition, or the ability to detect danger, in physically violent dating encounters. A total of 182 women watched a video depicting a psychologically and physically aggressive encounter between…

  17. Risk Recognition and Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, Tricia H.; Kendra, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether female victims of physical forms of intimate partner violence (IPV) displayed deficits in risk recognition, or the ability to detect danger, in physically violent dating encounters. A total of 182 women watched a video depicting a psychologically and physically aggressive encounter between…

  18. Subtyping Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Katherine A.; Westen, Drew

    2011-01-01

    Domestic violence is a serious problem with far-reaching consequences. This study applies a new methodology to derive subtypes of male perpetrators of intimate partner violence. As part of a larger National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded study, a national sample of randomly selected psychologists and psychiatrists describe 188 adult male…

  19. Physical Health Effects of Intimate Partner Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillito, Carrie LeFevre

    2012-01-01

    Although intimate partner violence has been recognized as both a social problem and health issue, the extent to which it is a health issue for both males and females in the general population is largely unknown. This longitudinal research uses data from the National Survey of Family and Households (1987-2003). Random effects logistic regression…

  20. Gender Symmetry, Sexism, and Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Christopher T.; Swan, Suzanne C.; Raghavan, Chitra

    2009-01-01

    This study of a predominantly Hispanic sample of 92 male and 140 female college students examines both gender symmetry in intimate partner violence (IPV) and inconsistent relationships found in previous studies between sexist attitudes and IPV. Results indicate that although comparable numbers of men and women perpetrate and are victimized in…

  1. Subtyping Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Katherine A.; Westen, Drew

    2011-01-01

    Domestic violence is a serious problem with far-reaching consequences. This study applies a new methodology to derive subtypes of male perpetrators of intimate partner violence. As part of a larger National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded study, a national sample of randomly selected psychologists and psychiatrists describe 188 adult male…

  2. Physical Health Effects of Intimate Partner Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillito, Carrie LeFevre

    2012-01-01

    Although intimate partner violence has been recognized as both a social problem and health issue, the extent to which it is a health issue for both males and females in the general population is largely unknown. This longitudinal research uses data from the National Survey of Family and Households (1987-2003). Random effects logistic regression…

  3. Gender Symmetry, Sexism, and Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Christopher T.; Swan, Suzanne C.; Raghavan, Chitra

    2009-01-01

    This study of a predominantly Hispanic sample of 92 male and 140 female college students examines both gender symmetry in intimate partner violence (IPV) and inconsistent relationships found in previous studies between sexist attitudes and IPV. Results indicate that although comparable numbers of men and women perpetrate and are victimized in…

  4. Intimate partner aggression and women's work outcomes.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Manon Mireille; Barling, Julian; Turner, Nick

    2014-10-01

    Using conservation of resources theory, we examined the relationship between intimate partner aggression enacted against heterosexual women and 3 types of work-related outcomes for these women: withdrawal while at work (i.e., cognitive distraction, work neglect), withdrawal from work (i.e., partial absenteeism, intentions to quit), and performance. In Study 1, we compared withdrawal both at and from work across 3 clinically categorized groups of women (n = 50), showing that experiencing physical aggression is related to higher work neglect. We replicated and extended these findings in Study 2 using a community sample of employed women (n = 249) by considering the incremental variance explained by both physical aggression and psychological aggression on these same outcomes. Results showed that physical aggression predicted higher levels of withdrawal both at and from work, with psychological aggression predicting additional variance in partial absenteeism over and above the effects of physical aggression. Study 3 extended the model to include academic performance as an outcome in a sample of female college students (n = 122) in dating relationships. Controlling for the women's conscientiousness, psychological aggression predicted lower academic performance after accounting for the effects of physical aggression. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these results, as well as directions for future research.

  5. Women's expectations of healthcare professionals in case of intimate partner violence in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Djikanovic, Bosiljka; Lo Fo Wong, Sylvie; Stevanovic, Snezana; Celik, Halime; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine

    2011-11-01

    Women who have experienced intimate partner violence use health care services more often than non-abused women, but it is unclear what they expect from physicians in relation to their intimate partner violence experience. In this study the authors explored whether women in Serbia expect physicians to help them after having experienced intimate partner violence, what kind of help the women expected, and if none, why none is expected. The authors of this study conducted structured interviews with 120 women who visited six primary healthcare centres. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, while qualitative data were analyzed applying content analyses. The majority of women (81.7%) expected healthcare professionals to help them in the event of intimate partner violence, mainly through giving advice, information, contacting other institutions, services, and providing understanding and support. Fewer women expected help in the form of documenting violence and contacting police. Only a minority (8.3%) did not expect help, noting that intimate partner violence is beyond the scope of healthcare professionals' interest or competencies, and/or that violence was a private problem, while 10% were unsure about the role of physicians in the case of intimate partner violence. The majority of women in this study expected help with intimate partner violence. Physicians should be aware of these expectations and how to provide support to women experiencing intimate partner violence.

  6. Intimate partner violence and housing instability.

    PubMed

    Pavao, Joanne; Alvarez, Jennifer; Baumrind, Nikki; Induni, Marta; Kimerling, Rachel

    2007-02-01

    The mental and physical health consequences of intimate partner violence (IPV) have been well established, yet little is known about the impact of violence on a woman's ability to obtain and maintain housing. This cross-sectional study examines the relationship between recent IPV and housing instability among a representative sample of California women. It is expected that women who have experienced IPV will be at increased risk for housing instability as evidenced by: (1) late rent or mortgage, (2) frequent moves because of difficulty obtaining affordable housing, and/or (3) without their own housing. Data were taken from the 2003 California Women's Health Survey, a population-based, random-digit-dial, annual probability survey of adult California women (N=3619). Logistic regressions were used to predict housing instability in the past 12 months, adjusting for the following covariates; age, race/ethnicity, education, poverty status, marital status, children in the household, and past year IPV. In the multivariate model, age, race/ethnicity, marital status, poverty, and IPV were significant predictors of housing instability. After adjusting for all covariates, women who experienced IPV in the last year had almost four times the odds of reporting housing instability than women who did not experience IPV (adjusted odds ratio=3.98, 95% confidence interval: 2.94-5.39). This study found that IPV was associated with housing instability among California women. Future prospective studies are needed to learn more about the nature and direction of the relationship between IPV and housing instability and the possible associated negative health consequences.

  7. Does powerlessness explain the relationship between intimate partner violence and depression?

    PubMed

    Filson, Jennifer; Ulloa, Emilio; Runfola, Cristin; Hokoda, Audrey

    2010-03-01

    The current study aimed to test whether relationship power could act as a mediator of the relationship between intimate partner violence and depression. The proposed mediation model was based on the theory of gender and power and on previous research of intimate partner violence and depression. Survey results from a sample of 327 single undergraduate women lent support to the hypothesis stating that relationship power accounts for some of the association between intimate partner violence and depression. Results revealed that women who felt powerless had higher rates of intimate violence victimization and higher levels of depression; a mediation analysis revealed that sexual relationship power mediated the relationship between intimate partner violence and depression. Future interventions targeting the prevention of intimate partner violence among young women may want to utilize an empowerment approach to decrease their likelihood of experiencing dating violence victimization and their subsequent risk for depression.

  8. Predictors of intimate partner problem-related suicides among suicide decedents in Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Comiford, Ashley L; Sanderson, Wayne T; Chesnut, Lorie; Brown, Sabrina

    2016-07-01

    Suicide is the 10th leading cause of death in the United States. Furthermore, intimate partner problems are amid the top precipitating circumstances among suicide decedents. The aim of this study was to determine circumstantial associations of intimate partner problem-related suicides in suicide decedents in Kentucky. All suicides that were reported to the Kentucky Violent Death Reporting System between 2005 and 2012 were eligible for this study. Multiple logistic regression was used to explore predictors (precipitating health-related problems, life stressors, and criminal/legal issues) of intimate partner problem-related suicides. Of the 4,754 suicides, included in this study, approximately 17% had intimate partner problems prior to suicide. In the adjusted analysis, mental health issues, alcohol problems, history of suicides attempts, suicides precipitated by another crime, and other legal problems increased the odds of having an intimate partner-related suicide. However, having physical health problems, prior to the suicide, decreased the odds of intimate partner-related suicide. These results provide insight for the development of suicide interventions for individuals with intimate partner problems by targeting risk factors that are prevalent among this population. Moreover, these results may help marriage/relationship and/or family/divorce court representatives identify individuals with intimate partner problems more at risk for suicide and alleviate the influence these suicide risk factors have on individuals experiencing Intimate partner problems. © 2016 KUMS, All rights reserved.

  9. Predictors of intimate partner problem-related suicides among suicide decedents in Kentucky

    PubMed Central

    Comiford, Ashley L.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Chesnut, Lorie; Brown, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Suicide is the 10th leading cause of death in the United States. Furthermore, intimate partner problems are amid the top precipitating circumstances among suicide decedents. The aim of this study was to determine circumstantial associations of intimate partner problem-related suicides in suicide decedents in Kentucky. Methods: All suicides that were reported to the Kentucky Violent Death Reporting System between 2005 and 2012 were eligible for this study. Multiple logistic regression was used to explore predictors (precipitating health-related problems, life stressors, and criminal/legal issues) of intimate partner problem-related suicides. Results: Of the 4,754 suicides, included in this study, approximately 17% had intimate partner problems prior to suicide. In the adjusted analysis, mental health issues, alcohol problems, history of suicides attempts, suicides precipitated by another crime, and other legal problems increased the odds of having an intimate partner-related suicide. However, having physical health problems, prior to the suicide, decreased the odds of intimate partner-related suicide. Conclusions: These results provide insight for the development of suicide interventions for individuals with intimate partner problems by targeting risk factors that are prevalent among this population. Moreover, these results may help marriage/relationship and/or family/divorce court representatives identify individuals with intimate partner problems more at risk for suicide and alleviate the influence these suicide risk factors have on individuals experiencing Intimate partner problems. PMID:27092956

  10. Current Reports on Perinatal Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Donna E; Vigod, Simone N; MacMillan, Harriet L; Chandra, Prabha S; Han, Alice; Rondon, Marta B; MacGregor, Jennifer C D; Riazantseva, Ekaterina

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the literature on perinatal intimate partner violence, focusing on recent knowledge to guide mental health professionals on the best approaches to identify and treat women exposed to perinatal intimate partner violence. Risk factors have been broadened from individual victim and perpetrator factors to include relationship, community, and societal factors which interact together. Better information is now available on how to identify, document, and treat women exposed to violence around the time of conception, pregnancy, and the postpartum period. Recent information helps psychiatrists and other mental health professionals assist women exposed to violence related to the perinatal period; however, further research is needed to provide improved evidence for optimal interventions for better patient outcomes.

  11. Mental Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Mechanic, Mindy B.; Weaver, Terri L.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    Battered women are exposed to multiple forms of intimate partner abuse. This article explores the independent contributions of physical violence, sexual coercion, psychological abuse, and stalking on symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among a sample of 413 severely battered, help-seeking women. The authors test the unique effects of psychological abuse and stalking on mental health outcomes, after controlling for physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Mean scores for the sample fall into the moderate to severe range for PTSD and within the moderate category for depression scores. Hierarchical regressions test the unique effects of stalking and psychological abuse, after controlling for physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Psychological abuse and stalking contribute uniquely to the prediction of PTSD and depression symptoms, even after controlling for the effects of physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Results highlight the importance of examining multiple dimensions of intimate partner abuse. PMID:18535306

  12. [Profile of gender violence by intimate partners].

    PubMed

    Kronbauer, José Fernando Dresch; Meneghel, Stela Nazareth

    2005-10-01

    To investigate the prevalence and profile of gender violence (physical, psychological, and sexual) perpetrated against women by current or former intimate partners. This is a cross-sectional study carried out at a primary healthcare unit in the city of Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. Our sample comprised 251 women aged 18-49 years who attended the healthcare unit between October and November 2003. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and double-entered into a electronic spreadsheet. We carried out univariate and bivariate analyses and the chi-square test. The prevalence of the three types of violence were: psychological (55%, 95% CI: 49-61), physical (38%; 95% CI: 32-44), and sexual (8%; 95% CI: 5-11). Variables significantly associated with the three types of violence included woman's age (psychological: p=0.004), woman's schooling (psychological and physical; p=0.012 and 0.023, respectively), partner's schooling (p=0.004, 0.000), social class (p=0.006, 0.000), years with partner (p=0.006, 0.005), partner's occupation (p=0.015, 0.001), number of pregnancies (p=0.018, 0.037), and prevalence of minor psychiatric disorders (p=0.000, 0.000). The present study found high prevalences of gender violence perpetrated by intimate partners among the users of a primary healthcare unit. Such units play an important role in preventing violence against women.

  13. Understanding intimate partner violence and its correlates.

    PubMed

    Ramadugu, Shashikumar; Jayaram, Prasad V; Srivastava, Kalpana; Chatterjee, Kaushik; Madhusudan, T

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed intimate partner violence (IPV) and alcohol use in an urban population in Pune, India. The prevalence of IPV and alcohol use was assessed along with the correlation of IPV with alcohol and other variables. The study was cross-sectional, questionnaire-based. The materials used were the hurt insult threaten scream (HITS) scale, the alcohol use disorders identification test, and a brief psychosocial questionnaire. Systematic random sampling was done on the target population. Regression analysis of various factors in relation to HITS score was done. Sample size (n) was 318 individuals. Prevalence of IPV was found to be 16% and the victims were mostly women. Prevalence of alcohol use was 44%, of which 8.9% were harmful users. No female subjects consumed alcohol, but 94% were aware of their husband's alcohol consumption. No significant correlation was found between IPV and education (P = 0.220) or income of women (P = 0.250). Alcohol consumption by males was a significant risk factor for women experiencing IPV (σ = +0.524; P< 0.001). Regression analysis also revealed that increasing marital age (P = 0.019) and financial support from in-laws (P = 0.040) were significantly protective. IPV prevalence was less than the national average for India, but the majority of victims was women. The most common type of IPV was verbal. Alcohol use prevalence was higher than the national average, but harmful use was lower. Alcohol use is a significant risk factor for IPV. Education and income of women were not significantly protective against IPV but increased age at marriage and support from in-laws were.

  14. Understanding intimate partner violence and its correlates

    PubMed Central

    Ramadugu, Shashikumar; Jayaram, Prasad V.; Srivastava, Kalpana; Chatterjee, Kaushik; Madhusudan, T.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study assessed intimate partner violence (IPV) and alcohol use in an urban population in Pune, India. The prevalence of IPV and alcohol use was assessed along with the correlation of IPV with alcohol and other variables. Materials and Methods: The study was cross-sectional, questionnaire-based. The materials used were the hurt insult threaten scream (HITS) scale, the alcohol use disorders identification test, and a brief psychosocial questionnaire. Systematic random sampling was done on the target population. Regression analysis of various factors in relation to HITS score was done. Results: Sample size (n) was 318 individuals. Prevalence of IPV was found to be 16% and the victims were mostly women. Prevalence of alcohol use was 44%, of which 8.9% were harmful users. No female subjects consumed alcohol, but 94% were aware of their husband's alcohol consumption. No significant correlation was found between IPV and education (P = 0.220) or income of women (P = 0.250). Alcohol consumption by males was a significant risk factor for women experiencing IPV (σ = +0.524; P< 0.001). Regression analysis also revealed that increasing marital age (P = 0.019) and financial support from in-laws (P = 0.040) were significantly protective. Conclusion: IPV prevalence was less than the national average for India, but the majority of victims was women. The most common type of IPV was verbal. Alcohol use prevalence was higher than the national average, but harmful use was lower. Alcohol use is a significant risk factor for IPV. Education and income of women were not significantly protective against IPV but increased age at marriage and support from in-laws were. PMID:27212823

  15. Iranian Women's Experiences with Intimate Partner Violence: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Taherkhani, Sakineh; Negarandeh, Reza; Simbar, Masomeh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2014-01-01

    Violence against women has been identified as a public health problem, which has fundamental consequences on women's physical, mental, and reproductive health. To understand abused women and provide support for them, it is necessary to enter the world in which the victims of intimate partner violence live. This study was designed to investigate experiences of abused Iranian women of intimate partner violence. Content analysis approach was used to design this qualitative study. Participants were 11 married women, selected from two health centers and one park located in the south of Tehran, Iran. Purposive sampling method was applied to recruit the study participants and continued until data saturation was reached. Semi-structured interviews were employed to collect data. During the data analysis, 650 initial codes were clustered in six subcategories and two categories. "Neglect or covert violence" and "overt violence" were two categories emerged through data analysis, both having physical, sexual, and emotional dimensions. Emotional violence was the most prevalent in both cases and had more significance for the women. Neglect was much more common than overt violence. It was the precursor for overt violence. Although participants had experienced both neglect and overt violence, the major part of experienced violence was neglect. This type of violence usually is not addressed or recognized and is difficult to identify, but it is damaging to women. Knowledge of women‟s experiences of intimate partner violence makes the health staff provide better care for abused women.

  16. Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence Among an Abortion Clinic Population

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Anne B.; Shochet, Tara; Harland, Karisa K.; Dickey, Penny; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    In this cross-sectional, clinic-based study, we estimated 1-year prevalence of intimate partner violence among 986 patients who had elective abortions. We assessed physical, sexual, and battering intimate partner violence via self-administered, computer-based questionnaires. Overall, physical and sexual intimate partner violence prevalence was 9.9% and 2.5%, respectively; 8.4% of those in a current relationship reported battering. Former partners perpetrated more physical and sexual assaults than did current partners. Violence severity increased with frequency. Abortion patients experience high intimate partner violence rates, indicating the need for targeted screening and community-based referral. PMID:20558796

  17. Young women who commit intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Pape, Hilde

    2011-10-18

    Only limited research has been undertaken on women who commit intimate partner violence (IPV). In this study I investigate how the abusive behaviour of young women towards their partners is correlated with characteristics of the relationship and with aggressiveness more generally. Furthermore, I investigate the assumption that the violence is mostly motivated by self-defence. The analyses are based on a nationwide longitudinal study of the normal population. Data on IPV were collected when the women were 20 - 25 years old. Of the 1 250 women who had been in a relationship during the last six months, a total of 114 (9 per cent) had slapped their partner during the same period, while 70 (6 per cent) had hit, kicked or bitten. Altogether 77 (6 per cent) reported that they (and not their partner) had acted violently in this manner, whereas 68 (5 per cent) responded that the attacks had been reciprocal. Perpetration of IPV correlated with other forms of destructive interaction with the partner. Nevertheless, a majority of those women who had acted violently were satisfied with the relationship. Aggression-related personality traits and acting-out behaviour during the teens were both related to perpetration of IPV. Young women who act violently towards their partners tend to be more aggressive than women in general, and are in many cases the only physically aggressive partner in the relationship. The study does not corroborate the assumption that selfdefence is the main motivation for women's perpetration of IPV. The results should be seen in light of the reservation that surveys of the normal population only to a limited extent capture really serious violence in intimate relationships.

  18. Intimate Partner Violence and Belief Systems in Liberia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Mary; Devitt, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is endemic in parts of the African continent. A small scale survey (n = 229) was conducted in 2009 in Northern Liberia, West Africa, to determine the prevalence and nature of intimate partner violence, and the cultural beliefs and gender norms that underpin respondent experiences and views towards intimate partner…

  19. Intimate Partner Violence and Belief Systems in Liberia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Mary; Devitt, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is endemic in parts of the African continent. A small scale survey (n = 229) was conducted in 2009 in Northern Liberia, West Africa, to determine the prevalence and nature of intimate partner violence, and the cultural beliefs and gender norms that underpin respondent experiences and views towards intimate partner…

  20. Intimate Partner Violence: The Lived Experience of Single Women.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Laura; Scott-Tilley, Donna

    2017-03-01

    Research in intimate partner violence has focused on married, cohabiting, adolescents, or college aged women. The experience of intimate partner violence by single women has not been studied separately from other groups of women. An interpretive phenomenological approach was used with feminist inquiry to gain insight into the experience of intimate partner violence by single women. The overarching theme was control and manipulation by the abuser. Subthemes included not feeling safe, poor communication skills, and caretaking. Nurses need to be aware of the occurrence of intimate partner violence in male and female partnered relationships to provide comprehensive and nonjudgmental care.

  1. Intimate partner violence after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Roumayne Fernandes Vieira; Araújo, Maria Alix Leite; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Reis, Cláudia Bastos Silveira; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fortaleza, CE, Northeastern Brazil, in 2012 and involved 221 individuals (40.3% male and 59.7% female) attended to at reference health care units for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Data were collected using a questionnaire applied during interviews with each participant. A multivariate analysis with a logistic regression model was conducted using the stepwise technique. Only the variables with a p value < 0.05 were included in the adjusted analysis. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used as the measure of effect. RESULTS A total of 30.3% of the participants reported experiencing some type of violence (27.6%, psychological; 5.9%, physical; and 7.2%, sexual) after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease. In the multivariate analysis adjusted to assess intimate partner violence after the revelation of the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases, the following variables remained statistically significant: extramarital relations (OR = 3.72; 95%CI 1.91;7.26; p = 0.000), alcohol consumption by the partner (OR = 2.16; 95%CI 1.08;4.33; p = 0.026), history of violence prior to diagnosis (OR = 2.87; 95%CI 1.44;5.69; p = 0.003), and fear of disclosing the diagnosis to the partner (OR = 2.66; 95%CI 1.32;5.32; p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS Individuals who had extramarital relations, experienced violence prior to the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease, feared disclosing the diagnosis to the partner, and those whose partner consumed alcohol had an increased likelihood of suffering violence. The high prevalence of intimate partner violence suggests that this population is vulnerable and therefore intervention efforts should be directed to them. Referral health care services for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases can be strategic

  2. Intimate partner violence after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Roumayne Fernandes Vieira; Araújo, Maria Alix Leite; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Reis, Cláudia Bastos Silveira; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fortaleza, CE, Northeastern Brazil, in 2012 and involved 221 individuals (40.3% male and 59.7% female) attended to at reference health care units for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Data were collected using a questionnaire applied during interviews with each participant. A multivariate analysis with a logistic regression model was conducted using the stepwise technique. Only the variables with a p value < 0.05 were included in the adjusted analysis. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used as the measure of effect. RESULTS A total of 30.3% of the participants reported experiencing some type of violence (27.6%, psychological; 5.9%, physical; and 7.2%, sexual) after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease. In the multivariate analysis adjusted to assess intimate partner violence after the revelation of the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases, the following variables remained statistically significant: extramarital relations (OR = 3.72; 95%CI 1.91;7.26; p = 0.000), alcohol consumption by the partner (OR = 2.16; 95%CI 1.08;4.33; p = 0.026), history of violence prior to diagnosis (OR = 2.87; 95%CI 1.44;5.69; p = 0.003), and fear of disclosing the diagnosis to the partner (OR = 2.66; 95%CI 1.32;5.32; p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS Individuals who had extramarital relations, experienced violence prior to the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease, feared disclosing the diagnosis to the partner, and those whose partner consumed alcohol had an increased likelihood of suffering violence. The high prevalence of intimate partner violence suggests that this population is vulnerable and therefore intervention efforts should be directed to them. Referral health care services for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases can be strategic

  3. Conducting Clinically Based Intimate Partner Violence Research: Safety Protocol Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jocelyn C; Glass, Nancy E; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    Maintaining safety is of utmost importance during research involving participants who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Limited guidance on safety protocols to protect participants is available, particularly information related to technology-based approaches to informed consent, data collection, and contacting participants during the course of a study. The purpose of the article is to provide details on the safety protocol developed and utilized with women receiving care at an urban HIV clinic and who were taking part in an observational study of IPV, mental health symptoms, and substance abuse and their relationship to HIV treatment adherence. The protocol presents the technological strategies to promote safety and allow autonomy in participant decision-making throughout the research process, including Voice over Internet Protocol telephone numbers, and tablet-based eligibility screening and data collection. Protocols for management of participants at risk for suicide and/or intimate partner homicide that included automated high-risk messaging to participants and research staff and facilitated disclosure of risk to clinical staff based on participant preferences are discussed. Use of technology and partnership with clinic staff helped to provide an environment where research regarding IPV could be conducted without undue burden or risk to participants. Utilizing tablet-based survey administration provided multiple practical and safety benefits for participants. Most women who screened into high-risk categories for suicide or intimate partner homicide did not choose to have their results shared with their healthcare providers, indicating the importance of allowing participants control over information sharing whenever possible.

  4. Trends in Intimate Partner Violence: 1980-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Rachael A.; Kaukinen, Catherine Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Research on trends in partner violence has primarily relied on official measures of victimization focusing primarily on women's risk for intimate partner homicide. The current study uses 28 years of data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) to examine the trends of intimate partner violence against female victims and identify…

  5. Trends in Intimate Partner Violence: 1980-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Rachael A.; Kaukinen, Catherine Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Research on trends in partner violence has primarily relied on official measures of victimization focusing primarily on women's risk for intimate partner homicide. The current study uses 28 years of data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) to examine the trends of intimate partner violence against female victims and identify…

  6. Evaluating and managing intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Valente, S M

    2000-05-01

    An estimated 18% to 25% of female primary care and prenatal patients suffer from intimate partner violence, and 31% to 44% of women report some abuse during their lifetimes. Violence is often unreported because women fear the batterer's reprisals, time-consuming court procedures, shame, blame, and unreliable legal sanctions. Screening for domestic violence should be a routine aspect of health care. Clinicians must ask direct questions about violence and detect subtle and overt clues. This article presents the historical context of violence and examines screening, evaluation, treatment, and ethics.

  7. Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Fidan, Ahmet; Bui, Hoan N

    2016-08-01

    The present study examines intimate partner violence (IPV) reported by a sample of women in Zimbabwe to explore factors associated with the problem. Findings from the study indicate an important role of gender relationships in violence against women. The effects of gender inequalities on the likelihood of IPV vary with types of violence, but husband's patriarchal behaviors increase the likelihood of all forms of violence. The study suggests the importance of improving gender equality through public education on gender relationships, increasing women's education and economic opportunities, and eliminating customary laws that sustain gender inequality as necessary steps to combat IPV against women in Zimbabwe. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Biological Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Lavinia A.; Sullivan, Eric L.; Rosenbaum, Alan; Wyngarden, Nicole; Umhau, John C.; Miller, Mark W.; Taft, Casey T.

    2013-01-01

    An extensive literature documents biological correlates of general aggression, but there has been less focus on biological correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV). The purpose of this review is to summarize the research literature to date that has reported on biological factors in IPV perpetration. We review the existing literature on four domains of biological processes that have been examined with respect to IPV perpetration, including: head injury and neuropsychology; psychophysiology; neurochemistry, metabolism and endocrinology; and genetics. We critique the literature, discuss the clinical relevance of research findings, and provide some recommendations for future biologically-oriented IPV research. PMID:23393423

  9. An exploration of Australian midwives' knowledge of intimate partner violence against women during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Baird, Kathleen M; Saito, Amornrat S; Eustace, Jennifer; Creedy, Debra K

    2015-09-01

    Intimate partner violence is recognised as a global public health issue. Living with intimate partner violence results in poorer health status with reduced quality of life and higher utilisation of health services. Increased awareness, education and training, and an understanding of multi-agency collaboration are vital in order for health practitioners to respond to women experiencing partner violence and abuse. Midwives are well placed to identify, provide immediate support, and refer women onto appropriate support agencies but may lack appropriate education, training or support. To investigate midwives' knowledge of intimate partner violence against women during pregnancy. An online survey link was distributed through the Australian College of Midwives. The survey included personal, professional and practice details, and 25 questions that tested knowledge about intimate partner violence. 152 midwives completed the online questionnaire. Knowledge scores ranged from 27 to 48 (out of a possible 50), with the mean total score of 42.8 (SD=3.3). Although 60% of participants scored 48, two-thirds did not know about the risks and signs of intimate partner violence. One-third of the midwives did not know about age risks associated with intimate partner violence. Around 25% incorrectly believed that perpetrators are violent because of alcohol or drug use. Nearly 90% (88%) of participants had some education or training about intimate partner violence. Those with some training achieved higher knowledge scores than those with no formal training (Mann-Whitney U=1272, p=0.003). Participating midwives generally reported a high level of knowledge about intimate partner violence but held misconceptions about risks and characteristics of perpetrators of violence. These knowledge gaps may adversely affect their ability to identify women at risk of violence. Education about intimate partner violence was associated with improved knowledge. Future training and education on intimate

  10. Classificatory multiplicity: intimate partner violence diagnosis in emergency department consultations.

    PubMed

    Olive, Philippa

    2017-08-01

    To explore the naming, or classification, of physical assaults by a partner as 'intimate partner violence' during emergency department consultations. Research continues to evidence instances when intimate partner physical violence is 'missed' or unacknowledged during emergency department consultations. Theoretically, this research was approached through complexity theory and the sociology of diagnosis. Research design was an applied, descriptive and explanatory, multiple-method approach that combined qualitative semistructured interviews with service-users (n = 8) and emergency department practitioners (n = 9), and qualitative and quantitative document analysis of emergency department health records (n = 28). This study found that multiple classifications of intimate partner violence were mobilised during emergency department consultations and that these different versions of intimate partner violence held different diagnostic categories, processes and consequences. The construction of different versions of intimate partner violence in emergency department consultations could explain variance in people's experiences and outcomes of consultations. The research found that the classificatory threshold for 'intimate partner violence' was too high. Strengthening systems of diagnosis (identification and intervention) so that all incidents of partner violence are named as 'intimate partner violence' would reduce the incidence of missed cases and afford earlier specialist intervention to reduce violence and limit its harms. This research found that identification of and response to intimate partner violence, even in contexts of severe physical violence, was contingent. By lowering the classificatory threshold so that all incidents of partner violence are named as 'intimate partner violence', practitioners could make a significant contribution to reducing missed intimate partner violence during consultations and improving health outcomes for this population. This

  11. Intimate partner violence and abuse among female nurses and nursing personnel: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Bracken, Michele Irene; Messing, Jill Theresa; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; La Flair, Lareina N; Kub, Joan

    2010-02-01

    This study examines the prevalence and risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) and intimate partner abuse (IPA) against female nurses and nursing personnel (n = 1981). Data were collected through online surveys conducted at three hospitals and one geriatric care center in a Mid-Atlantic US metropolitan area. Lifetime physical or sexual IPV was reported by 25% of participants and 22.8% reported experiencing lifetime emotional abuse by an intimate partner. Logistic regression analyses identified independent variables statistically related to IPV and IPA, including increased age, having children, not being married, and experiences of childhood abuse. Implications for women in the workplace are discussed.

  12. [The protective role of social support and intimate partner violence].

    PubMed

    Plazaola-Castaño, Juncal; Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Montero-Piñar, María Isabel

    2008-01-01

    To describe the relationship between the presence of social support and overall support from different sources and intimate partner violence in women attending primary care centers irrespective of reason. We performed a cross-sectional survey in 1,402 women aged 18 to 65 years old, randomly selected from 23 primary health practices in the autonomous communities of Andalusia, Madrid and Valencia (Spain) in 2003. The information on sociodemographic characteristics, physical, psychological and sexual intimate partner violence, and social support was gathered using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. Thirty-two percent of the women stated they had been abused by a partner (physically, psychologically or sexually) at some time in their lives. Women who reported having social support had a 89% lower probability of having been abused by a partner at some time than women who reported not having social support (odds ratio [OR] = 0.11; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.06-0.20). Among women who reported abuse by a partner in the past, those who stated they had social support had a lower probability of being abused again by a different partner than those who had no social support (OR = 0.14; 95%CI: 0.05-0.37). The cross-sectional design of this study does not allow us to determine whether lack of social support increases women's vulnerability to being abused, or whether social isolation is a consequence of partner abuse. Nevertheless, interventions in women experiencing abuse by their partners should aim to reestablish their social networks.

  13. Unperceived intimate partner violence and women's health.

    PubMed

    Sonego, Michela; Gandarillas, Ana; Zorrilla, Belén; Lasheras, Luisa; Pires, Marisa; Anes, Ana; Ordobás, María

    2013-01-01

    Women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) often do not perceive themselves as abused. This study sought to estimate the health effects of unperceived IPV (uIPV), taking violence-free women as the reference, and to compare the effects of uIPV with those of perceived IPV (pIPV). We performed a cross-sectional population study through telephone interviews of 2835 women aged 18 to 70 years living in the region of Madrid and having an ongoing intimate partner relationship or contact with a former partner in the preceding year. Based on 26 questions from the Conflict Tactics Scale-1 and the Enquête Nacional sur les Violences envers les Femmes en France and the question "Do you feel abused by your partner?" a variable was constructed in three categories, namely, the absence of IPV, uIPV and pIPV. Using logistic regression, we analyzed the association between health problems, medication use, health-service utilization and IPV (perceived and unperceived) vis-à-vis the absence of IPV. There were 247 cases of uIPV and 96 of pIPV (prevalences of 8.8% and 3.4%, respectively). The multivariate analysis showed that a substantial number of the outcomes explored were associated with uIPV, pIPV, or both. The highest odds ratios (ORs) were obtained for depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9≥10) (uIPV: OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.4-3.8; and pIPV: 4.1, 95%CI 2.5-6.8). In most problems, the ORs did not significantly differ between the two types of IPV. uIPV is 2.6 times more frequent than pIPV and is associated with at least as many health problems as pIPV. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Intimate partner violence and pregnancy: epidemiology and impact.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Christian A; Bullock, Linda; Ferguson, James E Jef

    2017-08-01

    Intimate partner violence is a significant public health problem in our society, affecting women disproportionately. Intimate partner violence takes many forms, including physical violence, sexual violence, stalking, and psychological aggression. While the scope of intimate partner violence is not fully documented, nearly 40% of women in the United States are victims of sexual violence in their lifetimes and 20% are victims of physical intimate partner violence. Other forms of intimate partner violence are likely particularly underreported. Intimate partner violence has a substantial impact on a woman's physical and mental health. Physical disorders include the direct consequences of injuries sustained after physical violence, such as fractures, lacerations and head trauma, sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies as a consequence of sexual violence, and various pain disorders. Mental health impacts include an increased risk of depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, and suicide. These adverse health effects are amplified in pregnancy, with an increased risk of pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth, low birthweight, and small for gestational age. In many US localities, suicide and homicide are leading causes of pregnancy-associated mortality. We herein review the issues noted previously in greater depth and introduce the basic principles of intimate partner violence prevention. We separately address current recommendations for intimate partner violence screening and the evidence surrounding effectiveness of intimate partner violence interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Current evidence on perinatal home visiting and intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Sharps, Phyllis W; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Baty, Marguerite L; Walker, Keisha S; Bair-Merritt, Megan H

    2008-01-01

    To describe current evidence on home visiting interventions for pregnant or postpartum women with specific intimate partner violence assessment and content. Online bibliographic databases including PubMed, CINAHL Plus, and Web of Science and a hand search of bibliographies of relevant articles. Original research and intervention studies were included that contained (a) a well-described prenatal and/or postpartum home visitation; (b) an assessment of perinatal intimate partner violence; and (c) quantitative data describing health outcomes for the women and their infants. The search yielded 128 articles, and 8 relevant articles met all of the inclusion criteria. Nonresearch, nonintervention, and international articles were excluded. No perinatal home visiting interventions were designed to address intimate partner violence. Programs that screened for intimate partner violence found high rates, and the presence of intimate partner violence limited the ability of the intervention to improve maternal and child outcomes. Perinatal home visitation programs likely improve pregnancy and infant outcomes. Home visiting interventions addressing intimate partner violence in nonperinatal population groups have been effective in minimizing intimate partner violence and improving outcomes. This suggests that perinatal home visiting programs adding specific intimate partner violence interventions may reduce intimate partner violence and improve maternal and infant health. Continued rigorous research is needed.

  16. Gender, psychopathy factors, and intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Mager, Kenna L; Bresin, Konrad; Verona, Edelyn

    2014-07-01

    The present study sheds light on relationships between distinct psychopathic traits and perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) in women versus men. Men and women with recent drug and/or violence histories (N = 250) were assessed for psychopathic traits using the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version and for their and their partner's use of IPV with the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale. The first goal was to examine the moderating role of gender in psychopathy factor relationships to IPV. Although both the interpersonal-affective traits (Factor1) and the impulsive-antisocial traits (Factor 2) of psychopathy were related to higher frequency of IPV perpetration, the relationship between Factor 1 and IPV was stronger in men. Our second goal examined the moderating role of psychopathy traits in the relationship between partner's perpetration of IPV and participant perpetration (mutual violence) in the 2 genders. Relationships between partner- and self-IPV were similar at both low and high levels of Factor 1 in men, although the partner- and self-IPV relationship was significantly stronger among women at low relative to high levels of Factor 1. The relationship between partner- and self-IPV was stronger at high levels of Factor 2 in men, whereas Factor 2 did not moderate mutual violence in women. These results indicate that relationships between psychopathy factors and IPV differ by gender, with psychopathy generally exacerbating IPV perpetration in men and Factor 1 traits playing a unique role in mutual violence in women. These findings add to the literature on female psychopathy and have important implications for future research on gender and IPV. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. [Costs of intimate partner violence against women. A systematic review].

    PubMed

    Niebuhr, D; Salge, S; Brzank, P

    2012-05-01

    About one in four women in Germany have experienced intimate partner violence at some point in their lives. Intimate partner violence against women is associated with a wide range of acute and long-term physical and psychological health problems. Partner violence also incurs huge costs to healthcare services, social care and the legal system with a subsequent loss in economic productivity. This systematic review will present existing studies on cost estimations with a particular focus on the types of costs and methodological problems in the studies which will provide information for the development of future surveys estimating the costs of partner violence. Electronic databases were searched in addition to manual searches. The database search for identification of such studies was only partially successful because administrative reports predominated. A total of nine cost estimates were identified which fulfilled the inclusion criteria and three studies considered direct, indirect and intangible costs. Due to the fragmentary data there is considerable heterogeneity in the cost categories and it can be assumed that the real costs are higher than those found in the studies. For reasons of international comparability, future data collection should be based on standard indicators which still need to be formulated.

  18. Intimate partner violence in southwestern Nigeria: are there rural-urban differences?

    PubMed

    Balogun, Mary O; Owoaje, Eme T; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I

    2012-01-01

    The researchers in this study assessed the prevalence of different types and experience of intimate partner violence among 600 women aged 15 to 49 years in selected rural and urban communities in southwestern Nigeria between October and December, 2007. Lifetime prevalence of intimate partner violence was 64% in the rural and 70% in the urban areas. Controlling behavior was the most frequently reported type of intimate partner violence experienced by both groups of women, and sexual violence was reported least. More urban women reported sexual violence and controlling behaviors than rural women (16.4% versus 11.6% and 57.7% versus 42.0%, respectively). More rural women had experienced physical violence (28% versus 14%). More urban women experienced controlling behaviors, while more rural women experienced physical violence. In both locations, history of partners' involvement in physical fights was significantly associated with reporting sexual violence (rural: odds ratio [OR] = 3.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-12.3; urban: OR = 8.4; 95% CI 1.4-51.8). History of alcohol consumption by partners was significantly associated with reporting physical violence (rural: OR = 2.3; 95% CI 1.2-4.4; urban: OR = 3.2; 95% CI 1.4-7.2). However, among rural respondents, younger partners were more likely to perpetuate controlling behavior (OR = 5.1; 95% CI 1.7-15.6) and being in a relationship for ≥10 years was related to psychological and physical violence. Among urban respondents, history of partners' involvement in physical fights was associated with controlling behavior (OR = 8.2; 95% CI 1.1-65.4) and physical violence (OR = 4.5; 95% CI 1.2-17.3). These results suggest that intimate partner violence is a frequent experience in women in both communities, although the types of intimate partner violence experienced differed, and multidisciplinary strategies are required to reduce intimate partner violence.

  19. Women’s Perceptions on how Pregnancy Influences the Context of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Stöckl, Heidi; Gardner, Frances

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence during pregnancy is receiving increased attention because of its high prevalence and health effects. Still, little is known about women’s perceptions on how their pregnancy influences the context in which intimate partner violence occurs. We conducted 19 in-depth interviews with women who experienced intimate partner violence around the time of pregnancy. Women clearly perceived pregnancy as a turning point, because it created new expectations and a feeling of being overwhelmed. This led to violence by reducing women’s acceptance of their partner’s unemployment, alcohol abuse and lack of relationship commitment or by increasing women’s vulnerability because they felt too young to raise a child alone. Pregnancy also led to violence by bringing up repressed childhood memories or by taking attention away from their partners. Understanding how pregnancy influences the context in which intimate partner violence occurs is important to provide abused, pregnant women with the services they need. PMID:23905872

  20. Sexting Coercion as a Component of Intimate Partner Polyvictimization.

    PubMed

    Ross, Jody M; Drouin, Michelle; Coupe, Amanda

    2016-07-20

    We examined the role of sexting coercion as a component of the intimate partner abuse (IPA) construct among young adults to determine whether sexting coercion would emerge alongside other forms of partner aggression as a cumulative risk factor for psychological, sexual, and attachment problems. In a sample of 885 undergraduates (301 men and 584 women), 40% had experienced some type of coercion. Although there was some overlap between sexual coercion and sexting coercion (21% of participants had experienced both), some individuals had experienced only sexting coercion (8%) and some only sexual coercion (11%). Women were more likely than men to be coerced into sexting. Both sexting coercion and sexual coercion were significantly and independently related to negative mental health symptoms, sexual problems, and attachment dysfunction, and, notably, sexting coercion was found to be a cumulative risk factor for nearly all of these negative effects. These data support the idea that digital sexual victimization is a new component of IPA polyvictimization, potentially increasing the negative effects experienced by victims of multiple forms of partner aggression.

  1. Intimate partner homicide: review and implications of research and policy.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Glass, Nancy; Sharps, Phyllis W; Laughon, Kathryn; Bloom, Tina

    2007-07-01

    Current rates of intimate partner homicide of females are approximately 4 to 5 times the rate for male victims, although the rates for both have decreased during the past 25 years. The major risk factor for intimate partner homicide, no matter if a female or male partner is killed, is prior domestic violence. This review presents and critiques the evidence supporting the other major risk factors for intimate partner homicide in general, and for intimate partner homicide of women (femicide) in particular, namely guns, estrangement, stepchild in the home, forced sex, threats to kill, and nonfatal strangulation (choking). The demographic risk factors are also examined and the related phenomena of pregnancy-related homicide, attempted femicide, and intimate partner homicide-suicide.

  2. Reproductive coercion and co-occurring intimate partner violence in obstetrics and gynecology patients.

    PubMed

    Clark, Lindsay E; Allen, Rebecca H; Goyal, Vinita; Raker, Christina; Gottlieb, Amy S

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive coercion is male behavior to control contraception and pregnancy outcomes of female partners. We examined the prevalence of reproductive coercion and co-occurring intimate partner violence among women presenting for routine care at a large, urban obstetrics and gynecology clinic. Women aged 18-44 years completed a self-administered, anonymous survey. Reproductive coercion was defined as a positive response to at least 1 of 14 questions derived from previously published studies. Women who experienced reproductive coercion were also assessed for intimate partner violence in the relationship where reproductive coercion occurred. Of 641 women who completed the survey, 16% reported reproductive coercion currently or in the past. Among women who experienced reproductive coercion, 32% reported that intimate partner violence occurred in the same relationship. Single women were more likely to experience reproductive coercion as well as co-occurring intimate partner violence. Reproductive coercion with co-occurring intimate partner violence is prevalent among women seeking general obstetrics and gynecology care. Health care providers should routinely assess reproductive-age women for reproductive coercion and intimate partner violence and tailor their family planning discussions and recommendations accordingly. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Risky Relationships? Assortative Mating and Women's Experiences of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbone-Lopez, Kristin; Kruttschnitt, Candace

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that female offenders are far more likely to have experienced intimate partner violence than women in the general population. Despite extensive research on women's pathways into offending, very little is known about why these women are at increased risk for partner violence. The authors use data from a sample of incarcerated…

  4. Risky Relationships? Assortative Mating and Women's Experiences of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbone-Lopez, Kristin; Kruttschnitt, Candace

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that female offenders are far more likely to have experienced intimate partner violence than women in the general population. Despite extensive research on women's pathways into offending, very little is known about why these women are at increased risk for partner violence. The authors use data from a sample of incarcerated…

  5. Adult Attachment as a Risk Factor for Intimate Partner Violence : The "Mispairing" of Partners' Attachment Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doumas, Diana M.; Pearson, Christine L.; Elgin, Jenna E.; McKinley, Lisa L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence and adult attachment in a sample of 70 couples. The attachment style of each partner and the interaction of the partners' attachment styles were examined as predictors of intimate partner violence. Additional analyses were conducted to examine violence reciprocity and to…

  6. Experiences of intimate partner violence and related injuries among women in Yokohama, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yoshihama, Mieko; Horrocks, Julie; Kamano, Saori

    2007-02-01

    We estimated rates of intimate partner violence and related injuries in a sample of 1371 women aged 18 to 49 years in Yokohama, Japan. By the age of 30 years, 14.3% of women who had ever had a partner had experienced violence from that partner, and 3.3% had suffered injuries related to such violence. By the time women had reached the age of 49 years, these percentages were 19% and 4%, respectively. In addition to the need for increased prevention efforts, our findings indicate the need for an expanded legal definition of intimate partner violence in Japan given that the current definition excludes premarital violence.

  7. Intimate partner violence and maternal educational practice.

    PubMed

    Silva, Josianne Maria Mattos da; Lima, Marília de Carvalho; Ludermir, Ana Bernarda

    2017-04-10

    The objective of this study is to analyze the association between intimate partner violence against women and maternal educational practice directed to children at the beginning of formal education. This is a cross-sectional study, carried out between 2013 and 2014, with 631 mother/child pairs, registered in the Family Health Strategy of the Health District II of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. It integrates a prospective cohort study designed to investigate the consequences of exposure to intimate partner violence in relation to the child who was born between 2005 and 2006. The maternal educational practice has been assessed by the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale and the intimate partner violence by a questionnaire adapted from the Multi-Country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence of the World Health Organization. Intimate partner violence referred to the last 12 months and was defined by specific acts of psychological, physical, and sexual violence inflicted to women by the partner. The crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated for the association studied, using log-binomial regression. The prevalence of intimate partner violence was 24.4%, and violent maternal educational practice was 93.8%. The use of non-violent discipline was mentioned by 97.6% of the women, coexisting with violent strategies of discipline. Children whose mothers reported intimate partner violence presented a higher chance of suffering psychological aggression (PR = 2.2; 95%CI 1.0-4.7). The violence suffered by the mother interferes in the parental education. The findings show high prevalence of violent maternal educational practice, pointing to the need for interventions that minimize the damage of violence in women and children. Analisar a associação entre a violência pelo parceiro íntimo contra a mulher e a prática educativa materna direcionada às crianças no início da escolaridade formal. Estudo transversal, realizado entre 2013 e 2014, com

  8. Intimate partner violence in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Jayatilleke, A C; Poudel, K C; Yasuoka, J; Jayatilleke, A U; Jimba, M

    2010-06-01

    To describe the current situation of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Sri Lanka, and to propose possible interventions to prevent IPV, we performed a literature survey for articles and reports on IPV in Sri Lanka. Our results suggested that prevalence of IPV is high (40%) in Sri Lanka. Most of the IPV studies were conducted in health care institutions and missed IPV victims who had not attended a health care institution. A common belief in Sri Lanka, even among medical students and police officers is that IPV is a personal matter that outsiders should not intervene. The laws against IPV identify the physical and psychological IPV, but not the sexual IPV. To improve this situation of IPV in Sri Lanka, we recommend IPV education programs for medical students and police officers, community awareness programs on IPV, and amending the laws to identify sexual IPV. We also recommend well designed community based research on IPV.

  9. Physical intimate partner violence in northern India.

    PubMed

    Ragavan, Maya I; Iyengar, Kirti; Wurtz, Rebecca M

    2014-04-01

    In this article, we examine perceptions about the definition of physical intimate partner violence (IPV) in northern India utilizing feminist perspectives as a framework. We interviewed 56 women and 52 men affiliated with a health services nongovernmental organization in the Udaipur district of Rajasthan. We transcribed, coded, and analyzed the interviews utilizing grounded theory. We found that perceptions regarding physical IPV were associated with both structural and ideological patriarchal beliefs and microlevel constructs such as alcohol use. We discovered multiple types of physical IPV in the study region, including rationalized violence (socially condoned violence perpetrated by a husband against his wife), unjustified violence (socially prohibited violence perpetrated by a husband against his wife), and majboori violence (violence perpetrated by a wife against her husband). Our results add to the breadth of research available about IPV in India and create a framework for future research and IPV prevention initiatives.

  10. Attitudes toward Intimate Partner Violence in Dating Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincham, Frank D.; Cui, Ming; Braithwaite, Scott; Pasley, Kay

    2008-01-01

    Prevention of intimate partner violence on college campuses includes programs designed to change attitudes, and hence, a scale that assesses such attitudes is needed. Study 1 (N = 859) cross validates the factor structure of the Intimate Partner Violence Attitude Scale-Revised using exploratory factor analysis and presents initial validity data on…

  11. Examining the Interface Between Substance Misuse and Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Gregory L.; O’Farrell, Timothy J.; Leonard, Kenneth; Moore, Todd M.; Temple, Jeff R.; Ramsey, Susan E.; Stout, Robert L.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Bucossi, Meggan M.; Andersen, Shawna M.; Recupero, Patricia R.; Walsh, Zach; Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Strong, David R.; Rothman, Emily F.; Rhatigan, Deborah L.; Monti, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable theoretical and empirical support for a link between substance misuse and perpetration and victimization of intimate partner violence. This review briefly summarizes this literature and highlights current research that addresses the interface between treatment for substance abuse and intimate partner violence. Suggestions for future research and clinical implications are provided. PMID:24357928

  12. Intimate Partner Violence: Building Resilience with Families and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wortham, Thomasine T.

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence includes physical, emotional, or sexual maltreatment from an intimate partner that may include name-calling, hitting, controlling behaviors, use of weapons, rape, intimidation, and a plethora of other physical and emotional tactics (Kress, Protivnak, & Sadlak, 2008; United States Department of Justice, 2013). Such…

  13. Intimate Partner Violence: Building Resilience with Families and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wortham, Thomasine T.

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence includes physical, emotional, or sexual maltreatment from an intimate partner that may include name-calling, hitting, controlling behaviors, use of weapons, rape, intimidation, and a plethora of other physical and emotional tactics (Kress, Protivnak, & Sadlak, 2008; United States Department of Justice, 2013). Such…

  14. Intimate partner violence and the meaning of love.

    PubMed

    Smith, Marilyn; Nunley, Barbara; Martin, Evelyn

    2013-06-01

    Despite physical, emotional, verbal, and sexual abuse from their partner, many women remain in an abusive relationship, often proclaiming to love the one who is hurting them. Nineteen females who had experienced intimate partner violence were interviewed and asked to share their experiences and describe their meaning of love. An analysis of the transcripts was done using qualitative content analysis. With this approach, the contents of the verbal data were summarized and arranged in three major categories: (1) What love is not; (2) Attributes of a loving relationship; and (3) Attachment to the relationship. The findings demonstrate a woman's clear recognition of being in an abusive relationship, yearning to be truly loved, but often finding herself unable to detach from the relationship.

  15. Intimate partner violence: what do movies have to teach us?

    PubMed

    Lenahan, Patricia M

    2009-06-01

    Intimate partner violence is one of the most pervasive global public health problems affecting women. It results in untold costs to the healthcare system and is positively linked to eight out of ten leading indicators for Healthy People 2010. Intimate partner violence also is one of the factors associated with adverse childhood experiences that result in negative healthcare behaviours. Intimate partner violence has been the subject of film, made for television movies and music videos. The use of film as an innovative tool to teach about common health and mental health disorders is well-documented. Film also has been used as an adjunctive therapeutic tool in counselling. This paper will provide an overview of intimate partner violence, its portrayal in popular film and ways in which educators may use film to teach intimate partner violence-related topics.

  16. Intimate partner sexual aggression against Chinese women: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although intimate partner sexual aggression has been shown to be associated with adverse mental health outcomes, there is scant information about sexual aggression in Chinese intimate relationships in general and about its mental health impact in particular. This article aimed to investigate sexual aggression in Chinese intimate relationships, including the use of force or threat of force and non-physical coercive tactics in unwanted sex. Methods The quantitative and qualitative data used in this paper were drawn from a prospective cohort study conducted in Hong Kong between September 2010 and September 2012. A total of 745 Chinese women aged 18 or older who had been in an intimate relationship in the preceding 12 months were recruited from sites in all districts of Hong Kong. Multiple logistic regression analysis, ordinary linear regression, and t-tests were used in quantitative analysis. Directed content analysis was used to analyze the transcripts of 59 women who revealed experiences of intimate partner sexual aggression in individual in-depth interviews. Results Of the 745 Chinese women in the study, 348 (46.7%) had experienced intimate partner physical violence in the past year, and 179 (24%) had experienced intimate partner physical violence and sexual aggression in the past year. Intimate partner sexual aggression significantly predicted PTSD and depressive symptoms after controlling for intimate partner physical violence. Among the 179 women reporting intimate partner physical violence and sexual coercion in the past year, 75 indicated that their partners used force or threat of force to make them have sex, and 104 of them reported that they gave in to sex because of non-physical coercive tactics used by their partners. Qualitative data revealed a variety of non-physical coercive tactics with different degrees of subtlety used to coerce women into unwanted sex with their partners. Chinese women experiencing physically forced sex had

  17. Intimate partner sexual aggression against Chinese women: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Agnes; Cheung, Denise Shuk Ting; Chan, Ko Ling; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak; Yan, Elsie Chau Wai; Lam, Gloria Ling Lee; Tang, Debbie Hoi Ming

    2014-05-25

    Although intimate partner sexual aggression has been shown to be associated with adverse mental health outcomes, there is scant information about sexual aggression in Chinese intimate relationships in general and about its mental health impact in particular. This article aimed to investigate sexual aggression in Chinese intimate relationships, including the use of force or threat of force and non-physical coercive tactics in unwanted sex. The quantitative and qualitative data used in this paper were drawn from a prospective cohort study conducted in Hong Kong between September 2010 and September 2012. A total of 745 Chinese women aged 18 or older who had been in an intimate relationship in the preceding 12 months were recruited from sites in all districts of Hong Kong. Multiple logistic regression analysis, ordinary linear regression, and t-tests were used in quantitative analysis. Directed content analysis was used to analyze the transcripts of 59 women who revealed experiences of intimate partner sexual aggression in individual in-depth interviews. Of the 745 Chinese women in the study, 348 (46.7%) had experienced intimate partner physical violence in the past year, and 179 (24%) had experienced intimate partner physical violence and sexual aggression in the past year. Intimate partner sexual aggression significantly predicted PTSD and depressive symptoms after controlling for intimate partner physical violence. Among the 179 women reporting intimate partner physical violence and sexual coercion in the past year, 75 indicated that their partners used force or threat of force to make them have sex, and 104 of them reported that they gave in to sex because of non-physical coercive tactics used by their partners. Qualitative data revealed a variety of non-physical coercive tactics with different degrees of subtlety used to coerce women into unwanted sex with their partners. Chinese women experiencing physically forced sex had significantly more depressive symptoms

  18. Acceptance of routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence: a mixed method study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence and detrimental health effects of intimate partner violence have resulted in international discussions and recommendations that health care professionals should screen women for intimate partner violence during general and antenatal health care visits. Due to the lack of discussion on routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence during antenatal care in Germany, this study seeks to explore its acceptability among pregnant German women. Methods A mixed methods approach was used, utilizing a self-administered survey on the acceptability of routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence in a university hospital’s maternity ward in Munich and in-depth interviews with seven women who experienced violence during pregnancy. Results Of the 401 women who participated in the survey, 92 percent were in favor of routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence during antenatal care. Acceptance of routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence during antenatal care was significantly associated with women’s experiences of child sexual abuse, being young, less educated, single or divorced and smoking during pregnancy. Open-ended survey questions and in-depth interviews stressed adequate training for screening, sufficient time and provision of referral information as important conditions for routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence. Conclusions Women in this study showed an overwhelming support for routine or case-based screening for intimate partner violence in antenatal care in Germany. Until adequate training is in place to allow providers to inquire for intimate partner violence in a professional manner, this study recommends that health care providers are made aware of the prevalence and health consequences of violence during pregnancy. PMID:23531127

  19. Does screening in the emergency department hurt or help victims of intimate partner violence?

    PubMed

    Houry, Debra; Kaslow, Nadine J; Kemball, Robin S; McNutt, Louise Anne; Cerulli, Catherine; Straus, Helen; Rosenberg, Eli; Lu, Chengxing; Rhodes, Karin V

    2008-04-01

    Recent systematic reviews have noted a lack of evidence that screening for intimate partner violence does more good than harm. We assess whether patients screened for intimate partner violence on a computer kiosk in the emergency department (ED) experienced any adverse events during or subsequent to the ED visit and whether computer kiosk identification and referral of intimate partner violence in the ED setting resulted in safety behaviors or contact with referrals. We conducted a prospective, observational study in which a convenience sample of male and female ED patients triaged to the waiting room who screened positive (on a computer kiosk-based questionnaire) for intimate partner violence in the past year were provided with resources and information and invited to participate in a series of follow-up interviews. At 1-week and 3-month follow-up visits, we assessed intimate partner violence, safety issues, and use of resources. In addition, to obtain an objective measure of safety, we assessed the number of violence-related 911 calls to participant addresses within a call district 6 months before and 6 months after the index ED visit. Of the 2,134 participants in a relationship in the last year, 548 (25.7%) screened positive for intimate partner violence. No safety issues, such as calling security or a partner's interference with the screening, occurred during the ED visit for any patient who disclosed intimate partner violence. Of the 216 intimate partner violence victims interviewed in person and 65 contacted by telephone 1 week later, no intimate partner violence victims reported any injuries or increased intimate partner violence resulting from participating in the study. For the sample in the local police district, there was no increase in the number of intimate partner violence victims who called 911 in the 6 months after the ED visit. Finally, 35% (n=131) reported they had contacted community resources during the 3-month follow-up period. Among patients

  20. Japanese women's perceptions of intimate partner violence (IPV).

    PubMed

    Nagae, Miyoko; Dancy, Barbara L

    2010-04-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a problem in Japan. The purpose is to describe IPV as perceived by a purposive sample of 11 Japanese adult females who were in a heterosexual marriage at the time of IPV. We used a cross-sectional, retroactive, qualitative description research design with individual, fact-to-face in depth interviews. At the time of the interview, the women had a mean age of 38 years and at the time of the IPV, a mean age of 28 years. Data were analyzed using the directed qualitative content analysis method. The results revealed that all women experienced physical and emotional abuse and 82% experienced sexual abuse. Communication between spouses was characterized as unilateral, with husbands initiating and dominating the conversation. The women identified the culture of the Japanese patriarchal system as directly influencing IPV. The implication is health professionals should actively advocate for effective legislation and policies to address IPV.

  1. Gainful Activity and Intimate Partner Aggression in Emerging Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Alvira-Hammond, Marta; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.

    2014-01-01

    Although intimate partner aggression crosses social class boundaries, education and income are important predictors. Yet given that emerging adulthood is a transitional period, completed education and employment, as single measures, are not ideal indicators of socioeconomic status for young people. We examined associations between self-reports of gainful activity, defined as enrollment in school or full-time employment, and intimate partner aggression among young adults in dating, cohabiting, or married relationships (N=648). Both men and women's participation in gainful activity was negatively associated with aggression. We found that when neither partner was gainfully active, individuals reported higher frequency of physical aggression. In cases of gainful activity asymmetry, the gender of the gainfully active partner did not predict intimate partner aggression. Additionally, we found no evidence that the association between gainful activity and frequency of intimate partner aggression differed by union type. PMID:25309829

  2. Prevalence and characteristics of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence victimization--national intimate partner and sexual violence survey, United States, 2011.

    PubMed

    Breiding, Matthew J; Smith, Sharon G; Basile, Kathleen C; Walters, Mikel L; Chen, Jieru; Merrick, Melissa T

    2014-09-05

    Sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence are public health problems known to have a negative impact on millions of persons in the United States each year, not only by way of immediate harm but also through negative long-term health impacts. Before implementation of the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) in 2010, the most recent detailed national data on the public health burden from these forms of violence were obtained from the National Violence against Women Survey conducted during 1995-1996. This report examines sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence victimization using data from 2011. The report describes the overall prevalence of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence victimization; racial/ethnic variation in prevalence; how types of perpetrators vary by violence type; and the age at which victimization typically begins. For intimate partner violence, the report also examines a range of negative impacts experienced as a result of victimization, including the need for services. January-December, 2011. NISVS is a national random-digit-dial telephone survey of the noninstitutionalized English- and Spanish-speaking U.S. population aged ≥18 years. NISVS gathers data on experiences of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence among adult women and men in the United States by using a dual-frame sampling strategy that includes both landline and cellular telephones. The survey was conducted in 50 states and the District of Columbia; in 2011, the second year of NISVS data collection, 12,727 interviews were completed, and 1,428 interviews were partially completed. In the United States, an estimated 19.3% of women and 1.7% of men have been raped during their lifetimes; an estimated 1.6% of women reported that they were raped in the 12 months preceding the survey. The case count for men reporting rape in the preceding 12 months was too small to produce a statistically reliable

  3. Fear of past abusive partner(s) impacts current posttraumatic stress among women experiencing partner violence.

    PubMed

    Jaquier, Véronique; Sullivan, Tami P

    2014-02-01

    This study examines the impact of fear of past abusive partner(s) on posttraumatic stress among 212 community-recruited women currently exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV). The path analysis model tested explained 60% of the variation in IPV-related posttraumatic stress. Findings revealed that fear of past abusive partner(s) was uniquely associated with the severity of current posttraumatic stress symptoms over and above the impact of current IPV or childhood abuse and neglect. Future research should continue examining women's subjective emotional experience of past and current victimization so as to further inform both clinical practice and intervention planning.

  4. FEAR OF PAST ABUSIVE PARTNER(S) IMPACTS CURRENT POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS AMONG WOMEN EXPERIENCING PARTNER VIOLENCE

    PubMed Central

    Jaquier, Véronique; Sullivan, Tami P.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the impact of fear of past abusive partner(s) on posttraumatic stress among 212 community-recruited women currently exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV). The path analysis model tested explained 60% of the variation in IPV-related posttraumatic stress. Findings revealed that fear of past abusive partner(s) was uniquely associated with the severity of current posttraumatic stress symptoms over and above the impact of current IPV or childhood abuse and neglect. Future research should continue examining women's subjective emotional experience of past and current victimization so as to further inform both clinical practice and intervention planning. PMID:24590514

  5. Hidradenitis Suppurativa, Intimate Partner Violence, and Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Sisic, Mia; Tan, Jerry; Lafreniere, Kathryn D

    Sexual assault and intimate partner violence have never been examined in individuals with hidradenitis suppurativa. The research is important, because prior studies show higher incidences of intimate partner violence and sexual assault in individuals with disabilities, and hidradenitis suppurativa meets criteria for a disability. The objective of the study is to examine whether individuals with hidradenitis suppurativa are at significantly higher risk of intimate partner violence and sexual assault compared with individuals who have acne, a recognised disability. Participants who met criteria for hidradenitis suppurativa and acne were recruited from a mid-sized university and a dermatology clinic. Participants spoke English and were over the age of sexual consent. Group (hidradenitis suppurativa and acne) differences on intimate partner violence and sexual assault were analysed. Victimisation within the past 12 months was measured using the Checklist for Controlling Behaviours, a measure of intimate partner violence, as well as the Sexual Experiences Survey-Short Form Victim, a measure of sexual assault. In total, 243 participants (n = 128 for hidradenitis suppurativa; n = 115 for acne) were surveyed. Individuals with hidradenitis suppurativa were significantly more likely to report being victimised by intimate partner violence. Intimate partner violence was more frequently observed in individuals with hidradenitis suppurativa. Health care providers should be aware of this issue when interacting with patients with hidradenitis suppurativa.

  6. Induced abortion, pregnancy loss and intimate partner violence in Tanzania: a population based study.

    PubMed

    Stöckl, Heidi; Filippi, Veronique; Watts, Charlotte; Mbwambo, Jessie K K

    2012-03-05

    Violence by an intimate partner is increasingly recognized as an important public and reproductive health issue. The aim of this study is to investigate the extent to which physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence is associated with induced abortion and pregnancy loss from other causes and to compare this with other, more commonly recognized explanatory factors. This study analyzes the data of the Tanzania section of the WHO Multi-Country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence, a large population-based cross-sectional survey of women of reproductive age in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya, Tanzania, conducted from 2001 to 2002. All women who answered positively to at least one of the questions about specific acts of physical or sexual violence committed by a partner towards her at any point in her life were considered to have experienced intimate partner violence. Associations between self reported induced abortion and pregnancy loss with intimate partner violence were analysed using multiple regression models. Lifetime physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence was reported by 41% and 56% of ever partnered, ever pregnant women in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya respectively. Among the ever pregnant, ever partnered women, 23% experienced involuntary pregnancy loss, while 7% reported induced abortion. Even after adjusting for other explanatory factors, women who experienced intimate partner violence were 1.6 (95%CI: 1.06,1.60) times more likely to report an pregnancy loss and 1.9 (95%CI: 1.30,2.89) times more likely to report an induced abortion. Intimate partner violence had a stronger influence on induced abortion and pregnancy loss than women's age, socio-economic status, and number of live born children. Intimate partner violence is likely to be an important influence on levels of induced abortion and pregnancy loss in Tanzania. Preventing intimate partner violence may therefore be beneficial for maternal health and pregnancy outcomes. © 2012 Stöckl et al

  7. The female partners' experiences of intimate relationship after a first myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Arenhall, Eva; Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena; Fridlund, Bengt; Nilsson, Ulrica

    2011-06-01

    This study aimed to explore and describe women's experience of intimate relationships in connection to and after their partner's first myocardial infarction. Support from partners is important for recovery, but little is known about partners' experience of intimate relationships after myocardial infarction. The study used an explorative, qualitative design. The first author interviewed 20 women having a partner who had suffered a first myocardial infarction during the preceding year. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data. Three themes emerged: 'limited life space', 'sense of life lost' and 'another dimension of life'. The women described how their self-assumed responsibility led to a more stifling and limited life. Their sense of life lost was described in terms of deficits and feeling the loss. The women also described experiencing another dimension of life characterised by three subthemes: 'uncertainty of life', 'certain of relationship' and 'share life more'. The partners' myocardial infarction had an impact on the interviewees' intimate relationships; they suffered a major loss and missed their 'former' partner, both emotionally and sexually. They struggled with the new asymmetry in their intimate relationship and felt compelled to adapt to their partners' lack of sexual desire or function. Also, their partner controlled them, which lead towards a stifling, more limited life space. Caregivers in hospital and primary care settings could apply the findings in their efforts to help couples recover or maintain intimate relationships following myocardial infarction. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Intimate partner violence among women veterans by sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Dardis, Christina M; Shipherd, Jillian C; Iverson, Katherine M

    2017-08-01

    National estimates suggest intimate partner violence (IPV) rates are equal or higher among lesbian, bisexual, or questioning (LBQ)-identified women than heterosexual-identified women. Women veterans are a population at high risk for IPV, yet the occurrence of lifetime and past-year IPV experiences by sexual orientation have not been examined in this population. Lifetime and past-year IPV experiences and current IPV-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were assessed with validated screening measures as part of a 2014 web-based national survey of women veterans. Among 403 respondents, 9.7% (n = 39) identified as LBQ, and 90.3% (n = 364) identified as heterosexual. When controlling for age, LBQ-identified women veterans were significantly more likely to report lifetime sexual and physical IPV and lifetime intimate partner stalking. In the past year, LBQ-identified veterans were twice as likely to endorse emotional mistreatment and physical IPV, and three times more likely to endorse sexual IPV, than were heterosexual-identified women veterans. However, sexual orientation was unrelated to IPV-related PTSD symptoms, when controlling for age, race, and number IPV forms experienced. IPV is prevalent among LBQ-identified women veterans, suggesting the need to understand the potentially unique contextual factors and health-care needs of this group.

  9. Intimate partner violence against Spanish pregnant women: application of two screening instruments to assess prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Casilda; Luna, Juan D; Martin, Aurelia; Caño, Africa; Martin-de-Las-Heras, Stella

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the prevalence of intimate partner violence in Spanish women during the 12 months prior to delivery and to identify associated risk factors using two screening instruments. A population-based study. Fifteen public hospitals in southern Spain. A total of 779 women admitted to the hospital obstetrics department. Intimate partner violence was diagnosed with the Abuse Assessment Screen and Index of Spouse Abuse screening instruments. Prevalence and associated risk factors of intimate partner violence during pregnancy. According to the Abuse Assessment Screen, intimate partner violence during the pre-delivery year was experienced by 7.7% of the women, emotional abuse by 4.8%, and physical abuse by 1.7%. According to the Index of Spouse Abuse, non-physical intimate partner violence during this period was reported by 21.0% of the women and physical intimate partner violence by 3.6%. After adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, multivariate regression models showed that an uncommitted relationship and absence of kin support were significantly associated with an increased intimate partner violence risk during the pre-delivery year. Employment was a significant protective factor against any of the three forms of intimate partner violence (Abuse Assessment Screen) and physical intimate partner violence (Index of Spouse Abuse) during this period. A high proportion of women in Spain experience intimate partner violence during or just before pregnancy. Pregnant women in an uncommitted relationship or without kin support were at greater risk of intimate partner violence. Screening instruments for intimate partner violence during pregnancy should be evaluated in different cultural contexts. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. Intimate partner violence (physical and sexual) and sexually transmitted infection: results from Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2011.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Liladhar; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Aro, Arja R

    2014-01-01

    Violence against women perpetrated by their intimate partners is a social problem with adverse health consequences. Intimate partner violence has acute and chronic as well as direct and indirect health consequences related to physical, psychological, and reproductive health. Studies exploring relationships of intimate partner violence and health consequences are rare in Nepal. Hence, this study aimed to examine the relationships between intimate partner violence and sexually transmitted infections. This study used data from the nationally representative Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2011, which collected data through a two-stage complex sampling technique. Women 15-49 years were asked about domestic violence including intimate partner violence. For this analysis, 3,084 currently married women were included. Questions about domestic violence were adapted from the Conflict Tactic Scale. Relationships between different forms of physical and sexual intimate partner violence and reported signs and symptoms of sexually transmitted infections were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Approximately 15% of currently young and middle-aged married women experienced some form of violence in the last 12 months. About one in four women who were exposed to physical and sexual intimate partner violence reported sexually transmitted infection in the last 12 months. The odds of getting sexually transmitted infection were 1.88 [95% CI:1.29, 2.73] times higher among women exposed to any form of intimate partner violence in the last 12 months compared to women not exposed to any form of intimate partner violence. Intimate partner violence was common among currently married women in Nepal. Being exposed to intimate partner violence and getting signs and symptoms of sexually transmitted disease were found to be associated. Integration of intimate partner violence prevention and reproductive health programs is needed to reduce the burden of sexually transmitted disease

  11. What were they thinking? Men who murder an intimate partner.

    PubMed

    Dobash, R Emerson; Dobash, Russell P

    2011-01-01

    The focus is on cognitions of men who murder an intimate partner and includes thinking prior to and after the murder. Based on the Murder in Britain Study, the qualitative accounts of various professionals included in the case-files of 104 men convicted of murdering a woman partner are used to examine beliefs about intimate relationships, orientations toward violence and previous violence to the victim, as well as subsequent denials, rationalizations, and justifications. We conclude that these and other cognitions are important elements of intimate partner murder and must be challenged and changed in efforts to eliminate nonlethal abuse and murder.

  12. Head injury screening and intimate partner violence: A brief report.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Kerry L; DePrince, Anne P

    2017-01-01

    Although the importance of traumatic brain injury has gained public attention in recent years, relatively little attention has been paid to head injuries among women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). The present study screened for lifetime exposure to mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) among a sample of women who had experienced recent IPV (median days since target incident = 26). Participants included ethnically diverse women whose IPV experiences were reported to law enforcement. Women (n = 225) were asked about injuries to the head sustained during the target IPV incident as well as over the lifetime, and related symptoms. The vast majority of women (80%) reported a lifetime head injury. More than half (56%) screened positive for mTBI, defined as at least one instance in which they experienced a change in consciousness or a period of being dazed and confused as a result of a head injury. A minority of women (13%) reported injuries to the head during the target IPV incident. Most women who had experienced a lifetime head injury reported frequent and current cognitive difficulties. These findings highlight the importance of assessing head injuries and related symptoms among women who have experienced IPV, pointing to important implications for policy and practice.

  13. Problem gambling and intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Korman, Lorne M; Collins, Jane; Dutton, Don; Dhayananthan, Bramilee; Littman-Sharp, Nina; Skinner, Wayne

    2008-03-01

    This study examined the prevalence and severity of intimate partner violence (IPV) among 248 problem gamblers (43 women, 205 men) recruited from newspaper advertisements. The main outcome measures used were the Canadian Problem Gambling Index, the Conflicts Tactics Scale-2, the State Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2, the drug and alcohol section of the Addiction Severity Index and the substance use section of the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV. In this sample, 62.9% of participants reported perpetrating and/or being the victims of IPV in the past year, with 25.4% reporting perpetrating severe IPV. The majority of the sample (64.5%) also had clinically significant anger problems, which was associated with an increased risk of being both the perpetrator and victim of IPV. The presence of a lifetime substance use disorder among participants who had clinically significant anger problems further increased the likelihood of both IPV perpetration and victimization. These findings underscore the importance of routinely screening gambling clients for anger and IPV, and the need to develop public policy, prevention and treatment programs to address IPV among problem gamblers. Future research to examine IPV among problem gamblers is recommended.

  14. Depressive disorder in pregnant Latin women: does intimate partner violence matter?

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Machado, Mariana de Oliveira; Alves, Lisiane Camargo; Monteiro, Juliana Cristina Dos Santos; Stefanello, Juliana; Nakano, Ana Márcia Spanó; Haas, Vanderlei José; Gomes-Sponholz, Flávia

    2015-05-01

    To identify the association of antenatal depressive symptoms with intimate partner violence during the current pregnancy in Brazilian women. Intimate partner violence is an important risk factor for antenatal depression. To the authors' knowledge, there has been no study to date that assessed the association between intimate partner violence during pregnancy and antenatal depressive symptoms among Brazilian women. Cross-sectional study. Three hundred and fifty-eight pregnant women were enrolled in the study. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and an adapted version of the instrument used in the World Health Organization Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence were used to measure antenatal depressive symptoms and psychological, physical and sexual acts of intimate partner violence during the current pregnancy respectively. Multiple logistic regression and multiple linear regression were used for data analysis. The prevalence of antenatal depressive symptoms, as determined by the cut-off score of 12 in the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, was 28·2% (101). Of the participants, 63 (17·6%) reported some type of intimate partner violence during pregnancy. Among them, 60 (95·2%) reported suffering psychological violence, 23 (36·5%) physical violence and one (1·6%) sexual violence. Multiple logistic regression and multiple linear regression indicated that antenatal depressive symptoms are extremely associated with intimate partner violence during pregnancy. Among Brazilian women, exposure to intimate partner violence during pregnancy increases the chances of experiencing antenatal depressive symptoms. Clinical nurses and nurses midwifes should pay attention to the particularities of Brazilian women, especially with regard to the occurrence of intimate partner violence, whose impacts on the mental health of this population are extremely significant, both during the gestational period and postpartum. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Controlling behavior, power relations within intimate relationships and intimate partner physical and sexual violence against women in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Controlling behavior is more common and can be equally or more threatening than physical or sexual violence. This study sought to determine the role of husband/partner controlling behavior and power relations within intimate relationships in the lifetime risk of physical and sexual violence in Nigeria. Methods This study used secondary data from a cross-sectional nationally-representative survey collected by face-to-face interviews from women aged 15 - 49 years in the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Utilizing a stratified two-stage cluster sample design, data was collected frrm 19 216 eligible with the DHS domestic violence module, which is based on the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the role of husband/partner controlling behavior in the risk of ever experiencing physical and sexual violence among 2877 women aged 15 - 49 years who were currently or formerly married or cohabiting with a male partner. Results Women who reported controlling behavior by husband/partner had a higher likelihood of experiencing physical violence (RR = 3.04; 95% CI: 2.50 - 3.69), and women resident in rural areas and working in low status occupations had increased likelihood of experiencing physical IPV. Controlling behavior by husband/partner was associated with higher likelihood of experiencing physical violence (RR = 4.01; 95% CI: 2.54 - 6.34). In addition, women who justified wife beating and earned more than their husband/partner were at higher likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. In contrast, women who had decision-making autonomy had lower likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. Conclusion Controlling behavior by husband/partner significantly increases the likelihood of physical and sexual IPV, thus acting as a precursor to violence. Findings emphasize the need to adopt a proactive integrated approach to controlling behavior and intimate partner violence within

  16. Controlling behavior, power relations within intimate relationships and intimate partner physical and sexual violence against women in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Antai, Diddy

    2011-06-29

    Controlling behavior is more common and can be equally or more threatening than physical or sexual violence. This study sought to determine the role of husband/partner controlling behavior and power relations within intimate relationships in the lifetime risk of physical and sexual violence in Nigeria. This study used secondary data from a cross-sectional nationally-representative survey collected by face-to-face interviews from women aged 15 - 49 years in the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Utilizing a stratified two-stage cluster sample design, data was collected frrm 19 216 eligible with the DHS domestic violence module, which is based on the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the role of husband/partner controlling behavior in the risk of ever experiencing physical and sexual violence among 2877 women aged 15 - 49 years who were currently or formerly married or cohabiting with a male partner. Women who reported controlling behavior by husband/partner had a higher likelihood of experiencing physical violence (RR = 3.04; 95% CI: 2.50 - 3.69), and women resident in rural areas and working in low status occupations had increased likelihood of experiencing physical IPV. Controlling behavior by husband/partner was associated with higher likelihood of experiencing physical violence (RR = 4.01; 95% CI: 2.54 - 6.34). In addition, women who justified wife beating and earned more than their husband/partner were at higher likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. In contrast, women who had decision-making autonomy had lower likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. Controlling behavior by husband/partner significantly increases the likelihood of physical and sexual IPV, thus acting as a precursor to violence. Findings emphasize the need to adopt a proactive integrated approach to controlling behavior and intimate partner violence within the society.

  17. Indicators of intimate partner violence in women's employment: implications for workplace action.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, J; Malecha, A; Gist, J; Schultz, P; Willson, P; Fredland, N

    2000-05-01

    The study examined the indicators and consequences of intimate partner violence on women's employment and associated types and levels of violence. Interviews were conducted with a consecutive sample of 90 women seeking a protective order. Actual and threatened violence was measured with the Severity of Violence Against Women Scales (46 items). Eight questions were asked about type of harassment experienced at the worksite. The results found most of the abused women had been employed at one time (87%) and had also experienced harassment from an intimate partner related to their work (89%). Findings indicated lost productivity and reduced performance. The researchers concluded poor work performance, tardiness, and absenteeism may indicate an employee is suffering from intimate partner violence.

  18. Attitudes toward intimate partner violence in dating relationships.

    PubMed

    Fincham, Frank D; Cui, Ming; Braithwaite, Scott; Pasley, Kay

    2008-09-01

    Prevention of intimate partner violence on college campuses includes programs designed to change attitudes, and hence, a scale that assesses such attitudes is needed. Study 1 (N = 859) cross validates the factor structure of the Intimate Partner Violence Attitude Scale-Revised using exploratory factor analysis and presents initial validity data on the scale. In Study 2 (N = 687), the obtained three-factor structure (Abuse, Control, Violence) is tested using confirmatory factor analysis, and it is shown to be concurrently related to assault in romantic relationships and to predict psychological aggression 14 weeks later. The findings are discussed in the context of how understanding and modifying attitudes assessed by the Intimate Partner Violence Attitude Scale-Revised may improve interventions aimed at reducing intimate partner violence. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. How Children and Their Caregivers Adjust after Intimate Partner Femicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Jennifer L.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; McFarlane, Judith M.; Lewandowski, Linda A.

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 3,300 children are affected by intimate partner femicide each year. Despite the multitude of stressors and the potential for negative outcomes, little is known about these children or their caregivers. This in-depth interview study used family stress theory to explore caregivers' and children's adjustment after intimate partner…

  20. Intimate Partner Homicide in Chicago over 29 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Carolyn Rebecca; Christakos, Antigone

    1995-01-01

    Reports rate of intimate partner homicides (married and unmarried, heterosexual and homosexual) in Chicago from 1965-1993 (2,556 in all). Identifies major trends in intimate homicide over this 29-year period; discusses the people who are most at risk and the riskiest situations. Explores implications for intervention strategies. (LKS)

  1. How Children and Their Caregivers Adjust after Intimate Partner Femicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Jennifer L.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; McFarlane, Judith M.; Lewandowski, Linda A.

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 3,300 children are affected by intimate partner femicide each year. Despite the multitude of stressors and the potential for negative outcomes, little is known about these children or their caregivers. This in-depth interview study used family stress theory to explore caregivers' and children's adjustment after intimate partner…

  2. [Intimate partner violence against pregnant women: the environment according to Levine's nursing theory].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Selma Villas Boas; Moura, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos; Silva, Leila Rangel da; Queiroz, Ana Beatriz Azevedo; Souza, Kleyde Ventura de; Albuquerque, Leônidas Netto

    2015-12-01

    Analyzing the elements that compose the environment of pregnant women who have experienced intimate partner violence in the light of Levine's Nursing Theory. A qualitative, descriptive study conducted from September to January 2012, with nine pregnant women in a Municipal Health Center in Rio de Janeiro. The interviews were semi-structured and individual. The theoretical framework was based on Levine's Nursing Theory. Thematic analysis evidenced the elements that composed the external environment, such as violence perpetrated by intimate partners before and during pregnancy, violence in childhood and adolescence, alcohol consumption and drug use by the partner, unemployment, low education and economic dependency, which affected health and posed risks to the pregnancy. Violence perpetrated by an intimate partner was the main external factor that influenced the internal environment with repercussions on health. This theory represents a tool in nursing care which will aid in detecting cases and the fight against violence.

  3. Intimate partner violence against older women in Germany: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Stöckl, Heidi; Watts, Charlotte; Penhale, Bridget

    2012-09-01

    Violence against women is a recognized human rights and public health issue, with significant impacts on women's life and health. Until now, several studies, most of them relying on small scale samples, have explored the prevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence against older women, whereas few have examined what actually puts older women at risk of intimate partner violence. This study is based on a secondary analysis of the first national survey on violence against women in Germany, looking at the prevalence and associated factors for physical and for sexual violence by the current partners of women aged 50 to 65 and women aged 66 to 86 years. The prevalence of violence in women's current relationships was 12% and 5%, respectively. In both age groups, women who had experienced violence during childhood and nonpartner physical or sexual violence after the age of 16 had higher odds of experiencing current partner violence. Current partner violence was associated only with women and their partner's level of education and women's vocational training among women aged 66 to 86 years. Relationships where one or both partners drank heavily in recent months were associated with higher odds of violence among women aged 50 to 65. Future studies on intimate partner violence need to recognize that women above reproductive risk are also at risk of current partner violence.

  4. Intimate partner violence and breastfeeding in Africa.

    PubMed

    Misch, Emily S; Yount, Kathryn M

    2014-04-01

    We examined the associations of maternal intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization with early initiation and exclusive breastfeeding in eight African countries. For mothers 15-49 years with an infant aged less than 6 months from national Demographic and Health Surveys since 2007 for Ghana (n = 173), Kenya (n = 449), Liberia (n = 313), Malawi (n = 397), Nigeria (n = 2007), Tanzania (n = 549), Zambia (n = 454), and Zimbabwe (n = 480), logistic regression was used to estimate the unadjusted and adjusted associations of lifetime maternal emotional, physical, and sexual IPV victimization with early initiation (less than 1 hour of birth) and exclusive breastfeeding in the prior 24 hours. Maternal lifetime IPV victimization often was adversely associated with optimal breastfeeding practices. Physical IPV in Zimbabwe (aOR 0.40, p = 0.002), sexual IPV in Zambia (aOR 0.42, p = 0.017), and emotional IPV in Kenya (aOR 0.54, p = 0.050) and Tanzania (aOR 0.57, p = 0.088) were associated with lower adjusted odds of early initiation. Sexual IPV in Liberia (aOR 0.09, p = 0.026), Ghana (aOR 0.17, p = 0.033), and Kenya (aOR 0.34, p = 0.085) were associated with lower adjusted odds of exclusive breastfeeding. Atypically, physical IPV in Tanzania (aOR 2.11, p = 0.042) and sexual IPV in Zambia (aOR 2.49, p = 0.025) were associated with higher adjusted odds of early initiation and exclusive breastfeeding, respectively. Across several settings, maternal IPV victimization may adversely influence breastfeeding practices. Longitudinal research of these relationships is warranted. Screening for IPV victimization and breastfeeding counseling in prenatal and postpartum care may mitigate the potential intergenerational effects of IPV.

  5. Intimate partner violence: IPV in the LGBT community.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping-Hsin; Jacobs, Abbie; Rovi, Susan L D

    2013-09-01

    Nationally, the rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) individuals are similar to or greater than rates for heterosexuals. Many have experienced psychological and physical abuse as sexual minorities, making it difficult for them to seek help for IPV. Physician behavior, such as not assuming that all patients are heterosexual, being nonjudgmental, and using inclusive language, can empower LGBT patients to disclose IPV. Also, physicians should ascertain the degree to which the patient is out. The threat of being outed can be an aspect of the power and control exerted by an abusive partner and a significant barrier to seeking help. Physicians should screen for IPV and intervene in a similar manner with LGBT and non-LGBT patients, but they should be aware of potential limitations in resources for LGBT patients, such as shelters. As sexual minorities experiencing IPV, LGBT individuals are at greater risk of depression and substance abuse than are non-LGBT individuals. Minority stress, resulting from stigmatization and discrimination, can be exacerbated by IPV. Physicians should learn about legal issues for LGBT individuals and the availability of community or advocacy programs for LGBT perpetrators or victims of IPV.

  6. Depression and intimate partner violence among college students in Iran.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Akiko; Nourian, Maziar M; Assasnik, Nushean; Franchek-Roa, Kathy

    2016-10-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health threat and causes mental as well as physical health problems. Depression is a common mental health consequence of IPV. While Iran has a high prevalence of IPV and depression, the association between IPV and depression has not been well examined. The Iranian data from the International Dating Violence Study (IDVS) 2001-2006 (ICPSR 29583) were analyzed. Twenty-three male and 75 female college students were selected in the IDVS Iranian data. Nearly all of the participants, male and female, reported being victims and perpetrators of IPV. Female participants were more likely to report depression compared to male participants. Participants who had experienced sexual IPV reported significantly higher levels of depression compared to those who did not experience sexual IPV. However, when substance abuse and partner conflict were analyzed, the contribution of sexual IPV on depression was no longer significant. This study suggests that IPV prevention and intervention programs should take into consideration that college-aged men and women frequently experience and use violence in dating relationships. Depression interventions should be included for female students. Substance abuse and partner conflict are important risk factors for depression.

  7. Intimate partner stalking: Contributions to PTSD symptomatology among a national sample of women veterans.

    PubMed

    Dardis, Christina M; Amoroso, Timothy; Iverson, Katherine M

    2017-08-01

    Women veterans are at high risk for intimate partner violence (IPV), which has previously been defined as psychological, physical, or sexual violence from an intimate partner. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently added stalking to its uniform definition of IPV, but little is known about the occurrence of stalking victimization among women veterans who experience IPV, its overlap with other forms of IPV, and its contribution to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology among this population. Lifetime intimate partner stalking, as well as physical, sexual, and psychological IPV, was assessed as part of a larger study of women veterans who completed a 2014 Web-based survey (75% participation rate). Women with a history of IPV or stalking (55%, n = 225) completed the PTSD Checklist-5 to assess PTSD symptoms related to IPV and items assessing military sexual trauma and combat exposure. Among 225 women veterans with a history of IPV, approximately 64% (n = 145) reported lifetime stalking by an intimate partner. Women who experienced both stalking and other forms of IPV were 4.2 times more likely to experience probable PTSD than were women who experienced IPV without stalking, odds ratio (OR) = 4.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.91, 9.13]. After adjusting for military sexual trauma and lifetime sum of other types of IPV, women who experienced partner stalking remained 2.5 times more likely than women without a history of partner stalking to experience probable PTSD, OR = 2.49, 95% CI [1.07, 5.78]. Stalking from an intimate partner is a common form of IPV experienced by women veterans that strongly contributes to risk for probable PTSD. In addition to other forms of IPV, identification and treatment efforts should attend to stalking victimization among this rapidly growing population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Intimate partner violence adversely impacts health over 16 years and across generations: A longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Loxton, Deborah; Dolja-Gore, Xenia; Anderson, Amy E; Townsend, Natalie

    2017-01-01

    To determine the impact of intimate partner violence on women's mental and physical health over a 16 year period and across three generations. Participants were from the Australian Longitudinal study on Women's Health, a broadly representative national sample of women comprised of three birth cohorts 1973-78, 1946-51 and 1921-26 who were randomly selected from the Australian Medicare (i.e. national health insurer) database in 1996 to participate in the longitudinal health and wellbeing survey. Since baseline, six waves of survey data have been collected. Women from each cohort who had returned all six surveys and had a baseline measure (Survey 1) for intimate partner violence were eligible for the current study. The main outcome of interest was women's physical and mental health, measured using the Medical Outcome Study Short-Form (SF-36). The experience of intimate partner violence was measured using the survey item 'Have you ever been in a violent relationship with a partner/spouse?' Sociodemographic information was also collected. For all cohorts, women who had lived with intimate partner violence were more likely to report poorer mental health, physical function and general health, and higher levels of bodily pain. Some generational differences existed. Younger women showed a reduction in health associated with the onset of intimate partner violence, which was not apparent for women in the older two groups. In addition, the physical health differences between women born 1921-26 who had and had not experienced intimate partner violence tapered off overtime, whereas these differences remained constant for women born 1973-78 and 1946-51. Despite generational differences, intimate partner violence adversely impacted on mental and physical health over the 16 year study period and across generations.

  9. Disparities in intimate partner violence prenatal counseling: setting a baseline for the implementation of the Guidelines for Women's Preventive Services.

    PubMed

    Ta Park, Van M; Hayes, Donald K; Humphreys, Janice

    2014-05-01

    Prenatal health care counseling is associated with positive health outcomes for mothers and infants. Moreover, pregnant women are considered a vulnerable population at risk of being victims of intimate partner violence. Pregnancy provides a unique opportunity to identify and refer women experiencing intimate partner violence to community resources; however, in prior research, most women reported that their prenatal care providers did not talk to them about intimate partner violence. Given the importance for providers to offer prenatal health care counseling on intimate partner violence, it is concerning that there is scant knowledge on Asian, Native Hawaiian, and other Pacific Islander mothers' experiences in this area. The study's objectives were (a) to determine the proportion of mothers who received prenatal health care counseling on intimate partner violence; and, (b) to examine racial differences of those who received prenatal health care counseling on intimate partner violence. Hawai'i's Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) data from 2004-08 were analyzed for 8,120 mothers with information on receipt of intimate partner violence prenatal health care counseling. Overall, 47.7% of mothers were counseled on intimate partner violence. Compared to Whites, Native Hawaiians, Japanese, Chinese, and Koreans were significantly less likely to report receiving prenatal health care counseling in intimate partner violence, but the opposite association was observed for Samoans. Intimate partner violence continues to be a significant problem for women, thus, this study's findings may be used as important baseline data to measure the progress made given the implementation of the new Guidelines for Women's Preventive Services in intimate partner violence screening and counseling.

  10. Intimate Partner Survivors' Help-Seeking and Protection Efforts: A Person-Oriented Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurius, Paula S.; Macy, Rebecca J.; Nwabuzor, Ijeoma; Holt, Victoria L.

    2011-01-01

    Domestic violence advocates and researchers advocate for a survivor-centered approach for assisting women experiencing intimate partner violence (IV), with individualized safety plans and services; yet little empirical work has been done to determine IV survivors' specific combinations of vulnerabilities and assets that might inform such an…

  11. Factors Discriminating among Profiles of Resilience and Psychopathology in Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.; Gruber, Gabrielle; Howell, Kathryn H.; Girz, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the social and emotional adjustment of 219 children in families with varying levels of intimate partner violence (IPV) using a model of risk and protection. To explore factors that differentiate children with poor adjustment from those with resilience. Methodology: Mothers who experienced IPV in the past year and their…

  12. Intimate Partner Survivors' Help-Seeking and Protection Efforts: A Person-Oriented Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurius, Paula S.; Macy, Rebecca J.; Nwabuzor, Ijeoma; Holt, Victoria L.

    2011-01-01

    Domestic violence advocates and researchers advocate for a survivor-centered approach for assisting women experiencing intimate partner violence (IV), with individualized safety plans and services; yet little empirical work has been done to determine IV survivors' specific combinations of vulnerabilities and assets that might inform such an…

  13. The Effects of Change in Spousal Power on Intimate Partner Violence among Chinese Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Xiaochun; Keat, Jane E.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored how changes in power relations within couples after immigrating from more patriarchal societies contribute to intimate partner violence (IPV). Both subjective decision-making power and objective power bases were examined in Chinese immigrant couples. Batterers and nonviolent men both experienced loss of decision-making power in…

  14. Concurrent and Long-Term Impact of Intimate Partner Violence on Employment Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowne, Sarah Shea; Juon, Hee-Soon; Ensminger, Margaret; Burrell, Lori; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Duggan, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) may negatively affect employment outcomes. This study explores the relationship between IPV and employment stability both concurrently and longitudinally among a sample of 512 predominantly Asian American and Pacific Islander young women living in Hawaii. Women in this…

  15. Concurrent and Long-Term Impact of Intimate Partner Violence on Employment Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowne, Sarah Shea; Juon, Hee-Soon; Ensminger, Margaret; Burrell, Lori; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Duggan, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) may negatively affect employment outcomes. This study explores the relationship between IPV and employment stability both concurrently and longitudinally among a sample of 512 predominantly Asian American and Pacific Islander young women living in Hawaii. Women in this…

  16. Factors Discriminating among Profiles of Resilience and Psychopathology in Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.; Gruber, Gabrielle; Howell, Kathryn H.; Girz, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the social and emotional adjustment of 219 children in families with varying levels of intimate partner violence (IPV) using a model of risk and protection. To explore factors that differentiate children with poor adjustment from those with resilience. Methodology: Mothers who experienced IPV in the past year and their…

  17. The Roles of Victim and Perpetrator Alcohol Use in Intimate Partner Violence Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Martie P.; Kingree, J. B.

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol use increases the risk of intimate partner violence (IPV), yet little research has examined its role in victimization outcomes (e.g., physical injury, police reporting). This study examined the roles of perpetrator and victim incident-specific alcohol use in IPV outcomes. The sample included 501 men and 1,756 women who had experienced an…

  18. Intimate-partner homicide among pregnant and postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Diana; Horon, Isabelle L

    2010-06-01

    To identify pregnancy-associated homicide cases and to estimate the proportion that were perpetrated by a current or former intimate partner. This was an analysis of pregnancy-associated homicides occurring from 1993 to 2008 among Maryland residents using linked birth and death certificates, medical examiner charts, police records, and news publications. Homicides (n=110) were the leading cause of death during pregnancy and the first postpartum year. Women who were African American, younger than 25 years, and unmarried were at the highest risk for homicide. Firearms were the most common (61.8%) method of death. A current or former intimate partner was the perpetrator in 54.5% (n=60) of homicide deaths and a nonpartner in 31.8% (n=35). If the cases (n=15) in which the victim-offender relationship could not be identified are excluded, 63.2% of homicides were committed by an intimate partner. Compared with homicides in which the perpetrator was not an intimate partner, a significantly higher percentage (P<.05) of intimate-partner homicides occurred at home (66.7% compared with 28.6%), among women who had completed more than 12 years of education (23.3% compared with 5.7%), and who were married (28.3% compared with 8.6%). Intimate-partner homicides were most prevalent (25.0%) during the first 3 months of pregnancy and least prevalent during the first 3 months postpartum (5.0%). The majority of pregnancy-associated homicides were committed by current or former intimate partners, most commonly during the first 3 months of pregnancy. Efforts to protect women from partners optimally should begin before conception or very early in pregnancy. III.

  19. A comparison of intimate partner violence between Jordanian nurses and Jordanian women.

    PubMed

    Al-Natour, Ahlam; Gillespie, Gordon Lee; Wang, Lihshing Leigh; Felblinger, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is a serious international problem. It is not known if the extent of intimate partner violence for Jordanian nurses is similar to that of Jordanian women. Until the rate is known, implementation of nursing interventions for Jordanian women may be thwarted. The study purpose was to determine the rate of intimate partner violence among Jordanian nurses working in governmental health settings in a northern city of Jordan and to compare the rate to published statistics for a community sample of Jordanian women. A cross-sectional survey design was used for this study. A stratified random sample of 80 Jordanian nurses working in governmental women's health centers and public hospitals in a northern city of Jordan was invited to participate. Institutional review board approval was granted. Participants completed the Woman Abuse Screening Tool in a private room at their work site. No identifiers were added to the survey forms. Chi-squared goodness-of-fit tests were computed to compare the rate of intimate partner violence between the study sample and reported statistics for Jordanian women. Approximately 59% of participants experienced psychological violence, 12.5% experienced physical violence, and 5.1% experienced sexual violence. No significant differences were found in the rates of violence for the study sample and published data for a community sample of Jordanian women. Intimate partner violence is as prevalent against Jordanian nurses as it is for Jordanian women. Intimate partner violence needs to be addressed to prevent potential sequelae such as decreased work productivity and an inability to provide safe patient care.

  20. Intimate partner violence and welfare participation: a longitudinal causal analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tyrone C

    2013-03-01

    This longitudinal study examined the temporal-ordered causal relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV), five mental disorders (depression, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic attack, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]), alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/dependence, treatment seeking (from physician, counselor, and self-help group), employment, child support, and welfare participation. It was a secondary data analysis of records of 571 women; the records were extracted from the study "Violence Against Women and the Role of Welfare Reform" (VAWRWR). Results from generalized estimating equations (GEE) showed that experiencing controlling behaviors reduced likelihood of welfare participation whereas experiencing physical abuse increased it. Significant impact on welfare participation was wielded by panic attack, drug abuse/dependence, and employment; treatment seeking and child support made no significant impact. The study found no significant mediating effect wielded by panic attack, drug abuse/dependence, employment, or child support on welfare participation's relationship to controlling behaviors or physically abusive behaviors experienced. Implications for intervention are discussed.

  1. Physical Intimate Partner Violence and Contraceptive Behaviors Among Young Women.

    PubMed

    Kusunoki, Yasamin; Barber, Jennifer S; Gatny, Heather H; Melendez, Robert

    2017-09-28

    Understanding the link between physical intimate partner violence (IPV) and contraception is key to preventing unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Data from the Relationship Dynamics and Social Life study, a longitudinal study of a racially and socioeconomically diverse population-representative random sample of 18- to 19-year-old women residing in a Michigan county in 2008-2009 and followed weekly through 2011-2012, were used. Logistic regression models of contraceptive behaviors on temporally specific measures of physical violence victimization: recent, history in the current relationship, and history in prior relationships were conducted among 711 women. Women who experienced physical IPV in their current relationship had lower odds of using contraception (odds ratio [OR], 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28, 0.76 for recent; OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.33, 0.83 for past). Condom use was lower among women who experienced past physical IPV in their current relationship (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.26, 0.73), while withdrawal use was higher (OR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.24, 3.19). Women who experienced physical IPV used condoms less consistently (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.13, 0.85 for recent; OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.14, 0.52 for prior relationships). Physical IPV victimization is a dynamic and strong predictor of contraceptive use, method type, and consistency of condom use.

  2. Parenting and Women Arrested for Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Catherine A.; Lehmann, Peter; Dia, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Exploring the relationship between parenting and women's use of violence the current study surveyed 106 mothers arrested for intimate partner violence (IPV) related crimes on parenting styles and attitudes toward when using violence against their partner is justified. Findings indicate parenting styles indicative of low belief in using physical…

  3. Middle School Aggression and Subsequent Intimate Partner Physical Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Lydia; Stueve, Ann; Myint-U, Athi; Duran, Richard; Agronick, Gail; Wilson-Simmons, Renee

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between middle-school aggressive behaviors and young adults' experiences as victims and perpetrators of intimate partner physical violence. As part of the Reach for Health longitudinal study, surveys were conducted with 977 8th graders who were resurveyed as young adults, when lifetime partner violence was…

  4. Female Intimate Partner Violence Survivors' Experiences with Accessing Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Amy L.; Hays, Danica G.; Chang, Catherine Y.

    2010-01-01

    This phenomenological study investigates the types of personal and community resources that female intimate partner violence (IPV) survivors used when leaving an abusive male partner. Three African American and 2 European American IPV survivors, ages 24 to 38 years, described positive and negative experiences with social support, personal…

  5. Parenting and Women Arrested for Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Catherine A.; Lehmann, Peter; Dia, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Exploring the relationship between parenting and women's use of violence the current study surveyed 106 mothers arrested for intimate partner violence (IPV) related crimes on parenting styles and attitudes toward when using violence against their partner is justified. Findings indicate parenting styles indicative of low belief in using physical…

  6. Sexual intimate partner violence as a form of MST: An initial investigation.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Rowena; Foynes, Melissa Ming; Carpenter, S Louisa; Iverson, Katherine M

    2015-11-01

    Military sexual trauma (MST) is known to impact women's health, but little is known about the occurrence of MST perpetrated by a past or current intimate partner. This study identified the occurrence of intimate partner violence (IPV)-related MST in a sample of female veterans. We also examined the associations between MST history (no MST history, IPV-related MST, and MST by a nonintimate partner) and mental and physical health symptoms. Participants were 369 female veteran patients of Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) facilities in the New England region of the United States who completed a larger 2012 mail survey that included validated assessments of MST, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD Checklist) and depressive symptoms (CES-D), and general physical and mental health functioning (Short Form-36). Approximately half (49%) of the women in this sample reported a history of MST, of which 27 (15%) were categorized as IPV-related MST. Few differences in health measures were observed among women with IPV-related MST compared with women who experienced MST by a nonintimate partner or women with no MST history. However, women who experienced IPV-related MST had similarly severe health symptoms as women who reported MST by a nonintimate partner and more severe PTSD symptoms than women without a history of MST. Some women veterans have experienced MST at the hands of an intimate partner and face health impacts. This topic warrants additional attention in clinical and research efforts. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Attachment as a Moderator Between Intimate Partner Violence and PTSD Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Scott, Shelby; Babcock, Julia C

    2010-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms have been linked to traumatic experiences, including intimate partner violence. However, not all battered women develop PTSD symptoms. The current study tests attachment style as a moderator in the abuse-trauma link among a community sample women in violent and non-violent relationships. Both attachment anxiety and dependency were found to moderate the relation between intimate partner violence and PTSD symptoms. However, attachment closeness did not function as a moderator. Differences in attachment may help to explain why certain victims of domestic abuse may be more susceptible to experiencing PTSD symptoms. Clinically, these findings may aid in the prediction and prevention of PTSD symptoms in women victimized by intimate partner abuse.

  8. Intimate partner violence and physical health outcomes among Southeast Asian American women.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ivy K; Dinh, Khanh T; Smith, Sable A

    2015-09-08

    Although intimate partner violence is prevalent among Southeast Asian American women, little is known about the associations between the experience of intimate partner violence and negative health outcomes in this population. Resnick et al. proposed a model explaining the development of health problems following violent assault. This article assesses the applicability of Resnick et al.'s model to Southeast Asian American women who have experienced intimate partner violence by reviewing cultural, historical, and social factors in this population. Our review indicates that the applicability of Resnick et al.'s model to Southeast Asian American women is mixed, with some components of the model fitting well with this population and others requiring a more nuanced and complex perspective. Future studies should take into consideration cultural, historical, and social factors.

  9. Does alcohol involvement increase the severity of intimate partner violence?

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, Christy M.; Caetano, Raul; Rodriguez, Lori A.; Okoro, Ngozi

    2012-01-01

    Background Most studies that have examined alcohol use immediately prior to intimate partner violence (IPV) have been limited to male-to-female partner violence (MFPV) and are subject to a number of methodological limitations. We add new information concerning the relationship between alcohol involvement and severity of IPV, MFPV, and female-to-male partner violence (FMPV). Methods We analyzed data from a 1995 US national population-based survey of couples ≥18 years old. We examined 436 couples who reported IPV and had information on alcohol involvement with IPV. We measured IPV using a revised Conflict Tactics Scale, Form R that asked respondents about 11 violent behaviors in the past year. Respondents were classified into mutually exclusive categories as having experienced mild only or mild+severe (‘severe’) IPV, MFPV or FMPV. Respondents were also asked if they or their partner were drinking at the time the violent behavior occurred and were classified as exposed to IPV with or without alcohol involvement. We estimated proportions, odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals and p-values of the proposed associations, accounting for the complex survey design. Results Overall, 30.2% of couples who reported IPV reported alcohol involved IPV; 69.8% reported no alcohol involvement. In adjusted analyses, those reporting severe (vs. mild only) IPV were more than twice as likely to report alcohol involvement. In adjusted analyses, those reporting severe (vs. mild) MFPV or FMPV were more likely to report female but not male alcohol involvement. Though estimates were positive and strong, most confidence intervals were compatible with a wide range of estimates including no association. Conclusions Our findings suggest alcohol involvement of either or both in the couple increases the risk of severe IPV. Our findings also suggest female alcohol use may play an important role in determining the severity of IPV, MFPV or FMPV. PMID:20102574

  10. Understanding adolescent and family influences on intimate partner psychological violence during emerging adulthood and adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lohman, Brenda J; Neppl, Tricia K; Senia, Jennifer M; Schofield, Thomas J

    2013-04-01

    The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross-sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self-selection, endogeneity, and reporter biases as it has not been able to assess how individual and family behaviors simultaneously experienced during adolescence influence intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. The present study used data from the Iowa Youth and Families Project (IYFP; N = 392; 52 % Female), a multi-method, multi-trait prospective approach, to overcome this limitation. We focused on psychological intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood (19-23 years) and adulthood (27-31 years), and include self and partner ratings of violence as well as observational data in a sample of rural non-Hispanic white families. Controlling for a host of individual risk factors as well as interparental psychological violence from adolescence (14-15 years), the results show that exposure to parent-to-child psychological violence during adolescence is a key predictor of intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. In addition, negative emotionality and the number of sexual partners in adolescence predicted intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood and adulthood. Exposure to family stress was associated positively with intimate partner violence in adulthood but not in emerging adulthood, whereas academic difficulties were found to increase violence in emerging adulthood only. Unlike previous research, results did not support a direct effect of interparental psychological violence on psychological violence in the next generation. Gender differences were found only in emerging adulthood. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of the current literature and future directions.

  11. Understanding Adolescent and Family Influences on Intimate Partner Psychological Violence During Emerging Adulthood and Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Lohman, Brenda J.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Senia, Jennifer M.; Schofield, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross–sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self–selection, endogeneity, and reporter biases as it has not been able to assess how individual and family behaviors simultaneously experienced during adolescence influence intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. The present study used data from the Iowa Youth and Families Project (IYFP; N = 392; 52 % Female), a multi–method, multi–trait prospective approach, to overcome this limitation. We focused on psychological intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood (19 – 23 years) and adulthood (27 – 31 years), and include self and partner ratings of violence as well as observational data in a sample of rural non-Hispanic white families. Controlling for a host of individual risk factors as well as interparental psychological violence from adolescence (14 – 15 years), the results show that exposure to parent–to–child psychological violence during adolescence is a key predictor of intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. In addition, negative emotionality and the number of sexual partners in adolescence predicted intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood and adulthood. Exposure to family stress was associated positively with intimate partner violence in adulthood but not in emerging adulthood, whereas academic difficulties were found to increase violence in emerging adulthood only. Unlike previous research, results did not support a direct effect of interparental psychological violence on psychological violence in the next generation. Gender differences were found only in emerging adulthood. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of the current literature and future directions

  12. Intimate partner violence, consenting to HIV testing and HIV status among Zambian women.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kara A; Ferrance, Jacquelyn L; Masho, Saba W

    2016-09-01

    Sub-Saharan African countries are heavily burdened with HIV, which disproportionately affects women of reproductive age. Extant literature is inconsistent regarding the link between intimate partner violence and HIV. Data from the 2007 Zambian Demographic Health Survey of women aged 15-49 (n = 5014) were analysed. The influence of abuse by a current or former husband on consent to HIV testing and HIV positivity were evaluated. The unadjusted analysis showed a statistically significant association between intimate partner violence and consent to testing for HIV. Stratified analysis showed that there was a statistically significant association between intimate partner violence and HIV testing in rural areas but not in urban areas. However, the association lost its significance when adjusted for confounding factors. No statistically significant association was found between intimate partner violence and HIV-positive status. It is encouraging that women who experienced intimate partner were testing for HIV. Prevention efforts should continue addressing the needs of this population. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Intimate Partner Violence and Maternal Cigarette Smoking Before and During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Diana; Salimi, Shabnam; Terplan, Mishka; Chisolm, Margaret S.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the association of intimate partner violence with maternal cigarette smoking before and during pregnancy. METHODS Data were obtained for 196,391 U.S. mothers who delivered live neonates from 2004–2008 and completed the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System survey 2–9 months postpartum. Intimate partner violence was defined as being physically hurt by a current or expartner in the year before or during pregnancy. Weighted descriptive and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS Compared with nonphysically abused women, those who experienced physical abuse were 2.1 times more likely to smoke before pregnancy (44.0% compared with 21.0%, P<.001) and 2.6 times more likely to smoke during pregnancy (29.6% compared with 11.4%, P<.001). Smoking prevalence during pregnancy was highest for abused women who were non-Hispanic white (42.3% smoked) and lowest for nonabused college graduates (2.2% smoked). Smoking rates more than tripled for college graduates in abusive relationships (2.2% compared with 7.1%). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, abused women were significantly more likely to smoke during pregnancy than nonabused women (adjusted odds ratio 1.95, P<.001, 95% confidence interval 1.80–2.12). CONCLUSION Women who experienced intimate partner violence had significantly higher rates of smoking before pregnancy and were less likely to quit during pregnancy than women who did not experience intimate partner violence. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the U.S. Public Services Task Force recommend routine intimate partner violence screening with appropriate interventions to prevent violence against women, optimize safety, and improve health. Additional and targeted intimate partner violence assessment of women who smoke during pregnancy may prove especially beneficial. PMID:25568990

  14. Intimate partner abuse before and during pregnancy as risk factors for postpartum mental health problems

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although research has established the profound effects that intimate partner abuse can have on postpartum mental health, little is known regarding how this association may change as a function of the timing and type of abuse. This study examined associations of psychological, physical and sexual abuse experienced as adults before and during pregnancy with symptoms of postpartum mental health problems in a non-clinical sample of women. Methods English-speaking mothers aged 18 years and older in the metropolitan area of a large, Western Canadian city were recruited to participate in a study of women’s health after pregnancy. The study was advertised in hospitals, local newspapers, community venues, and relevant websites. One-hundred women completed standardized, self-report questionnaires during semi-structured interviews conducted by female research assistants at approximately 2 months postpartum. In addition to questions about their general health and well-being, participants answered questions about their experiences of intimate partner abuse and about their mental health during the postpartum period. Results Almost two-thirds (61.0%) of women reported postpartum mental health symptoms above normal levels, with 47.0% reporting symptoms at moderate or higher levels. The majority reported some form of intimate partner abuse before pregnancy (84.0%) and more than two-thirds (70.0%), during pregnancy; however, the abuse was typically minor in nature. Multivariate models revealed that women who experienced intimate partner abuse—whether before or during pregnancy—reported higher levels of postpartum mental health problems; however, associations differed as a function of the timing and type of abuse, as well as specific mental health symptoms. Multivariate models also showed that as the number of types of intimate partner abuse experienced increased, so did the negative effects on postpartum mental health. Conclusions Results of this study provide

  15. Older women, intimate partner violence and mental health: a consideration of the particular issues for health and healthcare practice.

    PubMed

    McGarry, Julie; Ali, Parveen; Hinchliff, Sharron

    2017-08-01

    To explore qualitative evidence in older women with a history of intimate partner violence and their accounts and experiences of mental health. Intimate partner violence significantly impacts the health and well-being of women who experience it. However, women who experience intimate partner violence do not form a homogenous group and the effect on older women has not been adequately distinguished. While there is a growing body of evidence to address this deficit, studies to date have tended to concentrate on older women's experiences of intimate partner violence in totality and as such mental health issues have been subsumed as a part of the whole. Meta-ethnographic synthesis of qualitative evidence. A systematic search of PUBMED, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, COCHRANE, Medline and PsycInfo, Sci was completed. The search included articles published up until the end of December 2015. The review identified that intimate partner violence exerts a significant impact on the mental health of older women. Intimate partner violence for women in later life is inherently complex, especially where the boundaries of violence and vulnerability have been blurred historically both within the intimate partner violence discourse and through provision and practice. This study adds to the developing knowledge and understanding of intimate partner violence for older women as a part of the growing body of evidence of the impact of intimate partner violence on the health and well-being of those who experience abuse more generally. When age and gender intersect with intimate partner violence, there are specific implications and health professionals and service providers need to be aware of these. urses and healthcare professionals are professionally accountable for the effective management and support of women who have experienced abuse. It is therefore crucial that they are able to understand and identify the possible complexity of presentations of abuse and

  16. The intergenerational transmission of intimate partner violence in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, Towfiqua Mahfuza; Tareque, Md Ismail; Tiedt, Andrew D; Hoque, Nazrul

    2014-01-01

    A number of individual risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) have been identified in Bangladesh. However, the etiology of IPV, intergenerational transmission, has never been tested in Bangladesh. We examined whether witnessing inter-parental physical violence (IPPV) was associated with IPV to identify whether IPV passes across generations in Bangladesh. We used nationally representative data of currently married women from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey-2007. Variations in experiencing IPV were assessed by Chi-square tests. Logistic regression models were fit to determine the association between witnessing IPPV and different types of IPV against women. One-fourth of women witnessed IPPV and experienced IPV. After adjusting for the covariates, women who witnessed IPPV were 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0-2.8) times more likely to experience any kind of IPV, 2.5 (95% CI: 2.0-3.0) times more likely to experience moderate physical IPV, 2.3 (95% CI: 1.8-3.0) times more likely to experience severe physical IPV, and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.4-2.3) times more likely to experience sexual IPV. Age, age at first marriage, literacy, work status, wealth, justified wife beating, and women's autonomy were also identified as significant correlates of IPV. This study's results indicate that IPV passes from one generation to another. We make recommendations for preventing IPPV so that subsequent generations can enjoy healthy, respectful, nonviolent relationships in married life without exposure to IPV in Bangladesh.

  17. Children's physical health complaints after exposure to intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Lamers-Winkelman, Francien; De Schipper, J Clasien; Oosterman, Mirjam

    2012-11-01

    A clear association between exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) and children's physical health is still not well determined, because adverse effects might be explained by the confounding detrimental effects of other traumatic experiences. This study investigated whether children exposed to IPV have higher risks for physical health complaints compared to children in a general population sample. Second, health complaint differences were explored between IPV witnesses and those who in addition experienced other forms of abuse or neglect. Risk estimates for 21 everyday physical health complaints were made for children exposed to IPV compared to a general population sample using odds ratios. Primary caregivers of 275 child witnesses of IPV (6-12 years of age) referred to several specialized mental health or child welfare institutes throughout the Netherlands (2004-2009) reported on children's somatic complaints using 21 items of the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001) reflecting sleeping, eating, pain complaints, and self-harm. Compared to a population sample (n= 903), child witnesses more often experienced health complaints, in particular, more eating, sleeping, and pain problems and more self-harm. Few differences in health complaints were found between child witnesses with and without additional adverse experiences of maltreatment. The degree of physical health complaints in children exposed to IPV is considerable, whether or not they were also victims of other forms of abuse. Early attention to everyday health complaints in children exposed to IPV might prevent more serious health problems in adolescence and adulthood. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Intimate partner violence and suicidal ideation in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Frohman, N; Purcell, Genevieve

    2015-08-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is a major public health issue with significant implications for maternal mental health. Less studied is the association between IPV during pregnancy and suicidal ideation. This study reports the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation among low-income pregnant women receiving prenatal care at a university obstetrical clinic from February 2009 to March 2010. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 166 women surveyed between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS). Multiple logistic regression identified factors associated with antenatal suicidal ideation. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 22.89 %. In the fully adjusted model, antenatal depressive symptomatology (OR = 17.04; 95 % CI 2.10-38.27) and experiencing IPV (OR = 9.37; 95 % CI 3.41-25.75) were significantly associated with an increased risk of antenatal suicidal ideation. The prevalence of antenatal suicidal ideation in the current study was higher than other population-based samples though this sample was predominantly single, low-income, and 19 % experienced IPV during pregnancy. Given the strong association of antenatal suicidal ideation, depressive symptomatology, and IPV, health care providers are urged to identify those women at risk so that antenatal care can be tailored to best support optimal maternal and neonatal outcomes.

  19. Early Maladaptive Schemas of Substance Abusers and their Intimate Partners

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of intimate partners in the recovery of substance abuse has been increasingly recognized in the professional literature. Couples-based substance abuse treatment has demonstrated effectiveness in reducing substance abuse and increasing healthy couple functioning. Recently, research has begun to investigate enduring cognitive beliefs that may impact substance abusers and their intimate partners, which could advance our understanding of factors that may impact couple’s functioning. The current study examined the early maladaptive schemas and substance use of a sample of adult substance abusers who have sought residential substance abuse treatment and their intimate partners (N = 102). Results demonstrated that the early maladaptive schemas of patients and their intimate partners may be interrelated and that patients scored significantly higher than their partners on 13 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas. Substance use was only associated with a few early maladaptive schemas. These findings highlight the potential importance of assessing early maladaptive schemas in couples where one partner has a substance abuse problem. Implications of these findings for future research are discussed. PMID:24175492

  20. Early maladaptive schemas of substance abusers and their intimate partners.

    PubMed

    Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2013-01-01

    The influence of intimate partners in the recovery of substance abuse has been increasingly recognized in the professional literature. Couples-based substance abuse treatment has demonstrated effectiveness in reducing substance abuse and increasing healthy couple functioning. Recently, research has begun to investigate enduring cognitive beliefs that may impact substance abusers and their intimate partners, which could advance our understanding of factors that may impact couple's functioning. The current study examined the early maladaptive schemas and substance use of a sample of adult substance abusers who have sought residential substance abuse treatment and their intimate partners (N = 102). Results demonstrated that the early maladaptive schemas of patients and their intimate partners may be interrelated and that patients scored significantly higher than their partners on 13 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas. Substance use was only associated with a few early maladaptive schemas. These findings highlight the potential importance of assessing early maladaptive schemas in couples where one partner has a substance abuse problem. Implications of these findings for future research are discussed.

  1. Lovestruck: women, romantic love and intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Power, Charmaine; Koch, Tina; Kralik, Debbie; Jackson, Debra

    2006-05-01

    Intimate Partner Violence remains a significant problem globally despite health promotion aimed at raising awareness. In particular, there is a current trend for many young women to view some abusive/violent behaviours as acceptable in their relationships. Intimate Partner Violence has serious implications for its short and long term impacts on the health of women and children. Health workers may find working with women a challenging and sometimes frustrating experience. A way forward is to develop clearer understandings of the complexities of Intimate Partner Violence and to better understand women's investments in romantic relationships. In this paper a secondary analysis of data from a narrative study of women's recovery from IPV relationships is presented in order to illustrate discourses that inform underpinnings of romantic relationships. Transcriptions of audio-taped interviews were analysed using a feminist post-structural approach in order to make visible the ways in which the women negotiated their identities in the discourses of femininity. A critical review of current literature was also undertaken to develop the construct of romantic love. Women revealed that cues for Intimate Partner Violence were present early in the relationship but were not recognised at the time. Two positions within the discourse of romantic love were identified that underpinned their desires to establish and invest in the relationship despite the presence of cues for Intimate Partner Violence. These were 'Desperate for a man' and interpreting jealousy as a sign of love. Romantic love may be desirable for the sharing of warmth, safety and protection, and yet can mask behaviours that are cues for domestic violence. Understanding the complex nature of the ways that women's desires are located in the discourse of romantic love has implications for all nurses working to prevent and reduce the incidence of Intimate Partner Violence.

  2. Emergency healthcare experiences of women living with intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Reisenhofer, Sonia; Seibold, Carmel

    2013-08-01

    To explore healthcare experiences of Australian women living with intimate partner violence (IPV) and consider how these influence their understanding of IPV and sense of self. Despite international campaigns condemning violence against women, IPV remains a worldwide problem and recent Australian community attitudes demonstrate ongoing beliefs condemning women in abusive relationships. Women experiencing IPV are over-represented in healthcare-seeking populations; however, they are rarely identified as experiencing abuse and are often not provided care directed towards achieving ongoing safety. While women seek empathetic healthcare, disclosure of abuse often results in being judged negatively or blamed. A grounded theory study drawing on Clarke's (Sage Publications, London, 2005) analytic approach of situational analysis. Semi-structured interviews conducted with seven women. Data was analysed using NVIVO 8 software within a Situational Analysis framework. Four major categories were identified: Accessing healthcare: challenges and barriers; Care women need vs. care women receive; Discourses of IPV and constructions of self; and Acknowledging IPV: moving on and re-constructing self. Women faced significant challenges in accessing emergency healthcare and healthcare then often lacked empathy. Women created an understanding of self from a world dominated by an abusive partner and needed assistance re-labelling their experiences as IPV. Healthcare professionals who provided empathetic care were instrumental in assisting this process, enhancing women's abilities to explore options for limiting abuse and assisting them to enhance their self-efficacy and reconstruct a positive sense of self. Healthcare is one of the few avenues women living with IPV have to receive emotional and physical support. Healthcare that ignores psychosocial issues further damages women's sense of self. Women require timely information and empathetic support from healthcare professionals to assist

  3. Experience of Hurricane Katrina and reported intimate partner violence

    PubMed Central

    Harville, Emily W.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Tesfai, Helen; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with stress, but few studies have examined the effect of natural disaster on IPV. In this study, we examine the relationship between experience of Hurricane Katrina and reported relationship aggression and violence in a cohort of 123 postpartum women. Hurricane experience was measured using a series of questions about damage, injury, and danger during the storm; IPV was measured using the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS-2). Multiple log-poisson regression was used to calculate relative risks, adjusted for potential confounders. Most reported that they and their partners had explained themselves to each other, showed each other respect, and also insulted, swore, or shouted during conflicts with each other. Much smaller proportions reported physical violence, sexual force, or destroying property, though in each case at least 5% endorsed that it had happened at least once in the last six months. Similar proportions reported that they and their partners had carried out these actions. Experiencing damage due to the storm was associated with increased likelihood of most conflict tactics. Strong relative risks were seen for the relationship between damage due to the storm and aggression or violence, especially being insulted, sworn, shouted, or yelled at (adjusted relative risk [aRR]1.23, 1.02–1.48), pushed, shoved, or slapped (aRR 5.28, 95% CI 1.93–14.45), or being punched, kicked, or beat up (aRR 8.25, 1.68–40.47). Our results suggest that certain experiences of the hurricane are associated with an increased likelihood of violent methods of conflict resolution. Relief and medical workers may need to be aware of the possibility of increased IPV after disaster. PMID:20495099

  4. Experience of Hurricane Katrina and reported intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Harville, Emily W; Taylor, Catherine A; Tesfai, Helen; Xu Xiong; Buekens, Pierre

    2011-03-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with stress, but few studies have examined the effect of natural disaster on IPV. In this study, the authors examine the relationship between experience of Hurricane Katrina and reported relationship aggression and violence in a cohort of 123 postpartum women. Hurricane experience is measured using a series of questions about damage, injury, and danger during the storm; IPV was measured using the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS-2). Multiple log-poisson regression was used to calculate relative risks (RRs), adjusted for potential confounders. Most participants report that they and their partners had explained themselves to each other, showed each other respect, and also insulted, swore, or shouted during conflicts with each other. A few participants report physical violence, sexual force, or destroying property, though in each case at least 5% endorse that it had happened at least once in the last 6 months. Another few report that they and their partners had carried out these actions. Experiencing damage due to the storm is associated with increased likelihood of most conflict tactics. Strong RRs are seen for the relationship between damage due to the storm and aggression or violence, especially being insulted, sworn, shouted, or yelled at (adjusted relative risk [aRR] = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.02-1.48); pushed, shoved, or slapped (aRR = 5.28, 95% CI = 1.93-14.45); or being punched, kicked, or beat up (aRR = 8.25, 95% CI = 1.68-40.47). Results suggest that certain experiences of the hurricane are associated with an increased likelihood of violent methods of conflict resolution. Relief and medical workers may need to be aware of the possibility of increased IPV after disaster.

  5. Intimate partner and nonpartner violence against pregnant women in rural Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Small, Maria J.; Gupta, Jhumka; Frederic, Rikerdy; Joseph, Gabriel; Theodore, Melanie; Kershaw, Trace

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between violence experienced by pregnant Haitian women in the previous 6 months and pregnancy-related symptom distress. Methods A total of 200 women seeking prenatal care at community health dispensaries in the Artibonite Valley were interviewed. Results Over 4 in 10 women (44.0%) reported that they had experienced violence in the 6 months prior to interview; 77.8% of these women reported that the violence was perpetrated by an intimate partner. Those who experienced intimate partner violence reported significantly greater pregnancy-related symptom distress (β=0.23, P=0.001). No significant differences between violence perpetrated by family members or others and reporting of symptoms were observed (β=0.06, P=0.38). Conclusion The findings indicate the need to integrate violence screening, resources, and primary prevention into prenatal care in rural Haiti. PMID:18675418

  6. DOES NEIGHBORHOOD ENVIRONMENT DIFFERENTIATE INTIMATE PARTNER FEMICIDES FROM OTHER FEMICIDES?

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Kirsten M. M.; Layde, Peter M.; Hamberger, L. Kevin; Laud, Purushottam W.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association between neighborhood-level factors and intimate partner femicide (IPF) using Wisconsin Violent Death Reporting System (WVDRS) data and Wisconsin Coalition Against Domestic Violence (WCADV) reports, in concert with neighborhood-level information. After controlling for individual characteristics, neighborhood-level disadvantage was associated with a decreased likelihood of IPF status, as compared to other femicides, while neighborhood-level residential instability was associated with an increased likelihood of IPF status. Neighborhood plays a role in differentiating IPFs from other femicides in our study area. Our findings demonstrate the importance of multilevel strategies for understanding and reducing the burden of intimate partner violence. PMID:25540251

  7. Does neighborhood environment differentiate intimate partner femicides from other femicides?

    PubMed

    Beyer, Kirsten M M; Layde, Peter M; Hamberger, L Kevin; Laud, Purushottam W

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association between neighborhood-level factors and intimate partner femicide (IPF) using Wisconsin Violent Death Reporting System (WVDRS) data and Wisconsin Coalition Against Domestic Violence (WCADV) reports, in concert with neighborhood-level information. After controlling for individual characteristics, neighborhood-level disadvantage was associated with a decreased likelihood of IPF status, as compared with other femicides, whereas neighborhood-level residential instability was associated with an increased likelihood of IPF status. Neighborhood plays a role in differentiating IPFs from other femicides in our study area. Our findings demonstrate the importance of multilevel strategies for understanding and reducing the burden of intimate partner violence.

  8. Intimate partner violence prevention and reduction: A review of literature.

    PubMed

    Ogunsiji, Olayide; Clisdell, Emma

    2017-02-02

    In this literature review, we present a synthesis of interventions for Intimate partner violence (IPV) among migrants. Searching through five databases for relevant articles published between 2005 and 2016, we report findings from ten relevant articles with focus on process, outcomes and challenges encountered. Our reported interventions mainly targeted survivors, perpetrators and primary level of prevention. The authors argued that grounding interventions on intimate partner violence within the cultural context of migrant population is crucial in increasing participants' engagement and obtaining a positive outcome. We suggest culturally appropriate IPV interventions with embedded strategies for evaluation among migrants.

  9. Strengthening resources for midlife and older rural women who experience intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Lori E; Macquarrie, Colleen; Begley, Lorraine; Gill, Carmen; Leblanc, Kristal D

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about midlife and older women who experience intimate partner violence living in rural places and their resource needs. Guided by a strengths perspective, we provided insights into resources that midlife and older women use, or would like to use, in their journey in leaving an abusive partner. Eight women who had left an abusive partner participated in a face-to-face interview. They drew on a wide variety of paid and unpaid resources, while each woman had a unique set of resources that contributed to her being able to make such a significant life transition. It is clear that we need to have a variety of formal and informal resources available to older women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) in rural places, and new forms of resources need to be developed. Our results also indicate that increased efforts are needed in improving both public and professional education regarding older rural women and IPV.

  10. Intimate partner violence among women of childbearing age in a primary health care centre in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ilika, Amobi L; Okonkwo, Prosper I; Adogu, Prosper

    2002-12-01

    This study assessed the prevalence and characteristics of intimate partner violence among women of childbearing age in a primary health centre. With interviewer-administered questionnaire, information on partner violence was elicited from three hundred women of childbearing age selected by systematic sampling in a primary health care (PHC) centre. Over 40% had experienced violence within the last 12 months. Type of marriage and partner's education had effect on violence. Perceived reasons for violence were economic demand (56.1%), reproductive issues (42.5%), alcohol and drugs (61.2%). Forty eight per cent reported to family members. Only 1% reported to the Police. Intimate partner violence is a prevalent public health problem in eastern Nigeria. Health workers and social organisations should recognise the problem and offer necessary support, and women should be empowered to navigate through the problem.

  11. Sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, and condom use among minority urban girls.

    PubMed

    Teitelman, Anne M; Ratcliffe, Sarah J; Morales-Aleman, Mercedes M; Sullivan, Cris M

    2008-12-01

    This study examined the association between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, and condom use among African American and Hispanic urban girls. In this sample of 56 sexually active girls, 50% did not use condoms consistently and therefore were at higher risk for acquiring HIV or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Teens who experienced more intimate partner violence had a significantly higher likelihood of inconsistent condom use and therefore a greater risk for HIV/STDs. Girls' sense of sexual control in their relationships was not directly associated with inconsistent condom use but was inversely related to verbal and emotional abuse. Interventions aimed at reducing HIV/STD risk for adolescent girls need to address patterns of dominance and control in adolescent relationships as well as multiple forms of partner violence. This suggests the need for multilevel intervention approaches that promote girls' agency and multiple ways to keep girls safe from perpetrators of partner abuse.

  12. Intimate partner violence against women in the Erbil city of the Kurdistan region, Iraq

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Violence against women is a worldwide problem and serious human rights abuse that occurs among all social, cultural, economic and religious groups. There is a paucity of research on intimate partner violence against women in Iraq, particularly in the Kurdistan region. This study assessed the prevalence of emotional, physical and sexual intimate partner violence against women and the impact of physical violence in Erbil, the main city of the Iraqi Kurdistan region. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on a convenience sample of 800 Kurdish ever married women. Women (aged 16 to 65 years) attending two public hospitals in Erbil city for reproductive health problems were included in the study. The study was conducted between 1st of October 2009 and 30th of March 2011. Each woman was seen only once. Intimate partner violence was assessed by administering a modified version of the World Health Organization’s domestic violence questionnaire through direct interview by a female doctor. Prevalence of intimate partner violence was assessed by timing (lifetime or past year), frequency (once, 2–5 times, > 5 times), and type (emotional, physical, and sexual violence). Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted with calculation of frequencies and percentages of women who reported different types, severities and impact of intimate partner violence. Results The prevalence of the overall lifetime and the overall past year intimate partner violence against women was 58.6% and 45.3%, respectively. The proportions of women experienced at least one form of lifetime intimate partner violence were: 52.6% for emotional abuse; 38.9% for physical violence; and 21.1% for sexual violence, while 43.3%, 15.1%, and 12.1% of women experienced at least one form of past year emotional, physical and sexual violence, respectively. Among those with lifetime physical violence, 11.6% were subjected to more serious injuries like stab wound, broken teeth or broken bones

  13. Education and Income Imbalances Among Married Couples in Malawi as Predictors for Likelihood of Physical and Emotional Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Bonnes, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is a social and public health problem that is prevalent across the world. In many societies, power differentials in relationships, often supported by social norms that promote gender inequality, lead to incidents of intimate partner violence. Among other factors, both a woman's years of education and educational differences between a woman and her partner have been shown to have an effect on her likelihood of experiencing intimate partner abuse. Using the 2010 Malawian Demographic and Health Survey data to analyze intimate partner violence among 3,893 married Malawian women and their husbands, this article focuses on understanding the effect of educational differences between husband and wife on the likelihood of physical and emotional abuse within a marriage. The results from logistic regression models show that a woman's level of education is a significant predictor of her likelihood of experiencing intimate partner violence by her current husband, but that this effect is contingent on her husband's level of education. This study demonstrates the need to educate men alongside of women in Malawi to help decrease women's risk of physical and emotional intimate partner violence.

  14. Integrated treatment options for male perpetrators of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Crane, Cory A; Easton, Caroline J

    2017-01-01

    Male-to-female intimate partner violence remains a worldwide public health issue with adverse physical and psychological consequences for victims, perpetrators and children. Personality disorders, addiction, trauma and mood symptoms are established risk factors for intimate partner violence perpetration and factor prominently into a recovery-oriented treatment approach. We reviewed the partner violence literature for detailed reports of traditional as well as innovative, integrated treatment approaches. Empirically based recommendations for intervention programs and the policies that guide intervention efforts are offered. Nascent research suggests that integrated treatment models utilising a holistic approach to account for psychological comorbidity and interventions that involve a motivational interviewing component appear promising in terms of significantly improving intimate partner violence treatment compliance and reducing subsequent acts of physical partner violence. Further, methodologically rigorous research is required to fully assess the benefits of traditional and integrated treatment options. We have advanced several recommendations, including the development of and exclusive reliance upon empirically supported treatments, conducting a thorough risk and needs assessment of the offender and the immediate family to facilitate appropriate treatment referrals, integrating content to foster the offender's internal motivation to change maladaptive behaviours, and attempting to minimise offender treatment burdens through the strategic use of integrated treatment models. Intimate partner violence is a complicated and nuanced problem that is perpetrated by a heterogeneous population and requires greater variability in integrated treatment options. [Crane CA, Easton CJ. Integrated treatment options for male perpetrators of intimate partner violence. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:24-33]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  15. Power, control, and intimate partner sexual violence in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Gage, Anastasia J; Hutchinson, Paul L

    2006-02-01

    This study sought to determine how power and control in intimate relationships influenced women's exposure to sexual violence. Multilevel modeling was used to determine the risk of partner sexual violence in the past 12 months among 2240 women aged 15-49 years who were currently married or cohabiting. The data were drawn from the 2000 Haiti Demographic and Health Survey. Strong positive effects on intimate partner sexual violence were found for husband's jealousy and perpetration of controlling behavior and women's endorsement of traditional norms concerning a husband's rights to beat his wife. Female dominance in decision making about purchases for daily household needs was positively associated with intimate partner sexual violence but its effects were mediated by relationship quality. The effect of wife's education on intimate partner violence was nonlinear. The analysis also showed that high community female headship rates were independently associated with higher risks of partner sexual violence. The findings highlight the importance of adopting a multidimensional approach to the measurement of power in sexual relationships and the need for programs to work at multiple levels to address gender-based norms and the structural factors that put women at increased risk of sexual violence.

  16. Establishing the Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence Among Hair Salon Clients.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Rebecca F; DiVietro, Susan C; Dunn, Maureen; Bentivegna, Kathryn; Clough, Meghan E; Lapidus, Garry D; Joseph, D'Andrea K

    2017-09-27

    This study determined prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization among female clients at three hair salons in Connecticut using an anonymous tablet based screening tool. While many may assume that women receive services at hair salons, victims of IPV are often isolated by their partners and unable to access help. Of the 203 clients who participated, 40 (20%) had experienced IPV in her lifetime. In identifying the prevalence of IPV within the salon setting, this study provides support for community-based programs and supports their legitimacy as an important locus for identifying women experiencing IPV and connecting them to resources.

  17. A Systematic Review of Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Capaldi, Deborah M.; Knoble, Naomi B.; Shortt, Joann Wu; Kim, Hyoun K.

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review of risk factors for intimate partner violence was conducted. Inclusion criteria included publication in a peer-reviewed journal, a representative community sample or a clinical sample with a control-group comparison, a response rate of at least 50%, use of a physical or sexual violence outcome measure, and control of confounding factors in the analyses. A total of 228 articles were included (170 articles with adult and 58 with adolescent samples). Organized by levels of a dynamic developmental systems perspective, risk factors included: (a) contextual characteristics of partners (demographic, neighborhood, community and school factors), (b) developmental characteristics and behaviors of the partners (e.g., family, peer, psychological/behavioral, and cognitive factors), and (c) relationship influences and interactional patterns. Comparisons to a prior review highlight developments in the field in the past 10 years. Recommendations for intervention and policy along with future directions for intimate partner violence (IPV) risk factor research are presented. PMID:22754606

  18. A Scoping Review of Intimate Partner Violence Screening Programs for Health Care Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Sprague, Sheila; Slobogean, Gerard P.; Spurr, Hayley; McKay, Paula; Scott, Taryn; Arseneau, Erika; Memon, Muzammil; Bhandari, Mohit; Swaminathan, Aparna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Between 38 and 59 percent of women presenting to health care professionals have experienced intimate partner violence. Consequently, multiple intimate partner violence identification or screening programs within health care settings have been developed; however, substantial variations in program content and interpretation of program effectiveness has resulted in conflicting practice guidelines. The purpose of our scoping review is to broadly identify and synthesize the available literature evaluating intimate partner violence identification programs within health care settings to identify key areas for potential evidence-based recommendations and to focus research priorities in the field. Materials and Methods We conducted a search of MEDLINE, Embase, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and psycINFO. We used broad eligibility criteria to identify studies that evaluated intimate partner violence identification programs in health care settings. We completed all screening and data extraction independently and in duplicate. We used descriptive statistics to summarize all data. Results We identified 59 eligible studies evaluating intimate partner violence identification programs within health care settings. The most commonly reported outcome themes were IPV disclosure (69%, n = 35), number of patients screened (39%, n = 20), HCP opinions towards screening (37%, n = 19), and patient opinions towards screening (29%, n = 15). The majority of studies (36 studies (70.6%)) reported positive program evaluation results. Discussion The majority of studies reported positive program evaluation results. This may suggest that many different intimate partner violence identification programs are beneficial for identifying victims of abuse, however, it remains unknown as to whether identification programs prevent future episodes of abuse. Additionally, the

  19. Substantiated Childhood Maltreatment and Intimate Partner Violence Victimization in Young Adulthood: A Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Kisely, Steve; Williams, Gail Marilyn; Clavarino, Alexandra Marie; Najman, Jackob Moses

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the associations between various types of childhood maltreatment and multiple forms of intimate partner violence victimization in early adulthood. This study examines the extent to which childhood experiences of maltreatment increase the risk for intimate partner violence victimization in early adulthood. Data for the present study are from 3322 young adults (55 % female) of the Mater Hospital-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy with the mean age of 20.6 years. The Mater Hospital-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy is a prospective Australian pre-birth cohort study of mothers consecutively recruited during their first antenatal clinic visit at Brisbane's Mater Hospital from 1981 through to 1983. Participants completed the Composite Abuse Scale at 21-year follow-up and linked this dataset to agency recorded substantiated cases of childhood maltreatment. In adjusted models, the odds of reporting emotional intimate partner violence victimization were 1.84, 2.64 and 3.19 times higher in physically abused, neglected and emotionally abused children, respectively. Similarly, the odds of physical intimate partner violence victimization were 1.76, 2.31, 2.74 and 2.76 times higher in those children who had experienced physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect and emotional abuse, respectively. Harassment was 1.63 times higher in emotionally abused children. The odds of severe combined abuse were 3.97 and 4.62 times greater for emotionally abused and neglected children, respectively. The strongest associations involved reports of child emotional abuse and neglect and multiple forms of intimate partner violence victimization in young adulthood. Childhood maltreatment is a chronic adversity that is associated with specific and multiple forms of intimate partner violence victimization in adulthood.

  20. A Scoping Review of Intimate Partner Violence Screening Programs for Health Care Professionals.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Sheila; Slobogean, Gerard P; Spurr, Hayley; McKay, Paula; Scott, Taryn; Arseneau, Erika; Memon, Muzammil; Bhandari, Mohit; Swaminathan, Aparna

    2016-01-01

    Between 38 and 59 percent of women presenting to health care professionals have experienced intimate partner violence. Consequently, multiple intimate partner violence identification or screening programs within health care settings have been developed; however, substantial variations in program content and interpretation of program effectiveness has resulted in conflicting practice guidelines. The purpose of our scoping review is to broadly identify and synthesize the available literature evaluating intimate partner violence identification programs within health care settings to identify key areas for potential evidence-based recommendations and to focus research priorities in the field. We conducted a search of MEDLINE, Embase, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and psycINFO. We used broad eligibility criteria to identify studies that evaluated intimate partner violence identification programs in health care settings. We completed all screening and data extraction independently and in duplicate. We used descriptive statistics to summarize all data. We identified 59 eligible studies evaluating intimate partner violence identification programs within health care settings. The most commonly reported outcome themes were IPV disclosure (69%, n = 35), number of patients screened (39%, n = 20), HCP opinions towards screening (37%, n = 19), and patient opinions towards screening (29%, n = 15). The majority of studies (36 studies (70.6%)) reported positive program evaluation results. The majority of studies reported positive program evaluation results. This may suggest that many different intimate partner violence identification programs are beneficial for identifying victims of abuse, however, it remains unknown as to whether identification programs prevent future episodes of abuse. Additionally, the substantial heterogeneity of the intervention characteristics

  1. Denial, Minimization, Partner Blaming, and Intimate Aggression in Dating Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Katreena; Straus, Murray

    2007-01-01

    Although countering denial, minimization, and externalization of blame is a key component of most interventions for individuals who have been abusive in their intimate relationships, these attributions have only seldom been the focus of empirical investigation. Using a sample of 139 male and female university students, this study examined the…

  2. Denial, Minimization, Partner Blaming, and Intimate Aggression in Dating Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Katreena; Straus, Murray

    2007-01-01

    Although countering denial, minimization, and externalization of blame is a key component of most interventions for individuals who have been abusive in their intimate relationships, these attributions have only seldom been the focus of empirical investigation. Using a sample of 139 male and female university students, this study examined the…

  3. HIV-related intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Hyginus, Ezegwui; Chukwuemeka, Iyoke; Lawrence, Ikeako; Sunday, Mbah

    2012-03-01

    To compare the prevalences and patterns of intimate partner violence between HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant women receiving prenatal care at a tertiary hospital in South East Nigeria A comparative cross-sectional study of HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant women was done. Statistical analysis was by descriptive and inferential statistics at 95% level of confidence A total of 220 pregnant women studied. These were equally divided between HIV-positive women (cases) and HIV-negative women (controls). Cases did not differ significantly from controls with respect to age, parity, tribe, religion, marital status, monthly family income. HIV positive respondents experienced physical violence in the course of the index pregnancy six times more than controls; sexual violence about 4 times more than controls and were 12 times more likely to be denied sex by their partner compared to controls. Threat of being hurt, deprivation of financial support and denial of communication were the commonest forms of intimate partner violence among HIV-positive pregnant women and these also occurred significantly more among HIV positive women than the controls. HIV-positive status predisposes pregnant women to increased intimate partner violence more of emotional nature further underlying the enormity of social rejection suffered as a result of HIV infection. Intimate partner violence screening should form part of their routine antenatal care

  4. A hospital-based study of intimate partner violence during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sandhya; Varshney, Khushboo; Vaid, Neelam B; Guleria, Kiran; Vaid, Keya; Sharma, Neha

    2017-04-01

    To determine the prevalence and types of intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy, factors linked with IPV, and effects of IPV on maternal-fetal outcomes. In a prospective observational study at a tertiary care hospital in Delhi, India, 400 women at 20-28 weeks of pregnancy were screened for IPV between December 2013 and April 2015. The women completed a detailed questionnaire and were followed up until delivery. Overall, 49 (12.3%) women experienced IPV during pregnancy. The most prevalent type of IPV was emotional (43/400 [10.7%]), followed by physical (40/400 [10.0%]) and sexual (7/400 [1.8%]). The most prevalent factor triggering IPV was intimate partner's desire for a son (17/49 [34.7%]). Women and their intimate partners were older in the IPV group than in the control group, and duration of marriage was longer (P<0.05 for all). Multigravidity, lower socioeconomic status, low education level of intimate partner, and partners' addiction were more common in the IPV group (P<0.05 for all). Obstetric outcomes were similar in both groups. Depression was diagnosed in 19 (46.3%) women affected by IPV. IPV was documented in approximately 12% of participants. Population-based surveys need to be done to investigate further. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  5. Prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence among women in Recife/Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Barros, Érika Neves; Silva, Maria Arleide; Falbo Neto, Gilliatt Hanois; Lucena, Sara Gomes; Ponzo, Lucas; Pimentel, Amanda Patrícia

    2016-02-01

    Intimate partner violence is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among women. Although there are no official statistics, data reveal a high prevalence worldwide. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence among women in a community in Recife, Pernambuco. A cross-sectional cohort study was conducted with 245 women in the 15 to 49-year age bracket. A questionnaire with sociodemographic variables was used, together with the WHO Violence Against Women (VAW) study tools and the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). The participants all signed an informed consent form. The prevalence of intimate partner violence was classified by type of violence: emotional - 52.7%; physical - 46.1 %; and sexual - 13.6%. Bivariate analysis revealed an association between experiencing violence with not having a partner (p = 0.001) and drug use (p ≤ 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the variables were strongly associated with the outcome: sexual intercourse for fear (OR 5.58); depressive-anxious mood (OR 2.69); drug use (OR 2.57). A high prevalence of intimate partner violence in the community, especially emotional violence, emerges as an important finding, indicating the need for care in prevention and the overall health of this population.

  6. Intimate partner violence and incidence of common mental disorder

    PubMed Central

    de Mendonça, Marcela Franklin Salvador; Ludermir, Ana Bernarda

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of intimate partner violence against women reported in the last 12 months and seven years with the incidence of common mental disorders. METHODS A prospective cohort study with 390 women from 18 to 49 years, registered in the Family Health Program of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco; from July 2013 to December 2014. The Self Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) assessed mental health. Intimate partner violence consists of concrete acts of psychological, physical or sexual violence that the partner inflicts on the woman. Poisson regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted relative risks (RR) of the association between common mental disorders and intimate partner violence. RESULTS The incidence of common mental disorders was 44.6% among women who reported intimate partner violence in the last 12 months and 43.4% among those who reported in the past seven years. Mental disorders remained associated with psychological violence (RR = 3.0; 95%CI 1.9–4.7 and RR = 1.8; 95%CI 1.0–3.7 in the last 12 months, and seven years, respectively), even in the absence of physical or sexual violence. When psychological violence were related to physical or sexual violence, the risk of common mental disorders was even higher, both in the last 12 months (RR = 3.1; 95%CI 2.1–4.7) and in the last seven years (RR = 2.5; 95%CI 1.7–3.8). CONCLUSIONS Intimate partner violence is associated with the incidence of common mental disorders in women. The treatment of the consequences of IPV and support for women in seeking protection for themselves for public services is essential. PMID:28423141

  7. Teenage intimate partner violence: Factors associated with victimization among Norwegian youths.

    PubMed

    Hellevik, Per; Øverlien, Carolina

    2016-07-06

    The aim of the present study was threefold: (1) learn more about factors associated with teenage intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization; (2) explore aspects of digital media use in connection with teenage IPV; (3) and compare the impact IPV victimization has on boys and girls. Survey data from 549 Norwegian students, mean age 15.2 years, who had experience(s) with being in intimate relationship(s), were examined. Experiences with psychological, physical, digital, and sexual violence were analyzed. In total, 42.9% of the participants had experienced some form of IPV: 29.1% had experienced digital violence; 25.9% had experienced psychological violence; 18.8% had experienced sexual violence; and 12.8% had experienced physical violence. Factors significantly associated with teenage IPV victimization were female gender, older partners, domestic violence, bullying victimization, low academic achievements, and sending sexual messages via digital media. Girls reported to be significantly more negatively impacted by the victimization than boys. CONCLUSIONS SOME TEENAGERS EXPERIENCE VICTIMIZATION IN THEIR INTIMATE RELATIONSHIPS, AND FOR MANY DIGITAL MEDIA SEEMS TO PLAY A CENTRAL ROLE IN THIS VIOLENCE TEENAGERS WHO EXPERIENCE VICTIMIZATION OUTSIDE THEIR RELATIONSHIPS OR HAVE RISKY LIFESTYLES HAVE A HIGHER RISK OF EXPERIENCING IPV VICTIMIZATION A FOCUS ON TEENAGE IPV, AND ESPECIALLY DIGITAL MEDIA'S ROLE IN THIS VIOLENCE, IS NEEDED IF THIS PUBLIC HEALTH ISSUE IS TO BE COMBATED. © 2016 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  8. Men who batter intimate partners: a grounded theory study of the development of male violence in intimate partner relationships.

    PubMed

    Tilley, Donna Scott; Brackley, Margaret

    2005-04-01

    Intimate partner violence is a serious and pervasive problem in U.S. society, with 25% of women and 7.6% of men reporting physical abuse by an intimate partner each year. Understanding the risk factors for development of violence is essential toward the development of interventions to reduce partner violence. Much of the understanding about the development of partner violence is based on research with victims rather than perpetrators. The study was conducted with men convicted of assault on an intimate female partner. Grounded theory was the method used to analyze data from interviews with 16 men participating in a batterers' intervention and prevention program. From the data, the Violent Couples Model was developed. The primary elements of the Violent Couples Model are justifying violence, minimizing violence, childhood exposure to violence, ineffective anger management, childhood experience of violence, and ineffective conflict resolution. Social and familial factors serve as moderating elements. Contextual elements of the model include power and control, social isolation, desensitization, insecure maternal relationships, the view of violence as a private problem, ambivalent intimate relationships, objectification of women, immaturity, lack of awareness about what constitutes violence, mistrust, traditional views of the roles of women, financial issues, and jealousy. Interventions indicated in the model are primary, or preventive, in nature. The model focuses on prevention efforts with the family as a whole, rather than on batterers alone.

  9. Child and Adolescent Predictors of Male Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Delphine; Farrington, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study addresses to what extent child and adolescent explanatory factors predict male perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood. Methods: We use prospective longitudinal data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD). The CSDD is a survey of 411 male born in the 1950s in an inner London area. The men…

  10. Characteristics of Victims Coarrested for Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houry, Debra; Reddy, Sudha; Parramore, Constance

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the frequency of coarrest in female victims who utilized 911 for intimate partner violence (IPV) and any patterns or circumstances that increased the likelihood of coarrest. All cases of police-documented IPV where a female IPV victim was arrested in conjunction with the perpetrator were included. Each incident report was…

  11. Methods for Estimating Medical Expenditures Attributable to Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Derek S.; Finkelstein, Eric A.; Mercy, James A.

    2008-01-01

    This article compares three methods for estimating the medical cost burden of intimate partner violence against U.S. adult women (18 years and older), 1 year postvictimization. To compute the estimates, prevalence data from the National Violence Against Women Survey are combined with cost data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, the…

  12. Intimate Partner Violence in Colombia: Who Is at Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedemann-Sanchez, Greta; Lovaton, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    The role that domestic violence plays in perpetuating poverty is often overlooked as a development issue. Using data from the 2005 Demographic Health Survey, this paper examines the prevalence of intimate partner violence in Colombia. Employing an intrahousehold bargaining framework and a bivariate probit model, it assesses the prevalence of and…

  13. Intimate Partner Violence in Interracial and Monoracial Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Brittny A.; Cui, Ming; Ueno, Koji; Fincham, Frank D.

    2013-01-01

    This study, using a nationally representative sample, investigated intimate partner violence (IPV) in interracial and monoracial relationships. Regression analyses indicated that interracial couples demonstrated a higher level of mutual IPV than monoracial White couples but a level similar to monoracial Black couples. There were significant gender…

  14. Gender and Intimate Partner Violence: Evaluating the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilfus, Mary E.; Trabold, Nicole; O'Brien, Patricia; Fleck-Henderson, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a complex social problem that social workers must be trained to address, using the best available evidence. In this article we review divergent theories, research findings, and methods that underpin debates about the role of gender in IPV perpetration and victimization. We examine the literature that…

  15. Child and Adolescent Predictors of Male Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Delphine; Farrington, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study addresses to what extent child and adolescent explanatory factors predict male perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood. Methods: We use prospective longitudinal data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD). The CSDD is a survey of 411 male born in the 1950s in an inner London area. The men…

  16. Revisiting the Role of Communication in Adolescent Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messinger, Adam M.; Rickert, Vaughn I.; Fry, Deborah A.; Lessel, Harriet; Davidson, Leslie L.

    2012-01-01

    A growing literature suggests that communication strategies can promote or inhibit intimate partner violence (IPV). Research on communication is still needed on a group ripe for early IPV intervention: high school-aged adolescents. This article revisits our previous analyses of young female reproductive clinic patients (Messinger, Davidson, &…

  17. Assessment of Intimate Partner Violence by Child Welfare Services

    PubMed Central

    Hazen, Andrea L.; Connelly, Cynthia D.; Edleson, Jeffrey L.; Kelleher, Kelly J.; Landverk, John A.; Coben, Jeffrey H.; Barth, Richard P.; McGeehan, Jennifer; Rolls, Jennifer A.; Nuszkowski, Melanie A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe policy and practice with respect to the assessment of intimate partner violence in a sample of child welfare agencies located throughout the United States and to examine the relationship of contextual characteristics and assessment practices. Telephone interviews were conducted with key informants from child welfare agencies. A snowball interviewing strategy was used to identify the best informant in each agency. Almost all of the participating agencies conducted some assessment of intimate partner violence, with most reporting that the majority of screening or assessment occurred during investigation of referrals. However, only 43.1% reported that all of the families referred to the child welfare system were assessed for intimate partner violence, and 52.8% indicated they had a written policy pertaining to screening and assessment of the problem. There was little relationship between county or agency characteristics and assessment practices. Additional research is needed to determine factors that influence assessment practices and to identify strategies to support and extend efforts to identify intimate partner violence and provide appropriate services for families in the child welfare system. PMID:18379634

  18. Perceptions of Help Resources for Victims of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krugman, Scott D.; Witting, Michael D.; Furuno, Jon P.; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Limcangco, Rhona; Perisse, Andre R. S.; Rasch, Elizabeth K.

    2004-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) constitutes a major public health problem in the United States. This cross-sectional survey of 108 emergency department (ED) care providers and 146 ED visitors at three metropolitan EDs compared the beliefs of ED health care providers with those of community members about the relative benefits of the helpfulness of…

  19. Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence and Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    KARAKOÇ, Berna; GÜLSEREN, Leyla; ÇAM, Birmay; GÜLSEREN, Şeref; TENEKECİ, Nermin; METE, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of intimate partner physical violence among depressive Turkish women, as well as the association of intimate partner physical violence with attachment patterns, childhood traumas, and socio-demographic factors. Methods The study included 100 women diagnosed with depressive disorder and 30 healthy women. The Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV axis I disorders, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Adult Attachment Style Questionnaire (AASQ), and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) were used for clinical assessment. Results It was found that 64% of the women diagnosed with depression were suffering from intimate partner physical violence. In these women, the severity of depression and anxiety symptoms was higher, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were more common, and the diagnosis of double depression was more prevalent. These women also achieved higher scores in the avoidant and ambivalent subscales of AASQ and higher total scores and higher scores in the physical abuse subscale of CTQ. The partner’s and the woman’s experiences of physical violence in their families during their childhood predicted intimate partner physical violence for women suffering from depression. Conclusion The investigation of domestic violence contributes to the treatment of depression and also to the recognition and prevention of domestic violence that has profound effects on successive generations.

  20. Intimate Partner Violence and Welfare Participation: A Longitudinal Causal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Tyrone C.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the temporal-ordered causal relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV), five mental disorders (depression, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic attack, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]), alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/ dependence, treatment seeking (from physician, counselor, and…

  1. Intimate Partner Violence, PTSD, and Adverse Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Mary Ann; Green, Bonnie L.; Kaltman, Stacey I.; Roesch, Darren M.; Zeffiro, Thomas A.; Krause, Elizabeth D.

    2006-01-01

    The high prevalence of adverse health outcomes related to intimate partner violence (IPV) is well documented. Yet we know little about the pathways that lead to adverse health outcomes. Research concerning the psychological, biological, neurological, behavioral, and physiological alterations following exposure to IPV--many of which are associated…

  2. Intimate Partner Violence during Pregnancy: Best Practices for Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Sarah; Armstrong, D'edra Y.

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is a major problem in the United States, with estimates that 3 percent to 17 percent of women experience violence during the perinatal period. Research indicates that IPV during pregnancy is associated with serious, negative health outcomes for the mother and her unborn child. As such, many…

  3. Intimate Partner Violence and Unintended Pregnancy among Bangladeshi Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Mosfequr; Sasagawa, Toshiyuki; Fujii, Ryota; Tomizawa, Hideki; Makinoda, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and unintended pregnancy using data from women reporting IPV in the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey. The analysis included 4,695 married women, aged 15 to 40 years, who had at least one birth in the last 5 years. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression…

  4. Intimate Partner Violence and Welfare Participation: A Longitudinal Causal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Tyrone C.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the temporal-ordered causal relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV), five mental disorders (depression, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic attack, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]), alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/ dependence, treatment seeking (from physician, counselor, and…

  5. Risky Business: An Ecological Analysis of Intimate Partner Violence Disclosure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaggia, Ramona; Regehr, Cheryl; Jenney, Angelique

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A multistage, mixed-methods study using grounded theory with descriptive data was conducted to examine factors in disclosure of intimate partner violence (IPV). Method: In-depth interviews with individuals and focus groups were undertaken to collect data from 98 IPV survivors and service providers to identify influential factors.…

  6. Risky Business: An Ecological Analysis of Intimate Partner Violence Disclosure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaggia, Ramona; Regehr, Cheryl; Jenney, Angelique

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A multistage, mixed-methods study using grounded theory with descriptive data was conducted to examine factors in disclosure of intimate partner violence (IPV). Method: In-depth interviews with individuals and focus groups were undertaken to collect data from 98 IPV survivors and service providers to identify influential factors.…

  7. Japanese Women's Perceptions of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagae, Miyoko; Dancy, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a problem in Japan. The purpose is to describe IPV as perceived by a purposive sample of 11 Japanese adult females who were in a heterosexual marriage at the time of IPV. We used a cross-sectional, retroactive, qualitative description research design with individual, fact-to-face in depth interviews. At the time…

  8. Experience of Hurricane Katrina and Reported Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harville, Emily W.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Tesfai, Helen; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with stress, but few studies have examined the effect of natural disaster on IPV. In this study, the authors examine the relationship between experience of Hurricane Katrina and reported relationship aggression and violence in a cohort of 123 postpartum women. Hurricane experience is measured…

  9. Japanese Women's Perceptions of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagae, Miyoko; Dancy, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a problem in Japan. The purpose is to describe IPV as perceived by a purposive sample of 11 Japanese adult females who were in a heterosexual marriage at the time of IPV. We used a cross-sectional, retroactive, qualitative description research design with individual, fact-to-face in depth interviews. At the time…

  10. Experience of Hurricane Katrina and Reported Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harville, Emily W.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Tesfai, Helen; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with stress, but few studies have examined the effect of natural disaster on IPV. In this study, the authors examine the relationship between experience of Hurricane Katrina and reported relationship aggression and violence in a cohort of 123 postpartum women. Hurricane experience is measured…

  11. Gender and Military Contextual Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Aggression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Loneliness and aggressive behaviour. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 2, 243–252. Chief of Naval Operations. (2006, December 29). Office of...A. W., & Russell , M. L. (2006). Variables associated with intimate partner violence in a deploying military sample. Military Medicine, 171, 627–631

  12. Intimate Partner Violence during Pregnancy: Best Practices for Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Sarah; Armstrong, D'edra Y.

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is a major problem in the United States, with estimates that 3 percent to 17 percent of women experience violence during the perinatal period. Research indicates that IPV during pregnancy is associated with serious, negative health outcomes for the mother and her unborn child. As such, many…

  13. Intimate Partner Violence and Unintended Pregnancy among Bangladeshi Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Mosfequr; Sasagawa, Toshiyuki; Fujii, Ryota; Tomizawa, Hideki; Makinoda, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and unintended pregnancy using data from women reporting IPV in the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey. The analysis included 4,695 married women, aged 15 to 40 years, who had at least one birth in the last 5 years. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression…

  14. [The protection of children exposed to intimate partner violence].

    PubMed

    Durand, Edouard

    Intimate partner violence is one of the most serious forms of abuse inflicted on children. It poses a challenge for professional practices. The protection of the child cannot be separated from that of the parent suffering the abuse, and their safety cannot be assured without an adapted arrangement of the conditions of parental authority.

  15. Intimate Partner Violence and Coparenting across the Transition to Parenthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Marni L.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Solmeyer, Anna R.

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) between parents has been linked to negative parenting and child maladjustment, yet the mechanisms underlying this association are not fully understood. Based on a theory that violence among parents disrupts the coparental alliance--which has been linked to parenting quality and child adjustment--the authors examined…

  16. Methodological Review of Intimate Partner Violence Prevention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Christine E.; Graybeal, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The authors present a methodological review of empirical program evaluation research in the area of intimate partner violence prevention. The authors adapted and utilized criterion-based rating forms to standardize the evaluation of the methodological strengths and weaknesses of each study. The findings indicate that the limited amount of…

  17. Methods for Estimating Medical Expenditures Attributable to Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Derek S.; Finkelstein, Eric A.; Mercy, James A.

    2008-01-01

    This article compares three methods for estimating the medical cost burden of intimate partner violence against U.S. adult women (18 years and older), 1 year postvictimization. To compute the estimates, prevalence data from the National Violence Against Women Survey are combined with cost data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, the…

  18. Intimate Partner Violence, PTSD, and Adverse Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Mary Ann; Green, Bonnie L.; Kaltman, Stacey I.; Roesch, Darren M.; Zeffiro, Thomas A.; Krause, Elizabeth D.

    2006-01-01

    The high prevalence of adverse health outcomes related to intimate partner violence (IPV) is well documented. Yet we know little about the pathways that lead to adverse health outcomes. Research concerning the psychological, biological, neurological, behavioral, and physiological alterations following exposure to IPV--many of which are associated…

  19. The Role of Gender in Officially Reported Intimate Partner Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Heather C.; Sillito, Carrie Lefeve

    2012-01-01

    The role of gender in intimate partner abuse (IPA) perpetration and victimization has been debated for the last several decades. Two perspectives have emerged regarding this debate. Researchers from the family violence perspective argue that men and women are violent at near equal rates and call for a reframing of the issue from one of woman…

  20. Gender and Intimate Partner Violence: Evaluating the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilfus, Mary E.; Trabold, Nicole; O'Brien, Patricia; Fleck-Henderson, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a complex social problem that social workers must be trained to address, using the best available evidence. In this article we review divergent theories, research findings, and methods that underpin debates about the role of gender in IPV perpetration and victimization. We examine the literature that…

  1. Intimate Partner Violence in Interracial and Monoracial Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Brittny A.; Cui, Ming; Ueno, Koji; Fincham, Frank D.

    2013-01-01

    This study, using a nationally representative sample, investigated intimate partner violence (IPV) in interracial and monoracial relationships. Regression analyses indicated that interracial couples demonstrated a higher level of mutual IPV than monoracial White couples but a level similar to monoracial Black couples. There were significant gender…

  2. Intimate Partner Violence in Colombia: Who Is at Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedemann-Sanchez, Greta; Lovaton, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    The role that domestic violence plays in perpetuating poverty is often overlooked as a development issue. Using data from the 2005 Demographic Health Survey, this paper examines the prevalence of intimate partner violence in Colombia. Employing an intrahousehold bargaining framework and a bivariate probit model, it assesses the prevalence of and…

  3. Revisiting the Role of Communication in Adolescent Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messinger, Adam M.; Rickert, Vaughn I.; Fry, Deborah A.; Lessel, Harriet; Davidson, Leslie L.

    2012-01-01

    A growing literature suggests that communication strategies can promote or inhibit intimate partner violence (IPV). Research on communication is still needed on a group ripe for early IPV intervention: high school-aged adolescents. This article revisits our previous analyses of young female reproductive clinic patients (Messinger, Davidson, &…

  4. Intimate partner violence: how you can help female survivors.

    PubMed

    Chang, Judy C

    2014-07-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a prevalent, complex, and challenging women's health problem associated with a number of negative medical, reproductive, and mental health conditions. When clinicians bring up the topic with their patients, patients are more likely to disclose. Supportive counseling and referrals are associated with improved safety and health. Copyright© 2014 The Cleveland Clinic Foundation.

  5. Intimate partner violence and HIV/STD risk among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals.

    PubMed

    Heintz, Adam Jackson; Melendez, Rita M

    2006-02-01

    To date, there has been little research examining HIV/STD risk among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals who are in abusive relationships. This article uses data collected from a community-based organization that provides counseling for LGBT victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). A total of 58 clients completed the survey, which inquired as to sexual violence and difficulties negotiating safer sex with their abusive partners. A large percentage of participants reported being forced by their partners to have sex (41%). Many stated that they felt unsafe to ask their abusive partners to use safer sex protection or that they feared their partners' response to safer sex (28%). In addition, many participants experienced sexual (19%), physical (21%), and/or verbal abuse (32%) as a direct consequence of asking their partner to use safer sex protection. Training counselors on issues of sexuality and safer sex will benefit victims of IPV.

  6. Experiences of being exposed to intimate partner violence during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Lidén, Eva; Lundgren, Ingela

    2012-01-01

    In this study a phenomenological approach was used in order to enter deeply into the experience of living with violence during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of women's experiences of being exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy. The data were collected through in-depth interviews with five Norwegian women; two during pregnancy and three after the birth. The women were between the age of 20 and 38 years. All women had received support from a professional research and treatment centre. The essential structure shows that IPV during pregnancy is characterized by difficult existential choices related to ambivalence. Existential choices mean questioning one's existence, the meaning of life as well as one's responsibility for oneself and others. Five constituents further explain the essential structure: Living in unpredictability, the violence is living in the body, losing oneself, feeling lonely and being pregnant leads to change. Future life with the child is experienced as a possibility for existential change. It is important for health professionals to recognize and support pregnant women who are exposed to violence as well as treating their bodies with care and respect. PMID:22468147

  7. Intimate partner violence and unintended pregnancy among Bangladeshi women.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mosfequr; Sasagawa, Toshiyuki; Fujii, Ryota; Tomizawa, Hideki; Makinoda, Satoru

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and unintended pregnancy using data from women reporting IPV in the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey. The analysis included 4,695 married women, aged 15 to 40 years, who had at least one birth in the last 5 years. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between IPV and pregnancy. About one third (30.4%) of women were abused physically and/or sexually and about one third (30.9%) of their births in the last 5 years were unintended. Compared with women who suffered no IPV, women who were abused sexually had a 1.64-fold increased risk of unintended pregnancy, which is higher than those who suffered physical abuse only (odds ratio: 1.35). The prevalence of unintended pregnancy among those who experienced severe physical violence was 1.60 times higher than those who reported no abuse. The findings indicate a significant relationship between IPV and unintended pregnancy among Bangladeshi women.

  8. Motivational interviewing and intimate partner violence: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Saftlas, Audrey F; Harland, Karisa K; Wallis, Anne B; Cavanaugh, Joseph; Dickey, Penny; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2014-02-01

    To determine if motivational interviewing (MI) improves self-efficacy (primary outcome), depressive symptoms (secondary outcome), and stage-of-readiness-to-change (secondary outcome) among women in abusive relationships. Randomized controlled trial among women who experienced intimate partner violence in a current relationship over the past 12 months. Subjects were recruited from two family planning clinics (December 2007 to May 2010). The intervention included an initial face-to-face session and three telephone sessions administered 1-, 2-, and 4-months postenrollment, each using MI to identify personal goals. Controls were referred to community-based resources. Outcomes were measured by self-administered questionnaires before randomization and 6 months later. Modified intent-to-treat analyses of completed participants were conducted using multivariate analysis of variance for continuous outcomes and polytomous logistic regression for categorical outcomes. Three hundred six eligible women were enrolled (recruitment rate = 64%); 204 completed the 6-month follow-up (completion rate = 67%). Depressive symptoms decreased to a greater extent in MI than referral women (P = .07). Self-efficacy and stage-of-readiness-to-change increased more in MI than referral women, but these differences were not statistically significant. With a lower than projected sample size, our findings did not achieve statistical significance at the 5% level but suggest a beneficial effect of the MI intervention on reducing depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ethnoracial Variation in Women's Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Clark, Hannah M; Galano, Maria M; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew C; Montalvo-Liendo, Nora; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A

    2016-02-01

    While intimate partner violence (IPV) has been acknowledged as a national public health concern, little research exists that directly assesses differential exposure to IPV for distinct ethnoracial groups. The current study compared the rate, severity, and type of IPV exposure across samples of White, African American, and Latina women (N = 180). Participants reported rates of exposure to violence on measures of physical assault, psychological aggression, injury, and sexual coercion; each subscale contained items denoting both mild and severe levels of violence. Multiple regression analyses indicated that women's frequency of exposure to sexual coercion, and severe and injurious violence significantly differed based on participants' ethnoracial identification, such that Latina women experienced disproportionate levels of violence relative to White and African American peers. Mothers' monthly income, level of education, general health, and relationship status also emerged as significant predictors of violence exposure. Results support the development of culturally sensitive adaptations of IPV interventions, targeting not only Latina populations but also women who are single, low-income, and educationally underserved.

  10. Dyadic Patterns of Intimate Partner Violence in Early Marriage

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Kenneth E.; Winters, Jamie J.; Kearns-Bodkin, Jill N.; Homish, Gregory G.; Kubiak, Audrey J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Research examining dyadic patterns of intimate partner violence (IPV) often focuses on static conceptions based on whether either the husband or wife has exhibited any violence. This study examined the dyadic patterns of IPV empirically and traced how these groups change over time. Method Couples (N=634) were assessed with respect to IPV and relationship satisfaction at the time of marriage, and at their first and second anniversaries. Cluster analysis was conducted on Total Aggression, Differential Aggression, and the Aggression Ratio prior to marriage for couples with any violence. Results This analysis revealed 5 clusters; Very High-Husband to Wife, (High:H>W); Very High-Wife to Husband (High-W>H); Low to Moderate, Husband to Wife (Low:H>W); Low to Moderate, Wife to Husband (Low-W>H); Low to Moderate, Both Aggressive (Low:H=W). The majority (57%) of the aggressive couples were classified in the gender asymmetric groups. Most asymmetric clusters became symmetric over time, but the High:H>W cluster became more asymmetric. By the 2nd anniversary, all clusters were characterized by higher injuries experienced by wives than by husbands. Conclusion These results demonstrate that a considerable amount of IPV that is typically classified as “bidirectional” is gender asymmetric and that these asymmetric patterns tend to converge into more symmetric patterns over time. PMID:25506502

  11. Intimate Partner Violence within Law Enforcement Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Anita S.; Lo, Celia C.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Baltimore Police Stress and Domestic Violence study, the authors examined how exposure to stressful events on the job affects law enforcement employees' physical aggression toward domestic partners, evaluating the role of negative emotions and authoritarian spillover in mediating the impact of such task-related stress. The…

  12. Intimate Partner Violence within Law Enforcement Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Anita S.; Lo, Celia C.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Baltimore Police Stress and Domestic Violence study, the authors examined how exposure to stressful events on the job affects law enforcement employees' physical aggression toward domestic partners, evaluating the role of negative emotions and authoritarian spillover in mediating the impact of such task-related stress. The…

  13. Women's Response to Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Perez, Isabel; Mata-Pariente, Nelva; Plazaola-Castano, Juncal

    2006-01-01

    The responses of women to a situation of abuse by their partner has hardly been addressed in the literature. Using a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire, 400 women attending three practices in a primary health care center in Granada (Spain) were studied. The women's response to abuse was used as a dependent variable. Sociodemographics,…

  14. Gender, Psychopathy Factors and Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Mager, Kenna L.; Bresin, Konrad; Verona, Edelyn

    2014-01-01

    The present study sheds light on relationships between distinct psychopathic traits and perpetration of IPV in women versus men. Men and women with recent drug and/or violence histories (N = 250) were assessed for psychopathic traits using the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version and for their and their partner's use of IPV with the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale. The first goal was to examine the moderating role of gender in psychopathy factor relationships to IPV. Although both the interpersonal-affective traits (Factor1) and the impulsive-antisocial traits (Factor 2) of psychopathy were related to higher frequency of IPV perpetration, the relationship between Factor 1 and IPV was stronger in men. Our second goal examined the moderating role of psychopathy traits in the relationship between partner's perpetration of IPV and participant perpetration (mutual violence) in the two genders. Relationships between partner- and self-IPV were similar at both low and high levels of Factor 1 in men, although the partner- and self-IPV relationship was significantly stronger among women at low relative to high levels of Factor 1. The relationship between partner- and self-IPV was stronger at high levels of Factor 2 in men, whereas Factor 2 did not moderate mutual violence in women. These results indicate that relationships between psychopathy factors and IPV differ by gender, with psychopathy generally exacerbating IPV perpetration in men and Factor 1 traits playing a unique role in mutual violence in women. These findings add to the literature on female psychopathy and have important implications for future research on gender and IPV. PMID:25020252

  15. Between the professional and the private: the meaning of working with intimate partner violence in social workers' private lives.

    PubMed

    Goldblatt, Hadass; Buchbinder, Eli; Eisikovits, Zvi; Arizon-Mesinger, Ilana

    2009-03-01

    This qualitative study examines the impact of working with intimate partner violence on therapists' marital relationships and gender identity. Data were collected by in-depth semistructured interviews with 14 experienced women social workers working in domestic violence treatment centers in Israel. Findings indicate that the boundaries between workers' private and professional lives are blurred and work experiences influence their intimate relationships and gender role identities, leading to overall questioning of their relationships. This newly rediscovered consciousness reshapes the meaning of workers' couple relationships. Such shift between private and professional should be considered when training workers to intervene with intimate partner violence.

  16. PTSD and conflict behavior between veterans and their intimate partners.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mark W; Wolf, Erika J; Reardon, Annemarie F; Harrington, Kelly M; Ryabchenko, Karen; Castillo, Diane; Freund, Rachel; Heyman, Richard E

    2013-03-01

    This study examined the influence of trauma history and PTSD symptoms on the behavior of veterans and their intimate partners (287 couples; N=574) observed during conflict discussions and coded using the Rapid Marital Interaction Coding System (Heyman, 2004). Dyadic structural equation modeling analyses showed that PTSD was associated with more frequent displays of hostility and psychological abuse and fewer expressions of acceptance and humor in both veterans and their partners. Findings provide new insight into the social and emotional deficits associated with PTSD and emphasize the importance of addressing the trauma histories and PTSD of both partners when treating veteran couples with relationship disturbance. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. PTSD and conflict behavior between veterans and their intimate partners

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mark W.; Wolf, Erika J.; Reardon, Annemarie F.; Harrington, Kelly M.; Ryabchenko, Karen; Castillo, Diane; Freund, Rachel; Heyman, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of trauma history and PTSD symptoms on the behavior of veterans and their intimate partners (287 couples; N = 574) observed during conflict discussions and coded using the Rapid Marital Interaction Coding System (Heyman, 2004). Dyadic structural equation modeling analyses showed that PTSD was associated with more frequent displays of hostility and psychological abuse and fewer expressions of acceptance and humor in both veterans and their partners. Findings provide new insight into the social and emotional deficits associated with PTSD and emphasize the importance of addressing the trauma histories and PTSD of both partners when treating veteran couples with relationship disturbance. PMID:23523947

  18. Intimate partner violence against married rural-to-urban migrant workers in eastern China: prevalence, patterns, and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Yu, Zonghuo; Luo, Xianming; Huang, Zhaoxin

    2016-12-07

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health issue among married rural-to-urban migrant workers, the largest group of internal migrants in China. This study aims to explore the prevalence, patterns and associated factors of intimate partner violence against married rural-to-urban migrant workers in eastern China. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Zhejiang province in China between July 2015 and April 2016, and a total of 1,744 married rural-to-urban migrant workers ultimately took part in the study. Conflict Tactics Scales and several short demographic questions were applied. Data were principally analyzed with logistic regression. The majority of married rural-to-urban migrant workers were middle-aged couples with a low education level and a relatively long-term duration of migration in fixed migrant cities. Nearly 45% of married rural-to-urban migrant workers were experienced at least one incident of intimate partner violence during the past 12 months. The joint occurrence of multiple forms of violence is the most commonly reported features of intimate partner violence, especially three overlapping patterns of intimate partner violence. Some individual (education and age), relationship (marital satisfaction, premarital sex and extramarital affairs) and social (duration of migration and number of migratory cities) factors of the respondents, were negatively or positively associated with intimate partner violence against married rural-to-urban migrant workers. The results indicated that one out of two married rural-to-urban migrant workers experienced at least one incident of intimate partner violence during the past 12 months in China. Accordingly, there is an obvious demand of intervention and treatment activities to prevent and reduce the occurrence of intimate partner violence among the millions of migrant workers in China.

  19. Common mental disorders and intimate partner violence in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ludermir, Ana Bernarda; Valongueiro, Sandra; de Araújo, Thália Velho Barreto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between common mental disorders and intimate partner violence during pregnancy. METHODS A cross sectional study was carried out with 1,120 pregnant women aged 18-49 years old, who were registered in the Family Health Program in the city of Recife, Northeastern Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. Common mental disorders were assessed using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Intimate partner violence was defined as psychologically, physically and sexually abusive acts committed against women by their partners. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were estimated for the association studied utilizing logistic regression analysis. RESULTS The most common form of partner violence was psychological. The prevalence of common mental disorders was 71.0% among women who reported all form of violence in pregnancy and 33.8% among those who did not report intimate partner violence. Common mental disorders were associated with psychological violence (OR 2.49, 95%CI 1.8;3.5), even without physical or sexual violence. When psychological violence was combined with physical or sexual violence, the risk of common mental disorders was even higher (OR 3.45; 95%CI 2.3;5.2). CONCLUSIONS Being assaulted by someone with whom you are emotionally involved can trigger feelings of helplessness, low self-esteem and depression. The pregnancy probably increased women`s vulnerability to common mental disorders PMID:24789634

  20. Intimate partner violence among sexual minorities in Japan: exploring perceptions and experiences.

    PubMed

    DiStefano, Anthony S

    2009-01-01

    Using qualitative interviews (n = 39) and participant observation (n = 54), this study documents perceptions and experiences of violence between lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex intimate partners in Japan, thereby providing exploratory, formative data on a previously unexamined issue. Results indicate that intimate partner violence (IPV) is experienced physically, sexually, and psychologically in all sexual minority groups. Participants perceived the violence to be: a) very similar to heterosexual IPV against women; b) more likely perpetrated and experienced by lesbians, bisexual women, and transgender persons compared to gay and bisexual men and intersex persons; c) the cause of several negative physical and mental health outcomes; and d) largely unrecognized in both sexual minority communities and broader Japanese society.

  1. Survivors' coping with intimate partner violence: Insights and limitations.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Barbara A

    2015-09-01

    Comments on the article, "Coping with intimate partner violence: Qualitative findings from the study of dynamics of husband to wife abuse," by Foster et al., (see record 2015-24688-001). However, most intimate partner violence relationships do not escalate to these levels, and the partnerships continue over time. Questions remain regarding how we can understand the dynamics of these continuing relationships while also effectively enhancing the safety of these women and offering them support. Fortunately, the research of Foster and colleagues reported in this issue begins to answer some of these questions. The authors of this study describe how women living with violent partners report various coping approaches that help them maintain their circumstances and survive each day. The results of this study describe the useful boundaries of the COPE Inventory in these settings, add insight to our understanding of IPV family dynamics, and provide information to support clinicians who serve these women.

  2. The role of alcohol use in intimate partner femicide.

    PubMed

    Sharps, P W; Campbell, J; Campbell, D; Gary, F; Webster, D

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine alcohol use by victims and perpetrators as a risk factor for intimate partner violence and femicide. A case control design was used to describe alcohol use among Femicide/Attempted Femicide victims (n = 380), Abused Controls (n = 384) and Non-Abused Controls (n = 376), and their intimate partners. Telephone interviews of proxies (family members or friends) of femicide victims and actual survivors of attempted femicide were conducted in 10 cities. The purpose of the interviews was to gather information about relationship violence and alcohol use by femicide victims, attempted femicide survivors, and their perpetrators. Telephone interviews of controls, recruited from the same cities by random digit dialing, were also conducted. Perpetrator problem drinking was associated with an eight fold increase in partner abuse (e beta = 8.24, p < .0001) and a two fold increased risk of femicide/attempted femicide (e beta = 2.39, p = .001), controlling for demographic differences.

  3. Sex Differences in Intimate Partner Violence and the Use of Coercive Control as a Motivational Factor for Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanha, Marieh; Beck, Connie J. A.; Figueredo, Aurelio Jose; Raghavan, Chitra

    2010-01-01

    Research argues that coercive control (CC) is a special case of intimate partner violence (IPV). The present study hypothesized that instead CC is the "motivator" for other types of IPV, with control of the victim as the goal. When CC fails, physical types of IPV are used. This hypothesized relationship was tested using a large matched sample of…

  4. Sex Differences in Intimate Partner Violence and the Use of Coercive Control as a Motivational Factor for Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanha, Marieh; Beck, Connie J. A.; Figueredo, Aurelio Jose; Raghavan, Chitra

    2010-01-01

    Research argues that coercive control (CC) is a special case of intimate partner violence (IPV). The present study hypothesized that instead CC is the "motivator" for other types of IPV, with control of the victim as the goal. When CC fails, physical types of IPV are used. This hypothesized relationship was tested using a large matched sample of…

  5. Intimate partner violence among speaking immigrant adult Portuguese women in Canada.

    PubMed

    Souto, Rafaella Queiroga; Guruge, Sepali; Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa; Jesus, Maria Cristina Pinto de; Egit, Shaindel; Knowles, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to understand the experiences of intimate partner violence among women from Portuguese-speaking countries living in the Greater Toronto Area. A social phenomenological study was conducted with ten Portuguese-speaking women who had experienced intimate partner violence who were selected by community centre leaders. The interviews were transcribed, translated and analysed by categories. The consequences of violence included health problems, effects on children, and negative feelings among the victims. Factors preventing the women from leaving abusive partners included religious beliefs, challenging daily jobs, and the need to take care of their husband. Factors that encouraged them to leave included getting support and calling the police. Some women expressed hope for the future either with their husband. Others, desired divorce or revenge. Their plans to rebuild their lives without their husband included being happy, learning English, and being financially stable. Using these findings can implicate in the improvement of care for these women.

  6. The intergenerational transmission of intimate partner violence in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Towfiqua Mahfuza; Tareque, Md. Ismail; Tiedt, Andrew D.; Hoque, Nazrul

    2014-01-01

    Background A number of individual risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) have been identified in Bangladesh. However, the etiology of IPV, intergenerational transmission, has never been tested in Bangladesh. Objective We examined whether witnessing inter-parental physical violence (IPPV) was associated with IPV to identify whether IPV passes across generations in Bangladesh. Methods We used nationally representative data of currently married women from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey-2007. Variations in experiencing IPV were assessed by Chi-square tests. Logistic regression models were fit to determine the association between witnessing IPPV and different types of IPV against women. Results One-fourth of women witnessed IPPV and experienced IPV. After adjusting for the covariates, women who witnessed IPPV were 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0–2.8) times more likely to experience any kind of IPV, 2.5 (95% CI: 2.0–3.0) times more likely to experience moderate physical IPV, 2.3 (95% CI: 1.8–3.0) times more likely to experience severe physical IPV, and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.4–2.3) times more likely to experience sexual IPV. Age, age at first marriage, literacy, work status, wealth, justified wife beating, and women's autonomy were also identified as significant correlates of IPV. Conclusions This study's results indicate that IPV passes from one generation to another. We make recommendations for preventing IPPV so that subsequent generations can enjoy healthy, respectful, nonviolent relationships in married life without exposure to IPV in Bangladesh. PMID:24861340

  7. Relationships Among Intimate Partner Violence, Work, and Health.

    PubMed

    Wathen, C Nadine; MacGregor, Jennifer C D; MacQuarrie, Barbara J

    2016-01-19

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem, and recent attention has focused on its impact on workers and workplaces. We provide findings from a pan-Canadian online survey on the relationships among IPV, work, and health. In total, 8,429 people completed the survey, 95.5% of them in English and 78.4% female. Reflecting the recruitment strategy, most (95.4%) were currently working, and unionized (81.4%). People with any lifetime IPV experience reported significantly poorer general health, mental health, and quality of life; those with both recent IPV and IPV experience over 12 months ago had the poorest health. Among those who had experienced IPV, about half reported that violence occurred at or near the workplace, and these people generally had poorer health outcomes. Employment status moderated the relationship between IPV exposure and health status, with those who were currently working and had experienced IPV having similar health status to those without IPV experience who were not employed. While there were gender differences in IPV experience, in the impacts of IPV at work, and in health status, gender did not moderate any associations. In this very large data set, we found robust relationships among different kinds of IPV exposure (current, recent, and lifetime), health and quality of life, and employment status, including the potentially protective effect of current employment on health for both women and men. Our findings may have implications for strategies to address IPV in workplaces, and should reinforce emerging evidence that IPV is also an occupational health issue. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Responding to the Needs of Culturally Diverse Women Who Experience Intimate Partner Violence Who Experience Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Shoultz, Jan; Richardson, Karol; Oneha, Mary Frances; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Matsunaga, Doris Segal; Selifis, Selynda Mori; Sapolu, Merina; Samifua, Mariama; Manzano, Helena; Spencer, Cindy; Arias, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from a community based participatory research (CBPR) study that investigated the interface between culture and intimate partner violence (IPV) for women in selected cultural groups in Hawaii: Native Hawaiian, Filipino, Samoan, and Chuukese. The research question was, “What are the cultural perceptions, responses, and needs regarding IPV of selected individuals and groups served through a variety of programs that are affiliated with the three participating Community Health Centers (CHCs)?” This cross sectional, descriptive study collected both qualitative and quantitative data. Individual interviews were conducted with women who had experienced IPV. Focus groups were also conducted with other women from the same culture. Five common themes were identified across the four cultural groups: Living within a Collective; Cultural Protective Factors; Cultural Barriers to Helpseeking; Gender Specific Roles; and Belonging to a Place. The outcome from this study is increased knowledge that will be used to develop culturally appropriate interventions. Specific findings from each cultural group have been published.1–4 The purpose of this paper is to present common perceptions and responses to IPV from the four groups and suggest interventions based on the findings. Implications for practice are presented. PMID:21225589

  9. Injury outcomes in African American and African Caribbean women: the role of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jocelyn C; Stockman, Jamila K; Sabri, Bushra; Campbell, Doris W; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence has been linked to increased and repeated injuries, as well as negative long-term physical and mental health outcomes. This study examines the prevalence and correlates of injury in women of African descent who reported recent intimate partner violence and control subjects who were never abused. African American and African Caribbean women aged 18 to 55 years were recruited from clinics in Baltimore, MD, and the US Virgin Islands. Self-reported demographics, partner violence history, and injury outcomes were collected. Associations between violence and injury outcomes were examined with logistic regression. All injury outcomes were significantly more frequently reported in women who also reported recent partner violence than in women who were never abused. Multiple injuries were nearly 3 times more likely to be reported in women who had experienced recent abuse (adjusted odds ratio 2.75; 95% confidence interval 1.98-3.81). Reported injury outcomes were similar between the sites except that women in Baltimore were 66% more likely than their US Virgin Islands counterparts to report ED use in the past year (P = .001). In combined-site multivariable models, partner violence was associated with past-year ED use, hospitalization, and multiple injuries. Injuries related to intimate partner violence may be part of the explanation for the negative long-term health outcomes. In this study, partner violence was associated with past-year ED use, hospitalization, and multiple injuries. Emergency nurses need to assess for intimate partner violence when women report with an injury to ensure that the violence is addressed in order to prevent repeated injuries and negative long-term health outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Injury Outcomes in African American and African Caribbean Women: The Role of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Jocelyn C.; Stockman, Jamila K.; Sabri, Bushra; Campbell, Doris W.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Intimate partner violence has been linked to increased and repeated injuries, as well as negative long-term physical and mental health outcomes. This study examines the prevalence and correlates of injury in women of African descent who reported recent intimate partner violence and never abused controls. Methods African American and African Caribbean women aged 18–55 were recruited from clinics in Baltimore, Maryland and the US Virgin Islands. Self-reported demographics, partner violence history and injury outcomes were collected. Associations between violence and injury outcomes were examined with logistic regression. Results All injury outcomes were significantly more frequently reported in women who also reported recent partner violence than those never abused. Multiple injuries were nearly three times more likely to be reported in women who had experienced recent abuse (AOR 2.75, 95% CI 1.98–3.81). Reported injury outcomes were similar between the sites except that women in Baltimore were 66% more likely than their US Virgin Islands counterparts to report past year emergency department use (p=0.001). In combined site multivariable models, partner violence was associated with past year emergency department use, hospitalization and multiple injuries. Discussion Injuries related to intimate partner violence may be part of the explanation for the negative long-term health outcomes. In this study partner violence was associated with past year emergency department use, hospitalization and multiple injuries. Emergency nurses need to assess for intimate partner violence when women report with injury to make sure the violence is addressed in order to prevent repeated injuries and negative long-term health outcomes. PMID:24768096

  11. Who died? The murder of collaterals related to intimate partner conflict.

    PubMed

    Dobash, Russell P; Dobash, R Emerson

    2012-06-01

    Using data from the Murder in Britain Study, the authors focus on murders that are related to intimate partner conflict but involve the killing of a person other than the intimate partner. Intimate partner collateral murders (IPCM) include children, allies, and new partners. The findings expand the number and types of murder associated with intimate partner conflict, characterize the three main types of collaterals, compare the childhood and adulthood of the perpetrators of intimate partner murder [IPM] (n = 104) and IPCM (n = 62), and reflect similarities and differences. Various disciplinary approaches are reflected in the research design, data collection, findings, and conclusions.

  12. Determinants of intimate partner violence during pregnancy among married women in Abay Chomen district, Western Ethiopia: a community based cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Abebe Abate, Bedilu; Admassu Wossen, Bitiya; Tilahun Degfie, Tizta

    2016-03-10

    Intimate partner violence during pregnancy is the most common form of violence that harms the health of women and the fetus but practiced commonly in developing countries. There is scarcity of information regarding intimate partner violence during pregnancy in Ethiopia. Thus, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of intimate partner violence during recent pregnancy in Abay Chomen district, Western Ethiopia. Community based cross sectional study was conducted among married pregnant women in Abay Chomen district in April, 2014 using a standard WHO multi-country study questionnaire. Two hundred eighty two randomly selected pregnant women aged 15-49 years participated in the study. Logistic regression and multivariate analysis were employed. The prevalence of intimate partner violence during recent pregnancy was 44.5% (95% CI, 32.6, 56.4). More than half 157 (55.5%) experienced all three forms of intimate partner violence during recent pregnancy. The joint occurrence of intimate partner physical and psychological violence during recent pregnancy as well as joint occurrence of intimate partner physical and sexual violence was 160 (56.5%). Pregnant women who were ever lived with their partner's family were 46% less likely to experience recent intimate partner violence. Dowry payment decreases intimate partner violence during recent pregnancy (AOR 0.09, 95% CI 0.04, 0.2) and pregnant women who didn't undergo marriage ceremony during their marriage were 79% are less likely to experience violence (AOR 0.21, 95% CI 0.1, 0.44). Nearly half of interviewed pregnant women experienced intimate partner violence during pregnancy implying the prevalence of such practice in the study site. To that end, increasing community awareness about the consequences of the practice could be important. Moreover, as health extension workers works closely with households, they could be crucial players to increase community awareness about intimate partner violence on

  13. Quality of life of victims of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Leung, T W; Leung, W C; Ng, E H Y; Ho, P C

    2005-09-01

    To evaluate the impact of intimate partner violence on the quality of life in Obstetric/Gynecological (OBGYN) patients. A total of 1614 OBGYN patients were classified into four groups (Group 1: requesting termination of pregnancy, n=300; Group 2: infertility patients, n=500; Group 3: other general gynecological patients, n=300; Group 4: obstetric patients, n=514) were successfully interviewed in the absence of their male partners, using a structured questionnaire modified from the Abuse Assessment Screen Questionnaire. Those who reported ever having been abused, together with an equal number of non-abused women as controls, were asked to complete the World Health Organization Quality of Life Measure - Abbreviated version (Hong Kong) Questionnaire. The overall lifetime prevalence of intimate partner violence was 7.2%, with the lifetime prevalence being 12.7%, 1.8%, 4.7%, and 10.9% respectively in Groups 1-4. The mean quality of life domain scores among the abused victims were significantly lower in the physical health domain, social relationship domain, environment domain and psychological health domain. The baseline quality of life of the victims of intimate partner violence is significantly impaired compared with the non-abused controls.

  14. Intimate Partner Violence in the Great Recession

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Daniel; Harknett, Kristen; McLanahan, Sara

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, the Great Recession was marked by severe negative shocks to labor market conditions. In this study, we combine longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study with U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics data on local area unemployment rates to examine the relationship between adverse labor market conditions and mothers' experiences of abusive behavior between 2001 and 2010. Unemployment and economic hardship at the household level were positively related to abusive behavior. Further, rapid increases in the unemployment rate increased men's controlling behavior toward romantic partners even after we adjust for unemployment and economic distress at the household level. We interpret these findings as demonstrating that the uncertainty and anticipatory anxiety that go along with sudden macroeconomic downturns have negative effects on relationship quality, above and beyond the effects of job loss and material hardship. PMID:27003136

  15. Intimate Partner Violence in the Great Recession.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Daniel; Harknett, Kristen; McLanahan, Sara

    2016-04-01

    In the United States, the Great Recession was marked by severe negative shocks to labor market conditions. In this study, we combine longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study with U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics data on local area unemployment rates to examine the relationship between adverse labor market conditions and mothers' experiences of abusive behavior between 2001 and 2010. Unemployment and economic hardship at the household level were positively related to abusive behavior. Further, rapid increases in the unemployment rate increased men's controlling behavior toward romantic partners even after we adjust for unemployment and economic distress at the household level. We interpret these findings as demonstrating that the uncertainty and anticipatory anxiety that go along with sudden macroeconomic downturns have negative effects on relationship quality, above and beyond the effects of job loss and material hardship.

  16. Patterns and Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence to Women Living With HIV/AIDS in Osogbo, Southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olowookere, Samuel A; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I; Adekanle, Daniel A; Adeleke, Najemdeen A; Abioye-Kuteyi, Emmanuel A

    2015-11-01

    We assessed the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) to women living with HIV/AIDS in an antiretroviral clinic in Nigeria. Three hundred sixty respondents were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Sixty percent were married, of which 24% had disclosed HIV status to their partner. About a quarter (23.6%) had experienced IPV since HIV diagnosis. Types of violence experienced were physical violence (17%), emotional violence (21%), and sexual violence (2%). Predictors of IPV included having a younger aged partner, disclosing status, and partner's alcohol use (p = .001). Suggestions to prevent IPV include increasing public awareness and family counseling. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. HIV Status Disclosure Among Postpartum Women in Zambia with Varied Intimate Partner Violence Experiences.

    PubMed

    Hampanda, Karen M; Rael, Christine Tagliaferri

    2017-10-03

    HIV-positive pregnant and postpartum women's status disclosure to male sexual partners is associated with improved HIV and maternal and child health outcomes. Yet, status disclosure remains a challenge for many women living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly those who are fearful of violence. The objective of the present study is to advance the current understanding of the relationship between intimate partner violence against women and their HIV status disclosure behaviors. We specifically evaluate how the severity, frequency, and type of violence against postpartum HIV-positive women affect status disclosure within married/cohabiting couples. A cross-sectional survey was administered by trained local research assistants to 320 HIV-positive postpartum women attending a large public health center for pediatric immunizations in Lusaka, Zambia. Survey data captured women's self-reports of various forms of intimate partner violence and whether they disclosed their HIV status to the current male partner. Multiple logistic regression models determined the odds of status disclosure by the severity, frequency, and type of violence women experienced. Our findings indicate a negative dose-response relationship between the severity and frequency of intimate partner violence and status disclosure to male partners. Physical violence has a more pronounced affect on status disclosure than sexual or emotional violence. Safe options for women living with HIV who experience intimate partner violence, particularly severe and frequent physical violence, are urgently needed. This includes HIV counselors' ability to evaluate the pros and cons of status disclosure among women and support some women's decisions not to disclose.

  18. A comparison of intimate partner homicide to intimate partner homicide-suicide: one hundred and twenty-four New Mexico cases.

    PubMed

    Banks, Laura; Crandall, Cameron; Sklar, David; Bauer, Michael

    2008-09-01

    The authors compare cases of female intimate partner homicide-suicide to female intimate partner homicide alone to describe risk factors and suggest prevention strategies, including strategies in the medical setting. Differences are found between the types of cases in marital relationship, age, blood alcohol, and the use of firearms. Physicians and other health care providers who treat victims of intimate partner violence and patients at risk for suicide should be aware of the interwoven risk factors within these populations. Interventions aimed at suicide prevention as well as targeted removal of firearms should be investigated as tools in the prevention of intimate partner homicide.

  19. The supportive process for ending intimate partner violence after pregnancy: the experience of Nicaraguan women.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Mariano; Högberg, Ulf; Valladares, Eliette; Ohman, Ann

    2012-11-01

    This grounded theory study found that Nicaraguan mothers exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy eventually acted to protect their children and themselves. They experienced ending abuse as an empowerment process characterized by a cognitive change in women's attitudes toward partner abuse and the emergence of help-seeking strategies that lead to ending violence with or without ending the relationship. This process was facilitated by a supportive environment that challenged abusive behaviors as well as being asked about abuse during their last pregnancy. Although environmental changes can facilitate ending abuse, Nicaragua's public institutions must be strengthened to reach women in need.

  20. Prevalence and risk factors of intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kita, Sachiko; Yaeko, Kataoka; Porter, Sarah E

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy can result in adverse outcomes for both mothers and their infants. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and risk factors of IPV associated with abuse during pregnancy via a self-administered questionnaire completed by 302 healthy pregnant women. Demographic information was also collected from medical records to analyze risk factors for abuse. Of the 302 women, 48 (15.9%) were identified as experiencing IPV. The identified risk factors were age over 30, multipara, previous abortion experience, and male partner aged under 30.

  1. Adult Attachment Styles, Destructive Conflict Resolution, and the Experience of Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Bonache, Helena; Gonzalez-Mendez, Rosaura; Krahé, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Although there is ample evidence linking insecure attachment styles and intimate partner violence (IPV), little is known about the psychological processes underlying this association, especially from the victim's perspective. The present study examined how attachment styles relate to the experience of sexual and psychological abuse, directly or indirectly through destructive conflict resolution strategies, both self-reported and attributed to their opposite-sex romantic partner. In an online survey, 216 Spanish undergraduates completed measures of adult attachment style, engagement and withdrawal conflict resolution styles shown by self and partner, and victimization by an intimate partner in the form of sexual coercion and psychological abuse. As predicted, anxious and avoidant attachment styles were directly related to both forms of victimization. Also, an indirect path from anxious attachment to IPV victimization was detected via destructive conflict resolution strategies. Specifically, anxiously attached participants reported a higher use of conflict engagement by themselves and by their partners. In addition, engagement reported by the self and perceived in the partner was linked to an increased probability of experiencing sexual coercion and psychological abuse. Avoidant attachment was linked to higher withdrawal in conflict situations, but the paths from withdrawal to perceived partner engagement, sexual coercion, and psychological abuse were non-significant. No gender differences in the associations were found. The discussion highlights the role of anxious attachment in understanding escalating patterns of destructive conflict resolution strategies, which may increase the vulnerability to IPV victimization.

  2. Intimate Partner Violence and Neighborhood Income: A Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bonomi, Amy E.; Trabert, Britton; Anderson, Melissa L.; Kernic, Mary A.; Holt, Victoria L.

    2017-01-01

    This investigation used a longitudinal design to examine the relationship between neighborhood-level income, individual-level predictors, and police-reported intimate partner violence in 5,994 urban couples followed over 2 years. At the baseline abuse incident, intimate partner violence rates were highest in the poorest neighborhoods (13.8 per 1,000 women in the lowest income quartile, followed by 12.1, 8.2, and 5.0 in the respective higher income quartiles). However, in the longitudinal analysis, weapon use at the baseline abuse event was a much stronger predictor of repeat abuse (incident rate ratios ranging from 1.72 for physical abuse to 1.83 for non-physical abuse) than neighborhood income. PMID:24476760

  3. The impact of neighborhoods on intimate partner violence and victimization.

    PubMed

    Pinchevsky, Gillian M; Wright, Emily M

    2012-04-01

    Research on intimate partner violence (IPV) and victimization is widespread across disciplines. To date, the majority of research underscores the importance of individual-level factors to explain IPV, thereby neglecting the significance of macro-level elements. Nevertheless, research suggests that the characteristics of the neighborhood where an individual lives are important for fully understanding IPV. This review focuses on the effects of neighborhoods and macro-level context on violence between intimate partners, specifically identifying empirical studies that have examined contextual predictors of IPV utilizing the major tenets of social disorganization theory. The authors note consistencies and differences across research results and describe study features that may influence the patterns of these findings. Finally, the authors provide both theoretical and methodological recommendations for future research.

  4. Risks and Targeted Interventions: Firearms in Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Zeoli, April M; Malinski, Rebecca; Turchan, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    The use of firearms in intimate partner violence (IPV) is widely recognized as an important public health threat. However, what we know about the risks of firearm access on IPV outcomes is limited. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to determine the state of knowledge on 1) the risks of firearm access and use in IPV and 2) the effectiveness of interventions designed specifically to reduce firearm violence in intimate relationships. Only studies published in English in peer-reviewed journals from 1990 through 2014 were included. Results of the review suggest that, when violent intimates have access to firearms, IPV increases in severity and deadliness; however, increases in severity may not be due to firearm use. Additionally, statutes prohibiting persons under domestic violence restraining orders from accessing firearms are associated with reductions in intimate partner homicide, but certain provisions of these laws and their enforcement may impact their effectiveness. Future research should focus on elucidating the link between firearm access and increased IPV severity and on investigating whether and which specific provisions of domestic violence restraining order laws impact the laws' effectiveness. Additionally, more evaluations of initiatives designed to improve the enforcement of domestic violence restraining order firearm prohibitions are needed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Anger, Control, and Intimate Partner Violence in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Peggy C.; Copp, Jennifer E.; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.

    2015-01-01

    A common theme in the literature is that intimate partner violence (IPV) is not about anger, but about power and control. While prior research has focused either on respondents' or partners' controlling behaviors, an interactionist perspective provides the basis for hypothesizing that both respondent and partner control will be significantly related to the odds of reporting perpetration, and that emotional processes are a component of IPV experiences. Analyses rely on interview data collected at waves 1 and 5 of a longitudinal study (Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study; n = 928) of adolescent and young adult relationships. Results indicate that after controlling for traditional predictors, both respondent and partner control attempts and measures of anger (including a measure of relationship-based anger) contributed significantly to the odds of reporting perpetration. Further, these patterns did not differ by gender, indicating some areas of similarity in the relationship and emotional processes associated with variations in men and women's IPV reports. PMID:26924886

  6. Normative Misperceptions of Abuse Among Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Neighbors, Clayton; Walker, Denise D.; Mbilinyi, Lyungai F.; O’Rourke, Allison; Edleson, Jeffrey L.; Zegree, Joan; Roffman, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    This research was designed to evaluate the applicability of social norms approaches to interventions with male perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV). Participants included 124 nonadjudicated IPV perpetrating men recruited from the general population who completed assessment of their own IPV behaviors via telephone interviews and estimated the prevalence of behaviors in other men. Results indicated that IPV perpetrators consistently overestimated the percentage of men who engaged in IPV and that their estimates were associated with violence toward their partner over the past 90 days. Findings provide preliminary support for incorporating social norms approaches into clinical applications. PMID:20200408

  7. Intimate partner violence among mothers of sick newborns in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Spangenberg, Kathryn; Wobil, Priscilla; Betts, Cassandra L.; Wiesner, Theodore F.; Gold, Katherine J.

    2016-01-01

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a major public health problem estimated to affect 15–71% of women worldwide. We sought to elicit IPV risks among mothers of sick newborns in Ghana. As part of a broader study on postpartum depression, we conducted semi-structured surveys of 153 women in a mother-baby unit, assessing demographics, depression, social support, and IPV with the present partner. 46% of mothers reported some form of violence, mostly emotional (34%), followed by physical (17%) and sexual (15%). The study highlights the frequency of perinatal IPV and the associated risk factors of depression and poor social support. PMID:25864483

  8. Health sector responses to intimate partner violence: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Zweigenthal, Virginia; Joyner, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a common and serious public health concern, particularly in South Africa, but it is not well managed in primary care. Aim This review aims to summarise the current state of knowledge regarding health sector-based interventions for IPV, their integration into health systems and services and the perspectives of service users and healthcare workers on IPV care, focusing on the South African context. Method PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Google Scholar were searched between January 2012 and May 2014. All types of study design were included, critically appraised and summarised. Results Exposure to IPV leads to wide-ranging and serious health effects. There is sufficient evidence that intervening in IPV in primary care can improve outcomes. Women who have experienced IPV have described an appropriate response by healthcare providers to be non-judgmental, understanding and empathetic. IPV interventions that are complex, comprehensive and utilise systems-wide approaches have been most effective, but system- and society-level barriers hamper implementation. Gender inequities should not be overlooked when responding to IPV. Conclusion Further evaluations of health sector responses to IPV are needed, in order to assist health services to determine the most appropriate models of care, how these can be integrated into current systems and how they can be supported in managing IPV. The need for this research should not prevent health services and healthcare providers from implementing IPV care, but rather should guide the development of rigorous contextually-appropriate evaluations. PMID:26245388

  9. Intimate partner violence: patients' experiences and perceptions in family practice.

    PubMed

    Narula, Archna; Agarwal, Gina; McCarthy, Lisa

    2012-10-01

    To understand how women affected by intimate partner violence (IPV), felt their family physicians cared for them and to identify where gaps in care exist. Interviews were conducted with ten women (mean age 50 years and minimum to maximum ages of 40-73 years). Content analysis was used to identify common themes. Women acknowledged a lack of insight into their abusive relationships given a lack of physical violence, preconceptions about IPV or presumed reasons their abusers had for violence. After identifying abuse, most shared feelings of fear, preventing them from disclosure. They feared being judged, not believed and consequences from their abuser. Perceptions' about their family physician's role prevented disclosure particularly misconceptions regarding physician's interest and time to discuss non-medical issues. After disclosure, women valued their family physicians listening, following up, providing validation and advocacy. All women experienced isolation secondary to the abuser, the family practice clinic, the physician and/or the 'system' itself. Women were not aware of family doctors' interest in issues aside from physical health. They appreciated a confidential and non-threatening environment and valued follow-up and advocacy on their behalf. They expressed frustration with open access scheduling and multiple providers. To improve care, family physicians should educate patients about their role, provide safe environments for disclosure and offer follow-up and support. Recommended system changes include measures to ensure continuity of care and easy booking of appointments. Finally, family physicians should recognize that there is a need to follow these patients long term as the effects of IPV are long lasting.

  10. Intimate partner violence, pregnancy and the decision for abortion.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gail B; Brackley, Margaret H

    2009-04-01

    Pregnant women whose lives are affected by intimate partner violence and unintended pregnancy are often faced with the decision for abortion. In this qualitative research, the authors explored women's experiences of unintended pregnancy and intimate partner violence (IPV) from the perspective of adult pregnant women seeking abortion. Women were assessed for intimate partner violence and study inclusion by means of two IPV screening tools. The authors collected data during one-to two-hour semi-structured interviews with eight pregnant women. At the completion of the interviews, all women were assessed for safety using an assessment of danger tool. Safety planning and referrals were provided for all women. Qualitative data collection and data analysis were guided by naturalistic inquiry to identify prevalent themes. Three major themes emerged from the data: (1) It Wasn't That Bad, (2) Then It Got Worse, and (3) If I Have the Baby He'll Come Back. Descriptive statistics were used to tabulate and describe the women's responses to the three tools.

  11. Intimate Partner Jealousy and Femicide Among Former Ethiopians in Israel.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Arnon

    2016-06-20

    Ethiopian immigrant women in Israel are overrepresented as victims of femicide; they are killed at more than 16 times the rate of the general population. This article suggests integrating current theoretical and empirical models to explain Ethiopian femicide, and stresses that considering psychological or sociocultural explanations as risk factors alone is not enough to understand this phenomenon. We distinguish between risk factors and triggers for femicide against Ethiopian women. While sociocultural and even psychological changes are risk factors for femicide, one, two, or three main triggers may activate such potential risk factors, such as the woman's willingness (WW) to leave the intimate relationship, sexual jealousy (SJ), and formal complaints against the abusive partner. The first two triggers are jealousy oriented. To analyze this phenomenon in Israel, we examined all court decisions on intimate partner homicide (IPH) from 1990 to 2010. After reading former studies on IPH and identifying important variables that could explain the phenomenon, we first catalogued the data in every decision and verdict according to main independent variables mentioned in the literature. The study population consists of first-generation immigrants, N = 194: native Israelis (47%), new immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU; 31%), and Ethiopians (16%). Our analysis of court decisions reveals that triggers containing jealousy components are responsible for 83% of femicide cases committed by Ethiopian men, in comparison with native Israelis (77%) and immigrant Russian men (66%) who murdered their intimate partners. In addition, there is a significant correlation among motive (jealousy), method of killing (stabbing), and "overkilling" (excessive force).

  12. Development of a screen for ongoing intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Steve J; Ernst, Amy A; Cham, Elaine; Nick, Todd G

    2003-04-01

    A five-question Ongoing Abuse Screen (OAS) was developed to evaluate ongoing intimate partner violence. Our hypothesis was that the OAS was more accurate and more likely to reflect ongoing intimate partner violence than the AAS when compared to the Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA). The survey included the ISA, the OAS, and the AAS. During the busiest emergency department hours, a sampling of 856 patients completed all aspects of the survey tool. Comparisons were made between the two scales and the ISA. The accuracy, positive predictive value, and positive likelihood ratio were 84%, 58%, and 6.0 for the OAS and 59%, 33%, and 2.0 for the AAS. The OAS was more accurate, had a better positive predictive value, and was three times more likely to detect victims of ongoing intimate partner violence than the AAS. Because the OAS was still not accurate enough, we developed a new screen, based on the ISA, titled the Ongoing Violence Assessment Tool (OVAT).

  13. Substance abuse and intimate partner violence: treatment considerations

    PubMed Central

    Klostermann, Keith C

    2006-01-01

    Given the increased use of marital- and family-based treatments as part of treatment for alcoholism and other drug disorders, providers are increasingly faced with the challenge of addressing intimate partner violence among their patients and their intimate partners. Yet, effective options for clinicians who confront this issue are extremely limited. While the typical response of providers is to refer these cases to some form of batterers' treatment, three fundamental concerns make this strategy problematic: (1) most of the agencies that provide batterers' treatment only accept individuals who are legally mandated to complete their programs; (2) among programs that do accept nonmandated patients, most substance-abusing patients do not accept such referrals or drop out early in the treatment process; and (3) available evidence suggests these programs may not be effective in reducing intimate partner violence. Given these very significant concerns with the current referral approach, coupled with the high incidence of IPV among individuals entering substance abuse treatment, providers need to develop strategies for addressing IPV that can be incorporated and integrated into their base intervention packages. PMID:16925813

  14. Food insecurity and intimate partner violence against women: results from the California Women's Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Ricks, Joni L; Cochran, Susan D; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Williams, John K; Seeman, Teresa E

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the association between food insecurity and intimate partner violence in a population-based sample of heterosexual women. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between three levels of food insecurity and intimate partner violence. Data from 6 years of the California Women's Health Survey. Randomly selected women (n 16 562) aged 18 years and older from the State of California, USA. We found: (i) that African-American women had a higher prevalence of food insecurity and were more likely to report severe intimate partner violence; (ii) a strong positive association between food insecurity and intimate partner violence; (iii) evidence of effect modification of the association between food insecurity and intimate partner violence by marital status; and (iv) higher odds of intimate partner violence among those reporting more severe food insecurity. Food insecurity is an important risk indicator for intimate partner violence among women. Understanding the factors that put women, especially minority women, at greatest risk facilitates intervention development.

  15. The Impact of Intimate Partner Violence on Women's Condom Negotiation Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Holly; O'Connell, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    HIV prevention efforts promote the use of condoms to prevent the spread of HIV and other STDs. Thus, a woman's agency to practice healthy sexual behaviors necessarily involves negotiation with another person. This poses unique challenges for women who have limited power in relationships. The current study explores how the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) impacts a woman's confidence in her ability to negotiate condom use with a sexual partner (i.e., condom use self-efficacy), using data from incarcerated females in three states, who were interviewed just prior to release back into the community. The direct effect of experiencing IPV as an adult, controlling for other risk factors, on condom use self-efficacy has not previously been empirically tested. Results show that IPV experiences among women significantly decreases their confidence in negotiating condom use with a partner, putting them at a higher risk of HIV infection than women who do not report having recently experienced IPV. PMID:21987514

  16. The impact of intimate partner violence on women's condom negotiation efficacy.

    PubMed

    Swan, Holly; O'Connell, Daniel J

    2012-03-01

    HIV prevention efforts promote the use of condoms to prevent the spread of HIV and other STDs. Thus, a woman's agency to practice healthy sexual behaviors necessarily involves negotiation with another person. This poses unique challenges for women who have limited power in relationships. The current study explores how the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) impacts a woman's confidence in her ability to negotiate condom use with a sexual partner (i.e., condom use self-efficacy), using data from incarcerated females in three states, who were interviewed just prior to release back into the community. The direct effect of experiencing IPV as an adult, controlling for other risk factors, on condom use self-efficacy has not previously been empirically tested. Results show that IPV experiences among women significantly decreases their confidence in negotiating condom use with a partner, putting them at a higher risk of HIV infection than women who do not report having recently experienced IPV.

  17. Iranian Women’s Experiences with Intimate Partner Violence: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Taherkhani, Sakineh; Negarandeh, Reza; Simbar, Masomeh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Violence against women has been identified as a public health problem, which has fundamental consequences on women's physical, mental, and reproductive health. To understand abused women and provide support for them, it is necessary to enter the world in which the victims of intimate partner violence live. This study was designed to investigate experiences of abused Iranian women of intimate partner violence. Methods: Content analysis approach was used to design this qualitative study. Participants were 11 married women, selected from two health centers and one park located in the south of Tehran, Iran. Purposive sampling method was applied to recruit the study participants and continued until data saturation was reached. Semi-structured interviews were employed to collect data. Results: During the data analysis, 650 initial codes were clustered in six subcategories and two categories. “Neglect or covert violence” and “overt violence” were two categories emerged through data analysis, both having physical, sexual, and emotional dimensions. Emotional violence was the most prevalent in both cases and had more significance for the women. Neglect was much more common than overt violence. It was the precursor for overt violence. Conclusion: Although participants had experienced both neglect and overt violence, the major part of experienced violence was neglect. This type of violence usually is not addressed or recognized and is difficult to identify, but it is damaging to women. Knowledge of women‟s experiences of intimate partner violence makes the health staff provide better care for abused women. PMID:25649136

  18. Intimate partner femicide in South Africa in 1999 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, Naeemah; Mathews, Shanaaz; Martin, Lorna J; Lombard, Carl; Jewkes, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Death is the most extreme consequence of intimate partner violence. Female homicide studies with data on the perpetrator-victim relationship can provide insights. We compare the results of two South African national studies of female homicide with similar sampling done 10 y apart. We conducted a retrospective national survey using a weighted cluster design of a proportionate random sample of 38 mortuaries to identify homicides committed in 2009. We abstracted victim data from mortuary and autopsy reports, and perpetrator data from police interviews. We compared homicides of women 14 y and older in 2009 with previously published data collected with the same methodology for homicides committed in 1999. The study found that the rate of female homicide per 100,000 female population in 2009 was 12.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.3, 16.5), compared to 24.7 (95% CI: 17.7, 31.6) in 1999. The incidence rate ratio of 0.54 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.84) reflects a significantly lower rate in 2009. The rate of intimate partner femicide was 5.6/100,000 in 2009 versus 8.8/100,000 in 1999, with an incidence rate ratio of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.24, 1.02), indicating no difference between rates. Logistic regression analysis of homicide characteristics showed that the odds ratio of suspected rape among non-intimate femicides in 2009 compared to 1999 was 2.61 (95% CI: 1.23, 4.08) and among intimate partner femicides it was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.50, 1.42). The OR of homicide by gunshot was 0.54 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.99) in 2009 versus 1999. There was a significant drop in convictions of perpetrators of non-intimate femicide in 2009 versus 1999 (OR = 0.32 [95% CI: 0.19, 0.53]). Limitations of the study include the relatively small sample size and having only two time points. Female homicide in South Africa was lower in 2009 than 1999, but intimate partner femicide and suspected rape homicide rates were not statistically different. The cause of the difference is unknown. The findings suggest that South Africa

  19. Intimate Partner Femicide in South Africa in 1999 and 2009

    PubMed Central

    Abrahams, Naeemah; Mathews, Shanaaz; Martin, Lorna J.; Lombard, Carl; Jewkes, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Background Death is the most extreme consequence of intimate partner violence. Female homicide studies with data on the perpetrator–victim relationship can provide insights. We compare the results of two South African national studies of female homicide with similar sampling done 10 y apart. Methods and Findings We conducted a retrospective national survey using a weighted cluster design of a proportionate random sample of 38 mortuaries to identify homicides committed in 2009. We abstracted victim data from mortuary and autopsy reports, and perpetrator data from police interviews. We compared homicides of women 14 y and older in 2009 with previously published data collected with the same methodology for homicides committed in 1999. The study found that the rate of female homicide per 100,000 female population in 2009 was 12.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.3, 16.5), compared to 24.7 (95% CI: 17.7, 31.6) in 1999. The incidence rate ratio of 0.54 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.84) reflects a significantly lower rate in 2009. The rate of intimate partner femicide was 5.6/100,000 in 2009 versus 8.8/100,000 in 1999, with an incidence rate ratio of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.24, 1.02), indicating no difference between rates. Logistic regression analysis of homicide characteristics showed that the odds ratio of suspected rape among non-intimate femicides in 2009 compared to 1999 was 2.61 (95% CI: 1.23, 4.08) and among intimate partner femicides it was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.50, 1.42). The OR of homicide by gunshot was 0.54 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.99) in 2009 versus 1999. There was a significant drop in convictions of perpetrators of non-intimate femicide in 2009 versus 1999 (OR = 0.32 [95% CI: 0.19, 0.53]). Limitations of the study include the relatively small sample size and having only two time points. Conclusions Female homicide in South Africa was lower in 2009 than 1999, but intimate partner femicide and suspected rape homicide rates were not statistically different. The cause of the difference is

  20. Intimate partner violence victimization among undergraduate women at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs).

    PubMed

    Barrick, Kelle; Krebs, Christopher P; Lindquist, Christine H

    2013-08-01

    Despite the evidence that young and minority women may be particularly vulnerable to intimate partner violence (IPV), there is little research on the IPV experiences of minority undergraduate women. This study addresses this gap by estimating the prevalence of IPV and examining factors associated with experiencing IPV among undergraduate women attending Historically Black Colleges or Universities (HBCUs). Findings suggest alarmingly high victimization rates; however, factors associated with IPV among HBCU women are similar to those found in prior research with women in the general population. The results also suggest that some risk factors are differentially associated with experiencing specific types of IPV.

  1. Sexual Relationship Power and Intimate Partner Violence Among Sex Workers with Non-Commercial Intimate Partners in a Canadian Setting

    PubMed Central

    Muldoon, Katherine; Deering, Kathleen N.; Feng, Cindy X.; Shoveller, Jean S.; Shannon, Kate

    2014-01-01

    There is little information on the private lives of women engaged in sex work, particularly how power dynamics within intimate relationships may affect intimate partner violence (IPV). Using baseline data of sex workers enrolled in a longitudinal cohort, ‘AESHA’ (An Evaluation of Sex Workers’ Health Access), the present study examined the association between sexual relationship power and IPV among sex workers in non-commercial partnerships in Vancouver, Canada. Pulweritz's Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS) and The World Health Organization (WHO) Intimate Partner Violence Against Women scale (Version9.9) were used. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression techniques were used to investigate the potential confounding effect of sexual relationship power on IPV among sex workers. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Of 510 sex workers, 257 (50.4%) reported having an non-commercial intimate partner and were included in this analysis. In the past 6 months, 84 (32.7%) sex workers reported IPV (physical, sexual or emotional). The median age was 32 years, 39.3% were of Aboriginal ancestry, and 27.6% were migrants. After controlling for known confounders (e.g., age, Aboriginal ancestry, migrant status, childhood trauma, non-injection drug use), low relationship power was independently associated with 4.19 increased odds (95% CI: 1.93-9.10) and medium relationship power was associated 1.95 increased odds (95% CI:0.89-4.25) of IPV. This analysis highlights how reduced control over sexual-decision making is plays a critical role in IPV among sex workers, and calls for gender-focused and coupled-based interventions tailored to noncommercial intimate partnerships of sex workers. PMID:25402720

  2. Sexual relationship power and intimate partner violence among sex workers with non-commercial intimate partners in a Canadian setting.

    PubMed

    Muldoon, Katherine A; Deering, Kathleen N; Feng, Cindy X; Shoveller, Jean A; Shannon, Kate

    2015-01-01

    There is little information on the private lives of women engaged in sex work, particularly how power dynamics within intimate relationships may affect intimate partner violence (IPV). Using baseline data of sex workers enrolled in a longitudinal cohort, "An Evaluation of Sex Workers' Health Access" (AESHA), the present study examined the association between sexual relationship power and IPV among sex workers in non-commercial partnerships in Vancouver, Canada. Pulweritz's Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS) and The World Health Organization (WHO) Intimate Partner Violence against Women Scale (Version9.9) were used. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression techniques were used to investigate the potential confounding effect of sexual relationship power on IPV among sex workers. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Of 510 sex workers, 257 (50.4%) reported having an non-commercial intimate partner and were included in this analysis. In the past 6 months, 84 (32.7%) sex workers reported IPV (physical, sexual or emotional). The median age was 32 years, 39.3% were of Aboriginal ancestry, and 27.6% were migrants. After controlling for known confounders (e.g., age, Aboriginal ancestry, migrant status, childhood trauma, non-injection drug use), low relationship power was independently associated with 4.19 increased odds (95% CI: 1.93-9.10) and medium relationship power was associated 1.95 increased odds (95% CI: 0.89-4.25) of IPV. This analysis highlights how reduced control over sexual-decision making is plays a critical role in IPV among sex workers, and calls for innovation and inclusive programming tailored to sex workers and their non-commercial intimate partnerships.

  3. Development of a practice framework for improving nurses' responses to intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Clark, Maria T; Parry, Jayne; Taylor, Julie

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss critically the theoretical concepts of awareness, recognition and empowerment as manifested in intimate partner violence and to show how these can be translated into a practice framework for improving nurses' response. Intimate partner violence is a universal problem and is considered a significant public health issue. Nurses are in an ideal position to recognise and respond to intimate partner violence, but many lack confidence in this area of practice. In our previous empirical work, we identified three concepts through which nurses' responses to intimate partner violence can be understood: awareness, recognition and empowerment. In this article, we advance nursing knowledge by showing how these concepts can form a practice framework to improve nurses' responses to intimate partner violence. A discussion paper and development of a practice framework to improve nurses' responses to intimate partner violence. The framework comprises three principal needs of women and three related key requirements for nurses to meet these needs. Arising from these are a range of practice outcomes: enhanced understanding of intimate partner violence, increased confidence in recognising intimate partner violence, establishment of trusting relationships, increased likelihood of disclosure and optimised safety. Nurses sometimes lack confidence in recognising and responding to intimate partner violence. Awareness, recognition and empowerment are important concepts that can form the basis of a framework to support them. When nurses feel empowered to respond to intimate partner violence, they can work together with women to optimise their safety. Access to adequate and timely intimate partner violence education and training is important in improving nurses' responses to intimate partner violence. Getting this right can lead to enhanced safety planning and better health outcomes for women who experience intimate partner violence. Although difficult to

  4. Typology of intimate partner homicide: personal, interpersonal, and environmental characteristics of men who murdered their female intimate partner.

    PubMed

    Elisha, Ety; Idisis, Yael; Timor, Uri; Addad, Moshe

    2010-08-01

    Fifteen inmates from Ayalon prison, a maximum-security prison in Israel, who were convicted of murder, attempted murder, or manslaughter of their female intimate partner, have participated in a study designed to examine integrated variables-personal, interpersonal, and environmental-familial-connected with this phenomenon. Analyses of the in-depth interviews demonstrate that despite the different motivations the perpetrators displayed with regard to the murder, they share some common themes. On the basis of these themes, three primary types of female intimate partner murderers have been identified; each of them represents a personal narrative as follows: the betrayed, the abandoned, and the tyrant. The proposed typology might be used for establishing a common language among researchers, scholars, and workers in this field. It can also contribute to the existing clinical tools in terms of prediction, prevention, and treatment initiatives that currently focus on violence.

  5. Intimate Partner Violence among California Couples: Multilevel Analysis of Environmental and Partner Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Cunradi, Carol B.; Todd, Michael; Mair, Christina; Remer, Lillian

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the extent to which environmental (Census block-group alcohol outlet density, neighborhood demographic characteristics) and partner risk factors (e.g., hazardous drinking, psychosocial characteristics) contribute to the likelihood of intimate partner violence among 1,753 couples residing in 50 medium-to-large California cities. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the role of alcohol outlets (off-premise outlets, bars/pubs and restaurants), neighborhood demographic characteristics, and partner risk factors in relation to male-to-female partner violence (MFPV) and female-to-male partner violence (FMPV) risk. Approximately 12% of couples reported past-year partner violence. Results showed that none of the environmental measures were related to MFPV or FMPV. Male partner's impulsivity and each partner's adverse childhood experiences were associated with MFPV risk. Risk factors for FMPV were male partner's impulsivity and frequency of intoxication and female partner's adverse childhood experiences. Individual/couple characteristics appear to be the most salient IPV risk factors. The male partner's heavy drinking may lead to negative partner/spousal interactions that result in FMPV. The male partner's impulsivity, and each partner's adverse childhood experiences, may potentiate couple conflict and result in aggression. Interventions that target prevention of family dysfunction during childhood may help reduce interpersonal violence in adulthood. PMID:24812578

  6. Prevalence and Correlates of Suicidal Ideation among Court-Referred Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Febres, Jeniimarie; Elmquist, JoAnna; Zapor, Heather; Brasfield, Hope; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the documented association between intimate partner violence perpetration and suicidal ideation, few studies have examined the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation in men attending batterer intervention programs. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation in 294 males court-ordered to a batterer intervention program. Twenty-two percent of the sample reported experiencing suicidal ideation within the two weeks prior to entering the batterer intervention program. Multiple linear regression indicated that depression and borderline personality disorder symptoms, but not intimate partner violence perpetration, victimization, or antisocial personality disorder symptoms, accounted for significant variance in suicidal ideation. These results suggest that symptoms of depression and borderline personality disorder observed in males attending batterer intervention programs should warrant thorough suicide risk assessment. Implications of the findings and limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:24979071

  7. Sexual assault within intimate partner violence: impact on helpseeking in a national sample.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Lauren Bennett; DeLoveh, Heidi L M; Zweig, Janine M

    2008-01-01

    Within intimate partner violence (IPV), sexual assault is often subsumed under the heading of physical abuse, but evidence suggests qualitative differences in outcomes when both types of abuse occur. This study explores the cumulative effect of sexual assault and physical abuse by a current or former intimate partner on helpseeking. Using a dataset of 1,072 IPV victims from 8 states, we found that women who had experienced sexual assault in addition to physical abuse (44%) used more help, but were also more likely to say that they did not seek help when they needed it. Among those who were aware of services, fear was the greatest obstacle to reaching out for help. Implications include the need for information on best practices in addressing the sequelae of both physical and sexual assault in victim service agencies.

  8. State Intimate Partner Violence-Related Firearm Laws and Intimate Partner Homicide Rates in the United States, 1991 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Díez, Carolina; Kurland, Rachel P; Rothman, Emily F; Bair-Merritt, Megan; Fleegler, Eric; Xuan, Ziming; Galea, Sandro; Ross, Craig S; Kalesan, Bindu; Goss, Kristin A; Siegel, Michael

    2017-09-19

    To prevent intimate partner homicide (IPH), some states have adopted laws restricting firearm possession by intimate partner violence (IPV) offenders. "Possession" laws prohibit the possession of firearms by these offenders. "Relinquishment" laws prohibit firearm possession and also explicitly require offenders to surrender their firearms. Few studies have assessed the effect of these policies. To study the association between state IPV-related firearm laws and IPH rates over a 25-year period (1991 to 2015). Panel study. United States, 1991 to 2015. Homicides committed by intimate partners, as identified in the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime Reports, Supplementary Homicide Reports. IPV-related firearm laws (predictor) and annual, state-specific, total, and firearm-related IPH rates (outcome). State laws that prohibit persons subject to IPV-related restraining orders from possessing firearms and also require them to relinquish firearms in their possession were associated with 9.7% lower total IPH rates (95% CI, 3.4% to 15.5% reduction) and 14.0% lower firearm-related IPH rates (CI, 5.1% to 22.0% reduction) than in states without these laws. Laws that did not explicitly require relinquishment of firearms were associated with a non-statistically significant 6.6% reduction in IPH rates. The model did not control for variation in implementation of the laws. Causal interpretation is limited by the observational and ecological nature of the analysis. Our findings suggest that state laws restricting firearm possession by persons deemed to be at risk for perpetrating intimate partner abuse may save lives. Laws requiring at-risk persons to surrender firearms already in their possession were associated with lower IPH rates. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.

  9. The Relationship Between Parents' Intimate Partner Victimization and Youths' Adolescent Relationship Abuse.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiwei; Mumford, Elizabeth A; Taylor, Bruce G

    2017-09-12

    Witnessing inter-parental intimate partner violence has been found to be associated with adolescents' own relationship abuse. This study investigates the relationship between patterns of inter-parental intimate partner verbal and physical violence victimization reported by parents and their children's reports of dating abuse experiences and behavior. Latent class analysis was performed on a sample of 610 parents (42% male and 67% white) and their dating adolescent children (ages 12-21 years; 52% male). Parents reported five types of victimization by their partners in the past year, while youth concurrently reported their own victimization and perpetration within their dating relationships. Three profiles of parents' intimate partner victimization were related to youth relationship abuse experiences and behaviors. Children of parents who experienced verbal abuse were more likely to experience similar patterns in their own relationships, whereas children of parents who report physical and verbal abuse were more likely to report psychological, physical and sexual abusive encounters in their partnerships. Findings indicate that parents' relationship quality and abusive behaviors may have a long lasting effect on their children as they enter mid and late adolescence. Parents should pay attention to their own relationship quality and behavior even as their teen-age children gain independence.

  10. Intimate partner aggression-related shame and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: The moderating role of substance use problems.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Nicole H; Duke, Aaron A; Overstreet, Nicole M; Swan, Suzanne C; Sullivan, Tami P

    2016-09-01

    A dearth of literature has examined the consequences of women's use of aggression in intimate relationships. Women's use of aggression against their intimate partners, regardless of their motivation (e.g., self-defense, retaliation), may elicit shame. Shame, in turn, may contribute to the maintenance and/or exacerbation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, which are commonly experienced in this population. Further, emerging research suggests that emotionally avoidant coping strategies, such as substance use, may strengthen the relation between shame and PTSD symptoms. The goal of the present study was to examine whether women's shame concerning their use of intimate partner aggression is associated with their PTSD symptoms, and whether drug and alcohol use problems moderate this association. Participants were 369 community women who had used and been victimized by physical aggression in an intimate relationship with a male partner in the past six months. The intimate partner aggression-related shame × drug (but not alcohol) use problems interaction on PTSD symptom severity was significant. Analysis of simple slopes revealed that women's intimate partner aggression-related shame was positively associated with their PTSD symptoms when drug use problems were high, but not when drug use problems were low. Findings have implications for the potential utility of PTSD treatments targeting a reduction in shame and maladaptive shame regulation strategies (i.e., drug use) in this population. Aggr. Behav. 42:427-440, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Intimate Partner Aggression-related Shame and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms: The Moderating Role of Substance Use Problems

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicole H.; Duke, Aaron A.; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Swan, Suzanne C.; Sullivan, Tami P.

    2017-01-01

    A dearth of literature has examined the consequences of women’s use of aggression in intimate relationships. Women’s use of aggression against their intimate partners, regardless of their motivation (e.g., self-defense, retaliation), may elicit shame. Shame, in turn, may contribute to the maintenance and/or exacerbation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, which are commonly experienced in this population. Further, emerging research suggests that emotionally-avoidant coping strategies, such as substance use, may strengthen the relation between shame and PTSD symptoms. The goal of the present study was to examine whether women’s shame concerning their use of intimate partner aggression is associated with their PTSD symptoms, and whether drug and alcohol use problems moderate this association. Participants were 369 community women who had used and been victimized by physical aggression in an intimate relationship with a male partner in the past six months. The intimate partner aggression-related shame × drug (but not alcohol) use problems interaction on PTSD symptom severity was significant. Analysis of simple slopes revealed that women’s intimate partner aggression-related shame was positively associated with their PTSD symptoms when drug use problems were high, but not when drug use problems were low. Findings have implications for the potential utility of PTSD treatments targeting a reduction in shame and maladaptive shame regulation strategies (i.e., drug use) in this population. PMID:26699821

  12. CONFRONTING INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE, A GLOBAL HEALTH CARE PRIOTITY

    PubMed Central

    Chibber, Karuna S.; Krishnan, Suneeta

    2011-01-01

    Intimate partner violence—physical, psychological, or sexual abuse of women perpetrated by intimate partners—is one of the most common forms of violence against women, and is associated with adverse women’s reproductive and maternal health outcomes. We review the opportunities for addressing intimate partner violence by the health system, examine promising approaches, and outline future challenges for developing effective health systems responses to violence. Evidence shows that women seldom approach support services in response to violence, but do seek health care at some point in their lives. In fact, women’s utilization of reproductive health services in particular has been increasing globally. These services have a broad reach and represent an important opportunity to engage in violence prevention. Although health systems-based responses to intimate partner violence have emerged, rigorous evaluations to guide program planning and policy efforts to reduce violence are limited. US programs have expanded from improving individual provider prevention practices to instituting system-wide changes to ensure sustainability of these practices. Developing country program responses, though limited, have been system-wide and multi-sectoral right from the start. Our review highlights three challenges for developing and expanding health systems responses to violence. First, interventions should focus on creating a supportive environment within the health system and strengthening linkages across health care and allied sectors. Second, rigorous evaluations of health-sector based interventions are needed for a sound evidence-base to guide programmatic and policy decisions. Finally, research is needed to identify the entry points for engaging men on violence prevention, and to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of such interventions. PMID:21598270

  13. Intimate partner homicide methods in heterosexual, gay, and lesbian relationships.

    PubMed

    Mize, Krystal D; Shackelford, Todd K

    2008-01-01

    Previous research indicates that the killing method used in homicides may reflect the motivation of the offender and qualities of the victim-offender relationship. The effect of gender and sexual orientation of intimate partner homicide offenders (N = 51,007) was examined with respect to the brutality of killing methods. Guided by previous research and theory, it was hypothesized that homicide brutality will vary with the offender's sexual orientation and gender, such that the percentage of killings coded as brutal will be higher for (a) gay and lesbian relative to heterosexual relations, (b) men relative to women, (c) gay relative to heterosexual men, and (d) lesbian relative to heterosexual women. The rates of intimate partner homicide were also hypothesized to vary with the gender of the partners, such that (a) homicide rates will be higher in gay relative to heterosexual and lesbian couples and (b) homicide rates will be lowest in lesbian couples. The results support all but one prediction derived from the two hypotheses. We predicted that men would kill their partners more brutally than would women, but the results indicate that the opposite is true.

  14. Intimate partner physical violence among women in Shimelba refugee camp, northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Domestic violence has unwanted effects on the physical and psychological well-being of women, which have been recognized globally as an important public health problem. Violence perpetrated by intimate partner is one form of domestic violence, a serious human rights abuse and a public health issue, among refugees owing to its substantial consequences for women's physical, mental and reproductive health problems. Because the incidents are under-reported, the true scale of the problem is unknown and unexamined among refugee women in Ethiopia. Thus, this study aim to assess the magnitude of intimate partner physical violence and associated factors among women in Shimelba refugee camp, Northern Ethiopia. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among a sample of 422 refugee women from March to April 2011. A simple random sampling method was used to select the study subjects from seven zones of the refugee camp. Census was done to identify all households with women having an intimate partner. A pre-tested interviewer guided structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS software version 16.0. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were done where applicable. A p-value less than 0.05 with 95% CI were set and used as a cut-off point to examine the statistical association between the explanatory and outcome variables. Results The prevalence of physical violence in the last 12 months and lifetime were 107(25.5%) and 131(31.0%) respectively. The commonest forms of physical violence reported included slapping 101(61.6%) and throwing objects 32(19.5%). Significant risk factors associated with experiencing physical violence were being a farmer (AOR = 3.0[95%CI: 1.7, 5.5]), knowing women in neighborhood whose husband to beat them (AOR = 1.87[95%CI: 1.0, 3.5]), being a Muslim (AOR = 2.4 [95%C.I: 1.107, 5.5]), and having a drunkard partner (AOR = 2.1[95%C.I:1

  15. Intimate partner physical violence among women in Shimelba refugee camp, northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Feseha, Girmatsion; G/mariam, Abebe; Gerbaba, Mulusew

    2012-02-13

    Domestic violence has unwanted effects on the physical and psychological well-being of women, which have been recognized globally as an important public health problem. Violence perpetrated by intimate partner is one form of domestic violence, a serious human rights abuse and a public health issue, among refugees owing to its substantial consequences for women's physical, mental and reproductive health problems. Because the incidents are under-reported, the true scale of the problem is unknown and unexamined among refugee women in Ethiopia. Thus, this study aim to assess the magnitude of intimate partner physical violence and associated factors among women in Shimelba refugee camp, Northern Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among a sample of 422 refugee women from March to April 2011. A simple random sampling method was used to select the study subjects from seven zones of the refugee camp. Census was done to identify all households with women having an intimate partner. A pre-tested interviewer guided structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS software version 16.0. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were done where applicable. A p-value less than 0.05 with 95% CI were set and used as a cut-off point to examine the statistical association between the explanatory and outcome variables. The prevalence of physical violence in the last 12 months and lifetime were 107(25.5%) and 131(31.0%) respectively. The commonest forms of physical violence reported included slapping 101(61.6%) and throwing objects 32(19.5%). Significant risk factors associated with experiencing physical violence were being a farmer (AOR = 3.0[95%CI: 1.7, 5.5]), knowing women in neighborhood whose husband to beat them (AOR = 1.87[95%CI: 1.0, 3.5]), being a Muslim (AOR = 2.4 [95%C.I: 1.107, 5.5]), and having a drunkard partner (AOR = 2.1[95%C.I:1.0, 4.5]). Intimate partner

  16. Reconceptualizing and Operationalizing Context in Survey Research on Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindhorst, Taryn; Tajima, Emiko

    2008-01-01

    Survey research in the field of intimate partner violence is notably lacking in its attention to contextual factors. Early measures of intimate partner violence focused on simple counts of behaviors, yet attention to broader contextual factors remains limited. Contextual factors not only shape what behaviors are defined as intimate partner…

  17. Comparisons of intimate partner violence among partners in same-sex and opposite-sex relationships in the United States.

    PubMed

    Blosnich, John R; Bossarte, Robert M

    2009-12-01

    Using 2005-2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data, we examined intimate partner violence (IPV) by same-sex and opposite-sex relationships and by Metropolitan Statistical Area status. Same-sex victims differed from opposite-sex victims in some forms of IPV prevalence, and urban same-sex victims had increased odds of poor self-perceived health status (adjusted odds ratio=2.41; 95% confidence interval=1.17, 4.94). Same-sex and opposite-sex victims experienced similar poor health outcomes, underscoring the need both of inclusive service provision and consideration of sexual orientation in population-based research.

  18. Urban adolescent girls' perspectives on multiple partners in the context of the sexual double standard and intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Teitelman, Anne M; Tennille, Julie; Bohinski, Julia; Jemmott, Loretta S; Jemmott, John B

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the influence of abusive and nonabusive relationship dynamics on the number of sex partners among urban adolescent girls. Focus groups were conducted with 64 sexually active adolescent girls ages 14 to 17 years. General coding and content analyses identified patterns, themes, and salient beliefs. More than one third (37.5%) reported having experienced physical, intimate partner violence; 32.8% had two or more recent sex partners, and 37.5% had ever had a sexually transmitted infection (STI) or HIV. Although some girls in abusive relationships feared retribution if they had more than one partner, others sought additional partners for solace or as an act of resistance. Adolescent HIV/STI prevention programs need to address the influence of gender norms such as the sexual double standard, as well as partner pressure and partner abuse on adolescent decision-making about safer sex, and also promote healthy relationships as integral to advancing HIV/STI risk reduction. Copyright © 2013 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Urban Adolescent Girls’ Perspectives on Multiple Partners in the Context of the Sexual Double Standard and Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Teitelman, Anne M.; Tennille, Julie; Bohinski, Julia; Jemmott, Loretta S.; Jemmott, John B.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the influence of abusive and non-abusive relationship dynamics on the number of sex partners among urban adolescent girls. Focus groups were conducted with 64 sexually active adolescent girls ages 14 to 17 years. General coding and content analyses identified patterns, themes, and salient beliefs. More than one third (37.5%) reported having experienced physical, intimate partner violence; 32.8% had 2 or more recent sex partners, and 37.5% had ever had a sexually transmitted infection (STI) or HIV. Although some girls in abusive relationships feared retribution if they had more than one partner, others sought additional partners for solace or as an act of resistance. Adolescent HIV/STI prevention programs need to address the influence of gender norms such as the sexual double standard as well as partner pressure and partner abuse on adolescent decision-making about safer sex, and also promote healthy relationships as integral to advancing HIV/STI risk reduction. PMID:23790274

  20. Service Providers' Reactions to Intimate Partner Violence as a Function of Victim Sexual Orientation and Type of Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basow, Susan A.; Thompson, Janelle

    2012-01-01

    In this online vignette study, a national sample of domestic violence shelter service providers (N = 282) completed a 10-item questionnaire about a woman experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). Scenarios varied in terms of couple sexual orientation (heterosexual or lesbian) and type of abuse (physical or nonphysical). Results indicate that…

  1. Service Providers' Reactions to Intimate Partner Violence as a Function of Victim Sexual Orientation and Type of Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basow, Susan A.; Thompson, Janelle

    2012-01-01

    In this online vignette study, a national sample of domestic violence shelter service providers (N = 282) completed a 10-item questionnaire about a woman experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). Scenarios varied in terms of couple sexual orientation (heterosexual or lesbian) and type of abuse (physical or nonphysical). Results indicate that…

  2. Relative Importance of Emotional Dysregulation, Hostility, and Impulsiveness in Predicting Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrated by Men in Alcohol Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharp, Andra Teten; Schumacher, Julie A.; Samper, Rita E.; McLeish, Alison C.; Coffey, Scott F.

    2013-01-01

    The current study employs dominance analysis to assess the relative importance of three constructs--hostility, impulsiveness, and emotional dysregulation (difficulties managing one's emotions when experiencing negative emotion or distress)--in explaining psychological, physical, and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration by men…

  3. Reducing Intimate and Paying Partner Violence against Women Who Exchange Sex in Mongolia: Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Catherine E.; Chen, Jiehua; Chang, Mingway; Batsukh, Altantsetseg; Toivgoo, Aira; Riedel, Marion; Witte, Susan S.

    2012-01-01

    Women who exchange sex for money or other goods, that is, female sex workers, are at increased risk of experiencing physical and sexual violence from both paying and intimate partners. Exposure to violence can be exacerbated by alcohol use and HIV/STI risk. The purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy of a HIV/STI risk reduction and…

  4. A Qualitative Study of Intimate Partner Violence Universal Screening by Family Therapy Interns: Implications for Practice, Research, Training, and Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todahl, Jeffrey L.; Linville, Deanna; Chou, Liang-Ying; Maher-Cosenza, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Although a few family therapy researchers and clinicians have urged universal screening for intimate partner violence (IPV), how screening is implemented--and, in particular, client and therapist response to screening--is vaguely defined and largely untested. This qualitative study examined the dilemmas experienced by couples and family therapy…

  5. Mental Health Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence in Marital Relationships in a Nationally Representative Sample of Males and Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afifi, Tracie O.; MacMillan, Harriet; Cox, Brian J.; Asmundson, Gordon J. G.; Stein, Murray B.; Sareen, Jitender

    2009-01-01

    It is important to understand the epidemiology of intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by both males and females. Data were drawn from the U.S. National Comorbidity Survey Replication. The relationships between physical IPV and child abuse, mental disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts among males and females were examined. The…

  6. Intimate Partner Violence and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Women: What We Know and Need to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Stephanie J.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a review of knowledge regarding post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women experiencing intimate partner violence. Knowledge related to the prevalence and predictors of PTSD in battered women, the association between PTSD and physical health, and the emerging science regarding PTSD and physiological and immune parameters…

  7. Family-of-Origin Factors and Partner Violence in the Intimate Relationships of Gay Men Who Are HIV Positive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craft, Shonda M.; Serovich, Julianne M.

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the prevalence of intimate partner violence in a sample of gay men who are HIV positive. The concept of intergenerational transmission of violence, from family systems theory, provided the basis of this examination. It was hypothesized that men who had witnessed or experienced violence in their families of origin…

  8. Reducing Intimate and Paying Partner Violence against Women Who Exchange Sex in Mongolia: Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Catherine E.; Chen, Jiehua; Chang, Mingway; Batsukh, Altantsetseg; Toivgoo, Aira; Riedel, Marion; Witte, Susan S.

    2012-01-01

    Women who exchange sex for money or other goods, that is, female sex workers, are at increased risk of experiencing physical and sexual violence from both paying and intimate partners. Exposure to violence can be exacerbated by alcohol use and HIV/STI risk. The purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy of a HIV/STI risk reduction and…

  9. Intimate Partner Violence and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Women: What We Know and Need to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Stephanie J.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a review of knowledge regarding post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women experiencing intimate partner violence. Knowledge related to the prevalence and predictors of PTSD in battered women, the association between PTSD and physical health, and the emerging science regarding PTSD and physiological and immune parameters…

  10. Family-of-Origin Factors and Partner Violence in the Intimate Relationships of Gay Men Who Are HIV Positive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craft, Shonda M.; Serovich, Julianne M.

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the prevalence of intimate partner violence in a sample of gay men who are HIV positive. The concept of intergenerational transmission of violence, from family systems theory, provided the basis of this examination. It was hypothesized that men who had witnessed or experienced violence in their families of origin…

  11. Mental Health Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence in Marital Relationships in a Nationally Representative Sample of Males and Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afifi, Tracie O.; MacMillan, Harriet; Cox, Brian J.; Asmundson, Gordon J. G.; Stein, Murray B.; Sareen, Jitender

    2009-01-01

    It is important to understand the epidemiology of intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by both males and females. Data were drawn from the U.S. National Comorbidity Survey Replication. The relationships between physical IPV and child abuse, mental disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts among males and females were examined. The…

  12. The male partners' experiences of the intimate relationships after a first myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Arenhall, Eva; Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena; Fridlund, Bengt; Malm, Dan; Nilsson, Ulrica

    2011-06-01

    Stress in the intimate relationship is found to worsen the prognosis in women suffering from myocardial infarction (MI). Little is known about how male spouses experience the intimate relationship. This study aimed to explore and describe the experience of men's intimate relationships in connection to and after their female partner's first MI. An explorative and qualitative design was used. Interviews were conducted with 16 men having a partner who the year before had suffered a first MI. The data were analysed with qualitative content analysis. Three themes emerged: masculine image challenged; life takes another direction; and life remains unchanged. The men were forced to deal with an altered image of themselves as men, and as sexual beings. They were hesitant to approach their spouse in the same way as before the MI because they viewed her to be more fragile. The event also caused them to consider their own lifestyle, changing towards healthier dietary and exercise habits. After their spouse's MI, men experienced a challenge to their masculine image. They viewed their spouse as being more fragile, which led the men to be gentler in sexual intimacy and more hesitant to invite sexual activity. This knowledge about how male spouses experience the intimate relationship could be helpful for health personnel in hospitals and primary care when they interact with couples where the woman suffers from cardiac disease or other chronic disorders. Copyright © 2010 European Society of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence against HIV-seropositive pregnant women in a Nigerian population.

    PubMed

    Ezeanochie, Michael C; Olagbuji, Biodun N; Ande, Adedapo B; Kubeyinje, Weyinmi E; Okonofua, Friday E

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence among HIV-positive pregnant Nigerian women. Cross-sectional study using an anonymous semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. The antenatal clinic at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, from June 2008 to December 2009. 305 HIV-positive women receiving antenatal care. An anonymous semi-structured World Health Organization modified questionnaire that elicited information on the experiences of intimate partner violence, was administered to the women by trained female interviewers. Prevalence, pattern and risk factors associated with experiencing intimate partner violence. The prevalence of intimate partner violence among the women was 32.5%, with psychological violence being the most common form of violence reported (27.5%) and physical violence the least reported (5.9%). Identified risk factors for experiencing violence were multiparity (Odds ratio 9.4; CI 1.23-71.33), respondents with an HIV-positive child (Odds ratio 9.2; CI 4.53-18.84), experience of violence before they were diagnosed HIV-positive (Odds ratio 44.4; 10.33-190.42) and women with partners without post-secondary education (Odds ratio 2.3; CI 1.40-3.91). Intimate partner violence is a prevalent public health problem among HIV-infected pregnant women in our community and it may hinder efforts to scale up prevention of mother-child transmission programs, especially in developing countries. Screening for intimate partner violence to identify abused women should be incorporated into these programs to offer these women optimal care. © 2011 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2011 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Intimate partner violence and correlates in pregnant HIV positive Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Ezechi, Oliver Chukwujekwu; Gab-Okafor, Chidinma; Onwujekwe, Dan I; Adu, Rosemary A; Amadi, Eva; Herbertson, Ebiere

    2009-11-01

    To determine the prevalence, types and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) in pregnant Nigerian living with HIV. Cross sectional study. HIV positive pregnant women. A large HIV comprehensive treatment centre. A cross sectional study of 652 HIV positive pregnant Nigerians seen at Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Lagos, Nigeria over a 24 months period. Prevalence of intimate partner violence after HIV diagnosis. Among the women interviewed, 423 (65.8%) reported abuse. In 74.0% of abused women, the abuse started after HIV diagnosis. Though having a HIV negative spouse and disclosure of HIV status were associated with abuse, only having a HIV negative partner retained its association with IPV (OR 3.1; CI 2.4-5.3) after controlling for confounding variables. Sixty-two (9.6%) women have not disclosed their HIV status because of fear of rejection. Verbal abuse (51.7%), threat of violence in 97 (22.9%) and sexual deprivation in 91 (21.5%) were the common forms of abuse reported. IPV is common among HIV positive pregnant Nigerians; with a threefold increased risk in women in HIV serodiscordant relationship.

  15. Variations in women's help seeking in response to intimate partner violence: findings from a Canadian population-based study.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Betty Jo; St Pierre, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the role of sociodemographic factors and violence characteristics in influencing women's use of informal and formal supports in response to intimate partner violence (IPV) in a national survey of Canadian households. A subset of female respondents in the 1999 Canadian General Social Survey who experienced at least one incident of physical or sexual IPV by a male current or former intimate partner was used for this analysis. Findings suggest that although there are significant sociodemographic variations in women's help seeking, the largest independent predictor of women's use of supports is fear that one's life is in danger.

  16. Intimate partner violence against women in western Ethiopia: prevalence, patterns, and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence against women is the psychological, physical, and sexual abuse directed to spouses. Globally it is the most pervasive yet underestimated human rights violation. This study was aimed at investigating the prevalence, patterns and associated factors of intimate partner violence against women in Western Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional, population based household survey was conducted from January to April, 2011 using standard WHO multi-country study questionnaire. A sample of 1540 ever married/cohabited women aged 15-49 years was randomly selected from urban and rural settings of East Wollega Zone, Western Ethiopia. Data were principally analyzed using logistic regression. Results Lifetime and past 12 months prevalence of intimate partner violence against women showed 76.5% (95% CI: 74.4-78.6%) and 72.5% (95% CI: 70.3-74.7%), respectively. The overlap of psychological, physical, and sexual violence was 56.9%. The patterns of the three forms of violence are similar across the time periods. Rural residents (AOR 0.58, 95% CI 0.34-0.98), literates (AOR 0.65, 95% CI 0.48-0.88), female headed households (AOR 0.46, 95% CI 0.27-0.76) were at decreased likelihood to have lifetime intimate partner violence. Yet, older women were nearly four times (AOR 3.36, 95% CI 1.27-8.89) more likely to report the incident. On the other hand, abduction (AOR 3.71, 95% CI 1.01-13.63), polygamy (AOR 3.79, 95% CI 1.64-0.73), spousal alcoholic consumption (AOR 1.98, 95% CI 1.21-3.22), spousal hostility (AOR 3.96, 95% CI 2.52-6.20), and previous witnesses of parental violence (AOR 2.00, 95% CI 1.54-2.56) were factors associated with an increased likelihood of lifetime intimate partner violence against women. Conclusion In their lifetime, three out of four women experienced at least one incident of intimate partner violence. This needs an urgent attention at all levels of societal hierarchy including policymakers, stakeholders and professionals to alleviate

  17. Intimate partner violence is associated with increased maternal hair cortisol in mother-child dyads.

    PubMed

    Boeckel, Mariana G; Viola, Thiago Wendt; Daruy-Filho, Ledo; Martinez, Manuela; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    The chronic consequences of intimate partner violence (IPV) on HPA activation are a topic of debate. The current study investigated hair cortisol concentrations in female victims of IPV and their children. A total of 52 mother-child dyads were divided into two groups depending on exposure to IPV: IPV group (n=27 dyads) and control group (n=25 dyads). Hair cortisol concentration was measured in 1-cm-long hair strands, representing 30days of exposure before assessment. PTSD and depression symptoms were assessed in the mother and child. Women reporting IPV presented with higher hair cortisol levels, depression and PTSD symptoms severity in comparison to control women. Children who witnessed IPV reported more severe PTSD symptoms, but depressive symptoms and hair cortisol were not statistically different than those in control children. Correlation analyses revealed a positive association between the number of injury events and the level of hair cortisol in children. No associations between the hair cortisol levels in mothers and those in their children were found. Higher hair cortisol levels detected in women exposed to IPV reflected long-lasting changes in HPA axis functioning associated with chronic stress exposure. Children whose parents recurrently engage in violent conflicts with intimate partners may often feel threatened and consequently reporting more PTSD-related symptoms. Given that experiencing and witnessing violence during childhood and adolescence are predictive of intimate partner violence in adulthood, the need of early interventions is crucial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Intimate partner violence and perinatal common mental disorders among women in rural Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jane; Tran, Thach Duc; Biggs, Beverley; Dang, Tho Hai; Nguyen, Trang Thu; Tran, Tuan

    2013-03-01

    Intimate partner violence against women (IPV) is regarded increasingly as a public health problem worldwide. The overall aim of this study was to examine the associations between different exposures to IPV and women's mental health during pregnancy and after childbirth in rural Vietnam. This was a secondary analysis of data generated in a community-based longitudinal investigation in which a cohort of pregnant women were recruited and followed until 6 months after childbirth. Different forms of IPV were measured by the Intimate Partner Violence section of the WHO Multi-Country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence Against Women questionnaire. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale-Vietnam Validation was used to assess symptoms of the common perinatal mental disorders of depression and anxiety (CPMD). Overall, 497 women were recruited and complete data were available from 417 (83.9%). Exposure to either lifetime or perinatal IPV including emotional abuse, physical violence and sexual violence was associated with increased CPMD symptoms (adjusted odds ratio, OR, ranges 1.3-14.3) and suicidal thoughts (OR ranges 4.7-6.1) in women during pregnancy and after childbirth. Experiencing more than one form of IPV increased the magnitude of the association between IPV and CPMD symptoms and thoughts of suicide. It is clearly essential in this and other resource-constrained settings to address emotional, physical and sexual violence perpetrated by an intimate partner in any strategies to reduce the risk of perinatal mental health problems in women.

  19. The impact of intimate partner relationships on suicidal thoughts and behaviours: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kazan, Dominique; Calear, Alison L; Batterham, Philip J

    2016-01-15

    A systematic review was conducted to identify the impact of intimate partner relationships on suicidality. The aim of the review was to identify factors within intimate partner relationships that influence suicidal ideation, attempts and completion. Fifty-one articles were identified through Scopus, PubMed and PsycINFO databases. Due to the high heterogeneity of the included studies, a narrative data synthesis was conducted. The research drew attention to specific contingents of the population, for example examining suicide risk in individuals under the age of 35 or lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals who are experiencing relationship discord, and in males who have recently separated. Interpretation of these findings is constrained by methodological limitations prevalent in much of the literature. Limitations of the existing literature and corresponding directions for future research are discussed. Relationship separation and poor quality relationships are likely to be important risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviours and are frequent triggers for a suicide attempt. This review highlights intimate partner relationships as a significant component in a suicide risk assessment, regardless of the clinical setting. Consequently, clinicians should be aware that individuals reporting relationship problems are likely to be at increased risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Complex Personhood as the Context for Intimate Partner Victimization: One American Indian Woman's Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Sharon; Lemire, Lynne; Wisman, Mindi

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative case study explores one American Indian (AI) woman's experience of intimate partner violence and the subsequent murder of her abusive partner. The lens of complex personhood (Gordon, 1997) has been applied as a method for understanding "Annie's" multiple identities of AI woman, victim of intimate partner violence, mother, and…

  1. Mechanisms of Alcohol-Facilitated Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, Christopher I; Parrott, Dominic J; Sprunger, Joel G

    2015-08-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a critical public health problem that requires clear and testable etiological models that may translate into effective interventions. While alcohol intoxication and a pattern of heavy alcohol consumption are robust correlates of IPV perpetration, there has been limited research that examines the mediating mechanisms of how alcohol potentiates IPV. We provide a theoretical and methodological framework for researchers to conceptualize how alcohol intoxication causes IPV, and propose innovative laboratory methods that directly test mediational mechanisms. We conclude by discussing how these innovations may lead to the development of interventions to prevent or reduce alcohol-related IPV.

  2. Qualitative Systematic Review of Intimate Partner Violence among Native Americans.

    PubMed

    Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among Native Americans is high, and a full understanding of how to prevent it is unclear. Based on this qualitative systematic review of 13 research reports, a model of IPV among Native Americans was developed. IPV appears to be grounded within a history of upheaval and loss, and is entrenched and repressed within families. Victims are reluctant to seek assistance, and when they do, they often experience barriers within the service system. To prevent and resolve IPV, service providers are urged to establish trust with individuals who seek assistance and to leverage cultural strengths. They also are encouraged to adapt theoretical models to optimize care.

  3. POLICYMAKING UNDER UNCERTAINTY: ROUTINE SCREENING FOR INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE

    PubMed Central

    Dagher, Rada K.; Garza, Mary A.; Kozhimannil, Katy Backes

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health issue affecting around 3 million U.S. women during their lifetimes; this paper provides guidance to policymakers on addressing IPV. In 2011, an Institute of Medicine panel recommended routine IPV screening for women and adolescents as part of comprehensive preventive care services, which is in conflict with the 2004 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendations. The current evidence base for policymaking suffers weaknesses related to study design which should be addressed in future research. Meanwhile, policymakers should consider available evidence in their settings, assess local needs, and make recommendations where appropriate. PMID:25011677

  4. Ending intimate partner violence: an application of the transtheoretical model.

    PubMed

    Burke, Jessica G; Denison, Julie A; Gielen, Andrea Carlson; McDonnell, Karen A; O'Campo, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    To examine the application of the transtheoretical model (TM) to women's experiences of ending intimate partner violence (IPV). Qualitative interviews were conducted with 23 abused women. Women use 7 traditional processes of change. Women in early stages of change use cognitive processes. Women in later stages use behavioral processes. Consciousness-raising and social liberation appear in both early and later stages. Helping relationships are critical throughout. Decisional balance and self-efficacy are also related. Women ending IPV do use the TM processes and constructs of change. These findings support the development and evaluation of a TM stage-based IPV intervention.

  5. Intimate partner homicide: new insights for understanding lethality and risks.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Brynn E; Murphy, Sharon B; Moynihan, Mary M; Dudley-Fennessey, Erin; Stapleton, Jane G

    2015-02-01

    Research on covictims, family members, and close friends who have lost loved ones to intimate partner homicide (IPH) is a neglected area of study. We conducted phenomenological interviews with covictims to gain insights into risk and lethality, examined affidavits from criminal case files, and reviewed news releases. The data uncovered acute risk factors prior to the homicide, identified changes in the perpetrators' behavior and the perpetrators' perceived loss of control over the victim, and described barriers that victims faced when attempting to gain safety. Findings suggest that recognizing acute risk factors is an important area for future IPH research.

  6. Mechanisms of Alcohol-Facilitated Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Eckhardt, Christopher I.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Sprunger, Joel G.

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a critical public health problem that requires clear and testable etiological models that may translate into effective interventions. While alcohol intoxication and a pattern of heavy alcohol consumption are robust correlates of IPV perpetration, there has been limited research that examines the mediating mechanisms of how alcohol potentiates IPV. We provide a theoretical and methodological framework for researchers to conceptualize how alcohol intoxication causes IPV, and propose innovative laboratory methods that directly test mediational mechanisms. We conclude by discussing how these innovations may lead to the development of interventions to prevent or reduce alcohol-related IPV. PMID:26059921

  7. Exploring Kenyan Women's Perceptions of Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Gillum, Tameka L; Doucette, Mitchell; Mwanza, Mtise; Munala, Leso

    2016-01-06

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem and global human rights violation. Effective interventions can only be created upon conducting qualitative studies that explore the cultural context of an affected population and how they interpret the phenomenon. This qualitative study investigated Kenyan women's perceptions of IPV. Two community-based focus groups (n = 19) were conducted with Kenyan women in Nairobi. Conventional content analysis identified seven primary themes that emerged from focus group data: snapshot of violence; poverty; cultural context; masculinity; women taking action; resources; and, prevention strategies. Themes are described and implications for further research and intervention are presented. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Black women and intimate partner violence: new directions for research.

    PubMed

    West, Carolyn M

    2004-12-01

    African American women are at elevated risk for nonfatal and lethal intimate partner violence (IPV). Accordingly, the purpose of this article is to review our current knowledge, with a focus on the sociodemographic factors that make this population particularly vulnerable to abuse. Future research directions include using more diverse Black samples, considering how living at the intersection of multiple forms of oppression shapes Black women's experience with violence, exploring the influence of historical events and oppressive images on victimization, and focusing on survivors' resilience and activism.

  9. Intimate Partner Violence in Interracial and Monoracial Couples.

    PubMed

    Martin, Brittny A; Cui, Ming; Ueno, Koji; Fincham, Frank D

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated intimate partner violence in interracial and monoracial relationships. Using a nationally representative sample, regression analyses indicated that interracial couples demonstrated a higher level of mutual IPV than monoracial white couples but a level similar to monoracial black couples. There were significant gender differences in IPV, with women reporting lower levels of victimization than men. Regarding relationship status, cohabiting couples demonstrated the highest levels of IPV and dating couples reported the lowest levels. Regarding interactions among couple racial composition, relationship status, and respondents' gender, an interaction between racial composition and relationship status was found. Implications for practitioners and directions for future research are discussed.

  10. Intimate partner violence screening in emergency department: a rapid review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Irfan; Ali, Parveen Azam; Rehman, Salma; Talpur, Ashfaque; Dhingra, Katie

    2016-12-28

    The aim of the review was to identify intimate partner violence screening interventions used in emergency departments and to explore factors affecting intimate partner violence screening in emergency departments. Intimate partner violence against women is now clearly recognised as a global health and societal issue. Nurses working in emergency and urgent care settings can play a crucial role in identification, prevention and management of intimate partner violence. Research exploring optimal methods of intimate partner violence screening and factors affecting intimate partner violence screening in emergency departments are relatively limited. Literature review: Rapid Evidence Synthesis. Literature published between 2000-2015 was reviewed using the principles of rapid evidence assessment. Six electronic databases: CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Psych Info, the Cochrane Library and Joanna Briggs Library. Twenty-nine empirical studies meeting the eligibility criteria were independently assessed by two authors using appropriate Critical Appraisal Skills Programme Checklists. Intimate partner violence screening in emergency departments is usually performed using electronic, face to face or pen- and paper-based instruments. Routine or universal screening results in higher identification rates of intimate partner violence. Women who screen positive for intimate partner violence in emergency departments are more likely to experience abuse in subsequent months. Factors that facilitate partner violence screening can be classified as healthcare professionals related factors, organisational factors and patient-related factors. Emergency departments provide a unique opportunity for healthcare professionals to screen patients for intimate partner violence. Competence in assessing the needs of the patients appears to be a very significant factor that may affect rates of intimate partner violence disclosure. Knowledge of appropriate domestic violence screening methods and factors

  11. [Female intimate partner homicide: clinical and criminological issues].

    PubMed

    Cechova-Vayleux, E; Leveillee, S; Lhuillier, J-P; Garre, J-B; Senon, J-L; Richard-Devantoy, S

    2013-12-01

    Female intimate partner homicide (FIPH) is a fatal complication of domestic violence. The aim of this study was to describe the socio-demographic, clinical and criminological characteristics of male perpetrators of FIPH and to compare them to the perpetrators of extrafamilial homicide and the perpetrators of intrafamilial homicide other than FIPH. Between 1975 and 2005, 32 FIPH were perpetrated in the region of Angers (France), and these were compared to 26 intrafamilial homicides other than FIPH and to 97 extrafamilial homicides perpetrated in the same period, in the same region. The socio-demographic, clinical and criminological data were collected from psychiatric expert reports and medical files. The mean age of the FIPH perpetrators was 37.8years. They were professionally active, in majority as manual workers. They had a psychiatric record (69%), a previous criminal record (31%), and a history of violence against others (47%). Half of these perpetrators also had experienced a traumatic event before the age of 18. Compared to extrafamilial homicide perpetrators, FIPH perpetrators occupied more frequently a manual job and had prior criminal records less frequently. In the majority of cases of FIPH and intrafamilial homicide, the murder occurred in the evening, at the victim's home, and while the perpetrator was intoxicated. FIPH was mostly premeditated and was accompanied four times less frequently by another criminal behaviour compared to extrafamilial homicide. The FIPH perpetrators had more depressive symptoms and suicidal ideations when committing the crime and remained on the crime scene more often than extrafamilial homicide perpetrators who mostly attempted to flee the crime scene. FIPH perpetrators and extra- and intrafamilial homicide perpetrators were found criminally responsible in half of the cases. The socio-demographic, clinical and criminological characteristics of FIPH perpetrators were not statistically different from those of perpetrators of

  12. Reproduction, functional autonomy and changing experiences of intimate partner violence within marriage in rural India.

    PubMed

    Bourey, Christine; Stephenson, Rob; Hindin, Michelle J

    2013-12-01

    The literature on intimate partner violence in resource-poor contexts relies primarily on cross-sectional studies. Because changes in women's status and empowerment are hypothesized to influence violence vulnerability, longitudinal studies are needed to determine the potential benefits and harms associated with such changes. Data were collected prospectively from a representative cohort of 4,749 married women in rural areas of four socially and demographically diverse states in India in 1998-1999 and 2002-2003. A multinomial regression model including social and demographic characteristics and intersurvey changes and events related to functional autonomy and reproduction was fitted to a categorical outcome measuring the absence (reference), initiation, cessation and continuation of intimate partner violence. Continued freedom of movement, increased freedom of movement and continued financial autonomy between baseline and follow-up were associated with a lower risk of violence initiation rather than no violence (relative risk ratio, 0.7 for each). Having a first child was associated with lower risk of violence initiation and continuation rather than no violence (0.6 and 0.2, respectively). Women who reported that their relative economic contribution to the household decreased or increased and women who experienced an unwanted pregnancy had a higher risk of violence continuation rather than no violence (1.8, 1.8 and 1.5, respectively). The death of a child was associated with higher risk of violence initiation rather than no violence (1.4). Future research to inform interventions to reduce intimate partner violence should consider how changes in women's reproductive experiences and functional autonomy may be linked to changes in intimate partner violence.

  13. Childhood Abuse, Intimate Partner Violence and Risk of Migraine Among Pregnant Women: An Epidemiologic Study.

    PubMed

    Gelaye, Bizu; Do, Ngan; Avila, Samantha; Carlos Velez, Juan; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Sanchez, Sixto E; Peterlin, B Lee; Williams, Michelle A

    2016-06-01

    To examine the independent and joint associations of childhood abuse and intimate partner violence with migraine among pregnant women. Childhood abuse and intimate partner violence have each been associated with migraine headaches in previous studies, but these associations have not been explored among pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was conducted among a cohort of 2970 pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in Lima, Peru. History of childhood abuse (ie, physical or sexual abuse) was assessed using the Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse Questionnaire. Intimate partner violence (IPV) was assessed using the World Health Organization questionnaire. Migraine classification (including migraine and probable migraine) was based on International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)-III beta criteria. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate odd ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The prevalence of any migraine was 33.5% while approximately 70% of participants reported a history of childhood abuse and 36.7% a history of IPV. Women with a history of any childhood abuse had a 38% increased odds of any migraine compared to women with no history of childhood abuse (OR = 1.38; 95% CI 1.15-1.64). The odds of migraine increased with increasing numbers of experienced childhood abuse events (Ptrend  < .001). Additionally, after adjusting for confounders women with a history of IPV had a 43% increased odds of any migraine as compared to women without intimate partner violence (OR = 1.43; 95%CI 1.02-2.02). Women with a joint positive history of childhood abuse and IPV, as compared with the reference group, had a 88% increased odds of migraine (aOR = 1.88, 95%CI: 1.51-2.35). Childhood abuse and IPV are associated with increased odds of migraine in pregnant women. Our findings highlight the importance of screening for abuse among pregnant migraineurs to help guide treatment strategies. © 2016 American

  14. Childhood Abuse, Intimate Partner Violence and Risk of Migraine among Pregnant Women: An Epidemiologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Gelaye, Bizu; Do, Ngan; Avilla, Samantha; Velez, Juan Carlos; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Sanchez, Sixto E.; Peterlin, B. Lee; Williams, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood abuse and intimate partner violence have each been associated with migraine headaches in previous studies, but these associations have not been explored among pregnant women. Objective To examine the independent and joint associations of childhood abuse and intimate partner violence with migraine among pregnant women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among a cohort of 2,970 pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in Lima, Peru. History of childhood abuse (i.e., physical or sexual abuse) was assessed using the Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse Questionnaire. Intimate partner violence (IPV) was assessed using the World Health Organization questionnaire. Migraine classification (including migraine and probable migraine) was based on International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)-III beta criteria. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate odd ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results The prevalence of any migraine was 33.5% while approximately 70% of participants reported a history of childhood abuse and 36.7% a history of IPV. Women with a history of any childhood abuse had a 38% increased odds of any migraine compared to women with no history of childhood abuse (OR=1.38; 95% CI 1.15-1.64). The odds of migraine increased with increasing numbers of experienced childhood abuse events (Ptrend <0.001). Additionally, after adjusting for confounders women with a history of IPV had a 43% increased odds of any migraine as compared to women without intimate partner violence (OR=1.43; 95%CI 1.02-2.02). Women with a joint positive history of childhood abuse and IPV as compared with the reference group, had a 88% increased odds of migraine (aOR=1.88, 95%CI: 1.51-2.35). Conclusion Childhood abuse and IPV are associated with increased odds of migraine in pregnant women. Our findings highlight the importance of screening for abuse among pregnant migraineurs to help guide treatment

  15. Intimate partner violence among women in a migrant community in southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Owoaje, Eme T; Olaolorun, Funmilola M

    This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted to determine attitudes to and the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among women of reproductive age in a migrant community in southwest Nigeria. All consenting females aged 15-49 years in the area sampled were interviewed. A structured questionnaire administered in the local language was used to obtain information on attitudes toward IPV in seven hypothetical situations as well as their exposure to IPV. Eighty-seven percent of women had ever experienced IPV, while 20% experienced IPV in the preceding 12 months. Regarding attitudes to IPV, 79.5% of women believed that wife beating was justified in at least one of seven situations. Respondents who were not living with a male partner were more likely than their counterparts who were married/cohabiting to accept IPV (p = 0.03). There is a need for a cultural reorientation through appropriate health education interventions.

  16. Premilitary Intimate Partner Violence and Attrition From the U.S. Navy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Naval Health Research Center Premilitary Intimate Partner Violence and Attrition From the U.S. Navy L. L. Merrill V. A. Stander C. J...Center 140 Sylvester Road San Diego, California 92106 MILITARY MEDICINE, 171, 12:1206, 2006 Premilitary Intimate Partner Violence and Attrition from...PhD†; Joel S. Milner, PhD† A prospective study of U.S. Navy recruits (N 5,498) examined whether premilitary intimate partner violence (IPV) was

  17. Improving coordinated responses for victims of intimate partner violence: law enforcement compliance with state-mandated intimate partner violence documentation.

    PubMed

    Cerulli, Catherine; Edwardsen, Elizabeth A; Hall, Dale; Chan, Ko Ling; Conner, Kenneth R

    2015-07-01

    New York State law mandates specific intimate partner violence (IPV) documentation under all circumstances meeting the enumerated relationship and crime criteria at the scene of a domestic dispute. Law enforcement compliance with this mandate is unknown. We reviewed law enforcement completion rates of Domestic Violence Incident Reports (DVIRs) and assessed correlations with individual or legal factors. Law enforcement officers filed DVIRs in 54% of the cases (n = 191), more often when injury occurred (p < .01) and the defendant had prior court contact (p < .05). The discussion explores policy implications and potential means to rectify the gap between mandated processes and implementation.

  18. Pregnancy-associated violent deaths: the role of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sandra L; Macy, Rebecca J; Sullivan, Kristen; Magee, Melissa L

    2007-04-01

    This literature review examines intimate partner violence in relation to pregnancy-associated femicide and suicide. Empirical publications were eligible for review if they included information on intimate partner violence and examined females who were pregnant/postpartum and who were victims of femicide/attempted femicide and/or suicide/attempted suicide. Nine publications met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Results suggest that intimate partners perpetrate one- to two-thirds of the pregnancy-associated femicides in the United States and that pregnant women make up 5% of urban intimate partner femicides. Intimate partner abuse during pregnancy appears to be a risk factor for severe intimate partner violence, including attempted/completed femicide. So little information exists concerning intimate partner violence in pregnancy-associated suicides that it is impossible to draw conclusions regarding this topic; however, a hospital-based study suggests that intimate partner violence may be a risk factor for attempting suicide while pregnant. More research is needed concerning intimate partner pregnancy-associated femicide and suicide so that evidenced-based preventive/therapeutic interventions may be developed.

  19. Prevalence of intimate partner violence in Spain: A national cross-sectional survey in primary care.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Montero-Piñar, Isabel; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel

    2017-02-01

    (1) To analyze the prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence by types. (2) To examine the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics and Intimate Partner Violence. Cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire. Primary Healthcare centers in Spain. 10,322 women (18-70 years) attending Primary Healthcare centers. A compound index was calculated based on frequency, types, and duration of Intimate Partner Violence. Multivariable adjusted logistic regression models were used to identify the sociodemographic factors, which were independently associated with each Intimate Partner Violence category. The prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence was 24.8%. For the physical only category, no differences were observed regarding education or employment status, and women with the highest income have less risk. For the psychological only category, no differences were observed according to the income level. The risk increases as the education level decreases, and the greatest frequency of only psychological Intimate Partner Violence was observed in women who were unemployed or students. For both the physical and psychological category of Intimate Partner Violence, a clear risk increase is observed as income and education levels decrease. Retired women showed the highest frequency of this violence category. The results show that Intimate Partner Violence affects women of all social strata, but the frequency and Intimate Partner Violence category will vary according to the socio-economic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Women's police stations and intimate partner violence: Evidence from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Perova, Elizaveta; Reynolds, Sarah Anne

    2017-02-01

    Although women's police stations have gained popularity as a measure to address intimate partner violence (IPV), there is little quantitative evaluation of their impacts on the incidence of IPV. This paper estimates the effects of women's police stations in Brazil on female homicides, a measure of the most severe form of IPV. Given that a high fraction of female deaths among women ages 15-49 years can be attributed to aggression by an intimate partner, female homicides appear the best proxy for severe IPV considering the scarcity of data on IPV in Brazil. We assemble a panel of 2074 municipalities from 2004 to 2009 and apply a difference-in-differences approach using location and timing to estimate the effect of establishing a women's police station on the municipal female homicide rate. Although we do not find a strong association on average, women's police stations appear to be highly effective among young women living in metropolitan areas. Establishing a women's police station in a metropolitan municipality is associated with a reduction in the female homicide rate by 1.23 deaths per 100,000 women ages 15-49 years (approximately a 17 percent reduction in the female homicide rate in metropolitan municipalities). The reduction in the homicide rate of women ages 15 to 24 is even higher: 5.57 deaths per 100,000 women. Better economic opportunities and less traditional social norms in metropolitan areas may explain the heterogeneous impacts of women's police stations.

  1. Child and adolescent predictors of male intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Theobald, Delphine; Farrington, David P

    2012-12-01

    This study addresses to what extent child and adolescent explanatory factors predict male perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood. We use prospective longitudinal data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD). The CSDD is a survey of 411 male born in the 1950s in an inner London area. The men were interviewed over a period of 40 years with information also gathered from their parents, peers and teachers and later from their female partners. Family factors such as having a criminal father, a disrupted family, poor supervision and relationship problems with parents predicted later IPV. Individual predictors included unpopularity, daring, impulsivity, aggressiveness and low verbal IQ. There was evidence of cumulative risk for later violence in intimate partnerships. Early childhood factors predict adult male IPV. No other study has showed the predictability of IPV over a 40-year time interval in a prospective survey. The IPV men tended to have convictions for violence and tended to be unsuccessful in areas such as employment, drinking and drug use. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  2. [Severe intimate partner violence risk prediction scale-revised].

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique; Amor, Pedro Javier; Loinaz, Ismael; de Corral, Paz

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the psychometric properties of the Severe Intimate Partner Violence Risk Prediction Scale and to revise it in order to ponderate the 20 items according to their discriminant capacity and to solve the missing item problem. The sample for this study consisted of 450 male batterers who were reported to the police station. The victims were classified as high-risk (18.2%), moderate-risk (45.8%) and low-risk (36%), depending on the cutoff scores in the original scale. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=.72) and interrater reliability (r=.73) were acceptable. The point biserial correlation coefficient between each item and the corrected total score of the 20-item scale was calculated to determine the most discriminative items, which were associated with the context of intimate partner violence in the last month, with the male batterer's profile and with the victim's vulnerability. A revised scale (EPV-R) with new cutoff scores and indications on how to deal with the missing items were proposed in accordance with these results. This easy-to-use tool appears to be suitable to the requirements of criminal justice professionals and is intended for use in safety planning. Implications of these results for further research are discussed.

  3. Employers' Perceptions of Intimate Partner Violence among a Diverse Workforce

    PubMed Central

    Tudor, Carrie; Weinstein, Marc; Moss, Helen; Glass, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant global public health concern, affecting 5.3 million US individuals annually. An estimated 1 in 3 women globally are abused by an intimate partner in their lifetime, and the effects carry over into the workplace. This article examines employers' perceptions of IPV in the workplace, targeting supervisors of Latina employees. Methods Fourteen employers and supervisors of small service-sector companies in Oregon were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. Interpretive description was used to identify themes. These qualitative interviews preceded and helped to formulate a larger workplace intervention study. Results The following themes were found and are detailed: (1) factors associated with recognizing IPV in the workplace, (2) effects of IPV on the work environment and (3) supervisors' responses to IPV-active vs. passive involvement. Also, supervisors' suggestions for addressing IPV in the workplace are summarized. Conclusion These findings demonstrate the need for more IPV-related resources in the workplace to be available to supervisors as well as survivors and their coworkers. The needs of supervisors and workplaces vary by site, demonstrating the need for tailored interventions, and culturally appropriate workplace interventions are needed for Latinas and other racially and ethnically diverse populations. PMID:22953209

  4. Trauma-Informed Approach to Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Anyikwa, Victoria A

    2016-01-01

    Trauma leads to deleterious effects on individuals and families causing many to seek treatment from social work practitioners across systems of care. Trauma comes in all forms, from community violence to domestic violence, including physical and sexual abuse of children and violence among intimate partners that leaves its victims devastatingly impacted. Women make up the majority of survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV) with studies revealing significant associated mental health problems. Social workers are bound to work with survivors of IPV and must be prepared to deliver effective trauma-informed services. While trauma-specific services exist for specific populations, researchers are finding that negative events in childhood and in family functioning can impact individuals' lives in negative ways thus having implications for treatment across systems. For women survivors of IPV, the traumatic stress may be cumulative with varied emotional and mental health impacts that may force them to seek services across systems, not just domestic violence specific systems. As such it is imperative that social workers increase awareness of trauma, its impact on women, and the importance of the approach and environment in which they provide services. In this article the author aims to broaden social workers knowledge of the use of a TIC approach developed by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration that's applicable across systems of care, particularly when working with women survivors of IPV.

  5. Intimate partner violence among pregnant and parenting Latina adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sue Newman, Bernie; Campbell, Caroline

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the nature and extent of mutual violence among a sample of pregnant and parenting Latina adolescent females and their partners. The sample consisted of 73 Latina adolescent females between the ages of 14 and 20 who were referred to a community-based organization for case management, education, and psychosocial support for pregnant and parenting adolescents. They completed the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS-2) as part of a pretest to evaluate this intervention program. A small number (12 out of 73; 16%) reported no use of aggressive conflict tactics. Eighty-four percent (61 out of 73) of the study respondents reported using at least one form of minor psychological aggression and 62% (45 out of 73) reported using at least one form of minor physical assault over the past 6 months. Mutuality of conflict was high, especially in cases of minor assault by partner. There was no difference in severity or chronicity of conflict between those who were pregnant and those who were not. Female respondents reported that they and their partners engaged in comparable levels of sexual coercion. Discussion of the context of psychological, physical, and sexual aggression in adolescent relationships suggests alternative approaches to prevention of intimate partner violence among adolescents.

  6. Self-regulatory failure and intimate partner violence perpetration.

    PubMed

    Finkel, Eli J; DeWall, C Nathan; Slotter, Erica B; Oaten, Megan; Foshee, Vangie A

    2009-09-01

    Five studies tested the hypothesis that self-regulatory failure is an important predictor of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration. Study 1 participants were far more likely to experience a violent impulse during conflictual interaction with their romantic partner than they were to enact a violent behavior, suggesting that self-regulatory processes help individuals refrain from perpetrating IPV when they experience a violent impulse. Study 2 participants high in dispositional self-control were less likely to perpetrate IPV, in both cross-sectional and residualized-lagged analyses, than were participants low in dispositional self-control. Study 3 participants verbalized more IPV-related cognitions if they responded immediately to partner provocations than if they responded after a 10-s delay. Study 4 participants whose self-regulatory resources were experimentally depleted were more violent in response to partner provocation (but not when unprovoked) than were nondepleted participants. Finally, Study 5 participants whose self-regulatory resources were experimentally bolstered via a 2-week training regimen exhibited less violent inclinations than did participants whose self-regulatory resources had not been bolstered. These findings hint at the power of incorporating self-regulation dynamics into predictive models of IPV perpetration. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Stages of change: surviving intimate partner violence during and after pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Alice

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines clinical approaches to pregnant and recently delivered women who have experienced intimate partner violence. Several process theories are discussed, which help providers more deeply understand the meaning women attach to abuse and the complex nature of being both pregnant and abused. Distinctions are made between patient-centered and practitioner-centered approaches. The construct of stages of change is discussed as a basis for stage-based interventions designed to assist women at various points in their struggle to survive abuse.

  8. A Methodological Review of Intimate Partner Violence in the Military: Where Do We Go From Here?

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Amy E; Funderburk, Jennifer S; Keating, Niki L; Maisto, Stephen A

    2015-07-01

    A significant number of military personnel report engaging in or experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). To advance current research and understanding of this behavior, we conducted a methodological review of the literature on IPV in military personnel and veterans. Research from 1980 to the present, which consisted of 63 empirical studies, was objectively coded by two independent raters on a number of variables important to the methodological quality of research on IPV in the military. In addition, areas of importance to the future of IPV research are presented. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Frequency of intimate partner violence and rural women's mental health in four Indian states.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Rob; Winter, Amy; Hindin, Michelle

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the association between self-reported frequency of verbal, physical, and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health among 6,303 rural married women (age 15-49), in four Indian states: Bihar, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu. Data are taken from the 2002-2003 National Family Health Survey-2 Follow-Up Survey. The results indicate that experiencing physical, verbal, or sexual IPV is associated with an increased risk of adverse mental health outcomes. Our results provide support for the importance of screening for IPV in mental health settings, especially in resource-poor settings where both IPV and mental health are often overlooked.

  10. The Life History Calendar Method and Multilevel Modeling: Application to Research on Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Yoshihama, Mieko; Bybee, Deborah

    2011-03-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is prevalent and often recurrent in women's lives. To better understand the changing risk of IPV over the life course, which could guide more effective policies and program responses, methodological innovations are needed. Life History Calendar methods enhance respondents' recall of the timing of specific types of IPV experienced over the life course. Multilevel modeling provides a way to analyze individual and collective trajectories and examine covariates of IPV risk. We apply these complementary methods to examine IPV trajectories for a sample of women of Filipina descent living in the United States, examining life course timing and cohort effects.

  11. Pregnancy and Intimate Partner Violence: How do Rural, Low-Income Women Cope?

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F.; Anderson, Kim M.; Danis, Fran S.; Sharps, Phyllis W.

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted thirty-two in-depth interviews with 20 rural, low-income, women residing in the United States, who were pregnant (n =12) or three months postpartum (n =8) and had experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Using purposive sampling and the grounded theory method, the authors generated a conceptual model of coping. The urge to protect the unborn baby was the primary influence for participants’ decisions about separating from or permanently leaving an abusive relationship. Implications include universal screening for IPV in child-bearing women, inquiry into maternal identity development during pregnancy, and improved resource access for rural, low-income women. PMID:21834721

  12. Gender Differences in Risk for Intimate Partner Violence Among South African Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gass, Jesse D.; Stein, Dan J.; Williams, David R.; Seedat, Soraya

    2012-01-01

    Despite a high prevalence of intimate partner violence in South Africa, few epidemiological studies have assessed individual risk factors and differential vulnerability by gender. This study sought to analyze gender differences in risk for intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration according to childhood and adult risk factors in a national sample of South African men and women. Using data from the cross-sectional, nationally representative South Africa Stress and Health Study, we examined data from 1,715 currently married or cohabiting adults on reporting of intimate partner violence. Our analysis included (i) demographic factors; (ii) early life risk factors (including exposure to childhood physical abuse, witnessing parental violence, parental closeness, and early onset DSM-IV disorders); and (iii) adult risk factors (including experiencing the death of a child and episodes of DSM-IV disorders after age 20). Although prevalence rates of intimate partner violence were high among both genders, women were significantly more likely than men to report being victimized (29.3% vs. 20.9%). Rates of perpetrating violence were similar for women and men (25.2% and 26.5%, respectively). Men were more likely to report predictive factors for perpetration, whereas women were more likely to report predictors for victimization. Common risk factors among men and women reporting perpetration included exposure to childhood physical abuse, witnessing parental violence, and adult onset alcohol abuse/dependence. However, risk factors in male perpetrators were more likely to include cohabitation, low income, and early and adult onset mood disorders, whereas risk factors in female perpetrators included low educational attainment and early onset alcohol abuse/dependence. The single common risk factor for male and female victims of partner violence was witnessing parental violence. Additional risk factors for male victims were low income and lack of closeness to a primary

  13. The relationship between intimate partner violence and children's asthma in 10 US states/territories.

    PubMed

    Breiding, Matthew J; Ziembroski, Jessica S

    2011-02-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been shown to negatively impact the health of both the adults who experience IPV and the children who are exposed to IPV. Although IPV experienced by women has been linked to children's asthma, this study is the first to examine this question among both women and men, and the first study in the United States to examine this question as part of a population-based data set. In 2005, ten US states/territories administered an IPV module and a children's asthma module within the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Lifetime IPV was assessed by four questions that asked about threatened, attempted, or completed physical violence, as well as unwanted sex, by a current or former intimate partner. The children's asthma module asked respondents to report whether a randomly selected child in their household had ever been diagnosed with asthma and whether the same child currently had asthma. Women who experienced lifetime IPV, in contrast to women who never experienced IPV, were significantly more likely to report that their children had ever had asthma and currently have asthma. Among men, significant differences were not found when comparing men who reported lifetime IPV to those that did not report lifetime IPV. The results highlight the importance of primary prevention of IPV, as reducing the occurrence of IPV could improve not only the long-term health of those who experience IPV but also the health of their children.

  14. Attributing selected costs to intimate partner violence in a sample of women who have left abusive partners: a social determinants of health approach.

    PubMed

    Varcoe, Colleen; Hankivsky, Olena; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Wuest, Judith; Wilk, Piotr; Hammerton, Joanne; Campbell, Jacquelyn

    2011-01-01

    Selected costs associated with intimate partner violence were estimated for a community sample of 309 Canadian women who left abusive male partners on average 20 months previously. Total annual estimated costs of selected public- and private-sector expenditures attributable to violence were $13,162.39 per woman. This translates to a national annual cost of $6.9 billion for women aged 19–65 who have left abusive partners; $3.1 billion for those experiencing violence within the past three years. Results indicate that costs continue long after leaving, and call for recognition in policy that leaving does not coincide with ending violence.

  15. Early Maladaptive Schemas in Substance Use Patients and their Intimate Partners: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has documented that substance users have a number of early maladaptive schemas that may underlie their substance use and that treatment that addresses these schemas may result in improved outcomes. Research has also shown that intimate partners of substance users have a number of mental and physical health problems, although no known research has examined the early maladaptive schemas of these relationship partners. The current study examined the early maladaptive schemas of substance use treatment patients and their intimate partners (N = 80). Findings showed that both patients and intimate partners had a number of problematic early maladaptive schemas; that patients scored significantly higher than their intimate partners on a few early maladaptive schemas; and that patient and intimate partner schemas may be interrelated. Implications of these findings for treatment and future research are discussed. PMID:22745593

  16. Intimate partner violence and incidence of type 2 diabetes in women.

    PubMed

    Mason, Susan M; Wright, Rosalind J; Hibert, Eileen N; Spiegelman, Donna; Jun, Hee-Jin; Hu, Frank B; Rich-Edwards, Janet W

    2013-05-01

    We sought to estimate the association between intimate partner violence, a prevalent psychosocial stressor, and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in women. In 2001, 68,376 Nurses' Health Study II participants answered questions on physical, sexual, and psychological intimate partner violence in adulthood (age ≥18 years) and reported the years in which any abuse occurred. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the associations between intimate partner violence exposures and incidence of type 2 diabetes from 2001 to 2007. We also estimated effects of duration and time since intimate partner violence on type 2 diabetes incidence. Of 68,376 respondents, 64,732 met inclusion criteria at the 2001 baseline; of these, 23% reported lifetime physical intimate partner violence, 11% reported lifetime sexual intimate partner violence, and 8% reported moderate and <2% reported severe psychological intimate partner violence. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for type 2 diabetes, adjusted for potential confounders, were 1.18 (1.00-1.39) and 1.08 (0.86-1.35) for more than one lifetime episode of physical and sexual intimate partner violence, respectively, and 1.78 (1.21-2.61) for severe psychological abuse. Addition of updated BMI and other diabetes risk factors reduced the physical intimate partner violence HR to 1.12 (0.94-1.33) and the psychological intimate partner violence HR to 1.61 (1.09-2.38). Physical intimate partner violence is modestly associated with incidence of type 2 diabetes in this population. Severe psychological violence may substantially increase type 2 diabetes risk.

  17. Intimate Partner Violence and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in Women

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Susan M.; Wright, Rosalind J.; Hibert, Eileen N.; Spiegelman, Donna; Jun, Hee-Jin; Hu, Frank B.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We sought to estimate the association between intimate partner violence, a prevalent psychosocial stressor, and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In 2001, 68,376 Nurses’ Health Study II participants answered questions on physical, sexual, and psychological intimate partner violence in adulthood (age ≥18 years) and reported the years in which any abuse occurred. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the associations between intimate partner violence exposures and incidence of type 2 diabetes from 2001 to 2007. We also estimated effects of duration and time since intimate partner violence on type 2 diabetes incidence. RESULTS Of 68,376 respondents, 64,732 met inclusion criteria at the 2001 baseline; of these, 23% reported lifetime physical intimate partner violence, 11% reported lifetime sexual intimate partner violence, and 8% reported moderate and <2% reported severe psychological intimate partner violence. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for type 2 diabetes, adjusted for potential confounders, were 1.18 (1.00–1.39) and 1.08 (0.86–1.35) for more than one lifetime episode of physical and sexual intimate partner violence, respectively, and 1.78 (1.21–2.61) for severe psychological abuse. Addition of updated BMI and other diabetes risk factors reduced the physical intimate partner violence HR to 1.12 (0.94–1.33) and the psychological intimate partner violence HR to 1.61 (1.09–2.38). CONCLUSIONS Physical intimate partner violence is modestly associated with incidence of type 2 diabetes in this population. Severe psychological violence may substantially increase type 2 diabetes risk. PMID:23248189

  18. An exploration of screening protocols for intimate partner violence in healthcare facilities: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jessica R; Halstead, Valerie; Salani, Deborah; Koermer, Natasha

    2017-08-01

    Explore different methods by which intimate partner violence screening practices are implemented in clinic and emergency settings and better understand barriers and facilitators. Healthcare visits provide an opportunity for providers to identify and provide assistance to victims of intimate partner violence. However, wide variation exists in the implementation of screening and response protocols. In addition, providers experience barriers and facilitators to intimate partner violence screening and response. A comprehensive understanding of these factors is necessary to improve the role that providers play in detection and intervention of intimate partner violence. Qualitative descriptive research design. Sixteen healthcare facilities were recruited from a large metropolitan area in the USA. Data were collected through semi-structured, in-depth interviews with individuals knowledgeable about intimate partner violence screening and response within their facility. Data were analysed using directive content analysis. Major themes and patterns concerning intimate partner violence screening and response were identified within the following areas: procedural characteristics, barriers, facilitators and additional needs. Patient-provider communication and operational/facility characteristics emerged as critical aspects that impact the successful implementation of intimate partner violence screening and response programmes. Differences were found between clinic and emergency settings stemming from variations in health delivery models. Results provide important information on how healthcare facilities implement intimate partner violence screening and response, suggestions for practice improvement and directions for future interventions. Additional guidance is needed to ensure intimate partner violence identification, and response procedures are effective and tailored to needs of patients, providers and the facility. Nurses are in a strategic position to play a pivotal role in

  19. The relationship between marijuana use and intimate partner violence in a nationally representative, longitudinal sample.

    PubMed

    Reingle, Jennifer M; Staras, Stephanie A S; Jennings, Wesley G; Branchini, Jennifer; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M

    2012-05-01

    Intimate partner violence is a significant public health problem, as these behaviors have been associated with a number of negative health outcomes including illicit drug use, physical injury, chronic pain, sexually transmitted diseases, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The current study examined the association between marijuana use and intimate partner violence using a longitudinal survey of adolescents and young adults ages 15 to 26 years. Data were obtained from 9,421 adolescents in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) Waves 1 through 4 (1995-2008). Marijuana use was measured in the past year at each wave and participants were categorized as "users" or "nonusers." Partner violence was constructed using six items (three pertaining to victimization and three concerning perpetration) from Wave 4 (2007-2008). Using these six items, participants were categorized as "victims only," "perpetrators only," or "victims and perpetrators." Survey multinomial regression was used to examine the relationship between marijuana use and intimate partner violence. Consistent use of marijuana during adolescence was most predictive of intimate partner violence (OR = 2.08, p < .001). Consistent marijuana use (OR = 1.85, p < .05) was related to an increased risk of intimate partner violence perpetration. Adolescent marijuana use, particularly consistent use throughout adolescence, is associated with perpetration or both perpetration of and victimization by intimate partner violence in early adulthood. These findings have implications for intimate partner violence prevention efforts, as marijuana use should be considered as a target of early intimate partner violence intervention and treatment programming.

  20. Intimate Partner Violence, Relationship Status, and Protective Orders: Does "Living in Sin" Entail a Different Experience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Lisa; Logan, T. K.; Cole, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The legal status of women's intimate relationships may allow for different experiences with intimate partner violence (IPV) and the protections received from the criminal justice system. There has been limited research examining differences in IPV and protective orders for women in marital and cohabiting intimate relationships. This study examines…

  1. Intimate Partner Violence, Relationship Status, and Protective Orders: Does "Living in Sin" Entail a Different Experience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Lisa; Logan, T. K.; Cole, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The legal status of women's intimate relationships may allow for different experiences with intimate partner violence (IPV) and the protections received from the criminal justice system. There has been limited research examining differences in IPV and protective orders for women in marital and cohabiting intimate relationships. This study examines…

  2. Intimate partner violence among rural South African men: alcohol use, sexual decision-making, and partner communication.

    PubMed

    Hatcher, Abigail M; Colvin, Christopher J; Ndlovu, Nkuli; Dworkin, Shari L

    2014-01-01

    Nearly one-third of South African men report enacting intimate partner violence. Beyond the direct health consequences for women, intimate partner violence is also linked to varied risk behaviours among men who enact it, including alcohol abuse, risky sex, and poor healthcare uptake. Little is known about how to reduce violence perpetration among men. We conducted retrospective, in-depth interviews with men (n = 53) who participated in a rural South African programme that targeted masculinities, HIV risk, and intimate partner violence. We conducted computer-assisted thematic qualitative coding alongside a simple rubric to understand how the programme may lead to changes in men's use of intimate partner violence. Many men described new patterns of reduced alcohol intake and improved partner communication, allowing them to respond in ways that did not lead to the escalation of violence. Sexual decision-making changed via reduced sexual entitlement and increased mutuality about whether to have sex. Men articulated the intertwined nature of each of these topics, suggesting that a syndemic lens may be useful for understanding intimate partner violence. These data suggest that alcohol and sexual relationship skills may be useful levers for future violence prevention efforts, and that intimate partner violence may be a tractable issue as men learn new skills for enacting masculinities in their household and in intimate relationships.

  3. First contact: acute stress reactions and experiences of emergency department consultations following an incident of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Olive, Philippa

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this research was to explore women's emotional and affective responses following an incident of intimate partner violence experienced during emergency department attendances. A growing body of research has explored women's experiences of emergency departments following intimate partner violence still little remains known about the experience and impact of emotional and affective responses during these attendances. A descriptive qualitative design was used, underpinned theoretically by critical realism and postmodern complexity theory to attend to multiple, intersecting mechanisms that lie behind events and experiences. Semistructured interviews with six women who had attended an emergency department directly following an incident of intimate partner violence. Interview data were transcribed and thematically analysed in nvivo9 using a coding framework. There were three interconnected key findings. First, was the commonality of acute stress experiences among women attending an emergency department following partner violence, second was that these acute stress reactions negatively impacted women's consultations, and third was the need for specialist domestic violence services at the point of first contact to assist service users navigate an effective consultation. Acute stress reactions were an important feature of women's experiences of emergency department consultations following intimate partner violence. Attending to psychological first aid; providing a safe and quiet space; and affording access to specialist violence advocacy services at the point of first contact will limit harm and improve health consultation outcomes for this population. This research provides an account of emotional and affective responses experienced by women attending emergency departments following intimate partner violence and explicates how these acute stress reactions impacted their consultation. This research has relevance for practitioners in many first contact health

  4. Household Financial Management and Women's Experiences of Intimate Partner Violence in the Philippines: A Study Using Propensity Score Methods.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Laura Cordisco

    2016-04-27

    This study explores the causal impact of independent management of household finances upon women's experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV) in the Philippines. Propensity score matching is used to generate a casual estimate of the impact of women's roles as household financial managers on their experiences of IPV. Findings demonstrate that managing household finances independently significantly increased the severity of IPV women experienced from their partners compared with women who managed finances jointly with partners. Findings reinforce the importance of explicit attention to intrahousehold power dynamics and gender norms in the implementation of microfinance interventions intended to empower women.

  5. Partners' controlling behaviors and intimate partner sexual violence among married women in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Wandera, Stephen Ojiambo; Kwagala, Betty; Ndugga, Patricia; Kabagenyi, Allen

    2015-03-04

    Studies on the association between partners' controlling behaviors and intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV) in Uganda are limited. The aim of this paper was to investigate the association between IPSV and partners' controlling behaviors among married women in Uganda. We used the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) data, and selected a weighted sample of 1,307 women who were in a union, out of those considered for the domestic violence module. We used chi-squared tests and multivariable logistic regressions to investigate the factors associated with IPSV, including partners' controlling behaviors. More than a quarter (27%) of women who were in a union in Uganda reported IPSV. The odds of reporting IPSV were higher among women whose partners were jealous if they talked with other men (OR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.22-2.68), if their partners accused them of unfaithfulness (OR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.03-2.19) and if their partners did not permit them to meet with female friends (OR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.11-2.39). The odds of IPSV were also higher among women whose partners tried to limit contact with their family (OR = 1.73; 95% CI: 1.11-2.67) and often got drunk (OR = 1.80; 95% CI: 1.15-2.81). Finally, women who were sometimes or often afraid of their partners (OR = 1.78; 95% CI: 1.21-2.60 and OR = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.04-2.40 respectively) were more likely to report IPSV. In Uganda, women's socio-economic and demographic background and empowerment had no mitigating effect on IPSV in the face of their partners' dysfunctional behaviors. Interventions addressing IPSV should place more emphasis on reducing partners' controlling behaviors and the prevention of problem drinking.

  6. Association of physical violence by an intimate partner around the time of pregnancy with inadequate gestational weight gain in Oklahoma

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, Hind A.; Tamim, Hala; Lincoln, Alicia M.; Dooley, Suzanna D.; Beydoun, May A.

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence has been previously examined in relation to numerous pregnancy, labor and delivery outcomes. We evaluated whether women who experienced physical violence by their intimate partners around the time of pregnancy were less likely to achieve weight gain according to Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the 2000–2006 Oklahoma Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring Survey (PRAMS) data for post-partum women, 20 years and older. Physical violence perpetrated by an intimate partner before and/or during pregnancy was prevalent in nearly 6.5% of women. Weight gain was adequate in 38.8%, deficient in 28.4% and excessive in 32.8% of these women, respectively. After adjusting for maternal age, marital status, education, pregnancy intention, stressful life events, third-trimester use of tobacco and alcohol and gestational age at delivery, physical violence by an intimate partner around the time of pregnancy was positively but non-significantly associated with excessive (but not deficient) gestational weight gain. After stratifying by age group, positive and significant associations between physical violence by an intimate partner around the time of pregnancy and inadequate gestational weight gain were observed only among women 35 years and older. With the exception of mothers ≥ 35 years of age, deficient and excessive gestational weight gains were not significantly related to experiences with physical violence by an intimate partner prior to delivery. Prospective cohort studies are needed to establish whether other forms of violence, including emotional and sexual abuse, can affect gestational weight gain and whether gestational weight gain can mediate the effect of physical, sexual and emotional abuse on pregnancy, labor and delivery outcomes. PMID:21324411

  7. Perceptions of intimate relationships in partners before and after a patient's myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Fransson, Eleonor I; Arenhall, Eva; Steinke, Elaine E; Fridlund, Bengt; Nilsson, Ulrica G

    2014-08-01

    To describe and explore how partners rate their intimate relationship before and after the patients' first myocardial infarction. A further aim was to investigate the association between partners' rating of their intimate relationship and self-rated health. To date, information on how partners experience the intimate relationship before and after a patient's myocardial infarction is sparse. A descriptive and exploratory design with longitudinal data collection. The study comprised 127 partners, aged 34-87 years. Data collection included self-reported information on socio-demographic data, intimate relationship and self-rated health one year before and one year after patients' first myocardial infarction. Intimate relationship was assessed by the Swedish version of the Relationship Assessment Scale. Self-rated health was evaluated by the EuroQoL visual analogue scale. In general, partners reported high satisfaction with their intimate relationship both before and after the patients' myocardial infarction. Women reported somewhat lower ratings in their intimate relationship than men before the myocardial infarction. Women increased their ratings after one year, while men on average decreased their ratings. Partners with higher education reported lower ratings for intimate relationship after one year. Those with children living at home rated intimate relationship lower than those without children living at home after one year. Partners' self-rated health status was stable over time. No significant association between intimate relationship and self-rated health was found. This study provides important insights regarding couples' relationships from the perspective of the partner. Socio-demographic factors such as sex, educational level, having children living at home and employment status may influence how the relationship, from the partners' perspective, is affected by a myocardial infarction event. This study provides insight into how partners rate their intimate

  8. Substance use and mental health disorders are linked to different forms of intimate partner violence victimisation.

    PubMed

    Salom, Caroline L; Williams, Gail M; Najman, Jakob M; Alati, Rosa

    2015-06-01

    Substance and mental health disorders convey significant health burdens and impair interpersonal relationships. We tested associations between comorbid substance and mental health disorders and different forms of intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by young adults. Mothers (n = 6703) were recruited during pregnancy to the longitudinal Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy. Mother/offspring dyads were followed up from birth to 21 years. Offspring with complete psychiatric data at 21 years who reported having had an intimate partnership were included (n = 1781). Participants' experiences of psychological, physical and severe combined IPV were assessed at 21 years using a summarised form of the Composite Abuse Scale. We used the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to obtain lifetime diagnoses of mental health and substance disorders. Multivariable logistic regression models of each IPV form were adjusted for individual, family and neighbourhood factors during adolescence, and for other forms of IPV. We have shown specific links between different forms of IPV experienced and individual substance and mental health disorders. Mental health disorders were related to all three forms of IPV, while alcohol disorders were linked to psychological IPV (ORAUD = 1.86; 1.21-2.86) and illicit substance disorders to physical IPV (ORSUD = 2.07; 1.25-3.43). The co-occurrence of related disorders was strongly linked to psychological and physical IPV. Intimate partner violence was experienced by both men and women. Substance and mental health disorders were associated with specific forms of IPV victimisation, suggesting that screening IPV clients and mental health/substance disorder patients for the converse problems may be important for intervention planning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Problem drinking and physical intimate partner violence against women: evidence from a national survey in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Problem drinking has been identified as a major risk factor for physical intimate partner violence (PIPV) in many studies. However, few studies have been carried on the subject in developing countries and even fewer have a nationwide perspective. This paper assesses the patterns and levels of PIPV against women and its association with problem drinking of their sexual partners in a nationwide survey in Uganda. Methods The data came from the women’s dataset in the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey of 2006. Problem drinking among sexual partners was defined by women’s reports that their partner got drunk sometimes or often and served as the main independent variable while experience of PIPV by the women was the main dependent variable. In another aspect problem drinking was treated an ordinal variable with levels ranging from not drinking to getting drunk often. A woman was classified as experiencing PIPV if her partner pushed or shook her; threw something at her; slapped her; pushed her with a fist or a harmful object; kicked or dragged her, tried to strangle or burn her; threatened/attacked her with a knife/gun or other weapon. General chi-square and chi-square for trend analyses were used to assess the significance of the relationship between PIPV and problem drinking. Multivariate analysis was applied to establish the significance of the relationship of the two after controlling for key independent factors. Results Results show that 48% of the women had experienced PIPV while 49.5% reported that their partners got drunk at least sometimes. The prevalence of both PIPV and problem drinking significantly varied by age group, education level, wealth status, and region and to a less extent by occupation, type of residence, education level and occupation of the partner. Women whose partners got drunk often were 6 times more likely to report PIPV (95% CI: 4.6-8.3) compared to those whose partners never drank alcohol. The higher the education level of

  10. Axis I Psychopathology and the Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Cory A.; Hawes, Samuel W.; Devine, Susan; Easton, Caroline J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Initial evidence suggests that individuals with specific psychiatric conditions may perpetrate intimate partner violence (IPV) at greater frequency than non-diagnosed comparison samples. The present investigation examined the relationship between IPV and specific clinical diagnoses. Method The current investigation utilized data provided by 190 (34% female) adult offenders during court-mandated substance use evaluations to investigate the incidence of past-year IPV among samples of dual diagnosed (bipolar, PTSD, and ADHD) clients relative to 3 comparison samples matched on substance use and sociodemographic variables. Results Bipolar and PTSD diagnosed participants were more likely to perpetrate IPV than matched comparison and ADHD participants. Bipolar and PTSD diagnosed participants were equally likely to perpetrate IPV, as were ADHD and matched comparison samples. Conclusions The frequency of IPV perpetration among bipolar and PTSD diagnosed clients may complicate interpersonal and relationship functioning. The development of integrated treatments for IPV and underlying psychopathology are recommended. PMID:23824500

  11. Intimate partner violence and diurnal cortisol patterns in couples

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoun K.; Tiberio, Stacey S.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Shortt, Joann Wu; Squires, Erica C.; Snodgrass, J. Josh

    2014-01-01

    Summary This study examined whether physical intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization was associated with diurnal patterns of salivary cortisol in a community sample of 122 couples in their 30s from predominantly lower socioeconomic status backgrounds. Findings indicate that women with higher levels of victimization exhibited flatter patterns of diurnal cortisol characterized by both higher midday levels and more attenuated decreases in cortisol levels across the day, compared to women with lower levels of victimization. However, men's victimization was not associated with their diurnal cortisol levels. This study advances our understanding of the association between physical IPV victimization and dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning in women, which is likely to have further implications for their subsequent mental and physical health. PMID:25286224

  12. Alcoholism and intimate partner violence: effects on children's psychosocial adjustment.

    PubMed

    Klostermann, Keith; Kelley, Michelle L

    2009-12-01

    It is widely recognized that alcoholism and relationship violence often have serious consequences for adults; however, children living with alcoholic parents are susceptible to the deleterious familial environments these caregivers frequently create. Given the prevalence of IPV among patients entering substance abuse treatment, coupled with the negative familial consequences associated with these types of behavior, this review explores what have been, to this point, two divergent lines of research: (a) the effects of parental alcoholism on children, and (b) the effects of children's exposure to intimate partner violence. In this article, the interrelationship between alcoholism and IPV is examined, with an emphasis on the developmental impact of these behaviors (individually and together) on children living in the home and offers recommendations for future research directions.

  13. Children's exposure to intimate partner violence: an overview.

    PubMed

    McTavish, Jill R; MacGregor, Jen C D; Wathen, C Nadine; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2016-10-01

    Children's exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with significant emotional impairment and other harmful effects. It is increasingly recognized as a type of child maltreatment, with outcomes similar to other types of abuse and neglect. Children can experience harm from exposure to IPV, even when not directly involved in, or a witness to, the violence between caregivers. This review, based on a synthesis of best available evidence, addresses the epidemiology of children's exposure to IPV, including prevalence, risk and protective factors, and associated impairment, as well as strategies for identification, and interventions for prevention of exposure and impairment. Strategies for ensuring children's safety are also discussed. The article concludes with guidance specific to mental health clinicians.

  14. Negotiating agency in cases of intimate partner violence in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Pells, Kirrily; Wilson, Emma; Thi Thu Hang, Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Understandings of women's agency in cases of intimate partner violence (IPV) have been dominated by an individualistic focus on help-seeking behaviour. The role of children in influencing, enabling and restricting the decision-making processes of their mothers has been largely ignored. We adopt biographical analytical approaches to qualitative longitudinal data collected as part of the Young Lives study to highlight the interdependency of women's and children's agency in contexts of IPV in Vietnam. We illustrate how women's agency is both enabled and constrained by their relationships with their children, as well as by wider structural processes, and examine how gender and generation intersect. In marginalised settings where few formal services exist or strong social norms preclude women from accessing support, understanding these informal coping strategies and the processes by which these are negotiated is essential for developing more effective policy responses.

  15. Portrayal of women as intimate partner domestic violence perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Hester, Marianne

    2012-09-01

    The article explores some of the ways heterosexual women are portrayed as perpetrators of intimate partner domestic violence (IPV) in police domestic violence records in England and is the first study in the United Kingdom to examine the issue of gender and domestic violence perpetrators in any detail and over time. The article is based on a study of 128 IPV cases tracked longitudinally over 6 years, including 32 cases where women were the sole perpetrators and a further 32 cases where women were "dual" perpetrators alongside men. Women were 3 times more likely than men to be arrested when they were construed as the perpetrator. However, Pence and Dasgupta's category of "pathological violence" appeared more useful as an analytical category in the construction of women as "perpetrators" and men as "victims" than the notion of "battering."

  16. Intimate partner violence, coercive control, and child adjustment problems.

    PubMed

    Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee

    2015-02-01

    Coercive control is a relationship dynamic that is theorized to be key for understanding physical intimate partner violence (IPV). This research examines how coercive control in the context of physical IPV may influence child adjustment. Participants were 107 mothers and their children, aged 7 to 10 years. In each family, mothers reported the occurrence of at least one act of physical IPV in the past 6 months. Mothers reported on physical IPV and coercive control, and mothers and children reported on children's externalizing and internalizing problems. Coercive control in the context of physical IPV related positively with both mothers' and children's reports of child externalizing and internalizing problems, after accounting for the frequency of physical IPV, psychological abuse, and mothers' education. This research suggests that couple relationship dynamics underlying physical IPV are potentially important for understanding how physical IPV leads to child adjustment problems.

  17. Perceptions of help resources for victims of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Krugman, Scott D; Witting, Michael D; Furuno, Jon P; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Limcangco, Rhona; Périssé, André R S; Rasch, Elizabeth K

    2004-07-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) constitutes a major public health problem in the United States. This cross-sectional survey of 108 emergency department (ED) care providers and 146 ED visitors at three metropolitan EDs compared the beliefs of ED health care providers with those of community members about the relative benefits of the helpfulness of resources for IPV victims using hypothetical case scenarios. Although providers generally indicated that help resources were helpful in all scenarios, visitors were more discriminating, showing less support for resources in the lower-risk scenario. Regarding differences between groups, visitors selected police and attorneys more frequently than providers as a helpful resource, whereas providers selected shelters and counselors more frequently than visitors. Adjustment for previous experience with IPV did not change these results. Understanding the differences between health care providers' and community members' perceptions of resources for victims of IPV may improve the effectiveness of referral to IPV resources.

  18. Sexual orientation, child abuse, and intimate partner violence victimization.

    PubMed

    Koeppel, Maria D H; Bouffard, Leana

    2014-01-01

    Research has consistently found rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) in nonheterosexual relationships to be comparable or higher than rates of IPV in heterosexual relationship. Less is understood about the relationship between child abuse, sexual orientation, and IPV victimization. The role of sexual orientation in the relationship between child abuse and IPV victimization is important to consider given research has found higher rates of childhood abuse among nonheterosexual individuals. In addition, the relationship between child abuse victimization and IPV victimization in adulthood has also been documented. This research extends the literature on IPV by comparing child abuse victimization as a predictor for IPV between heterosexual and nonheterosexual IPV victims. Using the National Violence Against Women Survey, this study used logistic regression models to find partial support for the hypothesis that nonheterosexuals who experience child abuse will be more likely to be IPV victims as adults than similarly situated heterosexuals.

  19. Intimate partner violence against women and the Nordic paradox.

    PubMed

    Gracia, Enrique; Merlo, Juan

    2016-05-01

    Nordic countries are the most gender equal countries in the world, but at the same time they have disproportionally high prevalence rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. High prevalence of IPV against women, and high levels of gender equality would appear contradictory, but these apparently opposite statements appear to be true in Nordic countries, producing what could be called the 'Nordic paradox'. Despite this paradox being one of the most puzzling issues in the field, this is a research question rarely asked, and one that remains unanswered. This paper explores a number of theoretical and methodological issues that may help to understand this paradox. Efforts to understand the Nordic paradox may provide an avenue to guide new research on IPV and to respond to this major public health problem in a more effective way.

  20. Risk Factors for Hispanic Male Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration.

    PubMed

    Mancera, Bibiana M; Dorgo, Sandor; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias

    2015-04-19

    The literature review analyzed 24 studies that explored male intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration risk factors among men, in particular Hispanics, using the socioecological model framework composed of four socioecological levels for violence prevention. Six databases were reviewed within the EBSCO search engine for articles published from 2000 to 2014. Articles reviewed were specific to risk factors for IPV perpetration among Hispanic men, focusing particularly on Mexican American men. Many key factors have previously been associated with risk for IPV perpetration; however, certain determinants are unique to Hispanics such as acculturation, acculturation stress, and delineated gender roles that include Machismo and Marianismo. These risk factors should be incorporated in future targeted prevention strategies and efforts and capitalize on the positive aspects of each to serve as protective factors.

  1. Newspaper Coverage of Intimate Partner Violence: Skewing Representations of Risk

    PubMed Central

    Carlyle, Kellie E.; Slater, Michael D.; Chakroff, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    How media portray intimate partner violence (IPV) has implications for public perceptions and social policy. Therefore, to better understand these portrayals, this study content analyzes a nationally representative sample of newspaper coverage of IPV over a two-year-period and compares this coverage to epidemiological data in order to examine the implications of the discrepancies between coverage and social reality. Stratified media outlets across the country were used to obtain a representative sample of daily newspapers based on their designated market areas, resulting in 395 IPV-related articles. Results show that newspaper framing of IPV tends to be heavily skewed toward episodic framing. In addition, there are significant differences between our data and epidemiological estimates, particularly in the coverage of homicide and use of alcohol and illegal drugs, which may skew public perceptions of risk. Implications for public perceptions and social policy are discussed. PMID:21297889

  2. Universal screening for intimate partner violence: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Todahl, Jeff; Walters, Elaine

    2011-07-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is known to be prevalent among therapy-seeking populations. Yet, despite a growing understanding of the dynamics of IPV and of the acceptability of screening, universal screening practices have not been systematically adopted in family therapy settings. A rapidly growing body of research data-almost entirely conducted in medical settings-has investigated attitudes and practices regarding universal screening for IPV. This article is a systematic review of the IPV universal screening research literature. The review summarizes literature related to IPV screening rates and practices, factors associated with provider screening practice, the role of training and institutional support on screening practice, impact of screening on disclosure rates, client beliefs and preferences for screening, and key safety considerations and screening competencies. Implications for family therapy and recommendations for further inquiry and screening model development are provided. © 2011 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  3. Jordanian nurses' barriers to screening for intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Al-Natour, Ahlam; Gillespie, Gordon L; Felblinger, Dianne; Wang, Leigh L

    2014-12-01

    Screening rates for intimate partner violence (IPV) among nurses are still very low. The study purpose is to evaluate IPV screening and barriers by Jordanian nurses. A cross-sectional design was used with a stratified random sample (N = 125) of Jordanian nurses. Findings included a significantly lower IPV screening rate among Jordanian nurses compared with those in the United States, no difference in screening between IPV victims compared with non-victimized nurses, and that the IPV screening barriers related to a lack of system support were the most clinically important barriers. Nurses can work in partnership with health care providers and managers to increase screening and overcome barriers. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. An evaluation of intimate partner violence intervention with incarcerated offenders.

    PubMed

    Connors, Angela D; Mills, Jeremy F; Gray, Andrew L

    2012-04-01

    The following study is an evaluation of the Moderate Intensity Family Violence Prevention Program (MIFVPP). The sample consisted of 298 male federal offenders who participated in the MIFVPP while incarcerated or on release within the community. Participants were assessed pre-, mid-, and postprogram using an assessment battery consisting of self-report questionnaires and facilitator-rated evaluation scales. Results of the study found uniform and significant (p < .001) improvement for pre and post program change in the self-report questionnaires and in the facilitator ratings. A positive improvement in motivation, whether assessed by the participant or facilitator, was associated with improvement in program outcomes and significant within, between, and interaction effects were found when participant program performance over time was compared among grouped postprogram ratings of motivation. The implication for the efficacy of addressing offender motivation to change in intimate partner violence (IPV) interventions is discussed.

  5. Intimate partner violence intervention for high-risk offenders.

    PubMed

    Connors, Angela D; Mills, Jeremy F; Gray, Andrew L

    2013-02-01

    This study is an evaluation of pre-postprogram change associated with the High Intensity Family Violence Prevention Program (HIFVPP) for incarcerated male offenders who are perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV). The sample consists of 159 male offenders who participated in the HIFVPP while incarcerated. Participants were assessed pre-, mid-, and postprogram using an assessment battery consisting of self-report questionnaires and facilitator-rated evaluation scales. Results found uniform and significant (p < .001) improvement for pre- and postprogram change in the self-report questionnaires and in the facilitator ratings. A positive improvement in motivation, whether assessed by the participant or facilitator, was associated with improvement in program outcomes and significant within, between, and interaction effects were found when participant program performance over time was compared among grouped postprogram ratings of motivation. The implication for the efficacy of addressing offender motivation to change in IPV interventions is discussed.

  6. Relations Between Intimate Partner Violence and Forgiveness Among College Women.

    PubMed

    Davidson, M Meghan; Lozano, Nicole M; Cole, Brian P; Gervais, Sarah J

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to examine forgiveness and intimate partner violence (IPV) among college women. Undergraduate women (N = 502) participated in an online study in which overall experiences of IPV, as well as experiences of psychological and physical IPV, were investigated with respect to transgression-specific and dispositional forgiveness. Simultaneous multivariate regressions revealed that (a) the experience of IPV was associated with higher levels of avoidance and revenge, and lower levels of benevolence, forgiveness of self, forgiveness of others, and forgiveness of uncontrollable situations; (b) types of IPV demonstrated differing impacts on forgiveness; and (c) the mere experience of IPV is more salient than its frequency. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Parenting in Females Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence and Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Anna E.; Cranston, Christopher C.; Shadlow, Joanna O.

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was…

  8. Strategies Pregnant Rural Women Employ to Deal with Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F. C.; Sharps, Phyllis W.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored strategies from the Intimate Partner Violence Strategy Index (IPVSI) that a sub-set of 20 rural, low-income, abused women of a larger, multi-site, mixed-method study employed to deal with Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) during the perinatal period. We conducted 32 in-depth interviews with women who were pregnant (N = 12) and/or…

  9. Parenting in Females Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence and Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Anna E.; Cranston, Christopher C.; Shadlow, Joanna O.

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was…

  10. Strategies Pregnant Rural Women Employ to Deal with Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F. C.; Sharps, Phyllis W.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored strategies from the Intimate Partner Violence Strategy Index (IPVSI) that a sub-set of 20 rural, low-income, abused women of a larger, multi-site, mixed-method study employed to deal with Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) during the perinatal period. We conducted 32 in-depth interviews with women who were pregnant (N = 12) and/or…

  11. Drug Use and Intimate Partner Violence among College Students: An In-Depth Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabors, Erin L.

    2010-01-01

    College students experience an extremely high level of violence among intimate partners during their college careers, with prevalence rates ranging between 20% and 50%. Because intimate partner violence (IPV) among college students is such a widespread problem, it is important to understand the factors that contribute to this type of abuse.…

  12. Nonfatal Gun Use in Intimate Partner Violence: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Sorenson, Susan B; Schut, Rebecca A

    2016-09-14

    Guns figure prominently in the homicide of women by an intimate partner. Less is known, however, about their nonfatal use against an intimate partner. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we searched eight electronic databases and identified 10 original research articles that reported the prevalence of the nonfatal use of firearms against an intimate partner. Results indicate that (1) there is relatively little research on the subject of intimate partners' nonfatal gun use against women. (2) The number of U.S. women alive today who have had an intimate partner use a gun against them is substantial: About 4.5 million have had an intimate partner threaten them with a gun and nearly 1 million have been shot or shot at by an intimate partner. Whether nonfatal gun use is limited to the extreme form of abuse (battering) or whether it occurs in the context of situational violence remains to be seen. Regardless, when it comes to the likely psychological impact, it may be a distinction without a difference; because guns can be lethal quickly and with relatively little effort, displaying or threatening with a gun can create a context known as coercive control, which facilitates chronic and escalating abuse. Implications for policy, practice, and research are discussed, all of which include expanding an implicit focus on homicide to include an intimate partner's nonfatal use of a gun.

  13. The Danger Assessment: Validation of a Lethality Risk Assessment Instrument for Intimate Partner Femicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Webster, Daniel W.; Glass, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    The Danger Assessment (DA) is an instrument designed to assess the likelihood of lethality or near lethality occurring in a case of intimate partner violence. This article describes the development, psychometric validation, and suggestions for use of the DA. An 11-city study of intimate partner femicide used multivariate analysis to test the…

  14. Intimate Partner Violence and Child Maltreatment: Understanding Intra- and Intergenerational Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Lynette M.; Slack, Kristen Shook

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to assess the extent to which intimate partner violence and different forms of child maltreatment occur within and across childhood and adulthood for a high-risk group of women. Method: Low-income adult women were interviewed, retrospectively, regarding their experiences with intimate partner violence and…

  15. Violence Education: An Analysis of Instructional Methods Used to Teach Nursing Students about Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Cara L.

    2013-01-01

    Nurses in all areas of healthcare are exposed to patients who are suspected or actual victims of intimate partner violence. Many times nurses report a general lack of knowledge in regard to the topic. Therefore, it is paramount for nursing educators to identify effective methods to teach their students about intimate partner violence in an effort…

  16. Gender Differences in Risk for Intimate Partner Violence among South African Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Jesse D.; Stein, Dan J.; Williams, David R.; Seedat, Soraya

    2011-01-01

    Despite a high prevalence of intimate partner violence in South Africa, few epidemiological studies have assessed individual risk factors and differential vulnerability by gender. This study seeks to analyze gender differences in risk for intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration according to childhood and adult risk factors in a…

  17. Does Powerlessness Explain the Relationship between Intimate Partner Violence and Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filson, Jennifer; Ulloa, Emilio; Runfola, Cristin; Hokoda, Audrey

    2010-01-01

    The current study aimed to test whether relationship power could act as a mediator of the relationship between intimate partner violence and depression. The proposed mediation model was based on the theory of gender and power and on previous research of intimate partner violence and depression. Survey results from a sample of 327 single…

  18. Racializing Intimate Partner Violence among Black, Native American, Asian American and Latina Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) continues to attract much attention and awareness as an increasing social problem in the U.S. While intimate partner violence scholars and experts have developed an inclusive conceptualization of IPV, research highlights the need to construct a framework of IPV incorporating the sociocultural and sociohistorical…

  19. Does Powerlessness Explain the Relationship between Intimate Partner Violence and Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filson, Jennifer; Ulloa, Emilio; Runfola, Cristin; Hokoda, Audrey

    2010-01-01

    The current study aimed to test whether relationship power could act as a mediator of the relationship between intimate partner violence and depression. The proposed mediation model was based on the theory of gender and power and on previous research of intimate partner violence and depression. Survey results from a sample of 327 single…

  20. The Danger Assessment: Validation of a Lethality Risk Assessment Instrument for Intimate Partner Femicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Webster, Daniel W.; Glass, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    The Danger Assessment (DA) is an instrument designed to assess the likelihood of lethality or near lethality occurring in a case of intimate partner violence. This article describes the development, psychometric validation, and suggestions for use of the DA. An 11-city study of intimate partner femicide used multivariate analysis to test the…

  1. Intimate Partner Violence in the U.S. General Population: Progress and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Craig A.; Caetano, Raul

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews survey research on intimate partner violence (IPV) in the U.S. general population. Results from survey research conducted over the past quarter century are briefly summarized. Three additional national studies related to injuries, crime victimization, and homicide among intimate partners in the United States are also…

  2. Racializing Intimate Partner Violence among Black, Native American, Asian American and Latina Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) continues to attract much attention and awareness as an increasing social problem in the U.S. While intimate partner violence scholars and experts have developed an inclusive conceptualization of IPV, research highlights the need to construct a framework of IPV incorporating the sociocultural and sociohistorical…

  3. Gender Differences in Risk for Intimate Partner Violence among South African Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Jesse D.; Stein, Dan J.; Williams, David R.; Seedat, Soraya

    2011-01-01

    Despite a high prevalence of intimate partner violence in South Africa, few epidemiological studies have assessed individual risk factors and differential vulnerability by gender. This study seeks to analyze gender differences in risk for intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration according to childhood and adult risk factors in a…

  4. Violence and substance use among female partners of men in treatment for intimate-partner violence.

    PubMed

    Wupperman, Peggilee; Amble, Paul; Devine, Susan; Zonana, Howard; Fals-Stewart, William; Easton, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    To improve understanding of the complex dynamics in intimate partner violence (IPV) in heterosexual relationships, we explored violence and substance use among the female partners of men entering treatment for both IPV and substance-related problems. All male participants (n = 75) were alcohol dependent and had at least one domestic-violence arrest. Results showed that female partners were as likely as men to engage in substance use the week before treatment; however, according to reports by the men, the female partners were more likely than men to use substances during the last week of treatment, due to a reported increase in use during the men's treatment. Regarding violence, 59 percent of female IPV victims reported engaging in some form of mild violence against their male partners, and 55 percent reported engaging in some form of severe violence. By contrast, only 23 percent of male batterers reported that their female partners had engaged in mild violence, and only 19 percent reported that their partners had engaged in severe violence. Regardless of whether the violence was defensive in nature, the data suggest that women in relationships involving substance abuse and IPV are in need of treatment. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. The Link Between Community-Based Violence and Intimate Partner Violence: the Effect of Crime and Male Aggression on Intimate Partner Violence Against Women.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Ligia; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Hossain, Mazeda; Watts, Charlotte; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2015-08-01

    Both intimate partner violence (IPV) and community violence are prevalent globally, and each is associated with serious health consequences. However, little is known about their potential links or the possible benefits of coordinated prevention strategies. Using aggregated data on community violence from the São Paulo State Security Department (INFOCRIM) merged with WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence data, random intercept models were created to assess the effect of crime on women's probability of experiencing IPV. The association between IPV and male aggression (measured by women's reports of their partner's fights with other men) was examined using logistic regression models. We found little variation in the likelihood of male IPV perpetration related to neighborhood crime level but did find an increased likelihood of IPV experiences among women whose partners were involved in male-to-male violence. Emerging evidence on violence prevention has suggested some promising avenues for primary prevention that address common risk factors for both perpetration of IPV and male interpersonal violence. Strategies such as early identification and effective treatment of emotional disorders, alcohol abuse prevention and treatment, complex community-based interventions to change gender social norms and social marketing campaigns designed to modify social and cultural norms that support violence may work to prevent simultaneously male-on-male aggression and IPV. Future evaluations of these prevention strategies should simultaneously assess the impact of interventions on IPV and male interpersonal aggression.

  6. Intimate partner violence and health provider training and screening in the news.

    PubMed

    Manganello, Jennifer A; Webster, Daniel; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2006-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is a significant women's health issue. Since the news media can play a role in policy development, it is important to understand how newspapers have portrayed training and screening. The purpose of this study was to describe the frequency and nature of print news coverage of health issues related to partner violence, specifically, provider training and screening by health providers. We conducted a content analysis on articles obtained from major city and state capital daily newspapers from 20 states. News articles and editorials mentioning intimate partner violence and provider training and screening were examined for the years 1994 through 2001 (N = 188). Results showed that print news coverage was limited and received low levels of attention, indicating little potential to influence either policy or individual behavior. However, when the issue was covered, little debate or controversy was present, and a broad discussion of the issue was generally provided. News coverage of training and screening could be improved by increasing dissemination of research results, illustrating the policy implications of these issues, and offering resource information to women experiencing violence.

  7. Intimate partner violence and the utilization of maternal health care services in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ononokpono, Dorothy Ngozi; Azfredrick, Ezinwanne Christiana

    2014-01-01

    Our aim in this study is to examine the association between women's lifetime experiences of physical, sexual, and emotional intimate partner violence (IPV) and the use of maternal health care services. We used data from the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Analysis was based on responses from 17,476 women (for antenatal care [ANC]) and 17,412 (for delivery assisted by a skilled health provider) who had had deliveries in the 5 years preceding the survey. We found an overall IPV prevalence rate of 33.4%. Physical IPV was associated with low use of ANC. Emotionally abused women were less likely to use delivery assistance from skilled health care providers. Based on our findings, we suggest the importance of designing interventions to address the health care needs of women who have experienced violence from their partners.

  8. Correlates of intimate partner physical violence among young reproductive age women in Mysore, India.

    PubMed

    Madhivanan, Purnima; Krupp, Karl; Reingold, Arthur

    2014-03-01

    Few studies have examined intimate partner physical violence (IPPV) in south India. This article examines the frequency and correlates of IPPV among 898 young married women from urban, rural, and periurban areas of Mysore, India. Most (69.2%) of the participants were Hindus and 28.7% were Muslims. Overall, 50% of participants reported some type of IPPV. Factors that were independently associated with IPPV included being younger than 18 years at the time of marriage, contributing some household income, having anal sex, reporting sexual violence, and having a sex partner who drinks alcohol and smokes cigarettes. Women with skilled occupation were at reduced odds of experiencing IPPV compared with women who did not work. These findings suggest that IPPV is highly prevalent in this setting and that additional interventions are needed to reduce morbidity particularly among young women. These data also suggest that more studies are needed among men who perpetrate IPPV in south India.

  9. Correlates of Intimate Partner Physical Violence Among Young Reproductive Age Women in Mysore, India

    PubMed Central

    Madhivanan, Purnima; Krupp, Karl; Reingold, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined intimate partner physical violence (IPPV) in south India. This article examines the frequency and correlates of IPPV among 898 young married women from urban, rural, and periurban areas of Mysore, India. Most (69.2%) of the participants were Hindus and 28.7% were Muslims. Overall, 50% of participants reported some type of IPPV. Factors that were independently associated with IPPV included being younger than 18 years at the time of marriage, contributing some household income, having anal sex, reporting sexual violence, and having a sex partner who drinks alcohol and smokes cigarettes. Women with skilled occupation were at reduced odds of experiencing IPPV compared with women who did not work. These findings suggest that IPPV is highly prevalent in this setting and that additional interventions are needed to reduce morbidity particularly among young women. These data also suggest that more studies are needed among men who perpetrate IPPV in south India. PMID:22186382

  10. Factors associated with intimate partner physical violence among women attending antenatal care in Shire Endaselassie town, Tigray, northern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study, July 2015.

    PubMed

    Gebrezgi, Berhane Hailu; Badi, Marta Berta; Cherkose, Endashaw Admassu; Weldehaweria, Negassie Berhe

    2017-06-24

    Intimate partner physical violence is a common global phenomenon. About 30.00% and 38.83% of women in the world and in sub-Saharan Africa experienced physical violence by their partner respectively in 2013. Though intimate partner violence has serious adverse health consequences, there is limited information about partner violence during pregnancy in Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalnce of physical intimate partner violence during pregnancy and associated factors among women attending antenatal care in Shire Endaselassie town, Tigray, northen Ethiopia METHODS: A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 3 to July 6, 2015. Four hundred and twenty-two pregnant women attending three public health facilities were included using systematic sampling technique. In addition, twenty-two purposely selected key informants were interviewed. The data collectors and supervisors were trained on all data collection processes. Data were entered to Epi-Info version 7.1.2.00 and exported to SPSS version 20.00. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with intimate partner physical violence. Statistical significance was declared at p < 0.05. Qualitative data were categorized into themes and triangulated with the quantitative results. The prevalence of intimate partner physical violence in pregnancy was 20.6% (CI = 16.70, 24.90). Age at first marriage greater than or equal to 17 years (AOR = 4.42, CI = 2.07, 9.42), women with no formal education (AOR = 2.78 CI = 1.10, 7.08), rural dwellers (AOR = 2.63 CI = 1.24, 5.58), intimate partners with no formal education (AOR = 2.78 CI = 1.10, 7.08) and intimate partner alcohol consumption (AOR = 3.8 CI = 1.85, 7.82) were factors associated with intimate partner physical violence towards pregnant women. Nearly one fifth of women surveyed experienced intimate partner physical violence during pregnancy. Early marriage, rural dwelling, intimate partner

  11. Addressing Intimate Partner Violence: Reducing Barriers and Improving Residents' Attitudes, Knowledge, and Practices.

    PubMed

    LaPlante, Laura Marie; Gopalan, Priya; Glance, Jody

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to assess residents' attitudes, knowledge, practices, and barriers in addressing intimate partner violence and create a curriculum targeting self-identified deficits. The authors developed and distributed a survey to residents across multiple specialties at a large academic institution. A workshop was developed using obstetrics/gynecology residents' data, with post-intervention data collected to assess for changes. One hundred forty-seven residents (41 %) completed the survey. Though all identified assessing intimate partner violence as physicians' responsibility, only 40 % reported consistent screening with new female patients, 36 % with pregnant patients, and 18 % with post-partum patients. Half reported inadequate training and felt unprepared to counsel patients regarding intimate partner violence. Post-intervention data suggest gains in knowledge and perceived preparedness. Although residents appreciate the significance of intimate partner violence assessment, in this particular institution few consistently perform or feel comfortable screening. Development of comprehensive intimate partner violence curricula is therefore critical.

  12. Reconceptualizing and Operationalizing Context in Survey Research on Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Lindhorst, Taryn; Tajima, Emiko

    2008-01-01

    Survey research in the field of intimate partner violence is notably lacking in its attention to contextual factors. Early measures of intimate partner violence focused on simple counts of behaviors, yet attention to broader contextual factors remains limited. Contextual factors not only shape what behaviors are defined as intimate partner violence but also influence the ways women respond to victimization, the resources available to them, and the environments in which they cope with abuse. This article advances methods for reconceptualizing and operationalizing contextual factors salient to the measurement of intimate partner violence. The analytic focus of the discussion is on five dimensions of the social context: the situational context, the social construction of meaning by the survivor, cultural and historical contexts, and the context of systemic oppression. The authors consider how each dimension matters in the measurement of intimate partner violence and offer recommendations for systematically assessing these contextual factors in future research. PMID:18245573

  13. Factors associated with intimate partner violence by a former partner by immigration status and length of residence in Canada.

    PubMed

    Du Mont, Janice; Hyman, Ilene; O'Brien, Kristen; White, Meghan E; Odette, Fran; Tyyskä, Vappu

    2012-11-01

    We examined intimate partner violence (IPV) by a former partner among Canadian-born and immigrant women by length of residence in Canada. Data from a 2009 national, population-based, telephone survey were used to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with any type of IPV (emotional, financial, physical, and/or sexual) by a former partner with whom there had been contact in the previous 5 years among immigrant women 0 to 19 years in Canada, 20 or more years or longer in Canada, and Canadian-born women (n = 1681). Of immigrant women in Canada for 0 to 19 years, 41.6% had experienced IPV by a former partner; for immigrant women in Canada for 20 or more years or longer, 60.6%, and Canadian-born women, 61.5% (P = .0423). In a logistic regression model adjusted for age and other sociodemographic characteristics, immigrant women in Canada for 0 to 19 years were less likely than Canadian-born women to experience any IPV (odds ratio, 0.266; 95% confidence interval, 0.130-0.544). There was no difference in the occurrence of any IPV between immigrant women in Canada 20 or more years or longer and Canadian-born women. High rates of any IPV by a former partner were found for both Canadian-born and immigrant women. Within immigrant communities, specific prevention campaigns should address the high risk of experiencing IPV at later stages of resettlement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Understanding Turning Points in Intimate Partner Violence: Factors and Circumstances Leading Women Victims Toward Change

    PubMed Central

    Dado, Diane; Hawker, Lynn; Cluss, Patricia A.; Buranosky, Raquel; Slagel, Leslie; McNeil, Melissa; Scholle, Sarah Hudson

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective When counseling women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV), healthcare providers can benefit from understanding the factors contributing to a women's motivation to change her situation. We wished to examine the various factors and situations associated with turning points and change seeking in the IPV situation. Methods We performed qualitative analysis on data from 7 focus groups and 20 individual interviews with women (61 participants) with past and/or current histories of IPV. Results The turning points women identified fell into 5 major themes: (1) protecting others from the abuse/abuser; (2) increased severity/humiliation with abuse; (3) increased awareness of options/access to support and resources; (4) fatigue/recognition that the abuser was not going to change; and (5) partner betrayal/infidelity. Conclusions Women experiencing IPV can identify specific factors and events constituting turning points or catalyst to change in their IPV situation. These turning points are dramatic shifts in beliefs and perceptions of themselves, their partners, and/or their situation that alter the women's willingness to tolerate the situation and motivate them to consider change. When counseling women experiencing IPV, health providers can incorporate understanding of turning points to motivate women to move forward in their process of changing their IPV situation. PMID:20113147

  15. Patterns of intimate partner violence victimization from adolescence to young adulthood in a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Spriggs, Aubrey L; Martin, Sandra L; Kupper, Lawrence L

    2009-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of patterns of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization from adolescence to young adulthood, and document associations with selected sociodemographic and experiential factors. We used prospective data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to group 4134 respondents reporting only opposite-sex romantic or sexual relationships in adolescence and young adulthood into four victimization patterns: no IPV victimization, adolescent-limited IPV victimization, young adult onset IPV victimization, and adolescent-young adult persistent IPV victimization. Forty percent of respondents reported physical or sexual victimization by young adulthood. Eight percent experienced IPV only in adolescence, 25% only in young adulthood, and 7% showed persistent victimization. Female sex, Hispanic and non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity, an atypical family structure (something other than two biologic parents, step-family, single parent), more romantic partners, experiencing childhood abuse, and early sexual debut (before age 16) were each associated with one or more patterns of victimization versus none. Number of romantic partners and early sexual debut were the most consistent predictors of violence, its timing of onset, and whether victimization persisted across developmental periods. These associations did not vary by biological sex. Substantial numbers of young adults have experienced physical or sexual IPV victimization. More research is needed to understand the developmental and experiential mechanisms underlying timing of onset of victimization, whether victimization persists across time and relationships, and whether etiology and temporal patterns vary by type of violence. These additional distinctions would inform the timing, content, and targeting of violence prevention efforts.

  16. Intimate partner violence among individuals in methadone maintenance treatment

    PubMed Central

    de Dios, Marcel A.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Caviness, Celeste M.; Stein, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a highly prevalent and concerning problem among methadone maintenance populations, and previous studies have shown a relationship between a history of IPV and increased substance use and affective disturbances. Methods The current study examined 1) the association between recent IPV victimization and alcohol and cocaine use and 2) the relationship between recent IPV victimization and depression in a sample of smokers (n=203) in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Participants in this study completed a battery of assessments that included standard questionnaires of trauma, alcohol and substance use, and depression. Parallel logistic and linear regression models were used to estimate the adjusted association of IPV victimization and depressive symptoms and evaluate the adjusted association of victimization with recent substance use. Results Participants recently victimized by partners were shown to have significantly higher mean CES-D scores (b = 0.54, 95%CI 0.07; 1.02, p < .05) and were found to have a 6 times greater likelihood of cocaine use (OR = 6.65, 95%CI 1.61; 27.46, p < .01) after controlling for age, gender, education, opiate use and ethnicity. Conclusions These findings support the notion that IPV victimization can potentially increase depression and other substance use among MMT patients, which can have a deleterious impact on treatment. PMID:24821357

  17. Intimate partner violence among individuals in methadone maintenance treatment.

    PubMed

    de Dios, Marcel A; Anderson, Bradley J; Caviness, Celeste M; Stein, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a highly prevalent and concerning problem among methadone maintenance populations, and previous studies have shown a relationship between a history of IPV and increased substance use and affective disturbances. The current study examined (1) the association between recent IPV victimization and alcohol and cocaine use and (2) the relationship between recent IPV victimization and depression in a sample of smokers (N = 203) in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Participants in this study completed a battery of assessments that included standard questionnaires of trauma, alcohol and substance use, and depression. Parallel logistic and linear regression models were used to estimate the adjusted association of IPV victimization and depressive symptoms and evaluate the adjusted association of victimization with recent substance use. Participants recently victimized by partners were shown to have significantly higher mean Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) scores (b = 0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]: [0.07; 1.02], P <.05) and were found to have a 6 times greater likelihood of cocaine use (odds ratio [OR] = 6.65, 95% CI: [1.61; 27.46], P <.01) after controlling for age, gender, education, opiate use, and ethnicity. These findings support the notion that IPV victimization can potentially increase depression and other substance use among MMT patients, which can have a deleterious impact on treatment.

  18. Gay men and intimate partner violence: a gender analysis.

    PubMed

    Oliffe, John L; Han, Christina; Maria, Estephanie Sta; Lohan, Maria; Howard, Terry; Stewart, Donna E; MacMillan, Harriet

    2014-05-01

    Though intimate partner violence (IPV) is predominately understood as a women's health issue most often emerging within heterosexual relationships, there is increasing recognition of the existence of male victims of IPV. In this qualitative study we explored connections between masculinities and IPV among gay men. The findings show how recognising IPV was based on an array of participant experiences, including the emotional, physical and sexual abuse inflicted by their partner, which in turn led to three processes. Normalising and concealing violence referred to the participants' complicity in accepting violence as part of their relationship and their reluctance to disclose that they were victims of IPV. Realising a way out included the participants' understandings that the triggers for, and patterns of, IPV would best be quelled by leaving the relationship. Nurturing recovery detailed the strategies employed by participants to mend and sustain their wellbeing in the aftermath of leaving an abusive relationship. In terms of masculinities and men's health research, the findings reveal the limits of idealising hegemonic masculinities and gender relations as heterosexual, while highlighting a plurality of gay masculinities and the need for IPV support services that bridge the divide between male and female as well as between homosexual and heterosexual. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Intimate partner stalking and femicide: urgent implications for women's safety.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Judith; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Watson, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    This study describes the type and extent of intimate partner stalking and threatening behaviors that occurred within 12 months prior to a major assault or attempted or actual partner femicide and specifies which behaviors were associated with an increased risk of potential or actual lethality. The design was a ten-city case-control study of 821 women: 384 abuse victims and 437 attempted or actual femicide informants. Data were derived using a 16-item inventory. Logistic regressions, with adjustments for demographic variables, were used to identify the significant perpetrator behaviors associated with attempted/actual femicide. Women who reported the perpetrator followed or spied on them were more than twice as likely t o become attempted/actual femicide victims. Threats by the perpetrator to harm the children if the woman left or did not return to the relationship place the woman at a ninefold increase in the risk of attempted/actual femicide. Conclusions are that certain stalking and threatening behaviors are strong risk factors for lethality, and women must be so advised.

  20. Socioeconomic disparities in intimate partner violence against Native American women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Duran, Bonnie M; Montgomery, Juliann M

    2004-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a global public health problem, yet data on IPV against Native American women are extremely limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study of Native American women to determine prevalence of lifetime and past-year IPV and partner injury; examine IPV in relation to pregnancy; and assess demographic and socioeconomic correlates of past-year IPV. Methods Participants were recruited from a tribally-operated clinic serving low-income pregnant and childbearing women in southwest Oklahoma. A self-administered survey was completed by 312 Native American women (96% response rate) attending the clinic from June through August 1997. Lifetime and past-year IPV were measured using modified 18-item Conflict Tactics Scales. A socioeconomic index was created based on partner's education, public assistance receipt, and poverty level. Results More than half (58.7%) of participants reported lifetime physical and/or sexual IPV; 39.1% experienced severe physical IPV; 12.2% reported partner-forced sexual activity; and 40.1% reported lifetime partner-perpetrated injuries. A total of 273 women had a spouse or boyfriend during the previous 12 months (although all participants were Native American, 59.0% of partners were non-Native). Among these women, past-year prevalence was 30.1% for physical and/or sexual IPV; 15.8% for severe physical IPV; 3.3% for forced partner-perpetrated sexual activity; and 16.4% for intimate partner injury. Reported IPV prevalence during pregnancy was 9.3%. Pregnancy was not associated with past-year IPV (odds ratio = 0.9). Past-year IPV prevalence was 42.8% among women scoring low on the socioeconomic index, compared with 10.1% among the reference group. After adjusting for age, relationship status, and household size, low socioeconomic index remained strongly associated with past-year IPV (odds ratio = 5.0; 95% confidence interval: 2.4, 10.7). Conclusions Native American women in our sample experienced

  1. Severe intimate partner violence and alcohol use among female trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Weinsheimer, R L; Schermer, C R; Malcoe, L H; Balduf, L M; Bloomfield, L A

    2005-01-01

    The lifetime prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among women in the United States is reported to be between 18 and 50%. One-third of female homicide victims are killed by an intimate partner and alcohol is often involved. Despite these figures, 77% of women have never been screened for IPV. Substance abuse in male partners is known to place women at risk. We examined the role of female alcohol use on rates of severe IPV. Our hypotheses were: (1) the prevalence of IPV among women seen in trauma centers is greater than that found in national surveys; (2) alcohol problems among abused women and their partners are greater than those among non-abused women; (3) females and their partners alcohol problems are each independently associated with IPV; and (4) female trauma center patients support domestic violence screening. An in-person survey was administered to 95 consecutive adult female trauma patients admitted to a Level I Trauma Center. The survey included questions about past-year and lifetime severe IPV, female and male partner alcohol use, and willingness to participate in IPV screening and referral. The multivariate associations of female and partner alcohol use with past-year severe IPV were assessed with logistic regression. Nearly one-half (46.3%) of women reported a lifetime history of severe IPV, with 26% experiencing severe IPV in the past year. Past-year IPV was identified in 59.1% of women screening positive for drinking problems, but in only 12.7% of those screening negative for drinking problems (p = 0.001). Similarly, past-year IPV prevalence was 55.2% when the partner was a problem drinker versus 8.3% when he was not (p = 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that female problem drinking (odds ratio [OR] = 5.8) and partner problem drinking (OR=8.9) were independent predictors of past-year severe IPV. The majority of women (90.5%) felt that it was appropriate for health care professionals to screen for IPV; 90% of women with a history of IPV

  2. Intimate partner violence and incidence of common mental disorder.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Marcela Franklin Salvador de; Ludermir, Ana Bernarda

    2017-04-10

    To investigate the association of intimate partner violence against women reported in the last 12 months and seven years with the incidence of common mental disorders. A prospective cohort study with 390 women from 18 to 49 years, registered in the Family Health Program of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco; from July 2013 to December 2014. The Self Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) assessed mental health. Intimate partner violence consists of concrete acts of psychological, physical or sexual violence that the partner inflicts on the woman. Poisson regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted relative risks (RR) of the association between common mental disorders and intimate partner violence. The incidence of common mental disorders was 44.6% among women who reported intimate partner violence in the last 12 months and 43.4% among those who reported in the past seven years. Mental disorders remained associated with psychological violence (RR = 3.0; 95%CI 1.9-4.7 and RR = 1.8; 95%CI 1.0-3.7 in the last 12 months, and seven years, respectively), even in the absence of physical or sexual violence. When psychological violence were related to physical or sexual violence, the risk of common mental disorders was even higher, both in the last 12 months (RR = 3.1; 95%CI 2.1-4.7) and in the last seven years (RR = 2.5; 95%CI 1.7-3.8). Intimate partner violence is associated with the incidence of common mental disorders in women. The treatment of the consequences of IPV and support for women in seeking protection for themselves for public services is essential. Investigar a associação da violência por parceiros íntimos relatada contra as mulheres nos últimos 12 meses e últimos sete anos com a incidência dos transtornos mentais comuns. Estudo de coorte prospectivo com 390 mulheres de 18 a 49 anos, cadastradas no Programa Saúde da Família da cidade do Recife, PE, entre julho de 2013 e dezembro de 2014. A saúde mental foi avaliada pelo Self Reporting

  3. Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence: Conduct Problems, Interventions, and Partner Contact With the Child.

    PubMed

    Jouriles, Ernest N; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee; Vu, Nicole L; Rancher, Caitlin; Mueller, Victoria

    2016-06-30

    Children's contact with their mother's violent partner is a potentially important variable for understanding conduct problems among children exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV). Within the context of a treatment study evaluating a parenting intervention (Project Support) for families exiting a domestic violence shelter, this study tested four hypotheses regarding children's postshelter contact with their mother's violent partner: (1) participation in Project Support decreases the frequency of children's contact with their mother's violent partner; (2) postshelter contact is positively associated with children's conduct problems and is associated more strongly for girls than boys; (3) frequency of contact mediates Project Support's effects on children's conduct problems; and (4) frequency of contact is positively associated with IPV and partner-child aggression, and these latter associations help explain effects of contact on children's conduct problems. Participants were 66 women (26 White) with a child (32 girls) between 4 and 9 years. Families were assessed every 4 months for 20 months after departure from a domestic violence shelter. Project Support reduced the extent of partner-child contact. In addition, within-subject changes in contact over time were associated with girls', but not boys', conduct problems, and it partially mediated effects of Project Support on girls' conduct problems. Higher average levels of contact over time were also positively associated with further incidents of IPV and partner-child aggression, and partner-child aggression helped explain effects of contact on children's conduct problems. Children's postshelter contact with the mother's violent partner relates positively to several negative family outcomes.

  4. Intimate Partner Violence and HIV Risk Behaviors Among Socially Disadvantaged Chilean Women

    PubMed Central

    Miner, Sarah; Ferrer, Lilian; Cianelli, Rosina; Bernales, Margarita; Cabieses, Báltica

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV risk among socioeconomically disadvantaged Chilean women. A correlational analysis with data from the NIH-funded project, “Testing an HIV/AIDS Prevention Intervention for Chilean Women,” was conducted. Two hundred and sixtyone women were included in this analysis (n = 261). Those women who had experienced any type of IPV in the past 3 months had significantly higher risk for HIV than those who had not (t = −2.016, p < .05). Also a linear trend was found among those women who had experienced more than one type of IPV in the past 3 months and HIV risk. PMID:21486859

  5. Community economic status and intimate partner violence against women in bangladesh: compositional or contextual effects?

    PubMed

    VanderEnde, Kristin E; Sibley, Lynn M; Cheong, Yuk Fai; Naved, Ruchira Tabassum; Yount, Kathryn M

    2015-06-01

    In this research, we used a multi-level contextual-effects analysis to disentangle the household- and community-level associations between income and intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in Bangladesh. Our analyses of data from 2,668 women interviewed as part of the World Health Organization (WHO) multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women showed that household income was negatively associated with women's risk of experiencing IPV. Controlling for residence in a low-income household, living in a low-income community was not associated with women's risk of experiencing IPV. These results support a household-level, not community-level, relationship between income and IPV in Bangladesh.

  6. Mexican immigrant survivors of intimate partner violence: conceptualization and descriptions of abuse.

    PubMed

    Kyriakakis, Stavroula; Dawson, Beverly Araujo; Edmond, Tonya

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological qualitative study examines intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by a sample of 29 Mexican immigrant women residing in New York and St. Louis. The findings reveal important insights about culturally specific abuse tactics employed by batterers and the forms of abuse that are experienced as most hurtful to the survivors. Ten different abusive tactics emerged: verbal, economic, physical, sexual, and extended family abuse, social isolation, physical abuse of children, stalking and monitoring, stolen bride, and sex trafficking. Cultural values and expectations appear to be inextricably linked to how the participants characterized the severity of each of the abusive tactics as evidenced by which abusive behaviors the participants found most hurtful. The findings will help service providers have a better understanding of the role cultural context plays in the IPV experiences of Mexican immigrant women.

  7. Intimate partner abuse: identifying, caring for and helping women in healthcare settings.

    PubMed

    Valpied, Jodie; Hegarty, Kelsey

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner abuse (IPA) is experienced by around one in three women at some stage during their lifetime, and has serious health consequences. This paper reviews how clinicians can best identify when a woman is experiencing IPA, and provide appropriate care and assistance. Research supports use of sensitive inquiry about IPA when conditions or situations that can be associated with IPA are present. Subsequent responses recommended include validation, affirmation and support, safety assessment and planning (both for the woman and any children), counseling and referral to IPA specialist services. Better training is needed for clinicians in these areas. Future research is needed to compare identification methods, and further assess psychological, advocacy and safety planning interventions, primary prevention and perpetrator interventions.

  8. Intimate partner violence in older women in Spain: prevalence, health consequences, and service utilization.

    PubMed

    Montero, Isabel; Martín-Baena, David; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Talavera, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of lifetime intimate partner violence (IPV) in older women and to analyze its effect on women's health and Healthcare Services utilization. Women aged 55 years and over (1,676) randomly sampled from Primary Healthcare Services around Spain were included. Lifetime IPV prevalence, types, and duration were calculated. Descriptive and multivariate procedures using logistic and multiple lineal regression models were used. Of the women studied, 29.4% experienced IPV with an average duration of 21 years. Regardless of the type of IPV experienced, abused women showed significantly poorer health and higher healthcare services utilization compared to women who had never been abused. The high prevalence detected long standing duration, negative health impact, and high healthcare services utilization, calling attention to a need for increased efforts aimed at addressing IPV in older women.

  9. Prevalence of Substance Use and Intimate Partner Violence in a Sample of A/PI MSM.

    PubMed

    Tran, Alvin; Lin, Lavinia; Nehl, Eric J; Talley, Colin L; Dunkle, Kristin L; Wong, Frank Y

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluates the prevalence of three forms of intimate partner violence (IPV) (i.e., experience of physical, psychological/symbolic, and sexual battering) among a national sample of Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States and identifies their characteristics. The study also reports the differences of substance use behavior between MSM with and without a previous history of IPV. Our sample was recruited through venue-based sampling from seven metropolitan cities as part of the national Men of Asia Testing for HIV (MATH) study. Among 412 MSM, 29.1% experienced IPV perpetrated from a boyfriend or same-gender partner in the past 5 years. Within the previous 5 years, 62.5%, 78.3%, and 40.8% of participants experienced physical, psychological/symbolic, and sexual battering, respectively. Collectively, 35.8% of participants reported that they have experienced at least one type of victimization and 64.2% have experienced multiple victimizations (two or three types of battering victimization). Overall, 21.2% of our sample reported any substance use within the past 12 months. The present findings suggest that individuals with a history of IPV in the past 5 years were more likely to report substance use (33.6%) compared to those without a history of IPV experience (16.1%).

  10. Suicide attempts and stressful life events among female victims of intimate partner violence living in poverty in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Guillén, Ana Isabel; Panadero, Sonia; Rivas, Esther; Vázquez, José Juan

    2015-06-01

    This article describes a study of 136 female intimate partner violence victims living in poverty in Nicaragua. The paper aimed to analyze the relationship between experiencing stressful life events (SLE) and perceived social support with suicide attempts, and to evaluate the differences in the SLE experienced by female suicide attempters versus non-attempters. The results showed the existence of a high level of SLE among the interviewees, and that women who have attempted suicide have experienced substantially more of these events. Experiences of violence and less social support were especially related to suicide attempts among the interviewees.

  11. The prevalence and incidence of intimate partner and interpersonal mistreatment in older women in primary care offices.

    PubMed

    Zink, Therese; Fisher, Bonnie S

    2006-01-01

    Self-report information about mistreatment experiences and perpetrators were collected from a large sample of women over 55 years of age who sought care from Midwestern primary care offices. A significantly larger proportion of women had experienced sexual mistreatment since turning 55 that was perpetrated by an intimate partner than committed by an interpersonal perpetrator. The women experienced significantly more threats, physical mistreatment, and caregiver mistreatment since turning 55, and more threats and caregiver mistreatment within the last year by an interpersonal perpetrator than by an intimate partner. Several women described different types of perpetrators who had threatened or mistreated them. Few women reported the mistreatment to anyone. Implications for elder service providers and advocates are discussed.

  12. United States emergency department visits coded for intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Davidov, Danielle M; Larrabee, Hollynn; Davis, Stephen M

    2015-01-01

    Limited information exists about medical treatment for victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). Our aim was to estimate the number of emergency department (ED) visits and subsequent hospitalizations that were assigned a code specific to IPV and to describe the clinical and sociodemographic features of this population. Data from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample from 2006-2009 were analyzed. Cases with an external cause of injury code of E967.3 (battering by spouse or partner) were abstracted. From 2006-2009, there were 112,664 visits made to United States EDs with an e-code for battering by a partner or spouse. Most patients were female (93%) with a mean age of 35 years. Patients were significantly more likely to reside in communities with the lowest median income quartile and in the Southern United States. Approximately 5% of visits resulted in hospital admission. The mean charge for treat-and-release visits was $1904.69 and $27,068.00 for hospitalizations. Common diagnoses included superficial injuries and contusions, skull/face fractures, and complications of pregnancy. Females were more likely to experience superficial injuries and contusions, and males were more likely to have open wounds of the head, neck, trunk, and extremities. From 2006 to 2009, there were approximately 28,000 ED visits per year with an e-code specific to IPV. Although a minority, 7% of these visits were made by males, which has not been reported previously. Future prospective research should confirm the unique demographic and geographic features of these visits to guide development of targeted screening and intervention strategies to mitigate IPV and further characterize male IPV visits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Intimate Partner Violence among Adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Marcia; Cupp, Pamela K.; Jewkes, Rachel K.; Gevers, Anik; Mathews, Catherine; LeFleur-Bellerose, Chantel; Small, Jeon

    2013-01-01

    GOAL To describe potentially preventable factors in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization among South African 8th grade students. METHOD Data were collected during a pilot evaluation of a classroom 8th grade curriculum on gender-based violence prevention in 9 public schools in Cape Town through self-completed interviews with 549 8th grade students, 238 boys and 311 girls. Structural equation models (SEM) predicting IPV were constructed with variables a priori hypothesized to be associated. RESULTS The majority of students (78.5%) had had a partner in the past three months, and they reported high rates of IPV during that period (e.g., over 10% of boys reported forcing a partner to have sex, and 39% of girls reported physical IPV victimization). A trimmed version of the hypothesized SEM (CFI =.966; RMSEA=.051) indicated that disagreement with the ideology of male superiority and violence predicted lower risk of IPV (p<.001), whereas the frequency of using negative conflict resolution styles (e.g., walking off angrily, sending angry text messages, or refusing to talk to them) predicted high IPV risk (p<.001) and mediated the impact of heavy alcohol drinking on IPV (Sobel test, z=3.16; p<.001). The model fit both girls and boys, but heavy drinking influenced negative styles of resolving conflict more strongly among girls than boys. CONCLUSIONS Findings suggest that interventions to reduce IPV among South African adolescents should challenge attitudes supportive of male superiority and violence; encourage use of positive conflict resolution styles; and discourage heavy alcohol use among both boys and girls. PMID:23743796

  14. Intimate partner violence among adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Russell, Marcia; Cupp, Pamela K; Jewkes, Rachel K; Gevers, Anik; Mathews, Catherine; LeFleur-Bellerose, Chantel; Small, Jeon

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to describe potentially preventable factors in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization among South African 8th grade students. Data were collected during a pilot evaluation of a classroom 8th grade curriculum on gender-based violence prevention in nine public schools in Cape Town through self-completed interviews with 549 8th grade students, 238 boys and 311 girls. Structural equation models (SEM) predicting IPV were constructed with variables a priori hypothesized to be associated. The majority of students (78.5 %) had had a partner in the past 3 months, and they reported high rates of IPV during that period (e.g., over 10 % of boys reported forcing a partner to have sex, and 39 % of girls reported physical IPV victimization). A trimmed version of the hypothesized SEM (CFI = .966; RMSEA = .051) indicated that disagreement with the ideology of male superiority and violence predicted lower risk of IPV (p < .001), whereas the frequency of using negative conflict resolution styles (e.g., walking off angrily, sending angry text messages, or refusing to talk to them) predicted high IPV risk (p < .001) and mediated the impact of heavy alcohol drinking on IPV (Sobel test, z = 3.16; p < .001). The model fit both girls and boys, but heavy drinking influenced negative styles of resolving conflict more strongly among girls than boys. Findings suggest that interventions to reduce IPV among South African adolescents should challenge attitudes supportive of male superiority and violence; encourage use of positive conflict resolution styles; and discourage heavy alcohol use among both boys and girls.

  15. Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence in a Migrant Farmworker Community in Baja California, México.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Marcella J; Mintle, Rachel A; Smith, Sylvia; Garcia, Alicia; Torres, Vanessa N; Keough, Allie; Salgado, Hugo

    2015-12-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is one of the most common forms of violence against women worldwide. Among Mexican women, it is estimated that 15 to 71% have experienced physical or sexual abuse by an intimate male partner in their lifetime. This study examined the prevalence of four leading risk factors associated with IPV (alcohol consumption, education, socioeconomic status (SES), and gender roles) in adult women (n = 68) in a migrant farmworker community in México. Alcohol consumption among women was higher than the national average, and partner consumption was lower. Education level and SES were low, and women identified with a feminist ideology more than a traditional gender role. Results also revealed that 86.4% (n = 57) of participants identified violence against women as a common problem in the community, and the majority (94.0%, n = 62) of participants believe that IPV specifically is a problem within the community.

  16. Associations Between Alcohol Use and Intimate Partner Violence Among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Kaighobadi, Farnaz; Stephenson, Rob; Rael, Christine; Sandfort, Theodorus

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Intimate partner violence (IPV) research among men who have sex with men (MSM) has primarily focused on the prevalence of IPV victimization and perpetration. Although alcohol use is a known trigger of IPV in opposite sex relationships, less is known about alcohol use and IPV perpetration and victimization in same-sex couples. The aim of this study was to examine associations between alcohol use and different types of IPV victimization and perpetration among MSM. Methods: MSM in New York City were recruited at gay-friendly venues and events to participate in an online survey assessing sociodemographics, alcohol use, and victimization/perpetration of IPV with both regular and casual sex partners. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between alcohol use and different types of IPV victimization and perpetration. Results: Among 189 participants, 103 (54.5%) reported experiencing at least one incidence of IPV perpetrated by a regular partner and 92 (48.7%) reported having perpetrated IPV against a regular partner in the past 12 months. Higher levels of alcohol use were significantly associated with (1) physical/sexual and HIV-related IPV victimization by a regular partner, (2) physical/sexual, monitoring, and controlling IPV victimization by a casual partner, (3) physical/sexual, emotional, controlling, and HIV-related IPV perpetration against a regular partner, and (4) physical/sexual and emotional IPV perpetration against a casual partner. Conclusions: The association of high levels of alcohol use with different types of IPV perpetration and IPV victimization suggests a need for targeted services that address the co-occurring issues of alcohol use and IPV. PMID:27906642

  17. Grief intensity, psychological well-being, and the intimate partner relationship in the subsequent pregnancy after a perinatal loss.

    PubMed

    Hutti, Marianne H; Armstrong, Deborah S; Myers, John A; Hall, Lynne A

    2015-01-01

    To examine the construct validity of the Perinatal Grief Intensity Scale (PGIS) and the associations of grief intensity with psychological well-being and the quality of intimate partner relationships of women in the subsequent pregnancy after perinatal loss. The consequences of intense grief due to perinatal loss may include significant couple relationship issues, depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress that may extend into the subsequent healthy pregnancy. A correlational, descriptive research design was used to collect survey data in this cross-sectional, web-based study. Participants were 227 currently pregnant women who experienced perinatal loss in their immediate past pregnancies. Instruments included the Pregnancy Outcome Questionnaire (pregnancy-specific anxiety), Impact of Event Scale (post-traumatic stress), Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (depression symptoms), the Autonomy and Relatedness Inventory (quality of the intimate partner relationship), and the Perinatal Grief Intensity Scale (perinatal grief intensity). As hypothesized, greater grief intensity was associated with higher pregnancy-specific anxiety, depression symptoms, and post-traumatic stress as well as poorer quality of the intimate partner relationship. Support for the construct validity of the PGIS was demonstrated by its significant associations in the expected directions with pregnancy-specific anxiety, depression symptoms, post-traumatic stress, and the quality of the intimate partner relationship. The scale may be useful to health care providers in identifying mothers in need of follow-up for intense grief and other clinically relevant symptoms after perinatal loss.

  18. Informal support for women and intimate partner violence: the crucial yet ambivalent role of neighbours in urban India.

    PubMed

    Snell-Rood, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Women who experience intimate partner violence often rely on informal support to mitigate intimate partner violence's health effects. Yet there is little known about who gives the support and how it is provided. This paper explores from whom and how low-income women experiencing domestic violence in urban India seek informal support. In South Asia, women's reliance on kin for support is culturally valued, yet the urban social context makes it more likely that they will access such support from non-kin when they experience intimate partner violence. The paper draws on observations and interviews with 10 families collected over 14 months of in-depth ethnographic research in one Delhi slum community. Using a case study approach to explore women's responses to violence longitudinally, it was possible to track how women drew on support. Results show that even as women sought emotional support and direct intervention from their neighbours to deal with their domestic violence, they restricted these relationships, faced stigma, and emphasised the need to protect their families. Understanding the informal, but deeply ambivalent, systems of social support that women engage to deal with intimate partner violence is a first step toward strengthening such networks, a key recommendation to stem the health impacts of domestic violence.

  19. Prevalence and predictors of intimate partner violence among women attending infertility clinic in south-western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aduloju, Peter O; Olagbuji, Nelson B; Olofinbiyi, Ajayi B; Awoleke, Jacob O

    2015-05-01

    The study evaluated the prevalence and predictors of intimate partner violence among infertile women attending infertility clinic of Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti. A cross sectional study of infertile women presenting at the clinic between 1st November 2012 and 31st October 2013 was done. A semi-structured questionnaire on violence was administered to 170 consecutive women who consented to participate. The data were analysed using SPSS 17 and significances test were performed on variables associated with violence with Student's t test and Chi square test. Logistic regression was done to determine predictive factors associated with intimate partner violence. The prevalence of intimate partner violence associated with infertility among the women was 31.2%. There were no significant differences in the age of the women, duration of marriage and duration of infertility between the women who had experienced violence and those who had not experienced it; p>0.05. Unemployment, polygamous marriage, husbands' social habits, primary infertility and prolonged duration of infertility were associated with violence in these women; p<0.05. Education of the women and their husbands, their religion and ethnicity were not significantly associated with violence; p>0.05. However with logistic regression, the unemployment status of the women and prolonged duration of infertility were the predictors of violence against women with infertility in this study, p value<0.05. More than 50% of the women reported psychological violence as the commonest form of violence experienced by them ever, since the diagnosis of infertility was made and in the past one year. All forms of violence experienced were aggravated by infertility in these women. Women with infertility are prone to intimate partner violence and this would further aggravate the challenges of infertility being faced by these women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Towards a Global Interdisciplinary Evidence-Informed Practice: Intimate Partner Violence in the Ethiopian Context

    PubMed Central

    Guruge, Sepali; Bender, Amy; Aga, Fekadu; Hyman, Ilene; Tamiru, Melesse; Hailemariam, Damen; Kassa, Andargachew; Refaie-Shirpak, Khosro

    2012-01-01

    Background. Intimate partner violence is a global health issue and is associated with a range of health problems for women. Nurses, as the largest health workforce globally, are well positioned to provide care for abused women. Objectives. This nursing-led interdisciplinary project was conducted to understand the current state of knowledge about intimate partner violence in Ethiopia and make recommendations for country-specific activities to improve response to intimate partner violence through practice changes, education, and research. Methods. The project involved two phases: review of relevant literature and an interdisciplinary stakeholder forum and a meeting with nurse educators. Findings. The literature review identified the pervasiveness and complexity of intimate partner violence and its sociocultural determinants in the Ethiopian context. Two significant themes emerged from the forum and the meeting: the value of bringing multiple disciplines together to address the complex issue of intimate partner violence and the need for health care professionals to better understand their roles and responsibilities in actively addressing intimate partner violence. Conclusions. Further research on the topic is needed, including studies of prevention and resilience and “best practices” for education and intervention. Interdisciplinary and international research networks can support local efforts to address and prevent intimate partner violence. PMID:22685673